WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid cooling results

  1. Multi-Resolution Rapid Prototyping of Vehicle Cooling Systems: Approach and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    components within the system. 3. System-level: assembly of reduced-order models of components for rapid generation of results for the entire vehicle...using reduced-order models (with increased resolution) on specific components/ assemblies , while using regular reduced-order models for the remaining...Single and Multi-Evaporator Subcritical Vapor Compression Systems”, M.S. Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign. Siegel, J., 2007, Corba

  2. Advances in rapid cooling treatment for heat stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-jia ZHAO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat stroke is a life-threatening disease characterized clinically by central nervous system dysfunction and severe hyperthermia (core temperature rises to higher than 40℃. The unchecked rise of body core temperature overwhelms intrinsic or extrinsic heat generation mechanism, thus overwhelms homoeostatic thermoregulation. Hyperthermia causes cellular and organ dysfunction with progressive exacerbation resulting in multi-organ failure and death. Rapid cooling to reduce core temperature as quickly as possible is the primary and most effective treatment, as it has been shown that the major determinant of outcome in heatstroke is the degree and duration of hyperthermia. If suppression of body temperature is delayed, the fatality rate will be elevated. Several cooling methods are available, including physical cooling by conduction, convection and evaporation with ice/cold water immersion, internal cooling by invasive methods such as hemofiltration, intravascular cooling, cold water gastric and rectal lavage, and cooling with drugs. It is crucial to formulate a scientific and reasonable strategy for the subsequent treatment in accordance with the patient's physical condition, the condition of cooling equipment, and the manipulator's proficiency in cooling methods and equipment usage. This article reviews the domestic and international advances in study of rapid and efficient cooling measures for heat stroke. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.10.17

  3. Structural evolution in the crystallization of rapid cooling silver melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Z. A.; Dong, K. J.; Yu, A. B.

    2015-03-01

    The structural evolution in a rapid cooling process of silver melt has been investigated at different scales by adopting several analysis methods. The results testify Ostwald's rule of stages and Frank conjecture upon icosahedron with many specific details. In particular, the cluster-scale analysis by a recent developed method called LSCA (the Largest Standard Cluster Analysis) clarified the complex structural evolution occurred in crystallization: different kinds of local clusters (such as ico-like (ico is the abbreviation of icosahedron), ico-bcc like (bcc, body-centred cubic), bcc, bcc-like structures) in turn have their maximal numbers as temperature decreases. And in a rather wide temperature range the icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) demonstrates a saturated stage (where the amount of ico-like structures keeps stable) that breeds metastable bcc clusters. As the precursor of crystallization, after reaching the maximal number bcc clusters finally decrease, resulting in the final solid being a mixture mainly composed of fcc/hcp (face-centred cubic and hexagonal-closed packed) clusters and to a less degree, bcc clusters. This detailed geometric picture for crystallization of liquid metal is believed to be useful to improve the fundamental understanding of liquid-solid phase transition.

  4. Controlled cooling versus rapid freezing of teratozoospermic semen samples: Impact on sperm chromatin integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivananda N Kalludi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study evaluates the impact of controlled slow cooling and rapid freezing techniques on the sperm chromatin integrity in teratozoospermic and normozoospermic samples. Setting: The study was done in a university infertility clinic, which is a tertiary healthcare center serving the general population. Design: It was a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: Semen samples from normozoospermic (N=16 and teratozoospermic (N=13 infertile men were cryopreserved using controlled cooling and rapid freezing techniques. The sperm chromatin integrity was analyzed in fresh and frozen-thawed samples. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were reported as mean and standard error (mean ± SEM of mean. The difference between two techniques was determined by a paired t-test. Results: The freeze-thaw induced chromatin denaturation was significantly (P<0.01 elevated in the post-thaw samples of normozoospermic and teratozoospermic groups. Compared to rapid freezing, there was no difference in the number of red sperms (with DNA damage by the controlled slow cooling method in both normozoospermic and teratozoospermic groups. Freeze-thaw induced sperm chromatin denaturation in teratozoospermic samples did not vary between controlled slow cooling and rapid freezing techniques. Conclusions: Since the controlled slow cooling technique involves the use of expensive instrument and is a time consuming protocol, rapid freezing can be a good alternative technique for teratozoospermic and normozoospermic samples when sperm DNA damage is a concern.

