WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid cultural adaptation

  1. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa M. Lamarão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81% for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%. Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken.

  2. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarão, Andressa M.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Comper, Maria L. C.; Padula, Rosimeire S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81%) for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%). Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken. PMID:25003273

  3. Adaptation and Cultural Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormrod, Richard K.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the role of adaptation in cultural diffusion. Explains that adaptation theory recognizes the lack of independence between innovations and their environmental settings. Discusses testing and selection, modification, motivation, and cognition. Suggests that adaptation effects are pervasive in cultural diffusion but require a broader, more…

  4. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    landscape. In this article, we share insights gained from two public sector organizations in which IS and business leaders used the Participatory Process Model (PPM) designed by the authors to share their assumptions about IS leadership, challenge existing IT strategies and collaboration patterns and adapt...... the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles....

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation of an environmental health measurement instrument: Brazilian version of the health-care waste management • rapid assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozendey-Silva, Eliana Napoleão; da Silva, Cintia Ribeiro; Larentis, Ariane Leites; Wasserman, Julio Cesar; Rozemberg, Brani; Teixeira, Liliane Reis

    2016-09-05

    Periodic assessment is one of the recommendations for improving health-care waste management worldwide. This study aimed at translating and adapting the Health-Care Waste Management - Rapid Assessment Tool (HCWM-RAT), proposed by the World Health Organization, to a Brazilian Portuguese version, and resolving its cultural and legal issues. The work focused on the evaluation of the concepts, items and semantic equivalence between the original tool and the Brazilian Portuguese version. A cross-cultural adaptation methodology was used, including: initial translation to Brazilian Portuguese; back translation to English; syntheses of these translation versions; formation of an expert committee to achieve consensus about the preliminary version; and evaluation of the target audience's comprehension. Both the translated and the original versions' concepts, items and semantic equivalence are presented. The constructs in the original instrument were considered relevant and applicable to the Brazilian context. The Brazilian version of the tool has the potential to generate indicators, develop official database, feedback and subsidize political decisions at many geographical and organizational levels strengthening the Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) mechanism. Moreover, the cross-cultural translation expands the usefulness of the instrument to Portuguese-speaking countries in developing regions. The translated and original versions presented concept, item and semantic equivalence and can be applied to Brazil.

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation of an environmental health measurement instrument: Brazilian version of the health-care waste management • rapid assessment tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Napoleão Cozendey-Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periodic assessment is one of the recommendations for improving health-care waste management worldwide. This study aimed at translating and adapting the Health-Care Waste Management - Rapid Assessment Tool (HCWM-RAT, proposed by the World Health Organization, to a Brazilian Portuguese version, and resolving its cultural and legal issues. The work focused on the evaluation of the concepts, items and semantic equivalence between the original tool and the Brazilian Portuguese version. Methods A cross-cultural adaptation methodology was used, including: initial translation to Brazilian Portuguese; back translation to English; syntheses of these translation versions; formation of an expert committee to achieve consensus about the preliminary version; and evaluation of the target audience’s comprehension. Results Both the translated and the original versions’ concepts, items and semantic equivalence are presented. The constructs in the original instrument were considered relevant and applicable to the Brazilian context. The Brazilian version of the tool has the potential to generate indicators, develop official database, feedback and subsidize political decisions at many geographical and organizational levels strengthening the Monitoring and evaluation (M&E mechanism. Moreover, the cross-cultural translation expands the usefulness of the instrument to Portuguese-speaking countries in developing regions. Conclusion The translated and original versions presented concept, item and semantic equivalence and can be applied to Brazil

  7. Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Emerging technologies in the field of ''Test ampersand Measurement'' have recently enabled the development of the Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT). Based on software developed with LabVIEW, the RAIT design enables quick reconfiguration to test and calibrate a wide variety of telemetry systems. The consequences of inadequate testing could be devastating if a telemetry system were to fail during an expensive flight mission. Supporting both open-bench testing as well as automated test sequences, the RAIT has significantly lowered total time required to test and calibrate a system. This has resulted in an overall lower per unit testing cost than has been achievable in the past

  8. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2015-04-07

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Dysfunction of Rapid Neural Adaptation in Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Winter, Rebecca; Murtagh, Jack; Cyr, Abigail; Chang, Patricia; Halverson, Kelly; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-12-21

    Identification of specific neurophysiological dysfunctions resulting in selective reading difficulty (dyslexia) has remained elusive. In addition to impaired reading development, individuals with dyslexia frequently exhibit behavioral deficits in perceptual adaptation. Here, we assessed neurophysiological adaptation to stimulus repetition in adults and children with dyslexia for a wide variety of stimuli, spoken words, written words, visual objects, and faces. For every stimulus type, individuals with dyslexia exhibited significantly diminished neural adaptation compared to controls in stimulus-specific cortical areas. Better reading skills in adults and children with dyslexia were associated with greater repetition-induced neural adaptation. These results highlight a dysfunction of rapid neural adaptation as a core neurophysiological difference in dyslexia that may underlie impaired reading development. Reduced neurophysiological adaptation may relate to prior reports of reduced behavioral adaptation in dyslexia and may reveal a difference in brain functions that ultimately results in a specific reading impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Polyploidy can drive rapid adaptation in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmecki, Anna M.; Maruvka, Yosef E.; Richmond, Phillip A.; Guillet, Marie; Shoresh, Noam; Sorenson, Amber L.; de, Subhajyoti; Kishony, Roy; Michor, Franziska; Dowell, Robin; Pellman, David

    2015-03-01

    Polyploidy is observed across the tree of life, yet its influence on evolution remains incompletely understood. Polyploidy, usually whole-genome duplication, is proposed to alter the rate of evolutionary adaptation. This could occur through complex effects on the frequency or fitness of beneficial mutations. For example, in diverse cell types and organisms, immediately after a whole-genome duplication, newly formed polyploids missegregate chromosomes and undergo genetic instability. The instability following whole-genome duplications is thought to provide adaptive mutations in microorganisms and can promote tumorigenesis in mammalian cells. Polyploidy may also affect adaptation independently of beneficial mutations through ploidy-specific changes in cell physiology. Here we perform in vitro evolution experiments to test directly whether polyploidy can accelerate evolutionary adaptation. Compared with haploids and diploids, tetraploids undergo significantly faster adaptation. Mathematical modelling suggests that rapid adaptation of tetraploids is driven by higher rates of beneficial mutations with stronger fitness effects, which is supported by whole-genome sequencing and phenotypic analyses of evolved clones. Chromosome aneuploidy, concerted chromosome loss, and point mutations all provide large fitness gains. We identify several mutations whose beneficial effects are manifest specifically in the tetraploid strains. Together, these results provide direct quantitative evidence that in some environments polyploidy can accelerate evolutionary adaptation.

  11. Adaptation and creativity in cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora M. Cohen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is the fit between the individual and the environment. The dynamic interplay between person, culture, and environment is one of the most important issues in analyzing creativity. Adaptation is defined as the fit or adjustment of the individual to external conditions, but adaptation can also mean moving from one environment to another more suitable, or even forcing the environment to adapt in response to creative efforts. Culture impacts creativity in limiting acceptable boundaries, yet providing the artifacts used in creating. Culture is impacted and changed by creative efforts. Tight conformity to confining environments or cultures can stifle. The creator must be aware of cultural values and not overstep these boundaries for work to be accepted. A developmental continuum of adaptive, creative behaviors suggests a shift from individual adaptation to the environment to adaptation by the world to the individual.

  12. Brand Identity, Adaptation, and Media Franchise Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marazi Katerina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the noticeable practices within the field of Adaptation, Adaptation theory seems to be lagging behind whilst perpetuating various fallacies. Geoffrey Wagner’s types of Adaptation and Kamilla Elliott’s proposed concepts for examining adaptations have proved useful but due to their general applicability they seem to perpetuate the fallacies existing within the field of Adaptation. This article will propose a context-specific concept pertaining to Media Franchise Culture for the purpose of examining Adaptations and re-assessing long-held debates concerning the Original, the Content/Form debate and Fidelity issues that cater to the twelve fallacies discussed by Thomas Leitch.

  13. Analysis of Harry Potter's Subtitle on Cultural Adaptability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵佳

    2018-01-01

    With the development of globalization and the intimate touch between China and western countries, it is the information exchange between countries that makes the rapid development of English culture and the inheritance of Chinese culture. And as the important tools and two modern cultural medias for cultural exchange, TV and film are essential in our life, and subtitle translation appeared in people's sights. As one of the most important theories in translation, U. S. Bureau was who first use the cultural adaptation theory. He defined it as' a psychological change from an alien culture to a new cultural.'(1883)It was the basic theory in translation so it must abide by every translator. In this thesis, we will take Western magical fantasy series of movies-Harry Potter as an example, analyzing the importance of the cultural adaptability. Firstly, I will briefly introduce the book and movie about Harry Potter, then explain the content and application of this function, finaly this paper will combine cultural difference and custom difference with religion difference to illustrate that cultural adaptability is main theory in translation. Combining with Harry Potter, I hope this research will help people to have a better understanding of cross-cultural communication and make this film more colorful and shining.

  14. Cultural Adaptations: A Complex Interplay between Clinical and Cultural Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Wei-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Psychotherapy is a Western method of treating mental illness. Culturally adapting psychotherapy to better meet the needs of ethnic minorities is an important endeavor. Hall et al. (2011) did an excellent job of reviewing the intersection and divergence between Asian culture and mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies. They also point out that some therapies can be naturally syntonic with Asian American cultural values and belief systems. This is especially important given cultural differen...

  15. Cultural Persistence or Experiential Adaptation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2018-01-01

    of descendants, have ties with) one country, but now resides in another.If trust is a cultural trait, immigrants’ trust should continue to reflect trust in their ancestral country; whereas their trust should be aligned with trust of natives in their present country if it is shaped by experiential conditioning....... In this chapter we first review studies using immigrants to study the roots of trust. Second, we critically discuss these previous studies and pinpoint a number of theoretical, methodological, and substantive shortcomings as well as avenues for addressing these in future research. Finally, we provide new...

  16. A Rapid Introduction to Adaptive Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Vega, Leonardo Rey

    2013-01-01

    In this book, the authors provide insights into the basics of adaptive filtering, which are particularly useful for students taking their first steps into this field. They start by studying the problem of minimum mean-square-error filtering, i.e., Wiener filtering. Then, they analyze iterative methods for solving the optimization problem, e.g., the Method of Steepest Descent. By proposing stochastic approximations, several basic adaptive algorithms are derived, including Least Mean Squares (LMS), Normalized Least Mean Squares (NLMS) and Sign-error algorithms. The authors provide a general framework to study the stability and steady-state performance of these algorithms. The affine Projection Algorithm (APA) which provides faster convergence at the expense of computational complexity (although fast implementations can be used) is also presented. In addition, the Least Squares (LS) method and its recursive version (RLS), including fast implementations are discussed. The book closes with the discussion of severa...

  17. Cultural adaptation of Unilever in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Kim Chung; Nguyen, Le Linh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze (1) how Vietnamese business culture resembles and differs from Unilever corporate culture, (2) what advantages and disadvantages are resulted from these similarities and differences, and (3) how the company made use of the advantages and overcome the disadvantages. This thesis also aims at (4) indicating some shortcomings in Unilever‟s adaptation strategy and providing some recommendations. This research work is qualitative in nature and is...

  18. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy, metropolization) and cultural (multi-ethnic) perspectives. This multi-faceted dynamic character of delta areas warrants the emergence of a branch of applied adaptation science, Adaptive Delta Management, which explicitly focuses on climate adaptation of such highly dynamic and deeply uncertain systems. The application of Adaptive Delta Management in the Dutch Delta Program and its active international dissemination by Dutch professionals results in the rapid dissemination of Adaptive Delta Management to deltas worldwide. This global dissemination raises concerns among professionals in delta management on its applicability in deltas with cultural conditions and historical developments quite different from those found in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom where the practices now labelled as Adaptive Delta Management first emerged. This research develops an approach and gives a first analysis of the interaction between the characteristics of different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management and their alignment with the cultural conditions encountered in various delta's globally. In this analysis, first different management theories underlying approaches to Adaptive Delta Management as encountered in both scientific and professional publications are identified and characterized on three dimensions: The characteristics dimensions used are: orientation on today, orientation on the future, and decision making (Timmermans, 2015). The different underlying management theories encountered are policy analysis, strategic management, transition management, and adaptive management. These four management theories underlying different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management are connected to

  19. Commentary: Cultural Adaptation, Collaboration, and Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence Albert

    2010-01-01

    This commentary reviews three articles linked together by two themes (a) the use of cultural adaptation of evidence-based practices to reduce disparities in health and services delivery and (b) the importance of collaboration involving intervention developers, practitioners, and consumers when delivering services. Both themes illustrate a process…

  20. When rapid adaptation paradigm is not too rapid: Evidence of face-sensitive N170 adaptation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tengxiang; Feng, Xue; Feng, Chunliang; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2015-07-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that N170 adaptation effects evoked by face adaptors are general to face and non-face tests, implicating adaptor-locked interferences in the rapid adaptation paradigm. Here we examined the extent to which adaptor-locked interferences confound N170 adaptation effects in different experimental parameters by manipulating the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) duration and jitter between adaptors and tests. In the short SOA, those interferences were well visible for the grand-average ERP waveforms evoked by tests, and they are likely to render rapid adaptation paradigm with short SOA unreliable. The adaptor-locked interferences were attenuated by appropriately increasing SOA duration, such that face-sensitive adaptation effects were evident in the long SOA for both baseline-to-peak and peak-to-peak N170 measurements. These findings suggest that the rapid adaptation paradigm may work with a relative long SOA. Our findings provide useful information for future studies regarding the choosing of appropriate experimental parameters and measurements for the rapid adaptation paradigm. In addition, future studies are needed to investigate how to objectively subtract the overlaps of adaptors from tests and to validate the N170 adaptation effect with appropriate behavioral performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cultural adaptation in translational research: field experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Samuels, Deanne; Ergon-Pérez, Emma; Jacobs, Robin

    2005-06-01

    The increase in the incidence of HIV/AIDS among minorities in the United States and in certain developing nations has prompted new intervention priorities, stressing the adaptation of efficacious interventions for diverse and marginalized groups. The experiences of Florida International University's AIDS Prevention Program in translating HIV primary and secondary prevention interventions among these multicultural populations provide insight into the process of cultural adaptations and address the new scientific emphasis on ecological validity. An iterative process involving forward and backward translation, a cultural linguistic committee, focus group discussions, documentation of project procedures, and consultations with other researchers in the field was used to modify interventions. This article presents strategies used to ensure fidelity in implementing the efficacious core components of evidence-based interventions for reducing HIV transmission and drug use behaviors and the challenges posed by making cultural adaptation for participants with low literacy. This experience demonstrates the importance of integrating culturally relevant material in the translation process with intense focus on language and nuance. The process must ensure that the level of intervention is appropriate for the educational level of participants. Furthermore, the rights of participants must be protected during consenting procedures by instituting policies that recognize the socioeconomic, educational, and systemic pressures to participate in research.

  2. Using the adaptive blockset for simulation and rapid prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole

    1999-01-01

    the gap between simulation and prototype controller implementation. This is done using the code generation capabilities of Real Time Workshop in combination with C s-function blocks for adaptive control in Simulink. In the paper the design of each group of blocks normally fund in adaptive controllers...... is outlined. The block types are, identification, controller design, controller and state variable filter.The use of the Adaptive Blockset is demonstrated using a simple laboratory setup. Both the use of the blockset for simulation and for rapid prototyping of a real-time controller are shown.......The paper presents the design considerations and implementational aspects of the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink which has been developed in a prototype implementation. The basics of indirect adaptive controllers are summarized. The concept behind the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink is to bridge...

  3. Safety culture improvement. An adaptive management framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obadia, Isaac Jose

    2005-01-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established the safety culture concept as a proactive mean to contribute to safety improvement, starting a worldwide safety culture enhancement program within nuclear organizations mainly focused on nuclear power plants. More recently, the safety culture concept has been extended to non-power applications such as nuclear research reactors and nuclear technological research and development organizations. In 1999, the Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN), a research and technological development unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), started a management change program aiming at improving its performance level of excellence. This change program has been developed assuming the occurrence of complex causal inter-relationships between the organizational culture and the implementation of the management process. A systematic and adaptive management framework comprised of a safety culture improvement practice integrated to a management process based on the Criteria for Excellence of the Brazilian Quality Award Model, has been developed and implemented at IEN. The case study has demonstrated that the developed framework makes possible an effective safety culture improvement and simultaneously facilitates an effective implementation of the management process, thus providing some governance to the change program. (author)

  4. Social, occupational and cultural adaptation in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Michel; Bishop, Sheryl; Weiss, Karine; Gaudino, Marvin

    2016-07-01

    Life in isolated and confined environments (ICEs, e.g., polar stations, submarine or space missions), is subject to important constraints which can generate psychosociological impaired outcomes. This study investigated psychological, social, occupational and cultural variables which are among the most important determinants in adaptation to a one-year wintering in Antarctica with 13 international participants. Our findings confirm and give further insight into the role of social (Cohesiveness, Social Support) and occupational (Implementation / Preparedness, Counterproductive Activity, Decision Latitude and Psychological Job Demands) dimensions of adaptation to ICE environments. Relationships between various social and occupational dimensions studies reflected detrimental effects ranging from decrements in cohesiveness, social support and work performance which differed across professional status and multicultural factors. These psychosocial issues have important implications for pre-mission selection and training, monitoring and support of crews during the mission and post-mission readaptation. Operational recommendations are suggested to improve adaptation, success and well-being for long-term ICE missions, e.g., to Mars and beyond.

  5. Soldiers Working Internationally: Impacts of Masculinity, Military Culture, and Operational Stress on Cross-Cultural Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keats, Patrice A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ramifications of masculinized military culture and operational stress on cross-cultural adaptation. The author examines how characteristics of military culture may obstruct effective cross-cultural adaptation by promoting a hypermasculinity that tends to oppose effective management of trauma, and thereby suppresses skills…

  6. CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF CZECH CITIZENS IN THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article relates to the process of adaptation of Czech citizens to Turkish culture. The article explores the perception of Turkish culture by Czech citizens, problems they encounter in the Turkish society and the ways of their adjustment to the host culture. The empirical research on 10 Czech citizens was conducted using the method of semi-structured interviews. The article addresses the most important issues connected with the process of cultural adaptation.

  7. Cultural Adaptation of Interventions in Real Practice Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Booth, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of some common challenges and opportunities related to cultural adaptation of behavioral interventions. Cultural adaptation is presented as a necessary action to ponder when considering the adoption of an evidence-based intervention with ethnic and other minority groups. It proposes a roadmap to choose existing…

  8. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie

    2016-01-01

    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  9. Lifelong Adaptability: A Cultural Literacy Perspective (Revised Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, John Thayer

    2011-01-01

    This revised 1997 ex post facto study attempted to identify a lifelong adaptability curriculum from a cultural literacy perspective. It investigated students' lifelong adaptability ratings of 15 general school subjects as predicted by family structure, parental age, parental educational level, student cultural literacy, and student gender;…

  10. Simulation and Rapid Prototyping of Adaptive Control Systems using the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the design considerations and implementational aspects of the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink which has been developed in a prototype implementation. The concept behind the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink is to bridge the gap between simulation and prototype controller implement...... design, controller and state variable filter.The use of the Adaptive Blockset is demonstrated using a simple laboratory setup. Both the use of the blockset for simulation and for rapid prototyping of a real-time controller are shown.......The paper describes the design considerations and implementational aspects of the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink which has been developed in a prototype implementation. The concept behind the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink is to bridge the gap between simulation and prototype controller...... implementation. This is done using the code generation capabilities of Real Time Workshop in combination with C s-function blocks for adaptive control in Simulink. In the paper the design of each group of blocks normally found in adaptive controllers is outlined. The block types are, identification, controller...

  11. Rapid adaptation of multisensory integration in vestibular pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome eCarriot

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensing gravity is vital for our perception of spatial orientation, the control of upright posture, and generation of our every day activities. When an astronaut transitions to microgravity or returns to earth, the vestibular input arising from self-motion will not match the brain’s expectation. Our recent neurophysiological studies have provided insight into how the nervous system rapidly reorganizes when vestibular input becomes unreliable by both 1 updating its internal model of the sensory consequences of motion and 2 up-weighting more reliable extra-vestibular information. These neural strategies, in turn, are linked to improvements in sensorimotor performance (e.g., gaze and postural stability, locomotion, orienting and perception characterized by similar time courses. We suggest that furthering our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie sensorimotor adaptation will have important implications for optimizing training programs for astronauts before and after space exploration missions and for the design of goal-oriented rehabilitation for patients.

  12. Dubbing: adapting cultures in the global communication era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Canu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adapting translation for dubbing is not a mere linguistic fact: it is mainly the adaptation of cultures. In fact, audiovisual translation and adaptation implicitly takes into account the importance of the historical background behind the multiplicity of languages and cultures, and by doing so, it becomes a means of cultural diffusion. That peculiarity enables what we can describe as the “socio-anthropological function” of the adaptation of translation for dubbing, which is the object of the following paper. Through an analysis of some important landmarks that intersected the history of some Western countries in the last two centuries, it was possible to trace a lack of reciprocity in the usage of dubbing in the two biggest film markets: North America and Europe. Clearly, that helps cultural supremacy to penetrate into our lives in a very subtle way. As a result, the paper attempts to demonstrate how dubbing spreads all cultures in order to have an effectively global communication.

  13. Middle Holocene rapid environmental changes and human adaptation in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespez, Laurent; Glais, Arthur; Lopez-Saez, José-Antonio; Le Drezen, Yann; Tsirtsoni, Zoï; Davidson, Robert; Biree, Laetitia; Malamidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    Numerous researchers discuss of the collapse of civilizations in response to abrupt climate change in the Mediterranean region. The period between 6500 and 5000 cal yr BP is one of the least studied episodes of rapid climate change at the end of the Late Neolithic. This period is characterized by a dramatic decline in settlement and a cultural break in the Balkans. High-resolution paleoenvironmental proxy data obtained in the Lower Angitis Valley enables an examination of the societal responses to rapid climatic change in Greece. Development of a lasting fluvio-lacustrine environment followed by enhanced fluvial activity is evident from 6000 cal yr BP. Paleoecological data show a succession of dry events at 5800-5700, 5450 and 5000-4900 cal yr BP. These events correspond to incursion of cold air masses to the eastern Mediterranean, confirming the climatic instability of the middle Holocene climate transition. Two periods with farming and pastural activities (6300-5600 and 5100-4700 cal BP) are evident. The intervening period is marked by environmental changes, but the continuous occurrence of anthropogenic taxa suggests the persistence of human activities despite the absence of archaeological evidence. The environmental factors alone were not sufficient to trigger the observed societal changes.

  14. Cross cultural adaptation of the menopause specific questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross cultural adaptation of the menopause specific questionnaire into the Persian language. ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... good internal consistency in vasomotor, physical and psychosocial domains, but not sexual.

  15. Original Research Cross-cultural adaptation, content validation, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study which aimed to cross culturally adapt a composite lifestyle cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors ... and a relative lack of access to adequate advice and care. .... meaning different things are distinguished by giving symbols.

  16. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation, content validation, and reliability of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Assessment of lifestyle risk factors must be culturally- and contextually relevant and available in local languages. This paper reports on a study which aimed to cross culturally adapt a composite lifestyle cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors questionnaire into an African language (Yoruba) and testing some ...

  18. Adapting Institutional Structure and Culture to Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parilla, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Highlights the importance of management in a community college's success. Suggests that adaptive institutions, which identify challenges and create programs through cooperation with their staff and faculty, have a mechanism for continuous quality improvement. Describes Montgomery College's (Maryland) transition from a bureaucratic management…

  19. Cultural Transduction and Adaptation Studies: The Concept of Cultural Proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Cattrysse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo examina el concepto de proximidad cultural, tal como lo sugiere Joseph Straubhaar en su artículo de 1991 “Beyond Media Imperialism: Assymmetrical sic Interdependence and Cultural Proximity”. Se argumenta que, basándose en un estudio de polisistema de adaptaciones de film noir desde principios de los años noventa, tanto la proximidad cultural como la distancia pueden mejorar o inhibir el flujo cruzado de género o el flujo cultural cruzado de contenido de medios dependiendo de algunos acondicionadores específicos, como la estabilidad o la inestabilidad (por ejemplo, el éxito o la falta del mismo del género o contexto objetivo y la función conservadora o innovadora de las adaptaciones en su contexto objetivo.

  20. Implementing Culture Change in Nursing Homes: An Adaptive Leadership Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazzini, Kirsten; Twersky, Jack; White, Heidi K; Buhr, Gwendolen T; McConnell, Eleanor S; Weiner, Madeline; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S

    2015-08-01

    To describe key adaptive challenges and leadership behaviors to implement culture change for person-directed care. The study design was a qualitative, observational study of nursing home staff perceptions of the implementation of culture change in each of 3 nursing homes. We conducted 7 focus groups of licensed and unlicensed nursing staff, medical care providers, and administrators. Questions explored perceptions of facilitators and barriers to culture change. Using a template organizing style of analysis with immersion/crystallization, themes of barriers and facilitators were coded for adaptive challenges and leadership. Six key themes emerged, including relationships, standards and expectations, motivation and vision, workload, respect of personhood, and physical environment. Within each theme, participants identified barriers that were adaptive challenges and facilitators that were examples of adaptive leadership. Commonly identified challenges were how to provide person-directed care in the context of extant rules or policies or how to develop staff motivated to provide person-directed care. Implementing culture change requires the recognition of adaptive challenges for which there are no technical solutions, but which require reframing of norms and expectations, and the development of novel and flexible solutions. Managers and administrators seeking to implement person-directed care will need to consider the role of adaptive leadership to address these adaptive challenges. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. First aid to Cultural Heritage. Training initiatives on rapid documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro Vidal, A.; Tandon, A.; Eppich, R.

    2015-08-01

    Recent dramatic events have brought to the forefront the debate on how to protect, safeguard and document Cultural Heritage in conflict areas. Heritage places have become battlefields, sources of illicit trafficking and even deliberate targets of destruction because of the politicisation to further conflict ideologies as well as misinterpretation of the values they represent. Is it possible to protect Cultural Heritage under such circumstances? If yes, when is the right time to intervene and who can help in this task? How can documentation and training assist? The International Course on First Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of Crisis promoted by ICCROM (The International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property) in collaboration with various partners focuses specifically on ways to help in such difficult and stressful situations. This paper explores the methodological approach and highlights the special circumstances that surround rapid documentation and preliminary condition assessment in conflict areas, and in cases of complex emergencies such as an earthquake striking a conflict area. The paper identifies international actors that might play a special and crucial role in the first steps of such a situation and recognizes the need for training activities to strengthen capacities for disaster response to cultural heritage at national and regional levels.

  2. Chinese engineering students' cross-cultural adaptation in graduate school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinquan

    This study explores cross-cultural adaptation experience of Chinese engineering students in the U.S. I interact with 10 Chinese doctoral students in engineering from a public research university through in-depth interviews to describe (1) their perceptions of and responses to key challenges they encountered in graduate school, (2) their perspectives on the challenges that stem from cross-cultural differences, and (3) their conceptualization of cross-cultural adaptation in the context of graduate school. My findings reveal that the major challenges participants encounter during graduate school are academic issues related to cultural differences and difficulties of crossing cultural boundaries and integrating into the university community. These challenges include finding motivation for doctoral study, becoming an independent learner, building a close relationship with faculty, interacting and forming relationships with American people, and gaining social recognition and support. The engineering students in this study believe they are less successful in their social integration than they are in accomplishing academic goals, mainly because of their preoccupation with academics, language barriers and cultural differences. The presence of a large Chinese student community on campus has provided a sense of community and social support for these students, but it also contributes to diminishing their willingness and opportunities to interact with people of different cultural backgrounds. Depending on their needs and purposes, they have different insights into the meaning of cross-cultural adaptation and therefore, and choose different paths to establish themselves in a new environment. Overall, they agree that cross-cultural adaptation involves a process of re-establishing themselves in new academic, social, and cultural communities, and adaptation is necessary for their personal and professional advancement in the U.S. They also acknowledge that encountering and adjusting

  3. Indonesian Students’ Cross-Cultural Adaptation in Busan, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddy Mulyana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the cross-cultural adaptation of Indonesian students in Busan, South Korea. It uses a qualitative approach based on the U-curve (a four-stage model of cross-cultural adjustment consisting of the phases of honeymoon, crisis, recovery and adjustment. It involves in-depth interviews with 10 Indonesian students in Busan. The study found that the U-Curve model of cross-cultural adaptation is still useful. In the context of the informants’ experiences, it is characterized by the main barriers that include differences in language and values of friendship, cross-cultural stereotypes and prejudices that led to discrimination. The study also identified culture shock faced by some of the informants as well as their coping strategies.

  4. Indonesian Students’ Cross-Cultural Adaptation in Busan, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddy Mulyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the cross-cultural adaptation of Indonesian students in Busan, South Korea. It uses a qualitative approach based on the U-curve (a four-stage model of cross-cultural adjustment consisting of the phases of honeymoon, crisis, recovery and adjustment. It involves in-depth interviews with 10 Indonesian students in Busan. The study found that the U-Curve model of cross-cultural adaptation is still useful. In the context of the informants’ experiences, it is characterized by the main barriers that include differences in language and values of friendship, cross-cultural stereotypes and prejudices that led to discrimination. The study also identified culture shock faced by some of the informants as well as their coping strategies.

  5. Developing Culture-Adaptive Competency Through Experiences with Expressive Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverglate, Daniel S.; Sims, Edward M.; Glover, Gerald; Friedman, Harris

    2012-01-01

    Modern Warfighters often find themselves in a variety of non-combat roles such as negotiator, peacekeeper, reconstruction, and disaster relief. They are expected to perform these roles within a culture alien to their own. Each individual they encounter brings their own set of values to the interaction that must be understood and reconciled. To navigate the human terrain of these complex interactions, the Warfighter must not only consider the specifics of the target culture, but also identify the stakeholders, recognize the influencing cultural dimensions, and adapt to the situation to achieve the best possible outcome. Vcom3D is using game-based scenarios to develop culturally adaptive competency. The avatars that represent the stakeholders must be able to portray culturally accurate behavior, display complex emotion, and communicate through verbal and non-verbal cues. This paper will discuss the use of emerging game technologies to better simulate human behavior in cross-cultural dilemmas. Nomenclature: culture, adaptive, values, cultural values dimensions, dilemmas, virtual humans, non-verbal communications

  6. Cultural adaptation and translation of measures: an integrated method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidani, Souraya; Guruge, Sepali; Miranda, Joyal; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Varcoe, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Differences in the conceptualization and operationalization of health-related concepts may exist across cultures. Such differences underscore the importance of examining conceptual equivalence when adapting and translating instruments. In this article, we describe an integrated method for exploring conceptual equivalence within the process of adapting and translating measures. The integrated method involves five phases including selection of instruments for cultural adaptation and translation; assessment of conceptual equivalence, leading to the generation of a set of items deemed to be culturally and linguistically appropriate to assess the concept of interest in the target community; forward translation; back translation (optional); and pre-testing of the set of items. Strengths and limitations of the proposed integrated method are discussed. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Macro-evolutionary studies of cultural diversity: a review of empirical studies of cultural transmission and cultural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth; Jordan, Fiona M

    2011-02-12

    A growing body of theoretical and empirical research has examined cultural transmission and adaptive cultural behaviour at the individual, within-group level. However, relatively few studies have tried to examine proximate transmission or test ultimate adaptive hypotheses about behavioural or cultural diversity at a between-societies macro-level. In both the history of anthropology and in present-day work, a common approach to examining adaptive behaviour at the macro-level has been through correlating various cultural traits with features of ecology. We discuss some difficulties with simple ecological associations, and then review cultural phylogenetic studies that have attempted to go beyond correlations to understand the underlying cultural evolutionary processes. We conclude with an example of a phylogenetically controlled approach to understanding proximate transmission pathways in Austronesian cultural diversity.

  8. Rapid susceptibility testing and microcolony analysis of Candida spp. cultured and imaged on porous aluminum oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Ingham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance to antifungal agents now supports the introduction of susceptibility testing for species-drug combinations for which this was previously thought unnecessary. For pathogenic yeasts, conventional phenotypic testing needs at least 24 h. Culture on a porous aluminum oxide (PAO support combined with microscopy offers a route to more rapid results. METHODS: Microcolonies of Candida species grown on PAO were stained with the fluorogenic dyes Fun-1 and Calcofluor White and then imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images were captured by a charge-coupled device camera and processed by publicly available software. By this method, the growth of yeasts could be detected and quantified within 2 h. Microcolony imaging was then used to assess the susceptibility of the yeasts to amphotericin B, anidulafungin and caspofungin (3.5 h culture, and voriconazole and itraconazole (7 h culture. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the results showed good agreement with EUCAST (86.5% agreement; n = 170 and E-test (85.9% agreement; n = 170. The closest agreement to standard tests was found when testing susceptibility to amphotericin B and echinocandins (88.2 to 91.2% and the least good for the triazoles (79.4 to 82.4%. Furthermore, large datasets on population variation could be rapidly obtained. An analysis of microcolonies revealed subtle effects of antimycotics on resistant strains and below the MIC of sensitive strains, particularly an increase in population heterogeneity and cell density-dependent effects of triazoles. Additionally, the method could be adapted to strain identification via germ tube extension. We suggest PAO culture is a rapid and versatile method that may be usefully adapted to clinical mycology and has research applications.

  9. CROSS-CULTURAL EXPERIMENTS AS AN ADAPTATION STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И И Подойницына

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers methodological and empirical aspects of cross-cultural communica-tions under the economic and cultural globalization that determined the free movement of labor migrants around the world though this process is accompanied by certain difficulties. The authors believe that even a theoretically prepared person that knows about the influence of cultural differences on the organizational management in different countries will experience a cultural shock when working abroad. The cultural shock is a discomfort, frustration and even depression caused by getting into an unfamiliar environment. At the applied level, the authors analyze the so-called ‘cross-cultural experiments’ - attempts of an individual (a working specialist of a certain nation to test one’s strength, skills, and professional competencies in a foreign company. The authors’ sociological study of a cultural benchmarking type consisted of two stages. At the first stage, foreigners working in the capital of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia were inter-viewed; at the second stage, the Russians working abroad, mainly in the USA, were interviewed. The migra-tion flows from China have recently intensified in Yakutia, but the overwhelming majority of labor migrants are still from West and Central Asia, mainly from Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Armenia. The foreigners working in Yakutia and Russians working abroad experience same difficulties of adaptation in a new col-lective. Friends, relatives, members of the ethnic community, but not specially trained cross-cultural coaches and mentors, help them with adaptation. Such a personnel technology as selection, recruitment and headhunt-ing works reasonably well, while other HR technologies of cross-cultural management (motivation, feedback, etc. are still lagging behind. The authors insist on introducing courses on cross-cultural adaptation in interna-tional groups both in Russia and abroad together with a system of the so

  10. Coping with scarcity: Fishing adaptability and culture in lake Chapala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pedroza Gutiérrez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines different adaptive responses that lakeside communities develop when faced with environmental change. The focus lies particularly on rural towns near lake Chapala, Mexico, affected by water level fluctuations. These situations require social reorganization, especially among groups whose survival is directly dependent on the lake’s integrity, such as fishermen.Using an adaptation and adaptability framework, various historical and current strategies used to confront scarcity and lake stress in La Palma, Michoacán are contrasted. Our aim is to highlight the changing social position of the fishing trade, and its most influential cultural features that have allowed its continuity.

  11. High selection pressure promotes increase in cumulative adaptive culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available The evolution of cumulative adaptive culture has received widespread interest in recent years, especially the factors promoting its occurrence. Current evolutionary models suggest that an increase in population size may lead to an increase in cultural complexity via a higher rate of cultural transmission and innovation. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of natural selection in the evolution of cultural complexity. Here we use an agent-based simulation model to demonstrate that high selection pressure in the form of resource pressure promotes the accumulation of adaptive culture in spite of small population sizes and high innovation costs. We argue that the interaction of demography and selection is important, and that neither can be considered in isolation. We predict that an increase in cultural complexity is most likely to occur under conditions of population pressure relative to resource availability. Our model may help to explain why culture change can occur without major environmental change. We suggest that understanding the interaction between shifting selective pressures and demography is essential for explaining the evolution of cultural complexity.

  12. Rapid adaptive responses to climate change in corals

    KAUST Repository

    Torda, Gergely; Donelson, Jennifer M.; Aranda, Manuel; Barshis, Daniel J.; Bay, Line; Berumen, Michael L.; Bourne, David G.; Cantin, Neal; Foret, Sylvain; Matz, Mikhail; Miller, David J.; Moya, Aurelie; Putnam, Hollie M.; Ravasi, Timothy; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.; Thurber, Rebecca Vega; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Voolstra, Christian R.; Watson, Sue-Ann; Whitelaw, Emma; Willis, Bette L.; Munday, Philip L.

    2017-01-01

    Pivotal to projecting the fate of coral reefs is the capacity of reef-building corals to acclimatize and adapt to climate change. Transgenerational plasticity may enable some marine organisms to acclimatize over several generations and it has been hypothesized that epigenetic processes and microbial associations might facilitate adaptive responses. However, current evidence is equivocal and understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we discuss prospects for observing transgenerational plasticity in corals and the mechanisms that could enable adaptive plasticity in the coral holobiont, including the potential role of epigenetics and coral-associated microbes. Well-designed and strictly controlled experiments are needed to distinguish transgenerational plasticity from other forms of plasticity, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and their relative importance compared with genetic adaptation.

  13. Rapid adaptive responses to climate change in corals

    KAUST Repository

    Torda, Gergely

    2017-09-01

    Pivotal to projecting the fate of coral reefs is the capacity of reef-building corals to acclimatize and adapt to climate change. Transgenerational plasticity may enable some marine organisms to acclimatize over several generations and it has been hypothesized that epigenetic processes and microbial associations might facilitate adaptive responses. However, current evidence is equivocal and understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we discuss prospects for observing transgenerational plasticity in corals and the mechanisms that could enable adaptive plasticity in the coral holobiont, including the potential role of epigenetics and coral-associated microbes. Well-designed and strictly controlled experiments are needed to distinguish transgenerational plasticity from other forms of plasticity, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and their relative importance compared with genetic adaptation.

  14. Cross Cultural Adaptation of the Menopause Specific Questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross Cultural Adaptation of the Menopause Specific. Questionnaire into the Persian Language. Ghazanfarpour M, Kaviani M1, Rezaiee M2, Ghaderi E3, Zandvakili F2. Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, 1Nursing and Midwifery College, Shiraz ...

  15. The impact of organisational culture on the adaptation of newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usually newly employed nurses find adjusting to a work setting a challenging experience. Their successful adaptation to their work situation is greatly influenced by the socialisation process inherent in the organisational culture. The newly employed nurse often finds that the norms are unclear, confusing and restrictive.

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Lerner, D.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ), measuring task performance, contextual performance, and counterproductive work behavior, was developed in The Netherlands. OBJECTIVES: To cross-culturally adapt the IWPQ from the Dutch to the American-English language, and assess the

  17. Adapting a measure of acculturation for cross-cultural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dela Cruz, F A; Padilla, G V; Agustin, E O

    2000-07-01

    Although Filipino Americans are projected to become the largest Asian American ethnic group in this millennium, no acculturation measure existed for this group. This article describes a systematic and replicable process used in adapting and modifying A Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (ASASH) for use with Filipino Americans. It depicts the multiple and iterative steps of translation and backtranslation to produce A Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA) in English and in Tagalog--the Philippine national language. Also, it describes the methods undertaken for the measures to achieve linguistic and cross-cultural validity through content, technical, experiential, semantic, and conceptual equivalence. With the dearth of linguistically and culturally valid measures for immigrant populations, the adaptation of valid measures developed for other cultures remains a viable option.

  18. Adapting the Medium: Dynamics of Intermedial Adaptation in Contemporary Japanese Popular Visual Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusztai Beáta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With respect to adaptation studies, contemporary Japanese popular culture signifies a unique case, as different types of media (be those textual, auditive, visual or audio-visual are tightly intertwined through the “recycling” of successful characters and stories. As a result, a neatly woven net of intermedial adaptations has been formed - the core of this complex system being the manga-anime-live-action film “adaptational triangle.” On the one hand, the paper addresses the interplay of the various factors by which the very existence of this network is made possible, such as the distinctive cultural attitude to “originality,” the structure of the comics, animation and film industries, and finally, the role of fictitious genealogies of both traditional and contemporary media in the negotiation of national identity. On the other hand, the essay also considers some of the most significant thematic, narrative, and stylistic effects this close interconnectedness has on the individual medium. Special attention is being paid to the nascent trend of merging the adaptive medium with that of the original story (viewing adaptation as integration, apparent in contemporary manga-based live- action comedies, as the extreme case of intermedial adaptation. That is, when the aim of the adaptational process is no longer the transposition of the story but the adaptation (i.e. the incorporation of the medium itself- elevating certain medium-specific devices into transmedial phenomena.

  19. On complex adaptive systems and terrorism [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, E.; Elgazzar, A. S.; Hegazi, A. S.

    2005-03-01

    Complex adaptive systems (CAS) are ubiquitous in nature. They are basic in social sciences. An overview of CAS is given with emphasize on the occurrence of bad side effects to seemingly “wise” decisions. Hence application to terrorism is given. Some conclusions on how to deal with this phenomena are proposed.

  20. Degenerate target sites mediate rapid primed CRISPR adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fineran, P.C.; Gerritzen, M.J.; Suarez-Diez, M.; Kunne, T.; Boekhorst, J.; Hijum, S.A.F.T. van; Staals, R.H.G.; Brouns, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Prokaryotes encode adaptive immune systems, called CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated), to provide resistance against mobile invaders, such as viruses and plasmids. Host immunity is based on incorporation of invader DNA sequences in a memory locus

  1. Degenerate target sites mediate rapid primed CRISPR adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fineran, P.C.; Gerritzen, M.J.H.; Suarez Diez, M.; Künne, T.A.; Boekhorst, J.; Hijum, van S.A.F.T.; Staals, R.H.J.; Brouns, S.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Prokaryotes encode adaptive immune systems, called CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–CRISPR associated), to provide resistance against mobile invaders, such as viruses and plasmids. Host immunity is based on incorporation of invader DNA sequences in a memory locus

  2. Rapid Auditory System Adaptation Using a Virtual Auditory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëtan Parseihian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have highlighted plasticity of the auditory system from visual stimuli, limiting the trained field of perception. The aim of the present study is to investigate auditory system adaptation using an audio-kinesthetic platform. Participants were placed in a Virtual Auditory Environment allowing the association of the physical position of a virtual sound source with an alternate set of acoustic spectral cues or Head-Related Transfer Function (HRTF through the use of a tracked ball manipulated by the subject. This set-up has the advantage to be not being limited to the visual field while also offering a natural perception-action coupling through the constant awareness of one's hand position. Adaptation process to non-individualized HRTF was realized through a spatial search game application. A total of 25 subjects participated, consisting of subjects presented with modified cues using non-individualized HRTF and a control group using individual measured HRTFs to account for any learning effect due to the game itself. The training game lasted 12 minutes and was repeated over 3 consecutive days. Adaptation effects were measured with repeated localization tests. Results showed a significant performance improvement for vertical localization and a significant reduction in the front/back confusion rate after 3 sessions.

  3. San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) climate change adaptation assessment pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District : (BART) infrastructure and to develop and implement adaptation strategies against those impacts. Climate change haza...

  4. Framing Cross-Cultural Ethical Practice in Adapt[ive] Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Donna; Howe, P. David

    2016-01-01

    Academics and practitioners are often at a loss when it comes to understanding the ethical socio-political and cultural contexts that invade the world of adapted physical activity. Ethical practice is situated in the local and the specific. In this article we highlight the reality that both academics and practitioners need to be ever mindful that…

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument 'Family Needs Questionnaire'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Edilene Curvelo; de Sousa, Regina Márcia Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    This is a quantitative methodological development study on the cross-cultural adaptation of the 'Family Needs Questionnaire' (FNQ), which is a structured instrument developed in the United States to measure the perceived needs of family members after the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) of a relative. This instrument aims to identify important needs presented by family members, whether met or not. The FNQ translation and adaptation followed a particular method, which permitted to achieve semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual equivalence of the instrument version labeled in Portuguese as 'Questionário de Necessidades da Família'. The results of the questionnaire application to 161 family members showed that the instrument content is valid to measure the needs of families of patients with TBI in the Brazilian context.

  6. Adaptive Importance Sampling with a Rapidly Varying Importance Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    It is known well that zero-variance Monte Carlo solutions are possible if an exact importance function is available to bias the random walks. Monte Carlo can be used to estimate the importance function. This estimated importance function then can be used to bias a subsequent Monte Carlo calculation that estimates an even better importance function; this iterative process is called adaptive importance sampling.To obtain the importance function, one can expand the importance function in a basis such as the Legendre polynomials and make Monte Carlo estimates of the expansion coefficients. For simple problems, Legendre expansions of order 10 to 15 are able to represent the importance function well enough to reduce the error geometrically by ten orders of magnitude or more. The more complicated problems are addressed in which the importance function cannot be represented well by Legendre expansions of order 10 to 15. In particular, a problem with a cross-section notch and a problem with a discontinuous cross section are considered

  7. Toward a conceptual understanding of acute cultural adaptation: A preliminary examination of ACA in female swimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, Tatiana; Haapanen, Saara; Mosek, Shwiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a novel approach to researching adaptation in transnational athletes. The first part introduces a conceptualisation of acute cultural adaptation (ACA), which extends the current literature in sport psychology by offering original insights into mechanisms underpinning adaptive...

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Linda; Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Lerner, Debra; de Vet, Henrica C W; van der Beek, Allard J

    2015-01-01

    The Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ), measuring task performance, contextual performance, and counterproductive work behavior, was developed in The Netherlands. To cross-culturally adapt the IWPQ from the Dutch to the American-English language, and assess the questionnaire's internal consistency and content validity in the American-English context. A five stage translation and adaptation process was used: forward translation, synthesis, back-translation, expert committee review, and pilot-testing. During the pilot-testing, cognitive interviews with 40 American workers were performed, to examine the comprehensibility, applicability, and completeness of the American-English IWPQ. Questionnaire instructions were slightly modified to aid interpretation in the American-English language. Inconsistencies with verb tense were identified, and it was decided to consistently use simple past tense. The wording of five items was modified to better suit the American-English language. In general, participants were positive on the comprehensibility, applicability and completeness of the questionnaire during the pilot-testing phase. Furthermore, the study showed positive results concerning the internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas for the scales between 0.79-0.89) and content validity of the American-English IWPQ. The results indicate that the cross-cultural adaptation of the American-English IWPQ was successful and that the measurement properties of the translated version are promising.

  9. Radiation adaptive response for the growth of cultured glial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Miura, Y.; Kano, M.; Toda, T.; Urano, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: To examine the molecular mechanism of radiation adaptive response (RAR) for the growth of cultured glial cells and to investigate the influence of aging on the response, glial cells were cultured from young and aged rats (1 month and 24 months old). RAR for the growth of glial cells conditioned with a low dose of X-rays and subsequently exposed to a high dose of X-rays was examined for cell number and BrdU incorporation. Involvement of the subcellular signaling pathway factors in RAR was investigated using their inhibitors, activators and mutated glial cells. RAR was observed in cells cultured from young rats, but was not in cells from aged rats. The inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) suppressed RAR. The activators of PKC instead of low dose irradiation also caused RAR. Moreover, glial cells cultured from severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mice (CB-17 scid) and ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) cells from AT patients showed no RAR. These results indicated that PKC, ATM, DNAPK and/or PI3K were involved in RAR for growth and BrdU incorporation of cultured glial cells and RAR decreased with aging. Proteomics data of glial cells exposed to severe stress of H 2 O 2 or X-rays also will be presented in the conference since little or no difference has not been observed with slight stress yet

  10. Promoting health, preserving culture: adapting RARE in the Maasai context of Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, L K; Powell, C D; Thomas, A D; Medard, E; Roggeveen, Y; Hatfield, J M

    2011-05-01

    HIV/AIDS prevention strategies often neglect traditions and cultural practices relevant to the spread of HIV. The role of women in the HIV/AIDS context has typically been relegated to high-risk female groups such as sex workers, or those engaged in transactional sex for survival. Consequently, these perceptions are born out in the escalation of HIV/AIDS among communities, and female populations in particular where prevention frameworks remain culturally intolerant. We have attempted to address these issues by using an adapted Rapid Assessment Response and Evaluation (RARE) model to examine the impact of HIV/AIDS in the Maasai community of Ngorongoro. Our adapted RARE model used community engagement venues such as stockholder workshops, key informant interviews, and focus groups. Direct observations and geomapping were also done. Throughout our analysis, a gender and a pastoralist-centered approach provided methodological guidance, and served as value added contributions to out adaptation. Based in the unique context of a rural pastoralist community, we made recommendations appropriate to the cultural setting and the RARE considerations.

  11. The Cultural Historical Complexity of Human Personality Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa E. Wynn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on implicit intelligence has conceptualized students’ beliefs about the nature of intelligence as either fixed or malleable. This research has largely not included African American adolescents, a group for whom beliefs about intelligence have a cultural historical complexity related to both scientific racism and master narratives of race and intelligence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of implicit theories of intelligence for 63 African American adolescents who are seventh and eighth graders in a public charter school. The two-way ANOVA revealed that these adolescents held a malleable view of intelligence, which did not vary by gender or grade. Exploratory correlation analysis showed some consistent relationships with achievement motivation variables found in other studies. These findings may be explained by African American cultural values and the personality characteristic adaptations that they make living within a racialized society.

  12. Multilevel processes and cultural adaptation: Examples from past and present small-scale societies

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-García, V.; Balbo, A. L.; Gomez-Baggethun, E.; Gueze, M.; Mesoudi, A.; Richerson, P.; Rubio-Campillo, X.; Ruiz-Mallén, I.; Shennan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cultural adaptation has become central in the context of accelerated global change with authors increasingly acknowledging the importance of understanding multilevel processes that operate as adaptation takes place. We explore the importance of multilevel processes in explaining cultural adaptation by describing how processes leading to cultural (mis)adaptation are linked through a complex nested hierarchy, where the lower levels combine into new units with new organizations, functions, and e...

  13. Adaptive cultural transmission biases in children and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Elizabeth E; Wood, Lara A; Whiten, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Comparative and evolutionary developmental analyses seek to discover the similarities and differences between humans and non-human species that might illuminate both the evolutionary foundations of our nature that we share with other animals, and the distinctive characteristics that make human development unique. As our closest animal relatives, with whom we last shared common ancestry, non-human primates have been particularly important in this endeavour. Such studies have focused on social learning, traditions, and culture, and have discovered much about the 'how' of social learning, concerned with key underlying processes such as imitation and emulation. One of the core discoveries is that the adaptive adjustment of social learning options to different contexts is not unique to human, therefore multiple new strands of research have begun to focus on more subtle questions about when, from whom, and why such learning occurs. Here we review illustrative studies on both human infants and young children and on non-human primates to identify the similarities shared more broadly across the primate order, and the apparent specialisms that distinguish human development. Adaptive biases in social learning discussed include those modulated by task comprehension, experience, conformity to majorities, and the age, skill, proficiency and familiarity of potential alternative cultural models. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adaptive multiparameter control: application to a Rapid Thermal Processing process; Commande Adaptative Multivariable: Application a un Procede de Traitement Thermique Rapide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Mago, S J

    1995-12-20

    In this work the problem of temperature uniformity control in rapid thermal processing is addressed by means of multivariable adaptive control. Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) is a set of techniques proposed for semiconductor fabrication processes such as annealing, oxidation, chemical vapour deposition and others. The product quality depends on two mains issues: precise trajectory following and spatial temperature uniformity. RTP is a fabrication technique that requires a sophisticated real-time multivariable control system to achieve acceptable results. Modelling of the thermal behaviour of the process leads to very complex mathematical models. These are the reasons why adaptive control techniques are chosen. A multivariable linear discrete time model of the highly non-linear process is identified on-line, using an identification scheme which includes supervisory actions. This identified model, combined with a multivariable predictive control law allows to prevent the controller from systems variations. The control laws are obtained by minimization of a quadratic cost function or by pole placement. In some of these control laws, a partial state reference model was included. This reference model allows to incorporate an appropriate tracking capability into the control law. Experimental results of the application of the involved multivariable adaptive control laws on a RTP system are presented. (author) refs

  15. Rapid socio-cultural change and health in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    2001-01-01

    The colonization of the circumpolar peoples has had a profound influence on their health. History tells about devastating epidemics and the introduction of alcohol. The last 50 years have witnessed an unprecedented societal development in Greenland and a rapid epidemiological transition. Physical...... health and survival have improved but at the expense of mental health. The incidence of tuberculosis and the infant mortality rate have decreased because of improved socioeconomic conditions and health care. Mental health has deteriorated parallel to the rapid modernization of Greenlandic society...

  16. Rapid ecosystem change challenges the adaptive capacity of Local Environmental Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Luz, Ana C; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-03-01

    The use of Local Environmental Knowledge has been considered as an important strategy for adaptive management in the face of Global Environmental Change. However, the unprecedented rates at which global change occurs may pose a challenge to the adaptive capacity of local knowledge systems. In this paper, we use the concept of the shifting baseline syndrome to examine the limits in the adaptive capacity of the local knowledge of an indigenous society facing rapid ecosystem change. We conducted semi-structured interviews regarding perceptions of change in wildlife populations and in intergenerational transmission of knowledge amongst the Tsimane', a group of hunter-gatherers of Bolivian Amazonia ( n = 300 adults in 13 villages). We found that the natural baseline against which the Tsimane' measure ecosystem changes might be shifting with every generation as a result of (a) age-related differences in the perception of change and (b) a decrease in the intergenerational sharing of environmental knowledge. Such findings suggest that local knowledge systems might not change at a rate quick enough to adapt to conditions of rapid ecosystem change, hence potentially compromising the adaptive success of the entire social-ecological system. With the current pace of Global Environmental Change, widening the gap between the temporal rates of on-going ecosystem change and the timescale needed for local knowledge systems to adjust to change, efforts to tackle the shifting baseline syndrome are urgent and critical for those who aim to use Local Environmental Knowledge as a tool for adaptive management.

  17. Biological adaptations for functional features of language in the face of cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Morten H; Reali, Florencia; Chater, Nick

    2011-04-01

    Although there may be no true language universals, it is nonetheless possible to discern several family resemblance patterns across the languages of the world. Recent work on the cultural evolution of language indicates the source of these patterns is unlikely to be an innate universal grammar evolved through biological adaptations for arbitrary linguistic features. Instead, it has been suggested that the patterns of resemblance emerge because language has been shaped by the brain, with individual languages representing different but partially overlapping solutions to the same set of nonlinguistic constraints. Here, we use computational simulations to investigate whether biological adaptation for functional features of language, deriving from cognitive and communicative constraints, may nonetheless be possible alongside rapid cultural evolution. Specifically, we focus on the Baldwin effect as an evolutionary mechanism by which previously learned linguistic features might become innate through natural selection across many generations of language users. The results indicate that cultural evolution of language does not necessarily prevent functional features of language from becoming genetically fixed, thus potentially providing a particularly informative source of constraints on cross-linguistic resemblance patterns.

  18. Rapid method for culturing embryonic neuron-glial cell cocultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Shan, Wei-Song; Colman, David R

    2003-01-01

    neurons is seen after 3 weeks (2 weeks in ascorbic acid), suggesting that basal lamina production is important even for glial ensheathment in the enteric nervous system. No overgrowth of fibroblasts or other nonneuronal cells was noted in any cultures, and myelination of the peripheral nervous system...

  19. Culturally adapting an evidence-based parenting intervention for Latino immigrants: the need to integrate fidelity and cultural relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Cardona, Jose Ruben; Domenech-Rodriguez, Melanie; Forgatch, Marion; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Holtrop, Kendal; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocio; Tams, Lisa; Dates, Brian; Bernal, Guillermo

    2012-03-01

    Latinos constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the United States. However, the cultural adaptation and dissemination of evidence-based parenting interventions among Latino populations continues to be scarce despite extensive research that demonstrates the long-term positive effects of these interventions. The purpose of this article is threefold: (1) justify the importance of cultural adaptation research as a key strategy to disseminate efficacious interventions among Latinos, (2) describe the initial steps of a program of prevention research with Latino immigrants aimed at culturally adapting an evidence-based intervention informed by parent management training principles, and (3) discuss implications for advancing cultural adaptation prevention practice and research, based on the initial feasibility and cultural acceptability findings of the current investigation. © FPI, Inc.