  5. Transient Response to Rapid Cooling of a Stainless Steel Sodium Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Houts, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Compact fission power systems are under consideration for use in long duration space exploration missions. Power demands on the order of 500 W, to 5 kW, will be required for up to 15 years of continuous service. One such small reactor design consists of a fast spectrum reactor cooled with an array of in-core alkali metal heat pipes coupled to thermoelectric or Stirling power conversion systems. Heat pipes advantageous attributes include a simplistic design, lack of moving parts, and well understood behavior. Concerns over reactor transients induced by heat pipe instability as a function of extreme thermal transients require experimental investigations. One particular concern is rapid cooling of the heat pipe condenser that would propagate to cool the evaporator. Rapid cooling of the reactor core beyond acceptable design limits could possibly induce unintended reactor control issues. This paper discusses a series of experimental demonstrations where a heat pipe operating at near prototypic conditions experienced rapid cooling of the condenser. The condenser section of a stainless steel sodium heat pipe was enclosed within a heat exchanger. The heat pipe - heat exchanger assembly was housed within a vacuum chamber held at a pressure of 50 Torr of helium. The heat pipe was brought to steady state operating conditions using graphite resistance heaters then cooled by a high flow of gaseous nitrogen through the heat exchanger. Subsequent thermal transient behavior was characterized by performing an energy balance using temperature, pressure and flow rate data obtained throughout the tests. Results indicate the degree of temperature change that results from a rapid cooling scenario will not significantly influence thermal stability of an operating heat pipe, even under extreme condenser cooling conditions.

  6. Structural evolution in the crystallization of rapid cooling silver melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Z.A., E-mail: ze.tian@gmail.com [School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Dong, K.J.; Yu, A.B. [Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2015-03-15

    The structural evolution in a rapid cooling process of silver melt has been investigated at different scales by adopting several analysis methods. The results testify Ostwald’s rule of stages and Frank conjecture upon icosahedron with many specific details. In particular, the cluster-scale analysis by a recent developed method called LSCA (the Largest Standard Cluster Analysis) clarified the complex structural evolution occurred in crystallization: different kinds of local clusters (such as ico-like (ico is the abbreviation of icosahedron), ico-bcc like (bcc, body-centred cubic), bcc, bcc-like structures) in turn have their maximal numbers as temperature decreases. And in a rather wide temperature range the icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) demonstrates a saturated stage (where the amount of ico-like structures keeps stable) that breeds metastable bcc clusters. As the precursor of crystallization, after reaching the maximal number bcc clusters finally decrease, resulting in the final solid being a mixture mainly composed of fcc/hcp (face-centred cubic and hexagonal-closed packed) clusters and to a less degree, bcc clusters. This detailed geometric picture for crystallization of liquid metal is believed to be useful to improve the fundamental understanding of liquid–solid phase transition. - Highlights: • A comprehensive structural analysis is conducted focusing on crystallization. • The involved atoms in our analysis are more than 90% for all samples concerned. • A series of distinct intermediate states are found in crystallization of silver melt. • A novelty icosahedron-saturated state breeds the metastable bcc state.

  7. Influence of cooling rate on microstructure formation during rapid solidification of binary TiAl alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenel, C., E-mail: Christoph.Kenel@empa.ch; Leinenbach, C.

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Rapid solidification studies with varying cooling rates were realized for Ti–Al. • Experiments were combined with finite element simulations of heat transfer. • The resulting microstructure of Ti–Al alloys is strongly dependent on the Al content. • The microstructure and phase transformation behavior can be predicted. • The method allows alloy development for processes involving rapid solidification. - Abstract: Titanium aluminides as structural intermetallics are possible candidates for a potential weight reduction and increased performance of high temperature components. A method for the characterization of the microstructure formation in rapidly solidified alloys was developed and applied for binary Ti–(44–48)Al (at.%). The results show a strong dependency of the microstructure on the Al content at cooling rates between 6 ⋅ 10{sup 2} and 1.5 ⋅ 10{sup 4} K s{sup −1}. The formation of α → α{sub 2} ordering, lamellar α{sub 2} + γ colonies and interdendritic TiAl γ-phase were observed, depending on the Al amount. Based on thermodynamic calculations the observed microstructure can be explained using the CALPHAD approach taking into account the non-equilibrium conditions. The presented method provides a useful tool for alloy development for processing techniques involving rapid solidification with varying cooling rates.

  8. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  9. Rapid shelf-wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroka, Greg; Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-06-01

    Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead-of-eye-center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation-validated, high-resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid-Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)—with an inshore Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season—and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)—with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead-of-eye-center depth-averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead-of-eye-center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3-D coupled atmosphere-ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels.

  10. Rapid shelf‐wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead‐of‐eye‐center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation‐validated, high‐resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid‐Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)—with an inshore Mid‐Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season—and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)—with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead‐of‐eye‐center depth‐averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead‐of‐eye‐center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3‐D coupled atmosphere‐ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels. PMID:28944132

  11. Rapid shelf-wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroka, Greg; Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-06-01

    Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead-of-eye-center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation-validated, high-resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid-Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)-with an inshore Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season-and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)-with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead-of-eye-center depth-averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead-of-eye-center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3-D coupled atmosphere-ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels.

  12. Apparatus and method for rapid cooling of large area substrates in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2010-09-28

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for rapid cooling of a large substrate in a vacuum environment. A first cooled plate is brought into close proximity with one surface of a flat substrate. The spatial volume between the first cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and brought to a higher pressure than the surrounding vacuum level to increase the cooling efficiency. A second cooled plate is brought into close proximity with the opposite surface of the flat substrate. A second spatial volume between the second cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and the gas pressure is equalized to the gas pressure in the first spatial volume. The equalization of the gas pressure on both sides of the flat substrate eliminates deflection of the substrate and bending stress in the substrate.

  13. Superfluid phases of triplet pairing and rapid cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev B. Leinson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In a simple model it is demonstrated that the neutron star surface temperature evolution is sensitive to the phase state of the triplet superfluid condensate. A multicomponent triplet pairing of superfluid neutrons in the core of a neutron star with participation of several magnetic quantum numbers leads to neutrino energy losses exceeding the losses from the unicomponent pairing. A phase transition of the neutron condensate into the multicomponent state triggers more rapid cooling of superfluid core in neutron stars. This makes it possible to simulate an anomalously rapid cooling of neutron stars within the minimal cooling paradigm without employing any exotic scenarios suggested earlier for rapid cooling of isolated neutron star in Cassiopeia A.

  14. Combination of Cooling Curve and Micro-Chemical Phase Analysis of Rapidly Quenched Magnesium AM60B Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchwica, P. C.; Gesing, A. J.; Sokolowski, J. H.; Blawert, C.; Jekl, J.; Berkmortel, R.

    Macro test samples of magnesium alloy AM60B were melted and quenched at maximum instantaneous cooling rates ranging from -5°C/s to -500°C/s and the resultant cooling curves were analyzed. Characteristic reactions on these curves corresponding to formation of individual phases were identified with the aid of literature data as well as metallographic and micro-chemical analysis. The results indicate that these phases, their size and location in the micro structure, their chemistry and their relative proportions all change in response to the increase in the cooling rate. These rapid cooling rates are typical of real industrial solidification processes such as die casting. These findings can be used to improve future computer models of casting solidification processes for magnesium and for other alloys.

  15. CARMENES ultra-stable cooling system: very promising results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabet, E.; Carvas, P.; Lizon, J.-L.; Becerril, S.; Rodríguez, E.; Abril, M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Amado, P. J.; Seifert, W.; Quirrenbach, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Dreizler, S.

    2014-07-01

    CARMENES is a high resolution spectrograph to detect planets through the variation of radial velocity, destined for the Calar Alto Observatory in Almeria, Spain. The optical bench has a working temperature of 140K with a 24 hours stability of ±0,1K; goal ±0,01K. It is enclosed with a radiation shield actively cooled with thermalized nitrogen gas that flows through strategically positioned heat exchangers to remove its radiative load. The cooling system has an external preparation unit (N2GPU), which provides the nitrogen gas through actively vaporizing liquid nitrogen with heating resistances and a three stage circuit flow, each one controlled by an independent PID. Since CARMENES is still in the construction phase, a dedicated test facility has been built in order to simulate the instrument and correctly establish the N2GPU parameters. Furthermore, the test facility allows a wide range of configurations set-ups, which enables a full characterization of the N2GPU and the cooling system. The N2GPU has been designed to offer a wide temperature range of thermally stabilized nitrogen gas flow, which apart from CARMENES could also be used to provide ultra-high thermal stability in other cryogenic instruments. The present paper shows the testing of the cooling performance, the hardware used and the very promising results obtained.