  20. Culturally Adapting an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention for Latino Immigrants: The Need to Integrate Fidelity and Cultural Relevance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Jose Ruben Parra; Domenech-Rodriguez, Melanie; Forgatch, Marion; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Holtrop, Kendal; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocio; Tams, Lisa; Dates, Brian; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Latinos constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the US. However, the cultural adaptation and dissemination of evidence-based parenting interventions among Latino populations continues to be scarce in spite of extensive research that demonstrates the long-term positive effects of these interventions. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) justify the importance of cultural adaptation research as a key strategy to disseminate efficacious interventions among Latinos, (b) describe the initial steps of a program of prevention research with Latino immigrants aimed at culturally adapting an evidence-based intervention informed by parent management training (PMT) principles, and (c) discuss implications for advancing cultural adaptation prevention practice and research, based on the initial feasibility and cultural acceptability findings of the current investigation. PMID:22428711

  1. A single-rate context-dependent learning process underlies rapid adaptation to familiar object dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, James N; Howard, Ian S; Flanagan, J Randall; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    Motor learning has been extensively studied using dynamic (force-field) perturbations. These induce movement errors that result in adaptive changes to the motor commands. Several state-space models have been developed to explain how trial-by-trial errors drive the progressive adaptation observed in such studies. These models have been applied to adaptation involving novel dynamics, which typically occurs over tens to hundreds of trials, and which appears to be mediated by a dual-rate adaptation process. In contrast, when manipulating objects with familiar dynamics, subjects adapt rapidly within a few trials. Here, we apply state-space models to familiar dynamics, asking whether adaptation is mediated by a single-rate or dual-rate process. Previously, we reported a task in which subjects rotate an object with known dynamics. By presenting the object at different visual orientations, adaptation was shown to be context-specific, with limited generalization to novel orientations. Here we show that a multiple-context state-space model, with a generalization function tuned to visual object orientation, can reproduce the time-course of adaptation and de-adaptation as well as the observed context-dependent behavior. In contrast to the dual-rate process associated with novel dynamics, we show that a single-rate process mediates adaptation to familiar object dynamics. The model predicts that during exposure to the object across multiple orientations, there will be a degree of independence for adaptation and de-adaptation within each context, and that the states associated with all contexts will slowly de-adapt during exposure in one particular context. We confirm these predictions in two new experiments. Results of the current study thus highlight similarities and differences in the processes engaged during exposure to novel versus familiar dynamics. In both cases, adaptation is mediated by multiple context-specific representations. In the case of familiar object dynamics

  2. A single-rate context-dependent learning process underlies rapid adaptation to familiar object dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Ingram

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning has been extensively studied using dynamic (force-field perturbations. These induce movement errors that result in adaptive changes to the motor commands. Several state-space models have been developed to explain how trial-by-trial errors drive the progressive adaptation observed in such studies. These models have been applied to adaptation involving novel dynamics, which typically occurs over tens to hundreds of trials, and which appears to be mediated by a dual-rate adaptation process. In contrast, when manipulating objects with familiar dynamics, subjects adapt rapidly within a few trials. Here, we apply state-space models to familiar dynamics, asking whether adaptation is mediated by a single-rate or dual-rate process. Previously, we reported a task in which subjects rotate an object with known dynamics. By presenting the object at different visual orientations, adaptation was shown to be context-specific, with limited generalization to novel orientations. Here we show that a multiple-context state-space model, with a generalization function tuned to visual object orientation, can reproduce the time-course of adaptation and de-adaptation as well as the observed context-dependent behavior. In contrast to the dual-rate process associated with novel dynamics, we show that a single-rate process mediates adaptation to familiar object dynamics. The model predicts that during exposure to the object across multiple orientations, there will be a degree of independence for adaptation and de-adaptation within each context, and that the states associated with all contexts will slowly de-adapt during exposure in one particular context. We confirm these predictions in two new experiments. Results of the current study thus highlight similarities and differences in the processes engaged during exposure to novel versus familiar dynamics. In both cases, adaptation is mediated by multiple context-specific representations. In the case of familiar

  3. A randomized controlled trial of culturally adapted motivational interviewing for Hispanic heavy drinkers: Theory of Adaptation and Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christina S.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Magill, Molly; Almeida, Joanna; Tavares, Tonya; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The NIH Strategic Plan prioritizes health disparities research for socially disadvantaged Hispanics, to reduce the disproportionate burden of alcohol-related negative consequences compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments, such as motivational interviewing (MI), can improve access and response to alcohol treatment. However, the lack of rigorous clinical trials designed to test the efficacy and theoretical underpinnings of cultural adaptation has made proof of concept difficult. Objective The CAMI2 (Culturally Adapted Motivational Interviewing) study design and its theoretical model, is described to illustrate how MI adapted to social and cultural factors (CAMI) can be discriminated against non-adapted MI. Methods and Design CAMI2, a large, 12 month randomized prospective trial, examines the efficacy of CAMI and MI among heavy drinking Hispanics recruited from the community (n=257). Outcomes are reductions in heavy drinking days (Time Line Follow-Back) and negative consequences of drinking among Hispanics (Drinkers Inventory of Consequences). A second aim examines perceived acculturation stress as a moderator of treatment outcomes in the CAMI condition. Summary The CAMI2 study design protocol is presented and the theory of adaptation is presented. Findings from the trial described may yield important recommendations on the science of cultural adaptation and improve MI dissemination to Hispanics with alcohol risk. PMID:27565832

  4. A rapid radioassay for human IgG produced in lymphocyte in vitro culture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, D.R.; Shale, D.J.; Tomlinson, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Protein A bearing Staphylococcus aureus was used to develop a solid-phase radioassay for IgG immunoglobulins. The assay was specifically optimised for use in vitro human lymphocyte culture work. Compared with a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for IgG produced in lymphocyte culture, this assay had a similar performance profile and the advantages of rapidity and technical ease. (Auth.)

  5. Cultural adaptation of preschool PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum for Pakistani children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Ayesha; Tariq, Pervaiz N; Zaman, Sahira

    2015-06-01

    Cultural adaptation of evidence-based programmes has gained importance primarily owing to its perceived impact on the established effectiveness of a programme. To date, many researchers have proposed different frameworks for systematic adaptation process. This article presents the cultural adaptation of preschool Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum for Pakistani children using the heuristic framework of adaptation (Barrera & Castro, 2006). The study was completed in four steps: information gathering, preliminary adaptation design, preliminary adaptation test and adaptation refinement. Feedbacks on programme content suggested universality of the core programme components. Suggested changes were mostly surface structure: language, presentation of materials, conceptual equivalence of concepts, training needs of implementation staff and frequency of programme delivery. In-depth analysis was done to acquire cultural equivalence. Pilot testing of the outcome measures showed strong internal consistency. The results were further discussed with reference to similar work undertaken in other cultures. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Rapid Genetic Adaptation during the First Four Months of Survival under Resource Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrani, Sarit; Bolotin, Evgeni; Katz, Sophia; Hershberg, Ruth

    2017-07-01

    Many bacteria, including the model bacterium Escherichia coli can survive for years within spent media, following resource exhaustion. We carried out evolutionary experiments, followed by whole genome sequencing of hundreds of evolved clones to study the dynamics by which E. coli adapts during the first 4 months of survival under resource exhaustion. Our results reveal that bacteria evolving under resource exhaustion are subject to intense selection, manifesting in rapid mutation accumulation, enrichment in functional mutation categories and extremely convergent adaptation. In the most striking example of convergent adaptation, we found that across five independent populations adaptation to conditions of resource exhaustion occurs through mutations to the three same specific positions of the RNA polymerase core enzyme. Mutations to these three sites are strongly antagonistically pleiotropic, in that they sharply reduce exponential growth rates in fresh media. Such antagonistically pleiotropic mutations, combined with the accumulation of additional mutations, severely reduce the ability of bacteria surviving under resource exhaustion to grow exponentially in fresh media. We further demonstrate that the three positions at which these resource exhaustion mutations occur are conserved for the ancestral E. coli allele, across bacterial phyla, with the exception of nonculturable bacteria that carry the resource exhaustion allele at one of these positions, at very high frequencies. Finally, our results demonstrate that adaptation to resource exhaustion is not limited by mutational input and that bacteria are able to rapidly adapt under resource exhaustion in a temporally precise manner through allele frequency fluctuations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Student mathematical imagination instruments: construction, cultural adaptation and validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwijayanti, I.; Budayasa, I. K.; Siswono, T. Y. E.

    2018-03-01

    Imagination has an important role as the center of sensorimotor activity of the students. The purpose of this research is to construct the instrument of students’ mathematical imagination in understanding concept of algebraic expression. The researcher performs validity using questionnaire and test technique and data analysis using descriptive method. Stages performed include: 1) the construction of the embodiment of the imagination; 2) determine the learning style questionnaire; 3) construct instruments; 4) translate to Indonesian as well as adaptation of learning style questionnaire content to student culture; 5) perform content validation. The results stated that the constructed instrument is valid by content validation and empirical validation so that it can be used with revisions. Content validation involves Indonesian linguists, english linguists and mathematics material experts. Empirical validation is done through a legibility test (10 students) and shows that in general the language used can be understood. In addition, a questionnaire test (86 students) was analyzed using a biserial point correlation technique resulting in 16 valid items with a reliability test using KR 20 with medium reability criteria. While the test instrument test (32 students) to find all items are valid and reliability test using KR 21 with reability is 0,62.

  8. Cross-cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Medication Regimen Complexity Index Adapted to Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez de la Fuente, Javier; Such Diaz, Ana; Cañamares-Orbis, Irene; Ramila, Estela; Izquierdo-Garcia, Elsa; Esteban, Concepcion; Escobar-Rodríguez, Ismael

    2016-11-01

    The most widely used validated instrument to assess the complexity of medication regimens is the Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI). This study aimed to translate, adapt, and validate a reliable version of the MRCI adapted to Spanish (MRCI-E). The cross-cultural adaptation process consisted of an independent translation by 3 clinical pharmacists and a backtranslation by 2 native English speakers. A reliability analysis was conducted on 20 elderly randomly selected patients. Two clinical pharmacists calculated the MRCI-E from discharge treatments and 2 months later. For the validity analysis, the sample was augmented to 60 patients. Convergent validity was assessed by analyzing the correlation between the number of medications; discriminant validity was stratified by gender; and predictive validity was determined by analyzing the ability to predict readmission and mortality at 3 and 6 months. The MRCI-E retained the original structure of 3 sections. The reliability analysis demonstrated an excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.83), and the intraclass correlation coefficient exceeded 0.9 in all cases. The correlation coefficient with the number of medications was 0.883 ( Pdifferences were found when stratified by gender (3.6; 95%CI=-2.9 to 10.2; P=0.27). Patients who were readmitted at 3 months had a higher MRCI-E score (10.7; 95%CI=4.4 to 17.2; P=0.001). The differences remained significant in patients readmitted at 6 months, but differences in mortality were not detected. The MRCI-E retains the reliability and validity of the original index and provides a suitable tool to assess the complexity of medication regimens in Spanish.

  9. Validation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the Physicians' Reactions to Uncertainty scales.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.; Barie, S.; Joest, K.; Rosemann, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Physicians' Reaction to Uncertainty scales (PRU) in primary care physicians. METHODS: In a structured process, the original questionnaire was translated, culturally adapted and assessed

  10. Exploring the Effects of Intercultural Learning on Cross-Cultural Adaptation in a Study Abroad Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yau

    2011-01-01

    This study targets Asian students studying abroad and explores the effects of intercultural learning on their cross-cultural adaptation by drawing upon a questionnaire survey. On the one hand, the results of this study find that under the influence of intercultural learning, students respond differently in their cross-cultural adaptation and no…

  11. Culturally Adapted Psychotherapy and the Legitimacy of Myth: A Multilevel Model, Direct Comparison Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benish, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Culturally adapted psychotherapy has potential to improve psychotherapy outcomes for ethnic and racial minorities and solve a decades-long conundrum that alteration of specific ingredients does not improve psychotherapy outcomes. Adaptation of the cultural explanation of illness, known as the anthropological Myth in universal healing practices…

  12. Making the Tacit Explicit: Rethinking Culturally Inclusive Pedagogy in International Student Academic Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes an approach, broadly inspired by culturally inclusive pedagogy, to facilitate international student academic adaptation based on rendering tacit aspects of local learning cultures explicit to international full degree students, rather than adapting them. Preliminary findings are presented from a focus group-based exploratory…

  13. Organisational Culture and Values and the Adaptation of Academic Units in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zilwa, Deanna

    2007-01-01

    This study explores connections between the organisational culture and values of academic units in Australian universities and their efforts to adapt to external environmental pressures. It integrates empirical findings from case studies with theories of organisational culture and values and adaptation. It identifies seven dimensions of academic…

  14. Use of an adaptable cell culture kit for performing lymphocyte and monocyte cell cultures in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, J. P.; Lewis, M. L.; Roquefeuil, S. B.; Chaput, D.; Cazenave, J. P.; Schmitt, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of experiments performed in recent years on board facilities such as the Space Shuttle/Spacelab have demonstrated that many cell systems, ranging from simple bacteria to mammalian cells, are sensitive to the microgravity environment, suggesting gravity affects fundamental cellular processes. However, performing well-controlled experiments aboard spacecraft offers unique challenges to the cell biologist. Although systems such as the European 'Biorack' provide generic experiment facilities including an incubator, on-board 1-g reference centrifuge, and contained area for manipulations, the experimenter must still establish a system for performing cell culture experiments that is compatible with the constraints of spaceflight. Two different cell culture kits developed by the French Space Agency, CNES, were recently used to perform a series of experiments during four flights of the 'Biorack' facility aboard the Space Shuttle. The first unit, Generic Cell Activation Kit 1 (GCAK-1), contains six separate culture units per cassette, each consisting of a culture chamber, activator chamber, filtration system (permitting separation of cells from supernatant in-flight), injection port, and supernatant collection chamber. The second unit (GCAK-2) also contains six separate culture units, including a culture, activator, and fixation chambers. Both hardware units permit relatively complex cell culture manipulations without extensive use of spacecraft resources (crew time, volume, mass, power), or the need for excessive safety measures. Possible operations include stimulation of cultures with activators, separation of cells from supernatant, fixation/lysis, manipulation of radiolabelled reagents, and medium exchange. Investigations performed aboard the Space Shuttle in six different experiments used Jurkat, purified T-cells or U937 cells, the results of which are reported separately. We report here the behaviour of Jurkat and U937 cells in the GCAK hardware in ground

  15. Historical and contemporary cultural ecosystem service values in the rapidly urbanizing city state of Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajah, Jharyathri; Wong, Shermaine K M; Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    Cultural ecosystem services are a function of people and place, so may change as a location transitions from rural to urban. Singapore has undergone rapid urbanization after its independence in 1965, with a concomitant decline in natural habitat extent and accessibility. Using coastal mangrove forests as a case study habitat, changing cultural values were explored with a novel array of techniques, including qualitative archival analysis (photographs, oral histories), current sources (publically uploaded social media photographs), and surveys of (a) the general public and (b) visitors to publically accessible mangroves. Cultural value changed through time, with a significant transition from intrinsic, intrapersonal values (spiritual, cultural heritage) to instrumental, interpersonal values (recreation, education). Additionally, cultural value varied between different mangroves depending on their public accessibility, and the evolving degree of human interaction with the ecosystem as urban development occured. Cultural values change as development transitions, though mangroves still play an important cultural role in a heavily urbanized environment.

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation of instruments assessing breastfeeding determinants: a multi-step approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-cultural adaptation is a necessary process to effectively use existing instruments in other cultural and language settings. The process of cross-culturally adapting, including translation, of existing instruments is considered a critical set to establishing a meaningful instrument for use in another setting. Using a multi-step approach is considered best practice in achieving cultural and semantic equivalence of the adapted version. We aimed to ensure the content validity of our instruments in the cultural context of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitudes Scale, Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form and additional items comprise our consolidated instrument, which was cross-culturally adapted utilizing a multi-step approach during August 2012. Cross-cultural adaptation was achieved through steps to maintain content validity and attain semantic equivalence in the target version. Specifically, Lynn’s recommendation to apply an item-level content validity index score was followed. The revised instrument was translated and back-translated. To ensure semantic equivalence, Brislin’s back-translation approach was utilized followed by the committee review to address any discrepancies that emerged from translation. Results Our consolidated instrument was adapted to be culturally relevant and translated to yield more reliable and valid results for use in our larger research study to measure infant feeding determinants effectively in our target cultural context. Conclusions Undertaking rigorous steps to effectively ensure cross-cultural adaptation increases our confidence that the conclusions we make based on our self-report instrument(s) will be stronger. In this way, our aim to achieve strong cross-cultural adaptation of our consolidated instruments was achieved while also providing a clear framework for other researchers choosing to utilize existing instruments for work in other cultural, geographic and population

  17. German translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Sandra; Osborne, Richard H; Dwinger, Sarah; Elsworth, Gerald R; Conrad, Melanie L; Rose, Matthias; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg; Zill, Jördis M

    2017-01-01

    The Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ), developed in Australia in 2012 using a 'validity-driven' approach, has been rapidly adopted and is being applied in many countries and languages. It is a multidimensional measure comprising nine distinct domains that may be used for surveys, needs assessment, evaluation and outcomes assessment as well as for informing service improvement and the development of interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe the German translation of the HLQ and to present the results of the validation of the culturally adapted version. The HLQ comprises 44 items, which were translated and culturally adapted to the German context. This study uses data collected from a sample of 1,058 persons with chronic conditions. Statistical analyses include descriptive and confirmatory factor analyses. In one-factor congeneric models, all scales demonstrated good fit after few model adjustments. In a single, highly restrictive nine-factor model (no cross-loadings, no correlated errors) replication of the original English-language version was achieved with fit indices and psychometric properties similar to the original HLQ. Reliability for all scales was excellent, with a Cronbach's Alpha of at least 0.77. High to very high correlations between some HLQ factors were observed, suggesting that higher order factors may be present. Our rigorous development and validation protocol, as well as strict adaptation processes, have generated a remarkable reproduction of the HLQ in German. The results of this validation provide evidence that the HLQ is robust and can be recommended for use in German-speaking populations. German Clinical Trial Registration (DRKS): DRKS00000584. Registered 23 March 2011.

  18. Phylogenomics Reveals Three Sources of Adaptive Variation during a Rapid Radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Pease

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Speciation events often occur in rapid bursts of diversification, but the ecological and genetic factors that promote these radiations are still much debated. Using whole transcriptomes from all 13 species in the ecologically and reproductively diverse wild tomato clade (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon, we infer the species phylogeny and patterns of genetic diversity in this group. Despite widespread phylogenetic discordance due to the sorting of ancestral variation, we date the origin of this radiation to approximately 2.5 million years ago and find evidence for at least three sources of adaptive genetic variation that fuel diversification. First, we detect introgression both historically between early-branching lineages and recently between individual populations, at specific loci whose functions indicate likely adaptive benefits. Second, we find evidence of lineage-specific de novo evolution for many genes, including loci involved in the production of red fruit color. Finally, using a "PhyloGWAS" approach, we detect environment-specific sorting of ancestral variation among populations that come from different species but share common environmental conditions. Estimated across the whole clade, small but substantial and approximately equal fractions of the euchromatic portion of the genome are inferred to contribute to each of these three sources of adaptive genetic variation. These results indicate that multiple genetic sources can promote rapid diversification and speciation in response to new ecological opportunity, in agreement with our emerging phylogenomic understanding of the complexity of both ancient and recent species radiations.

  19. A study on multi-cultural family wives adapting to Korean cuisine and dietary patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Youngil; Jeong, Hee Sun; Joo, Nami

    2010-01-01

    With the increase in multi-cultural families, Korea is seeing a rapid increase in immigrated housewives, who are closely related to food culture. However, studies for the diet of multi-cultural families, which is most closely related to our lives have not been sufficiently researched. With this background, this study conducted research for immigrated women nationwide about food cultures to provide the possibility which Korean food culture would be developed harmoniously with various foreign f...

  20. Rapid adaptation to oil exposure in the cosmopolitan copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, K. E.; Dinh, Khuong Van; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    Oil spills are potential environmental hazards to marine ecosystems worldwide. Oil spills may persist in seawater longer than one generation of many zooplankton species. However, whether populations of short-lived and fast growing marine organisms adapt to oil exposure through natural selection...... in size at maturity of females was less pronounced in the second generation. Strikingly, both survival, egg production and hatching success were recovered in the second generation, indicating a rapid selection towards individuals with adaptations to deal with pyrene exposure. Our results show...... that populations of short-lived and fast-growing copepods have the potential of showing surprisingly strong resilience to the type of oil contamination they might face in their natural coastal habitats...

  1. Social Importance Dynamics: A Model for Culturally-Adaptive Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascarenhas, S.; Prada, R.; Paiva, A.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The unwritten rules of human cultures greatly affect social behaviour and as such should be considered in the development of socially intelligent agents. So far, there has been a large focus on modeling cultural aspects related to non-verbal behaviour such as gaze or body posture. However, culture

  2. Examining the impact of differential cultural adaptation with Latina/o immigrants exposed to adapted parent training interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Cardona, J Rubén; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M; Rodríguez, Melanie M Domenech; Dates, Brian; Tams, Lisa; Bernal, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical studies aimed at examining the impact of differential cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical and prevention interventions. This prevention study consisted of a randomized controlled trial aimed at comparing the impact of 2 differentially culturally adapted versions of the evidence-based parenting intervention known as Parent Management Training, the Oregon Model (PMTOR). The sample consisted of 103 Latina/o immigrant families (190 individual parents). Each family was allocated to 1 of 3 conditions: (a) a culturally adapted PMTO (CA), (b) culturally adapted and enhanced PMTO (CE), and (c) a wait-list control. Measurements were implemented at baseline (T1), treatment completion (T2) and 6-month follow up (T3). Multilevel growth modeling analyses indicated statistically significant improvements on parenting skills for fathers and mothers (main effect) at 6-month follow-up in both adapted interventions, when compared with the control condition. With regard to parent-reported child behaviors, child internalizing behaviors were significantly lower for both parents in the CE intervention (main effect), compared with control at 6-month follow-up. No main effect was found for child externalizing behaviors. However, a Parent × Condition effect was found indicating a significant reduction of child externalizing behaviors for CE fathers compared with CA and control fathers at posttest and 6-month follow-up. Present findings indicate the value of differential cultural adaptation research designs and the importance of examining effects for both mothers and fathers, particularly when culturally focused and gender variables are considered for intervention design and implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Adaptive Neuron Model: An architecture for the rapid learning of nonlinear topological transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method for the rapid learning of nonlinear mappings and topological transformations using a dynamically reconfigurable artificial neural network is presented. This fully-recurrent Adaptive Neuron Model (ANM) network was applied to the highly degenerate inverse kinematics problem in robotics, and its performance evaluation is bench-marked. Once trained, the resulting neuromorphic architecture was implemented in custom analog neural network hardware and the parameters capturing the functional transformation downloaded onto the system. This neuroprocessor, capable of 10(exp 9) ops/sec, was interfaced directly to a three degree of freedom Heathkit robotic manipulator. Calculation of the hardware feed-forward pass for this mapping was benchmarked at approximately 10 microsec.

  4. Rapid Transfer Alignment of MEMS SINS Based on Adaptive Incremental Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hairong; Sun, Tingting; Zhang, Baiqiang; Zhang, Hongwei; Chen, Yang

    2017-01-14

    In airborne MEMS SINS transfer alignment, the error of MEMS IMU is highly environment-dependent and the parameters of the system model are also uncertain, which may lead to large error and bad convergence of the Kalman filter. In order to solve this problem, an improved adaptive incremental Kalman filter (AIKF) algorithm is proposed. First, the model of SINS transfer alignment is defined based on the "Velocity and Attitude" matching method. Then the detailed algorithm progress of AIKF and its recurrence formulas are presented. The performance and calculation amount of AKF and AIKF are also compared. Finally, a simulation test is designed to verify the accuracy and the rapidity of the AIKF algorithm by comparing it with KF and AKF. The results show that the AIKF algorithm has better estimation accuracy and shorter convergence time, especially for the bias of the gyroscope and the accelerometer, which can meet the accuracy and rapidity requirement of transfer alignment.

  5. Rapid Transfer Alignment of MEMS SINS Based on Adaptive Incremental Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Chu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In airborne MEMS SINS transfer alignment, the error of MEMS IMU is highly environment-dependent and the parameters of the system model are also uncertain, which may lead to large error and bad convergence of the Kalman filter. In order to solve this problem, an improved adaptive incremental Kalman filter (AIKF algorithm is proposed. First, the model of SINS transfer alignment is defined based on the “Velocity and Attitude” matching method. Then the detailed algorithm progress of AIKF and its recurrence formulas are presented. The performance and calculation amount of AKF and AIKF are also compared. Finally, a simulation test is designed to verify the accuracy and the rapidity of the AIKF algorithm by comparing it with KF and AKF. The results show that the AIKF algorithm has better estimation accuracy and shorter convergence time, especially for the bias of the gyroscope and the accelerometer, which can meet the accuracy and rapidity requirement of transfer alignment.

  6. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Aguado Syntax Test (AST) into Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Gustavo Inheta; Hage, Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos

    2017-12-07

    To perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the Aguado Syntax Test (AST) into Brazilian Portuguese considering the linguistic and cultural reality of the language. The AST assesses the early morphosyntactic development in children aged 3 to 7 in terms of understanding and expression of various types of structures such as sentences, pronouns, verbal voices, comparisons, prepositions and verbal desinence as to number, mode and tense. The process of translation and cultural adaptation followed four steps: 1) preparation of two translations; 2) synthesis of consensual translations; 3) backtranslation; and 4) verification of equivalence between the initial translations and backtranslations that resulted in the final translated version. The whole process of translation and cultural adaptation revealed the presence of equivalence and reconciliation of the translated items and an almost complete semantic equivalence between the two translations and the absence of consistent translation difficulties. The AST was translated and culturally adapted into Brazilian Portuguese, constituting the first step towards validation and standardization of the test.

  7. Rapid adaptation of microalgae to bodies of water with extreme pollution from uranium mining: An explanation of how mesophilic organisms can rapidly colonise extremely toxic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Balboa, C.; Baselga-Cervera, B. [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Sanchez, A.; Igual, J.M. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC), PO Box 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Lopez-Rodas, V. [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Costas, E., E-mail: ecostas@vet.ucm.es [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Some microalgae species survive to extreme environments in ponds of residual waters from uranium mining. •Adaptation of microalgae to U arose very fast. •Spontaneous mutations that confer large adaptive value were able to produce the adaptation to residual waters of U mining. •Adaptation to more extreme waters of U mining is only possible after the recombination subsequent to sexual mating. •Resistant microalgae bio-adsorbs uranium to the cell wall and internalises uranium inside the cytoplasm. -- Abstract: Extreme environments may support communities of microalgae living at the limits of their tolerance. It is usually assumed that these extreme environments are inhabited by extremophile species. However, global anthropogenic environmental changes are generating new extreme environments, such as mining-effluent pools of residual waters from uranium mining with high U levels, acidity and radioactivity in Salamanca (Spain). Certain microalgal species have rapidly adapted to these extreme waters (uranium mining in this area began in 1960). Experiments have demonstrated that physiological acclimatisation would be unable to achieve adaptation. In contrast, rapid genetic adaptation was observed in waters ostensibly lethal to microalgae by means of rare spontaneous mutations that occurred prior to the exposure to effluent waters from uranium mining. However, adaptation to the most extreme conditions was only possible after recombination through sexual mating because adaptation requires more than one mutation. Microalgae living in extreme environments could be the descendants of pre-selective mutants that confer significant adaptive value to extreme contamination. These “lucky mutants” could allow for the evolutionary rescue of populations faced with rapid environmental change.

  8. Rapid adaptation of microalgae to bodies of water with extreme pollution from uranium mining: An explanation of how mesophilic organisms can rapidly colonise extremely toxic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Balboa, C.; Baselga-Cervera, B.; García-Sanchez, A.; Igual, J.M.; Lopez-Rodas, V.; Costas, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Some microalgae species survive to extreme environments in ponds of residual waters from uranium mining. •Adaptation of microalgae to U arose very fast. •Spontaneous mutations that confer large adaptive value were able to produce the adaptation to residual waters of U mining. •Adaptation to more extreme waters of U mining is only possible after the recombination subsequent to sexual mating. •Resistant microalgae bio-adsorbs uranium to the cell wall and internalises uranium inside the cytoplasm. -- Abstract: Extreme environments may support communities of microalgae living at the limits of their tolerance. It is usually assumed that these extreme environments are inhabited by extremophile species. However, global anthropogenic environmental changes are generating new extreme environments, such as mining-effluent pools of residual waters from uranium mining with high U levels, acidity and radioactivity in Salamanca (Spain). Certain microalgal species have rapidly adapted to these extreme waters (uranium mining in this area began in 1960). Experiments have demonstrated that physiological acclimatisation would be unable to achieve adaptation. In contrast, rapid genetic adaptation was observed in waters ostensibly lethal to microalgae by means of rare spontaneous mutations that occurred prior to the exposure to effluent waters from uranium mining. However, adaptation to the most extreme conditions was only possible after recombination through sexual mating because adaptation requires more than one mutation. Microalgae living in extreme environments could be the descendants of pre-selective mutants that confer significant adaptive value to extreme contamination. These “lucky mutants” could allow for the evolutionary rescue of populations faced with rapid environmental change

  9. Linguistic Validation and Cultural Adaptation of Bulgarian Version of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Rumyana; Dimova, Rositsa; Tarnovska, Miglena; Boeva, Tatyana

    2018-05-20

    Patient safety (PS) is one of the essential elements of health care quality and a priority of healthcare systems in most countries. Thus the creation of validated instruments and the implementation of systems that measure patient safety are considered to be of great importance worldwide. The present paper aims to illustrate the process of linguistic validation, cross-cultural verification and adaptation of the Bulgarian version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (B-HSOPSC) and its test-retest reliability. The study design is cross-sectional. The HSOPSC questionnaire consists of 42 questions, grouped in 12 different subscales that measure patient safety culture. Internal con-sistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the split-half method were used; the Spear-man-Brown coefficient was calculated. The overall Cronbach's alpha for B-HSOPSC is 0.918. Subscales 7 Staffing and 12 Overall perceptions of safety had the lowest coefficients. The high reliability of the instrument was confirmed by the Split-half method (0.97) and ICC-coefficient (0.95). The lowest values of Spearmen-Broun coefficients were found in items A13 and A14. The study offers an analysis of the results of the linguistic validation of the B-HSOPSC and its test-retest reliability. The psychometric characteristics of the questions revealed good validity and reliability, except two questions. In the future, the instrument will be administered to the target population in the main study so that the psychometric properties of the instrument can be verified.

  10. The relationships of personal and cultural identity to adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functioning in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Wang, Sherry C

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which cultural identity would be associated with adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functioning, both directly and indirectly through a personal identity consolidation. A sample of 773 White, Black, and Hispanic university students completed measures of cultural identity, personal identity consolidation, adaptive psychosocial functioning, internalizing symptoms, and proclivity toward externalizing symptoms. Both heritage and American cultural identity were positively related to adaptive psychosocial functioning; American-culture identity was negatively associated with internalizing symptoms; and heritage-culture identity was negatively related to proclivity toward externalizing symptoms. All of these findings were mediated by personal identity consolidation and were fully consistent across ethnic groups. We discuss implications in terms of broadening the study of identity to include both personal and cultural dimensions of self.

  11. Students' Adaptation in the Social and Cultural Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadyrin, Vladimir Vitalievich; Potapova, Marina Vladimirovna; Gnatyshina, Elena Alexandrovna; Uvarina, Nataliya Viktorovna; Danilova, Viktoriya Valerievna

    2016-01-01

    Modern scientific literature views issues on adaptation based on various aspects: biological, medical, pedagogical, sociological, cybernetic, interdisciplinary, etc. The given article is devoted to the analysis of the problem of adaptation as social and psychological phenomenon including peculiarities of its functioning in the conditions of social…

  12. Adapting a rapid river assessment protocols to be used by elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to adapt a rapid river assessment protocols (RAP to be used by elementary school children. The study was conducted in Ipameri, GO and the RAP was adapted for the evaluation of streams in the Cerrado biome. Based on two protocol models, the developed RAP included: physical parameters that affect the functioning of streams, language adapted to the educational level of elementary school and the presence of drawings that could facilitate the field application of RAP by the students. For consolidation of the adapted instrument, it was offered a monitoring workshop to 95 students from two public education institutions, and developed an analysis and interpretation of the pattern of responses obtained during the practical step of the workshop. The Bartlett and Levene tests revealed no statistical differences between the response patterns of the students, allowing to infer that the developed RAP was understandable by the evaluators. The application of the RAP was fast (20 to 40 minutes and the students reported that the developed instrument helped them to familiarize with environmental issues. In addition, the monitoring workshop helped them to understand the instrument and the available illustrations facilitated the field evaluation. In addition, the students concluded that they have become aware of the issues related to the water resource preservation and also that participation in the environmental monitoring workshop allowed the appropriation of knowledge about the river system functioning. It was concluded that adapted RAP has been proved to be a useful and interesting tool for using in environmental education projects and programs.

  13. Rapid adaptation of microalgae to bodies of water with extreme pollution from uranium mining: an explanation of how mesophilic organisms can rapidly colonise extremely toxic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Balboa, C; Baselga-Cervera, B; García-Sanchez, A; Igual, J M; Lopez-Rodas, V; Costas, E

    2013-11-15

    Extreme environments may support communities of microalgae living at the limits of their tolerance. It is usually assumed that these extreme environments are inhabited by extremophile species. However, global anthropogenic environmental changes are generating new extreme environments, such as mining-effluent pools of residual waters from uranium mining with high U levels, acidity and radioactivity in Salamanca (Spain). Certain microalgal species have rapidly adapted to these extreme waters (uranium mining in this area began in 1960). Experiments have demonstrated that physiological acclimatisation would be unable to achieve adaptation. In contrast, rapid genetic adaptation was observed in waters ostensibly lethal to microalgae by means of rare spontaneous mutations that occurred prior to the exposure to effluent waters from uranium mining. However, adaptation to the most extreme conditions was only possible after recombination through sexual mating because adaptation requires more than one mutation. Microalgae living in extreme environments could be the descendants of pre-selective mutants that confer significant adaptive value to extreme contamination. These "lucky mutants" could allow for the evolutionary rescue of populations faced with rapid environmental change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Systematic review: cultural adaptation and feasibility of screening for autism in non-English speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maskari, Turkiya S; Melville, Craig A; Willis, Diane S

    2018-01-01

    Screening children for autism has gained wider acceptance within clinical practice, and early intervention has improved outcomes. Increasingly, adapting an existing screening instrument is a common, fast method to create a usable screening tool, especially for countries with limited resources and/or expertise. However, concerns have been raised regarding adaptation adequacy and the feasibility of screening across cultural groups. This study systematically examined the levels of cultural adaptation and feasibility aspects considered when screening for autism in non-English speaking countries to build upon the sparse knowledge that exists on this topic in the literature. Nineteen studies, obtained from five electronic databases, were examined. PRISMA guidance was used for this review. The Ecological Validity Framework model, and Bowen Recommendations for Feasibility were adopted to extract relevant data, which was synthesised narratively. Cultural adaptation within the included studies mostly involved language translation with little information offered to enable conclusions on how the processes were guided and maintained. Few cultural adjustments involved modifying screening methods; clarifying difficult concepts and changing instrument content were employed to address the core values, competence, beliefs, and norms of the adapted culture. However, less attention was given to adapt the screening goals within the context of cultural values, and customs or to consider interactional match between the clients and assessors. The review also highlighted an acceptable level of practicality to screen for autism but did not encourage integrating autism screening within routine practice or beyond the study context for different cultures. Concurring with previous literature, we agree that knowledge on cultural adaptation for autism screening instruments is limited and not sufficiently documented to establish adaptation levels (process and/or contents), and prove adequacy

  15. Enemy at the gates: Rapid defensive trait diversification in an adaptive radiation of lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckhoven, Chris; Diedericks, Genevieve; Hui, Cang; Makhubo, Buyisile G; Mouton, P le Fras N

    2016-11-01

    Adaptive radiation (AR), the product of rapid diversification of an ancestral species into novel adaptive zones, has become pivotal in our understanding of biodiversity. Although it has widely been accepted that predators may drive the process of AR by creating ecological opportunity (e.g., enemy-free space), the role of predators as selective agents in defensive trait diversification remains controversial. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we provide evidence for an "early burst" in the diversification of antipredator phenotypes in Cordylinae, a relatively small AR of morphologically diverse southern African lizards. The evolution of body armor appears to have been initially rapid, but slowed down over time, consistent with the ecological niche-filling model. We suggest that the observed "early burst" pattern could be attributed to shifts in vulnerability to different types of predators (i.e., aerial versus terrestrial) associated with thermal habitat partitioning. These results provide empirical evidence supporting the hypothesis that predators or the interaction therewith might be key components of ecological opportunity, although the way in which predators influence morphological diversification requires further study. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Cultural Adaptation, Parenting and Child Mental Health Among English Speaking Asian American Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2017-08-01

    Contrary to the "model minority" myth, Asian American children, especially those from low-income immigrant families, are at risk for both behavioral and emotional problems early in life. Little is known, however, about the underlying developmental mechanisms placing Asian American children at risk, including the role of cultural adaptation and parenting. This study examined cultural adaptation, parenting practices and culture related parenting values and child mental health in a sample of 157 English speaking Asian American immigrant families of children enrolled in early childhood education programs in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Overall, cultural adaptation and parenting cultural values and behaviors were related to aspects of child mental health in meaningful ways. Parents' cultural value of independence appears to be especially salient (e.g., negatively related to behavior problems and positively related to adaptive behavior) and significantly mediates the link between cultural adaptation and adaptive behavior. Study findings have implications for supporting Asian American immigrant families to promote their young children's mental health.

  17. Organizational Adaptation to the Rapidly Changing External Environment: A Case Study of Strategic Marketing at Notre Dame College in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examined the role of strategic marketing in organizational adaptation to a rapidly changing and competitive external environment among institutions of higher education. Colleges and universities adapt to external pressures as open systems operating within a broader external environment (Bess & Dee, 2008; Keller, 1983). How does…

  18. Ploidy plasticity: a rapid and reversible strategy for adaptation to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Judith

    2016-05-01

    Organisms must be able to grow in a broad range of conditions found in their normal growth environment and for a species to survive, at least some cells in a population must adapt rapidly to extreme stress conditions that kill the majority of cells.Candida albicans, the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans resides as a commensal in a broad range of niches within the human host. Growth conditions in these niches are highly variable and stresses such exposure to antifungal drugs can inhibit population growth abruptly. One of the mechanisms C. albicans uses to adapt rapidly to severe stresses is aneuploidy-a change in the total number of chromosomes such that one or more chromosomes are present in excess or are missing. Aneuploidy is quite common in wild isolates of fungi and other eukaryotic microbes. Aneuploidy can be achieved by chromosome nondisjunction during a simple mitosis, and in stress conditions it begins to appear after two mitotic divisions via a tetraploid intermediate. Aneuploidy usually resolves to euploidy (a balanced number of chromosomes), but not necessarily to diploidy. Aneuploidy of a specific chromosome can confer new phenotypes by virtue of the copy number of specific genes on that chromosome relative to the copies of other genes. Thus, it is not aneuploidy per se, but the relative copy number of specific genes that confers many tested aneuploidy-associated phenotypes. Aneuploidy almost always carries a fitness cost, as cells express most proteins encoded by genes on the aneuploid chromosome in proportion to the number of DNA copies of the gene. This is thought to be due to imbalances in the stoichiometry of different components of large complexes. Despite this, fitness is a relative function-and if stress is severe and population growth has slowed considerably, then even small growth advantages of some aneuploidies can provide a selective advantage. Thus, aneuploidy appears to provide a transient solution to severe and sudden stress

  19. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Translation and cultural adaptation of the oxford hip score for Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Nourbakhsh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study demonstrated the trans-cultural adaptation and validation of the Persian OHS is a reliable and practicable instrument for assessment of function and pain in Iranian patients with hip osteoarthritis.

  1. Physical discipline in Chinese American immigrant families: An adaptive culture perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna S

    2010-07-01

    Research on ethnic minority parenting has examined heritage cultural influences and contextual stressors on parenting processes. However, rarely are adaptive cultural processes considered, whereby ethnic minority parents bring their cultural values to bear in adapting to contextual demands in the host society. A survey of 107 Chinese American immigrant parents examined whether use of physical discipline can be predicted by cultural values, contextual stressors, and their interactions. Results indicated that distinct domains of cultural values were related to physical discipline in disparate ways, with some values decreasing risk and others indirectly increasing risk. There was some evidence that cultural values interacted with contextual stress to predict physical discipline. Parent-child acculturation conflicts were only related to physical discipline when parents held strong values about the importance of firm parental control. The findings illustrate how heritage cultural influences and current ecological demands may converge to shape parenting in immigrant families.

  2. A review of visual perception mechanisms that regulate rapid adaptive camouflage in cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

    2015-09-01

    We review recent research on the visual mechanisms of rapid adaptive camouflage in cuttlefish. These neurophysiologically complex marine invertebrates can camouflage themselves against almost any background, yet their ability to quickly (0.5-2 s) alter their body patterns on different visual backgrounds poses a vexing challenge: how to pick the correct body pattern amongst their repertoire. The ability of cuttlefish to change appropriately requires a visual system that can rapidly assess complex visual scenes and produce the motor responses-the neurally controlled body patterns-that achieve camouflage. Using specifically designed visual backgrounds and assessing the corresponding body patterns quantitatively, we and others have uncovered several aspects of scene variation that are important in regulating cuttlefish patterning responses. These include spatial scale of background pattern, background intensity, background contrast, object edge properties, object contrast polarity, object depth, and the presence of 3D objects. Moreover, arm postures and skin papillae are also regulated visually for additional aspects of concealment. By integrating these visual cues, cuttlefish are able to rapidly select appropriate body patterns for concealment throughout diverse natural environments. This sensorimotor approach of studying cuttlefish camouflage thus provides unique insights into the mechanisms of visual perception in an invertebrate image-forming eye.

  3. Translation, cross-cultural adaption and measurement properties of the evidence-based practice profile

    OpenAIRE

    Titlestad, Kristine Berg; Snibsoer, Anne Kristin; Stromme, Hilde; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen; Graverholt, Birgitte; Espehaug, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Background The evidence-based practice profile (EBP2) questionnaire assesses students? self-reported knowledge, behaviour and attitudes related to evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt EBP2 into Norwegian and to evaluate the reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Norwegian version. Methods EBP2 was translated and cross-culturally adapted using recommended methodology. Face validity and feasibility were evaluated in a pilot on bache...

  4. Rapid metabolism of exogenous angiotensin II by catecholaminergic neuronal cells in culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Urmi; Seravalli, Javier; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Adamec, Jiri; Case, Adam J; Zimmerman, Matthew C

    2015-02-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) acts on central neurons to increase neuronal firing and induce sympathoexcitation, which contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and heart failure. Numerous studies have examined the precise AngII-induced intraneuronal signaling mechanism in an attempt to identify new therapeutic targets for these diseases. Considering the technical challenges in studying specific intraneuronal signaling pathways in vivo, especially in the cardiovascular control brain regions, most studies have relied on neuronal cell culture models. However, there are numerous limitations in using cell culture models to study AngII intraneuronal signaling, including the lack of evidence indicating the stability of AngII in culture media. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous AngII is rapidly metabolized in neuronal cell culture media. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we measured levels of AngII and its metabolites, Ang III, Ang IV, and Ang-1-7, in neuronal cell culture media after administration of exogenous AngII (100 nmol/L) to a neuronal cell culture model (CATH.a neurons). AngII levels rapidly declined in the media, returning to near baseline levels within 3 h of administration. Additionally, levels of Ang III and Ang-1-7 acutely increased, while levels of Ang IV remained unchanged. Replenishing the media with exogenous AngII every 3 h for 24 h resulted in a consistent and significant increase in AngII levels for the duration of the treatment period. These data indicate that AngII is rapidly metabolized in neuronal cell culture media, and replenishing the media at least every 3 h is needed to sustain chronically elevated levels. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  5. A review of cultural adaptations of screening tools for autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sandra; Linas, Keri; Jacobstein, Diane; Biel, Matthew; Migdal, Talia; Anthony, Bruno J

    2015-08-01

    Screening children to determine risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders has become more common, although some question the advisability of such a strategy. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify autism screening tools that have been adapted for use in cultures different from that in which they were developed, evaluate the cultural adaptation process, report on the psychometric properties of the adapted instruments, and describe the implications for further research and clinical practice. A total of 21 articles met criteria for inclusion, reporting on the cultural adaptation of autism screening in 19 countries and in 10 languages. The cultural adaptation process was not always clearly outlined and often did not include the recommended guidelines. Cultural/linguistic modifications to the translated tools tended to increase with the rigor of the adaptation process. Differences between the psychometric properties of the original and adapted versions were common, indicating the need to obtain normative data on populations to increase the utility of the translated tool. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. "Phronesis" on tour: cultural adaptability of Aristotelian ethical notions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, R

    2000-12-01

    How might bioethics take account of cultural diversity? Can practical wisdom of an Aristotelian sort be applied across cultures? After showing that practical wisdom involves both intellectual cleverness and moral virtue, it is argued that both these components have universality. Hence practical wisdom must be universal as well. Hellenic ethical thought neither depended on outdated theoretical notions nor limited itself to the Greek world, but was in fact developed with constant awareness of cultural differences, so it arguably works as well in other times and places when formulated. Even the eudaemonistic setting for practical wisdom is unproblematic.

  7. International Postgraduate Students' Cross-Cultural Adaptation in Malaysia: Antecedents and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaei, Azadeh; Razak, Nordin Abd

    2016-01-01

    This study develops and empirically tests a conceptual model capturing the factors impacting students' cross-cultural adaptation and the outcomes resulting from such adaption. Data were obtained from a sample of international postgraduate students from six Malaysian public universities using a structured questionnaire. Structural equation…

  8. Cultural Adaptation of a Neurobiologically Informed Intervention in Local and International Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulak, Eric; Hampton Wray, Amanda; Longoria, Zayra; Garcia Isaza, Alejandra; Stevens, Courtney; Bell, Theodore; Burlingame, Sarah; Klein, Scott; Berlinski, Samuel; Attanasio, Orazio; Neville, Helen

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between early adversity and numerous negative outcomes across the lifespan is evident in a wide range of societies and cultures (e.g., Pakulak, Stevens, & Neville, 2018). Among the most affected neural systems are those supporting attention, self-regulation, and stress regulation. As such, these systems represent targets for neurobiologically informed interventions addressing early adversity. In prior work with monolingual native English-speaking families, we showed that a two-generation intervention targeting these systems in families improves outcomes across multiple domains including child brain function for selective attention (for detail, see Neville et al., 2013). Here, we discuss the translation and cultural adaptation (CA) of this intervention in local and international contexts, which required systematic consideration of cultural differences that could affect program acceptability. First, we conducted a translation and CA of our program to serve Latino families in the United States using the Cultural Adaptation Process (CAP), a model that works closely with stakeholders in a systematic, iterative process. Second, to implement the adapted program in Medellín, Colombia, we conducted a subsequent adaptation for Colombian culture using the same CAP. Our experience underscores the importance of consideration of cultural differences and a systematic approach to adaptation before assessing the efficacy of neurobiologically informed interventions in different cultural contexts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Different Strokes for Different Folks? Contrasting Approaches to Cultural Adaptation of Parenting Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Anilena; Leijten, Patty; Lachman, Jamie M; Parra-Cardona, José Ruben

    2017-08-01

    Relevant achievements have been accomplished in prevention science with regard to disseminating efficacious parenting interventions among underserved populations. However, widespread disparities in availability of parenting services continue to negatively impact diverse populations in high-income countries (e.g., the USA) and low- and middle-income countries. As a result, a scholarly debate on cultural adaptation has evolved over the years. Specifically, some scholars have argued that in diverse cultural contexts, existing evidence-based parenting interventions should be delivered with strict fidelity to ensure effectiveness. Others have emphasized the need for cultural adaptations of interventions when disseminated among diverse populations. In this paper, we propose that discussions on cultural adaptation should be conceptualized as a "both-and," rather than an "either-or" process. To justify this stance, we describe three distinct parenting intervention projects to illustrate how cultural adaptation and efficacy of evidence-based interventions can be achieved using contrasting approaches and frameworks, depending on cultural preferences and available resources of local contexts. Further, we suggest the need to develop guidelines for consistent reporting of cultural adaptation procedures as a critical component of future investigations. This discussion is relevant for the broader public health field and prevention science.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and Chinese students in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This contribution goes into the experiences of Chinese students studying at universities abroad. In the host societies they find themselves having to deal with major cultural confusion, which frustrates their education. Individualism and independence are characteristics strongly embedded in modern

  11. Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

    1983-10-01

    The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of (3H)thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of (3H)thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay.

  12. Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

    1983-01-01

    The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of [3H]thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of [3H]thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay

  13. Cultural Adaptation and Translation of Outreach Materials on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinker, Roy R.; Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Ahmann, Chloe; Beidas, Rinad S.; Lagman, Adrienne; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to connect with families and influence treatment trajectories, outreach materials should address cultural perceptions of the condition, its causes, and post-diagnostic care. This paper describes the cultural adaptation and translation of the Autism Speaks First 100 Days Kit into Korean for the purpose of improving autism spectrum disorder…

  14. Effects of a Culture-Adaptive Forgiveness Intervention for Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Mingxia; Hui, Eadaoin; Fu, Hong; Watkins, David; Tao, Linjin; Lo, Sing Kai

    2016-01-01

    The understanding and application of forgiveness varies across cultures. The current study aimed to examine the effect of a culture-adaptive Forgiveness Intervention on forgiveness attitude, self-esteem, empathy and anxiety of Mainland Chinese college students. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated to either experimental groups or a…

  15. The Dynamic Interplay among EFL Learners' Ambiguity Tolerance, Adaptability, Cultural Intelligence, Learning Approach, and Language Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahdadi, Shadi; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    A key objective of education is to prepare individuals to be fully-functioning learners. This entails developing the cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, cultural, and emotional competencies. The present study aimed to examine the interrelationships among adaptability, tolerance of ambiguity, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and…

  16. Embedded Culture and Intercultural Adaptation: Implications for Managing the Needs of Chinese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Students who travel abroad for study bring with them a wealth of cultural resources and expectations that influence their ability to adapt and acculturate into their new environment. While the ability to fit into their new context is a largely personal endeavour, for students from Confucian heritage societies, the cultural expectations of family…

  17. A Systematic Review of Literature on Culturally Adapted Obesity Prevention Interventions for African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention…

  18. A Novel Greeting Selection System for a Culture-Adaptive Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Trovato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Robots, especially humanoids, are expected to perform human-like actions and adapt to our ways of communication in order to facilitate their acceptance in human society. Among humans, rules of communication change depending on background culture: greetings are a part of communication in which cultural differences are strong. Robots should adapt to these specific differences in order to communicate effectively, being able to select the appropriate manner of greeting for different cultures depending on the social context. In this paper, we present the modelling of social factors that influence greeting choice, and the resulting novel culture-dependent greeting gesture and words selection system. An experiment with German participants was run using the humanoid robot ARMAR-IIIb. Thanks to this system, the robot, after interacting with Germans, can perform greeting gestures appropriate to German culture in addition to a repertoire of greetings appropriate to Japanese culture.

  19. Cultural adaptation of a pediatric functional assessment for rehabilitation outcomes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arestad, Kristen E; MacPhee, David; Lim, Chun Y; Khetani, Mary A

    2017-09-15

    Significant racial and ethnic health care disparities experienced by Hispanic children with special health care needs (CSHCN) create barriers to enacting culturally competent rehabilitation services. One way to minimize the impact of disparities in rehabilitation is to equip practitioners with culturally relevant functional assessments to accurately determine service needs. Current approaches to culturally adapting assessments have three major limitations: use of inconsistent translation processes; current processes assess for some, but not all, elements of cultural equivalence; and limited evidence to guide decision making about whether to undertake cultural adaptation with and without language translation. The aims of this observational study are (a) to examine similarities and differences of culturally adapting a pediatric functional assessment with and without language translation, and (b) to examine the feasibility of cultural adaptation processes. The Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM), a pediatric functional assessment, underwent cultural adaptation (i.e., language translation and cognitive testing) to establish Spanish and English pilot versions for use by caregivers of young CSHCN of Mexican descent. Following language translation to develop a Spanish YC-PEM pilot version, 7 caregivers (4 Spanish-speaking; 3 English-speaking) completed cognitive testing to inform decisions regarding content revisions to English and Spanish YC-PEM versions. Participant responses were content coded to established cultural equivalencies. Coded data were summed to draw comparisons on the number of revisions needed to achieve cultural equivalence between the two versions. Feasibility was assessed according to process data and data quality. Results suggest more revisions are required to achieve cultural equivalence for the translated (Spanish) version of the YC-PEM. However, issues around how the participation outcome is conceptualized were

  20. Cultural Challenges in Adapting Lesson Study to a Philippines Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaeguin, Marlon; Stephens, Max

    2014-01-01

    Promising improved student and teacher learning, Japanese lesson study has attracted many international educators to try to implement it in their own contexts. However, a simple transference model of implementation is likely to meet difficulties. Key determinants of any adaptation will be differences between existing conventions of pedagogy and of…

  1. Proteins associated with adaptation of cultured tobacco cells to NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.K.; Handa, A.K.; Hasegawa, P.M.; Bressan, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Cultured tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Wisconsin 38) adapted to grow in medium containing high levels of NaCl or polyethylene glycol (PEG) produce several new or enhanced polypeptide bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyarylamide gel electrophoresis. The intensities of some of the polypeptide bands increase with increasing levels of NaCl adaptation, while the intensities of other polypeptide bands are reduced. Synthesis of 26-kilodalton polypeptide(s) occurs at two different periods during culture growth of NaCl adapted cells. Unadapted cells also incorporate 35 S into a 26-kilodalton polypeptide during the later stage of culture growth beginning at midlog phase. The 26-kilodalton polypeptides from adapted and unadapted cells have similar partial proteolysis peptide maps and are immunologically cross-reactive. During adaptation to NaCl, unadapted cells synthesize and accumulate a major 26-kilodalton polypeptide, and the beginning of synthesis corresponds to the period of osmotic adjustment and culture growth. From their results, the authors suggest an involvement of the 26-kilodalton polypeptide in the adaptation of cultured tobacco cells to NaCl and water stress. 38 references, 11 figures, 2 tables

  2. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment Form to Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, Vania F S; Fukushima, Fernanda B; Rodrigues, Aniela M; Carvalho, Raissa P; Carvalho, Larissa P; Pinheiro, Leandro A F V; Polegato, Bertha F; Minicucci, Marcos F; Bassett, Rick; Moss, Alvin H; Steinberg, Karl E; Vidal, Edison I O

    2018-02-12

    The Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) paradigm is considered one of the most important strategies to respect patients' values at the end of life in the United States. The cross-cultural adaptation of POLST entailed several methodological considerations, which may be informative for international researchers who may also consider bringing POLST to their countries as a means to promote care at the end of life that is consistent with patients' preferences. To report the methods and outcome of the cross-cultural adaptation of the POLST form to Brazil. Cross-cultural adaptation study. Twenty physicians and 10 patients at a university hospital participated in the pilot tests. The cross-cultural adaptation process included choosing which existing POLST form(s) to use as a source, deciding the intended reading level, which healthcare professionals should be allowed to sign the form, and consultation with attorneys, bioethicists, and members of the National POLST Paradigm Task Force. Pilot tests occurred in two stages using different approaches. First, 20 physicians were trained about POLST and asked for any unclear aspects related to the form. Second, trained investigators completed POLST forms after engaging in advance care planning conversations with 10 hospitalized patients or patients' surrogates. This report provides a basis for future cross-cultural adaptations of POLST to other countries. The authors hope such new adaptations will broaden the possibilities of research using POLST and also may promote wider provision of care at the end of life that is consistent with patients' preferences.

  3. Sanshool on The Fingertip Interferes with Vibration Detection in a Rapidly-Adapting (RA Tactile Channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scinob Kuroki

    Full Text Available An Asian spice, Szechuan pepper (sanshool, is well known for the tingling sensation it induces on the mouth and on the lips. Electrophysiological studies have revealed that its active ingredient can induce firing of mechanoreceptor fibres that typically respond to mechanical vibration. Moreover, a human behavioral study has reported that the perceived frequency of sanshool-induced tingling matches with the preferred frequency range of the tactile rapidly adapting (RA channel, suggesting the contribution of sanshool-induced RA channel firing to its unique perceptual experience. However, since the RA channel may not be the only channel activated by sanshool, there could be a possibility that the sanshool tingling percept may be caused in whole or in part by other sensory channels. Here, by using a perceptual interference paradigm, we show that the sanshool-induced RA input indeed contributes to the human tactile processing. The absolute detection thresholds for vibrotactile input were measured with and without sanshool application on the fingertip. Sanshool significantly impaired detection of vibrations at 30 Hz (RA channel dominant frequency, but did not impair detection of higher frequency vibrations at 240 Hz (Pacinian-corpuscle (PC channel dominant frequency or lower frequency vibrations at 1 Hz (slowly adapting 1 (SA1 channel dominant frequency. These results show that the sanshool induces a peripheral RA channel activation that is relevant for tactile perception. This anomalous activation of RA channels may contribute to the unique tingling experience of sanshool.

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Spence children's anxiety scale in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Atefeh; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Khan, Aqeel; Latif, Adibah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety among children has increased in recent years. Culturally adapted questionnaires developed to measure the level of anxiety are the best screening instruments for the general population. This study describes the scientific translation and adaptation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) into the Malay language. The process of scientific translation of this selfreport instrument followed the guidelines of the Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). The Malay version and its adaptation for a new cultural context are described. The Malay version achieved the aims of the original version and its conceptual and operational equivalence. It may be used as the first Malay instrument to measure anxiety among children in research and in clinical and community settings.

  5. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP STYLE: KEY FACTORS IN THE ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Vrdoljak Raguž

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to theorize about how the specific leadership style affects the organizational adaptation in terms of its external environment through fostering the desired organizational culture. Adaptation success, the dimensions of organizational culture and the executive leadership role in fostering the desired corporate culture conducive to the organizational adaptation process are discussed in this paper. The objective of this paper is to highlight the top executive managers’ crucial role and their leadership style in creating such an internal climate within an organization that, in turn, encourages and strengthens the implementation of changes and adaptation to its environment. The limitations of this paper lie in the consideration that this subject matter is discussed only at a theoretical level and that its validity should be proved through practical application.

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Ahmadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety among children has increased in recent years. Culturally adapted questionnaires developed to measure the level of anxiety are the best screening instruments for the general population. This study describes the scientific translation and adaptation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS into the Malay language.Method: The process of scientific translation of this selfreport instrument followed the guidelines of the Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR.Results: The Malay version and its adaptation for a new cultural context are described.Conclusion: The Malay version achieved the aims of the original version and its conceptual and operational equivalence. It may be used as the first Malay instrument to measure anxiety among children in research and in clinical and community settings.

  7. Rapid and Parallel Adaptive Evolution of the Visual System of Neotropical Midas Cichlid Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Pierotti, Michele E R; Härer, Andreas; Karagic, Nidal; Woltering, Joost M; Henning, Frederico; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2017-10-01

    Midas cichlid fish are a Central American species flock containing 13 described species that has been dated to only a few thousand years old, a historical timescale infrequently associated with speciation. Their radiation involved the colonization of several clear water crater lakes from two turbid great lakes. Therefore, Midas cichlids have been subjected to widely varying photic conditions during their radiation. Being a primary signal relay for information from the environment to the organism, the visual system is under continuing selective pressure and a prime organ system for accumulating adaptive changes during speciation, particularly in the case of dramatic shifts in photic conditions. Here, we characterize the full visual system of Midas cichlids at organismal and genetic levels, to determine what types of adaptive changes evolved within the short time span of their radiation. We show that Midas cichlids have a diverse visual system with unexpectedly high intra- and interspecific variation in color vision sensitivity and lens transmittance. Midas cichlid populations in the clear crater lakes have convergently evolved visual sensitivities shifted toward shorter wavelengths compared with the ancestral populations from the turbid great lakes. This divergence in sensitivity is driven by changes in chromophore usage, differential opsin expression, opsin coexpression, and to a lesser degree by opsin coding sequence variation. The visual system of Midas cichlids has the evolutionary capacity to rapidly integrate multiple adaptations to changing light environments. Our data may indicate that, in early stages of divergence, changes in opsin regulation could precede changes in opsin coding sequence evolution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Culture adaptation of malaria parasites selects for convergent loss-of-function mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Antoine; Affara, Muna; Assefa, Samuel A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Conway, David J

    2017-01-24

    Cultured human pathogens may differ significantly from source populations. To investigate the genetic basis of laboratory adaptation in malaria parasites, clinical Plasmodium falciparum isolates were sampled from patients and cultured in vitro for up to three months. Genome sequence analysis was performed on multiple culture time point samples from six monoclonal isolates, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants emerging over time were detected. Out of a total of five positively selected SNPs, four represented nonsense mutations resulting in stop codons, three of these in a single ApiAP2 transcription factor gene, and one in SRPK1. To survey further for nonsense mutants associated with culture, genome sequences of eleven long-term laboratory-adapted parasite strains were examined, revealing four independently acquired nonsense mutations in two other ApiAP2 genes, and five in Epac. No mutants of these genes exist in a large database of parasite sequences from uncultured clinical samples. This implicates putative master regulator genes in which multiple independent stop codon mutations have convergently led to culture adaptation, affecting most laboratory lines of P. falciparum. Understanding the adaptive processes should guide development of experimental models, which could include targeted gene disruption to adapt fastidious malaria parasite species to culture.

  9. Genomic signatures of rapid adaptive evolution in the bluespotted cornetfish, a Mediterranean Lessepsian invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Giacomo; Azzurro, Ernesto; Golani, Daniel; Miller, Michael Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Biological invasions are increasingly creating ecological and economical problems both on land and in aquatic environments. For over a century, the Mediterranean Sea has steadily been invaded by Indian Ocean/Red Sea species (called Lessepsian invaders) via the Suez Canal, with a current estimate of ~450 species. The bluespotted cornetfish, Fistularia commersonii, considered a 'Lessepsian sprinter', entered the Mediterranean in 2000 and by 2007 had spread through the entire basin from Israel to Spain. The situation is unique and interesting both because of its unprecedented rapidity and by the fact that it took this species c. 130 years to immigrate into the Mediterranean. Using genome scans, with restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing, we evaluated neutral and selected genomic regions for Mediterranean vs. Red Sea cornetfish individuals. We found that few fixed neutral changes were detectable among populations. However, almost half of the genes associated with the 47 outlier loci (potentially under selection) were related to disease resistance and osmoregulation. Due to the short time elapsed from the beginning of the invasion to our sampling, we interpret these changes as signatures of rapid adaptation that may be explained by several mechanisms including preadaptation and strong local selection. Such genomic regions are therefore good candidates to further study their role in invasion success. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cytogenetic adaptive response of cultured fish cells to low doses of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Etoh, Hisami; Rienkjkarn, M.

    1992-01-01

    The adaptive response was examining chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus in cultured fish cells, ULF-23 (mudminnow) and CAF-31 (gold fish). When cultured fish cells were first irradiated with small doses of X-rays, they became less sensitive to subsequent exposures to high doses. The effective adaptive dose was 4.8 cGy-9.5 cGy. Adaptive doses given cells in the G1 phase were more effective than when given in the S phase. The adaptive response was maximal at 5 hours and disappeared at 10 hours after the adaptive dose. The expression of the response was inhibited by treatment with 3-aminobenzamide, as reported for mammalian cells, and with arabinofuranoside cytosine, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha. Caffeine, an inhibitor of post-replicational repair, had no effect on the response. (author)

  11. Cytogenetic adaptive response of cultured fish cells to low doses of X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Etoh, Hisami (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)); Rienkjkarn, M.

    1992-12-01

    The adaptive response was examining chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus in cultured fish cells, ULF-23 (mudminnow) and CAF-31 (gold fish). When cultured fish cells were first irradiated with small doses of X-rays, they became less sensitive to subsequent exposures to high doses. The effective adaptive dose was 4.8 cGy-9.5 cGy. Adaptive doses given cells in the G1 phase were more effective than when given in the S phase. The adaptive response was maximal at 5 hours and disappeared at 10 hours after the adaptive dose. The expression of the response was inhibited by treatment with 3-aminobenzamide, as reported for mammalian cells, and with arabinofuranoside cytosine, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha. Caffeine, an inhibitor of post-replicational repair, had no effect on the response. (author).

  12. The impact of organisational culture on the adaptation of newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such as conflict resolution, employee participation, human resource orientation, goal clarity, identification with the organisation, locus of control and management style were examined. Participants expressed their views as to what constructs of organisational culture had a positive or a negative impact on their adjustment to ...

  13. Models and Frameworks for Culturally Responsive Adaptations of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lisa S.; Villarreal, Victor; Castro, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) youths are underserved by mental health systems; CLD youths are less likely to receive mental health services and more likely to receive services that are inappropriate or inadequate. The lack of well-established treatments for CLD youths has been cited as one contributing factor…

  14. Cognitive Adaptation to the Experience of Social and Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity is a defining characteristic of modern society, yet there remains considerable debate over the benefits that it brings. The authors argue that positive psychological and behavioral outcomes will be observed only when social and cultural diversity is experienced in a way that challenges stereotypical expectations and that when this…

  15. The ends of adaptation: comparative media, digital culture, and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dicecco, Nico

    2015-01-01

    The starting point of this dissertation is a history of ideas tacitly organized around the conception of adaptation as a formal object—which is to say as a specific kind of intertext defined by its incorporation of material drawn from one or more precursor works. Within this framework, scholars have struggled against a set of recurrent methodological pitfalls having to do with the relative importance of medium specificity, the place and purpose of aesthetic evaluation, and the perennial reapp...

  16. Early Turkish Immigrants’ Adaptation to American Culture and Social Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sert Bilal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Immigration studies still investigate immigrants’ offspring and later generations’ socioeconomic upward and downward motilities. When it comes to early Turkish immigrants, there is an unfilled “missing link” from a sociological point of view. This study explores early Turkish immigrants’ adaptation experiences in the United Sates through qualitative triangulation and the methods of observation. This article utilizes “Straight-line theory”, “decline theory”, and “segmented assimilation to expound early Turkish immigrants’ adaptation experiences in the United States. Drawing on archival documents next to meetings with immigrants’ off springs, this study finds evidence that immigration occurred during the second wave to the United States from Europe, among Turks from Anatolia and Rumelia and they successfully adapted their new social environment. Rather, the findings provide novel evidence on the role of religious view and their social interaction. When seeking early Turks’ socio educational background, we discover that highly educated individuals including religious leaders, professors, and businessmen migrated to Peabody, MA.

  17. Comparing rapid and culture indicator bacteria methods at inland lake beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Kephart, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    A rapid method, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), for quantifying indicator bacteria in recreational waters is desirable for public health protection. We report that replacing current Escherichia coli standards with new US Environmental Protection Agency beach action values (BAVs) for enterococci by culture or qPCR may result in more advisories being posted at inland recreational lakes. In this study, concentrations of E. coli and enterococci by culture methods were compared to concentrations of Enterococcus spp. by qPCR at 3 inland lake beaches in Ohio. The E. coli and enterococci culture results were significantly related at all beaches; however, the relations between culture results and Enterococcus spp. qPCR results were not always significant and differed among beaches. All the qPCR results exceeded the new BAV for Enterococcus spp. by qPCR, whereas only 23.7% of culture results for E. coli and 79% of culture results for enterococci exceeded the current standard for E. coli or BAV for enterococci.

  18. A Systematic Review of Cross-cultural Adaptation of the Oswestry Disability Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Min; Wang, Qiong; Li, Zun; Yang, Long; Huang, Pin-Xian; Sun, Yue-Li; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yong-Jun; Cui, Xue-Jun

    2016-12-15

    Systematic review of cross-cultural adaptation of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the translation procedures for and measurement properties of cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI. The ODI is the most commonly used questionnaire to determine the outcome of low back pain, and has been translated into many other languages, such as Danish, Greek, and Korean, and adapted for use in different countries. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and EMBASE were searched from the time they were established to January 2015. Studies related to cross-cultural adaptation of the ODI in a specific language/culture were included. Guidelines for the Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measures and Quality Criteria for Psychometric Properties of Health Status Questionnaire were used for assessment. This study included 27 versions of ODI adaptations in 24 different languages/cultures. Only the Danish-Danish adaptation employed all six of the cross-cultural adaptation processes. Expert committee review (three of 27), back translation (eight of 27), and pretesting (nine of 27) were conducted in very few studies. The Polish-Polish (two) adaptation reported all (nine of nine) the measurement properties, whereas the Traditional Chinese-Taiwan and Hungarian-Hungarian adaptations reported six of them. Content validity (16/27), construct validity (17/27), and reliability (22/27) were determined in a relatively high number of studies, whereas agreement (three of 27), responsiveness (12/27), floor and ceiling effects (six of 27), and interpretability (one of 27) were only determined in some studies. We recommend the Traditional Chinese-Taiwan, Simplified Chinese-Mandarin Chinese, Danish-Danish, German-Swiss, Hungarian-Hungarian, Italian-Italian, and Polish-Polish (two) versions for application, but Traditional Chinese-Hong Kong, French-Swiss, Japanese-Japanese (two), Polish-Polish (two), Tamil-Indian, and Thai-Thai versions may need

  19. Identifying and training adaptive cross-cultural management skills: The crucial role of cultural metacognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Mor (Shira); M.W. Morris (Michael); J. Joh (Johann)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractFor managers, intercultural effectiveness requires forging close working relationships with people from different cultural backgrounds (Black, Mendenhall, and Oddou, 1991). Recent research with executives has found that higher cultural metacognition is associated with affective closeness

  20. Filipinos in the Navy: Service, Interpersonal Relations, and Cultural Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    self i:age involves racial identity. Not only do they make - heavy references to Malaysian , Filipino, Asian, and other labels with ethnic-racial...example, the responses in the various food categories elicited by the stimulus words HUNGRY and TO EAT reflect the main items of the group’s diet ...cultural groups’ diet . For example, the Korean group receives a high score for RICE, the U. S. group a very much lower score, and the Colombian group

  1. Interconnection of socio-cultural adaptation and identity in the socialization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Y Rakhmanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the socio-cultural adaptation of an individual on his personality and identity structure; analyzes the processes of primary and secondary socialization in comparison with subsequent adaptation processes, as well as the possibility of a compromise between the unchanging, rigid identity and the ability to adapt flexibly to the changing context. The author identifies positive and negative aspects of adaptation in the contemporary society while testing the hypothesis that if the adaptation is successful and proceeds within the normal range, it helps to preserve the stability of social structures, but does not contribute to their development for the maladaptive behavior of individuals and groups stimulates social transformations. In the second part of the article, the author shows the relationship of the socio-cultural identity and the individual status in various social communities and tries to answer the question whether the existence and functioning of the social community as a pure ‘form’ without individuals (its members is possible. The author describes the identity phenomenon in the context of the opposition of the universal and unique, similarities and differences. The article also introduces the concept of the involvement in the socio-cultural context as one of the indicators of the completeness and depth of individual socio-cultural adaptation to a certain environment, which is quite important for the internal hierarchy of individual identity.

  2. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the CHAMPS Questionnaire in French Canadians with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Susanne; Soicher, Judith E.; Mayo, Nancy E.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Bourbeau, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is difficult to measure in individuals with COPD. The Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire demonstrated strong clinometric properties when used with the elderly and with those affected by chronic disease. Study objectives were to translate, culturally adapt the CHAMPS into French, and reexamine its test-retest reliability and construct validity in French and English Canadians with COPD. This paper presents the cross-cultural adaptation of the CHAMPS; results of its clinometric testing will be described in another article. The CHAMPS examines the degree of physical activity performed in a typical week through two summary scales, caloric expenditure and activity frequency. The CHAMPS was only in English; thus, a cross-cultural adaptation was needed to translate the CHAMPS into French for use in French Canadians with COPD. Cross-cultural adaptation consisted of forward and back translation, with expert review at each stage of translation: minor inconsistencies were uncovered and rectified. Five French participants with COPD completed the finalized Canadian French CHAMPS and participated in cognitive debriefing; no problematic items were identified. A structured and stepwise, cross-cultural adaptation process produced the Canadian French CHAMPS, with items of equivalent meaning to the English version, for use in French Canadians with COPD. PMID:27445570

  3. Cultural adaptation of a supportive care needs measure for Hispanic men cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Tyson, Dinorah; Medina-Ramirez, Patricia; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Gwede, Clement K; Bobonis, Margarita; McMillan, Susan C

    2018-01-01

    Research with ethnic minority populations requires instrumentation that is cultural and linguistically relevant. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Cancer Survivor Unmet Needs measure into Spanish. We describe the iterative, community-engaged consensus-building approaches used to adapt the instrument for Hispanic male cancer survivors. We used an exploratory sequential mixed method study design. Methods included translation and back-translation, focus groups with cancer survivors (n = 18) and providers (n = 5), use of cognitive interview techniques to evaluate the comprehension and acceptability of the adapted instrument with survivors (n = 12), ongoing input from the project's community advisory board, and preliminary psychometric analysis (n = 84). The process emphasized conceptual, content, semantic, and technical equivalence. Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches offered a rigorous, systematic, and contextual approach to translation alone and supports the cultural adaptation of this measure in a purposeful and relevant manner. Our findings highlight the importance of going beyond translation when adapting measures for cross-cultural populations and illustrate the importance of taking culture, literacy, and language into consideration.

  4. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the CHAMPS Questionnaire in French Canadians with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Mak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is difficult to measure in individuals with COPD. The Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS questionnaire demonstrated strong clinometric properties when used with the elderly and with those affected by chronic disease. Study objectives were to translate, culturally adapt the CHAMPS into French, and reexamine its test-retest reliability and construct validity in French and English Canadians with COPD. This paper presents the cross-cultural adaptation of the CHAMPS; results of its clinometric testing will be described in another article. The CHAMPS examines the degree of physical activity performed in a typical week through two summary scales, caloric expenditure and activity frequency. The CHAMPS was only in English; thus, a cross-cultural adaptation was needed to translate the CHAMPS into French for use in French Canadians with COPD. Cross-cultural adaptation consisted of forward and back translation, with expert review at each stage of translation: minor inconsistencies were uncovered and rectified. Five French participants with COPD completed the finalized Canadian French CHAMPS and participated in cognitive debriefing; no problematic items were identified. A structured and stepwise, cross-cultural adaptation process produced the Canadian French CHAMPS, with items of equivalent meaning to the English version, for use in French Canadians with COPD.

  5. Adapting CBT for traumatized refugees and ethnic minority patients: examples from culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Rivera, Edwin I; Hofmann, Stefan G; Barlow, David H; Otto, Michael W

    2012-04-01

    In this article, we illustrate how cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be adapted for the treatment of PTSD among traumatized refugees and ethnic minority populations, providing examples from our treatment, culturally adapted CBT, or CA-CBT. CA-CBT has a unique approach to exposure (typical exposure is poorly tolerated in these groups), emphasizes the treatment of somatic sensations (a particularly salient part of the presentation of PTSD in these groups), and addresses comorbid anxiety disorders and anger. To accomplish these treatment goals, CA-CBT emphasizes emotion exposure and emotion regulation techniques such as meditation and aims to promote emotional and psychological flexibility. We describe 12 key aspects of adapting CA-CBT that make it a culturally sensitive treatment of traumatized refugee and ethnic minority populations. We discuss three models that guide our treatment and that can be used to design culturally sensitive treatments: (a) the panic attack-PTSD model to illustrate the many processes that generate PTSD in these populations, highlighting the role of arousal and somatic symptoms; (b) the arousal triad to demonstrate how somatic symptoms are produced and the importance of targeting comorbid anxiety conditions and psychopathological processes; and (c) the multisystem network (MSN) model of emotional state to reveal how some of our therapeutic techniques (e.g., body-focused techniques: bodily stretching paired with self-statements) bring about psychological flexibility and improvement.

  6. Methods for the cultural adaptation of a diabetes lifestyle intervention for Latinas: an illustrative project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Diego; Barrera, Manuel; Strycker, Lisa A; Toobert, Deborah J; Glasgow, Russell E; Geno, Cristy R; Almeida, Fabio; Perdomo, Malena; King, Diane; Doty, Alyssa Tinley

    2011-05-01

    Because Latinas experience a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its complications, there is an urgent need to reach them with interventions that promote healthful lifestyles. This article illustrates a sequential approach that took an effective multiple-risk-factor behavior-change program and adapted it for Latinas with type 2 diabetes. Adaptation stages include (a) information gathering from literature and focus groups, (b) preliminary adaptation design, and (c) preliminary adaptation test. In this third stage, a pilot study finds that participants were highly satisfied with the intervention and showed improvement across diverse outcomes. Key implications for applications include the importance of a model for guiding cultural adaptations, and the value of procedures for obtaining continuous feedback from staff and participants during the preliminary adaptation test.

  7. Culture independent genomic comparisons reveal environmental adaptations for Altiarchaeales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan T Bird

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The recently proposed candidatus order Altiarchaeales remains an uncultured archaeal lineage composed of genetically diverse, globally widespread organisms frequently observed in anoxic subsurface environments. In spite of 15 years of studies on the psychrophilic biofilm-producing Candidatus (Ca. Altiarchaeum hamiconexum and its close relatives, very little is known about the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the widespread free-living marine members of this taxon. From methanogenic sediments in the White Oak River Estuary, NC, we sequenced a single cell amplified genome (SAG, WOR_SCG_SM1, and used it to identify and refine two high-quality genomes from metagenomes, WOR_79 and WOR_86-2, from the same site in a different year. These three genomic reconstructions form a monophyletic group which also includes three previously published genomes from metagenomes from terrestrial springs and a SAG from Sakinaw Lake in a group previously designated as pMC2A384. A synapomorphic mutation in the Altiarchaeales tRNA synthetase β subunit, pheT, causes the protein to be encoded as two subunits at distant loci. Consistent with the terrestrial spring clades, our estuarine genomes contain a near-complete autotrophic metabolism, H2 or CO as potential electron donors, a reductive acetyl-CoA pathway for carbon fixation, and methylotroph-like NADP(H-dependent dehydrogenase. Phylogenies based on 16S rRNA genes and concatenated conserved proteins identify two distinct sub-clades of Altiarchaeales, Alti-1 populated by organisms from actively flowing springs, and Alti-2 which is more widespread, diverse, and not associated with visible mats. The core Alti-1 genome supports Alti-1 as adapted for the stream environment, with lipopolysaccharide production capacity, extracellular hami structures. The core Alti-2 genome members of this clade are free-living, with distinct mechanisms for energy maintenance, motility, osmoregulation, and sulfur redox reactions. These

  8. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of SNOT-20 in Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Piccirillo, Jay F.; Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; Pilan, Renata R. de M.; Abdo, Tatiana Regina Teles; Pinna, Fabio de Rezende; Padua, Francini Grecco de Melo; Voegels, Richard Louis

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Chronic rhinosinusitis is a highly prevalent disease, so it is necessary to create valid instruments to assess the quality of life of these patients. The SNOT-20 questionnaire was developed for this purpose as a specific test to evaluate the quality of life related to chronic rhinosinusitis. It was validated in the English language, and it has been used in most studies on this subject. Currently, there is no validated instrument for assessing this disease in Portuguese. Objective. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of SNOT-20 in Portuguese. Patients and Methods. The SNOT-20 questionnaire underwent a meticulous process of cross-cultural adaptation and was evaluated by assessing its sensitivity, reliability, and validity. Results. The process resulted in an intelligible version of the questionnaire, the SNOT-20p. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91, P cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the SNOT-20 questionnaire into Portuguese. PMID:21799671

  9. Cultural ecologies of adaptive vs. maladaptive traits: A simple nonlinear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoci, Angelo; Russu, Paolo; Sacco, Pier Luigi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we generalize a model by Enquist and Ghirlanda [12] to analyze the "macro" dynamics of cumulative culture in a context where there is a coexistence of adaptive and maladaptive cultural traits. In particular, we introduce a different, nonlinear specification of the main processes at work in the cumulative culture dynamics: imperfect transmission of traits, generation of new traits, and switches from adaptive to maladaptive and vice-versa. We find that the system exhibits a variety of dynamic behaviors where the crucial force is the switching between the adaptive and maladaptive nature of a certain trait, with the other processes playing a modulating role. We identify in particular a number of dynamic regimes with distinctive characteristics.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation in urban ethnobotany: the Colombian folk pharmacopoeia in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuterick, Melissa; Vandebroek, Ina; Torry, Bren; Pieroni, Andrea

    2008-12-08

    To investigate traditional health care practices and changes in medicinal plant use among the growing Colombian community in London. Ethnobotanical fieldwork consisted of qualitative, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 23 Colombians living in London and botanical identification of 46 plant species actively used as herbal remedies. Subsequently, research data were compared with literature on ethnobotany and traditional herbal medicine in the home country, using a framework on cross-cultural adaptation, adjusted for the purpose of this study. Similarities and discrepancies between data and literature are interpreted as potential indicators of continuity and loss (or deculturation) of traditional remedies, respectively. Remedies used in London that are not corroborated by the literature suggest possible newly acquired uses. Cross-cultural adaptation related to health care practices is a multifaceted process. Persistence, loss and incorporation of remedies into the Colombian folk pharmacopoeia after migration are influenced by practical adaptation strategies as well as by symbolic-cultural motives of ethnic identity.

  11. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Kayser, Lars; Nørgaard, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is an important construct in population health and healthcare requiring rigorous measurement. The Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ), with nine scales, measures a broad perception of health literacy. This study aimed to adapt the HLQ to the Danish setting, and to examine the factor......, composite scale reliability and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Cognitive testing revealed that only minor re-wording was required. The easiest scale to respond to positively was ‘Social support for health’, and the hardest were ‘Navigating the healthcare system’ and ‘Appraisal of health information...... with no cross-loadings or correlated residuals allowed. Given this restricted model, the fit was satisfactory. The HLQ appears robust for its intended application of assessing health literacy in a range of settings. Further work is required to demonstrate sensitivity to measure changes....

  12. Implementing the Integrated Strategy for the Cultural Adaptation of Evidence-Based Interventions: An Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidani, Souraya; Ibrahim, Sarah; Lok, Jana; Fan, Lifeng; Fox, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Background Persons' cultural beliefs about a health problem can affect their perceived acceptability of evidence-based interventions, undermining evidence-based interventions' adherence, and uptake to manage the problem. Cultural adaptation has the potential to enhance the acceptability, uptake, and adherence to evidence-based interventions. Purpose To illustrate the implementation of the first two phases of the integrated strategy for cultural adaptation by examining Chinese Canadians' perceptions of chronic insomnia and evidence-based behavioral therapies for insomnia. Methods Chinese Canadians ( n = 14) with chronic insomnia attended a group session during which they completed established instruments measuring beliefs about sleep and insomnia, and their perceptions of factors that contribute to chronic insomnia. Participants rated the acceptability of evidence-based behavioral therapies and discussed their cultural perspectives regarding chronic insomnia and its treatment. Results Participants actively engaged in the activities planned for the first two phases of the integrated strategy and identified the most significant factor contributing to chronic insomnia and the evidence-based intervention most acceptable for their cultural group. Conclusions The protocol for implementing the two phases of the integrated strategy for cultural adaptation of evidence-based interventions was feasible, acceptable, and useful in identifying culturally relevant evidence-based interventions.

  13. HB&L System: rapid determination of antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated from blood cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Barocci

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blood culture is an important method to detect microbial pathogens on blood, very useful for diagnosing bacterial infections. Unfortunately, classical diagnostic protocols cannot directly identify bacteria responsible for sepsis and accordingly their antimicrobial profiles. This problem causes a delay of almost two days in the availability of a specific antimicrobial profile. Objective. Among the main causes of death, sepsis have a relevant importance. For this reason it is important both to identify pathogens and to perform an antimicrobial susceptibility test in the shortest time as possible. For this purpose, the main aim of this study is the evaluation of the performances of an antimicrobial susceptibility determination directly performed on positive blood cultures. Materials and methods. This study has been performed on 70 positive blood cultures, during the period from January to July 2009. A number of 35 blood cultures were positive for Gram negative bacteria, and 35 were positive for Gram positive bacteria. From these positive blood cultures, after a short sample preparation, it has been possible to directly determine antimicrobial susceptibility profiles by using the HB&L (formerly URO-QUICK instrument. Results. The HB&L system results showed a very good correlation with both the classical disk diffusion method and VITEK 2 automatic system.The performances between the methods carried out in this study were equivalent. Conclusions. From data reported, thanks to the rapidity and simplicity of the method used, we can assert that the direct susceptibility test available with the HB&L system, is useful for a rapid and early choice of the antibiotic treatment.

  14. Recovering from a bad start: rapid adaptation and tradeoffs to growth below a threshold density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Christopher J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial growth in well-mixed culture is often assumed to be an autonomous process only depending upon the external conditions under control of the investigator. However, increasingly there is awareness that interactions between cells in culture can lead to surprising phenomena such as density-dependence in the initiation of growth. Results Here I report the unexpected discovery of a density threshold for growth of a strain of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 used to inoculate eight replicate populations that were evolved in methanol. Six of these populations failed to grow to the expected full density during the first couple transfers. Remarkably, the final cell number of six populations crashed to levels 60- to 400-fold smaller than their cohorts. Five of these populations recovered to full density soon after, but one population remained an order of magnitude smaller for over one hundred generations. These variable dynamics appeared to be due to a density threshold for growth that was specific to both this particular ancestral strain and to growth on methanol. When tested at full density, this population had become less fit than its ancestor. Simply increasing the initial dilution 16-fold reversed this result, revealing that this population had more than a 3-fold advantage when tested at this lower density. As this population evolved and ultimately recovered to the same final density range as the other populations this low-density advantage waned. Conclusions These results demonstrate surprisingly strong tradeoffs during adaptation to growth at low absolute densities that manifest over just a 16-fold change in density. Capturing laboratory examples of transitions to and from growth at low density may help us understand the physiological and evolutionary forces that have led to the unusual properties of natural bacteria that have specialized to low-density environments such as the open ocean.

  15. Recovering from a bad start: rapid adaptation and tradeoffs to growth below a threshold density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Christopher J

    2012-07-04

    Bacterial growth in well-mixed culture is often assumed to be an autonomous process only depending upon the external conditions under control of the investigator. However, increasingly there is awareness that interactions between cells in culture can lead to surprising phenomena such as density-dependence in the initiation of growth. Here I report the unexpected discovery of a density threshold for growth of a strain of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 used to inoculate eight replicate populations that were evolved in methanol. Six of these populations failed to grow to the expected full density during the first couple transfers. Remarkably, the final cell number of six populations crashed to levels 60- to 400-fold smaller than their cohorts. Five of these populations recovered to full density soon after, but one population remained an order of magnitude smaller for over one hundred generations. These variable dynamics appeared to be due to a density threshold for growth that was specific to both this particular ancestral strain and to growth on methanol. When tested at full density, this population had become less fit than its ancestor. Simply increasing the initial dilution 16-fold reversed this result, revealing that this population had more than a 3-fold advantage when tested at this lower density. As this population evolved and ultimately recovered to the same final density range as the other populations this low-density advantage waned. These results demonstrate surprisingly strong tradeoffs during adaptation to growth at low absolute densities that manifest over just a 16-fold change in density. Capturing laboratory examples of transitions to and from growth at low density may help us understand the physiological and evolutionary forces that have led to the unusual properties of natural bacteria that have specialized to low-density environments such as the open ocean.

  16. Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Culture Supernatant of Bacteria with Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of rapid and reliable processes for the synthesis of nanosized materials is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using microorganism have been reported, but the process is rather slow. In this paper, we describe a novel combinatorial synthesis approach which is rapid, simple and “green” for the synthesis of metallic nanostructures of noble metals such as silver (Ag, by using a combination of culture supernatanant of Bacillus subtilis and microwave (MW irradiation in water in absence of a surfactant or soft template. It was found that exposure of culture supernatanant of Bacillus subtilis and microwave irradiation to silver ion lead to the formation of silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles were in the range of 5-60 nm in dimension. The nanoparticles were examined using UV-Visible Spectroscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM analyses. The formation of nanoparticles by this method is extremely rapid, requires no toxic chemicals and the nanoparticles are stable for several months. The main conclusion is that the bio-reduction method to produce nanoparticles is a good alternative to the electrochemical methods.

  17. Rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from positive blood cultures by quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattoir Vincent

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for numerous bloodstream infections associated with severe adverse outcomes in case of inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy. The present study was aimed to develop a novel quantitative PCR (qPCR assay, using ecfX as the specific target gene, for the rapid and accurate identification of P. aeruginosa from positive blood cultures (BCs. Methods Over the period August 2008 to June 2009, 100 BC bottles positive for gram-negative bacilli were tested in order to evaluate performances of the qPCR technique with conventional methods as gold standard (i.e. culture and phenotypic identification. Results Thirty-three strains of P. aeruginosa, 53 strains of Enterobactericaeae, nine strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and two other gram-negative species were isolated while 3 BCs were polymicrobial including one mixture containing P. aeruginosa. All P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were detected by qPCR except a single strain in mixed culture. Performances of the qPCR technique were: specificity, 100%; positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 98.5%; and sensitivity, 97%. Conclusions This reliable technique may offer a rapid (

  18. Learning to bridge the gap between adaptive management and organisational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Stirzaker

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management is the problem-solving approach of choice proposed for complex and multistakeholder environments, which are, at best, only partly predictable. We discuss the implications of this approach as applicable to scientists, who have to overcome certain entrained behaviour patterns in order to participate effectively in an adaptive management process. The challenge does not end there. Scientists and managers soon discover that an adaptive management approach does not only challenge conventional scientific and management behaviour but also clashes with contemporary organisational culture. We explore the shortcomings and requirements of organisations with regard to enabling adaptive management. Our overall conclusion relates to whether organisations are learning-centred or not. Do we continue to filter out unfamiliar information which does not fit our world view and avoid situations where we might fail, or do we use new and challenging situations to reframe the question and prepare ourselves for continued learning? Conservation implications: For an organisation to effectively embrace adaptive management, its mangers and scientists may first have to adapt their own beliefs regarding their respective roles. Instead of seeking certainty for guiding decisions, managers and scientists should acknowledge a degree of uncertainty inherent to complex social and ecological systems and seek to learn from the patterns emerging from every decision and action. The required organisational culture is one of ongoing and purposeful learning with all relevant stakeholders. Such a learning culture is often talked about but rarely practised in the organisational environment.

  19. The Cultural Adaptation of a Community-Based Child Maltreatment Prevention Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeigh, Jill D; Katz, Carmit; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Ben-Arieh, Asher

    2017-06-01

    A unique primary prevention effort, Strong Communities for Children (Strong Communities), focuses on changing attitudes and expectations regarding communities' collective responsibilities for the safety of children. Findings from a 6-year pilot of the initiative in South Carolina have shown promise in reducing child maltreatment, but efforts to adapt the initiative to different cultural contexts have been lacking. No models exist for adapting an initiative that takes a community-level approach to ensuring children's safety. Thus, this article addresses the gap by providing an overview of the original initiative, how the initiative was adapted to the Israeli context, and lessons learned from the experience. Building on conceptualizations of cultural adaptation by Castro et al. (Prevention Science, 5, 2004, 41) and Resnicow et al. (Ethnicity and Disease, 9, 1999, 11), sources of nonfit (i.e., sociodemographic traits, political conflict, government services, and the presence and role of community organizations) were identified and deep and surface structure modifications were made to the content and delivery. Ultimately, this article describes the adaption and dissemination of a community-based child maltreatment prevention initiative in Tel Aviv, Israel, and addresses researchers' calls for more publications describing the adaptation of interventions and the procedures that need to be implemented to achieve cultural relevance. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  20. EMPLOYEE ADAPTATION AS KEY ACTIVITY IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT UPON IMPLEMENTING AND MAINTAINING DESIRED ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Stacho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the greatest possible equivalence between human resources in a company and desired organisational culture elements declared by a company, it is necessary to interconnect activities within individual functions of human resource management with desired values, attitudes and work behaviour. Such an interconnection is crucial for a positive response of employees to a suitable organisational culture, its embedding in their behaviour and subsequent sharing and spreading of organisational values. This paper will specifically define individual activities related to the adaptation of employees which need to be carried out in this regard. Based on a research conducted between 2011 and 2013, the paper will also define the present state and level of focus of organisations operating in Slovakia on both organisational culture as a whole and organisational culture in the context of employee adaptation.

  1. A Brazilian Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation of the modified JOA scale for myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael R. Pratali

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To develop a version of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population. METHODS: The well-established process of forward-backward translation was employed along with cross-cultural adaptation. RESULTS: Three bilingual translators (English and native Portuguese performed the forward translation of the mJOA scale from English to Portuguese based on iterative discussions used to reach a consensus translation. The translated version of the mJOA scale was then back-translated into English by a native English-speaking translator unaware of the concepts involved with the mJOA scale. The original mJOA scale and the back-translated version were compared by a native North American neurosurgeon, and as they were considered equivalent, the final version of the mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted was defined. CONCLUSION: To facilitate global and cross-cultural comparisons of the severity of cervical myelopathy, this study presents a version of the mJOA scale that was translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population.

  2. A Brazilian Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation of the modified JOA scale for myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratali, Raphael R; Smith, Justin S; Motta, Rodrigo L N; Martins, Samuel M; Motta, Marcel M; Rocha, Ricardo D; Herrero, Carlos Fernando P S

    2017-02-01

    To develop a version of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population. The well-established process of forward-backward translation was employed along with cross-cultural adaptation. Three bilingual translators (English and native Portuguese) performed the forward translation of the mJOA scale from English to Portuguese based on iterative discussions used to reach a consensus translation. The translated version of the mJOA scale was then back-translated into English by a native English-speaking translator unaware of the concepts involved with the mJOA scale. The original mJOA scale and the back-translated version were compared by a native North American neurosurgeon, and as they were considered equivalent, the final version of the mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted was defined. To facilitate global and cross-cultural comparisons of the severity of cervical myelopathy, this study presents a version of the mJOA scale that was translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population.

  3. Computer modeling describes gravity-related adaptation in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Alexandrova, Stoyana; Usheva, Anny

    2009-12-16

    Questions about the changes of biological systems in response to hostile environmental factors are important but not easy to answer. Often, the traditional description with differential equations is difficult due to the overwhelming complexity of the living systems. Another way to describe complex systems is by simulating them with phenomenological models such as the well-known evolutionary agent-based model (EABM). Here we developed an EABM to simulate cell colonies as a multi-agent system that adapts to hyper-gravity in starvation conditions. In the model, the cell's heritable characteristics are generated and transferred randomly to offspring cells. After a qualitative validation of the model at normal gravity, we simulate cellular growth in hyper-gravity conditions. The obtained data are consistent with previously confirmed theoretical and experimental findings for bacterial behavior in environmental changes, including the experimental data from the microgravity Atlantis and the Hypergravity 3000 experiments. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to utilize an EABM with realistic qualitative description to examine the effects of hypergravity and starvation on complex cellular entities.

  4. When evolution is the solution to pollution: Key principles, and lessons from rapid repeated adaptation of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    For most species, evolutionary adaptation is not expected to be sufficiently rapid to buffer the effects of human-mediated environmental changes. Yet large persistent populations of small bodied fish residing in some of the most contaminated estuaries of the US have provided some...

  5. Acculturation orientations and Chinese student Sojourners’ career adaptability : the roles of career exploration and cultural distance.

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Y.; Liu, S.; Guo, M.J.; Li, M.; Wu, M.; Chen, S.X.; Xu, S.X.; Tian, L.

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on career construction theory and Berry's acculturation model, this study examined how student sojourners' acculturation orientations predicted their career exploration and career adaptability. We conducted a survey study among Chinese student sojourners (N = 222) and the results showed that after the effects of big-five personality and approach/avoidance traits were controlled, both host culture orientation and home culture orientation had positive indirect effects on career adaptabi...

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index into Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Ndosi, Mwidimi; Luque-Suarez, Alejandro; Alcacer-Pitarch, Begonya; Munuera, Pedro Vicente; Garrow, Adam; Redmond, Anthony C

    2014-03-01

    The Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI) is a self-assessment 19-item questionnaire developed in the UK to measure foot pain and disability. This study aimed at conducting cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the MFPDI for use in Spain. Principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for patient-reported outcomes measures were followed in the MFPDI adaptation into Spanish. The cross-cultural validation involved Rasch analysis of pooled data sets from Spain and the UK. Spanish data set comprised 338 patients, five used in the adaptation phase and 333 in the cross-cultural validation phase, mean age (SD) = 55.2 (16.7) and 248 (74.5 %) were female. A UK data set (n = 682) added in the cross-cultural validation phase; mean age (SD) = 51.6 (15.2 %) and 416 (61.0 %) were female. A preliminary analysis of the 17-item MFPDI revealed significant local dependency of items causing significant deviation from the Rasch model. Grouping all items into testlets and re-analysing the MFPDI as a 3-testlet scale resulted in an adequate fit to the Rasch model, χ (2) (df) = 15.945 (12), p = 0.194, excellent reliability and unidimensionality. Lack of cross-cultural invariance was evident on the functional and personal appearance testlets. Splitting the affected testlets discounted the cross-cultural bias and satisfied requirements of the Rasch model. Subsequently, the MFPDI was calibrated into interval-level scales, fully adjusted to allow parametric analyses and cross-cultural data comparisons when required. Rasch analysis has confirmed that the MFPDI is a robust 3-subscale measure of foot pain, function and appearance in both its English and Spanish versions.

  7. THE JAPANESE EXPATRIATES IN MALAYSIA: INTERACTION AND ADAPTATION IN THE CULTURAL DIVERSE ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Md. Rosli bin

    2013-01-01

    This study on the Japanese expatriates in Malaysia attempts to answer two research questions, i.e. (i) what is the classification of the Japanese expatriates based on communication skills, interaction and adaptation of culture, and (ii) what are the factors that are hindrance to communication and interaction? This study uses the analytical framework which argues that the Japanese society becomes the dominant culture of that corporation, and of individuals who work for the corporation. The stu...

  8. Investigation of the Effect of Cultural Adaptation on International Joint Venture Performance

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZORHON, Beliz; ALTUN, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Internationaljoint ventures (IJVs) have a great importance as a strategic alternative inglobal competition. Cultural differences between partners from differentcountries may cause lower performance levels in such ventures. The majorobjective of this study is to investigate the influence of national andorganizational culture adaptation of partnerson the IJV performance. In this respect, a questionnaire survey wasadministered to medium to large scale contractors,thgat are members of the Turkish...

  9. Comparison between MALDI-TOF MS and FilmArray Blood Culture Identification panel for rapid identification of yeast from positive blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, M; Foschi, C; Tamburini, M V; Ambretti, S; Lazzarotto, T; Landini, M P

    2014-09-01

    In this study we evaluated MALDI-TOF MS and FilmArray methods for the rapid identification of yeast from positive blood cultures. FilmArray correctly identified 20/22 of yeast species, while MALDI-TOF MS identified 9/22. FilmArray is a reliable and rapid identification system for the direct identification of yeasts from positive blood cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Social Networking Sites Use and Cross Cultural Adaptation of Muslim Indonesian Students in Australian Universities: Valuing Cultural Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Nuraryo, Imam

    2016-01-01

    Muslim Asian students have diverse specific needs when undertaking education in western country universities. Many international students use social networking sites as media for distance communication and helping in their adjustment.This study attempts to investigate the impact of using new social networking sites on the cross cultural adaptation process. Qualitative methodology was used for the study. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted for data collection. The study investigates ...

  11. Study on rapid propagation of Zanhuang Chinese jujube by tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yun; Wang Yu; Tian Yanting

    2002-01-01

    Zanhuang jujube is a very precious and rare variety of Chinese jujube. Its development was restricted by the under-developed propagate technique in history. The rapid propagation by tissue culture was studied and the optimum media were screened out. Through studying the condition of initial, proliferating, acclimatizing and rooting culture, 4 media, MS +6-BA 0.5 mg/L+IBA 0.1 mg/L, MS+6-BA 1.5 mg/L+IBA 0.1-0.2 mg/L, MS+KT 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L and 1/2 MS+IBA 0.6 mg/L+NAA 0.2-0.3 mg/L were selected respectively

  12. Effects of culture shock and cross-cultural adaptation on learning satisfaction of mainland China students studying in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shieh, Chich-Jen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the national impact of low fertility, the enrollment of higher education in Taiwan is facing a dilemma. To cope with such a problem, the government has actively promoted Mainland China students to study in Taiwan. In addition to enhancing the international competitiveness of domestic universities, cross-strait education, and real academic exchange, it is expected to solve the enrollment shortage of colleges. However, the situations and pressures of Culture Shock, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Learning Satisfaction are critical for Mainland China students. Taking Mainland China students who study in Taiwan for more than four months (about a semester as the research participants, a total of 250 questionnaires were distributed and 167 valid ones were retrieved, with a retrieval rate of 67%. The research findings show significant correlations between Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Culture Shock, Culture Shock and Learning Satisfaction, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Learning Satisfaction.Debido al impacto de la baja fertilidad en el país, Taiwán afronta un dilema en relación con la inscripción en la enseñanza superior. Para enfrentarse al problema el gobierno ha promovido activamente que estudiantes de la China continental estudien en Taiwán. Además de incrementar la competitividad internacional de las universidades taiwanesas, la formación a ambos lados del estrecho y un verdadero intercambio académico, se espera que ello solucione la escasez de inscripciones en las facultades. Sin embargo, las situaciones y las presiones que generan el choque cultural, la adaptación multicultural y la satisfacción con el aprendizaje resultan críticas para los estudiantes de la China continental. Tomando como muestra de investigación a estudiantes de la China continental que estudian en Taiwán durante más de cuatro meses (aproximadamente un semestre, se distribuyó un total de 250 cuestionarios, de los cuales 167 fueron válidos, con una tasa

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation of research instruments: language, setting, time and statistical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjersing, Linn; Caplehorn, John R M; Clausen, Thomas

    2010-02-10

    Research questionnaires are not always translated appropriately before they are used in new temporal, cultural or linguistic settings. The results based on such instruments may therefore not accurately reflect what they are supposed to measure. This paper aims to illustrate the process and required steps involved in the cross-cultural adaptation of a research instrument using the adaptation process of an attitudinal instrument as an example. A questionnaire was needed for the implementation of a study in Norway 2007. There was no appropriate instruments available in Norwegian, thus an Australian-English instrument was cross-culturally adapted. The adaptation process included investigation of conceptual and item equivalence. Two forward and two back-translations were synthesized and compared by an expert committee. Thereafter the instrument was pretested and adjusted accordingly. The final questionnaire was administered to opioid maintenance treatment staff (n=140) and harm reduction staff (n=180). The overall response rate was 84%. The original instrument failed confirmatory analysis. Instead a new two-factor scale was identified and found valid in the new setting. The failure of the original scale highlights the importance of adapting instruments to current research settings. It also emphasizes the importance of ensuring that concepts within an instrument are equal between the original and target language, time and context. If the described stages in the cross-cultural adaptation process had been omitted, the findings would have been misleading, even if presented with apparent precision. Thus, it is important to consider possible barriers when making a direct comparison between different nations, cultures and times.

  14. Correlative physiological and morphological studies of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors in cat's glabrous skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iggo, A; Ogawa, H

    1977-01-01

    1. A total of fifty-four mechanoreceptor afferent units with fast conducting axons in the tibial nerve innervating the glabrous skin of the hind leg were isolated in anaesthetized cats. 2. Twenty-six rapidly adapting units (RA), eighteen slowly adapting units (SA) and ten Pacinian corpuscle units (PC) were differentiated from each other mainly on the presence of the off response in RA and PC units to a ramp stimulation, the persistence of discharges of the SA units during steady pressure on the receptive field and the classical tuning curve seen in the PC units. A few PC units in the hairy skin were also studied for comparison. 3. Lamellated corpuscles were found histologically in the skin of the receptive field of RA units and identified as Krause's corpuscle of cylindrical type by their superficial location in the cutaneous tissue and their structure revealed by electron microscopy. 4. Physiological characteristics of RA units to various forms of mechanical stimulation were studied and compared with those of the other two kinds of units. SA units had the lowest critical slope among three groups and PC units the highest. 5. The discharge pattern of RA and PC units to a ramp stimulation was found to be time-locked, whereas with SA unites only the first spike appeared at a fixed latency from the start of stimulation. 6. Some RA units showed a tuning curve which was flat from 10 to 200 Hz. Those with narrowly tuned curves had a best turning frequency at around 20 Hz. They were easily differentiated from the SA and PC units. SA units were tuned best at 5 HZ or less, and PC units at around 200 HZ. 7. The relation between the indentation velocity and amplitude of the ramp and the spike discharges was analysed in eleven RA units. In most cases the relation between identation velocity and maximum instataneous frequency was found to be best fit with a power function although other kinds of functions (linear, logarithmic, and logarithmic hyperbolic tangent) could also fit

  15. Comparative evaluation of two rapid Salmonella-IgM tests and blood culture in the diagnosis of enteric fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K J; Oberoi, J K; Goel, N; Wattal, C

    2015-01-01

    Enteric fever is a major public health problem in developing countries like India. An early and accurate diagnosis is necessary for a prompt and effective treatment. We have evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of two Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests (Typhidot-IgM and Enteroscreen-IgM) as compared to blood culture in rapid and early diagnosis of enteric fever. A total of 2,699 patients' serum samples were tested by Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests and blood culture. Patients were divided into two groups. Test group - patients with enteric fever and blood culture positives for Salmonella Typhi; and three types of Controls, i.e. patients with non-enteric fever illnesses, normal healthy controls and patients positive for S. Paratyphi- A. In addition to this we have also evaluated the significance of positive Salmonella-IgM tests among blood culture-negative cases. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the Typhidot-IgM test and Enteroscreen-IgM test considering blood culture as gold standard were 97.29% and 88.13%, 97.40% and 87.83%, 98.18% and 92.03%, 96.15% and 82.27%, respectively. Typhidot-IgM test was found to be significantly more sensitive and specific as compared to Enteroscreen-IgM. Among blood culture-negative patients, Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests detected 72.25% additional cases of enteric fever. Although the Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests are meant to diagnose S. Typhi only, but these tests detect S. Paratyphi- A also. Thirty-eight patients who were blood culture-positive for S. Paratyphi- A were also positive by Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests. Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests offer an advantage of increased sensitivity, rapidity, early diagnosis and simplicity over blood culture.

  16. Adaptations for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families of English Language Learning Students with Autisim Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, grounded theory study was to describe adaptations for culturally and linguistically diverse families of English language learning students with autism spectrum disorders. Each family's parent was interviewed three separate times to gather information to understand the needs and experiences regarding their…

  17. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Danish Version: Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Hansen, Sabrina S.; Hansen, Line S.

    Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Danish Version: Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI). Larsen CM1,2; Hansen SS2; Hansen LH2; Bruun P1; Juul-Kristensen B1,3. 1Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark. 2Health Sciences Research...

  18. Cellular Adaptation: Culture conditions of R. opacus and bioflotation of apatite and quartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gutiérrez Merma

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well known that the culture conditions of microorganisms may affect their surface properties, zeta potential and hydrophobicity via the modification of the cell wall functional groups or metabolic products. The R. opacus bacteria strain was separately adapted to the presence of apatite and quartz, after which a cellular adaptation procedure was developed by repeated sub-culturing with a successive increase in the mineral content. Zeta potential, surface tension, FTIR and microflotation studies were used to evaluate the behavior of the cells that were developed under defined culture conditions. The cellular adaptation induced a modification of the bacterial surface charge. The FTIR results showed a modification of its functional groups. The surface tension results suggested that longer growing time promoted a higher production of metabolites. The use of mineral-adapted cells promoted an improvement in the flotability of both minerals, but it was more significant for apatite flotation. Additionally, the mineral flotability remained unchanged when the cells developed under a longer culture time. Nevertheless, there was a reduction in the surface tension.

  19. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Assessments for Use in Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Gómez Soler, Inmaculada; Dell'Aquilla, Julia; Uribe, Patricia Martinez

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a 6-step process for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of counseling assessments from source document into a target language. An illustrative example is provided using the Brief Resilience Scale (Smith et al., 2008) and considerations for counseling researchers are discussed.

  20. Japanese English Education and Learning: A History of Adapting Foreign Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    This essay is a history that relates the Japanese tradition of accepting and adapting aspects of foreign culture, especially as it applies to the learning of foreign languages. In particular, the essay describes the history of English education in Japan by investigating its developments after the Meiji era. The author addresses the issues from the…

  1. Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…

  2. Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; Garcia-Primo, Patricia; Martin-Cilleros, Maria Victoria; Santos-Borbujo, Jose; Guisuraga-Fernandez, Zoila; Herraez-Garcia, Lorena; Herraez-Garcia, Maria del Mar; Boada-Munoz, Leticia; Fuentes-Biggi, Joaquin; Posada-de La Paz, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Early detection and treatment have been shown to be effective in reducing disability severity caused by Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). As Spanish pediatricians have no detection tool, the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) was first translated into and culturally adapted to Spanish. Validity and reliability studies were…

  3. Effect of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on Students' Cultural Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The number of U.S. students studying abroad has been growing, particularly those participating in short-term trips. However, literature on the effect of these short-term trips is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess quantitatively the effect on bachelor students' cross-cultural adaptability using a pre-post design. Significant changes…

  4. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Developmental Criteria for Young Children: A Preliminary Psychometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Faridah

    2014-01-01

    Authentic assessment approach applies naturalistic observation method to gather and analyse data about children's development that are socio-culturally appropriate to plan for individual teaching and learning needs. This article discusses the process of adapting an authentic developmental instrument for children of 3-6 years old. The instrument…

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Events Schedule-Alzheimer’s Disease to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Rosângela Silva de Souza Saviotti

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engagement in pleasant activities for elders with cognitive impairment may improve mood and reduce behavior problems. The Pleasant Events Schedule-Alzheimer’s Disease (PES-AD has been described as a useful tool for this purpose, and its transcultural adaptation allows professionals to aid caretakers and elders in identifying pleasurable activities. Objective Submit the PES-AD to process of cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese. Methods The PES-AD was submitted to a five-stage process of cross-cultural adaptation as follows: 1 translation; 2 summary of translation; 3 back-translation; 4 evaluation of equivalences: semantic, idiomatic, cultural, conceptual; and 5 pre-testing. Results The five-stage process was conducted on 36 items and three were adjusted. In the evaluation of equivalencies, four items had a level of agreement less than 0.8 and so were modified according to judges’ suggestions. Discussion Submitting the PES-AD to a five-stage, cross-cultural adaptation maintained the original instrument’s content validity.

  6. Social Adaptation of New Immigrant Students: Cultural Scripts, Roles, and Symbolic Interactionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukasoanya, Grace

    2014-01-01

    It is important that counselors understand the socio-cultural dimensions of social adaptation among immigrant students. While many psychological theories could provide suitable frameworks for examining these, in this article, I argue that symbolic interactionism could provide an additional valuable framework for (a) exploring the intersections of…

  7. When Smokey says "No": Fire-less methods for growing plants adapted to cultural fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniela Shebitz; Justine E. James

    2010-01-01

    Two culturally-significant plants (sweetgrass [Anthoxanthum nitens] and beargrass [Xerophyllum tenax]) are used as case studies for investigating methods of restoring plant populations that are adapted to indigenous burning practices without using fire. Reports from tribal members that the plants of interest were declining in traditional gathering areas provided the...

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of a Bengali version of the modified fibromyalgia impact questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muquith, Mohammed A.; Islam, Nazrul; Haq, Syed A.; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Rasker, Johannes J.; Yunus, Muhammad B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, no validated instruments are available to measure the health status of Bangladeshi patients with fibromyalgia (FM). The aims of this study were to cross-culturally adapt the modified Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) into Bengali (B-FIQ) and to test its validity and

  9. [Adaptation of the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture (MOSPSC) tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre-Busto, C; Torijano-Casalengua, M L; Olivera-Cañadas, G; Astier-Peña, M P; Maderuelo-Fernández, J A; Rubio-Aguado, E A

    2015-01-01

    To adapt the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture (MOSPSC) Excel(®) tool for its use by Primary Care Teams of the Spanish National Public Health System. The process of translation and adaptation of MOSPSC from the Agency for Healthcare and Research in Quality (AHRQ) was performed in five steps: Original version translation, Conceptual equivalence evaluation, Acceptability and viability assessment, Content validity and Questionnaire test and response analysis, and psychometric properties assessment. After confirming MOSPSC as a valid, reliable, consistent and useful tool for assessing patient safety culture in our setting, an Excel(®) worksheet was translated and adapted in the same way. It was decided to develop a tool to analyze the "Spanish survey" and to keep it linked to the "Original version" tool. The "Spanish survey" comparison data are those obtained in a 2011 nationwide Spanish survey, while the "Original version" comparison data are those provided by the AHRQ in 2012. The translated and adapted tool and the analysis of the results from a 2011 nationwide Spanish survey are available on the website of the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. It allows the questions which are decisive in the different dimensions to be determined, and it provides a comparison of the results with graphical representation. Translation and adaptation of this tool enables a patient safety culture in Primary Care in Spain to be more effectively applied. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, economic, and rapid manner. Our assay platform miniaturizes the standard broth microdilution method on a microfluidic device (20 × 20 mm that generates an antibiotic concentration gradient and delivers antibiotic-containing culture media to eight 30-nL chambers for cell culture. When tested with 20 μL samples of a model bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922 treated with ampicillin or streptomycin, our method allows for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with the microdilution test in three hours, which is almost a factor of ten more rapid than the standard method.

  11. Translation, cross-culturally adaptation and validation of the Danish version of Oxford Hip Score (OHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel

    there was no properly translated, adapted and validated Danish language version available, a translation to Danish, cross-culturally adaptation and validation of the Danish Oxford Hip Score was warranted. Material and Methods: We translated and cross-culturally adapted the Oxford Hip Score into Danish, in accordance......Objective: The Oxford Hip Score is a patient reported outcome questionnaire designed to assess pain and function in patients undergoing total hip arthroplaty (THA). The Oxford Hip Score is valid, reliable and consistent, and different language versions have been developed. Since.......9 % ceiling effect on this cohort of postoperative patients. Only in 1.2 % of the patients no sum score could be calculated, due to missing items. In relation to construct validity 80 % of predefined hypothesis were confirmed. The different items had an intraclass correlation in the range of 0...

  12. Adaptive response of yeast cultures (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) exposed to low dose of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcsar, Agnes; Savu, D.; Petcu, I.; Gherasim, Raluca

    2003-01-01

    The present study was planned as follows: (i) setting up of standard experimental conditions for investigation of radio-induced adaptive response in lower Eucaryotes; (ii) developing of procedures for synchronizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae X 310 D cell cultures and cell cycle stages monitoring; (iii) investigation of gamma (Co-60) and UV irradiation effects on the viability of synchronized and non-synchronized cell cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae; the effects were correlated with the cell density and cell cycle stage; (iv) study of the adaptive response induced by irradiation and setting up of the experimental conditions for which this response is optimized. The irradiations were performed by using a Co-60 with doses of 10 2 - 10 4 Gy and dose rates ranging from 2.2 x 10 2 Gy/h to 8.7 x 10 3 Gy/h. The study of radioinduced adaptive response was performed by applying a pre-irradiation treatment of 100-500 Gy, followed by challenge doses of 2-4 kGy delivered at different time intervals, ranging from 1 h to 4 h. The survival rate of synchronized and non-synchronized cultures as a function of exposure dose shows an exponential decay shape. No difference in viability of the cells occurred between synchronized and non-synchronized cultures. The pre-irradiation of cells with 100 and 200 Gy were most efficient to induce an adaptive response for the yeast cells. In this stage of work we proved the occurrence of the adaptive response in the case of synchronized yeast cultures exposed to gamma radiation. The results will be used in the future to investigate the dependence of this response on the cell cycle and the possibility to induce such a response by a low level electromagnetic field. (authors)

  13. A rapid and sensitive method for measuring N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mauri

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive method to quantitatively assess N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG activity in cultured cells is highly desirable for both basic research and clinical studies. NAG activity is deficient in cells from patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB due to mutations in NAGLU, the gene that encodes NAG. Currently available techniques for measuring NAG activity in patient-derived cell lines include chromogenic and fluorogenic assays and provide a biochemical method for the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. However, standard protocols require large amounts of cells, cell disruption by sonication or freeze-thawing, and normalization to the cellular protein content, resulting in an error-prone procedure that is material- and time-consuming and that produces highly variable results. Here we report a new procedure for measuring NAG activity in cultured cells. This procedure is based on the use of the fluorogenic NAG substrate, 4-Methylumbelliferyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, in a one-step cell assay that does not require cell disruption or post-assay normalization and that employs a low number of cells in 96-well plate format. We show that the NAG one-step cell assay greatly discriminates between wild-type and MPS IIIB patient-derived fibroblasts, thus providing a rapid method for the detection of deficiencies in NAG activity. We also show that the assay is sensitive to changes in NAG activity due to increases in NAGLU expression achieved by either overexpressing the transcription factor EB (TFEB, a master regulator of lysosomal function, or by inducing TFEB activation chemically. Because of its small format, rapidity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the NAG one-step cell assay is suitable for multiple procedures, including the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries to identify modulators of NAG expression, folding and activity, and the investigation of candidate molecules and constructs for applications in

  14. Cultural adaptation of visual attention: calibration of the oculomotor control system in accordance with cultural scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ueda

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that Westerners are more likely than East Asians to attend to central objects (i.e., analytic attention, whereas East Asians are more likely than Westerners to focus on background objects or context (i.e., holistic attention. Recently, it has been proposed that the physical environment of a given culture influences the cultural form of scene cognition, although the underlying mechanism is yet unclear. This study examined whether the physical environment influences oculomotor control. Participants saw culturally neutral stimuli (e.g., a dog in a park as a baseline, followed by Japanese or United States scenes, and finally culturally neutral stimuli again. The results showed that participants primed with Japanese scenes were more likely to move their eyes within a broader area and they were less likely to fixate on central objects compared with the baseline, whereas there were no significant differences in the eye movements of participants primed with American scenes. These results suggest that culturally specific patterns in eye movements are partly caused by the physical environment.

  15. Salmon and the Adaptive Capacity of Nimiipuu (Nez Perce) Culture to Cope with Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Benedict J.