  16. The I-Xe System in Lodranites Suggests Impact-related Rapid Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, S. A.; Whitby, J. A.; Busfield, A.; Holland, G.; Busemann, H.; Gilmour, J. D.

    2009-03-01

    The I-Xe system of three lodranites has been investigated. Two metal and one silicate separate from GRA 95209 gave ages consistent with each other (and the I-Xe age of Acapulco feldspar), suggesting the parent material underwent a period of rapid cooling.

  17. Effect of TEMPO-oxidization and rapid cooling on thermo-structural properties of nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhd Haniffa, Mhd Abd Cader; Ching, Yern Chee; Chuah, Cheng Hock; Yong Ching, Kuan; Nazri, Nik; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Nai-Shang, Liou

    2017-10-01

    Recently, surface functionality and thermal property of the green nanomaterials have received wide attention in numerous applications. In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used to prepare the nanocrystalline celluloses (NCCs) using acid hydrolysis method. The NCCs was treated with TEMPO [(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxy radical]-oxidation to prepare TEMPO-oxidized NCCs. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) also prepared from MCC using TEMPO-oxidation. The effects of rapid cooling and chemical treatments on the thermo-structural property studies of the prepared nanocelluloses were investigated through FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric (TGA-DTG), and XRD. A posteriori knowledge of the FTIR and TGA-DTG analysis revealed that the rapid cooling treatment enhanced the hydrogen bond energy and thermal stability of the TEMPO-oxidized NCC compared to other nanocelluloses. XRD analysis exhibits the effect of rapid cooling on pseudo 2I helical conformation. This was the first investigation performed on the effect of rapid cooling on structural properties of the nanocellulose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems - Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendeman, Carl; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental

  19. Magnetocaloric and Hopkinson effects in slowly and rapidly cooled Gd{sub 7}Pd{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, Ewa; Guzik, Adam; Oboz, Monika; Zajdel, Pawel; Ziolkowski, Grzegorz [Silesia Univ., Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics

    2016-01-15

    Gd{sub 7}Pd{sub 3} intermetallic compound was prepared as slowly cooled polycrystal and rapidly cooled (rc) casts. The slowly cooled polycrystalline samples were obtained by melting in an induction coil. The rc-cast Gd{sub 7}Pd{sub 3} sample was obtained by means of a mould casting technique. The samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, SQUID magnetometry and scanning electron microscopy in order to elucidate the Hopkinson effect and magnetocaloric properties in relation to the technological aspects. The investigated ferromagnetic system is sensitive to grain size. The magnetocaloric and Hopkinson effect decreases with the decrease of the grain size. The results were compared to the data of single crystal obtained by the Czochralski method from a levitating melt.

  20. Core temperature cooling in healthy volunteers after rapid intravenous infusion of cold and room temperature saline solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tracy M; Callaway, Clifton W; Hostler, David

    2008-02-01

    Studies have suggested that inducing mild hypothermia improves neurologic outcomes after traumatic brain injury, major stroke, traumatic hemorrhage, and cardiac arrest. Although infusion of cold normal saline solution is a simple and inexpensive method for initiating hypothermia, human cold-defense mechanisms potentially make this route stressful or ineffective. We hypothesize that rapid infusion of 30 mL/kg of cold (4 degrees C, 39.2 degrees F) 0.9% saline solution during 30 minutes to healthy subjects (aged 27 [standard deviation (SD) 4] years) will reduce core body temperature to the therapeutic range of 33 degrees C to 35 degrees C (91.4 degrees F to 95 degrees F). Sixteen subjects were randomly assigned to receive either cold (4 degrees C, 39.2 degrees F) or room temperature (23 degrees C, 73.4 degrees F) normal saline solution. Subjects were not informed of their assignment, but blinding was not possible after initiation of the infusion. Core temperature, skin temperature, and vital signs were recorded every 2 minutes. Subjects indicated global discomfort during the infusion on a 100-mm visual analog scale at 5-minute intervals. Core temperature decreased in both the cold saline solution (1.0 degrees C [SD 0.4 degrees C]/1.8 degrees F [0.7 degrees F]) and room temperature saline solution (0.5 degrees C [SD 0.1 degrees C]/0.9 degrees F [0.2 degrees F]) groups, whereas skin temperature was unchanged. Slopes calculated from the core temperature cooling curves indicate that the majority of cooling occurred during the first half of the infusion. Examination of the core temperature cooling curves revealed a 2-phase temporal pattern in 30-minute cooling curves. The early phase, spanning 0 to 14 minutes, demonstrated rapid cooling in both groups, with a larger effect observed in subjects receiving cold saline solution. In this pilot study of healthy volunteers, rapid administration of cold saline solution to awake normothermic volunteers resulted in 1 degrees C (1