    2012-01-01

    Change due to natural disturbances and disasters, population growth and decline, economic crises, and environmental and climate change creates significant cultural challenges. Rapid change and the transformation it brings also involve complex relationships between sovereign tribes, resources, and the global system. This article explores how salmon…

  16. Revision and Validation of a Culturally-Adapted Online Instructional Module Using Edmundson's CAP Model: A DBR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapanes, Marie A.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the Cultural Adaptation Process Model was applied to an online module to include adaptations responsive to the online students' culturally-influenced learning styles and preferences. The purpose was to provide the online learners with a variety of course material presentations, where the e-learners had the opportunity to…

  17. Rapid feedback responses correlate with reach adaptation and properties of novel upper limb loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluff, Tyler; Scott, Stephen H

    2013-10-02

    A hallmark of voluntary motor control is the ability to adjust motor patterns for novel mechanical or visuomotor contexts. Recent work has also highlighted the importance of feedback for voluntary control, leading to the hypothesis that feedback responses should adapt when we learn new motor skills. We tested this prediction with a novel paradigm requiring that human subjects adapt to a viscous elbow load while reaching to three targets. Target 1 required combined shoulder and elbow motion, target 2 required only elbow motion, and target 3 (probe target) required shoulder but no elbow motion. This simple approach controlled muscle activity at the probe target before, during, and after the application of novel elbow loads. Our paradigm allowed us to perturb the elbow during reaching movements to the probe target and identify several key properties of adapted stretch responses. Adapted long-latency responses expressed (de-) adaptation similar to reaching errors observed when we introduced (removed) the elbow load. Moreover, reaching errors during learning correlated with changes in the long-latency response, showing subjects who adapted more to the elbow load displayed greater modulation of their stretch responses. These adapted responses were sensitive to the size and direction of the viscous training load. Our results highlight an important link between the adaptation of feedforward and feedback control and suggest a key part of motor adaptation is to adjust feedback responses to the requirements of novel motor skills.

  18. Leicester Cough Questionnaire: translation to Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisbino, Manuela Brisot; Steidle, Leila John Marques; Gonçalves-Tavares, Michelle; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Pizzichini, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    To translate the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) to Portuguese and adapt it for use in Brazil. Cross-cultural adaptation of a quality of life questionnaire requires a translated version that is conceptually equivalent to the original version and culturally acceptable in the target country. The protocol used consisted of the translation of the LCQ to Portuguese by three Brazilian translators who were fluent in English and its back-translation to English by another translator who was a native speaker of English and fluent in Portuguese. The back-translated version was evaluated by one of the authors of the original questionnaire in order to verify its equivalence. Later in the process, a provisional Portuguese-language version was thoroughly reviewed by an expert committee. In 10 patients with chronic cough, cognitive debriefing was carried out in order to test the understandability, clarity, and acceptability of the translated questionnaire in the target population. On that basis, the final Portuguese-language version of the LCQ was produced and approved by the committee. Few items were questioned by the source author and revised by the committee of experts. During the cognitive debriefing phase, the Portuguese-language version of the LCQ proved to be well accepted and understood by all of the respondents, which demonstrates the robustness of the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation. The final version of the LCQ adapted for use in Brazil was found to be easy to understand and easily applied.

  19. The dynamic interplay among EFL learners’ ambiguity tolerance, adaptability, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and language achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Alahdadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A key objective of education is to prepare individuals to be fully-functioning learners. This entails developing the cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, cultural, and emotional competencies. The present study aimed to examine the interrelationships among adaptability, tolerance of ambiguity, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and language achievement as manifestations of the above competencies within a single model. The participants comprised one hundred eighty BA and MA Iranian university students studying English language teaching and translation. The instruments used in this study consisted of the translated versions of four questionnaires: second language tolerance of ambiguity scale, adaptability taken from emotional intelligence inventory, cultural intelligence (CQ inventory, and the revised study process questionnaire measuring surface and deep learning. The results estimated via structural equation modeling (SEM revealed that the proposed model containing the variables under study had a good fit with the data. It was found that all the variables except adaptability directly influenced language achievement with deep approach having the highest impact and ambiguity tolerance having the lowest influence. In addition, ambiguity tolerance was a positive and significant predictor of deep approach. CQ was found to be under the influence of both ambiguity tolerance and adaptability. The findings were discussed in the light of the yielded results.

  20. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Rating Scale for Countertransference (RSCT to American English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mondrzak

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Rating Scale for Countertransference (RSCT - originally, Escala para Avaliação de Contratransferência (EACT - is a self-administered instrument comprising questions that assess 23 feelings (divided into three blocs, closeness, distance, and indifference that access conscious countertransferential emotions and sentiments. This paper describes the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the RSCT into American English. Methods: This study employed the guidelines proposed by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation which define 10 steps for translation and cross-cultural adaptation of self-report instruments. Additionally, semantic equivalence tools were employed to select the final versions of terms used. The author of the RSCT gave permission for translation and took part in the process. The instrument is available for use free of charge. Results: Analysis of the back-translation showed that just seven of the 23 terms needed to be adjusted to arrive at the final version in American English. Conclusions: This study applied rigorous standards to construct a version of the RSCT in American English. This version of the RSCT translated and adapted into American English should be of great use for accessing and researching countertransferential feelings that are part of psychodynamic treatment.

  1. Cultural adaptation and content validation of the Single-Question for screening alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Ester Dias Maciel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Describing the stages of translation, cultural adaptation and content validation of the Single-Question into Brazilian Portuguese, which will be named Questão Chave. Method This study is a cultural adaptation. The instrument was translated into Portuguese as two independent versions which led to a synthesis of translations (S1, and later to the synthesis S2, which was then submitted to evaluation by a Committee of Expert Judges in the area of alcohol use and instrument validation. The Content Validity Index and Kappa agreement coefficient were calculated from this evaluation. Results The judges evaluated the Questão Chave regarding the clarity of the sentence and aspects related to the quality of the translation (cultural adaptation, preservation of original meaning and correct use of technical terms. The Content Validity Index was 1 for clarity of sentence and correct use of technical terms, and 0.8 for adaptation and preservation of the original meaning. The Kappa index for concordance among the judges was 0.83. After an adjustment proposed by the judges, the S3 version was originated. Conclusion The Questão Chave had its content validity confirmed, which supports future studies that aim for its application in the target population to verify their psychometric properties.

  2. A Feasibility Trial of Mental Health First Aid First Nations: Acceptability, Cultural Adaptation, and Preliminary Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V; Lapp, Andrea; Auger, Monique; van der Woerd, Kim; Snowshoe, Angela; Rogers, Billie Jo; Tsuruda, Samantha; Caron, Cassidy

    2018-03-25

    The Mental Health First Aid First Nations course was adapted from Mental Health First Aid Basic to create a community-based, culturally safe and relevant approach to promoting mental health literacy in First Nations contexts. Over 2.5 days, the course aims to build community capacity by teaching individuals to recognize and respond to mental health crises. This feasibility trial utilized mixed methods to evaluate the acceptability, cultural adaptation, and preliminary effectiveness of MHFAFN. Our approach was grounded in community-based participatory research principles, emphasizing relationship-driven procedures to collecting data and choice for how participants shared their voices. Data included participant interviews (n = 89), and surveys (n = 91) from 10 groups in four provinces. Surveys contained open-ended questions, retrospective pre-post ratings, and a scenario. We utilized data from nine facilitator interviews and 24 facilitator implementation surveys. The different lines of evidence converged to highlight strong acceptability, mixed reactions to the cultural adaptation, and gains in participants' knowledge, mental health first aid skill application, awareness, and self-efficacy, and reductions in stigma beliefs. Beyond promoting individual gains, the course served as a community-wide prevention approach by situating mental health in a colonial context and highlighting local resources and cultural strengths for promoting mental well-being. © 2018 The Authors American Journal of Community Psychology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Community Research and Action.

  3. Ages and stages questionnaires: adaptation to an Arabic speaking population and cultural sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charafeddine, Lama; Sinno, Durriyah; Ammous, Farah; Yassin, Walid; Al-Shaar, Laila; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2013-09-01

    Early detection of developmental delay is essential to initiate early intervention. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) correlate well with physician's assessment and have high predictive value. No such tool exists in Arabic. Translate and test the applicability and reliability of Arabic translated Ages and Stages Questionnaires (A-ASQ) in an Arabic speaking population. 733 healthy children were assessed. ASQ-II for 10 age groups (4-60 months) were translated to Arabic, back translations and cultural adaptation were performed. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were evaluated using Pearson Correlation Coefficient (CC) and Cronbach's alpha (Cα). Mean scores per domain were compared to US normative scores using t-test. A-ASQ, after culturally relevant adaptations, was easily administered for 4-36 months age groups but not for 4-5 year old due to numerous cultural differences in the later. For the 4-36 month age groups Pearson CC ranged from 0.345 to 0.833. The internal consistency coefficients Cα scores ranged from 0.111 to 0.816. Significant differences were found in the mean domain scores of all age groups between Lebanese and US normative sample (p-value internal consistency and reliability in the younger age groups. It proved to be culturally sensitive, which should be taken into consideration when adapting such tool to non-western populations. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A new rapid method for direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnini, Simona; Brucculeri, Veronica; Morici, Paola; Ghelardi, Emilia; Florio, Walter; Lupetti, Antonella

    2016-08-12

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the causative agent(s) of bloodstream infections can lead to prompt appropriate antimicrobial therapy. To shorten species identification, in this study bacteria were recovered from monomicrobial blood cultures by serum separator tubes and spotted onto the target plate for direct MALDI-TOF MS identification. Proper antibiotics were selected for direct AST based on species identification. In order to obtain rapid AST results, bacteria were recovered from positive blood cultures by two different protocols: by serum separator tubes (further referred to as PR1), or after a short-term subculture in liquid medium (further referred to as PR2). The results were compared with those obtained by the method currently used in our laboratory consisting in identification by MALDI-TOF and AST by Vitek 2 or Sensititre on isolated colonies. The direct MALDI-TOF method concordantly identified with the current method 97.5 % of the Gram-negative bacteria and 96.1 % of the Gram-positive cocci contained in monomicrobial blood cultures. The direct AST by PR1 and PR2 for all isolate/antimicrobial agent combinations was concordant/correct with the current method for 87.8 and 90.5 % of Gram-negative bacteria and for 93.1 and 93.8 % of Gram-positive cocci, respectively. In particular, 100 % categorical agreement was found with levofloxacin for Enterobacteriaceae by both PR1 and PR2, and 99.0 and 100 % categorical agreement was observed with linezolid for Gram-positive cocci by PR1 and PR2, respectively. There was no significant difference in accuracy between PR1 and PR2 for Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive cocci. This newly described method seems promising for providing accurate AST results. Most importantly, these results would be available in a few hours from blood culture positivity, which would help clinicians to promptly confirm or streamline an effective antibiotic therapy in patients with bloodstream

  5. Cultural adaptation of the Test of Narrative Language (TNL) into Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Lindau, Tâmara de Andrade; Gillam, Ronald Bradley; Giacheti, Célia Maria

    To accomplish the translation and cultural adaptation of the Test of Narrative Language (TNL) into Brazilian Portuguese. The TNL is a formal instrument which assesses narrative comprehension and oral narration of children between the ages of 5-0 and 11-11 (years-months). The TNL translation and adaptation process had the following steps: (1) translation into the target language; (2) summary of the translated versions; (3) back-translation; (4) checking of the conceptual, semantics and cultural equivalence process and (5) pilot study (56 children within the test age range and from both genders). The adapted version maintained the same structure as the original version: number of tasks (both, three comprehension and oral narration), narrative formats (no picture, sequenced pictures and single picture) and scoring system. There were no adjustments to the pictures. The "McDonald's Story" was replaced by the "Snack Bar History" to meet the semantic and experiential equivalence of the target population. The other stories had semantic and grammatical adjustments. Statistically significant difference was found when comparing the raw score (comprehension, narration and total) of age groups from the adapted version. Adjustments were required to meet the equivalence between the original and the translated versions. The adapted version showed it has the potential to identify differences in oral narratives of children in the age range provided by the test. Measurement equivalence for validation and test standardization are in progress and will be able to supplement the study outcomes.

  6. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Rapid and Efficient Production of Stevia Tissue Culture Seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazlina Noordin; Peng, C.S.; Rusli Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a non-caloric natural sweetener which is 300 times sweeter than cane sugar. Extracts from stevia leaves has vast application in food and beverages based industries, can be added to tea and coffee, cooked or baked goods, processed foods and confectionary goods. Recently, stevia attained awareness owing to its natural, non-caloric sweetness by diet/ health conscious and diabetic persons (Arpita et al., 2011). This natural sweetener has high commercial value in global market, it was estimated that global market value for stevia is be around USD11 billion by year 2015. Although stevia is being largely popularized in Malaysia and other countries but large-scale propagation procedures for the continuous supply of planting materials in commercial plantation has yet to be established, optimized and standardized. Furthermore, propagation through stevia seeds is often very difficult due to self-incompatibility which results in sterile seeds (Sakaguchi et al., 1982). Tissue culture is the only rapid process for the mass propagation of stevia and there have been few reports of in vitro growth of stevia (Miyagaya et al., 1986) and in vitro micropropagation from shoot tip and leaf (Uddin et al., 2006). Hence, study was carried out to establish a suitable protocol for in vitro propagation of S. rebaudiana Bertoni that can be further up-scaled for mass propagation of stevia seedlings. The established Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) will ensure rapid and efficient production of stevia tissue culture seedlings for continuous supply of planting materials for commercial stevia plantations in Malaysia. Preparation of growth medium, multiplication of shoots, rooting of plant lets and hardening of ex-vitro rooted plant lets is discussed in this paper. (author)

  7. Adapting a rapid assessment protocol to environmentally assess palm swamp (Veredas) springs in the Cerrado biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ariane; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-10-30

    The exploitation and degradation of natural environments exert intense pressure on important ecosystems worldwide. Thus, it is necessary developing or adapting assessment methods to monitor environmental changes and to generate results to be applied to environmental management programs. The Brazilian Veredas (phytophysiognomies typical to the Cerrado biome) are threatened by several human activities; thus, the aim of the present study is to adapt a rapid assessment protocol (RAP) to be applied to Veredas springs, by using the upper course of the Vai-e-Vem stream watershed (Ipameri County, Goiás State, Brazil). Therefore, several springs in the study site were visited and 11 of them were considered Veredas springs. After the RAP was adapted, the instrument was validated and used to environmentally assess the springs in order to demonstrate its applicability. The present study has provided an instrument of option to monitor Veredas springs.

  8. Cross-cultural differences in psychosocial adaptation to isolated and confined environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Johnson, Jeffrey C; Boster, James S; Rakusa-Suszczewski, Stanislaw; Klopov, Valeri P; Fu, Xue Quan; Sachdeva, Usha

    2004-11-01

    Differences in patterns of psychosocial adaptation under conditions of prolonged isolation and confinement in Antarctica were examined to determine the extent to which they were influenced by national culture in general and the individualist-collectivist orientation of national cultures in particular. The Profile of Mood States and measures of structural and functional social support were administered over an 8-mo period (March through October) to 13 winter-over crews from 5 nations operating research stations in the Antarctic: United States (3 crews, n = 77), Poland (3 crews, n = 40), Russia (3 crews, n = 34), China (3 crews, n = 40), and India (1 crew, n = 26). Americans at South Pole Station reported significant increases in fatigue and anxiety and a significant decrease in vigor over the winter. During the same period, Russians at Vostok Station reported significant decreases in depression, anxiety, and confusion, and Indians at Maitri Station reported a significant decrease in anger. A significant decrease in social interaction with fellow crewmembers occurred at South Pole Station, Vostok Station, and Poland's Arctowski Station. Several differences were also observed between the five stations in correlations between mood scores and measures of structural and functional social support. An individualistic cultural orientation was significantly associated with low social support and low negative mood. Cultural background is associated with mood and social support as well as changes in these measures during the austral winter. Cultural differences in patterns of psychosocial adaptation must be considered in the formation and training of multinational crews for long duration missions in space.

  9. The impact of culture on adaptive versus maladaptive self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Igor; Kross, Ethan

    2010-08-01

    Although recent findings indicate that people can reflect either adaptively or maladaptively over negative experiences, extant research has not examined how culture influences this process. We compared the self-reflective practices of Russians (members of an interdependent culture characterized by a tendency to brood) and Americans (members of an independent culture in which self-reflection has been studied extensively). We predicted that self-reflection would be associated with less-detrimental outcomes among Russians because they self-distance more when analyzing their feelings than Americans do. Findings from two studies supported these predictions. In Study 1, self-reflection was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among Russians than among Americans. In Study 2, Russians displayed less distress and a more adaptive pattern of construals than Americans after reflecting over a recent negative event. In addition, they self-distanced more than Americans while analyzing their feelings, and self-distancing mediated the cultural differences in self-reflection. These findings demonstrate how culture shapes the way people reflect over negative experiences.

  10. Rapid detection of bacterial contamination in cell or tissue cultures based on Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwien, Carsten; Sulz, Gerd; Becker, Sebastian; Thielecke, Hagen; Mertsching, Heike; Koch, Steffen

    2008-02-01

    Monitoring the sterility of cell or tissue cultures is an essential task, particularly in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering when implanting cells into the human body. We present a system based on a commercially available microscope equipped with a microfluidic cell that prepares the particles found in the solution for analysis, a Raman-spectrometer attachment optimized for non-destructive, rapid recording of Raman spectra, and a data acquisition and analysis tool for identification of the particles. In contrast to conventional sterility testing in which samples are incubated over weeks, our system is able to analyze milliliters of supernatant or cell suspension within hours by filtering relevant particles and placing them on a Raman-friendly substrate in the microfluidic cell. Identification of critical particles via microscopic imaging and subsequent image analysis is carried out before micro-Raman analysis of those particles is then carried out with an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. The potential of this setup is demonstrated by results of artificial contamination of samples with a pool of bacteria, fungi, and spores: single-channel spectra of the critical particles are automatically baseline-corrected without using background data and classified via hierarchical cluster analysis, showing great promise for accurate and rapid detection and identification of contaminants.

  11. Total quality management: Strengths and barriers to implementation and cultural adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.; Glenn, Michael; Hamilton, Louise

    1992-01-01

    NASA/Langley Research Center (LaRC) is in the process of implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) throughout the organization in order to improve productivity and make the Center an even better place to work. The purpose of this project was to determine strengths and barriers to TQM being implemented and becoming a part of the organizational culture of the Human Resources Management Division (HRMD) at Langley. The target population for this project was both supervisory and nonsupervisory staff of the HMRD. In order to generate data on strengths and barriers to TQM implementation and cultural adaptation, a modified nominal group technique was used.

  12. Au Kenya, des oiseaux nuisent à une culture adaptée au climat ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 août 2013 ... KITUI, Kenya (Thomson Reuters Foundation) – Le gadam, une variété de sorgho à croissance rapide résistante à la sécheresse, a été introduit au Kenya comme solution d'adaptation aux changements climatiques. Or, il se trouve que le gadam comporte un inconvénient imprévu : les oiseaux sauvages ...

  13. Assessing migration and adaptation from two or more points of view: Cultural-historical theory and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R. Portes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study validates a new tool for assessing differences in cultural adaptation for both majority and less dominant minority/immigrant adults in college in general. The Cultural Adaptation and Development Inventory (CADI is a self-report measure validated across multi-ethnic groups. The reliability and validity of a four factor model are adequate based several replication studies. Overall, the CADI provided evidence for a culturally valid measurement that shows both convergent and discriminant validity. Predicted ethnic group and gender differences were replicated with new groups of respondents for factors measuring Inter-Cultural Stress, Helplessness/Optimism, Positive Inter-cultural Adaptation and Inter-cultural Insensitivity. The study’s socio-cultural and usual types of validity is discussed in relation Berry’s (2003, Portes (1999 and Vygotski’s (1978 views regarding sociogenesis.

  14. Monitoring and robust adaptive control of fed-batch cultures of microorganisms exhibiting overflow metabolism [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vande Wouwer, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overflow metabolism characterizes cells strains that are likely to produce inhibiting by-products resulting from an excess of substrate feeding and a saturated respiratory capacity. The critical substrate level separating the two different metabolic pathways is generally not well defined. Monitoring of this kind of cultures, going from model identification to state estimation, is first discussed. Then, a review of control techniques which all aim at maximizing the cell productivity of fed-batch fermentations is presented. Two main adaptive control strategies, one using an estimation of the critical substrate level as set-point and another regulating the by-product concentration, are proposed. Finally, experimental investigations of an adaptive RST control scheme using the observer polynomial for the regulation of the ethanol concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch cultures ranging from laboratory to industrial scales, are also presented.

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation of the stroke self-efficacy questionnaire - Denmark (SSEQ-DK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lola Qvist; Pallesen, Hanne

    2018-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Stroke Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ) from English to Danish in order to create a Danish version of the measure, SSEQ-DK, and to assess psychometric properties in the form of internal consistency...... from the pretest, internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's α. Results There was a high level of agreement in the translations. Some adjustments were made, primarily with regard to semantic equivalence. Thirty stroke survivors participated in the pretest, evaluating the relevance...... difficult (0%). Face validity was satisfactory, and the SSEQ-DK showed good internal consistency (0.89). Conclusion The translation and cultural adaptation of the SSEQ to SSEQ-DK appears to be successful, with good face validity and internal consistency along with a high level of relevance...

  16. Rapid detection of Mannheimia haemolytica in lung tissues of sheep and from bacterial culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to detect Mannheimia haemolytica in lung tissues of sheep and from a bacterial culture. Introduction: M. haemolytica is one of the most important and well-established etiological agents of pneumonia in sheep and other ruminants throughout the world. Accurate diagnosis of M. haemolytica primarily relies on bacteriological examination, biochemical characteristics and, biotyping and serotyping of the isolates. In an effort to facilitate rapid M. haemolytica detection, polymerase chain reaction assay targeting Pasteurella haemolytica serotype-1 specific antigens (PHSSA, Rpt2 and 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes were used to detect M. haemolytica directly from lung tissues and from bacterial culture. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 archived lung tissues from sheep that died of pneumonia on an organized farm were used. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR based on two-amplicons targeted PHSSA and Rpt2 genes of M. haemolytica were used for identification of M. haemolytica isolates in culture from the lung samples. All the 12 lung tissue samples were tested for the presence M. haemolytica by PHSSA and Rpt2 genes based PCR and its confirmation by sequencing of the amplicons. Results: All the 12 lung tissue samples tested for the presence of PHSSA and Rpt2 genes of M. haemolytica by mPCR were found to be positive. Amplification of 12S rRNA gene fragment as internal amplification control was obtained with each mPCR reaction performed from DNA extracted directly from lung tissue samples. All the M. haemolytica were also positive for mPCR. No amplified DNA bands were observed for negative control reactions. All the three nucleotide sequences were deposited in NCBI GenBank (Accession No. KJ534629, KJ534630 and KJ534631. Sequencing of the amplified products revealed the identity of 99-100%, with published sequence of PHSSA and Rpt2 genes of M. haemolytica available in the NCBI database. Sheep specific mitochondrial 12S r

  17. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Degener, Jan; Gaudreau, Matthew; Li, Yangfan; Kappas, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH_3-N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management

  18. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi, E-mail: ly463526@gmail.com [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Degener, Jan [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Gaudreau, Matthew [Balsillie School of International Affairs, Faculty of Environment, University of Waterloo, 67 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2L 6C2 (Canada); Li, Yangfan, E-mail: yangf@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Kappas, Martin [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH{sub 3}-N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management.

  19. Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Simple Shoulder Test to Spanish

    OpenAIRE

    Arcuri, Francisco; Barclay, Fernando; Nacul, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The validation of widely used scales facilitates the comparison across international patient samples. Objective: The objective was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Simple Shoulder Test into Argentinian Spanish. Methods: The Simple Shoulder Test was translated from English into Argentinian Spanish by two independent translators, translated back into English and evaluated for accuracy by an expert committee to correct the possible discrepancies. It was then administer...

  20. Investigating organizational culture adaptability of broadcasting firm in response to environmental changes

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohammad Reza Salehi; Naser Mirsepasi; Ali Akbar Farhangi

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to study the present status of organizational adaptability in Iranian broadcasting system against environmental changes and present possible suggestions to empower the organization to cope with future changes. The study uses the method developed by Denison (1990) [Denison, D. R. (1990). Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness. John Wiley & Sons.] to study the organizational changes. Using a sample of 354 randomly selected employees who worked ...

  1. Cross-cultural Translation and Adaptation of the Lifestyle Assessment Questionnaire (LAQ-CP) Into Dutch: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Laura; Speth, Lucianne; Rameckers, Eugène; Janssen-Potten, Yvonne

    2017-07-01

    To produce a Dutch translation of the Lifestyle Assessment Questionnaire for children with cerebral palsy (LAQ-CP), adapted for cross-cultural differences. The translation process consisted of 6 stages, following a guideline for cross-cultural adaptations including duplicate forward- and back-translations, expert group review, pilot-testing, and a process audit. Several adaptations to the questionnaire were required due to cross-cultural differences. As a result of the pilot-test, the layout was adapted to the desires of the users. The process auditor stated that the process had been comprehensive and valued the quality of the work. The project resulted in a Dutch translation of the LAQ-CP, adapted for cross-cultural differences. Validation of the translated questionnaire is required before use in clinical practice and research is recommended (Dutch abstract, Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at: http://links.lww.com/PPT/A164).

  2. Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO™) in Mexico City: Integrating Cultural Adaptation Activities in an Implementation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Ana A; Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M; Amador, Nancy G; Forgatch, Marion S; Parra-Cardona, J Rubén

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the process of cultural adaptation at the start of the implementation of the Parent Management Training intervention-Oregon model (PMTO) in Mexico City. The implementation process was guided by the model, and the cultural adaptation of PMTO was theoretically guided by the cultural adaptation process (CAP) model. During the process of the adaptation, we uncovered the potential for the CAP to be embedded in the implementation process, taking into account broader training and economic challenges and opportunities. We discuss how cultural adaptation and implementation processes are inextricably linked and iterative and how maintaining a collaborative relationship with the treatment developer has guided our work and has helped expand our research efforts, and how building human capital to implement PMTO in Mexico supported the implementation efforts of PMTO in other places in the United States.

  3. The nature and efficacy of culturally-adapted psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, A; Baker, S; Edge, D; Nottidge, W; Noke, M; Press, C J; Husain, N; Rathod, S; Drake, R J

    2018-04-01

    Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia founded on Western belief systems and values may not be efficacious in different cultures without adaptation. This systematic review analyses the nature and outcomes of culturally-adapted psychosocial interventions in schizophrenia, examining how interventions have been adapted, their efficacy and what features drive heterogeneity in outcome. Articles identified by searching electronic databases from inception to 3 March 2016, reference lists and previous reviews were independently screened by two authors for eligible controlled trials. Data on the nature of adaptations was analysed inductively using thematic analyses. Meta-analyses were conducted using random effects models to calculate effect sizes (Hedges' g) for symptoms. Forty-six studies with 7828 participants were included, seven adapted for minority populations. Cultural adaptations were grouped into nine themes: language, concepts and illness models, family, communication, content, cultural norms and practices, context and delivery, therapeutic alliance, and treatment goals. Meta-analyses showed significant post-treatment effects in favour of adapted interventions for total symptom severity (n = 2345, g: -0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.36 to -0.09), positive (n = 1152, g: -0.56, 95% CI -0.86 to -0.26), negative (n = 855, g: -0.39, 95% CI -0.63 to -0.15), and general (n = 525, g: -0.75, CI -1.21 to -0.29) symptoms. The adaptation process can be described within a framework that serves as a benchmark for development or assessment of future adaptations. Culturally adapted interventions were more efficacious than usual treatment in proportion to the degree of adaptation. There is insufficient evidence to show that adapted interventions are better than non-adapted interventions. Features of context, intervention and design influenced efficacy. Investigating whether adaptation improves efficacy, most importantly amongst ethnic minorities, requires

  4. Validation in the cross-cultural adaptation of the Korean version of the Oswestry Disability Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kim, Se-Kang; Kim, Dong-Jun; Lee, Hwan-Mo; Park, Heui-Jeon

    2006-12-01

    Disability questionnaires are used for clinical assessment, outcome measurement, and research methodology. Any disability measurement must be adapted culturally for comparability of data, when the patients, who are measured, use different languages. This study aimed to conduct cross-cultural adaptation in translating the original (English) version of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) into Korean, and then to assess the reliability of the Korean versions of the Oswestry Disability Index (KODI). We used methodology to obtain semantic, idiomatic, experimental, and conceptual equivalences for the process of cross-cultural adaptation. The KODI were tested in 116 patients with chronic low back pain. The internal consistency and reliability for the KODI reached 0.9168 (Cronbach's alpha). The test-retest reliability was assessed with 32 patients (who were not included in the assessment of Cronbach's alpha) over a time interval of 4 days. Test-retest correlation reliability was 0.9332. The entire process and the results of this study were reported to the developer (Dr. Fairbank JC), who appraised the KODI. There is little evidence of differential item functioning in KODI. The results suggest that the KODI is internally consistent and reliable. Therefore, the KODI can be recommended as a low back pain assessment tool in Korea.

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2 for the Brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Vedovato Silva-Rocha

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To present the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2 for the Brazilian context. Method The following stages were used: translation into Brazilian Portuguese by independent translators, elaboration of a synthesis version, back-translation, evaluation by experts and pretest with target population. Results All the stages of cross-cultural adaptation were completed, and in the majority of items evaluated, good concordance between experts was obtained (≥ 80%. Suggested adjustments were compiled into the consensus version by the two authors, with the resulting material being considered adequate in the pretest (and thus no further changes were needed. Termed as “Escala de Ansiedade Esportiva-2,” the final version was considered by the main author of the original scale as an official version in Brazilian Portuguese. Conclusions In view of the fulfilment of all steps suggested for the cross-cultural adaptation process, the SAS-2 is now available in Brazilian Portuguese to be tested for its psychometric qualities.

  6. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Polish version of the Oswestry Disability Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miekisiak, Grzegorz; Kollataj, Marta; Dobrogowski, Jan; Kloc, Wojciech; Libionka, Witold; Banach, Mariusz; Latka, Dariusz; Sobolewski, Tomasz; Sulewski, Adam; Nowakowski, Andrzej; Kiwic, Grzegorz; Pala, Adam; Potaczek, Tomasz; Gierlotka, Maciej

    2013-02-15

    Validation of a translated, culturally adapted questionnaire. To translate and culturally adapt a Polish version of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and to validate its use in Polish patients. The ODI is among the most popular questionnaires used to evaluate back pain-related disability. To our knowledge no validated Polish version of the index was available at the time our study was initiated. The questionnaire was translated and culturally adapted by 2 independent translators and approved by expert committee. Final version was included in the booklet consisting in addition of a previously validated Roland-Morris disability questionnaire, VAS for low back and leg and 3 Likert scale questions (pain medications, pain frequency, disability). It was tested on 169 patients with chronic low back pain, 164 (97%) of them were enrolled, and 84 of 164 (53%) returned the completed retest booklet within 2 to 14 days after the baseline test. There were no differences between the 2 groups in demographic and clinical parameters. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity were investigated. The mean ODI (standard deviation [SD]) was 48.45 (18.94); minimum 2, maximum 94. The Cronbach α for baseline questionnaires (n = 164) was 0.90. Concurrent validity, measured by comparing ODI responses with the results of the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire score was very good (r = 0.607, P disability in Polish-speaking patients with lower back pain.

  7. SNOT-22: psychometric properties and cross-cultural adaptation into the Portuguese language spoken in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminha, Guilherme Pilla; Melo Junior, José Tavares de; Hopkins, Claire; Pizzichini, Emilio; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes

    2012-12-01

    Rhinosinusitis is a highly prevalent disease and a major cause of high medical costs. It has been proven to have an impact on the quality of life through generic health-related quality of life assessments. However, generic instruments may not be able to factor in the effects of interventions and treatments. SNOT-22 is a major disease-specific instrument to assess quality of life for patients with rhinosinusitis. Nevertheless, there is still no validated SNOT-22 version in our country. Cross-cultural adaptation of the SNOT-22 into Brazilian Portuguese and assessment of its psychometric properties. The Brazilian version of the SNOT-22 was developed according to international guidelines and was broken down into nine stages: 1) Preparation 2) Translation 3) Reconciliation 4) Back-translation 5) Comparison 6) Evaluation by the author of the SNOT-22 7) Revision by committee of experts 8) Cognitive debriefing 9) Final version. Second phase: prospective study consisting of a verification of the psychometric properties, by analyzing internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Cultural adaptation showed adequate understanding, acceptability and psychometric properties. We followed the recommended steps for the cultural adaptation of the SNOT-22 into Portuguese language, producing a tool for the assessment of patients with sinonasal disorders of clinical importance and for scientific studies.

  8. [Cross-cultural adaptation of the Quality of Life Index Spinal Cord Injury - Version III].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Priscila Alencar Mendes; Carvalho, Zuila Maria de Figueiredo; Tirado Darder, Juan José; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Studart, Rita Mônica Borges; Maniva, Samia Jardelle Costa de Freitas

    2015-06-01

    To translate and culturally adapt to Portuguese the Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index Spinal Cord Injury - Version III and characterize the sample in relation to sociodemographic and clinical aspects. A methodological study with view to cross-cultural adaptation, following the particular steps of this method: initial translation, translation synthesis, back-translation (translation back to the original language), review by a committee of judges and pretest of the final version. The pretest was carried out with 30 patients with spinal cord injury. An index of 74 items divided into two parts (satisfaction/importance) was obtained. The criteria of semantic equivalence were evaluated as very adequate translation, higher than 87%, and vocabulary and were grammar higher than 86%. Idiomatic equivalence was higher than 74%, experimental greater than 78% and conceptual was greater than 70%. After cross-cultural adaptation, the instrument proved semantic, idiomatic, experimental and conceptual adequacy, in addition to helping the evaluation of the quality of life of people with spinal cord injury.

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Quality of Life Index Spinal Cord Injury - Version III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Alencar Mendes Reis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To translate and culturally adapt to Portuguese the Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index Spinal Cord Injury - Version III and characterize the sample in relation to sociodemographic and clinical aspects. METHOD A methodological study with view to cross-cultural adaptation, following the particular steps of this method: initial translation, translation synthesis, back-translation (translation back to the original language, review by a committee of judges and pretest of the final version. The pretest was carried out with 30 patients with spinal cord injury. RESULTS An index of 74 items divided into two parts (satisfaction/importance was obtained. The criteria of semantic equivalence were evaluated as very adequate translation, higher than 87%, and vocabulary and were grammar higher than 86%. Idiomatic equivalence was higher than 74%, experimental greater than 78% and conceptual was greater than 70%. CONCLUSION After cross-cultural adaptation, the instrument proved semantic, idiomatic, experimental and conceptual adequacy, in addition to helping the evaluation of the quality of life of people with spinal cord injury.

  10. Cultural Adaptation Quality of Family Life Scale for the Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Bianca Miguel; Levy, Cilmara Cristina Alves da Costa; Granato, Lídio

    2015-01-01

    To culturally adapt the Family Quality of Life Scale to the Brazilian Portuguese version and evaluate the instrument reliability and family quality of life of those who have children with hearing loss. The process of cultural adaptation of the scale followed the steps of the Guidelines for the Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measure. It was conducted in three stages: translation, back translation, and application in a pilot sample, as a way to check the comprehension difficulties of the items. After it had been completed, it was administered to 41 families who have children with hearing loss and, with their results, the quality of life and reliability were analyzed based on the Cronbach's alpha statistical test. In the first version (translation), among the 25 items, there were differences between the translators only in four items; after the corrections, the second version was done (back translation), in which other four more differences were found. Finally, after the final corrections, the last version was developed and used in the pilot sample without differences. Thus, it was applied to families with deaf children, who believe to be satisfied as to their quality of life. The Cronbach's alpha test found that the scale shows a satisfactory reliability. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Family Quality of Life Scale is a tool of easy use and satisfactory reliability. The families are satisfied with their family quality of life.

  11. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of an HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudinal instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zometa, Carlos S; Dedrick, Robert; Knox, Michael D; Westhoff, Wayne; Siri, Rodrigo Simán; Debaldo, Ann

    2007-06-01

    An instrument developed in the United States by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and four attitudinal dimensions (Peer Pressure, Abstinence, Drug Use, and Threat of HIV Infection) and an instrument developed by Basen-Engquist et al. (1999) to measure abstinence and condom use were translated, cross-culturally adapted, and validated for use with Spanish-speaking high school students in El Salvador. A back-translation of the English version was cross-culturally adapted using two different review panels and pilot-tested with Salvadorian students. An expert panel established content validity, and confirmatory factor analysis provided support for construct validity. Results indicated that the methodology was successful in cross-culturally adapting the instrument developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the instrument developed by Basen-Engquist et al. The psychometric properties of the knowledge section were acceptable and there was partial support for the four-factor attitudinal model underlying the CDC instrument and the two-factor model underlying the Basen-Engquist et al. instrument. Additional studies with Spanish-speaking populations (either in the United States or Latin America) are needed to evaluate the generalizability of the present results.

  12. [Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Salt Knowledge Questionnaire to the Spanish language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros-Reyes, C; Marcionelli-Sandhaus, T; Mayta-Tristán, P

    2017-11-03

    In order to reduce salt consumption in Spanish speaking countries it is necessary to know the level of salt knowledge in the population. However, there are no tools in Spanish to measure salt knowledge, but the only valid tool of measurement is the 'Salt Knowledge Questionnaire' (SKQ) developed in Australia, in English. A validation study was conducted in three phases: (Phase1) Translation of the original Australian version into Spanish; (Phase2) Cultural adaptation based on a Spanish-speaking population such as Peru and following criteria used in the development of the original questionnaire which was evaluated by a panel of experts; (Phase3) Construct validity by comparing the scores of three groups (experts, medical students and non-experts) and reliability by performing a test retest. The translation of the SKQ into Spanish maintained a semantic equivalence with the original questionnaire and a panel of experts accepted the cultural adaptation. The SKQ enables discrimination between those who know and those who do not because differences of scores were found between the group of experts, students and non-experts (P.05). The SKQ questionnaire in Spanish is valid, reliable and is a suitable first tool to measure knowledge about salt in the Spanish language. It is considered possible to adapt it culturally to the Spanish-speaking country that wishes to use it. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Standing genetic variation in contingency loci drives the rapid adaptation of Campylobacter jejuni to a novel host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genome of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contains multiple highly mutable sites, or contingency loci. It has been suggested that standing variation at these loci is a mechanism for rapid adaptation to a novel environment, but this phenomenon has not been shown experimentally. In previous work we showed that the virulence of C. jejuni NCTC11168 increased after serial passage through a C57BL/6 IL-10(-/- mouse model of campylobacteriosis. Here we sought to determine the genetic basis of this adaptation during passage. Re-sequencing of the 1.64 Mb genome to 200-500 X coverage allowed us to define variation in 23 contingency loci to an unprecedented depth both before and after in vivo adaptation. Mutations in the mouse-adapted C. jejuni were largely restricted to the homopolymeric tracts of thirteen contingency loci. These changes cause significant alterations in open reading frames of genes in surface structure biosynthesis loci and in genes with only putative functions. Several loci with open reading frame changes also had altered transcript abundance. The increase in specific phases of contingency loci during in vivo passage of C. jejuni, coupled with the observed virulence increase and the lack of other types of genetic changes, is the first experimental evidence that these variable regions play a significant role in C. jejuni adaptation and virulence in a novel host.

  14. Metabolomic analysis of cooperative adaptation between co-cultured Bacillus cereus and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhu Ding

    Full Text Available The cooperative adaptation of subcultivated Bacillus cereus and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare significantly increased the productivity of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid, the precursor of vitamin C. The mechanism of cooperative adaptation of the serial subcultivated B. cereus and K. vulgare was investigated in this study by culturing the two strains orthogonally on agar plates. It was found that the swarming distance of B. cereus along the trace of K. vulgare on the plate decreased after 150 days' subcultivation. Metabolomic analysis on these co-cultured B. cereus and K. vulgare strains showed that their cooperative adaptation was accomplished by three key events: (i the ability of nutrients (e.g., amino acids and purines searching and intaking, and proteins biosynthesis is increased in the evolved B. cereus; (ii the capability of protein degradation and amino acids transportation is enhanced in evolved K. vulgare; (iii the evolved B. cereus was found to provide more nutrients (mostly amino acids and purines to K. vulgare, thus strengthening the oxidation and energy generation of K. vulgare. Our results provided novel insights into the systems-level understanding of the cooperative adaptation between strains in synergistic consortium.

  15. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Sexual Function Questionnaire (SFQ) into Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Clara de Oliveira; Rocha, Gibsi Possapp; Marques, Tiago Reis; Howes, Oliver; Smith, Shubulade; Monteiro, Ricardo Tavares; Zorzetti, Roberta; Spanemberg, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common in patients with psychotic illness. This article describes the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Sexual Function Questionnaire (SFQ) into Brazilian Portuguese. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation followed the guidelines for adapting self-report instruments proposed by the Task Force of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Briefly, ISPOR steps include: preparation, forward translation, reconciliation, back-translation, back-translation review, harmonization, cognitive debriefing, review of cognitive debriefing and finalization, before proofreading and final version. The original authors authorized the translation and participated in the study. There was good agreement between translations and between the back-translation and the original English version of the SFQ. The final version was prepared with certificated evaluators in the original language and in Portuguese. Few changes were necessary to the new version in Portuguese. The translated and adapted Brazilian Portuguese version of the SFQ is reliable and semantically equivalent to the original version. Studies on psychotropic-related sexual dysfunction may now test the validity of the instrument and can investigate sexual dysfunction in Portuguese-speaking patients.

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation of the STRATIFY tool in detecting and predicting risk of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez de Luna-Rodríguez, Margarita; Aranda-Gallardo, Marta; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Vazquez-Blanco, M José; Moya-Suárez, Ana Belén; Morales-Asencio, José Miguel

    To adapt to Spanish language the STRATIFY tool for clinical use in the Spanish-speaking World. A multicenter, 2 care settings cross-sectional study cultural adaptation study in acute care hospitals and nursing homes was performed in Andalusia during 2014. The adaptation process was divided into 4 stages: translation, back-translation, equivalence between the 2 back-translations and piloting of the Spanish version, thus obtaining the final version. The validity of appearance, content validity and the time required to complete the scale were taken into account. For analysis, the median, central tendency and dispersion of scores, the interquartile range, and the interquartile deviation for the possible variability in responses it was calculated. Content validity measured by content validity index reached a profit of 1. For the validity aspect the clarity and comprehensibility of the questions were taken into account. Of the 5 questions of the instrument, 2 had a small disagreement solved with the introduction of an explanatory phrase to achieve conceptual equivalence. Median both questions were equal or superior to 5. The average time for completion of the scale was less than 3 minutes. The process of adaptation to Spanish of STRATIFY has led to a semantic version and culturally equivalent to the original for easy filling and understanding for use in the Spanish-speaking world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Whole genome characterization of non-tissue culture adapted HRSV strains in severely infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaria Rajni

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is the most important virus causing lower respiratory infection in young children. The complete genetic characterization of RSV clinical strains is a prerequisite for understanding HRSV infection in the clinical context. Current information about the genetic structure of the HRSV genome has largely been obtained using tissue culture adapted viruses. During tissue culture adaptation genetic changes can be introduced into the virus genome, which may obscure subtle variations in the genetic structure of different RSV strains. Methods In this study we describe a novel Sanger sequencing strategy which allowed the complete genetic characterisation of 14 clinical HRSV strains. The viruses were sequenced directly in the nasal washes of severely hospitalized children, and without prior passage of the viruses in tissue culture. Results The analysis of nucleotide sequences suggested that vRNA length is a variable factor among primary strains, while the phylogenetic analysis suggests selective pressure for change. The G gene showed the greatest sequence variation (2-6.4%, while small hydrophobic protein and matrix genes were completely conserved across all clinical strains studied. A number of sequence changes in the F, L, M2-1 and M2-2 genes were observed that have not been described in laboratory isolates. The gene junction regions showed more sequence variability, and in particular the intergenic regions showed a highest level of sequence variation. Although the clinical strains grew slower than the HRSVA2 virus isolate in tissue culture, the HRSVA2 isolate and clinical strains formed similar virus structures such as virus filaments and inclusion bodies in infected cells; supporting the clinical relevance of these virus structures. Conclusion This is the first report to describe the complete genetic characterization of HRSV clinical strains that have been sequenced directly from clinical

  18. Effectiveness of cultural adaptations of interventions aimed at smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity in ethnic minorities. a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierkens, Vera; Hartman, Marieke A.; Nicolaou, Mary; Vissenberg, Charlotte; Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Hosper, Karen; van Valkengoed, Irene G.; Stronks, Karien

    2013-01-01

    The importance of cultural adaptations in behavioral interventions targeting ethnic minorities in high-income societies is widely recognized. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in such interventions. To systematically review the effectiveness of

  19. Psychological and socio-cultural adaptation of international journalism students in Russia: The role of communication skills in the adaptation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkova A.A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study of both Russian and international publications issued in the last twenty years revealed a significant gap in the number of studies examining adaptation (general living, psychological, socio-cultural, etc. in general, i.e., without regard to specific characteristics of the audience, and those describing adaptation of a particular group of people (specific age, ethnic, professional groups, etc.. Objective. The current paper aims to overcome this gap by offering a closer look at the adaptation processes of international journalism students at Russian universities, in particular, their psychological and socio-cultural types of adaptation. The question that interests us the most is how psychological and socio-cultural adaptation of international journalists to-be can be made easier and whether communication-oriented techniques can somehow facilitate this process. Design. In this paper, we provide an overview of current research analyzing adaptation from different angles, which is essential for creating a context for further narrower studies. Results. We discuss adaptation of journalism students in Russia, suggesting ways to make their adaptation in a host country easier and arguing that the development of communication skills can be important for successful adaptation to new living and learning conditions. Conclusion. We argue that there is a need for more detailed, narrow-focused research discussing the specifics of adaptation of different groups of people to a new environment (since we believe different people tend to adapt to new conditions in different ways as well as research outlining the role of communication competences in their adaptation processes.

  20. Inconsistencies Between Two Cross-Cultural Adaptations of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Into French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussat, Bastien; François, Patrice; Gandon, Gérald; Giai, Joris; Seigneurin, Arnaud; Perneger, Thomas; Labarère, José

    2017-11-15

    Two cross-cultural adaptations of the 12-dimension Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) into French coexist: the Occelli and Vlayen versions. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Occelli version in comparison with those reported for the Vlayen and the original US versions of this instrument. Using the original data from a cross-sectional study of 5,064 employees at a single university hospital in France, we examined the acceptability, internal consistency, factorial structure, and construct validity of the Occelli version of the HSOPSC. The response rate was 76.8% (n = 3888). Our study yielded lower missing value rates (median, 0.4% [range, 0.0%-2.4%] versus 0.8% [range, 0.2%-11.4%]) and lower dimension scores (median, 3.19 [range, 2.67-3.54] versus 3.42 [range, 2.92-3.96]) than those reported for the Vlayen version. Cronbach alphas (median, 0.64; range, 0.56-0.84) compared unfavorably with those reported for the Vlayen (median, 0.73; range, 0.57-0.86) and original US (median, 0.78; range, 0.63-0.84) versions. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis were consistent between the Vlayen and Occelli versions, making it possible to conduct surveys from the 12-dimensional structure with both versions. The inconsistencies observed between the Occelli and Vlayen versions of the HSOPSC may reflect either differences between the translations or heterogeneity in the study population and context. Current evidence does not clearly support the use of one version over the other. The two cross-cultural adaptations of the HSOPSC can be used interchangeably in French-speaking countries.

  1. Adjusting for cross-cultural differences in computer-adaptive tests of quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, C J; Skevington, S M

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies using the WHOQOL measures have demonstrated that the relationship between individual items and the underlying quality of life (QoL) construct may differ between cultures. If unaccounted for, these differing relationships can lead to measurement bias which, in turn, can undermine the reliability of results. We used item response theory (IRT) to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in WHOQOL data from diverse language versions collected in UK, Zimbabwe, Russia, and India (total N = 1332). Data were fitted to the partial credit 'Rasch' model. We used four item banks previously derived from the WHOQOL-100 measure, which provided excellent measurement for physical, psychological, social, and environmental quality of life domains (40 items overall). Cross-cultural differential item functioning was assessed using analysis of variance for item residuals and post hoc Tukey tests. Simulated computer-adaptive tests (CATs) were conducted to assess the efficiency and precision of the four items banks. Splitting item parameters by DIF results in four linked item banks without DIF or other breaches of IRT model assumptions. Simulated CATs were more precise and efficient than longer paper-based alternatives. Assessing differential item functioning using item response theory can identify measurement invariance between cultures which, if uncontrolled, may undermine accurate comparisons in computer-adaptive testing assessments of QoL. We demonstrate how compensating for DIF using item anchoring allowed data from all four countries to be compared on a common metric, thus facilitating assessments which were both sensitive to cultural nuance and comparable between countries.

  2. CULTURAL ADAPTATIONS OF EVIDENCE-BASED HOME-VISITATION MODELS IN TRIBAL COMMUNITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y; Parker, Myra E; Sanchez, Jenae; Riley, Rebecca; Heath, Debra; Chomo, Julianna C; Beltangady, Moushumi; Sarche, Michelle

    2018-05-01

    The Tribal Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (Tribal MIECHV) Program provides federal grants to tribes, tribal consortia, tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations to implement evidence-based home-visiting services for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) families. To date, only one evidence-based home-visiting program has been developed for use in AI/AN communities. The purpose of this article is to describe the steps that four Tribal MIECHV Programs took to assess community needs, select a home-visiting model, and culturally adapt the model for use in AI/AN communities. In these four unique Tribal MIECHV Program settings, each program employed a rigorous needs-assessment process and developed cultural modifications in accordance with community strengths and needs. Adaptations occurred in consultation with model developers, with consideration of the conceptual rationale for the program, while grounding new content in indigenous cultures. Research is needed to improve measurement of home-visiting outcomes in tribal and urban AI/AN settings, develop culturally grounded home-visiting interventions, and assess the effectiveness of home visiting in AI/AN communities. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  3. Rapid changes in corticospinal excitability during force field adaptation of human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Alain, S; Grey, Michael James

    2012-01-01

    measured changes in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle before, during, and after subjects adapted to a force field applied to the ankle joint during treadmill walking. When the force field assisted dorsiflexion during...... the swing phase of the step cycle, subjects adapted by decreasing TA EMG activity. In contrast, when the force field resisted dorsiflexion, they increased TA EMG activity. After the force field was removed, normal EMG activity gradually returned over the next 5 min of walking. TA MEPs elicited in the early...... be explained by changes in background TA EMG activity. These effects seemed specific to walking, as similar changes in TA MEP were not seen when seated subjects were tested during static dorsiflexion. These observations suggest that the corticospinal tract contributes to the adaptation of walking...

  4. CROSS-CULTURAL ADAPTATION AND VALIDATION OF THE KOREAN VERSION OF THE CUMBERLAND ANKLE INSTABILITY TOOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jupil; Rosen, Adam B; Brown, Cathleen N

    2015-12-01

    The Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) is a valid and reliable patient reported outcome used to assess the presence and severity of chronic ankle instability (CAI). The CAIT has been cross-culturally adapted into other languages for use in non-English speaking populations. However, there are no valid questionnaires to assess CAI in individuals who speak Korean. The purpose of this study was to translate, cross-culturally adapt, and validate the CAIT, for use in a Korean-speaking population with CAI. Cross-cultural reliability study. The CAIT was cross-culturally adapted into Korean according to accepted guidelines and renamed the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool-Korean (CAIT-K). Twenty-three participants (12 males, 11 females) who were bilingual in English and Korean were recruited and completed the original and adapted versions to assess agreement between versions. An additional 168 national level Korean athletes (106 male, 62 females; age = 20.3 ± 1.1 yrs), who participated in ≥ 90 minutes of physical activity per week, completed the final version of the CAIT-K twice within 14 days. Their completed questionnaires were assessed for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, criterion validity, and construct validity. For bilingual participants, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC2,1) between the CAIT and the CAIT-K for test-retest reliability were 0.95 (SEM=1.83) and 0.96 (SEM=1.50) in right and left limbs, respectively. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.92 and 0.90 for the CAIT-K in right and left limbs, respectively. For native Korean speakers, the CAIT-K had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.89) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC2,1 = 0.94, SEM=1.72), correlation with the physical component score (rho=0.70, p = 0.001) of the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin score was 0.87. The original CAIT was translated, cross-culturally adapted, and validated from English to Korean

  5. Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

    2005-12-30

    In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOE’s Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

  6. The use of newly developed real-time PCR for the rapid identification of bacteria in culture-negative osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Bauer, Thomas W; Sakai, Hiroshige; Togawa, Daisuke; Lieberman, Isador H; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Procop, Gary W

    2006-12-01

    We report a case of a culture-negative osteomyelitis in which our newly developed real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could differentiate Staphylococcus aureus from Staphylococcus epidermidis. This is the first report that described the application of this novel assay to an orthopedics clinical sample. This assay may be useful for other clinical culture-negative cases in a combination with a broad-spectrum assay as a rapid microorganism identification method.

  7. Comparison of four methods for rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus directly from BACTEC 9240 blood culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Ozen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococci is very important in blood stream infections. Identification of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS from blood cultures takes generally 18-24 h after positive signaling on continuously monitored automated blood culture system. In this study, we evaluated the performance of tube coagulase test (TCT, slide agglutination test (Dry Spot Staphytect Plus, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR and LightCycler Staphylococcus MGrade kit directly from blood culture bottles to achieve rapid identification of S. aureus by using the BACTEC 9240 blood culture system. Materials and Methods: A total of 129 BACTEC 9240 bottles growing gram-positive cocci suggesting Staphylococci were tested directly from blood culture broths (BCBs with TCT, Dry Spot Staphytect Plus, conventional PCR and LightCycler Staphylococcus MGrade kit for rapid identification of S. aureus. Results: The sensitivities of the tests were 99, 68, 99 and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggested that 2 h TCT was found to be simple and inexpensive method for the rapid identification of S. aureus directly from positive blood cultures.

  8. Comparison of four methods for rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus directly from BACTEC 9240 blood culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, N S; Ogunc, D; Mutlu, D; Ongut, G; Baysan, B O; Gunseren, F

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from coagulase-negative staphylococci is very important in blood stream infections. Identification of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from blood cultures takes generally 18-24 h after positive signaling on continuously monitored automated blood culture system. In this study, we evaluated the performance of tube coagulase test (TCT), slide agglutination test (Dry Spot Staphytect Plus), conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and LightCycler Staphylococcus MGrade kit directly from blood culture bottles to achieve rapid identification of S. aureus by using the BACTEC 9240 blood culture system. A total of 129 BACTEC 9240 bottles growing gram-positive cocci suggesting Staphylococci were tested directly from blood culture broths (BCBs) with TCT, Dry Spot Staphytect Plus, conventional PCR and LightCycler Staphylococcus MGrade kit for rapid identification of S. aureus. The sensitivities of the tests were 99, 68, 99 and 100%, respectively. Our results suggested that 2 h TCT was found to be simple and inexpensive method for the rapid identification of S. aureus directly from positive blood cultures.

  9. The Brain Dynamics of Rapid Perceptual Adaptation to Adverse Listening Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erb, J.; Henry, M.J.; Eisner, F.; Obleser, J.

    2013-01-01

    Listeners show a remarkable ability to quickly adjust to degraded speech input. Here, we aimed to identify the neural mechanisms of such short-term perceptual adaptation. In a sparse-sampling, cardiac-gated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition, human listeners heard and repeated

  10. Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in polar bears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shiping; Lorenzen, Eline; Fumagalli, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Polar bears are uniquely adapted to life in the High Arctic and have undergone drastic physiological changes in response to Arctic climates and a hyperlipid diet of primarily marine mammal prey. We analyzed 89 complete genomes of polar bear and brown bear using population genomic modeling and sho...

  11. Cross-cultural Adaptation of Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire Needs to Assess the Measurement Properties: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Min; Zhu, Sen; Tian, Zi-Rui; Song, Yong-Jia; Yang, Long; Wang, Yong-Jun; Cui, Xue-Jun

    2018-03-26

    To assess the cross cultural-adaptations of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). English and Chinese databases were searched through December 2017. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties were evaluated using the Guidelines for the Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measures and the Quality Criteria for Psychometric Properties of Health Status Questionnaire. Among 34 studies, there were 31 RMDQ adaptations for 26 different languages/cultures. In the cross-cultural adaptation process, few studies reported expert committees completely constituted (3/31), and only ten studies complete the test of the pre-final version (10/31) due to insufficient sample sizes. As for the measurement properties, content validity (31/31) and construct validity (24/31) were assessed in most of the adaptations, whereas internal consistency (0/31), agreement (5/31), responsiveness (3/31), interpretability (6/31), and floor and ceiling effects (6/31) were not. The Hungarian and Moon's Korean adaptations were the highest quality translations. Where there were multiple adaptations for a language/culture, the Moon's Korean and Fan's simplified Chinese-Chinese Mainland adaptations are recommended over the other Korean or simplified Chinese-Chinese Mainland adaptations. Further studies are required to fully assess the measurement properties of the Arabic-Moroccan, Arabic-Tunisian, German- Austrian, Greek, Guajarati, Kim's Korean, Persian-Iranian, Polish, He's simplified Chinese-Chinese Mainland, Spanish, Spanish-Chilean, Thai, traditional Chinese-Taiwan, and Turkish adaptations of the RMDQ. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. We really need to talk: adapting FDA processes to rapid change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykken, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly evolving realm of modern commerce strains traditional regulatory paradigms. This paper traces the historical evolution of FDA crisis-response regulation and provides examples of ways in which the definitions and procedures resulting from that past continue to be challenged by new products as market entrants, some in good faith and others not, take actions that create disconnects between actual product and marketing controls and those that consumers might expect. The paper then explores some of the techniques used by other federal agencies that have faced similar challenges in environments characterized by rapid innovation, and draws from this analysis suggestions for improvement of the FDA's warning letter system.

  13. Culture- and molecular-based detection of swine-adapted Salmonella shed by avian scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Guillermo; Díaz de Tuesta, Juan A

    2018-04-13

    Salmonella can play an important role as a disease agent in wildlife, which can then act as carriers and reservoirs of sanitary importance at the livestock-human interface. Transmission from livestock to avian scavengers can occur when these species consume contaminated carcasses and meat remains in supplementary feeding stations and rubbish dumps. We compared the performance of PCR-based detection with conventional culture-based methods to detect Salmonella in the faeces of red kites (Milvus milvus) and griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in central Spain. The occurrence of culturable Salmonella was intermediate in red kites (1.9%, n=52) and high in griffon vultures (26.3%, n=99). These proportions were clearly higher with PCR-based detection (13.5% and 40.4%, respectively). Confirmation cultures failed to grow Salmonella in all faecal samples positive by the molecular assay but negative by the initial conventional culture in both scavenger species, indicating the occurrence of false (non-culturable) positives by PCR-based detection. This suggests that the molecular assay is highly sensitive to detecting viable Salmonella in cultures, but also partial genomes and dead or unviable bacteria from past infections or contamination. Thus, the actual occurrence of Salmonella in a particular sampling time period can be underestimated when using only culture detection. The serovars found in the scavenger faeces were among the most frequently isolated in pigs from Spain and other EU countries, especially those generally recognized as swine-adapted monophasic variants of S. Typhimurium. Because the studied species obtain much of their food from pig carcasses, this livestock may be the primary source of Salmonella via direct ingestion of infected carcasses and indirectly via contamination due to the unsanitary conditions found in supplementary feeding stations established for scavenger conservation. Combining culture- and molecular-based detection is encouraged to understand the

  14. Cross-cultural Adaptation of the Self-care of Hypertension Inventory Into Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Luana Claudia Jacoby; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane; Ávila, Christiane Whast; Beltrami Moreira, Leila; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Riegel, Barbara

    Lifestyle changes and treatment adherence still constitute a challenge to healthcare providers involved in the care of persons with hypertension. The lack of validated instruments measuring the ability of hypertensive patients to manage their disease has slowed research progress in this area. The Self-care of Hypertension Inventory, originally developed in the United States, consists of 23 items divided across 3 scales: Self-care Maintenance, Self-care Management, and Self-care Confidence. These scales measure how well patients with hypertension adhere to treatment and manage elevated blood pressure, as well as their confidence in their ability to perform self-care. A rigorous cross-cultural adaptation and validation process is required before this instrument can be used in other countries. The aims of this study were to translate the Self-care of Hypertension Inventory into Brazilian Portuguese with cross-cultural adaptation and to evaluate interobserver reliability and temporal stability. This methodological study involved forward translation, synthesis of forward translations, back-translation, synthesis of back-translations, expert committee review, and pretesting. Interobserver agreement and the temporal stability of the scales were assessed. The expert committee proposed semantic and cultural modifications to some items and the addition of guidance statements to facilitate administration of the scale. Interobserver analysis demonstrated substantial agreement. Analysis of temporal stability showed near-perfect agreement. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Self-care of Hypertension Inventory successfully produced a Portuguese-language version of the instrument for further evaluation of psychometric properties. Once that step is completed, the scale can be used in Brazil.

  15. A review of culturally adapted versions of the Oswestry Disability Index: the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Peter J; Nelson-Wong, Erika J; Fischer, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is a self-report-based outcome measure used to quantify the extent of disability related to low back pain (LBP), a substantial contributor to workplace absenteeism. The ODI tool has been adapted for use by patients in several non-English speaking nations. It is unclear, however, if these adapted versions of the ODI are as credible as the original ODI developed for English-speaking nations. The objective of this study was to conduct a review of the literature to identify culturally adapted versions of the ODI and to report on the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of these ODIs. Following a pragmatic review process, data were extracted from each study with regard to these four outcomes. While most studies applied adaptation processes in accordance with best-practice guidelines, there were some deviations. However, all studies reported high-quality psychometric properties: group mean construct validity was 0.734 ± 0.094 (indicated via a correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability was 0.937 ± 0.032 (indicated via an intraclass correlation coefficient) and internal consistency was 0.876 ± 0.047 (indicated via Cronbach's alpha). Researchers can be confident when using any of these culturally adapted ODIs, or when comparing and contrasting results between cultures where these versions were employed. Implications for Rehabilitation Low back pain is the second leading cause of disability in the world, behind only cancer. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) has been developed as a self-report outcome measure of low back pain for administration to patients. An understanding of the various cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI is important for more concerted multi-national research efforts. This review examines 16 cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI and should inform the work of health care and rehabilitation professionals.

  16. Rapid prototyping of an adaptive light-source for mobile manipulators with EasyKit and EasyLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczyk, Martin; Barner, Simon; Geisinger, Michael; Knoll, Alois

    2008-08-01

    While still not common in day-to-day business, mobile robot platforms form a growing market in robotics. Mobile platforms equipped with a manipulator for increased flexibility have been used successfully in biotech laboratories for sample management as shown on the well-known ESACT meetings. Navigation and object recognition is carried out by the utilization of a mounted machine vision camera. To cope with the different illumination conditions in a large laboratory, development of an adaptive light source was indispensable. We present our approach of rapid developing a computer controlled, adaptive LED light within one single business day, by utilizing the hardware toolbox EasyKit and our appropriate software counterpart EasyLab.

  17. Evolution in an Afternoon: Rapid Natural Selection and Adaptation of Bacterial Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, rapid and low-cost technique for growing bacteria (or other microbes) in an environmental gradient, in order to determine the tolerance of the microbial population to varying concentrations of sodium chloride ions, and suggests how the evolutionary response of a microbial population to the selection pressure of the…

  18. Climate knowledge cultures: Stakeholder perspectives on change and adaptation in Nusa Tenggara Barat, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Bohensky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective climate adaptation requires engagement (awareness, motivation, and capacity to act at relevant scales, from individuals to global institutions. In many parts of the world, research attention has focused on the engagement of the general public. We suggest that studies also need to focus on key stakeholders in the government and non-governmental sectors who participate in adaptation planning processes, so that a better understanding may be achieved of the distinct knowledge cultures that influence their engagement with climate change. Indonesia is a key actor in climate adaptation because of the potentially dire consequences for its population’s livelihoods and well-being. In this paper we consider whether ‘climate knowledge cultures’ exist amongst stakeholders at multiple organisational levels in Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB Province, Eastern Indonesia. Surveys were conducted with 124 stakeholders from differing levels at the beginning of four multi-stakeholder climate adaptation workshops. Questions elicited perceptions of their region’s challenges, observation and awareness of climate change, feelings they associated with climate change, beliefs regarding causes, risks and preparedness for climate change, and timeframes they associated with the future. Across all levels, climate change ranked highest as the first challenge participants identified, followed by food security, but well-being ranked highest when the top three challenges were combined. Most participants believed climate change was happening, but those working at higher organisational levels were more likely to attribute climate change to human factors whereas those at lower levels were more likely to think it was a natural phenomenon. Women were in greater agreement and more optimistic than men about current government policies to cope with climate change. Perceptions differed between sub-districts, reflecting NTB’s climatic diversity. We note that although climate

  19. Rapid paper disk test for identification of Helicobacter pylori in mixed cultures of gerbil gastric homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Juarez, Israel; Rangel-Vega, Adrian; Romero, Irma

    2010-10-01

    A method denominated rapid paper disk test (RPDT) was developed to identify H. pylori colonies in complex cultures obtained from gerbil gastric homogenates. Identification is based on a characteristic reaction pattern (RP) for H. pylori colonies given by the combination of the urease-oxidase activities on a paper disk. Compared to the RPs obtained from gerbil's intestinal tract isolated bacteria, H. pylori RP is completely distinguishable, even from those of bacteria that share one or both activities as are Aerococcus urinae, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus brevis, Corynebacterium pseudogenitalium, and Staphylococcus simulans, as well as from those produced by collection strains Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This method allows the practical quantification of H. pylori colonies in highly contaminated plates. RPDT has the following advantages over other methodologies that use indicators in the medium: it employs two of the three routinely used H. pylori biochemical identification tests, the reagents do not interfere with bacterial viability, there are no restrictions in relation to the medium used, and it is a simple, fast, and low-cost method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid Mapping and Deformation Analysis over Cultural Heritage and Rural Sites Based on Persistent Scatterer Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tapete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an easy-to-use procedure of “PSI-based rapid mapping and deformation analysis,” to effectively exploit Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI for multispatial/temporal hazard assessment of cultural heritage and rural sites, update the condition report at the scale of entire site and single building, and address the conservation strategies. Advantages and drawbacks of the methodology are critically discussed based on feasibility tests performed over Pitigliano and Bivigliano, respectively, located in Southern and Northern Tuscany, Italy, and representative of hilltop historic towns and countryside settlements chronically affected by natural hazards. We radar-interpreted ERS-1/2 (1992–2000 and ENVISAT (2003–2010 datasets, already processed, respectively with the Permanent Scatterers (PSs and Persistent Scatterers Pairs (PSPs techniques, and assigned the levels of conservation criticality for both the sites. The PSI analysis allowed the zoning of the most unstable sectors of Pitigliano and showed a good agreement with the most updated hazard assessment of the cliff. The reconstruction of past/recent deformation patterns over Bivigliano confirmed the criticality for the Church of San Romolo, supporting the hypothesis of a correlation with local landslide phenomena, as also perceived from the annual motions observed over the entire site, where several landslide bodies are mapped.

  1. Pilot outcome results of culturally adapted evidence-based substance use disorder treatment with a Southwest Tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilla L. Venner

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Results suggest that culturally adapted EBTs yield significant improvements in alcohol use, psychological distress, and legal problems among AI/ANs. Future research using RCT methodology is needed to examine efficacy and effectiveness.

  2. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Figueredo Chaves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. METHODS Assessment of the instrument’s conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee’s assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. RESULTS Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes – Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494– 0.737, while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. CONCLUSIONS The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the

  3. Translation, cultural adaptation, and content validity index of the Juvenile Love Scale to the Brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrayne Stephane Soares

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passionate love involves physiological, emotional, and cognitive features that greatly changes behavior. This phenomenon seems universal or near universal. Even other animal species choose partners. An intense state of passionate love is associated with activity in dopamine pathways of the brain ‘reward system’, and recently has been regarded as a ‘natural addiction’. Instruments or tools to evaluate romantic love during childhood is still scarce. Objective To perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the Juvenile Love Scale (JLS for use in the Brazilian context targeted for adolescents between 14 and 18 years old. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation of JLS followed international recommendations, and its content validity was analyzed by a panel of experts in different areas of knowledge. Results The final version of the JLS for use in the Brazilian context showed high content validity (> 90%. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first scale for measuring romantic or passionate love in adolescents adapted to the Brazilian context. This instrument is a significant contribution to the study of the dimensions of love, as well as to understand the impact of love on the psychiatric phenomena that pervade life in this stage of development.

  4. Assessment of the pathogenicity of cell-culture-adapted Newcastle disease virus strain Komarov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnuvinayagam, Sivam; Thangavel, K; Lalitha, N; Malmarugan, S; Sukumar, Kuppannan

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease vaccines hitherto in vogue are produced from embryonated chicken eggs. Egg-adapted mesogenic vaccines possess several drawbacks such as paralysis and mortality in 2-week-old chicks and reduced egg production in the egg-laying flock. Owing to these possible drawbacks, we attempted to reduce the vaccine virulence for safe vaccination by adapting the virus in a chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEFCC) system. Eighteen passages were carried out by CEFCC, and the pathogenicity was assessed on the basis of the mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and intravenous pathogenicity index, at equal passage intervals. Although the reduction in virulence demonstrated with increasing passage levels in CEFCC was encouraging, 20% of the 2-week-old birds showed paralytic symptoms with the virus vaccine from the 18(th)(final) passage. Thus, a tissue-culture-adapted vaccine would demand a few more passages by CEFCC in order to achieve a complete reduction in virulence for use as a safe and effective vaccine, especially among younger chicks. Moreover, it can be safely administered even to unprimed 8-week-old birds.

  5. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Freiburg Life Quality Assessment - Wound Module to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Aparecida Rocha Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to adapt the Freiburg Life Quality Assessment - Wound Module to Brazilian Portuguese and to measure its psychometric properties: reliability and validity. Method: the cultural adaptation was undertaken following the stages of translation, synthesis of the translations, back translation, committee of specialists, pre-test and focus group. A total of 200 patients participated in the study. These were recruited in Primary Care Centers, Family Health Strategy Centers, in a philanthropic hospital and in a teaching hospital. Reliability was assessed through internal consistency and stability. Validity was ascertained through the correlation of the instrument's values with those of the domains of the Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index - Wound Version and with the quality of life score of the visual analog scale. Results: the instrument presented adequate internal consistency (Cronbach alpha =0.86 and high stability in the test and retest (0.93. The validity presented correlations of moderate and significant magnitude (-0.24 to -0.48, p<0.0001. Conclusion: the results indicated that the adapted version presented reliable and valid psychometric measurements for the population with chronic wounds in the Brazilian culture.

  6. An Adaptive Cultural Algorithm with Improved Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization for Sonar Image Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingmei; Hao, Wenqian; Li, Qiming

    2017-12-18

    This paper proposes an adaptive cultural algorithm with improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (ACA-IQPSO) to detect the underwater sonar image. In the population space, to improve searching ability of particles, iterative times and the fitness value of particles are regarded as factors to adaptively adjust the contraction-expansion coefficient of the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm (QPSO). The improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm (IQPSO) can make particles adjust their behaviours according to their quality. In the belief space, a new update strategy is adopted to update cultural individuals according to the idea of the update strategy in shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA). Moreover, to enhance the utilization of information in the population space and belief space, accept function and influence function are redesigned in the new communication protocol. The experimental results show that ACA-IQPSO can obtain good clustering centres according to the grey distribution information of underwater sonar images, and accurately complete underwater objects detection. Compared with other algorithms, the proposed ACA-IQPSO has good effectiveness, excellent adaptability, a powerful searching ability and high convergence efficiency. Meanwhile, the experimental results of the benchmark functions can further demonstrate that the proposed ACA-IQPSO has better searching ability, convergence efficiency and stability.

  7. Adaptation for rodent pollination in Leucospermum arenarium (Proteaceae) despite rapid pollen loss during grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher Michael; Pauw, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Plants are adapted for rodent pollination in diverse and intricate ways. This study explores an extraordinary example of these adaptations in the pincushion Leucospermum arenarium (Proteaceae) from South Africa. Live trapping and differential exclusion experiments were used to test the role of rodents versus birds and insects as pollinators. To explore the adaptive significance of geoflory, inflorescences were raised above ground level and seed production was compared. Captive rodents and flowers with artificial stigmas were used to test the effect of grooming on the rate of pollen loss. Microscopy, nectar composition analysis and manipulative experiments were used to investigate the bizarre nectar production and transport system. Differential exclusion of rodents, birds and insects demonstrated the importance of rodents in promoting seed production. Live trapping revealed that hairy-footed gerbils, Gerbillurus paeba, and striped field mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, both carried L. arenarium pollen on their forehead and rostrum, but much larger quantities ended up in faeces as a result of grooming. Terrarium experiments showed that grooming exponentially diminished the pollen loads that they carried. The nectar of L. arenarium was found to be unusually viscous and to be presented in a novel location on the petal tips, where rodents could access it without destroying the flowers. Nectar was produced inside the perianth, but was translocated to the petal tips via capillary ducts. In common with many other rodent-pollinated plants, the flowers are presented at ground level, but when raised to higher positions seed production was not reduced, indicating that selection through female function does not drive the evolution of geoflory. Despite the apparent cost of pollen lost to grooming, L. arenarium has evolved remarkable adaptations for rodent pollination and provides the first case of this pollination system in the genus.

  8. Resilient Intent:Confronting Six Cultural Barriers Inhibiting Development Of Rapidly Adaptive Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    star generals pride themselves in being “action officers” on behalf of important initiatives that add significant benefit or effectiveness. Leaders...supervisors have of employees who show up to work early. He posited that guilt is another factor. It’s likely unacceptable for most leaders to come to the

  9. Adaptive enhancement of learning protocol in hippocampal cultured networks grown on multielectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimashkin, Alexey; Gladkov, Arseniy; Mukhina, Irina; Kazantsev, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Learning in neuronal networks can be investigated using dissociated cultures on multielectrode arrays supplied with appropriate closed-loop stimulation. It was shown in previous studies that weakly respondent neurons on the electrodes can be trained to increase their evoked spiking rate within a predefined time window after the stimulus. Such neurons can be associated with weak synaptic connections in nearby culture network. The stimulation leads to the increase in the connectivity and in the response. However, it was not possible to perform the learning protocol for the neurons on electrodes with relatively strong synaptic inputs and responding at higher rates. We proposed an adaptive closed-loop stimulation protocol capable to achieve learning even for the highly respondent electrodes. It means that the culture network can reorganize appropriately its synaptic connectivity to generate a desired response. We introduced an adaptive reinforcement condition accounting for the response variability in control stimulation. It significantly enhanced the learning protocol to a large number of responding electrodes independently on its base response level. We also found that learning effect preserved after 4–6 h after training. PMID:23745105

  10. Cultural Adaptation of Erasmus Students in Latvia and Host University Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vevere Velga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Internationalisation of education and student mobility (incoming and outgoing has become a significant factor in the sphere of higher education. These processes lead to interaction between local students and exchange students, as well as between exchange students and host universities. Being in the foreign country for a certain period (one or two semesters requires some cultural and social adaptation that could or could not be problematic for various reasons. In order to maximise benefits for the exchange students and host universities, it is important to identify existing problems and to offer possible solutions. The aim of the current paper is to research the critical aspects of cultural adaptation process of ERASMUS students in Latvia. The international group that consists of a professor of the University College of Economics and Culture and three exchange students from Italy and Spain carried out the research. The empirical methods used were the following: a survey of ERASMUS students (non-probability purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews with the host university ERASMUS coordinators. The data processing methods were the descriptive statistics as well as the thematic content analysis. On the basis of critical issues identified during the research process, the authors worked a set of practical solutions aimed at the host institutions.

  11. Cultural differences in complex addition: efficient Chinese versus adaptive Belgians and Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbo, Ineke; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2009-11-01

    In the present study, the authors tested the effects of working-memory load on math problem solving in 3 different cultures: Flemish-speaking Belgians, English-speaking Canadians, and Chinese-speaking Chinese currently living in Canada. Participants solved complex addition problems (e.g., 58 + 76) in no-load and working-memory load conditions, in which either the central executive or the phonological loop was loaded. The authors used the choice/no-choice method to obtain unbiased measures of strategy selection and strategy efficiency. The Chinese participants were faster than the Belgians, who were faster and more accurate than the Canadians. The Chinese also required fewer working-memory resources than did the Belgians and Canadians. However, the Chinese chose less adaptively from the available strategies than did the Belgians and Canadians. These cultural differences in math problem solving are likely the result of different instructional approaches during elementary school (practice and training in Asian countries vs. exploration and flexibility in non-Asian countries), differences in the number language, and informal cultural norms and standards. The relevance of being adaptive is discussed as well as the implications of the results in regards to the strategy choice and discovery simulation model of strategy selection (J. Shrager & R. S. Siegler, 1998).

  12. Adaptation of a nursing home culture change research instrument for frontline staff quality improvement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christine W; Palmer, Jennifer A; Mills, Whitney L; Pimentel, Camilla B; Allen, Rebecca S; Wewiorski, Nancy J; Dillon, Kristen R; Snow, A Lynn

    2017-08-01

    Enhanced interpersonal relationships and meaningful resident engagement in daily life are central to nursing home cultural transformation, yet these critical components of person-centered care may be difficult for frontline staff to measure using traditional research instruments. To address the need for easy-to-use instruments to help nursing home staff members evaluate and improve person-centered care, the psychometric method of cognitive-based interviewing was used to adapt a structured observation instrument originally developed for researchers and nursing home surveyors. Twenty-eight staff members from 2 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes participated in 1 of 3 rounds of cognitive-based interviews, using the instrument in real-life situations. Modifications to the original instrument were guided by a cognitive processing model of instrument refinement. Following 2 rounds of cognitive interviews, pretesting of the revised instrument, and another round of cognitive interviews, the resulting set of 3 short instruments mirrored the concepts of the original longer instrument but were significantly easier for frontline staff to understand and use. Final results indicated frontline staff found the revised instruments feasible to use and clinically relevant in measuring and improving the lived experience of a changing culture. This article provides a framework for developing or adapting other measurement tools for frontline culture change efforts in nursing homes, in addition to reporting on a practical set of instruments to measure aspects of person-centered care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Cultural and Linguistic Adaptation of a Multimedia Colorectal Cancer Screening Decision Aid for Spanish Speaking Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Linda K.; Reuland, Daniel; Jolles, Monica; Clay, Rebecca; Pignone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    As the United States becomes more linguistically and culturally diverse, there is a need for effective health communication interventions that target diverse and most vulnerable populations. Latinos also have the lowest colorectal (CRC) screening rates of any ethnic group in the U.S. To address such disparities, health communication interventionists are often faced with the challenge to adapt existing interventions from English into Spanish in a way that retains essential elements of the original intervention while also addressing the linguistic needs and cultural perspectives of the target population. We describe the conceptual framework, context, rationale, methods, and findings of a formative research process used in creating a Spanish language version of an evidenced-based (English language) multimedia CRC screening decision aid. Our multi-step process included identification of essential elements of the existing intervention, literature review, assessment of the regional context and engagement of key stakeholders, and solicitation of direct input from target population. We integrated these findings in the creation of the new adapted intervention. We describe how we used this process to identify and integrate socio-cultural themes such as personalism (personalismo), familism (familismo), fear (miedo), embarrassment (verguenza), power distance (respeto), machismo, and trust (confianza) into the Spanish language decision aid. PMID:24328496

  14. Adaptation of the genetically tractable malaria pathogen Plasmodium knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Robert

    2012-12-24

    Research into the aetiological agent of the most widespread form of severe malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, has benefitted enormously from the ability to culture and genetically manipulate blood-stage forms of the parasite in vitro. However, most malaria outside Africa is caused by a distinct Plasmodium species, Plasmodium vivax, and it has become increasingly apparent that zoonotic infection by the closely related simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a frequent cause of life-threatening malaria in regions of southeast Asia. Neither of these important malarial species can be cultured in human cells in vitro, requiring access to primates with the associated ethical and practical constraints. We report the successful adaptation of P. knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes. Human-adapted P. knowlesi clones maintain their capacity to replicate in monkey erythrocytes and can be genetically modified with unprecedented efficiency, providing an important and unique model for studying conserved aspects of malarial biology as well as species-specific features of an emerging pathogen.

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Social and Emotional Questionnaire on Dementia for the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Belfort

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Impairments in social and emotional functioning may affect the communication skills and interpersonal relationships of people with dementia and their caregivers. This study had the aim of presenting the steps involved in the cross-cultural adaptation of the Social and Emotional Questionnaire (SEQ for the Brazilian population.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural adaptation study, conducted at the Center for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders in a public university.METHODS: The process adopted in this study required six consecutive steps: initial translation, translation synthesis, back translation, committee of judges, pretesting of final version and submission to the original author.RESULTS: In general, the items had semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and experiential equivalence. During the first pretest, people with dementia and their caregivers had difficulties in understanding some items relating to social skills, which were interpreted ambiguously. New changes were made to allow better adjustment to the target population and, following this, a new pretest was performed. This pre-test showed that the changes were relevant and gave rise to the final version of the instrument. There was no correlation between education level and performance in the questionnaire, among people with dementia (P = 0.951.CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social and Emotional Questionnaire was well understood and, despite the cultural and linguistic differences, the constructs of the original version were maintained.

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Social and Emotional Questionnaire on Dementia for the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, Tatiana; Bramham, Jessica; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Santos, Raquel Luiza dos; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Torres, Bianca; Rosa, Rachel Dias Lopes da; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in social and emotional functioning may affect the communication skills and interpersonal relationships of people with dementia and their caregivers. This study had the aim of presenting the steps involved in the cross-cultural adaptation of the Social and Emotional Questionnaire (SEQ) for the Brazilian population. Cross-cultural adaptation study, conducted at the Center for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders in a public university. The process adopted in this study required six consecutive steps: initial translation, translation synthesis, back translation, committee of judges, pretesting of final version and submission to the original author. In general, the items had semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and experiential equivalence. During the first pretest, people with dementia and their caregivers had difficulties in understanding some items relating to social skills, which were interpreted ambiguously. New changes were made to allow better adjustment to the target population and, following this, a new pretest was performed. This pre-test showed that the changes were relevant and gave rise to the final version of the instrument. There was no correlation between education level and performance in the questionnaire, among people with dementia (P = 0.951). The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social and Emotional Questionnaire was well understood and, despite the cultural and linguistic differences, the constructs of the original version were maintained.

  17. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Brief Michigan Hand Questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carlos Henrique; Neto, Jorge Raduan; Meirelles, Lia Miyamoto; Pereira, Carina Nascimento Mastrocinque; Dos Santos, João Baptista Gomes; Faloppa, Flavio

    2014-09-01

    The use of patient-reported outcome questionnaires is recommended in orthopedic studies. However, validated tools are necessary to ensure the comparability of results across different studies, centers, and countries. The Brief Michigan Hand Questionnaire (BMHQ) can be used for outcome measures in self-evaluation after carpal tunnel release. This study aimed to translate the BMHQ to Portuguese to permit cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilians patients. We translated the Brief Michigan Hand Questionnaire from the original version (English) to Brazilian Portuguese. The translation and cultural adaptation of the content of this tool consisted of six stages, according to the methodology proposed by medical literature: (1) initial translation of the questionnaire by two independent translators; (2) synthesis of translations and reconciliation; (3) back-translation to English of the reconciled version; (4) verification of the cultural equivalence process by an expert committee; (5) pre-testing in a sample of patients to verify understanding of the items; and (6) development of a final version of the BMHQ. The pre-final version of the tool was applied to 43 patients to verify its understanding. Pre-testing showed that the questions and options were satisfactorily understood. The number of items from the original English version was maintained in the Brazilian Portuguese version of BMHQ. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the BMHQ is easily understood by patients and will be useful to clinicians and researchers.

  18. Family Impact Scale (FIS): Cross-cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties for the Peruvian Spanish Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanto, Jenny; Albites, Ursula; Bönecker, Marcelo; Paiva, Saul M; Castillo, Jorge L; Aguilar-Gálvez, Denisse

    2015-12-01

    The lack of a Family Impact Scale (FIS) in Spanish language limits its use as an indicator in Spanish-speaking countries and precludes comparisons with data from other cultural and ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was therefore to adapt the FIS cross-culturally to the Peruvian Spanish language and assess its reliability and validity. In order to translate and adapt the FIS cross-culturally, it was answered by 60 parents in two pilot tests, after which it was tested on 200 parents of children aged 11 to 14 years who were clinically examined for dental caries experience and malocclusions. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient while repeat administration of the FIS on the same 200 parents enabled the test-retest reliability to be assessed via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct and discriminant validity were based on associations of the FIS with global ratings of oral health and clinical groups, respectively. Mean (standard deviation) FIS total score was 5.20 (5.86). Internal consistency was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha 0.84. Test-retest reliability revealed excellent reproducibility (ICC = 0.96). Construct validity was good, demonstrating statistically significant associations between total FIS score and global ratings of oral health (p=0.007) and overall wellbeing (p=0.002), as well as for the subscale scores (pfamily caused by children's oral conditions. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  19. Adaptation of the genetically tractable malaria pathogen Plasmodium knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Robert; Hall, Joanna M.; Rangkuti, Farania; Ho, YungShwen; Almond, Neil M.; Mitchell, Graham Howard; Pain, Arnab; Holder, Anthony A.; Blackman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Research into the aetiological agent of the most widespread form of severe malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, has benefitted enormously from the ability to culture and genetically manipulate blood-stage forms of the parasite in vitro. However, most malaria outside Africa is caused by a distinct Plasmodium species, Plasmodium vivax, and it has become increasingly apparent that zoonotic infection by the closely related simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a frequent cause of life-threatening malaria in regions of southeast Asia. Neither of these important malarial species can be cultured in human cells in vitro, requiring access to primates with the associated ethical and practical constraints. We report the successful adaptation of P. knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes. Human-adapted P. knowlesi clones maintain their capacity to replicate in monkey erythrocytes and can be genetically modified with unprecedented efficiency, providing an important and unique model for studying conserved aspects of malarial biology as well as species-specific features of an emerging pathogen.

  20. The brain dynamics of rapid perceptual adaptation to adverse listening conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Julia; Henry, Molly J; Eisner, Frank; Obleser, Jonas

    2013-06-26

    Listeners show a remarkable ability to quickly adjust to degraded speech input. Here, we aimed to identify the neural mechanisms of such short-term perceptual adaptation. In a sparse-sampling, cardiac-gated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition, human listeners heard and repeated back 4-band-vocoded sentences (in which the temporal envelope of the acoustic signal is preserved, while spectral information is highly degraded). Clear-speech trials were included as baseline. An additional fMRI experiment on amplitude modulation rate discrimination quantified the convergence of neural mechanisms that subserve coping with challenging listening conditions for speech and non-speech. First, the degraded speech task revealed an "executive" network (comprising the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex), parts of which were also activated in the non-speech discrimination task. Second, trial-by-trial fluctuations in successful comprehension of degraded speech drove hemodynamic signal change in classic "language" areas (bilateral temporal cortices). Third, as listeners perceptually adapted to degraded speech, downregulation in a cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit was observable. The present data highlight differential upregulation and downregulation in auditory-language and executive networks, respectively, with important subcortical contributions when successfully adapting to a challenging listening situation.

  1. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Initial Validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O.; Odetunde, Marufat O.; Odole, Adesola C.

    2012-01-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted…

  2. Spanish translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the Questionnaire for Diabetes-Related Foot Disease (Q-DFD)

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Wilson; Flores-Fortty,; Feraud,Lourdes; Tettamanti,

    2013-01-01

    Wilson Castillo-Tandazo, Adolfo Flores-Fortty, Lourdes Feraud, Daniel TettamantiSchool of Medicine, Universidad Espíritu Santo – Ecuador, Samborondón, Guayas, EcuadorPurpose: To translate, cross-culturally adapt, and validate the Questionnaire for Diabetes-Related Foot Disease (Q-DFD), originally created and validated in Australia, for its use in Spanish-speaking patients with diabetes mellitus.Patients and methods: The translation and cross-cultural adaptation...

  3. Cultured bovine granulosa cells rapidly lose important features of their identity and functionality but partially recover under long-term culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenuganti, Vengala Rao; Vanselow, Jens

    2017-05-01

    Cell culture models are essential for the detailed study of molecular processes. We analyze the dynamics of changes in a culture model of bovine granulosa cells. The cells were cultured for up to 8 days and analyzed for steroid production and gene expression. According to the expression of the marker genes CDH1, CDH2 and VIM, the cells maintained their mesenchymal character throughout the time of culture. In contrast, the levels of functionally important transcripts and of estradiol and progesterone production were rapidly down-regulated but showed a substantial up-regulation from day 4. FOXL2, a marker for granulosa cell identity, was also rapidly down-regulated after plating but completely recovered towards the end of culture. In contrast, expression of the Sertoli cell marker SOX9 and the lesion/inflammation marker PTGS2 increased during the first 2 days after plating but gradually decreased later on. We conclude that only long-term culture conditions (>4 days) allow the cells to recover from plating stress and to re-acquire characteristic granulosa cell features.

  4. ANALYSIS OF CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS UNDER THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE CURVE THEORY "U" AND "W"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Stallivieri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Students from around the world are increasingly interested in learning new languages and be inserted in different cultures, increasing the numbers of international mobility. However, when traveling to another country, cultural differences are strongly perceived, even if in different ways, influencing the adaptation process. Given the importance and growth of the international academic mobility, this study analyzes the process of cultural adaptation of students in mobility, considering the assumptions of the theory of curves "U" and "W". As for the methodology, it is a descriptive research with quantitative approach. Data collection was conducted through closed questionnaires sent to international students from different countries who have studied or are still studying in a Brazilian Institution of Higher Education. The results showed that after the stage of culture shock, students feel more connected to local culture, make more friends and feel more confident. It was confirmed also that almost all international students managed to adapt well to local customs.

  5. Gene expression of Escherichia coli in continuous culture during adaptation to artificial sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Michael; Weilenmann, Hans-Ulrich; Egli, Thomas

    2006-09-01

    Escherichia coli growing in continuous culture under continuous UVA irradiation exhibits growth inhibition with a subsequent adaptation to the stress. Transcriptome analysis was performed during transient growth inhibition and in the UVA light-adapted growth state. The results indicate that UVA light induces stringent response and an additional response that includes the upregulation of the synthesis of valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, histidine and glutamate. The induction of several SOS response-genes strongly points to DNA damage as a result of UVA exposure. The involvement of oxidative stress was observed with the induction of ahpCF. Taken together it supports the hypothesis of the production of reactive oxygen species by UVA light. In the UVA-adapted cell population strong repression of the acid tolerance response was found. We identified the enzyme chorismate mutase as a possible chromophore for UVA light-inactivation and found strong repression of the pyrBI operon and the gene mgtA encoding for an ATP-dependent Mg2+ transporter. Furthermore, our results indicate that the role of RpoS may not be as important in the adaptation of E. coli to UVA light as it was implicated by previous results with starved cells, but that RpoS might be of crucial importance for the resistance under transient light exposure.

  6. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Perceived Stigmatization Questionnaire for burn victims in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noélle de Oliveira Freitas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This methodological study aimed to describe the process of translation and cultural adaptation of the Perceived stigmatization Questionnaire (PSQ and analyze the internal consistency of the items in the step of pre-testing. The PSQ was developed to evaluate the perception of stigmatizing behaviors of burn victims. The adaptation process was carried out from August 2012 to February 2013, comprising the steps outlined in the literature. As part of this process, the pre-test with 30 adult burn victims was held. All participants at this step reported to understand the instrument items and the scale of responses. There were no suggestions or changes in the tested version. The value of Cronbach’s alpha at pre-test was 0.87. The contribution of this study is to describe the operation of each of the steps of this methodological process and show the internal consistency of the items in the pre-test.

  7. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Hip Outcome Score to the Portuguese language,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liszt Palmeira de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to translate the Hip Outcome Score clinical evaluation questionnaire into Portuguese and culturally adapt it for Brazil.METHODS: the Hip Outcome Score questionnaire was translated into Portuguese following the methodology consisting of the steps of translation, back-translation, pretesting and final translation.RESULTS: the pretesting was applied to 30 patients with hip pain without arthrosis. In the domain relating to activities of daily living, there were no difficulties in comprehending the translated questionnaire. In presenting the final translation of the questionnaire, all the questions were understood by more than 85% of the individuals.CONCLUSION: the Hip Outcome Score questionnaire was translated and adapted to the Portuguese language and can be used in clinical evaluation on the hip. Additional studies are underway with the objective of evaluating the reproducibility and validity of the Brazilian translation.

  8. Cultural adaptation and validation of an instrument on barriers for the use of research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Guimarães; Haas, Vanderlei José; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Felix, Márcia Marques Dos Santos; Galvão, Cristina Maria

    2017-03-02

    to culturally adapt The Barriers to Research Utilization Scale and to analyze the metric validity and reliability properties of its Brazilian Portuguese version. methodological research conducted by means of the cultural adaptation process (translation and back-translation), face and content validity, construct validity (dimensionality and known groups) and reliability analysis (internal consistency and test-retest). The sample consisted of 335 nurses, of whom 43 participated in the retest phase. the validity of the adapted version of the instrument was confirmed. The scale investigates the barriers for the use of the research results in clinical practice. Confirmatory factorial analysis demonstrated that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument is adequately adjusted to the dimensional structure the scale authors originally proposed. Statistically significant differences were observed among the nurses holding a Master's or Doctoral degree, with characteristics favorable to Evidence-Based Practice, and working at an institution with an organizational cultural that targets this approach. The reliability showed a strong correlation (r ranging between 0.77 and 0.84, pcultura organizacional dirigida hacia tal aproximación. La fiabilidad presentó correlación fuerte (r variando entre 0,77 y 0,84, pcultura organizacional direcionada para tal abordagem. A confiabilidade apresentou correlação forte (r variando entre 0,77e 0,84, p<0,001) e a consistência interna foi adequada (alfa de Cronbach variando entre 0,77 e 0,82) . a versão para o português brasileiro do instrumento The Barriers Scale demonstrou-se válida e confiável no grupo estudado.

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of Persian Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Hasanvand, Sahar; Fakhari, Zahra; Kordi, Ramin; Nilsson-Helander, Katarina

    2016-04-01

    To cross-culturally adapt the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) to Persian language and to preliminary evaluate the reliability and validity of a Persian ATRS. A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study was conducted to translate and cross-culturally adapt the ATRS to Persian language (ATRS-Persian) following steps described in guidelines. Thirty patients with total Achilles tendon rupture and 30 healthy subjects participated in this study. Psychometric properties of floor/ceiling effects (responsiveness), internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest detectable change (SDC), construct validity, and discriminant validity were tested. Factor analysis was performed to determine the ATRS-Persian structure. There were no floor or ceiling effects that indicate the content and responsiveness of ATRS-Persian. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α 0.95). Item-total correlations exceeded acceptable standard of 0.3 for the all items (0.58-0.95). The test-retest reliability was excellent [(ICC)agreement 0.98]. SEM and SDC were 3.57 and 9.9, respectively. Construct validity was supported by a significant correlation between the ATRS-Persian total score and the Persian Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (PFAOS) total score and PFAOS subscales (r = 0.55-0.83). The ATRS-Persian significantly discriminated between patients and healthy subjects. Explanatory factor analysis revealed 1 component. The ATRS was cross-culturally adapted to Persian and demonstrated to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure functional outcomes in Persian patients with Achilles tendon rupture. II.

  10. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule to Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Fabiana da Silva; Blanes, Leila; Nicodemo, Denise; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2017-05-01

    To translate into Brazilian Portuguese and cross-culturally adapt the Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule, a specific measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for patients with chronic wounds. Chronic wounds have a relevant impact on the HRQoL of patients. However, there are few instruments cross-culturally adapted and validated in Brazil to assess HRQoL in patients with wounds. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted following six steps: (1) translation of the original instrument into Brazilian-Portuguese by two independent translators; (2) construction of a consensus version based on both translations; (3) two independent back-translations into English of the consensus version; (4) review by an expert committee and construction of the pre-final version; (5) testing of the pre-final version on patients with chronic wounds; and (6) construction of the final version. The psychometric properties of the instrument were tested on 30 patients with chronic wounds of the lower limb; 76.7% were men, 70.0% had traumatic wounds, and 43.3% had the wound for more than 1 year. Participants were recruited from an outpatient wound care clinic in São Paulo, Brazil. The final version approved by the expert committee was well understood by all patients who participate in the study and had satisfactory face validity, content validity, and internal consistency, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from 0.681 to 0.920. The cross-culturally adapted Brazilian-Portuguese version of the instrument showed satisfactory face and content validity, good internal consistency, and was named Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule-Federal University of São Paulo School of Medicine or CWIS-UNIFESP/EPM. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of a Bengali version of the modified fibromyalgia impact questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muquith Mohammed A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, no validated instruments are available to measure the health status of Bangladeshi patients with fibromyalgia (FM. The aims of this study were to cross-culturally adapt the modified Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ into Bengali (B-FIQ and to test its validity and reliability in Bangladeshi patients with FM. Methods The FIQ was translated following cross-cultural adaptation guidelines and pretested in 30 female patients with FM. Next, the adapted B-FIQ was physician-administered to 102 consecutive female FM patients together with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, selected subscales of the SF-36, and visual analog scales for current clinical symptoms. A tender point count (TPC was performed by an experienced rheumatologist. Forty randomly selected patients completed the B-FIQ again after 7 days. Two control groups of 50 healthy people and 50 rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients also completed the B-FIQ. Results For the final B-FIQ, five physical function sub-items were replaced with culturally appropriate equivalents. Internal consistency was adequate for both the 11-item physical function subscale (α = 0.73 and the total scale (α = 0.83. With exception of the physical function subscale, expected correlations were generally observed between the B-FIQ items and selected subscales of the SF-36, HAQ, clinical symptoms, and TPC. The B-FIQ was able to discriminate between FM patients and healthy controls and between FM patients and RA patients. Test-retest reliability was adequate for the physical function subscale (r = 0.86 and individual items (r = 0.73-0.86, except anxiety (r = 0.27 and morning tiredness (r = 0.64. Conclusion This study supports the reliability and validity of the B-FIQ as a measure of functional disability and health status in Bangladeshi women with FM.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of a Bengali version of the modified fibromyalgia impact questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muquith, Mohammed A; Islam, Md Nazrul; Haq, Syed A; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Rasker, Johannes J; Yunus, Muhammad B

    2012-08-27

    Currently, no validated instruments are available to measure the health status of Bangladeshi patients with fibromyalgia (FM). The aims of this study were to cross-culturally adapt the modified Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) into Bengali (B-FIQ) and to test its validity and reliability in Bangladeshi patients with FM. The FIQ was translated following cross-cultural adaptation guidelines and pretested in 30 female patients with FM. Next, the adapted B-FIQ was physician-administered to 102 consecutive female FM patients together with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), selected subscales of the SF-36, and visual analog scales for current clinical symptoms. A tender point count (TPC) was performed by an experienced rheumatologist. Forty randomly selected patients completed the B-FIQ again after 7 days. Two control groups of 50 healthy people and 50 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients also completed the B-FIQ. For the final B-FIQ, five physical function sub-items were replaced with culturally appropriate equivalents. Internal consistency was adequate for both the 11-item physical function subscale (α = 0.73) and the total scale (α = 0.83). With exception of the physical function subscale, expected correlations were generally observed between the B-FIQ items and selected subscales of the SF-36, HAQ, clinical symptoms, and TPC. The B-FIQ was able to discriminate between FM patients and healthy controls and between FM patients and RA patients. Test-retest reliability was adequate for the physical function subscale (r = 0.86) and individual items (r = 0.73-0.86), except anxiety (r = 0.27) and morning tiredness (r = 0.64). This study supports the reliability and validity of the B-FIQ as a measure of functional disability and health status in Bangladeshi women with FM.

  13. Human adaptation responses to a rapidly changing Arctic: A research context for building system resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, T.; Brinkman, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    Although human behavior accounts for more uncertainty in future trajectories in climate change than do biophysical processes, most climate-change research fails to include human actions in research design and implementation. This is well-illustrated in the Arctic. At the global scale, arctic processes strongly influence the strength of biophysical feedbacks between global human emissions and the rate of climate warming. However, most human actions in the arctic have little effect on these feedbacks, so research can contribute most effectively to reduction in arctic warming through improved understanding of the strength of arctic-global biophysical feedbacks, as in NASA's ABoVE program, and its effective communication to policy makers and the public. In contrast, at the local to regional scale within the arctic, human actions may influence the ecological and societal consequences of arctic warming, so research benefits from active stakeholder engagement in research design and implementation. Human communities and other stakeholders (government and NGOs) respond heterogeneously to socioeconomic and environmental change, so research that documents the range of historical and current adaptive responses to change provides insights on the resilience (flexibility of future options) of social-ecological processes in the arctic. Alaskan communities have attempted a range of adaptive responses to coastal erosion (e.g., seasonal migration, protection in place, relocation), wildfire (fire suppression to use of fire to manage wildlife habitat or landscape heterogeneity), declining sea ice (e.g., new hunting technology, sea ice observations and predictions), and changes in wildlife and fish availability (e.g., switch to harvest of alternative species, harvest times, or harvest locations). Research that draws on both traditional and western knowledge facilitates adaptation and predictions of the likely societal consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Effective inclusion of

  14. Effectiveness of cultural adaptations of interventions aimed at smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity in ethnic minorities. a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierkens, Vera; Hartman, Marieke A; Nicolaou, Mary; Vissenberg, Charlotte; Beune, Erik J A J; Hosper, Karen; van Valkengoed, Irene G; Stronks, Karien

    2013-01-01

    The importance of cultural adaptations in behavioral interventions targeting ethnic minorities in high-income societies is widely recognized. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in such interventions. To systematically review the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in interventions that target smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity and to explore features of such adaptations that may account for their effectiveness. Systematic review using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials registers (1997-2009). a) effectiveness study of a lifestyle intervention targeted to ethnic minority populations living in a high income society; b) interventions included cultural adaptations and a control group that was exposed to the intervention without the cultural adaptation under study; c) primary outcome measures included smoking cessation, diet, or physical activity. Out of 44904 hits, we identified 17 studies, all conducted in the United States. In five studies, specific cultural adaptations had a statistically significant effect on primary outcomes. The remaining studies showed no significant effects on primary outcomes, but some presented trends favorable for cultural adaptations. We observed that interventions incorporating a package of cultural adaptations, cultural adaptations that implied higher intensity and those incorporating family values were more likely to report statistically significant effects. Adaptations in smoking cessation interventions seem to be more effective than adaptations in interventions aimed at diet and physical activity. This review indicates that culturally targeted behavioral interventions may be more effective if cultural adaptations are implemented as a package of adaptations, the adaptation includes family level, and where the adaptation results in a higher intensity of the intervention. More systematic experiments are needed in which

  15. Effectiveness of cultural adaptations of interventions aimed at smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity in ethnic minorities. a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Nierkens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of cultural adaptations in behavioral interventions targeting ethnic minorities in high-income societies is widely recognized. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in such interventions. AIM: To systematically review the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in interventions that target smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity and to explore features of such adaptations that may account for their effectiveness. METHODS: Systematic review using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials registers (1997-2009. INCLUSION CRITERIA: a effectiveness study of a lifestyle intervention targeted to ethnic minority populations living in a high income society; b interventions included cultural adaptations and a control group that was exposed to the intervention without the cultural adaptation under study; c primary outcome measures included smoking cessation, diet, or physical activity. RESULTS: Out of 44904 hits, we identified 17 studies, all conducted in the United States. In five studies, specific cultural adaptations had a statistically significant effect on primary outcomes. The remaining studies showed no significant effects on primary outcomes, but some presented trends favorable for cultural adaptations. We observed that interventions incorporating a package of cultural adaptations, cultural adaptations that implied higher intensity and those incorporating family values were more likely to report statistically significant effects. Adaptations in smoking cessation interventions seem to be more effective than adaptations in interventions aimed at diet and physical activity. CONCLUSION: This review indicates that culturally targeted behavioral interventions may be more effective if cultural adaptations are implemented as a package of adaptations, the adaptation includes family level, and where the adaptation results in a

  16. CULTURAL ADAPTATION AND VALIDATION FOR PORTUGUESE OF THE SPINAL APPEARANCE QUESTIONNAIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Guerra de Albuquerque Rosendo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Make the cultural adaptation of the spinal appearance questionnaire (SAQ. Method: Twenty patients and their accompanying relatives responded to SAC and were asked about possible improvements. Results: Eighteen girls (90% and two boys (10%, average age 14.8 years; Cronbach's alpha values of 0.79 and 0.75 were found for patients and parents respectively. Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the spinal appearance questionnaire presented in this paper proves to be a valid tool for their purposes in its pre-trial phase.

  17. Rapid breeding and varietal replacement are critical to adaptation of cropping systems in the developing world to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlin, Gary N; Cairns, Jill E; Das, Biswanath

    2017-03-01

    Plant breeding is a key mechanism for adaptation of cropping systems to climate change. Much discussion of breeding for climate change focuses on genes with large effects on heat and drought tolerance, but phenology and stress tolerance are highly polygenic. Adaptation will therefore mainly result from continually adjusting allele frequencies at many loci through rapid-cycle breeding that delivers a steady stream of incrementally improved cultivars. This will require access to elite germplasm from other regions, shortened breeding cycles, and multi-location testing systems that adequately sample the target population of environments. The objective of breeding and seed systems serving smallholder farmers should be to ensure that they use varieties developed in the last 10 years. Rapid varietal turnover must be supported by active dissemination of new varieties, and active withdrawal of obsolete ones. Commercial seed systems in temperate regions achieve this through competitive seed markets, but in the developing world, most crops are not served by competitive commercial seed systems, and many varieties date from the end of the Green Revolution (the late 1970s, when the second generation of modern rice and wheat varieties had been widely adopted). These obsolete varieties were developed in a climate different than today's, placing farmers at risk. To reduce this risk, a strengthened breeding system is needed, with freer international exchange of elite varieties, short breeding cycles, high selection intensity, wide-scale phenotyping, and accurate selection supported by genomic technology. Governments need to incentivize varietal release and dissemination systems to continuously replace obsolete varieties.

  18. Genome Sequencing and Mapping Reveal Loss of Heterozygosity as a Mechanism for Rapid Adaptation in the Vegetable Pathogen Phytophthora capsici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamour, Kurt H.; Mudge, Joann; Gobena, Daniel; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Kuo, Alan; Miller, Neil A.; Rice, Brandon J.; Raffaele, Sylvain; Cano, Liliana M.; Bharti, Arvind K.; Donahoo, Ryan S.; Finely, Sabra; Huitema, Edgar; Hulvey, Jon; Platt, Darren; Salamov, Asaf; Savidor, Alon; Sharma, Rahul; Stam, Remco; Sotrey, Dylan; Thines, Marco; Win, Joe; Haas, Brian J.; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Jenkins, Jerry; Knight, James R.; Affourtit, Jason P.; Han, Cliff S.; Chertkov, Olga; Lindquist, Erika A.; Detter, Chris; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kamoun, Sophien; Kingsmore, Stephen F.

    2012-02-07

    The oomycete vegetable pathogen Phytophthora capsici has shown remarkable adaptation to fungicides and new hosts. Like other members of this destructive genus, P. capsici has an explosive epidemiology, rapidly producing massive numbers of asexual spores on infected hosts. In addition, P. capsici can remain dormant for years as sexually recombined oospores, making it difficult to produce crops at infested sites, and allowing outcrossing populations to maintain significant genetic variation. Genome sequencing, development of a high-density genetic map, and integrative genomic or genetic characterization of P. capsici field isolates and intercross progeny revealed significant mitotic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in diverse isolates. LOH was detected in clonally propagated field isolates and sexual progeny, cumulatively affecting >30percent of the genome. LOH altered genotypes for more than 11,000 single-nucleotide variant sites and showed a strong association with changes in mating type and pathogenicity. Overall, it appears that LOH may provide a rapid mechanism for fixing alleles and may be an important component of adaptability for P. capsici.

  19. Cultural differences and process adaptation in international R&D project management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing; Li, J. Z.

    2009-01-01

    In the era of globalization, Western companies have started to explore China as a source of technology. Yet, Western R&D project management processes in China are frequently facing many problems. Some of the problems can be conceptualized by analyzing a number of known cultural contrasts between ...... project success. At the same time, lessons and recommendations on the adaptability to Chinese style business and management interactions will be drawn from the case study for international companies that locate R&D projects in China.......In the era of globalization, Western companies have started to explore China as a source of technology. Yet, Western R&D project management processes in China are frequently facing many problems. Some of the problems can be conceptualized by analyzing a number of known cultural contrasts between...

  20. Long-distance gene flow and adaptation of forest trees to rapid climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Antoine; Ronce, Ophélie; Robledo-Arnuncio, Juan J; Guillaume, Frédéric; Bohrer, Gil; Nathan, Ran; Bridle, Jon R; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Klein, Etienne K; Ritland, Kermit; Kuparinen, Anna; Gerber, Sophie; Schueler, Silvio

    2012-01-01

    Forest trees are the dominant species in many parts of the world and predicting how they might respond to climate change is a vital global concern. Trees are capable of long-distance gene flow, which can promote adaptive evolution in novel environments by increasing genetic variation for fitness. It is unclear, however, if this can compensate for maladaptive effects of gene flow and for the long-generation times of trees. We critically review data on the extent of long-distance gene flow and summarise theory that allows us to predict evolutionary responses of trees to climate change. Estimates of long-distance gene flow based both on direct observations and on genetic methods provide evidence that genes can move over spatial scales larger than habitat shifts predicted under climate change within one generation. Both theoretical and empirical data suggest that the positive effects of gene flow on adaptation may dominate in many instances. The balance of positive to negative consequences of gene flow may, however, differ for leading edge, core and rear sections of forest distributions. We propose future experimental and theoretical research that would better integrate dispersal biology with evolutionary quantitative genetics and improve predictions of tree responses to climate change. PMID:22372546

  1. Shooting the Rapids: Navigating Transitions to Adaptive Governance of Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Olsson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The case studies of Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden; the Northern Highlands Lake District and the Everglades in the USA; the Mae Nam Ping Basin, Thailand; and the Goulburn-Broken Catchment, Australia, were compared to assess the outcome of different actions for transforming social-ecological systems (SESs. The transformations consisted of two phases, a preparation phase and a transition phase, linked by a window of opportunity. Key leaders and shadow networks can prepare a system for change by exploring alternative system configurations and developing strategies for choosing from among possible futures. Key leaders can recognize and use or create windows of opportunity and navigate transitions toward adaptive governance. Leadership functions include the ability to span scales of governance, orchestrate networks, integrate and communicate understanding, and reconcile different problem domains. Successful transformations rely on epistemic and shadow networks to provide novel ideas and ways of governing SESs. We conclude by listing some ð"„¬rules of thumb" that can help build leadership and networks for successful transformations toward adaptive governance of social-ecological systems.

  2. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Brazilian version of the Nonarthritic Hip Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Letícia Nunes Carreras; Leporace, Gustavo; Cardinot, Themis Moura; Levy, Roger Abramino; Oliveira, Liszt Palmeira de

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE The Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS) is a clinical evaluation questionnaire that was developed in the English language to evaluate hip function in young and physically active patients. The aims of this study were to translate this questionnaire into the Brazilian Portuguese language, to adapt it to Brazilian culture and to validate it. DESIGN AND SETTING Cohort study conducted between 2008 and 2010, at Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). METHODS Questions about physical activities and household chores were modified to better fit Brazilian culture. Reproducibility, internal consistency and validity (correlations with the Algofunctional Lequesne Index and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index [WOMAC]) were tested. The NAHS-Brazil, Lequesne and WOMAC questionnaires were applied to 64 young and physically active patients (mean age, 40.9 years; 31 women). RESULTS The intraclass correlation coefficient (which measures reproducibility) was 0.837 (P < 0.001). Bland-Altman plots revealed a mean error in the difference between the two measurements of 0.42. The internal consistency was confirmed through a Cronbach alpha of 0.944. The validity between NAHS-Brazil and Lequesne and between NAHS-Brazil and WOMAC showed high correlations, r = 0.7340 and r = 0.9073, respectively. NAHS-Brazil showed good validity with no floor or ceiling effects. CONCLUSION The NAHS was translated into the Brazilian Portuguese language and was cross-culturally adapted to Brazilian culture. It was shown to be a useful tool in clinical practice for assessing the quality of life of young and physically active patients with hip pain.

  3. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Brazilian version of the Nonarthritic Hip Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Nunes Carreras Del Castillo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE The Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS is a clinical evaluation questionnaire that was developed in the English language to evaluate hip function in young and physically active patients. The aims of this study were to translate this questionnaire into the Brazilian Portuguese language, to adapt it to Brazilian culture and to validate it. DESIGN AND SETTING Cohort study conducted between 2008 and 2010, at Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ. METHODS Questions about physical activities and household chores were modified to better fit Brazilian culture. Reproducibility, internal consistency and validity (correlations with the Algofunctional Lequesne Index and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index [WOMAC] were tested. The NAHS-Brazil, Lequesne and WOMAC questionnaires were applied to 64 young and physically active patients (mean age, 40.9 years; 31 women. RESULTS The intraclass correlation coefficient (which measures reproducibility was 0.837 (P < 0.001. Bland-Altman plots revealed a mean error in the difference between the two measurements of 0.42. The internal consistency was confirmed through a Cronbach alpha of 0.944. The validity between NAHS-Brazil and Lequesne and between NAHS-Brazil and WOMAC showed high correlations, r = 0.7340 and r = 0.9073, respectively. NAHS-Brazil showed good validity with no floor or ceiling effects. CONCLUSION The NAHS was translated into the Brazilian Portuguese language and was cross-culturally adapted to Brazilian culture. It was shown to be a useful tool in clinical practice for assessing the quality of life of young and physically active patients with hip pain.

  4. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Assessment Instruments Used in Psychological Research with Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Treffers, Philip D. A.; de Beurs, Edwin; Siebelink, Bart M.; Koudijs, Els

    2005-01-01

    With the increased globalization of psychology and related fields, having reliable and valid measures that can be used in a number of languages and cultures is critical. Few guidelines or standards have been established in psychology for the translation and cultural adaptation of instruments. Usually little is reported in research publications…

  5. Cultural adaptation in measuring common client characteristics with an urban Mainland Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoxia; Anderson, Timothy; Beutler, Larry E; Sun, Shijin; Wu, Guohong; Kimpara, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a culturally adapted version of the Systematic Treatment Selection-Innerlife (STS) in China. A total of 300 nonclinical participants collected from Mainland China and 240 nonclinical US participants were drawn from archival data. A Chinese version of the STS was developed, using translation and back-translation procedures. After confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the original STS sub scales failed on both samples, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was then used to access whether a simple structure would emerge on these STS treatment items. Parallel analysis and minimum average partial were used to determine the number of factor to retain. Three cross-cultural factors were found in this study, Internalized Distress, Externalized Distress and interpersonal relations. This supported that regardless of whether one is in presumably different cultural contexts of the USA or China, psychological distress is expressed in a few basic channels of internalized distress, externalized distress, and interpersonal relations, from which different manifestations in different culture were also discussed.

  6. Insulin receptors mediate growth effects in cultured fetal neurons. I. Rapid stimulation of protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, K.A.; Toledo, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    In this study we have examined the effects of insulin on protein synthesis in cultured fetal chick neurons. Protein synthesis was monitored by measuring the incorporation of [3H]leucine (3H-leu) into trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable protein. Upon addition of 3H-leu, there was a 5-min lag before radioactivity occurred in protein. During this period cell-associated radioactivity reached equilibrium and was totally recovered in the TCA-soluble fraction. After 5 min, the incorporation of 3H-leu into protein was linear for 2 h and was inhibited (98%) by the inclusion of 10 micrograms/ml cycloheximide. After 24 h of serum deprivation, insulin increased 3H-leu incorporation into protein by approximately 2-fold. The stimulation of protein synthesis by insulin was dose dependent (ED50 = 70 pM) and seen within 30 min. Proinsulin was approximately 10-fold less potent than insulin on a molar basis in stimulating neuronal protein synthesis. Insulin had no effect on the TCA-soluble fraction of 3H-leu at any time and did not influence the uptake of [3H]aminoisobutyric acid into neurons. The isotope ratio of 3H-leu/14C-leu in the leucyl tRNA pool was the same in control and insulin-treated neurons. Analysis of newly synthesized proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that insulin uniformly increased the incorporation of 14C-leu into all of the resolved neuronal proteins. We conclude from these data that (1) insulin rapidly stimulates overall protein synthesis in fetal neurons independent of amino acid uptake and aminoacyl tRNA precursor pools; (2) stimulation of protein synthesis is mediated by the brain subtype of insulin receptor; and (3) insulin is potentially an important in vivo growth factor for fetal central nervous system neurons

  7. Rapid analysis of fungal cultures and dried figs for secondary metabolites by LC/TOF-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senyuva, Hamide Z. [Ankara Test and Analysis Laboratory, Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Ankara 06330 (Turkey)], E-mail: hamide.senyuva@tubitak.gov.tr; Gilbert, John [Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom); Oztuerkoglu, Sebnem [Ankara Test and Analysis Laboratory, Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Ankara 06330 (Turkey)

    2008-06-09

    A liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS) method has been developed for profiling fungal metabolites. The performance of the procedure in terms of mass accuracy, selectivity (specificity) and repeatability was established by spiking aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes and other metabolites into blank growth media. After extracting, and carrying out LC/TOF-MS analysis, the standards were correctly identified by searching a specially constructed database of 465 secondary metabolites. To demonstrate the viability of this approach 11 toxigenic and four non-toxigenic fungi from reference collections were grown on various media, for 7-14 days. The method was also applied to two toxigenic fungi, A. flavus (200-138) and A. parasiticus (2999-465) grown on gamma radiation sterilised dried figs, for 7-14 days. The fungal hyphae plus a portion of growth media or portions of dried figs were solvent extracted and analysed by LC/TOF-MS using a rapid resolution microbore LC column. Data processing based on cluster analysis, showed that electrospray ionization (ESI)-TOF-MS could be used to unequivocally identify metabolites in crude extracts. Using the elemental metabolite database, it was demonstrated that from culture collection isolates, anticipated metabolites. The speed and simplicity of the method has meant that levels of these metabolites could be monitored daily in sterilised figs. Over a 14-day period, levels of aflatoxins and kojic acid maximised at 5-6 days, whilst levels of 5-methoxysterigmatocystin remained relatively constant. In addition to the known metabolites expected to be produced by these fungi, roquefortine A, fumagillin, fumigaclavine B, malformins (peptides), aspergillic acid, nigragillin, terrein, terrestric acid and penicillic acid were also identified.

  8. Rapid determination of tannins in tanning baths by adaptation of BSA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R; Buonomenna, M G; Cassano, A; Drioli, E

    2001-01-01

    A rapid and reproducible method for the determination of tannins in vegetable tanning baths is proposed as a modification of the BSA method for grain tannins existing in literature. The protein BSA was used instead of leather powder employed in the Filter Method, which is adopted in Italy and various others countries of Central Europe. In this rapid method the tannin contents is determined by means a spectrophotometric reading and not by means a gravimetric analysis of the Filter Method. The BSA method, which belongs to mixed methods (which use both precipitation and complexation of tannins), consists of selective precipitation of tannin from a solution containing also non tannins by BSA, the dissolution of precipitate and the quantification of free tannin amount by its complexation with Fe(III) in hydrochloric solutions. The absorbance values, read at 522 nm, have been expressed in terms of tannic acid concentration by using a calibration curve made with standard solutions of tannic acid; these have been correlated with the results obtained by using the Filter Method.

  9. Evaluation of radiotherapy methods for adaptative head and neck treatment with RapidArc®

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaro, Sarah J.; Vasconcellos, Herminiane L.; Silva, Laura E. da; Bastos, Fernanda M.; Silva, Leonardo P. da; Alvaro S; Migoviski, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is considered a public health problem worldwide. The intensity-modulated techniques have shown benefit in the treatment of these sites, particularly with respect to reduction of deterministic effects of risk, such as parotid. Anatomical variations in cases of head and neck are very frequent and may lead, for example, to an overdose in the parotid. This can be mitigated if making use of adaptive radiation therapy. The work aims to analyze a methodology to redo the planning of treatments, through 02 acquisitions of TC. The results showed that, due to a reduction in the volumes of the parotid, the doses delivered to these organs are underestimated, which is relevant to readapt the treatment, with the addition of only a second scan without the need of the third. (author)

  10. Rapid adaptation of the stimulatory effect of CO2 on brain norepinephrine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E A

    1983-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of exposure of rats to elevated environmental levels of CO2 on norepinephrine metabolism in the hypothalamus and other regions of the brain. In confirmation of previous findings by others CO2 at 10 or 15% was found to elevate both dopa accumulation after dopa decarboxylase inhibition and norepinephrine utilization after tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition. These effects however were found to be transient occurring only during the first 30 min of 2.5 h exposure. In this regard CO2 differs from another form of stress, restraint which produces a sustained 2.5 h increase of dopa accumulation and NE accumulation. Restraint was also more effective than CO2 in depleting endogenous stores of hypothalamic NE. The factor responsible for the adaptation of the catecholamine response to CO2 was not identified although it was shown not to be hypothermia and it was reversed by a 2 h CO2-free recovery period.

  11. Rapid Computation of Thermodynamic Properties over Multidimensional Nonbonded Parameter Spaces Using Adaptive Multistate Reweighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naden, Levi N; Shirts, Michael R

    2016-04-12

    We show how thermodynamic properties of molecular models can be computed over a large, multidimensional parameter space by combining multistate reweighting analysis with a linear basis function approach. This approach reduces the computational cost to estimate thermodynamic properties from molecular simulations for over 130,000 tested parameter combinations from over 1000 CPU years to tens of CPU days. This speed increase is achieved primarily by computing the potential energy as a linear combination of basis functions, computed from either modified simulation code or as the difference of energy between two reference states, which can be done without any simulation code modification. The thermodynamic properties are then estimated with the Multistate Bennett Acceptance Ratio (MBAR) as a function of multiple model parameters without the need to define a priori how the states are connected by a pathway. Instead, we adaptively sample a set of points in parameter space to create mutual configuration space overlap. The existence of regions of poor configuration space overlap are detected by analyzing the eigenvalues of the sampled states' overlap matrix. The configuration space overlap to sampled states is monitored alongside the mean and maximum uncertainty to determine convergence, as neither the uncertainty or the configuration space overlap alone is a sufficient metric of convergence. This adaptive sampling scheme is demonstrated by estimating with high precision the solvation free energies of charged particles of Lennard-Jones plus Coulomb functional form with charges between -2 and +2 and generally physical values of σij and ϵij in TIP3P water. We also compute entropy, enthalpy, and radial distribution functions of arbitrary unsampled parameter combinations using only the data from these sampled states and use the estimates of free energies over the entire space to examine the deviation of atomistic simulations from the Born approximation to the solvation free

  12. Adaptation of the children of migrant workers to the new social and cultural space: pedagogical help and support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Sabat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the value of the pedagogic help and support in the adaptation of migrants to the new circumstances of social and cultural space. The basic needs of the children from the specified category are characterized, and if we meet these needs will have the successful adaptation. The essence of information, instrumental emotional support was revealed. It was proven that the school serves the important medium to conduct such activities as the usual environment where a child with a family of migrants stays, talks, feels comfortable. The necessity of the cooperation between the teachers, educators, social educator and psychologist, administration is emphasized in helping the children of migrant workers in the process of adapting to the new social and cultural space.Key words: children of migrants, adaptation, educational help, pedagogic support, social and cultural space.

  13. Culturally adapting a physical activity intervention for Somali women: the need for theory and innovation to promote equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kate E; Ermias, Azieb; Lung, Amber; Mohamed, Amina Sheik; Ellis, B Heidi; Linke, Sarah; Kerr, Jacqueline; Bowen, Deborah J; Marcus, Bess H

    2017-03-01

    There is pressing need for innovation in clinical research to more effectively recruit, engage, retain, and promote health among diverse populations overburdened by health disparities. The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed illustration of the cultural adaptation of an evidence-based intervention to bolster translational research with currently underserved communities. The cultural adaptation heuristic framework described by Barrera and colleagues is applied to the adaptation of a physical activity evidence-based intervention with adult Somali women. Widespread changes were required to ensure program feasibility and acceptability, including the reduction of assessment protocols and changes discordant with current trends in physical activity research. The cultural adaptation of evidence-based interventions offers an important mechanism for reducing health disparities. Improved reporting standards, assessment of features relevant to underserved communities, and greater funding requirements to ensure better representation are needed to promote more widespread access for all people.

  14. Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Simple Shoulder Test to Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcuri, Francisco; Barclay, Fernando; Nacul, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The validation of widely used scales facilitates the comparison across international patient samples. Objective: The objective was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Simple Shoulder Test into Argentinian Spanish. Methods: The Simple Shoulder Test was translated from English into Argentinian Spanish by two independent translators, translated back into English and evaluated for accuracy by an expert committee to correct the possible discrepancies. It was then administered to 50 patients with different shoulder conditions.Psycometric properties were analyzed including internal consistency, measured with Cronbach´s Alpha, test-retest reliability at 15 days with the interclass correlation coefficient. Results: The internal consistency, validation, was an Alpha of 0,808, evaluated as good. The test-retest reliability index as measured by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.835, evaluated as excellent. Conclusion: The Simple Shoulder Test translation and it´s cultural adaptation to Argentinian-Spanish demonstrated adequate internal reliability and validity, ultimately allowing for its use in the comparison with international patient samples.

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Brazilian version of the Beliefs about Emotions Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mograbi, Daniel C; Indelli, Pamela; Lage, Caio A; Tebyriça, Vitória; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Rimes, Katharine A

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Beliefs about the unacceptability of expression and experience of emotion are present in the general population but seem to be more prevalent in patients with a number of health conditions. Such beliefs, which may be viewed as a form of perfectionism about emotions, may have a deleterious effect on symptomatology as well as on treatment adherence and outcome. Nevertheless, few questionnaires have been developed to measure such beliefs about emotions, and no instrument has been validated in a developing country. The current study adapted and validated the Beliefs about Emotions Scale in a Brazilian sample. Methods The adaptation procedure included translation, back-translation and analysis of the content, with the final Brazilian Portuguese version of the scale being tested online in a sample of 645 participants. Internal consistency of the scale was very high and results of a principal axis factoring analysis indicated a two-factor solution. Results Respondents with high fatigue levels showed more perfectionist beliefs, and the scale correlated positively with questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression and fear of negative evaluation, confirming cross-cultural associations reported before. Finally, men, non-Caucasians and participants with lower educational achievement gave greater endorsement to such beliefs than women, Caucasian individuals and participants with higher educational level. Conclusions The study confirms previous clinical findings reported in the literature, but indicates novel associations with demographic variables. The latter may reflect cultural differences related to beliefs about emotions in Brazil.

  16. Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction in Danish High Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea; Cozart, Stacey Marie; Lyneborg Lund, Rolf

    2018-01-01

    The model for Interpersonal Teacher Behaviour (MITB), mapping the various teachers’ interpersonal behaviours, has been applied for research in countries all over the world. The Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) has been developed in order to measure the students’ perceptions regarding th...... to translation and cultural adaption showed the importance of the dialogical process with informants to make sure the questions are sound and understood in correlation to the MITB model....... the psychometric properties of the Danish translation of the QTI in its 64-item version. The article is descriptive and stress the importance of the awareness of the cultural differences when translating and incorporating a questionnaire from one country’s educational setting to another. Results on the approach...... the interaction with their teachers. The QTI has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument in all the different language versions in which it was adapted. The QTI with the 64-item version has not yet received a validation in Denmark. The present study tested the translation process – after the translation...

  17. Trp53 activity is repressed in radio-adapted cultured murine limb bud cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vares, Guillaume; Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Shang, Yi; Fujita, Kazuko; Hayata, Isamu; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) at low dose in fetal models is of great importance, because the fetus is considered to be at the most radiosensitive stage of the development and prenatal radiation might influence subsequent development. We previously demonstrated the existence of an adaptive response (AR) in murine fetuses after pre-exposure to low doses of X-rays. Trp53-dependent apoptosis was suggested to be responsible for the teratogenic effects of IR; decreased apoptosis was observed in adapted animals. In this study, in order to investigate the role of Trp53 in AR, we developed a new model of irradiated micromass culture of fetal limb bud cells, which replicated proliferation, differentiation and response to IR in murine embryos. Murine fetuses were exposed to whole-body priming irradiation of 0.3 Gy or 0.5 Gy at embryonic day 11 (E11). Limb bud cells (collected from digital ray areas exhibiting radiation-induced apoptosis) were cultured and exposed to a challenging dose of 4 Gy at E12 equivalent. The levels of Trp53 protein and its phosphorylated form at Ser18 were investigated. Our results suggested that the induction of AR in mouse embryos was correlated with a repression of Trp53 activity. (author)

  18. Validation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the Physicians' Reactions to Uncertainty scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joest Katharina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Physicians' Reaction to Uncertainty scales (PRU in primary care physicians. Methods In a structured process, the original questionnaire was translated, culturally adapted and assessed after administering it to 93 GPs. Test-retest reliability was tested by sending the questionnaire to the GPs again after two weeks. Results The principal factor analysis confirmed the postulated four-factor structure underlying the 15 items. In contrast to the original version, item 5 achieved a higher loading on the 'concern about bad outcomes' scale. Consequently, we rearranged the scales. Good item-scale correlations were obtained, with Pearson's correlation coefficient ranging from 0.56–0.84. As regards the item-discriminant validity between the scales 'anxiety due to uncertainty' and 'concern about bad outcomes', partially high correlations (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.02–0.69; p Conclusion Dealing with uncertainty is an important issue in daily practice. The psychometric properties of the rearranged German version of the PRU are satisfying. The revealed floor effects do not limit the significance of the questionnaire. Thus, the German version of the PRU could contribute to the further evaluation of the impact of uncertainty in primary care physicians.

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Italian Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Rosaria; Rongo, Roberto; Zito, Eugenio; Galeotti, Angela; Valletta, Rosa; D'Antò, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    To validate and cross-culturally adapt the Italian version of the Psychological Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) among Italian young adults. After translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation of the English PIDAQ, a first version of the Italian questionnaire was pretested. The final Italian PIDAQ was administered to 598 subjects aged 18-30 years, along with two other instruments: the aesthetic component of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN-AC) and the perception of occlusion scale (POS), which identified the self-reporting grade of malocclusion. Structural validity was assessed by means of factorial analysis, internal consistency was measured with Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α), convergent validity was assessed by means of Spearman correlation, and test-retest reliability was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard measurement error. Criterion validity was evaluated by multivariate and univariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc tests. The α of the Italian PIDAQ domains ranged between 0.79 and 0.92. The ICC was between 0.81 and 0.90. The mean scores of each PIDAQ domain showed a statistically significant difference when analysed according to the IOTN-AC and POS scores. The satisfactory psychometric properties make PIDAQ a usable tool for future studies on oral health-related quality of life among Italian young adults.

  20. Adaptation and validation of the Inventory of Family Protective Factors for the Portuguese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Cláudia Cristina Vieira Carvalho de Oliveira Ferreira; Araújo, Beatriz Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Vítor Manuel Costa Pereira; de Figueiredo, Maria do Céu Aguiar Barbieri

    2014-01-01

    to adapt and validate the Inventory of Family Protective Factors (IFPF) for the Portuguese culture. This instrument assesses protective factors that contribute to family resilience. Studies addressing resilience are embedded within the salutogenic paradigm, i.e. it addresses protective factors of individuals or groups without underestimating risk factors or vulnerability. in order to assess the IFPF's linguistic and conceptual equivalence, the instrument was translated, retro-translated and the think-aloud protocol was used. We then verified the instrument's sensitiveness, reliability and validity of results to assess its psychometric characteristics. A factor analysis was performed of the principal components with varimax rotation of the scale's items and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated for each dimension. A total of 85 families with disabled children, selected through simple random sampling, self-administered the instrument. the IFPF presents psychometric characteristics that are appropriate for the Portuguese population (Cronbach's alpha = .90). the IFPF was adapted and validated for the Portuguese culture and is an instrument to be used in studies intended to assess protective factors of family resilience.

  1. French translation and cross-cultural adaptation of The Myotonic Dystrophy Health Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Cynthia; Tremblay, Marjolaine; CôTé, Isabelle; Heatwole, Chad

    2018-04-01

    Validation studies of disease-specific instruments for myotonic dystrophy type-1 (DM1) are required prior to their global use in clinical trials involving different cultures and countries. Here we translate and culturally adapt the Myotonic Dystrophy Health Index (MDHI), a disease-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure, for a French DM1 population. Using the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Task Force method for translation and adaptation of PRO questionnaires, we created a French translation of the MDHI. We subsequently tested this instrument in a cohort of French-speaking patients with DM1. The MDHI was forward and back translated and modified by consensus to create the most compatible translation. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 5 patients with DM1 to ensure the usability and understanding of the translation. The French version of the MDHI is an optimal translation of the original instrument that is acceptable to native patients and ready for clinical trial use. Muscle Nerve 57: 686-689, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Child-OIDP index in Brazil: Cross-cultural adaptation and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsakos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL measures are being increasingly used to introduce dimensions excluded by normative measures. Consequently, there is a need for an index which evaluates children's OHRQoL validated for Brazilian population, useful for oral health needs assessments and for the evaluation of oral health programs, services and technologies. The aim of this study was to do a cross-cultural adaptation of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP index, and assess its reliability and validity for application among Brazilian children between the ages of eleven and fourteen. Methods For cross-cultural adaptation, a translation/back-translation method integrated with expert panel reviews was applied. A total of 342 students from four public schools took part of the study. Results Overall, 80.7% of the sample reported at least one oral impact in the last three months. Cronbach's alpha was 0.63, the weighted kappa 0.76, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 0.79. The index had a significant association with self-reported health measurements (self-rated oral health, satisfaction with oral health, perceived dental treatment needs, self-rated general health; all p Conclusion It was concluded that the Child-OIDP index is a measure of oral health-related quality of life that can be applied to Brazilian children.

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Brazilian version of the Beliefs about Emotions Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Mograbi

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Beliefs about the unacceptability of expression and experience of emotion are present in the general population but seem to be more prevalent in patients with a number of health conditions. Such beliefs, which may be viewed as a form of perfectionism about emotions, may have a deleterious effect on symptomatology as well as on treatment adherence and outcome. Nevertheless, few questionnaires have been developed to measure such beliefs about emotions, and no instrument has been validated in a developing country. The current study adapted and validated the Beliefs about Emotions Scale in a Brazilian sample. Methods The adaptation procedure included translation, back-translation and analysis of the content, with the final Brazilian Portuguese version of the scale being tested online in a sample of 645 participants. Internal consistency of the scale was very high and results of a principal axis factoring analysis indicated a two-factor solution. Results Respondents with high fatigue levels showed more perfectionist beliefs, and the scale correlated positively with questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression and fear of negative evaluation, confirming cross-cultural associations reported before. Finally, men, non-Caucasians and participants with lower educational achievement gave greater endorsement to such beliefs than women, Caucasian individuals and participants with higher educational level. Conclusions The study confirms previous clinical findings reported in the literature, but indicates novel associations with demographic variables. The latter may reflect cultural differences related to beliefs about emotions in Brazil.

  4. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Emotional Memory Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijtman, Adam; Czepielewski, Letícia Sanguinetti; Souza, Ana Cláudia Mércio Loredo; Felder, Paul; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia; Bücker, Joana

    2018-03-01

    Background Emotional memory is an important type of memory that is triggered by positive and negative emotions. It is characterized by an enhanced memory for emotional stimuli which is usually coupled with a decrease in memory of neutral preceding events. Emotional memory is strongly associated with amygdala function and therefore could be disrupted in neuropsychiatric disorders. To our knowledge, there is no translated and culturally adapted instrument for the Brazilian Portuguese speaking population to assess emotional memory. Objective To report the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Emotional Memory Scale, originally published by Strange et al. in 2003. Methods The author of the original scale provided 36 lists with 16 words each. Translation was performed by three independent bilingual translators. Healthy subjects assessed how semantically related each word was within the list (0 to 10) and what the emotional valence of each word was (-6 to +6). Lists without negative words were excluded (negative selection), most positive and most unrelated words were excluded (positive and semantic selection, respectively), and lists with low semantic relationship were excluded (semantic assessment). Results Five lists were excluded during negative selection, four words from each list were excluded in positive and semantic selection, and 11 lists were excluded during semantic assessment. Finally, we reached 20 lists of semantically related words; each list had one negative word and 11 neutral words. Conclusion A scale is now available to evaluate emotional memory in the Brazilian population and requires further validation on its psychometrics properties.

  5. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version of the Short Sensory Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Su Im; Loh, Siew Yim; Chinna, Karuthan; Marret, Mary J

    2016-01-01

    To translate, culturally adapt, and examine psychometric properties of the Malay version Short Sensory Profile (SSP-M). Pretesting (n = 30) of the original English SSP established its applicability for use with Malaysian children aged 3-10 years. This was followed by the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SSP-M. Two forward and two back translations were compared and reviewed by a committee of 10 experts who validated the content of the SSP-M, before pilot testing (n = 30). The final SSP-M questionnaire was completed by 419 parents of typically developing children aged 3-10 years. Cronbach's alpha of each section of the SSP-M ranged from 0.73 to 0.93 and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) indicated good reliability (0.62-0.93). The seven factor model of the SSP-M had an adequate fit with evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. We conclude that the SSP-M is a valid and reliable screening tool for use in Malaysia with Malay-speaking parents of children aged 3-10 years. The SSP-M enables Malay-speaking parents to answer the questionnaire with better reliability, and provides occupational therapists with a valid tool to screen for sensory processing difficulties.

  6. Rapid adaptation of activated sludge bacteria into a glycogen accumulating biofilm enabling anaerobic BOD uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Iqbal; Paparini, Andrea; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2017-03-01

    Glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) are known to allow anaerobic uptake of biological oxygen demand (BOD) in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems. In this study, we report a rapid transition of suspended activated sludge biomass to a GAO dominated biofilm by selective enrichment using sequences of anaerobic loading followed by aerobic exposure of the biofilm to air. The study showed that within eight weeks, a fully operational, GAO dominated biofilm had developed, enabling complete anaerobic BOD uptake at a rate of 256mg/L/h. The oxygen uptake by the biofilm directly from the atmosphere had been calculated to provide significant energy savings. This study suggests that wastewater treatment plant operators can convert activated sludge systems readily into a "passive aeration" biofilm that avoids costly oxygen transfer to bulk wastewater solution. The described energy efficient BOD removal system provides an opportunity to be coupled with novel nitrogen removal processes such as anammox. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The Influence of U.S. Strategic Culture on Innovation and Adaptation in the U.S. Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Kamara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Culture is an abstract phenomenon that influences its environment. According to culture theorist Edgar Schein, “culture is an abstraction, yet the forces that are created in social and organizational situations that derive from culture are powerful. If we don’t understand the operation of these forces, we become victim to them.” As a subset of culture, the strategic culture of the United States requires study so we can understand its influences on innovation and adaptation in the U.S. Army, and try to manage those that adversely affect the insititution’s ongoing transformation. Using the American Interwar era (1919-1941 as a case—based on some similarities to the contemporary period—this article focuses on the adverse influences of America’s strategic culture on innovation and adaptation in the U.S. Army to provide insight to Army leaders addressing similar (recurring cultural hindrances to transformation. As the Army transforms amidst conflict and budget reductions, it is important to examine and mitigate the negative influences of the broader strategic culture on its ability to innovate and adapt.

  8. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Male Genital Self-Image Scale in Iranian Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Mohsen; Pakpour, Amir H; Burri, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Certain sexual health problems in men can be attributed to genital self-image. Therefore, a culturally adapted version of a Male Genital Self-Image Scale (MGSIS) could help health professionals understand this concept and its associated correlates. To translate the original English version of the MGSIS into Persian and to assess the psychometric properties of this culturally adapted version (MGSIS-I) for use in Iranian men. In total, 1,784 men were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Backward and forward translations of the MGSIS were used to produce the culturally adapted version. Reliability of the MGSIS-I was assessed using Cronbach α and intra-class correlation coefficients. Divergent and convergent validities were examined using Pearson correlation and known-group validity was assessed in subgroups of participants with different sociodemographic statuses. Factor validity of the scale was investigated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Demographic information, the International Index of Erectile Function, the Body Appreciation Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the MGSIS. Mean age of participants was 38.13 years (SD = 11.45) and all men were married. Cronbach α of the MGSIS-I was 0.89 and interclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.70 to 0.94. Significant correlations were found between the MGSIS-I and the International Index of Erectile Function (P scale with non-similar scales was lower than with similar scale (confirming convergent and divergent validity). The scale could differentiate between subgroups in age, smoking status, and income (known-group validity). A single-factor solution that explained 70% variance of the scale was explored using exploratory factor analysis (confirming uni-dimensionality); confirmatory factor analysis indicated better fitness for the five-item version than the seven-item version of the MGSIS-I (root mean square error of approximation = 0.05, comparative fit index > 1.00 vs root mean

  9. Transdiagnostic culturally adapted CBT with Farsi-speaking refugees: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananian, Schahryar; Ayoughi, Sarah; Farugie, Arieja; Hinton, Devon; Stangier, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Background : Approximately half of all asylum seekers suffer from trauma-related disorders requiring treatment, among them Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms. There is a lack of easily accessible, low-threshold treatments taking the cultural background into account. Culturally Adapted CBT (CA CBT) is a well evaluated, transdiagnostic group intervention for refugees, using psychoeducation, meditation, and Yoga-like exercises. Objective: An uncontrolled pilot study with male Farsi-speaking refugees from Afghanistan and Iran was conducted to investigate feasibility with this ethnic group; a group for which no previous CBT trials have been reported. Method : The participants were nine Farsi-speaking, male refugees with M.I.N.I./DSM-IV diagnoses comprising PTSD, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders. Treatment components were adapted to the specific cultural framework of perception of symptoms, causes, ideas of healing, and local therapeutic processes. Before and after 12 weeks of treatment, the primary outcome was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Secondary outcome measures were the Posttraumatic Checklist, Patient Health Questionnaire, Somatic Symptom Scale, World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF), Affective Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and Emotion Regulation Scale (ERS). Results : Seven participants completed treatment. In the completer analysis, improvements were found on almost all questionnaires. Large effect sizes were seen for the GHQ-28 ( d  = 2.0), WHOQOL-BREF scales ( d  = 1.0-2.3), ASQ tolerating subscale ( d  = 2.2), and ERS ( d  = 1.7). With respect to feasibility, cultural adaptation seemed to be a crucial means to promote effectiveness. Conclusion : CA CBT may reduce general psychopathological distress and improve quality of life. Improvement in emotion regulation strategies may mediate treatment effects. More support should be provided to

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation of Preschool Language Assessment Instrument: Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, Tâmara Andrade; Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Giacheti, Célia Maria

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, formal tools for the evaluation of spoken language are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to translate and adapt to Brazilian Portuguese the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument: Second Edition (PLAI-2). The process of translation and adaptation of this instrument was conducted in two stages - Stage 1: (1a) translation of the original version to Brazilian Portuguese, (1b) comparison of the translated versions and synthesis into a single Portuguese version, (1c) back-translation, (1d) revision of the translated version; and Step 2: (2a) application of the Portuguese version in a pilot project with 30 subjects, and (2b) statistical comparison of three age groups. In the Brazilian version, all items of the original version were kept. However, it was necessary to modify the application order of one item, and the change of one picture was suggested in another. The results obtained after application indicated that the Brazilian version of the PLAI-2 allows us to distinguish the performance of participants belonging to different age groups, and that the raw score tends to increase with age. Semantic and syntactic adjustments were required and made to ensure that PLAI-2 would be used with the same methodological rigor of the original instrument. The adaptation process observed the theoretical, semantic, and cultural equivalences.

  11. Cross-Cultural adaptation of an instrument to computer accessibility evaluation for students with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Ferreira Lourenço

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The specific literature indicates that the successful education of children with cerebral palsy may require the implementation of appropriate assistive technology resources, allowing students to improve their performance and complete everyday tasks more efficiently and independently. To this end, these resources must be selected properly, emphasizing the importance of an appropriate initial assessment of the child and the possibilities of the resources available. The present study aimed to translate and adapt theoretically an American instrument that evaluates computer accessibility for people with cerebral palsy, in order to contextualize it for applicability to Brazilian students with cerebral palsy. The methodology involved the steps of translation and cross-cultural adaptation of this instrument, as well as the construction of a supplementary script for additional use of that instrument in the educational context. Translation procedures, theoretical and technical adaptation of the American instrument and theoretical analysis (content and semantics were carried out with the participation of professional experts of the special education area as adjudicators. The results pointed to the relevance of the proposal of the translated instrument in conjunction with the script built to the reality of professionals involved with the education of children with cerebral palsy, such as occupational therapists and special educators.

  12. Are We Measuring Teachers’ Attitudes towards Computers in Detail?: Adaptation of a Questionnaire into Turkish Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Günbaş

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Teachers’ perceptions of computers play an important role in integrating computers into education. The related literature includes studies developing or adapting a survey instrument in Turkish culture measuring teachers’ attitudes toward computers. These instruments have three to four factors (e.g., computer importance, computer enjoyment, computer confidence and 18 to 26 items under these factors. The purpose of the present study is to adapt a more detailed and stronger survey questionnaire measuring more dimensions related to teachers’ attitudes. The source instrument was developed by Christensen and Kenzek (2009 and called Teachers’ Attitudes toward Computers (TAC. It has nine factors with 51 items. Before testing the instrument, the interaction (e-mail factor was taken out because of the cultural differences. The reliability and validity testing of the translated instrument was completed with 273 teachers’ candidates in a Faculty of Education in Turkey. The results showed that the translated instrument (Cronbach’s Alpha: .94 included eight factors and consisted of 42 items under these factors, which were consistent with the original instrument. These factors were: Interest (α: .83, Comfort (α: .90, Accommodation (α: .87, Concern (α: .79, Utility (α: .90, Perception (α: .89, Absorption (α: .84, and Significance (α: .83. Additionally, the confirmatory factor analysis result for the model with eight factors was: RMSEA=0.050, χ2/df=1.69, RMR=0.075, SRMR=0.057, GFI= 0.81, AGFI= 0.78, NFI= 0.94, NNFI=0.97, CFI=0.97, IFI= 0.97. Accordingly, as a reliable, valid and stronger instrument, the adapted survey instrument can be suggested for the use in Turkish academic studies.

  13. Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiping; Lorenzen, Eline D; Fumagalli, Matteo; Li, Bo; Harris, Kelley; Xiong, Zijun; Zhou, Long; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Somel, Mehmet; Babbitt, Courtney; Wray, Greg; Li, Jianwen; He, Weiming; Wang, Zhuo; Fu, Wenjing; Xiang, Xueyan; Morgan, Claire C; Doherty, Aoife; O'Connell, Mary J; McInerney, James O; Born, Erik W; Dalén, Love; Dietz, Rune; Orlando, Ludovic; Sonne, Christian; Zhang, Guojie; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske; Wang, Jun

    2014-05-08

    Polar bears are uniquely adapted to life in the High Arctic and have undergone drastic physiological changes in response to Arctic climates and a hyper-lipid diet of primarily marine mammal prey. We analyzed 89 complete genomes of polar bear and brown bear using population genomic modeling and show that the species diverged only 479-343 thousand years BP. We find that genes on the polar bear lineage have been under stronger positive selection than in brown bears; nine of the top 16 genes under strong positive selection are associated with cardiomyopathy and vascular disease, implying important reorganization of the cardiovascular system. One of the genes showing the strongest evidence of selection, APOB, encodes the primary lipoprotein component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL); functional mutations in APOB may explain how polar bears are able to cope with life-long elevated LDL levels that are associated with high risk of heart disease in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A self-adaptive thermal switch array for rapid temperature stabilization under various thermal power inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Xiaobao; Patel, Pragnesh; Narain, Amitabh; Meng, Dennis Desheng

    2011-01-01

    A self-adaptive thermal switch array (TSA) based on actuation by low-melting-point alloy droplets is reported to stabilize the temperature of a heat-generating microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device at a predetermined range (i.e. the optimal working temperature of the device) with neither a control circuit nor electrical power consumption. When the temperature is below this range, the TSA stays off and works as a thermal insulator. Therefore, the MEMS device can quickly heat itself up to its optimal working temperature during startup. Once this temperature is reached, TSA is automatically turned on to increase the thermal conductance, working as an effective thermal spreader. As a result, the MEMS device tends to stay at its optimal working temperature without complex thermal management components and the associated parasitic power loss. A prototype TSA was fabricated and characterized to prove the concept. The stabilization temperatures under various power inputs have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Under the increment of power input from 3.8 to 5.8 W, the temperature of the device increased only by 2.5 °C due to the stabilization effect of TSA

  15. Rapid and highly integrated FPGA-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Pin; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) programmed on LabVIEW can be highly integrated into customized applications such as adaptive optics system (AOS) for performing real-time wavefront measurement. Further, a Camera Link frame grabber embedded with FPGA is adopted to enhance the sensor speed reacting to variation considering its advantage of the highest data transmission bandwidth. Instead of waiting for a frame image to be captured by the FPGA, the Shack-Hartmann algorithm are implemented in parallel processing blocks design and let the image data transmission synchronize with the wavefront reconstruction. On the other hand, we design a mechanism to control the deformable mirror in the same FPGA and verify the Shack-Hartmann sensor speed by controlling the frequency of the deformable mirror dynamic surface deformation. Currently, this FPGAbead SHWS design can achieve a 266 Hz cyclic speed limited by the camera frame rate as well as leaves 40% logic slices for additionally flexible design.

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Chilean version of the Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruston, Francisco Contreras; Moreti, Felipe; Vivero, Martín; Malebran, Celina; Behlau, Mara

    This research aims to accomplish the cross-cultural equivalence of the Chilean version of the VoiSS protocol through its cultural and linguistic adaptation. After the translation of the VoiSS protocol to Chilean Spanish by two bilingual speech therapists and its back translation to English, we compared the items of the original tool with the previous translated version. The existing discrepancies were modified by a consensus committee of five speech therapists and the translated version was entitled Escala de Sintomas Vocales - ESV, with 30 questions and five answers: "Never", "Occasionally", "Sometimes", "Most of the time", "Always". For cross-cultural equivalence, the protocol was applied to 15 individuals with vocal problems. In each question the option of "Not applicable" was added to the answer choices for identification of the questions not comprehended or not appropriate for the target population. Two individuals had difficulty answering two questions, which made it necessary to adapt the translation of only one of them. The modified ESV was applied to three individuals with vocal problems, and there were incomprehensible inappropriate questions for the Chilean culture. The ESV reflects the original English version, both in the number of questions and the limitations of the emotional and physical domains. There is now a cross-cultural equivalence of VoiSS in Chilean Spanish, titled ESV. The validation of the ESV for Chilean Spanish is ongoing. RESUMEN Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la equivalencia cultural de la versión Chilena del protocolo Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS por medio de su adaptación cultural y lingüística. Después de la traducción del VoiSS para el Español Chileno, por dos fonoaudiólogos bilingües, y de la retro traducción para el inglés, se realizó una comparación de los ítems del instrumento original con la versión traducida, surgiendo discrepancias; tales divergencias fueron resueltas por un comité compuesto por

  17. Adapting cultural mixture modeling for continuous measures of knowledge and memory fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yin-Yin Sarah; Mueller, Shane T

    2016-09-01

    Previous research (e.g., cultural consensus theory (Romney, Weller, & Batchelder, American Anthropologist, 88, 313-338, 1986); cultural mixture modeling (Mueller & Veinott, 2008)) has used overt response patterns (i.e., responses to questionnaires and surveys) to identify whether a group shares a single coherent attitude or belief set. Yet many domains in social science have focused on implicit attitudes that are not apparent in overt responses but still may be detected via response time patterns. We propose a method for modeling response times as a mixture of Gaussians, adapting the strong-consensus model of cultural mixture modeling to model this implicit measure of knowledge strength. We report the results of two behavioral experiments and one simulation experiment that establish the usefulness of the approach, as well as some of the boundary conditions under which distinct groups of shared agreement might be recovered, even when the group identity is not known. The results reveal that the ability to recover and identify shared-belief groups depends on (1) the level of noise in the measurement, (2) the differential signals for strong versus weak attitudes, and (3) the similarity between group attitudes. Consequently, the method shows promise for identifying latent groups among a population whose overt attitudes do not differ, but whose implicit or covert attitudes or knowledge may differ.

  18. A weight-loss intervention program designed for Mexican-American women: cultural adaptations and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nangel M; Stevens, Victor J; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia L; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62 and 50 % respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 and 5.5 kg/m(2) from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women.

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian version of the Vocal Fatigue Index - VFI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Fabiana; Moreti, Felipe; Nanjundeswaran, Chayadevie; Behlau, Mara

    2017-03-13

    The purpose of this study was to perform the cultural adaptation of the Brazilian version of the Vocal Fatigue Index (VFI). Two Brazilian bilingual speech-language pathologists (SLP) translated the original version of the VFI in English into Portuguese. The translations were reviewed by a committee of five voice specialist SLPs resulting in the final version of the instrument. A third bilingual SLP back-translated this final version and the same committee reviewed the differences from its original version. The final Portuguese version of the VFI, as in the original English version, was answered on a categorical scale of 0-4 indicating the frequency they experience the symptoms: 0=never, 1=almost never, 2=sometimes, 3=almost always, and 4=always. For cultural equivalence of the Portuguese version, the option "not applicable" was added to the categorical scale and 20 individuals with vocal complaints and dysphonia completed the index. Questions considered "not applicable" would be disregarded from the Brazilian version of the protocol; no question had to be removed from the instrument. The Brazilian Portuguese version was entitled "Índice de Fadiga Vocal - IFV" and features 19 questions, equivalent to the original instrument. Of the 19 items, 11 were related with tiredness of voice and voice avoidance, five concerned physical discomfort associated with voicing, and three were related to improvement of symptoms with rest or lack thereof. The Brazilian version of the VFI presents cultural and linguistic equivalence to the original instrument. The IFV validation into Brazilian Portuguese is in progress.

  20. The adaptive nature of culture. A cross-cultural analysis of the returns of local environmental knowledge in three indigenous societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Guèze, Maximilien; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Gallois, Sandrine; Napitupulu, Lucentezza; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pyhälä, Aili

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have argued that the behavioral adaptations that explain the success of our species are partially cultural, i.e., cumulative and socially transmitted. Thus, understanding the adaptive nature of culture is crucial to understand human evolution. We use a cross-cultural framework and empirical data purposely collected to test whether culturally transmitted and individually appropriated knowledge provides individual returns in terms of hunting yields and health and, by extension, to nutritional status, a proxy for individual adaptive success. Data were collected in three subsistence-oriented societies: the Tsimane' (Amazon), the Baka (Congo Basin), and the Punan (Borneo). Results suggest that variations in individual levels of local environmental knowledge relate to individual hunting returns and to self-reported health, but not to nutritional status. We argue that this paradox can be explained through the prevalence of sharing: individuals achieving higher returns to their knowledge transfer them to the rest of the population, which explains the lack of association between knowledge and nutritional status. The finding is in consonance with previous research highlighting the importance of cultural traits favoring group success, but pushes it forward by elucidating the mechanisms through which individual and group level adaptive forces interact.

  1. Bovine rumen epithelium undergoes rapid structural adaptations during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Michael A; Croom, Jim; Kahler, Melissa; AlZahal, Ousama; Hook, Sarah E; Plaizier, Kees; McBride, Brian W

    2011-06-01

    Alterations in rumen epithelial structure and function during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) are largely undescribed. In this study, four mature nonlactating dairy cattle were transitioned from a high-forage diet (HF; 0% grain) to a high-grain diet (HG; 65% grain). After feeding the HG diet for 3 wk, the cattle were transitioned back to the original HF diet, which was fed for an additional 3 wk. Continuous ruminal pH was measured on a weekly basis, and rumen papillae were biopsied during the baseline and at the first and final week of each diet. The mean, minimum, and maximum daily ruminal pH were depressed (P < 0.01) in the HG period compared with the HF period. During the HG period, SARA was diagnosed only during week 1, indicating ruminal adaptation to the HG diet. Microscopic examination of the papillae revealed a reduction (P < 0.01) in the stratum basale, spinosum, and granulosum layers, as well as total depth of the epithelium during the HG period. The highest (P < 0.05) papillae lesion scores were noted during week 1 when SARA occurred. Biopsied papillae exhibited a decline in cellular junctions, extensive sloughing of the stratum corneum, and the appearance of undifferentiated cells near the stratum corneum. Differential mRNA expression of candidate genes, including desmoglein 1 and IGF binding proteins 3, 5, and 6, was detected between diets using qRT-PCR. These results suggest that the structural integrity of the rumen epithelium is compromised during grain feeding and is associated with the differential expression of genes involved in epithelial growth and structure.

  2. Development of an improved rapid BACpro® protocol and a method for direct identification from blood-culture-positive bottles using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Takatoshi; Watari, Tomohisa; Ashizawa, Kazuho; Hanada, Daisuke; Yanagiya, Takako; Watanabe, Naoki; Terada, Takashi; Tomoda, Yutaka; Fujii, Satoshi

    2018-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been incorporated into pathogenic bacterial identification methods and has improved their rapidity. Various methods have been reported to directly identify bacteria with MALDI-TOF MS by pretreating culture medium in blood culture bottles. Rapid BACpro® (Nittobo Medical Co., Ltd.) is a pretreatment kit for effective collection of bacteria with cationic copolymers. However, the Rapid BACpro® pretreatment kit is adapted only for MALDI Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics K.K.), and there has been a desire to expand its use to VITEK MS (VMS; bioMerieux SA). We improved the protocol and made it possible to analyze with VMS. The culture medium bacteria collection method was changed to a method with centrifugation after hemolysis using saponin; the cationic copolymer concentration was changed to 30% of the original concentration; the sequence with which reagents were added was changed; and a change was made to an ethanol/formic acid extraction method. The improved protocol enhanced the identification performance. When VMS was used, the identification rate was 100% with control samples. With clinical samples, the identification agreement rate with the cell smear method was 96.3%. The improved protocol is effective in blood culture rapid identification, being both simpler and having an improved identification performance compared with the original. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cultural Adaptations: Conceptual, Ethical, Contextual, and Methodological Issues for Working with Ethnocultural and Majority-World Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Guillermo; Adames, Cristina

    2017-08-01

    Mayor advancements have been achieved in research on the cultural adaptation of prevention and treatment interventions that are conducted with diverse ethnocultural groups. This commentary addresses conceptual, ethical, contextual, and methodological issues related to cultural adaptations. The articles in this special issue represent a major contribution to the study of cultural adaptations in prevention science. We frame our analysis of fidelity to core intervention components using a conceptual approach that examines (a) the propositional model (theory of change), (b) the procedural model (theory of action, methods), and (c) the philosophical assumptions that undergird these models. Regarding ethics, we caution against imposing the norms, values, and world views of the Western dominant society onto vulnerable populations such as ethnocultural groups. Given that the assumption of universality in behavioral science has been questioned, and as randomized clinical trials (RCTs) seldom examine the ecological validity of evidence-based interventions and treatments (EBI/T), imposing such interventions onto ethnocultural groups is problematic since these interventions contain values, norms, beliefs, and worldviews that may be contrary to those held by many ethnocultural groups. Regarding methods, several innovative designs are discussed that serve as alternatives to the RCT and represent an important contribution to prevention science. Also, we discuss guidelines for conducting cultural adaptations. Finally, the articles in this special issue make a major contribution to the growing field of cultural adaptation of preventive interventions with ethnocultural groups and majority-world populations.

  4. Bactec™ blood culture bottles allied to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: rapid etiologic diagnosis of bacterial endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tatiana; Oliveira, Luiza Manhezi de Freitas; Ferreira, Bruno Fortaleza de Aquino; Kato, Juliana Mika; Rossi, Flavia; Correa, Karoline de Lemes Giuntini; Pimentel, Sergio Luis Gianotti; Yamamoto, Joyce Hisae; Almeida Junior, João Nóbrega

    2017-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been used for direct identification of pathogens from blood-inoculated blood culture bottles (BCBs). We showed that MALDI-TOF MS is an useful technique for rapid identification of the causative agents of endophthalmitis from vitreous humor-inoculated BCBs with a simple protocol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Translation and cultural adaptation of the CLEFT-Q for use in Colombia, Chile, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Elena; Riff, Karen W Y Wong; Vargas, Federico; Aguilera, Mirta Palomares; Alarcón, Macarena Miranda; Cazalla, Asteria Albert; Thabane, Lehana; Thoma, Achilleas; Klassen, Anne F

    2017-11-28

    Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is a common congenital craniofacial anomaly that may negatively affect an individual's appearance, health-related quality of life, or speech. In Spain, Colombia, and Chile the overall prevalence of CL/P ranges from 0.53 to 1.59 cases per 1000 live births. Currently, there is no patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument that is specific for patients with CL/P. The CLEFT-Q is a new PRO instrument developed to measure outcomes of treatment in patients 8 to 29 years of age with CL/P. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the CLEFT-Q for use in Colombia, Chile, and Spain. The CLEFT-Q was translated from English to 3 Spanish language varieties (Colombian, Chilean, and Spanish (Spain)) and Catalan. Translation and cultural adaptation guidelines set forth by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research were followed. The field- test version of the CLEFT-Q consisted of 13 scales (total 154 items) measuring appearance, health-related quality of life, and facial function. Forward translations revealed 10 (7%) items that were difficult to translate into Chilean, and back translations identified 34 (22%) and 21 (13%) items whose meaning differed from the English version in at least 1 of the 3 Spanish varieties and Catalan respectively. Twenty-one participants took part in cognitive debriefing interviews. Participants were recruited from plastic surgery centres in Bogotá, Colombia (n = 4), Santiago, Chile (n = 7), and Barcelona, Spain (n = 10). Most participants were males (n = 14, 67%) and were diagnosed with CL/P (n = 17, 81%). Participants reported difficulty understanding 1 item in the Colombian, 1 item in the Spanish (Spain), and 11 items from the Catalan version. Comparison of the 3 Spanish varieties revealed 61 (40%) of the 154 items whose wording differed across the 3 Spanish versions. Translation and cultural adaptation processes provided evidence of transferability of

  6. Shell Vial culture Assay for the rapid diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and Dengue-2 viral encephalitis

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    Badrinath S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Encephalitis caused by flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and West Nile virus (WNV is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in many endemic countries. Dengue-2 (Den-2 virus is a recent addition to the list of encephalitogenic viruses, after its Central Nervous System (CNS invasion capability has been established. There is a wide array of laboratory tools that have helped us not only in the diagnosis of these conditions but also in understanding their pathogenesis and pathology. However, there are no reports of Shell Vial Culture (SVC, a centrifuge enhanced tissue culture assay that has revolutionized viral culturing in terms of rapidity and sensitivity being optimized for these flaviviral encephalitic conditions. The present study is an attempt to standardize and evaluate the usefulness of SVC for the laboratory diagnosis of JE, WN and Den-2 encephalitis cases and to compare it with Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF technique that detects cell associated virus antigen. Analysis of the various clinical parameters with respect to viral etiology has also been carried out. Results Pediatric patients constituted the major group involved in the study (92%. Etiological diagnosis of viral encephalitis could be established in twenty nine (58% patients. JE encephalitis was the commonest with 19 (39% cases being positive followed by, WN (9 cases-18% and Den-2 (one case. IIF test could detect antigens of JE, WN and Den-2 viruses in 16(32%, 7(14% and 1 case respectively. Shell vial culture assay picked up all cases that were positive by IIF test. In addition, SVC assay could detect 3 and 2 more cases of JE and WN encephalitis respectively, that were negative by the IIF test. Conclusion Shell vial culture is a rapid and efficient tool for the etiological diagnosis of JE, WN and Den-2 encephalitis cases. Early, prompt collection, transport and processing of the CSF samples, would make SVC a better method for the

  7. The Chinese Life-Steps Program: A Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance HIV Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Zhou, Hongxin

    2013-05-01

    China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence-favorably evaluated in the West-for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The adaptation process was theory-driven and covered several key issues of cultural adaptation. We considered the importance of interpersonal relationships and family in China and cultural notions of health. Using an evidence-based treatment protocol originally designed for Western HIV-positive patients, we developed an 11-step Chinese Life-Steps program with an additional culture-specific intervention option. We describe in detail how the cultural elements were incorporated into the intervention and put into practice at each stage. Clinical considerations are also outlined and followed by two case examples that are provided to illustrate our application of the intervention. Finally, we discuss practical and research issues and limitations emerging from our field experiments in a HIV clinic in Beijing. The intervention was tailored to address both universal and culturally specific barriers to adherence and is readily applicable to generalized clinical settings. This evidence-based intervention provides a case example of the process of adapting behavioral interventions to culturally diverse communities with limited resources.

  8. Cross-Cultural Adaptation in the Discourse of Education and Motherhood: An Autoethnography of a Korean International Graduate Student Mother in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yunjeong

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the cross-cultural adaption experience of myself as a Korean graduate student woman coming from a Confucian-heritage culture. The study focuses on the multiple roles I played as an Asian graduate student mother in the host cultural environment and the way I have undergone throughout the process of my adaptation. As a research…

  9. Adapting tests of sign language assessment for other sign languages--a review of linguistic, cultural, and psychometric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias; Mann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from one natural sign language to another. Two tests which have been adapted for several other sign languages are focused upon: the Test for American Sign Language and the British Sign Language Receptive Skills Test. A brief description is given of each test as well as insights from ongoing adaptations of these tests for other sign languages. The problems reported in these adaptations were found to be grounded in linguistic and cultural differences, which need to be considered for future test adaptations. Other reported shortcomings of test adaptation are related to the question of how well psychometric measures transfer from one instrument to another.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation of the EMIC Stigma Scale for people with leprosy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Silveira, Erika Maria Kopp Xavier da; Sales, Anna Maria; Nascimento, Lilian Pinheiro Rodrigues do; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Oliveira, Aldair J; Illarramendi, Ximena

    2017-09-04

    Describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the "Explanatory Model Interview Catalog - Stigma Scale" for people affected by leprosy in Brazil. After being authorized by the author of the scale to use it in the national context, we initiated the five steps process of cross-cultural adaptation: (1) translation, (2) synthesis meeting, (3) back-translation, (4) committee of experts and (5) pre-test. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The 15 items of the scale's original version were translated into Brazilian Portuguese. The adapted scale showed evidence of a good understanding of its content, attested both by experts and members of the target population. Its internal consistency was 0.64. The adapted instrument shows satisfactory internal consistency. It may be useful in future studies that intend to provide broad situational analysis that supports solid public health programs with a focus on effective stigma reduction. In a later study, the construct's validity, criterion, and reproducibility will be evaluated. Descrever o processo de adaptação transcultural da "Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue - Stigma Scale" para pessoas afetadas por hanseníase no Brasil. Após a autorização do autor da escala para seu uso no contexto nacional, deu-se início aos cinco passos do processo de adaptação transcultural: (1) tradução, (2) reunião de síntese, (3) retrotradução, (4) comitê de peritos e (5) pré-teste. A consistência interna da escala foi avaliada utilizando o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. Os 15 itens da versão original da escala foram traduzidos para a língua portuguesa do Brasil. A escala adaptada apresentou evidência de boa compreensão de seu conteúdo, atestada tanto por peritos como por membros da população alvo. Sua consistência interna foi de 0,64. O instrumento adaptado apresenta consistência interna satisfatória. Pode ser útil em estudos futuros que intencionem viabilizar

  11. Validation of a Cross-cultural Adaptation of the Hair Specific Skindex-29 Scale to Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Buendía-Eisman, A; Ferrando, J

    2018-06-01

    Female androgenetic alopecia (FAA) has considerable impact on quality of life. Our analysis of the clinical scales available in the literature to measure the impact of FAA led us to choose the Hair Specific Skindex 29 (HSS29) as the most appropriate for adaptation to Spanish as a tool for following patients in treatment for FAA. This tool assesses disease impact on quality of life over time so that treatments can be tailored to patients' needs. The HSS29 score reflects impact in 3 domains (emotions, symptoms, and functioning) on a scale of 0 (no effect) to 100 (maximum effect). The scale is useful in routine clinical practice, and patients can respond to all items in 5minutes. We followed recommended procedures to produce a cross-cultural adaptation of the scale. The process involved forward translation of the questionnaire to Spanish followed by back translation by 2 native speakers of the original language (English) and revision as needed after discussion and consensus by a committee of 3 expert dermatologists. The comprehensibility of the resulting translation was assessed in a test-retest step. Next, the psychometric properties, reliability, and construct validity were assessed. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, reliability with Cronbach's α, and construct validity by factor analysis using a Varimax rotation. Face validity was also assessed during the process. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated in the test-retest step. A total of 170 women with FAA and 30 control subjects completed the cross-culturally adapted Spanish questionnaire. A subgroup of 15 subjects responded a second time between 1 and 2 days after their first session (test-retest). Sensitivity and specificity were excellent according to the area under the ROC curve (0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99), and high reliability was reflected by a Cronbach's α of 0.96. Factor analysis showed that the items were

  12. Chinese version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey: cross-cultural instrument adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou Hung-Yi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking poses public health concerns because of its high risk for many chronic diseases. Most smokers begin using tobacco in their teens and recent reports indicate that smoking prevalence is climbing among youth. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS is a worldwide, school-based, tobacco-specific survey, but cross-cultural differences limit its effectiveness in international studies. Specifically, the GYTS assesses not only the prevalence of smoking, but also tobacco-related attitudes, school curricula, and advertisements, which are culturally influenced. Therefore, we conducted this study to develop a Chinese version of the GYTS for both national surveillance and international comparison. Methods The original English GYTS was translated and back translated using a cross-cultural adaptation process. The comprehensiveness and feasibility of using the Chinese-version GYTS were reviewed by a panel of 6 tobacco-control experts. The understandability and cultural relevance of the Chinese-version GYTS were discussed in a focus group of 5 schoolteachers and 8 students. The expert and focus group feedback was incorporated into a final Chinese version of the GYTS, which was administered to 382 students throughout Taiwan by multi-stage sampling from 10 randomly selected schools. Results The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha for the GYTS subscales (smoking susceptibility, attitude toward smoking, and media messages about smoking ranged from 0.70 to 0.94. The internal logical agreement of responses ranged from 85.3 to 99.2%. Conclusion The Chinese version of the GYTS has good reliability and validity and can serve as the foundation for international comparison and tobacco control in Chinese-speaking communities.

  13. Covert rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS): a hypothesis of hippocampal-prefrontal interactions for adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jane X; Cohen, Neal J; Voss, Joel L

    2015-01-01

    Effective choices generally require memory, yet little is known regarding the cognitive or neural mechanisms that allow memory to influence choices. We outline a new framework proposing that covert memory processing of hippocampus interacts with action-generation processing of prefrontal cortex in order to arrive at optimal, memory-guided choices. Covert, rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS) is proposed here as a framework for understanding cognitive and/or behavioral choices, whereby prefrontal-hippocampal interactions quickly provide multiple simulations of potential outcomes used to evaluate the set of possible choices. We hypothesize that this CRAMS process is automatic, obligatory, and covert, meaning that many cycles of action-memory simulation occur in response to choice conflict without an individual's necessary intention and generally without awareness of the simulations, leading to adaptive behavior with little perceived effort. CRAMS is thus distinct from influential proposals that adaptive memory-based behavior in humans requires consciously experienced memory-based construction of possible future scenarios and deliberate decisions among possible future constructions. CRAMS provides an account of why hippocampus has been shown to make critical contributions to the short-term control of behavior, and it motivates several new experimental approaches and hypotheses that could be used to better understand the ubiquitous role of prefrontal-hippocampal interactions in situations that require adaptively using memory to guide choices. Importantly, this framework provides a perspective that allows for testing decision-making mechanisms in a manner that translates well across human and nonhuman animal model systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  15. Rapid identification of bacteria and candida using pna-fish from blood and peritoneal fluid cultures: a retrospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Dana M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH is a rapid and established method for identification of Candida sp., Gram positive, and Gram negative bacteria from positive blood cultures. This study reports clinical experience in the evaluation of 103 positive blood cultures and 17 positive peritoneal fluid cultures from 120 patients using PNA-FISH. Our study provides evidence as to potential pharmaceutical cost savings based on rapid pathogen identification, in addition to the novel application of PNA-FISH to peritoneal fluid specimens. Methods Identification accuracy and elapsed time to identification of Gram positives, Gram negatives, and Candida sp., isolated from blood and peritoneal fluid cultures were assessed using PNA-FISH (AdvanDx, as compared to standard culture methods. Patient charts were reviewed to extrapolate potential pharmaceutical cost savings due to adjustment of antimicrobial or antifungal therapy, based on identification by PNA-FISH. Results In blood cultures, time to identification by standard culture methods for bacteria and Candida sp., averaged 83.6 hours (95% CI 56.7 to 110.5. Identification by PNA-FISH averaged 11.2 hours (95% CI 4.8 to 17.6. Overall PNA-FISH identification accuracy was 98.8% (83/84, 95% CI 93.5% to 99.9% as compared to culture. In peritoneal fluid, identification of bacteria by culture averaged 87.4 hours (95% CI −92.4 to 267.1. Identification by PNA-FISH averaged 16.4 hours (95% CI −57.3 to 90.0. Overall PNA-FISH identification accuracy was 100% (13/13, 95% CI 75.3% to 100%. For Candida sp., pharmaceutical cost savings based on PNA-FISH identification could be $377.74/day. For coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS, discontinuation of vancomycin could result in savings of $20.00/day. Conclusions In this retrospective study, excellent accuracy of PNA-FISH in blood and peritoneal fluids with reduced time to identification was observed, as compared to

  16. Is Integration Always most Adaptive? The Role of Cultural Identity in Academic Achievement and in Psychological Adaptation of Immigrant Students in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotte, Kristin; Stanat, Petra; Edele, Aileen

    2018-01-01

    Immigrant adaptation research views identification with the mainstream context as particularly beneficial for sociocultural adaptation, including academic achievement, and identification with the ethnic context as particularly beneficial for psychological adaptation. A strong identification with both contexts is considered most beneficial for both outcomes (integration hypothesis). However, it is unclear whether the integration hypothesis applies in assimilative contexts, across different outcomes, and across different immigrant groups. This study investigates the association of cultural identity with several indicators of academic achievement and psychological adaptation in immigrant adolescents (N = 3894, 51% female, M age = 16.24, SD age  = 0.71) in Germany. Analyses support the integration hypothesis for aspects of psychological adaptation but not for academic achievement. Moreover, for some outcomes, findings vary across immigrant groups from Turkey (n = 809), the former Soviet Union (n = 712), and heterogeneous other countries (n = 2373). The results indicate that the adaptive potential of identity integration is limited in assimilative contexts, such as Germany, and that it may vary across different outcomes and groups. As each identification is positively associated with at least one outcome, however, both identification dimensions seem to be important for the adaptation of immigrant adolescents.

  17. Cross-cultural differences for adapting overactive bladder symptoms: results of an epidemiologic survey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Myung-Soo; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Lee, Jong Bok; Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Joon Chul; Kim, Hyung-Jee; Lee, Jeong Ju; Park, Won-Hee

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) in a Korean national community sample of adults aged 40-89 years. A national Korean telephone survey using quota sampling methods was conducted. A clinically validated computer-assisted telephone interview approach was used in the survey. In 2,005 subjects (1,005 women and 1,000 men) interviewed, the prevalence of OAB(wet) increased with age in both men and women but OAB(dry) did not. OAB(dry) of men and women was not different in each age decade but OAB(wet) was more common among women than men aged cross-cultural differences for adapting OAB symptoms.

  18. CROSS- CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF DISTRESS ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT IN CHILDREN UNDERGOING PAINFUL PROCEDURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nátali C. A. C. Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed t o translate, back -translate to the Portuguese -Brazil language and cross- culturally adapt the content of O SBD scale for the evaluation of distress in painful contexts in children. In first step , two forward translations were made of the instrument from English to Portuguese. A consensus of these translations was obtained in second step . A native English speaker back -translated the preliminary version of the scale in Portuguese into the original English (Step 3. In step 4, an expert in the use of the OSBD review ed the backtranslated version . Then, the Portuguese version of the OSBD was submitted to a committee of experts. The final step was the pretest. Pretesting showed that the scale was useful and comprehensible for the evaluation of pain -associated dis tress in Brazilian children.

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation, validation, and reliability of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire among Persian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Birjandinejad, Ali; Kachooei, Amir Reza

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to validate a cross-culturally adapted version of the Persian Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHOQ). We followed the Beaton's guideline to translate the questionnaire to Persian. We administered the final version to 223 patients among which 79 patients returned 3 days later to respond to the Persian MHOQ for the second time. In the first visit, respondents also filled the Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and rated the pain based on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Cronbach's alpha for the total MHOQ was 0.79 which showed good internal consistency. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the total MHOQ was 0.84 which demonstrated good reliability between test and retest. The absolute correlation coefficient between total MHOQ and the DASH was as high as 0.74. Persian version of the MHOQ proved to be a reliable and valid instrument to be implemented among Persian population with the hand and wrist disorders.

  20. Cultural adaptation of the Tuberculosis-related stigma scale to Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispim, Juliane de Almeida; Touso, Michelle Mosna; Yamamura, Mellina; Popolin, Marcela Paschoal; Garcia, Maria Concebida da Cunha; Santos, Cláudia Benedita Dos; Palha, Pedro Fredemir; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    The process of stigmatization associated with TB has been undervalued in national research as this social aspect is important in the control of the disease, especially in marginalized populations. This paper introduces the stages of the process of cultural adaptation in Brazil of the Tuberculosis-related stigma scale for TB patients. It is a methodological study in which the items of the scale were translated and back-translated with semantic validation with 15 individuals of the target population. After translation, the reconciled back-translated version was compared with the original version by the project coordinator in Southern Thailand, who approved the final version in Brazilian Portuguese. The results of the semantic validation conducted with TB patients enable the identification that, in general, the scale was well accepted and easily understood by the participants.

  1. Spanish version of the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire for sport: Cultural adaptation and initial validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Pedro R.; Andronikos, Georgios; Martindale, Russell J. J.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305) = 499.64, pTalent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1–5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings. PMID:28582387

  2. Spanish version of the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire for sport: Cultural adaptation and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R; Andronikos, Georgios; Martindale, Russell J J

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305) = 499.64, pTalent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1-5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings.

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the episodic autobiographic memory interview for Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme R. Rodrigues

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory enables the storage of personal events with specific temporal and spatial details, and their retrieval through a sensory experience, usually visual, which is called autonoetic consciousness. While, in Brazil, several scales for the evaluation of anterograde episodic memory have been validated, there is not yet an instrument to assess the episodic autobiographical memory. The aim of this study is thus to make a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Episodic Autobiographic Memory Interview (EAMI for Brazilian Portuguese. Altogether, 11 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD and 10 healthy controls (CTs were evaluated. EAMI scores for AD patients were lower than those of CTs, and these scores also correlated positively with the Remember-Know coefficient. The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated a good inter-rater reliability. The Portuguese version of EAMI showed a good reliability and validity, which suggests that it is a useful tool for evaluation of autobiographical memory in Brazilian patients.

  4. The role of acid incubation in rapid immobilization of hydrogen-producing culture in anaerobic upflow column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhen-Peng; Tay, Joo-Hwa [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Show, Kuan-Yeow [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, University Tunku Abdul Rahman, 31900 Kampar, Perak (Malaysia); Liang, David Tee [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Lee, Duu-Jong [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Su, Ay [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fuel Cell Center, Yuan-Ze University, Taoyuan 320 (China)

    2008-10-15

    An approach of acidification was examined on formation of hydrogen-producing granules and biofilms in upflow column-shaped reactors. The reactors were fed with synthetic glucose wastewater and operated at 37 C and pH 5.5. The acclimated anaerobic culture was inoculated in four reactors designated R1, R2, R3 and R4, with R3 and R4 filled with granular activated carbon as support medium. To unveil the roles of acidification, microbial culture in R2 and R3 was subject to an acid incubation for 24 h by shifting the culture pH from 5.5 to 2.0. The experimental results suggested that the acidification substantially accelerated microbial granulation, but not biofilm formation. Microbial activities were inhibited by the acid incubation for about 78 h, resulting in the retarded formation of biofilms of the acidified culture. Reducing culture pH resulted in improvement in cell surface physicochemical properties favoring microbial adhesion and immobilization. Zeta potential increased from -25.3 mV to 11.9 mV, hydrophobicity in terms of contact angle improved from 31 to 38 and production of extracellular polymers increased from 66 mg/g-VSS to 136 mg/g-VSS. As a result of the formation of granules and biofilms, high hydrogen production rates of 6.98 and 7.49 L/L h were achieved in granule-based and biofilm-based reactors, respectively. It is concluded that acid incubation is an efficient means to initiate the rapid formation of granules by regulating the surface characteristics of microbial culture. The use of support media as starting nuclei may result in rapid formation of biofilms without the acidification. (author)

  5. The role of acid incubation in rapid immobilization of hydrogen-producing culture in anaerobic upflow column reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhen-Peng; Tay, Joo-Hwa; Show, Kuan-Yeow; Liang, David Tee; Lee, Duu-Jong; Su, Ay

    2008-01-01

    An approach of acidification was examined on formation of hydrogen-producing granules and biofilms in upflow column-shaped reactors. The reactors were fed with synthetic glucose wastewater and operated at 37 C and pH 5.5. The acclimated anaerobic culture was inoculated in four reactors designated R1, R2, R3 and R4, with R3 and R4 filled with granular activated carbon as support medium. To unveil the roles of acidification, microbial culture in R2 and R3 was subject to an acid incubation for 24 h by shifting the culture pH from 5.5 to 2.0. The experimental results suggested that the acidification substantially accelerated microbial granulation, but not biofilm formation. Microbial activities were inhibited by the acid incubation for about 78 h, resulting in the retarded formation of biofilms of the acidified culture. Reducing culture pH resulted in improvement in cell surface physicochemical properties favoring microbial adhesion and immobilization. Zeta potential increased from -25.3 mV to 11.9 mV, hydrophobicity in terms of contact angle improved from 31 to 38 and production of extracellular polymers increased from 66 mg/g-VSS to 136 mg/g-VSS. As a result of the formation of granules and biofilms, high hydrogen production rates of 6.98 and 7.49 L/L h were achieved in granule-based and biofilm-based reactors, respectively. It is concluded that acid incubation is an efficient means to initiate the rapid formation of granules by regulating the surface characteristics of microbial culture. The use of support media as starting nuclei may result in rapid formation of biofilms without the acidification. (author)

  6. Pilot study of a culturally adapted psychoeducation (CaPE) intervention for bipolar disorder in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Muhammad Ishrat; Chaudhry, Imran B; Rahman, Raza R; Hamirani, Munir M; Mehmood, Nasir; Haddad, Peter M; Hodsoll, John; Young, Allan H; Naeem, Farooq; Husain, Nusrat

    2017-12-01

    Despite the use of maintenance medication, recurrence rates in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) are high. To date, there are no clinical trials that have investigated the use of psychological interventions in bipolar disorder in Pakistan. The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally adapted bipolar psychoeducation programme (CaPE) in Pakistan. Thirty-four euthymic bipolar I and II outpatients were randomized to either 12 weekly sessions of individual psychoeducation plus Treatment As Usual (Intervention) or Treatment As Usual (TAU) (Control). Outcomes were assessed using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), EuroQoL (EQ-5D), Bipolar Knowledge and Attitudes and Questionnaire (BKAQ), and a self-reported measure of medication adherence (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4 items, MMAS-4). Effect sizes were derived from baseline adjusted standardized regression coefficients. Retention in the study was good, 80% of patients in the TAU follow-up assessment and 100% of patients in the CaPE group attended all 12 sessions. Patient satisfaction was higher in the CaPE group relative to control (ES = 1.41). Further, there were large effect sizes shown for CaPE versus TAU for medication adherence (MMAS-4: ES = 0.81), knowledge and attitudes towards bipolar (BKAQ: ES = 0.68), mania (YMRS: ES = 1.18), depression (BDI: ES = 1.17) and quality of life measures (EQ-5D: ES ⇒ 0.88). Culturally adapted psychoeducation intervention is acceptable and feasible, and can be effective in improving mood symptoms and knowledge and attitudes to BPAD when compared with TAU. Larger scale studies are needed to confirm our findings. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02210390.

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluations of the Turkish version of Parkinson Fatigue Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Erhan Arif; Kocer, Bilge Gonenli; Umay, Ebru; Cakci, Aytul

    2018-06-07

    The objectives of the present study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the English version of the Parkinson Fatigue Scale into Turkish, to evaluate its psychometric properties, and to compare them with that of other language versions. A total of 144 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease were included in the study. The Turkish version of Parkinson Fatigue Scale was evaluated for data quality, scaling assumptions, acceptability, reliability, and validity. The questionnaire response rate was 100% for both test and retest. The percentage of missing data was zero for items, and the percentage of computable scores was full. Floor and ceiling effects were absent. The Parkinson Fatigue Scale provides an acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha was 0.974 for 1st test and 0.964 for a retest, and corrected item-to-total correlations were ranged from 0.715 to 0.906) and test-retest reliability (Cohen's kappa coefficients were ranged from 0.632 to 0.786 for individuals items, and intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.887 for the overall Parkinson Fatigue Scale Score). An exploratory factor analysis of the items revealed a single factor explaining 71.7% of variance. The goodness-of-fit statistics for the one-factorial confirmatory factor analysis were Tucker Lewis index = 0.961, comparative fit index = 0.971 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.077 for a single factor. The average Parkinson Fatigue Scale Score was correlated significantly with sociodemographic data, clinical characteristics and scores of rating scales. The Turkish version of the Parkinson Fatigue Scale seems to be culturally well adapted and have good psychometric properties. The scale can be used in further studies to assess the fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  8. Translation, cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Chiari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To translate, to perform a cultural adaptation of and to test the reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire for Brazil. METHODS: First, the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire was translated into Portuguese and was then back-translated into French. These translations were reviewed by a committee to establish a Brazilian version of the questionnaire to be tested. The validity and reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire was evaluated. Patients of both sexes, who were aged 18 to 60 years and presented with rheumatoid arthritis affecting their hands, were interviewed. The patients were initially interviewed by two observers and were later interviewed by a single rater. First, the Visual Analogue Scale for hand pain, the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Disability questionnaire and the Health Assessment Questionnaire were administered. The third administration of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale was performed fifteen days after the first administration. Ninety patients were assessed in the present study. RESULTS: Two questions were modified as a result of the assessment of cultural equivalence. The Cronbach's alpha value for this assessment was 0.93. The intraclass intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients were 0.76 and 0.96, respectively. The Spearman's coefficient indicated that there was a low level of correlation between the Cochin Hand Functional Scale and the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (0.46 and that there was a moderate level of correlation of the Cochin Scale with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (0.66 and with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (0.63. The average administration time for the Cochin Scale was three minutes. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian version of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale was successfully translated and adapted, and this version exhibited good internal consistency, reliability and construct validity.

  9. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Back Beliefs Questionnaire to the Arabic Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamrani, Samia; Alsobayel, Hana; Alnahdi, Ali H; Moloney, Niamh; Mackey, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and psychometric testing. To translate the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) into Arabic and investigate its psychometric properties in an Arabic-speaking sample of individuals with low back pain (LBP). Back pain beliefs are associated with pain chronicity and disability in people with LBP. The BBQ is a recognized and frequently used tool for measuring these beliefs. To date the BBQ has not been translated into Arabic. The English version of the BBQ was translated and culturally adapted into Arabic (BBQ-Ar) according to published guidelines. The BBQ-Ar was then tested in a sample of 115 Arabic-speaking individuals with LBP. Reliability was evaluated through internal consistency (Cronbach α) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient), the latter in a subgroup of 25. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis and by examining the correlation between the BBQ-Ar, the Oswestry Disability Index and a Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Internal consistency of the BBQ-Ar was good (Cronbach α = 0.77). Test-retest reliability was good (intraclass correlation coefficient [2,1] = 0.88). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure, explaining 46% of total variance, with the first factor alone explaining 24%. Eight of the nine scoring items were loaded on the first factor thus forming a unidimensional scale. A significant negative correlation was found between Oswestry Disability Index and BBQ-Ar scores (r = -0.307; P < 0.01), whereas no significant correlation was found between BBQ-Ar and Pain Rating Scale scores. No floor or celling effects were observed. The BBQ-Ar is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to assess back pain beliefs in Arabic-speaking individuals. N/A.

  10. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score (PEESS v2.0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Fernanda Oliveira; Barros, Cristina Palmer; Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins da; Paro, Helena Borges Martins da Silva

    2017-11-04

    To translate and culturally adapt the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score (version 2.0), a tool used to assess pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis symptoms reported by patients and/or their parents/caregivers. The Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score was translated through the following stages: initial translation, back-translation, and consensus of independent reviewers through the Delphi technique. The pre-final version of the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score was applied to five 8-to-18-year-old patients and to ten parents of two-to-18-year-old patients from an outpatient pediatric gastroenterology service (pre-test). During the translation process, no translations presenting with difficult consensus in the review process or grammar inconsistencies were observed. During the pre-test, difficulties in comprehension of some unconventional terms, e.g., "náusea", were observed. Adverbs of frequency, such as "quase nunca" were also identified as being of difficult understanding by patients and parents, and the substitution by the term "raramente" was suggested. Such difficulties may be inherent to the pediatric age group. Age 8 years or above should be considered adequate for the self-reporting of symptoms. The study presents the Brazilian version of the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score, which is adapted to the Brazilian culture. This version may be introduced as a clinical and research tool for the assessment of patients with esophagic disease symptoms. The Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score is a breakthrough in the evaluation of symptoms of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis, since it reinforces the importance of self-reporting by patients who experience this disease. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. LEXICAL MEANING AND CULTURAL ADAPTATION ON THE PRODUCT OF NESTLE DANCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Agung Istri Aryani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Commonly, an amazing and attractive advertisement intends to hypnotize their target consumer in seeing, reading, or even hearing the ads continually. Besides, the power of persuading and motivating in messages from the way of informing product benefit could also give impact to buyer in deciding to buy the product. This research discusses the contexts of advertising found on packages of two Nestle products, especially Nestle Dancow Actigo and Nestle Dancow Enrich. These products were analyzed based on pictures or symbols and text found on packages. It is aimed at finding out the context of discourse advertising on those packages. Data were collected from analysis of text, including pictures or symbols and additional questionnaires distributed to 50 respondents located at Denpasar and Gianyar. Urban society were used to evaluate concerning on their understanding of English even though Indonesian language mostly applied on packages of products. Method used in analyzing data is descriptive qualitative and quantitative with simple statistics and explanation. It showed that connotation and denotation meanings highlighted lexical items and its cultural adaptation using process of copy adaptation to fit the culture of their targeted consumers. Means found 6 words or phrases of English from 10 of them on packages understood by 50 respondents as of: 35 for Full Cream as highest score and 16 respondents for FortiGro as the lowest score. In addition, brand name, symbol and images showed producer seemed to have close relationship with consumer and able to attract target   consumer attention as majority of findings. It can be concluded that ads on packages of Nestle Dancow had succeeded to be understood by the society through the messages implied.

  12. [Cultural adaptation of the female pelvic floor questionnaire (FPFQ) into French].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deparis, J; Bonniaud, V; Desseauve, D; Guilhot, J; Masanovic, M; De Tayrac, R; Fauconnier, A; Fritel, X

    2017-09-01

    The Female Pelvic Floor Questionnaire (FPFQ) is a self-administered tool on pelvic floor function. Our aim was to carry out a cultural adaptation of the FPFQ into French and to assess its psychometric properties. After cross-cultural adaptation into French, acceptability and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed through a sample of 56 women in a test-retest. Discriminative construct validity was evaluated by comparing the results obtained by the FPFQ to those of other validated questionnaires. Longitudinal follow-up of the 282 pregnant women included in the PreNatal Pelvic floor Prevention trial (3PN) was used to analyze responsiveness. The proportion of missing data did not exceed 4 % for questions about bladder function, bowel function and pelvic organ prolapse; 10 % for issues related to sexual function. Question 9 was considered difficult to understand by 14 % of women. After rewriting, this issue was retested in a new sample of 52 women and presented no further problems. The intra-class correlation coefficient was greater than or equal to 0.7 for all domains during the test-retest. The FPFQ was strongly and significantly correlated (Spearman r>0.5) with the other validated questionnaires. The French version of FPFQ recorded changes in urinary and sexual symptoms for the women involved in 3PN trial with a standardized response mean equal to 0.83 and 0.44, respectively. The French version of the FPFQ is self-administered, reliable, valid, and can detect a change in symptoms during follow-up. Level 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term culture change related to rapid response system implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer; Johansson, Anna; Lennes, Inga; Hsu, Douglas; Tess, Anjala; Howell, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Increasing attention to patient safety in training hospitals may come at the expense of trainee autonomy and professional growth. This study sought to examine changes in medical trainees' self-reported behaviour after the institution-wide implementation of a rapid response system. We conducted a two-point cross-sectional survey of medical trainees in 2006, during the implementation of a rapid response system, and in 2010, in a single academic medical centre. A novel instrument was used to measure trainee likelihood of calling for supervisory assistance, perception of autonomy, and comfort in managing decompensating patients. Non-parametric tests to assess for change were used and year of training was evaluated as an effect modifier. Response rates were 38% in 2006 and 70% in 2010. After 5 years of the full implementation of the rapid response system, residents were significantly more likely to report calling their attending physicians for assistance (rising from 40% to 65% of relevant situations; p autonomy at 5 years after the implementation of the rapid response system. These changes were mirrored in the actual use of the rapid response system, which increased by 41% during the 5-year period after adjustment for patient volume (p < 0.0001). A primary team-focused implementation of a rapid response system was associated with durable changes in resident physicians' reported behaviour, including increased comfort with involving more experienced physicians and managing unstable patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    building skills, knowledge or networks on adaptation, ... the African partners leading the AfricaAdapt network, together with the UK-based Institute of Development Studies; and ... UNCCD Secretariat, Regional Coordination Unit for Africa, Tunis, Tunisia .... 26 Rural–urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of.

  15. A culturally adapted family intervention for African American families coping with parental cancer: outcomes of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Maureen P; Kissil, Karni; Lynch, Laura; Harmon, La-Rhonda; Hodgson, Nancy

    2013-07-01

    The primary objective of this 2-year pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally adapted family intervention in improving family communication among African American parents coping with cancer and their school-age children. A secondary objective was to determine its impact on other symptoms of psychosocial distress (depression and anxiety). The third objective was to assess for acceptability and feasibility. Using a two-arm pre-intervention and post-intervention prospective design, 12 African American families received five bi-monthly sessions of either a culturally adapted family intervention (n=7 families) or psycho-education treatment (n=5 families). Parents and their children completed pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaires assessing perceptions of family communication, quality of their relationship, and symptoms of depression. School-age children additionally completed a questionnaire assessing their levels of anxiety. Consumer satisfaction was also evaluated at post-intervention. Parents and school-age children who completed the culturally adapted family intervention reported significantly better communication with each other and were more satisfied compared with the psycho-education control group. No changes were noted in symptoms of anxiety or depression. The culturally adapted family intervention was acceptable based on our findings, families' feedback, and rates of retention. Feasibility is uncertain because our oncology clinic approach to recruitment was slower than expected. Providing culturally adapted family intervention programs to African American families who are coping with parental cancer may result in improved family communication. This pilot study serves as the first step in the development of culturally adapted family intervention programs to help African American families cope with parental cancer. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, Christina M; Sercia, Linda; Navas, Maria; Tuohy, Marion; Wilson, Deborah; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S

    2013-07-01

    Rapid identification of pathogens from blood cultures can decrease lengths of stay and improve patient outcomes. We evaluated the accuracy of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) nucleic acid test for investigational use only (Nanosphere, Inc., Northbrook, IL) for the identification of Gram-positive bacteria from blood cultures. The detection of resistance genes (mecA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and vanA or vanB in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis) by the BC-GP assay also was assessed. A total of 186 positive blood cultures (in BacT/Alert FA bottles) with Gram-positive cocci observed with Gram staining were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. The BC-GP results were compared with the identification and susceptibility profiles obtained with routine methods in the clinical laboratory. Discordant results were arbitrated with additional biochemical, cefoxitin disk, and repeat BC-GP testing. The initial BC-GP organism identification was concordant with routine method results for 94.6% of the blood cultures. Only 40% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae identifications were correct. The detection of the mecA gene for 69 blood cultures with only S. aureus or S. epidermidis was concordant with susceptibility testing results. For 3 of 6 cultures with multiple Staphylococcus spp., mecA detection was reported but was correlated with oxacillin resistance in a species other than S. aureus or S. epidermidis. The detection of vanA agreed with susceptibility testing results for 45 of 46 cultures with E. faecalis or E. faecium. Comparison of the mean times to results for each organism group showed that BC-GP results were available 31 to 42 h earlier than phenotypic identifications and 41 to 50 h earlier than susceptibility results.

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the teamwork climate scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Charantola Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To adapt and validate the Team Climate Inventory scale, of teamwork climate measurement, for the Portuguese language, in the context of primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Methodological study with quantitative approach of cross-cultural adaptation (translation, back-translation, synthesis, expert committee, and pretest and validation with 497 employees from 72 teams of the Family Health Strategy in the city of Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil. We verified reliability by the Cronbach’s alpha, construct validity by the confirmatory factor analysis with SmartPLS software, and correlation by the job satisfaction scale. RESULTS We problematized the overlap of items 9, 11, and 12 of the “participation in the team” factor and the “team goals” factor regarding its definition. The validation showed no overlapping of items and the reliability ranged from 0.92 to 0.93. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated suitability of the proposed model with distribution of the 38 items in the four factors. The correlation between teamwork climate and job satisfaction was significant. CONCLUSIONS The version of the scale in Brazilian Portuguese was validated and can be used in the context of primary health care in the Country, constituting an adequate tool for the assessment and diagnosis of teamwork.

  18. Brazilian cross-cultural adaptation of the DocCom online module: communication for teamwork 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Tatiane Angélica Phelipini; Vannuchi, Marli Terezinha Oliveira; Grosseman, Suely; González, Alberto Durán

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of DocCom online module 38, which deals with teamwork communication into Portuguese for the Brazilian contexto. Method: the transcultural translation and adaptation were accomplished through initial translations, synthesis of the translations, evaluation and synthesis by a committee of experts, analysis by translators and back translation, pre-test with nurses and undergraduate students in Nursing, and analysis of the translators to obtain the final material. Results: in evaluation and synthesis of the translated version with the original version by the expert committee, the items obtained higher than 80% agreement. Few modifications were suggested according to the analysis by pretest participants. The final version was adequate to the proposed context and its purpose. Conclusion: it is believed that by making this new teaching-learning strategy of communication skills and competencies for teamwork available, it can be used systematically in undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the health area in Brazil in order to contribute to training professionals, and also towards making advances in this field.

  19. Brazilian cross-cultural adaptation of the DocCom online module: communication for teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Angélica Phelipini Borges

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of DocCom online module 38, which deals with teamwork communication into Portuguese for the Brazilian contexto. Method: the transcultural translation and adaptation were accomplished through initial translations, synthesis of the translations, evaluation and synthesis by a committee of experts, analysis by translators and back translation, pre-test with nurses and undergraduate students in Nursing, and analysis of the translators to obtain the final material. Results: in evaluation and synthesis of the translated version with the original version by the expert committee, the items obtained higher than 80% agreement. Few modifications were suggested according to the analysis by pretest participants. The final version was adequate to the proposed context and its purpose. Conclusion: it is believed that by making this new teaching-learning strategy of communication skills and competencies for teamwork available, it can be used systematically in undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the health area in Brazil in order to contribute to training professionals, and also towards making advances in this field.

  20. Prenatal Psychosocial Profile: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation to its use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissheimer, Anne Marie; Mamede, Marli Villela

    2015-12-01

    To translate the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile (PPP) to be used in Brazil; to perform its cross-cultural adaptation; and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Methodological study. The study was conducted in 10 prenatal care clinics at the city of Porto Alegre/Brazil. 241 women pregnant women. The adaptation process consisted in: translation; first version synthesis; expert committee evaluation; back translation; pre-test of the PPP version in Portuguese (PPP-VP); validation; the data with the participants was collected in 2007, by trained student nurses that approached the women while they were waiting for prenatal consultation. The mean scores for all subscales were similar to the ones found by the original authors; internal consistency was verified through Cronbach׳s alpha, with values of 0.71 for the stress subscale; 0.96 for support from the partner; 0.96 for support from others; and 0.79 for self-esteem; validity was supported through factorial analysis; construct and criterion validities were also established. PPP-VP should be used as a tool to obtain a psychosocial profile which can lead to nursing interventions that will reduce health risk behaviours during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of culture in adaptive responses to climate and environmental change in a Fijian village

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton , Clare

    2017-01-01

    Adapting to the new challenges climate change will bring is vital. Pacific Islands are often cited as being at the forefront of climate change, and despite a growing body of regional research there has been limited climate change adaptation research in regional deltas. The capacity of households and communities to respond to climate change in the face of multiple stressors is influenced by a variety of factors and elements shaped by the underlying social and cultural context. Recent work has ...

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale for Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gonçalves da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The internet has proven to be a valuable resource for self-care, allowing access to information and promoting interaction between professionals, caregivers, users of health care services and people interested in health information. However, recurring searches are often related to excessive health anxiety and a phenomenon known as cyberchondria can have impacts on physical and mental health. Within this background, a Cyberchondria Severity Scale has been developed to differentiate healthy and unhealthy behavior in internet searches for health information, based on the following criteria: compulsion, distress, excesses, and trust and distrust of health professionals. Objective: To conduct cross-cultural adaptation of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale for Brazilian Portuguese, because of the lack of an appropriate instrument for Brazil. Methods: This study was authorized by the original author of the scale. The process was divided into the following four steps: 1 initial translation, 2 back-translation, 3 development of a synthesized version, and 4 experimental application. Results: Translation into Brazilian Portuguese required some idiomatic expressions to be adapted. In some cases, words were not literally translated from English into Portuguese. Only items 7, 8, 12, 23 and 27 were altered, as a means of both conforming to proper grammar conventions and achieving easy comprehension. The items were rewritten without loss of the original content. Conclusion: This paper presents a translated version of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale that has been semantically adapted for the Brazilian population, providing a basis for future studies in this area, which should in turn contribute to improved understanding of the cyberchondria phenomenon in this population.

  3. The role of organizational culture in policy mobilities – the case of South Korean climate change adaptation policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schäfer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of policies as mobile and mutable knowledge is the key feature of the recent debate on policy mobilities. Policy mobility studies have focused on the movement and translation of policies as well as on the impact of mobile policies on policy-making processes and governed spaces. Given that policy mobilities have mainly been examined in comparable institutional contexts, the current debate has neglected the role of organizational culture in the translation of policies. Organizational culture is understood as a set of shared assumptions that guide what happens in organizations by defining appropriate practices of policy making. The case study, South Korean adaptation policy, illustrates that organizational culture has a significant impact on the translation of mobile adaptation policy. Besides the claim to consider organizational culture more prominently in the field of policy mobility studies, this paper illustrates the translation process of adaptation policy in the South Korean political system. The practices in South Korean political institutions dealing with climate change adaptation are highly characterized by the avoidance of risks. The propensity to avoid risks leads policy makers to focus on technical solutions to climate change adaptation and to neglect the participation of civil society.

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Danish version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire (SMFA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Marianne Pia; Andersen, Signe; Jørgensen, Annette

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) into Danish (SMFA-DK) and assess the psychometric properties. METHODS: SMFA was translated and cross-culturally adapted according to a standardized procedure. Minor changes......, content validity as coding according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), floor/ceiling effects, construct validity as factor analysis, correlations between SMFA-DK and Short Form 36 and also known group method. Responsiveness and effect size were calculated...

  5. Rapid diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia: cell culture and soft computing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Massimo; Bush, Andrew; Montemurro, Francesca; Pioggia, Giovanni; Piras, Martina; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Di Cicco, Maria; Chinellato, Iolanda; Cangiotti, Angela M; Boner, Attilio L

    2013-04-01

    Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) sometimes requires repeated nasal brushing to exclude secondary ciliary alterations. Our aim was to evaluate whether the use of a new method of nasal epithelial cell culture can speed PCD diagnosis in doubtful cases and to identify which are the most informative parameters by means of a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN). A cross-sectional study was performed in patients with suspected PCD. All patients underwent nasal brushing for ciliary motion analysis, ultrastructural assessment and evaluation of ciliary function after ciliogenesis in culture by ANN. 151 subjects were studied. A diagnostic suspension cell culture was obtained in 117 nasal brushings. A diagnosis of PCD was made in 36 subjects (29 of whom were children). In nine out of the 36 patients the diagnosis was made only after a second brushing, because of equivocal results of both tests at first examination. In each of these subjects diagnosis of PCD was confirmed by cell culture results. Cell culture in suspension evaluated by means of ANN allows the separation of PCD from secondary ciliary dyskinesia patients after only 5 days of culture and allows diagnosis to be reached in doubtful cases, thus avoiding the necessity of a second sample.

  6. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry following short incubation on a solid medium is a valuable tool for rapid pathogen identification from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, Rebekka; Hoffmann, Alexander; Geis, Gabriele; Gatermann, Sören

    2015-01-01

    approach allowed an optimized treatment recommendation. MALDI-TOF MS following 4h pre-culture is a valuable tool for rapid pathogen identification from positive blood cultures, allowing easy integration in diagnostic routine and the opportunity of considerably earlier treatment adaptation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Daily chicken: the cultural transmission of bourgeois family values in adaptations of literary classics for children, 1850-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlevliet, Sanne

    2011-01-01

    Literature is a significant agent in the transmission of culture. Through literature expected behavior and patterns of life are passed on from generation to generation. The anticipated power of children's literature is even stronger. Socializing the target audience has always been one of its main aims. Consequently, books for children are governed by dominant social, cultural, and educational norms. This article explores the reciprocity between cultural transmission and the transmission of literature. It examines adaptations of international literary classics in their capacity of cultural intermediaries between old masterpieces and young audiences. Focusing on ways of transmitting family ideologies to children, the repository of Dutch adaptations of "Reynard the Fox," "Till Eulenspiegel," "Robinson Crusoe," and "Gulliver's Travels" serves as a case study.

  8. Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) in complex systems: cultural adaptation and safety impacts in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Leonhardt, Alice; Mitchell, Shannon G; Vogt, Joachim; Schürmann, Tim

    2014-07-01

    In complex systems, such as hospitals or air traffic control operations, critical incidents (CIs) are unavoidable. These incidents can not only become critical for victims but also for professionals working at the "sharp end" who may have to deal with critical incident stress (CIS) reactions that may be severe and impede emotional, physical, cognitive and social functioning. These CIS reactions may occur not only under exceptional conditions but also during every-day work and become an important safety issue. In contrast to air traffic management (ATM) operations in Europe, which have readily adopted critical incident stress management (CISM), most hospitals have not yet implemented comprehensive peer support programs. This survey was conducted in 2010 at the only European general hospital setting which implemented CISM program since 2004. The aim of the article is to describe possible contribution of CISM in hospital settings framed from the perspective of organizational safety and individual health for healthcare professionals. Findings affirm that daily work related incidents also can become critical for healthcare professionals. Program efficiency appears to be influenced by the professional culture, as well as organizational structure and policies. Overall, findings demonstrate that the adaptation of the CISM program in general hospitals takes time but, once established, it may serve as a mechanism for changing professional culture, thereby permitting the framing of even small incidents or near misses as an opportunity to provide valuable feedback to the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of the WOMAC questionnaire in Mumbai and the challenges of translation and cross cultural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogtay, N J; Thatte, U M; Dasgupta, B; Deshpande, S

    2013-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are disease specific questionnaires that are being increasingly used in clinical practice and research. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), is a widely used PROM in patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis. A validated WOMAC was used by us, and significant challenges were faced in administering it as several questions did not have a cultural connect. Functionally equivalent items in the Indian context had then to be used to complete the score. With greater emphasis today on the use of patient-reported outcome measures, and with data from multi-centric studies being pooled, cross-cultural adaptation becomes very important if the pooled data are to be really relevant. In India, with several languages being spoken, and a significant proportion of the population being illiterate, the physician and/ or the impartial witness must provide considerable explanation without attempting to influence the response. The key to the effective and correct use of PROMs thus lies not just in translation, but also in a stepwise validation of the questionnaire, and modification in the context of the country where it is used. Scores like WOMAC are often primary efficacy endpoints in clinical trials; are gaining greater importance to support label claims; have ethical implications, and directly impact regulatory decision making and thus, eventually, evidence-based practice.

  10. Science cafés. Cross-cultural adaptation and educational applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Norton

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tokyo Institute of Technology (TokyoTech has been developing a number of methodologies to teach graduate students the theory and practice of science communication since 2005. One of the tools used is the science café, where students are taught about the background based primarily on theoretical models developed in the UK. They then apply that knowledge and adapt it the Japanese cultural context and plan, execute and review outcomes as part of their course. In this paper we review 4 years of experience in using science cafés in this educational context; we review the background to the students’ decision-making and consensus-building process towards deciding on the style and subject to be used, and the value this has in illuminating the cultural influences on the science café design and implementation. We also review the value of the science café as an educational tool and conclude that it has contributed to a number of teaching goals related to both knowledge and the personal skills required to function effectively in an international environment.

  11. Reporting of the translation and cultural adaptation procedures of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination version III (ACE-III) and its predecessors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Nadine; Panagioti, Maria; Waheed, Muhammad Wali; Waheed, Waquas

    2017-09-13

    The ACE-III, a gold standard for screening cognitive impairment, is restricted by language and culture, with no uniform set of guidelines for its adaptation. To develop guidelines a compilation of all the adaptation procedures undertaken by adapters of the ACE-III and its predecessors is needed. We searched EMBASE, Medline and PsychINFO and screened publications from a previous review. We included publications on adapted versions of the ACE-III and its predecessors, extracting translation and cultural adaptation procedures and assessing their quality. We deemed 32 papers suitable for analysis. 7 translation steps were identified and we determined which items of the ACE-III are culturally dependent. This review lists all adaptations of the ACE, ACE-R and ACE-III, rates the reporting of their adaptation procedures and summarises adaptation procedures into steps that can be undertaken by adapters.

  12. From In Vivo to In Vitro: Dynamic Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum var Gene Expression Patterns of Patient Isolates during Adaptation to Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yufu; Xue, Xiangyang; Yan, He; Sun, Xiaodong; Wang, Jian; McCutchan, Thomas F.; Pan, Weiqing

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), encoded by the var gene family, plays a crucial role in disease virulence through its involvement in binding to various host cellular receptors during infection. Growing evidence suggests that differential expression of the various var subgroups may be involved in parasite virulence. To further explore this issue, we have collected isolates from symptomatic patients in south China-Myanmar border, and characterized their sequence diversity and transcription profiles over time of var gene family, and cytoadherence properties from the time of their initial collection and extending through a two month period of adaptation to culture. Initially, we established a highly diverse, DBLα (4 cysteines) subtype-enriched, but unique local repertoire of var-DBL1α sequences by cDNA cloning and sequencing. Next we observed a rapid transcriptional decline of upsA- and upsB-subtype var genes at ring stage through qRT-PCR assays, and a switching event from initial ICAM-I binding to the CD36-binding activity during the first week of adaptive cultivation in vitro. Moreover, predominant transcription of upsA var genes was observed to be correlated with those isolates that showed a higher parasitemia at the time of collection and the ICAM-1-binding phenotype in culture. Taken together, these data indicate that the initial stage of adaptive process in vitro significantly influences the transcription of virulence-related var subtypes and expression of PfEMP1 variants. Further, the specific upregulation of the upsA var genes is likely linked to the rapid propagation of the parasite during natural infection due to the A-type PfEMP1 variant-mediated growth advantages. PMID:21674009

  13. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale - Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Fernanda Figueredo; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Pagano, Adriana Silvina; Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho

    2017-03-23

    To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale - Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. Assessment of the instrument's conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee's assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes - Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494- 0.737), while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv) for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the validation tests proved to be a reliable, safe and innovative method. Traduzir

  14. Rapid Induction of Aldosterone Synthesis in Cultured Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes under High Glucose Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Fujisaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to classical adrenal cortical biosynthetic pathway, there is increasing evidence that aldosterone is produced in extra-adrenal tissues. Although we previously reported aldosterone production in the heart, the concept of cardiac aldosterone synthesis remains controversial. This is partly due to lack of established experimental models representing aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2 expression in robustly reproducible fashion. We herein investigated suitable conditions in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs culture system producing CYP11B2 with considerable efficacy. NRCMs were cultured with various glucose doses for 2–24 hours. CYP11B2 mRNA expression and aldosterone concentrations secreted from NRCMs were determined using real-time PCR and enzyme immunoassay, respectively. We found that suitable conditions for CYP11B2 induction included four-hour incubation with high glucose conditions. Under these particular conditions, CYP11B2 expression, in accordance with aldosterone secretion, was significantly increased compared to those observed in the cells cultured under standard-glucose condition. Angiotensin II receptor blocker partially inhibited this CYP11B2 induction, suggesting that there is local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation under high glucose conditions. The suitable conditions for CYP11B2 induction in NRCMs culture system are now clarified: high-glucose conditions with relatively brief period of culture promote CYP11B2 expression in cardiomyocytes. The current system will help to accelerate further progress in research on cardiac tissue aldosterone synthesis.

  15. A qualitative assessment of cross-cultural adaptation of intermediate measures for schizophrenia in multisite international studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jodi M; Rubin, Maureen; Fredrick, Megan M; Velligan, Dawn I

    2013-04-30

    In this substudy of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia we examined qualitative feedback on the cross-cultural adaptability of four intermediate measures of functional outcome (Independent Living Scales, UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment, Test of Adaptive Behavior in Schizophrenia, and Cognitive Assessment Interview). Feedback was provided by experienced English-fluent clinical researchers at 31 sites in eight countries familiar with medication trials. Researchers provided feedback on test subscales and items which were rated as having adaptation challenges. They noted the specific concern and made suggestions for adaptation to their culture. We analyzed the qualitative data using a modified Grounded Theory approach guided by the International Testing Commission Guidelines model for test adaptation. For each measure except the Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI), the majority of subscales were reported to require major adaptations in terms of content and concepts contained in the subscale. In particular, social, financial, transportation and health care systems varied widely across countries-systems which are often used to assess performance capacity in the U.S. We provide suggestions for how to address future international test development and adaptation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 5, Water Quality and Infrastructure Response to Rapid Urbanization: Adaptation Case Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course will introduce students to the fundamental principles of water system adaptation to hydrological changes, with emphasis on data analysis and interpretation, technical planning, and computational modeling. Starting with real-world scenarios and adaptation needs, the co...

  17. Immigrants' adaptation to different cultural settings: A contextual perspective on acculturation: Introduction for the special section on immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    In modern multicultural societies more and more individuals deal with 2 or more cultures due to the unprecedented increase in international migration. This special section brings together research about immigrants' adaptation to various life domains, about the demands of dealing with different cultural scripts and about how immigrants can successfully bridge different cultural demands. This introduction to the special section provides a broader theoretical framework that links the different studies of the special section and demonstrates areas for further research. It also clearly illustrates the growing necessity for research in increasingly diverse societies. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. The combined rapid detection and species-level identification of yeasts in simulated blood culture using a colorimetric sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Nabin K; Lim, Sung H; Wilson, Deborah A; SalasVargas, Ana Victoria; Churi, Yair S; Rhodes, Paul A; Mazzone, Peter J; Procop, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    A colorimetric sensor array (CSA) has been demonstrated to rapidly detect and identify bacteria growing in blood cultures by obtaining a species-specific "fingerprint" of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during growth. This capability has been demonstrated in prokaryotes, but has not been reported for eukaryotic cells growing in culture. The purpose of this study was to explore if a disposable CSA could differentially identify 7 species of pathogenic yeasts growing in blood culture. Culture trials of whole blood inoculated with a panel of clinically important pathogenic yeasts at four different microorganism loads were performed. Cultures were done in both standard BacT/Alert and CSA-embedded bottles, after adding 10 mL of spiked blood to each bottle. Color changes in the CSA were captured as images by an optical scanner at defined time intervals. The captured images were analyzed to identify the yeast species. Time to detection by the CSA was compared to that in the BacT/Alert system. One hundred sixty-two yeast culture trials were performed, including strains of several species of Candida (Ca. albicans, Ca. glabrata, Ca. parapsilosis, and Ca. tropicalis), Clavispora (synonym Candida) lusitaniae, Pichia kudriavzevii (synonym Candida krusei) and Cryptococcus neoformans, at loads of 8.2 × 105, 8.3 × 103, 8.5 × 101, and 1.7 CFU/mL. In addition, 8 negative trials (no yeast) were conducted. All negative trials were correctly identified as negative, and all positive trials were detected. Colorimetric responses were species-specific and did not vary by inoculum load over the 500000-fold range of loads tested, allowing for accurate species-level identification. The mean sensitivity for species-level identification by CSA was 74% at detection, and increased with time, reaching almost 95% at 4 hours after detection. At an inoculum load of 1.7 CFU/mL, mean time to detection with the CSA was 6.8 hours (17%) less than with the BacT/Alert platform. The CSA

  19. The combined rapid detection and species-level identification of yeasts in simulated blood culture using a colorimetric sensor array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabin K Shrestha

    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array (CSA has been demonstrated to rapidly detect and identify bacteria growing in blood cultures by obtaining a species-specific "fingerprint" of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs produced during growth. This capability has been demonstrated in prokaryotes, but has not been reported for eukaryotic cells growing in culture. The purpose of this study was to explore if a disposable CSA could differentially identify 7 species of pathogenic yeasts growing in blood culture.Culture trials of whole blood inoculated with a panel of clinically important pathogenic yeasts at four different microorganism loads were performed. Cultures were done in both standard BacT/Alert and CSA-embedded bottles, after adding 10 mL of spiked blood to each bottle. Color changes in the CSA were captured as images by an optical scanner at defined time intervals. The captured images were analyzed to identify the yeast species. Time to detection by the CSA was compared to that in the BacT/Alert system.One hundred sixty-two yeast culture trials were performed, including strains of several species of Candida (Ca. albicans, Ca. glabrata, Ca. parapsilosis, and Ca. tropicalis, Clavispora (synonym Candida lusitaniae, Pichia kudriavzevii (synonym Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans, at loads of 8.2 × 105, 8.3 × 103, 8.5 × 101, and 1.7 CFU/mL. In addition, 8 negative trials (no yeast were conducted. All negative trials were correctly identified as negative, and all positive trials were detected. Colorimetric responses were species-specific and did not vary by inoculum load over the 500000-fold range of loads tested, allowing for accurate species-level identification. The mean sensitivity for species-level identification by CSA was 74% at detection, and increased with time, reaching almost 95% at 4 hours after detection. At an inoculum load of 1.7 CFU/mL, mean time to detection with the CSA was 6.8 hours (17% less than with the BacT/Alert platform

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the French version of the Rheumatoid and Arthritis Outcome Score (RAOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duval, Aurelie; Maillefert, Jean Francis; Gossec, Laure

    2010-01-01

    The Rheumatoid and Arthritis Outcome Score (RAOS) was recently developed to evaluate functional disability and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients suffering from lower limb symptoms. The aims of this study were to cross-culturally adapt the RAOS into French and to assess its...

  1. A Pilot Study of a Culturally Adapted Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Yang, Jian; Yao, Jing; Chen, Jun; Zhuang, Xiangxiang; Wang, Wenxiang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Lee, Gabrielle T.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot test the effects of a culturally adapted early intervention influenced by the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) on reduction of autism symptoms and severity categorization for young children with autism spectrum disorders in China. Participants were randomly assigned to either the control or intervention…

  2. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (German AIMS2-SF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Korner, T.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2, Short Form (AIMS2-SF) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. METHODS: A structured procedure was used for the translation

  3. Translation, Cross-cultural Adaptation, and Psychometric Properties of the German Version of the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasimann, A.; Dauphinee, S.W.; Staal, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement. Objectives To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) from English into German, and to study its psychometric properties in patients after hip surgery. Background There is no specific hip questionnaire in

  4. INFECTIOUS DISEASES ARE SLEEPING MONSTERS: Conventional and culturally adapted new metaphors in a corpus of abstracts on immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hidalgo Downing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the role played by metaphor in a corpus of sixty abstracts on immunology from Scientific American. We focus on the distinction between conventional metaphors and culturally adapted new metaphors and discuss the role played by metaphor choice in the communicative purposes of the abstracts and their register features. We argue that one of the main strategies used to attract the reader‘s attention is the combination of highly conventionalized metaphors, which occur more frequently in the corpus, together with what we call “culturally adapted new metaphors”, which display different degrees of creativity and are less frequent in the corpus. Conventional metaphors typically reinforce the world view shared by the scientific community and introduce basic ideas on the subject of immunology. Culturally adapted new metaphors include a cline from slightly new perspectives of conventional models, to highly creative uses of metaphor. Culturally adapted new metaphors appeal primarily to a general readership and not to the scientific community, as they tap human emotions and mythic constructions. These play a crucial role in the abstracts, as they contribute to persuasive and didactic communicative functions in the text.

  5. Cultural Adaptations of Prolonged Exposure Therapy for Treatment and Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnica T. Williams

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a highly disabling disorder, afflicting African Americans at disproportionately higher rates than the general population. When receiving treatment, African Americans may feel differently towards a European American clinician due to cultural mistrust. Furthermore, racism and discrimination experienced before or during the traumatic event may compound posttrauma reactions, impacting the severity of symptoms. Failure to adapt treatment approaches to encompass cultural differences and racism-related traumas may decrease treatment success for African American clients. Cognitive behavioral treatment approaches are highly effective, and Prolonged Exposure (PE in particular has the most empirical support for the treatment of PTSD. This article discusses culturally-informed adaptations of PE that incorporates race-related trauma themes specific to the Black experience. These include adding more sessions at the front end to better establish rapport, asking directly about race-related themes during the assessment process, and deliberately bringing to the forefront race-related experiences and discrimination during treatment when indicated. Guidelines for assessment and the development of appropriate exposures are provided. Case examples are presented demonstrating adaptation of PE for a survivor of race-related trauma and for a woman who developed internalized racism following a sexual assault. Both individuals experienced improvement in their posttrauma reactions using culturally-informed adaptations to PE.

  6. Effectiveness of a Culturally Adapted Strengthening Families Program 12-16-Years for High-Risk Irish Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpfer, Karol L.; Xie, Jing; O'Driscoll, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based programs (EBPs) targeting effective family skills are the most cost effective for improving adolescent behavioural health. Cochrane Reviews have found the "Strengthening Families Program" (SFP) to be the most effective substance abuse prevention intervention. Standardized cultural adaptation processes resulted…

  7. SCIENTIFIC AND METHODICAL FUNDAMENTALS OF RESTORATION AND ADAPTATION OF BELARUSSIAN HISTORICAL MANORS FOR CULTURAL AND TOURIST USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Ulasiuk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The executed researches of studying historical manors of Belarus, the analysis of domestic and foreign experience of restoration and modem use of manors have allowed to formulate purposes, principles, conceptual approaches and methods of restoration and adaptation of historical manors for cultural and tourist use.

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire-Dutch Language Version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carin Schröder; Francois Maissan; Edwin de Raaij; Jan Pool; Dr. H.M. Wittink

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ever since Engel's Biopsychosocial Model (1977) emotions, thoughts, beliefs and behaviors are accepted as important factors of health. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ) assesses these beliefs. Aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the Brief IPQ into the

  9. Recognizing the Effects of Comprehension Language Barriers and Adaptability Cultural Barriers on Selected First-Generation Undergraduate Vietnamese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Christian Phuoc-Lanh

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is about recognizing the effects of comprehension language barriers and adaptability cultural barriers on selected first-generation Vietnamese undergraduate students in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. Most Vietnamese students know little or no English before immigrating to the United States; as such, language and…

  10. A rapid microassay for detecting antibodies against poliovirus based on [14C]thymidine uptake of treated cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilfenhaus, J.; Damm, H.; Ziegelmaier, R.; Gruschkau, H.

    1977-01-01

    DNA synthesis of mammalian cells propagated in microplates can easily be measured if cell cultures incubated with [ 14 C]thymidine are harvested on to glass fibre filters by a semiautomatic harvesting technique. Soon after infection with poliovirus, [ 14 C]thymidine uptake of U cells (established, human amniotic cell line) is inhibited. This inhibition can be prevented by previous virus neutralization with antibody. Based on this effect a rapid, precise assay method was set up to determine neutralizing antibody titres against poliovirus. There was a good correlation between titres obtained by this assay and those obtained by 50% endpoint titrations in cytopathogenic effect inhibition assays

  11. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  12. Pick a Color MARIA: Adaptive Sampling Enables the Rapid Identification of Complex Perovskite Nanocrystal Compositions with Defined Emission Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezinge, Leonard; Maceiczyk, Richard M; Lignos, Ioannis; Kovalenko, Maksym V; deMello, Andrew J

    2018-06-06

    Recent advances in the development of hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite (LHP) nanocrystals (NCs) have demonstrated their versatility and potential application in photovoltaics and as light sources through compositional tuning of optical properties. That said, due to their compositional complexity, the targeted synthesis of mixed-cation and/or mixed-halide LHP NCs still represents an immense challenge for traditional batch-scale chemistry. To address this limitation, we herein report the integration of a high-throughput segmented-flow microfluidic reactor and a self-optimizing algorithm for the synthesis of NCs with defined emission properties. The algorithm, named Multiparametric Automated Regression Kriging Interpolation and Adaptive Sampling (MARIA), iteratively computes optimal sampling points at each stage of an experimental sequence to reach a target emission peak wavelength based on spectroscopic measurements. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method through the synthesis of multinary LHP NCs, (Cs/FA)Pb(I/Br) 3 (FA = formamidinium) and (Rb/Cs/FA)Pb(I/Br) 3 NCs, using MARIA to rapidly identify reagent concentrations that yield user-defined photoluminescence peak wavelengths in the green-red spectral region. The procedure returns a robust model around a target output in far fewer measurements than systematic screening of parametric space and additionally enables the prediction of other spectral properties, such as, full-width at half-maximum and intensity, for conditions yielding NCs with similar emission peak wavelength.

  13. Cultural adaptation of an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann B; Wang, Honghong; Burgess, Jane; Li, Xianhong; Danvers, Karina

    2013-04-01

    Adapting nursing interventions to suit the needs and culture of a new population (cultural adaptation) is an important early step in the process of implementation and dissemination. While the need for cultural adaptation is widely accepted, research-based strategies for doing so are not well articulated. Non-adherence to medications for chronic disease is a global problem and cultural adaptation of existing evidence-based interventions could be useful. This paper aims to describe the cultural adaptation of an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS and to offer recommendations for adaptation of interventions across cultures and borders. SITE: The intervention, which demonstrated efficacy in a randomized controlled trial in North America, was adapted for the cultural and social context of Hunan Province, in south central China. The adaptation process was undertaken by intervention stakeholders including the original intervention study team, the proposed adaptation team, and members of a Community Advisory Board, including people living with HIV/AIDS, family members, and health care workers at the target clinical sites. The adaptation process was driven by quantitative and qualitative data describing the new population and context and was guided by principles for cultural adaptation drawn from prevention science research. The primary adaptation to the intervention was the inclusion of family members in intervention activities, in response to the cultural and social importance of the family in rural China. In a pilot test of the adapted intervention, self-reported medication adherence improved significantly in the group receiving the intervention compared to the control group (p=0.01). Recommendations for cultural adaptation of nursing interventions include (1) involve stakeholders from the beginning; (2) assess the population, need, and context; (3) evaluate the intervention to be adapted with attention to

  14. The modified patient enablement instrument: a Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation, validity and reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remelhe, Mafalda; Teixeira, Pedro M; Lopes, Irene; Silva, Luís; Correia de Sousa, Jaime

    2017-01-12

    Enabling patients with asthma to obtain the knowledge, confidence and skills they need in order to assume a major role in the management of their disease is cost effective. It should be an integral part of any plan for long-term control of asthma. The modified Patient Enablement Instrument (mPEI) is an easily administered questionnaire that was adapted in the United Kingdom to measure patient enablement in asthma, but its applicability in Portugal is not known. Validity and reliability of questionnaires should be tested before use in settings different from those of the original version. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the mPEI to Portuguese asthma patients after translation and cross-cultural adaptation, and to verify the structural validity, internal consistency and reproducibility of the instrument. The mPEI was translated to Portuguese and back translated to English. Its content validity was assessed by a debriefing interview with 10 asthma patients. The translated instrument was then administered to a random sample of 142 patients with persistent asthma. Structural validity and internal consistency were assessed. For reproducibility analysis, 86 patients completed the instrument again 7 days later. Item-scale correlations and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess structural validity. Cronbach's alpha was used to test internal consistency, and the intra-class correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of reproducibility. All items of the Portuguese version of the mPEI were found to be equivalent to the original English version. There were strong item-scale correlations that confirmed construct validity, with a one component structure and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.8) as well as high test-retest reliability (ICC=0.85). The mPEI showed sound psychometric properties for the evaluation of enablement in patients with asthma making it a reliable instrument for use in research and clinical practice in

  15. Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life questionnaire: translation, cultural adaptation and validation into Portuguese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Anabela; Ambrósio, Catarina; Pereira da Silva, J A; McKenna, Stephen; Wilburn, Jeanette; Lopes Ferreira, Pedro

    2018-02-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) has a strong negative impact on the quality of life of patients. The Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life (PsAQoL) questionnaire is a disease-specific instrument developed to measure the quality of life in patients with PsA. The aims of this study were to culturally adapt the questionnaire for Portugal and evaluate its reliability and validity in patients with PsA. The original UK English version of the PsAQoL was translated into Portuguese by a bilingual and lay panel. Structured cognitive debriefing interviews were conducted with ten PsA patients. The Portuguese PsAQoL was subsequently applied to PsA patients followed at the Rheumatology Department of Centro Hospitalar do Baixo Vouga, E.P.E. To assess reproducibility, 30 patients with PsA completed the Portuguese PsAQoL on two occasions, 2 weeks apart. A larger sample was recruited to determine internal consistency and construct validity. The Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used as a comparator instrument. Translation and adaptation were successful. Cronbach´s alpha for the Portuguese version of the PsAQoL was 0.91 and the test-retest reliability was 0.93. The PsAQoL could distinguish between groups of patients defined by self-reported general health status, self-reported severity of PsA and flare of arthritis. There was a positive correlation between the total score of the PsAQoL and each of the sections of the NHP. The Portuguese version of the PsAQoL was found to be relevant, understandable and easy to complete, reliable and valid.

  16. Cultural adaptation to Spanish (Spain) of the "Overactive Bladder - Family Impact Measure (OAB-FIM)" questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlandis Guzmán, S; Martínez Cuenca, E; Martínez García, R; Bonillo García, M A; Rejas, J; Broseta-Rico, E

    2017-06-01

    The OAB-FIM was developed as a measure of the impact of an overactive bladder (OAB) on relatives who live with the patient. The objective of this study was conduct a cultural adaptation to Spanish (Spain) of the OAB-FIM questionnaire. The adaptation included a conceptual and linguistic validation phase, as well as a phase for measuring the psychometric properties in 25 relatives [mean age, 63.0 years (SD, 14.3); 44% women] who regularly live with patients with OAB, who are of either sex and 18 years of age or older. We measured conceptual and linguistic equivalence, internal reliability, construct validity and content validity. We assessed the applicability and administration load. The OAB-FIM was conceptually and linguistically equivalent to the original, maintaining its 6 domains: social, travel, worry, irritability, sleep and sex. The interagreement correctly placed all items in their domain, except for number 10, which was placed more in worry than in irritability, motivates its reformulation. Some 2.95% of the items were missing. The floor and ceiling effects of the items varied, respectively, between 20-28%, and 0-16%. The mean time for completing the questionnaire was 5.2minutes (SD, 2.8), and 24% of the participants required some type of assistance. The α-Cronbach coefficient varied between 0.948-0.839. The correlations with similar scales in the family were moderate-high (0.407-0.753) or small-moderate with those administered to the patient (0.004-0.423). We obtained a Spanish (Spain) version of the OAB-FIM that was conceptually and linguistically equivalent to the original. The questionnaire showed good internal consistency, content and construct validity and applicability. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. Rapid Identification of Staphylococcus aureus Directly from Blood Cultures by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Kenneth; Procop, Gary W.; Wilson, Deborah; Coull, James; Stender, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method with peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes for identification of Staphylococcus aureus directly from positive blood culture bottles that contain gram-positive cocci in clusters (GPCC) is described. The test (the S. aureus PNA FISH assay) is based on a fluorescein-labeled PNA probe that targets a species-specific sequence of the 16S rRNA of S. aureus. Evaluations with 17 reference strains and 48 clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus species, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, and other clinically relevant and phylogenetically related bacteria and yeast species, showed that the assay had 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Clinical trials with 87 blood cultures positive for GPCC correctly identified 36 of 37 (97%) of the S. aureus-positive cultures identified by standard microbiological methods. The positive and negative predictive values were 100 and 98%, respectively. It is concluded that this rapid method (2.5 h) for identification of S. aureus directly from blood culture bottles that contain GPCC offers important information for optimal antibiotic therapy. PMID:11773123

  18. A Rapid Culture Technique Produces Functional Dendritic-Like Cells from Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most anti-cancer immunotherapeutic strategies involving dendritic cells (DC as vaccines rely upon the adoptive transfer of DC loaded with exogenous tumour-peptides. This study utilized human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells as progenitors from which functional dendritic-like antigen presenting cells (DLC were generated, that constitutively express tumour antigens for recognition by CD8+ T cells. DLC were generated from AML cell lines KG-1 and MUTZ-3 using rapid culture techniques and appropriate cytokines. DLC were evaluated for their cell-surface phenotype, antigen uptake and ability to stimulate allogeneic responder cell proliferation, and production of IFN-γ; compared with DC derived from normal human PBMC donors. KG-1 and MUTZ-3 DLC increased expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR, and MUTZ-3 DLC downregulated CD14 and expressed CD1a. Importantly, both KG-1 and MUTZ-3-derived DLC promoted proliferation of allogeneic responder cells more efficiently than unmodified cells; neither cells incorporated FITC-labeled dextran, but both stimulated IFN-γ production from responding allogeneic CD8+ T cells. Control DC produced from PBMC using the FastDC culture also expressed high levels of critical cell surface ligands and demonstrated good APC function. This paper indicates that functional DLC can be cultured from the AML cell lines KG-1 and MUTZ-3, and FastDC culture generates functional KG-1 DLC.

  19. [Cross-cultural adaptation to the European Portuguese of the questionnaire "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón Rubio, Joaquín; Iglésias-Ferreira, Paula; García Delgado, Pilar; Mateus-Santos, Henrique; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    The scope of this work is to conduct the cross-cultural adaptation from Spanish to European Portuguese of a questionnaire to measure the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES). A method based on six steps was applied: 1. Translation into Portuguese, 2. Elaboration of the first consensus version in Portuguese; 3.Back-translation into Spanish; 4. Elaboration of the second consensus version (cultural equivalency); 5. Conducting the pre-test; 6. Evaluation of the overall results. A cross-culturally adapted questionnaire in European Portuguese that measures the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" is proposed. The pre-test confirmation obtained 100% agreement with the corrected version of the second consensus version after pre-testing. The methodology selected made it possible to cross-culturally adapt the Spanish version of the CPM-ES-ES questionnaire to the Portuguese version. Further studies should demonstrate the equivalence of the psychometric properties of the cross-cultural translation into Portuguese with the original version.

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Behcet's Disease Current Activity Form in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo Jin; Seo, Mi Ryoung; Ryu, Hee Jung; Baek, Han Joo

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Behcet's Disease Current Activity Form (BDCAF, version 2006) questionnaire to the Korean language and to evaluate its reliability and validity in a population of Korean patients with Behcet's disease (BD). A cross-cultural study was conducted among patients with BD who attended our rheumatology clinic between November 2012 and March 2013. There were 11 males and 35 females in the group. The mean age of the participants was 48.5 years and the mean disease duration was 6.4 years. The first BDCAF questionnaire was completed on arrival and the second assessment was performed 20 minutes later by a different physician. The test-retest reliability was analyzed by computing κ statistics. Kappa scores of > 0.6 indicated a good agreement. To assess the validity, we compared the total BDCAF score with the patient's/clinician's perception of disease activity and the Korean version of the Behcet's Disease Quality of Life (BDQOL). For the test-retest reliability, good agreements were achieved on items such as headache, oral/genital ulceration, erythema, skin pustules, arthralgia, nausea/vomiting/abdominal pain, and diarrhea with altered/frank blood per rectum. Moderate agreement was observed for eye and nervous system involvement. We achieved a fair agreement for arthritis and major vessel involvement. Significant correlations were obtained between the total BDCAF score with the BDQOL and the patient's/clinician's perception of disease activity p < 0.05). The Korean version of the BDCAF is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring current disease activity in Korean BD patients.

  1. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation for Brazilian Portuguese of the Cardiff Acne Disability Index instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grando, Luciana Rosa; Horn, Roberta; Cunha, Vivian Trein; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    The Cardiff Acne Disability Index was originally developed in English for measuring quality of life of acne patients. Considering the psychosocial impact of this disease, it is important to have instruments culturally and linguistically validated for use in Brazilian adolescents. To translate the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese, culturally adapt it, and verify its reliability and validity in adolescent patients with acne. In the first step, the Cardiff Acne Disability Index was translated and validated linguistically to Brazilian Portuguese in accordance with international guidelines published. In the second step, the validation of the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese instrument was performed, when patients aged from 12 to 20 years with acne were selected. The participants were interviewed to collect demographic data, submitted to the classification of acne by the Global Acne Grading System and invited to respond the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese version and DLQI (>16 years) or CDLQI (≤16 years). The internal consistency of Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient and concurrent validity was measured by the Spearman correlation coefficient and Student 's t-test for paired samples. The study included 100 adolescents. The Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese version showed good reliability and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73). The concurrent validity of the scale was supported by a strong and significant correlation with CDLQI / DLQI instruments (rs=0.802;pPortuguese version is a reliable, valid and valuable tool to measure the impact of acne on quality of life in adolescent patients.

  2. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of Kidney Disease Loss Scale to the Brazilian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Ana Carolina; Orlandi, Fabiana de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Losses can be conceptualized as cognitive and affective responses to individual sorrows, characterized by brooding, yearning, disbelief and stunned feelings, being clinically significant in chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Kidney Disease Loss Scale into Portuguese. Validation study involving the steps recommended in the literature for healthcare instruments: initial translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, review by a committee of judges and pretest. The scale was translated and adapted to the Portuguese language, being quick and easy to application. The reliability and reproducibility showed satisfactory values. Factor analysis indicated a factor that explains 59.7% of the losses construct. The Kidney Disease Loss Scale was translated, adapted and validated for the Brazilian context, allowing future studies of losses and providing tools for the professionals working in dialysis centers for assistance to people with chronic kidney disease. As perdas podem ser conceituadas como respostas cognitivas e afetivas para tristezas individuais, caracterizadas pelo remoer, anseio, descrença e sentimentos atordoados, sendo clinicamente significativa em doenças crônicas. O objetivo do estudo foi traduzir, adaptar culturalmente e validar o Kidney Disease Loss Scale para a língua portuguesa. Estudo de validação envolveu as etapas preconizadas na literatura internacional para instrumentos da área de saúde: tradução inicial, síntese das traduções, retrotradução, revisão por um comitê de juízes, pré-teste e avaliação das propriedades psicométricas. A escala foi traduzida e adaptada para o idioma português, sendo de fácil e rápida aplicação. A confiabilidade e a reprodutibilidade apresentaram valores satisfatórios. A análise fatorial indicou um fator que explica 59,7% do constructo de perdas. A Escala de Perdas referente à Doença Renal foi traduzida, adaptada e validada para o

  3. Calcium Concentration in Culture Medium as a Nondestructive and Rapid Marker of Osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikake, Yohei; Akahane, Manabu; Furukawa, Akira; Tohma, Yasuaki; Inagaki, Yusuke; Kira, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-06-09

    Artificial bones made of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) combined with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are used for effective reconstruction of bone defects caused by genetic defects, traumatic injury, or surgical resection of bone tumors. However, the selection of constructs with high osteogenic potential before implantation is challenging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the calcium concentration in BM-MSC culture medium can be used as a nondestructive and simple osteogenic marker for selecting tissue-engineered grafts constructed using β-TCP and BM-MSCs. We prepared three cell passages of BM-MSCs derived from three 7-week-old, male Fischer 344 rats; the cells were cultured in osteoinductive medium in the presence of β-TCP for 15 days. The medium was replaced with fresh medium on day 1 in culture and subsequently changed every 48 h; it was collected for measurement of osteocalcin secretion and calcium concentration by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, respectively. After cultivation, the constructs were implanted subcutaneously into the backs of recipient rats. Four weeks after implantation, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin content of the constructs were measured. A strong inverse correlation was observed between the calcium concentration in the medium and the ALP activity and osteocalcin content of the constructs, with Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.90, respectively. These results indicate that tissue-engineered bone with high osteogenic ability can be selected before implantation based on low calcium content of the culture medium, resulting in successful bone formation after implantation. This nondestructive, simple method shows great promise for assessing the osteogenic ability of tissue-engineered bone.

  4. New method for rapid Susceptibility Testing on blood culture with HB&L system: preliminary data

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    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood culture, although represents the gold standard in detecting the ethiological agent of sepsis, is rather rarely required in relation to the real diagnostic importance. The result of this test depends in fact on many factors (sample volume, time of collection, accuracy, antibiotic therapy, contamination, number of drawings, drawing site, interpretation difficulties, etc. that are often considered by many clinicians so limited as to doubt about their actual value. The disadvantages are therefore represented by the lack of standardization but also by the low sensitivity and above all by the technical times too long for the clinical needs. Blood culture begins with the drawing of samples from the “septic” patient followed incubation of the bottles in automatic thermostated systems. In case of positive result (36 hours, the culture is Gram stained and streaked on solid media in order to obtain isolated colonies for the identification and the susceptibility testing (48 hours from positive result. The long time required for pathogen identification and susceptibility testing involves empirical broad spectrum antibiotic therapy that can promote the increase of bacterial resistance but also patient management costs. A clinically useful report should be available on short notice in order to guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate antibiotic. The microbiologist has therefore the hard work of reviewing the organization and the management of the procedures.We have therefore started to consider the possibility of treating the blood as an biological liquid in order to quickly determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

  5. Arabinogalactan Proteins Are Involved in Salt-Adaptation and Vesicle Trafficking in Tobacco by-2 Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Enrique; García De La Garma, Jesús; Gomez-Jimenez, Maria C; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves

    2017-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a highly diverse family of glycoproteins that are commonly found in most plant species. However, little is known about the physiological and molecular mechanisms of their function. AGPs are involved in different biological processes such as cell differentiation, cell expansion, tissue development and somatic embryogenesis. AGPs are also involved in abiotic stress response such as salinity modulating cell wall expansion. In this study, we describe how salt-adaptation in tobacco BY-2 cell cultures induces important changes in arabinogalactan proteins distribution and contents. Using the immuno-dot blot technique with different anti-AGP antibodies (JIM13, JIM15, and others), we observed that AGPs were highly accumulated in the culture medium of salt-adapted tobacco cells, probably due to the action of phospholipases. We located these AGP epitopes using immunogold labeling in the cytoplasm associated to the endoplasmic reticulum, the golgi apparatus, and vesicles, plasma membrane and tonoplast. Our results show that salt-adaptation induced a significant reduction of the cytoplasm, plasma membrane and tonoplast content of these epitopes. Yariv reagent was added to the control and salt-adapted tobacco cell cultures, leading to cell death induction in control cells but not in salt-adapted cells. Ultrastructural and immunogold labeling revealed that cell death induced by Yariv reagent in control cells was due to the interaction of Yariv reagent with the AGPs linked to the plasma membranes. Finally, we propose a new function of AGPs as a possible sodium carrier through the mechanism of vesicle trafficking from the apoplast to the vacuoles in salt-adapted tobacco BY-2 cells. This mechanism may contribute to sodium homeostasis during salt-adaptation to high saline concentrations.

  6. Identification of a novel cell culture adaptation site on the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Kyle; Fowler, Veronica L; Barnett, Paul V; Gold, Sarah; Wadsworth, Jemma; Knowles, Nick J; Jackson, Terry

    2015-09-01

    Vaccination remains the most effective tool for control of foot-and-mouth disease both in endemic countries and as an emergency preparedness for new outbreaks. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines are chemically inactivated virus preparations and the production of new vaccines is critically dependent upon cell culture adaptation of field viruses, which can prove problematic. A major driver of cell culture adaptation is receptor availability. Field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) use RGD-dependent integrins as receptors, whereas cell culture adaptation often selects for variants with altered receptor preferences. Previously, two independent sites on the capsid have been identified where mutations are associated with improved cell culture growth. One is a shallow depression formed by the three major structural proteins (VP1-VP3) where mutations create a heparan sulphate (HS)-binding site (the canonical HS-binding site). The other involves residues of VP1 and is located at the fivefold symmetry axis. For some viruses, changes at this site result in HS binding; for others, the receptors are unknown. Here, we report the identification of a novel site on VP2 where mutations resulted in an expanded cell tropism of a vaccine variant of A/IRN/87 (called A - ). Furthermore, we show that introducing the same mutations into a different type A field virus (A/TUR/2/2006) resulted in the same expanded cell culture tropism as the A/IRN/87 A -  vaccine variant. These observations add to the evidence for multiple cell attachment mechanisms for FMDV and may be useful for vaccine manufacture when cell culture adaptation proves difficult.

  7. Romanian Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the SarQol Questionnaire

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    Ildiko Gasparik Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, or age-related muscle loss is emerging as a major public health concern. A reduced quality of life (QoL due to impaired physical performance associated with this disease has been evidenced in these individuals. Generic instruments, such as Short Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36, do not accurately assess the impact of sarcopenia on QoL. SarQol (Sarcopenia Quality of Life questionnaire, was the first disease-specific questionnaire addressing quality of life in patients with sarcopenia and has been recently designed for providing a global picture on quality of life in community-dwelling elderly subjects aged 65 years and older. Our aim was the translation and cultural adaptation of the original SarQol, to finally obtain a highly reliable instrument for the assessment of the quality of life of Romanian patients, affected by sarcopenia. We followed the recommended process, the international protocol of translation. The pretest process involved 20 subjects (10 sarcopenic and 10 non sarcopenic with different educational and socioeconomic backgrounds who were asked to complete the questionnaire. Feedbacks were requested from all subjects regarding the clearness of questions, difficulties in completing the test or understanding the meaning of questions. Using the recommended best practice protocol for translation, the pre-final version is comparable with the original instrument in terms of content and accuracy. After the validation of psychometric properties, it should be a useful tool to assess Quality of Life and sarcopenia among elderly romanian patients.

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Filial Responsibility protocol for use in Brazil

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    Marines Aires

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To carry out a cross-cultural adaptation of the Filial Responsibility protocol for use in Brazil with adult child caregivers for elderly parents. Method: A methodological study that included the steps of initial translation, synthesis of translations, back-translation, committee of experts, pre-test, evaluation of psychometric measures and submission to authors. The protocol comprises a qualitative step, closed questions and seven scales: Filial Expectation, Subsidiary Compassion, Caregiver burden, Life Satisfaction, Personal Well-being and Quality of Relationships. Results: The final version in Portuguese was applied, through a pre-test, to a sample of 30 caregivers for elderly parents. In order to verify internal consistency, we used Cronbach’s alpha coefficient: Filial Expectation (α = 0.64, Filial Duty (α = 0.65, Satisfaction with Life (α = 0.75, Personal Wellbeing (α = 0.87. Final considerations: The Brazilian version presented good conceptual and face equivalence. The results demonstrate that the concepts used in the Canadian protocol are applicable in the Brazilian context.

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation of the CDC Worksite Health ScoreCard questionnaire into Portuguese

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    Patrícia Coelho de Soárez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: Despite the progress in the implementation of health promotion programs in the workplace, there are no questionnaires in Brazil to assess the scope of health promotion interventions adopted and their scientific basis. This study aimed to translate into Brazilian Portuguese and culturally adapt the CDC Worksite Health ScoreCard (HSC questionnaire. Method: The HSC has 100 questions grouped into twelve domains. The steps are as follows: translation, reconciliation, back-translation, review by expert panel, pretesting, and final revision. The convenience sample included 27 individuals from health insurance providers and companies of various sizes, types and industries in São Paulo. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The average age of the sample was 38 years, most of the subjects were female (21 of 27, and were responsible for programs to promote health in these workplaces. Most questions were above the minimum value of understanding set at 90%. The participants found the questionnaire very useful to determine the extent of existing health promotion programs and to pinpoint areas that could be developed. Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the HSC questionnaire may be a valid measure and useful to assess the degree of implementation of health promotion interventions based on evidence in local health organizations.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Turkish version of Oxford hip score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuğay, Baki Umut; Tuğay, Nazan; Güney, Hande; Hazar, Zeynep; Yüksel, İnci; Atilla, Bülent

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate the Oxford hip score (OHS) into Turkish and to evaluate the psychometric properties by testing the internal consistency, reproducibility, construct validity, and responsiveness in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). Oxford hip score was translated and culturally adapted according to the guidelines in the literature. Seventy patients (mean age 61.45 ± 9.29 years) with hip osteoarthritis participated in the study. Patients completed the Turkish Oxford hip score (OHS-TR), the Short-Form 36 (SF-36), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index (WOMAC). Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach's α coefficient. Patients completed OHS-TR questionnaire twice in 7 days for determining the reproducibility. Correlation between the total results of both tests was determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Validity was assessed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient between the OHS-TR and WOMAC and SF-36 scores. Floor and ceiling effects were analyzed. The internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α 0.93). The construct validity showed a significant correlation between the OHS-TR and WOMAC and related SF-36 domains (p < 0.001). The ICC's ranged between 0.80 and 0.99. There was no floor or ceiling effect in total OHS-TR score. The OHS-TR questionnaire is valid, reliable, and responsive for the Turkish-speaking patients with hip OA.

  11. Adapting the South Oaks Gambling Screen for use in the Slovenian cultural environment

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    Andreja Cvenkelj

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available South Oaks Gambling Screen (Lesieur in Blume, 1987 is the most frequently used for screening of pathological gambling. The main purpose of this study was to adapt the SOGS for application in the Slovenian cultural environment and to assess its metric characteristics.The study involved 121 subjects, 21 of which were diagnosed as pathological gamblers. Comparison group was composed of 100 subjects. Factor analysis resulted in a one-dimensional solution accounting for 66% of the total variance. Statistically significant differences in the scores show that the SOGS is able to discriminate between the comparison group and pathological gamblers. Item analysis shows that all of them appropriately discriminate between pathological gamblers and comparison group. The internal consistency of the 20-item scale was .971. The criterion validity of the Slovenian version of the SOGS was investigated by cross-comparing the patients' actual diagnoses of pathological gambling with the same diagnoses based on the SOGS scores. The score of 5 points was used as a cut-off point, since it discriminates the most. There was a perfect agreement between diagnoses of pathological gambling and diagnoses based on the SOGS scores.

  12. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Urticaria Control Test From German to Castilian Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díez, I; Curto-Barredo, L; Weller, K; Pujol, R M; Maurer, M; Giménez-Arnau, A M

    2015-11-01

    The clinical concept of urticaria embraces a heterogeneous group of conditions classified according to their clinical course as acute (lasting less than 6 weeks) or chronic (lasting 6 weeks or more). Chronic urticaria may be either spontaneous or induced. Few tools are available for monitoring the various clinical forms of this disease or for evaluating its impact on quality of life. The recently developed Urticaria Control Test to evaluate disease control is available in German, the original language, and American English. To culturally adapt the long and short versions of the Urticaria Control Test to Castilian Spanish to ensure equivalence between the translated items and those of the original version. To translate the Urticaria Control Test we followed the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research good practice guidelines, starting with forward translation and moving through back translation and cognitive debriefing steps. Three items were modified when the first Spanish version, translated from German, was discussed (cognitive debriefing). The revised translation was then translated back to German and sent to the Urticaria Control Test authors, who modified one item they considered had acquired a different focus through translation. A third Spanish version was then prepared and after minor proofreading changes was considered definitive. This study was the first step in making it possible to use the Urticaria Control Test questionnaire in Castilian Spanish. The next step will be to validate the translated questionnaire. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rui Soles; Caldeira, Carolina Quintal; Rodrigues, Mónica Vieira; Felícia, Sabine Cardoso; Cavalheiro, Luís Manuel; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

    2018-03-08

    To translate and culturally adapt the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) to the European Portuguese language, and to test its reliability (internal consistency, reproducibility and measurement error) and validity (construct validity). The OSS Portuguese version was obtained through translations, back-translations, consensus panels, clinical review and cognitive pre-test. Portuguese OSS, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaires, and the visual analogue scales of pain at rest [VAS rest] and during movement [VAS movement] were applied to 111 subjects with shoulder pain (degenerative or inflammatory disorders) and recommended for physical therapy. A clinical and sociodemographic questionnaire was also applied. The reliability was good, with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.90, an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.92, a standard error of measurement (SEM) of 2.59 points and a smallest detectable change (SDC) of 7.18 points. Construct validity was supported by the confirmation of three initial hypotheses involving expected significant correlation between OSS and other measures (DASH, VAS rest and VAS movement) and between OSS and the number of days of work absenteeism. The Portuguese OSS version presented suitable psychometric properties, in terms of reliability (internal consistency, reproducibility and measurement error) and validity (construct validity).

  14. Spanish version of the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire for sport: Cultural adaptation and initial validation.

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    Javier Brazo-Sayavera

    Full Text Available This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305 = 499.64, p<0.01, CFI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.045, SRMR = 0.055. It also demonstrated adequate convergent and discriminant validity. While the internal reliability was lower than in previous studies, it revealed acceptable levels. Specifically the overall 27 item Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1-5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings.

  15. Innate and adaptive immunity gene expression of human keratinocytes cultured of severe burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Silvana Aparecida Alves Corrêa de; Noronha, Samuel Marcos Ribeiro de; Lanziani, Larissa Elias; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Gragnani, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the expression profile of genes related to Innate and Adaptive Immune System (IAIS) of human Primary Epidermal keratinocytes (hPEKP) of patients with severe burns. After obtaining viable fragments of skin with and without burning, culture hKEP was initiated by the enzymatic method using Dispase (Sigma-Aldrich). These cells were treated with Trizol(r) (Life Technologies) for extraction of total RNA. This was quantified and analyzed for purity for obtaining cDNA for the analysis of gene expression using specific IAIS PCR Arrays plates (SA Biosciences). After the analysis of gene expression we found that 63% of these genes were differentially expressed, of which 77% were repressed and 23% were hyper-regulated. Among these, the following genes (fold increase or decrease): IL8 (41), IL6 (32), TNF (-92), HLA-E (-86), LYS (-74), CCR6 (- 73), CD86 (-41) and HLA-A (-35). This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying wound infection caused by the burn. Furthermore, it may provide new strategies to restore normal expression of these genes and thereby change the healing process and improve clinical outcome.

  16. Barriers to healthy eating among Norwegian-Pakistani women participating in a culturally adapted intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råberg Kjøllesdal, Marte K; Telle Hjellset, Victoria; Bjørge, Benedikte; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta

    2010-11-01

    To explore barriers to healthy dietary changes experienced by Pakistani immigrant women participating in a culturally adapted intervention, and whether these barriers were associated with intentions to change dietary behaviours. Participants were randomly assigned to control and intervention group. The 7-month intervention consisted of six educational group sessions on diet and physical activity, based on knowledge about Pakistani lifestyle and focusing on blood glucose control. Data on barriers for and intentions to healthy dietary changes were collected through an interview with help of a questionnaire. The article is based on data from follow-up assessments in the intervention group, comprising 82 women, aged 28-62 years, without a history of type 2 diabetes. The most important barriers to healthy dietary changes were preferences of children and other family members and perceived expectations during social gatherings. The perceived pressure from other family members was especially strong when the women were trying to change to more vegetables, lentils, and fish and to use less oil in food preparation. The barriers were inversely related to intentions to change. The women encountered various types of barriers when trying to change to healthier food habits, the most prominent being those related to the social dimensions of food consumption, as well as to awareness of the amount of oil used for cooking.

  17. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: A study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

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    Ahmad Ali Eslami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire and interrelations among them based on Jessor′s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory. Methods: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. Results: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The a range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. Conclusions: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.

  18. Cultural adaptation and validation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 version in Uganda: A small-scale study

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    Julius T Kamwesiga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge is scarce about the impact of stroke in Uganda, and culturally adapted, psychometrically tested patient-reported outcome measures are lacking. The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 is recommended, but it has not been culturally adapted and validated in Uganda. Objective: To culturally adapt and determine the psychometric properties of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 in the Ugandan context on a small scale. Method: The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 was culturally adapted to form Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda (in English by involving 25 participants in three different expert committees. Subsequently, Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda from English to Luganda language was done in accordance with guidelines. The first language in Uganda is English and Luganda is the main spoken language in Kampala city and its surroundings. Translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda (both in English and Luganda was then tested psychometrically by applying a Rasch model on data collected from 95 participants with stroke. Results: Overall, 10 of 59 (17% items in the eight domains of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 were culturally adapted. The majority were 6 of 10 items in the domain Activities of Daily Living, 2 of 9 items in the domain Mobility, and 2 of 5 items in the domain Hand function. Only in two domains, all items demonstrated acceptable goodness of fit to the Rasch model. There were also more than 5% person misfits in the domains Participation and Emotion, while the Communication, Mobility, and Hand function domains had the lowest proportions of person misfits. The reliability coefficient was equal or larger than 0.90 in all domains except the Emotion domain, which was below the set criterion of 0.80 (0.75. Conclusion: The cultural adaptation and translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda provides initial evidence of validity of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 when used in this context. The results provide support for several aspects of validity and precision

  19. Cultural adaptation and validation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 version in Uganda: A small-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwesiga, Julius T; von Koch, Lena; Kottorp, Anders; Guidetti, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge is scarce about the impact of stroke in Uganda, and culturally adapted, psychometrically tested patient-reported outcome measures are lacking. The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 is recommended, but it has not been culturally adapted and validated in Uganda. To culturally adapt and determine the psychometric properties of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 in the Ugandan context on a small scale. The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 was culturally adapted to form Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda ( in English ) by involving 25 participants in three different expert committees. Subsequently, Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda from English to Luganda language was done in accordance with guidelines. The first language in Uganda is English and Luganda is the main spoken language in Kampala city and its surroundings. Translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda ( both in English and Luganda ) was then tested psychometrically by applying a Rasch model on data collected from 95 participants with stroke. Overall, 10 of 59 (17%) items in the eight domains of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 were culturally adapted. The majority were 6 of 10 items in the domain Activities of Daily Living, 2 of 9 items in the domain Mobility, and 2 of 5 items in the domain Hand function. Only in two domains, all items demonstrated acceptable goodness of fit to the Rasch model. There were also more than 5% person misfits in the domains Participation and Emotion, while the Communication, Mobility, and Hand function domains had the lowest proportions of person misfits. The reliability coefficient was equal or larger than 0.90 in all domains except the Emotion domain, which was below the set criterion of 0.80 (0.75). The cultural adaptation and translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda provides initial evidence of validity of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 when used in this context. The results provide support for several aspects of validity and precision but also point out issues for further adaptation and improvement

  20. Cultural adaptation and validation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 version in Uganda: A small-scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwesiga, Julius T; von Koch, Lena; Kottorp, Anders; Guidetti, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge is scarce about the impact of stroke in Uganda, and culturally adapted, psychometrically tested patient-reported outcome measures are lacking. The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 is recommended, but it has not been culturally adapted and validated in Uganda. Objective: To culturally adapt and determine the psychometric properties of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 in the Ugandan context on a small scale. Method: The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 was culturally adapted to form Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda (in English) by involving 25 participants in three different expert committees. Subsequently, Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda from English to Luganda language was done in accordance with guidelines. The first language in Uganda is English and Luganda is the main spoken language in Kampala city and its surroundings. Translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda (both in English and Luganda) was then tested psychometrically by applying a Rasch model on data collected from 95 participants with stroke. Results: Overall, 10 of 59 (17%) items in the eight domains of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 were culturally adapted. The majority were 6 of 10 items in the domain Activities of Daily Living, 2 of 9 items in the domain Mobility, and 2 of 5 items in the domain Hand function. Only in two domains, all items demonstrated acceptable goodness of fit to the Rasch model. There were also more than 5% person misfits in the domains Participation and Emotion, while the Communication, Mobility, and Hand function domains had the lowest proportions of person misfits. The reliability coefficient was equal or larger than 0.90 in all domains except the Emotion domain, which was below the set criterion of 0.80 (0.75). Conclusion: The cultural adaptation and translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda provides initial evidence of validity of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 when used in this context. The results provide support for several aspects of validity and precision but also point

  1. "This Guy Is Japanese Stuck in a White Man's Body": A Discussion of Meaning Making, Identity Slippage, and Cross-Cultural Adaption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, William S.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses two issues within a general theory of cross-cultural adaption. One concerns the extent to which cross-cultural adaption is activated by the ability to make meaning in Japanese as a foreign language; the second investigated the phenomenon of identity slippage. Six life histories of informants who had learned Japanese after age 11 are used…

  2. European-French Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire and Pretest in French-Speaking Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Kaeser, Sylvie; Satink, Ton; Andresen, Mette; Martini, Rose; Thommen, Evelyne; Bertrand, Anne Martine

    2015-05-01

    The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ'07) is a Canadian-English instrument recommended for screening children aged 5 to 15 years who are at risk for developmental coordination disorder. While a Canadian-French version of the DCDQ'07 presently exists, a European-French version does not. To produce a cross-cultural adaptation of the DCDQ'07 for use in areas of Europe where French is spoken and to test its cultural relevance in French-speaking Switzerland. Cross-cultural adaptation was done using established guidelines. Cultural relevance was analyzed with cognitive interviews of thirteen parents of children aged 5.0 to 14.6 years (mean age: 8.5 years, SD = 3.4), using think-aloud and probing techniques. Cultural and linguistic differences were noted between the European-French, the Canadian-French, and the original versions of the DCDQ'07. Despite correct translation and expert committee review, cognitive interviews revealed that certain items of the European-French version were unclear or misinterpreted and further modifications were needed. After rewording items as a result of the outcomes of the cognitive interview, the European-French version of the DCDQ'07 is culturally appropriate for use in French-speaking Switzerland. Further studies are necessary to determine its psychometric properties.

  3. An automated robotic platform for rapid profiling oligosaccharide analysis of monoclonal antibodies directly from cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Margaret; Bones, Jonathan; McLoughlin, Niaobh; Telford, Jayne E; Harmon, Bryan; DeFelippis, Michael R; Rudd, Pauline M

    2013-11-01

    Oligosaccharides attached to Asn297 in each of the CH2 domains of monoclonal antibodies play an important role in antibody effector functions by modulating the affinity of interaction with Fc receptors displayed on cells of the innate immune system. Rapid, detailed, and quantitative N-glycan analysis is required at all stages of bioprocess development to ensure the safety and efficacy of the therapeutic. The high sample numbers generated during quality by design (QbD) and process analytical technology (PAT) create a demand for high-performance, high-throughput analytical technologies for comprehensive oligosaccharide analysis. We have developed an automated 96-well plate-based sample preparation platform for high-throughput N-glycan analysis using a liquid handling robotic system. Complete process automation includes monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification directly from bioreactor media, glycan release, fluorescent labeling, purification, and subsequent ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis. The entire sample preparation and commencement of analysis is achieved within a 5-h timeframe. The automated sample preparation platform can easily be interfaced with other downstream analytical technologies, including mass spectrometry (MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), for rapid characterization of oligosaccharides present on therapeutic antibodies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cultural Adaptation of an Evidence-Informed Psychosocial Intervention to Address the Needs of PHIV+ Youth in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Gisselle; Saisaengjan, Chutima; Gopalan, Priya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Lakhonpon, Sudrak; Nestadt, Danielle Friedman; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Mellins, Claude Ann; McKay, Mary McKernan

    2017-01-01

    Globally, pediatric HIV has largely become an adolescent epidemic. Thailand has the highest HIV prevalence in Asia (1.2%), with more than 14,000 children living with HIV. There is growing demand for evidence-based psychosocial interventions for this population that include health and mental health support and sexual risk reduction, which can be integrated into HIV care systems. To address this need, a multidisciplinary team of Thai and US researchers adapted an existing evidence-informed, family-based intervention, The Collaborative HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Program + (CHAMP+), which has been tested in multiple global trials. Using community-based participatory research methods, changes to the intervention curriculum were made to address language, culture, and Thai family life. Involvement of families, youth, and stakeholders in the adaptation process allowed for identification of salient issues and of program delivery methods that would increase engagement. Participants endorsed using a cartoon-based curriculum format for fostering discussion (as in CHAMP+ South Africa) given stigma around discussing HIV in the Thai context. The Thai version of CHAMP+ retained much of the curriculum content incorporating culturally appropriate metaphors and story line. Sessions focus on family communication, coping, disclosure, stigma, social support, and HIV education. This paper explores lessons learned through the adaption process of CHAMP+ Thailand that are applicable to other interventions and settings. It discusses how culturally informed adaptations can be made to interventions while maintaining core program components.

  5. A rapid co-culture stamping device for studying intercellular communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh-Barforoushi, Amin; Shemesh, Jonathan; Farbehi, Nona; Asadnia, Mohsen; Yeoh, Guan Heng; Harvey, Richard P.; Nordon, Robert E.; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi

    2016-10-01

    Regulation of tissue development and repair depends on communication between neighbouring cells. Recent advances in cell micro-contact printing and microfluidics have facilitated the in-vitro study of homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell interaction. Nonetheless, these techniques are still complicated to perform and as a result, are seldom used by biologists. We report here development of a temporarily sealed microfluidic stamping device which utilizes a novel valve design for patterning two adherent cell lines with well-defined interlacing configurations to study cell-cell interactions. We demonstrate post-stamping cell viability of >95%, the stamping of multiple adherent cell types, and the ability to control the seeded cell density. We also show viability, proliferation and migration of cultured cells, enabling analysis of co-culture boundary conditions on cell fate. We also developed an in-vitro model of endothelial and cardiac stem cell interactions, which are thought to regulate coronary repair after myocardial injury. The stamp is fabricated using microfabrication techniques, is operated with a lab pipettor and uses very low reagent volumes of 20 μl with cell injection efficiency of >70%. This easy-to-use device provides a general strategy for micro-patterning of multiple cell types and will be important for studying cell-cell interactions in a multitude of applications.

  6. Cell cultures in uterine leiomyomas: rapid disappearance of cells carrying MED12 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadine Markowski, Dominique; Tadayyon, Mahboobeh; Bartnitzke, Sabine; Belge, Gazanfer; Maria Helmke, Burkhard; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2014-04-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (UL) are the most frequent symptomatic human tumors. Nevertheless, their molecular pathogenesis is not yet fully understood. To learn more about the biology of these common neoplasms and their response to treatment, cell cultures derived from UL are a frequently used model system, but until recently appropriate genetic markers confirming their origin from the tumor cell population were lacking for most UL, i.e., those not displaying karyotypic abnormalities. The identification of MED12 mutations in the majority of UL makes it possible to trace the tumor cell population during in vitro passaging in the absence of cytogenetic abnormalities. The present study is addressing the in vitro survival of cells carrying MED12 mutations and its association with karyotypic alterations. The results challenge numerous in vitro studies into the biology and behavior of leiomyomas. Cells of one genetic subtype of UL, i.e., those with rearrangements of the high mobility AT-hook 2 protein gene (HMGA2), seem to be able to proliferate in vitro for many passages whereas tumor cells from the much more frequent MED12-mutated lesions barely survive even the first passages. Apparently, for the most frequent type of human UL no good in vitro model seems to exist because cells do not survive culturing. On the other hand, this inability may point to an Achilles' heel of this type of UL. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Clinical Competence Questionnaire for use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkoski, Danielle Ritter; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima; Pereira, Evani Marques; Bortolato-Major, Carina; Mattei, Ângela Taís; Peres, Aida Maris

    2017-06-05

    translating and transculturally adapting the Clinical Competence Questionnaire to Brazilian senior undergraduate Nursing students, as well as measuring psychometric properties of the questionnaire. a methodological study carried out in six steps: translation of the Clinical Competence Questionnaire instrument, consensus of the translations, back-translation, analysis by an expert committee, pre-testing and then presentation of the cross-cultural adaptation process to the developers. Psychometric properties were measured using Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient and content validity index. the instrument was translated, transculturally adapted and its final version consisted of 48 items. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.90, and the agreement index of the items was 99% for students and 98% for evaluators. the Clinical Competence Questionnaire was translated and adapted to Brazilian students, and the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the questionnaire presented satisfactory internal consistency regarding the studied sample. traduzir e adaptar transculturalmente o Clinical Competence Questionnaire aos estudantes brasileiros concluintes da graduação em enfermagem, bem como mensurar as propriedades psicométricas do questionário. estudo metodológico realizado em seis etapas: tradução do instrumento Clinical Competence Questionnaire, consenso das traduções, retrotradução, análise pelo comitê de especialistas, pré-teste e apresentação do processo de adaptação transcultural para os desenvolvedores. As propriedades psicométricas foram mensuradas utilizando-se o alfa de Cronbach, coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e índice de validade de conteúdo. o instrumento foi traduzido, adaptado transculturalmente e sua versão final foi constituída de 48 itens. O coeficiente alfa de Cronbach foi de 0,90, e o índice de concordância dos itens foi de 99% para os estudantes e de 98% para os avaliadores. o Clinical Competence

  8. Rapid expansion of T cells: Effects of culture and cryopreservation and importance of short-term cell recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Arian; Ullenhag, Gustav; Wagenius, Gunnar; Tötterman, Thomas H; Eriksson, Fredrik

    2013-06-01

    Successful cell therapy relies on the identification and mass expansion of functional cells for infusion. Cryopreservation of cells is an inevitable step in most cell therapies which also entails consequences for the frozen cells. This study assessed the impact of cryopreservation and the widely used protocol for rapid expansion of T lymphocytes. The effects on cell viability, immunocompetence and the impact on apoptotic and immunosuppressive marker expression were analyzed using validated assays. Cryopreservation of lymphocytes during the rapid expansion protocol did not affect cell viability. Lymphocytes that underwent mass expansion or culture in high dose IL-2 were unable to respond to PHA stimulation by intracellular ATP production immediately after thawing (ATP = 16 ± 11 ng/ml). However, their reactivity to PHA was regained within 48 hours of recovery (ATP = 356 ± 61 ng/ml). Analysis of mRNA levels revealed downregulation of TGF-β and IL-10 at all time points. Culture in high dose IL-2 led to upregulation of p73 and BCL-2 mRNA levels while FoxP3 expression was elevated after culture in IL-2 and artificial TCR stimuli. FoxP3 levels decreased after short-term recovery without IL-2 or stimulation. Antigen specificity, as determined by IFNγ secretion, was unaffected by cryopreservation but was completely lost after addition of high dose IL-2 and artificial TCR stimuli. In conclusion, allowing short-time recovery of mass expanded and cryopreserved cells before reinfusion could enhance the outcome of adoptive cell therapy as the cells regain immune competence and specificity.

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation and linguistic validation of age-group-specific haemophilia patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for patients and parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Mackensen, S; Campos, I G; Acquadro, C

    2013-01-01

    , culturally adapted and linguistically validated translations have been developed; some instruments have been translated into 61 languages. Here, we report the process used for cultural adaptation of the Haemo-QoL, Haem-A-QoL and Hemo-Sat into 28 languages. Equivalent concepts for 22 items that were difficult...... to adapt culturally for particular languages were identified and classed as semantic/conceptual (17 items), cultural (three items), idiomatic (one item), and grammatical (one item) problems. This has resulted in linguistically validated versions of these instruments, which can be used to assess HRQo...

  10. Female human pluripotent stem cells rapidly lose X chromosome inactivation marks and progress to a skewed methylation pattern during culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, M; Seriola, A; Barbé, L; Santalo, J; Veiga, A; Dée, K; Van Haute, L; Sermon, K; Spits, C

    2016-04-01

    Does a preferential X chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern exist in female human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and does the pattern change during long-term culture or upon differentiation? We identified two independent phenomena that lead to aberrant XCI patterns in female hPSC: a rapid loss of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and long non-coding X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) expression during culture, often accompanied by erosion of XCI-specific methylation, and a frequent loss of random XCI in the cultures. Variable XCI patterns have been reported in female hPSC, not only between different hPSC lines, but also between sub-passages of the same cell line, however the reasons for this variability remain unknown. Moreover, while non-random XCI-linked DNA methylation patterns have been previously reported, their origin and extent have not been investigated. We investigated the XCI patterns in 23 human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines, during long-term culture and after differentiation, by gene expression analysis, histone modification assessment and study of DNA methylation. The presence and location of H3K27me3 was studied by immunofluorescence, XIST expression by real-time PCR, and mono- or bi-allelic expression of X-linked genes was studied by sequencing of cDNA. XCI-specific DNA methylation was analysed using methylation-sensitive restriction and PCR, and more in depth by massive parallel bisulphite sequencing. All hPSC lines showed XCI, but we found a rapid loss of XCI marks during the early stages of in vitro culture. While this loss of XCI marks was accompanied in several cases by an extensive erosion of XCI-specific methylation, it did not result in X chromosome reactivation. Moreover, lines without strong erosion of methylation frequently displayed non-random DNA methylation, which occurred independently from the loss of XCI marks. This bias in X chromosome DNA methylation did not appear as a passenger event driven by clonal culture

  11. Speciation on oceanic islands: rapid adaptive divergence vs. cryptic speciation in a Guadalupe Island songbird (Aves: Junco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Aleixandre

    Full Text Available The evolutionary divergence of island populations, and in particular the tempo and relative importance of neutral and selective factors, is of central interest to the study of speciation. The rate of phenotypic evolution upon island colonization can vary greatly among taxa, and cases of convergent evolution can further confound the inference of correct evolutionary histories. Given the potential lability of phenotypic characters, molecular dating of insular lineages analyzed in a phylogenetic framework provides a critical tool to test hypotheses of phenotypic divergence since colonization. The Guadalupe junco is the only insular form of the polymorphic dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, and shares eye and plumage color with continental morphs, yet presents an enlarged bill and reduced body size. Here we use variation in mtDNA sequence, morphological traits and song variables to test whether the Guadalupe junco evolved rapidly following a recent colonization by a mainland form of the dark-eyed junco, or instead represents a well-differentiated "cryptic" lineage adapted to the insular environment through long-term isolation, with plumage coloration a result of evolutionary convergence. We found high mtDNA divergence of the island lineage with respect to both continental J. hyemalis and J. phaeonotus, representing a history of isolation of about 600,000 years. The island lineage was also significantly differentiated in morphological and male song variables. Moreover, and contrary to predictions regarding diversity loss on small oceanic islands, we document relatively high levels of both haplotypic and song-unit diversity on Guadalupe Island despite long-term isolation in a very small geographic area. In contrast to prevailing taxonomy, the Guadalupe junco is an old, well-differentiated evolutionary lineage, whose similarity to mainland juncos in plumage and eye color is due to evolutionary convergence. Our findings confirm the role of remote islands

  12. Speciation on oceanic islands: rapid adaptive divergence vs. cryptic speciation in a Guadalupe Island songbird (Aves: Junco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, Pau; Hernández Montoya, Julio; Milá, Borja

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary divergence of island populations, and in particular the tempo and relative importance of neutral and selective factors, is of central interest to the study of speciation. The rate of phenotypic evolution upon island colonization can vary greatly among taxa, and cases of convergent evolution can further confound the inference of correct evolutionary histories. Given the potential lability of phenotypic characters, molecular dating of insular lineages analyzed in a phylogenetic framework provides a critical tool to test hypotheses of phenotypic divergence since colonization. The Guadalupe junco is the only insular form of the polymorphic dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), and shares eye and plumage color with continental morphs, yet presents an enlarged bill and reduced body size. Here we use variation in mtDNA sequence, morphological traits and song variables to test whether the Guadalupe junco evolved rapidly following a recent colonization by a mainland form of the dark-eyed junco, or instead represents a well-differentiated "cryptic" lineage adapted to the insular environment through long-term isolation, with plumage coloration a result of evolutionary convergence. We found high mtDNA divergence of the island lineage with respect to both continental J. hyemalis and J. phaeonotus, representing a history of isolation of about 600,000 years. The island lineage was also significantly differentiated in morphological and male song variables. Moreover, and contrary to predictions regarding diversity loss on small oceanic islands, we document relatively high levels of both haplotypic and song-unit diversity on Guadalupe Island despite long-term isolation in a very small geographic area. In contrast to prevailing taxonomy, the Guadalupe junco is an old, well-differentiated evolutionary lineage, whose similarity to mainland juncos in plumage and eye color is due to evolutionary convergence. Our findings confirm the role of remote islands in driving

  13. A Culturally Adapted Smoking Cessation Intervention for Korean Americans: A Mediating Effect of Perceived Family Norm Toward Quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun S; Kim, Seong-Ho; Fang, Hua; Kwon, Simona; Shelley, Donna; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2015-08-01

    Korean men and women have the highest current smoking rates across all Asian ethnic subgroups in the United States. This is a 2-arm randomized controlled study of a culturally adapted smoking cessation intervention. The experimental condition received eight weekly 40-min individualized counseling sessions that incorporated Korean-specific cultural elements, whereas the control condition received eight weekly 10-min individualized counseling sessions that were not culturally adapted. All participants also received nicotine patches for 8 weeks. One-hundred nine Korean immigrants (91 men and 18 women) participated in the study. The rate of biochemically verified 12-month prolonged abstinence was significantly higher for the experimental condition than the control condition (38.2 vs. 11.1 %, χ (2) = 10.7, p family norm significantly mediated the effect of cessation intervention on abstinence. Smoking cessation intervention for Korean Americans should be culturally adapted and involve family members to produce a long-term treatment effect.

  14. Cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr scale of pain assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Aparecida Bussotti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to perform the translation into Brazilian Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr scale, with children under 18 years old, affected by cerebral palsy, presenting or not cognitive impairment and unable to report their pain.Method: methodological development study of translation into Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. After approval by the ethics committee, the process aimed at translation and back-translation, evaluation of translation and back-translation using the Delphi technique and assessment of cultural equivalence. The process included the five categories of the scale and the four application instructions, considering levels of agreement equal to or greater than 80%.Results: it was necessary three rounds of the Delphi technique to achieve consensus among experts. The agreement achieved for the five categories was: Face 95.5%, Legs 90%, Activity 94.4%, Cry 94.4% and Consolability 99.4%. The four instructions achieved the following consensus levels: 1st 99.1%, 2nd 99.2%, 3rd 99.1% and 4th 98.3%.Conclusion: the method enabled the translation and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. This is a study able to expand the knowledge of Brazilian professionals on pain assessment in children with CP

  15. Culturally Adapted Psychotherapy and the Legitimacy of Myth: A Direct-Comparison Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benish, Steven G.; Quintana, Stephen; Wampold, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Psychotherapy is a culturally encapsulated healing practice that is created from and dedicated to specific cultural contexts (Frank & Frank, 1993; Wampold, 2007; Wrenn, 1962). Consequently, conventional psychotherapy is a practice most suitable for dominant cultural groups within North America and Western Europe but may be culturally incongruent…

  16. Development of a rapid culture method to induce adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, Yuichi; Sugahara-Yamashita, Yzumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Okazaki, Yasushi; Nishiyama, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from bone marrow are multipotent stem cells that can regenerate mesenchymal tissues such as adipose, bone or muscle. It is thought that hMSCs can be utilized as a cell resource for tissue engineering and as human models to study cell differentiation mechanisms, such as adipogenesis, osteoblastogenesis and so on. Since it takes 2-3 weeks for hMSCs to differentiate into adipocytes using conventional culture methods, the development of methods to induce faster differentiation into adipocytes is required. In this study we optimized the culture conditions for adipocyte induction to achieve a shorter cultivation time for the induction of adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow-derived hMSCs. Briefly, we used a cocktail of dexamethasone, insulin, methylisobutylxanthine (DIM) plus a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist, rosiglitazone (DIMRo) as a new adipogenic differentiation medium. We successfully shortened the period of cultivation to 7-8 days from 2-3 weeks. We also found that rosiglitazone alone was unable to induce adipocyte differentiation from hMSCs in vitro. However, rosiglitazone appears to enhance hMSC adipogenesis in the presence of other hormones and/or compounds, such as DIM. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of TGF-β1 on adipogenesis could be investigated using DIMRo-treated hMSCs. We conclude that our rapid new culture method is very useful in measuring the effect of molecules that affect adipogenesis in hMSCs.

  17. Adapting to a US Medical Curriculum in Malaysia: A Qualitative Study on Cultural Dissonance in International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Ryan Y

    2016-01-01

    Context Minimal research has examined the recent exportation of medical curricula to international settings. Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, USA partnered with Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and implemented the same curriculum currently used at Johns Hopkins University to teach medical students at Perdana University. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of first-year medical students at Perdana University, focusing on issues of cultural dissonance during adaptation to a US curriculum. Methods In-depth semi-structured interviews with the inaugural class of first-year students (n=24) were conducted, audio-recorded, and transcribed. Two reviewers independently coded and analyzed the qualitative data for major themes. Results The most prominent themes identified were the transition from a “passive” to an “active” learning environment and the friendliness and openness of the professors. Students noted that “[Perdana University] is a whole new, different culture and now we are adapting to the culture.” Being vocal during classes and taking exams based on conceptual understanding and knowledge application/integration proved to be more challenging for students than having classes taught entirely in English or the amount of material covered. Discussion This study reinforced many cultural education theories as it revealed the major issues of Malaysian graduate students adapting to a US-style medical curriculum. Despite coming from a collectivistic, Confucian-based cultural learning background, the Malaysian students at Perdana University adopted and adapted to, and subsequently supported, the US learning expectations. PMID:27672530

  18. [Cross-cultural adaptation of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS) to the Brazilian Portuguese language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorin, Bruno Henrique; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo de; Moreira, Rita Simone Lopes; Luna Filho, Bráulio

    2018-03-01

    From the evaluation of the factors that affect quality of life (QOL) it is possible to plan interventions that lead to the improved well-being of patients. The scope of this study was to conduct the cross-cultural adaptation of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS) questionnaire to the Portuguese language, seeking the necessary semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalence. The theoretical framework of Guillemin, Bombardier and Beaton was used, fulfilling the following steps: translation, back translation, evaluation of the authors, peer review and pre-testing. After all the tests, the semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalence was achieved. The scale proved to be easy to use and was clinically important. MIDAS was validated in terms of its semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalences. Subsequently, the measurement equivalence will be evaluated to verify the psychometric properties.

  19. A Cross-Cultural Study of Reference Point Adaptation: Evidence from China, Korea, and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Hal R.; Hirshleifer, David; Jiang, Danling; Lim, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined reference point adaptation following gains or losses in security trading using participants from China, Korea, and the US. In both questionnaire studies and trading experiments with real money incentives, reference point adaptation was larger for Asians than for Americans. Subjects in all countries adapted their reference points more…

  20. German translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the whiplash disability questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Corina; McCaskey, Michael; Ettlin, Thierry

    2013-03-14

    The Australian Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ) was cross-culturally translated, adapted, and tested for validity to be used in German-speaking patients. The self-administered questionnaire evaluates actual pain intensity, problems in personal care, role performance, sleep disturbances, tiredness, social and leisure activities, emotional and concentration impairments with 13 questions rated on an 11-point rating scale from zero to ten. In a first part, the Australian-based WDQ was forward and backward translated. In a consensus conference with all translators and health care professionals, who were experts in the treatment of patients with a whiplash associated disorder (WAD), formulations were refined. Original authors were contacted for clarification and approval of the forward-backward translated version. The German version (WDQ-G) was evaluated for comprehensiveness and clarity in a pre-study patient survey by a random sample of German-speaking patients after WAD and four healthy twelve to thirteen year old teenagers. In a second part, the WDQ-G was evaluated in a patient validation study including patients affected by a WAD. Inpatients had to complete the WDQ-G, the North American Spine Society questionnaire (NASS cervical pain), and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) at entry in the rehabilitation centre. In the pre-study patient survey (response rate 31%) patients rated clarity for title 9.6 ± 0.9, instruction 9.3 ± 1.4 and questions 9.6 ± 0.7, and comprehensiveness for title 9.6 ± 0.7, instruction 9.3 ± 1.4 and questions 9.8 ± 0.4. Time needed to fill in was 13.7 ± 9.0 minutes. In total, 70 patients (47 females, age = 43.4 ± 12.5 years, time since injury: 1.5 ± 2.6 years) were included in the validation study. WDQ-G total score was 74.0 ± 21.3 points (range between 15 and 117 points). Time needed to fill in was 6.7 ± 3.4 minutes with data from 22 patients. Internal consistency was confirmed with Cronbachs

  1. Advantages of a single-cycle production assay to study cell culture-adaptive mutations of hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, Rodney S; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Takikawa, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    mutations that were selected during serial passage in Huh-7.5 cells were studied. Recombinant genomes containing all five mutations produced 3-4 logs more infectious virions than did wild type. Neither a coding mutation in NS5A nor a silent mutation in E2 was adaptive, whereas coding mutations in E2, p7......The JFH1 strain of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is unique among HCV isolates, in that the wild-type virus can traverse the entire replication cycle in cultured cells. However, without adaptive mutations, only low levels of infectious virus are produced. In the present study, the effects of five...

  2. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the Turkish version of the Harris Hip Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Derya; Can, Canan; Aslan, Yasemin; Ceylan, Hasan Huseyin; Bilsel, Kerem; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak

    2014-01-01

    The Harris Hip Score (HHS) developed to assess function and pain from the perspective of patients hip pathologies. The purpose of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the HHS into Turkish, and thereby determine the reliability and validity of the translated version. The HHS was translated into Turkish in accordance with the stages recommended by Beaton. The measurement properties of the HHS were tested in 80 patients; 52 males, mean age 51 years (range 21-75 years) suffering from different hip pathologies. The test-retest reliability was tested in 58 patients; 28 males mean age, 52 years (range 30-73 years) after an interval of seven days. The Cronbach's Alpha was used to assess internal consistency and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to estimate the test-retest reliability. Patients were asked to answer the Oxford Hip Score (OHS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), the VAS and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) for the validity of the estimation. The Turkish version of the HHS showed sufficient internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha,0.70) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.91). The correlation coefficients between the HHS, the WOMAC and the OHS were 0.64 and 0.89 respectively. The highest correlations between the HHS and SF-36 were with the physical function scale (r = 0.72), and the lowest correlations were with the mental function scale (r = 0.10). We observed no floor or ceiling effects. The Turkish version of the HHS has sufficient reliability and validity to measure patient-reported outcome for Turkish-speaking individuals with a variety of hip disorders.

  3. Cross-Cultural adaptation of the General Functioning Scale of the Family

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    Thiago Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the General Functioning Scale of the Family, a subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device, for the Brazilian population. METHODS The General Functioning Scale of the Family was translated into Portuguese and administered to 500 guardians of children in the second grade of elementary school in public schools of Sao Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. The types of equivalences investigated were: conceptual and of items, semantic, operational, and measurement. The study involved discussions with experts, translations and back-translations of the instrument, and psychometric assessment. Reliability and validity studies were carried out by internal consistency testing (Cronbach’s alpha, Guttman split-half correlation model, Pearson correlation coefficient, and confirmatory factor analysis. Associations between General Functioning of the Family and variables theoretically associated with the theme (father’s or mother’s drunkenness and violence between parents were estimated by odds ratio. RESULTS Semantic equivalence was between 90.0% and 100%. Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.79 to 0.81, indicating good internal consistency of the instrument. Pearson correlation coefficient ranged between 0.303 and 0.549. Statistical association was found between the general functioning of the family score and the theoretically related variables, as well as good fit quality of the confirmatory analysis model. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate the feasibility of administering the instrument to the Brazilian population, as it is easy to understand and a good measurement of the construct of interest.

  4. Culturally Adapted Transdiagnostic CBT for SSRI-Resistant Turkish Adolescents: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarturk, Z Ceren; Abuhamdeh, Sami; Jalal, Baland; Unaldı, Nurdan; Alyanak, Behiye; Cetinkaya, Mustafa; Gulen, Birgul; Hinton, Devon

    2018-01-18

    The most common mental health problems among adolescents are anxiety and mood disorders. While disorder-specific cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is effective for each of these conditions, the comorbidity between anxiety and mood disorders indicates a need for the development of evidence-based transdiagnostic treatments. To examine the efficacy of culturally adapted transdiagnostic CBT (CA-CBT) in reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression in treatment-resistant Turkish adolescents, 13 adolescent participants with anxiety or mood disorders who were treatment resistant received 10 sessions of CA-CBT in group format. The main outcome measures were the Screen for Childhood Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Turkish Symptom and Syndrome Addendum (TSSA), which were assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and at 2-month follow-up. At posttreatment, there were large effect sizes for all measures: depression scores (BDI, d = .9), anxiety scores (SCARED, d = 1.1), and the Turkish Symptom and Syndrome Addendum (TSSA, d = 1.6). Moreover, at 2-month follow-up, depression and anxiety symptoms were either maintained or continued to improve such that from pretreatment to follow-up the effect sizes were as follows: depression scores (BDI, d = 1.4), anxiety scores (SCARED, d = 1.7), and the Turkish Symptom and Syndrome Addendum (TSSA, d = 2.4). In addition, there were no dropouts across treatment. This open trial suggests that CA-CBT is effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptoms and that the treatment is well accepted. A full randomized controlled trial to verify the effectiveness of transdiagnostic CA-CBT in similar populations is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Rapid Prototyping of a Cyclic Olefin Copolymer Microfluidic Device for Automated Oocyte Culturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguel-Alonso, Miguel; Sabés-Alsina, Maria; Morató, Roser; Ymbern, Oriol; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Laura; Talló-Parra, Oriol; Alonso-Chamarro, Julián; Puyol, Mar; López-Béjar, Manel

    2017-10-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) can benefit from the features of microfluidic technologies, such as the automation of time-consuming labor-intensive procedures, the possibility to mimic in vivo environments, and the miniaturization of the required equipment. To date, most of the proposed approaches are based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as platform substrate material due to its widespread use in academia, despite certain disadvantages, such as the elevated cost of mass production. Herein, we present a rapid fabrication process for a cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) monolithic microfluidic device combining hot embossing-using a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) master-and micromilling. The microfluidic device was suitable for trapping and maturation of bovine oocytes, which were further studied to determine their ability to be fertilized. Furthermore, another COC microfluidic device was fabricated to store sperm and assess its quality parameters over time. The study herein presented demonstrates a good biocompatibility of the COC when working with gametes, and it exhibits certain advantages, such as the nonabsorption of small molecules, gas impermeability, and low fabrication costs, all at the prototyping and mass production scale, thus taking a step further toward fully automated microfluidic devices in ART.

  6. Adaptation to the electronics