  1. Rapid cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A triggered by neutron superfluidity in dense matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Dany; Prakash, Madappa; Lattimer, James M; Steiner, Andrew W

    2011-02-25

    We propose that the observed cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A is due to enhanced neutrino emission from the recent onset of the breaking and formation of neutron Cooper pairs in the (3)P(2) channel. We find that the critical temperature for this superfluid transition is ≃0.5×10(9) K. The observed rapidity of the cooling implies that protons were already in a superconducting state with a larger critical temperature. This is the first direct evidence that superfluidity and superconductivity occur at supranuclear densities within neutron stars. Our prediction that this cooling will continue for several decades at the present rate can be tested by continuous monitoring of this neutron star. © 2011 American Physical Society

  2. Atomic and electronic structure transformations of silver nanoparticles under rapid cooling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, I; Rojas, J; Landauro, C V; Torres, J

    2009-02-04

    The structural evolution and dynamics of silver nanodrops Ag(2869) (4.4 nm in diameter) under rapid cooling conditions have been studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and electronic density of state calculations. The interaction of silver atoms is modelled by a tight-binding semiempirical interatomic potential proposed by Cleri and Rosato. The pair correlation functions and the pair analysis technique are used to reveal the structural transition in the process of solidification. It is shown that Ag nanoparticles evolve into different nanostructures under different cooling processes. At a cooling rate of 1.5625 × 10(13) K s(-1) the nanoparticles preserve an amorphous-like structure containing a large amount of 1551 and 1541 pairs which correspond to icosahedral symmetry. For a lower cooling rate (1.5625 × 10(12) K s(-1)), the nanoparticles transform into a crystal-like structure consisting mainly of 1421 and 1422 pairs which correspond to the face centred cubic and hexagonal close packed structures, respectively. The variations of the electronic density of states for the differently cooled nanoparticles are small, but in correspondence with the structural changes.

  3. Atomic and electronic structure transformations of silver nanoparticles under rapid cooling conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lobato, I.; Rojas, J.; Landauro, C.V.; Torres, J

    2008-01-01

    The structural evolution and dynamics of silver nanodrops Ag${}_{2896}$ (4.4 nm in diameter) during rapid cooling conditions has been studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and electronic density of state calculations. The interaction of silver atoms is modeled by a tight-binding semiempirical interatomic potential proposed by Cleri and Rosato. The pair correlation functions and the pair analysis technique is applied to reveal the structural transition in the process of solidifica...

  4. Properties of polycrystals and nanotwinned structures in silicon during rapid cooling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tinghong; Li, Kaiwen; Tian, Zean; Xie, Quan; Hu, Xuechen; Li, Yidan; Luo, Xiangyan; Ren, Lei

    2017-11-01

    The evolution characteristics of polycrystals and nano-twinned structures during the rapid solidification of silicon under cooling rate of 1010 K s‑1 are investigated based on molecular dynamics simulation. The microstructural properties of silicon were analyzed by several structural characterization methods. The distorted tetrahedral units with 5 nearest-neighbor atoms play different roles in three stages of the quenching process. As transitional structures, they play a significant part in liquid to liquid and liquid to crystal transition, and break the translational symmetry of the crystalline structures. The tetrahedral units can aggregate to form polycrystals with high stability in this system. When the temperature was decreased at a cooling rate of 1010 K s‑1, Coherent twin boundaries, having excellent structural stability and configurational continuity, were easily formed between zinc-blende and wurtzite structures.

  5. New method for vitrifying water and other liquids by rapid cooling of their aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Erwin

    1985-07-01

    A method for the vitrification of pure liquid water and dilute aqueous solutions is described which is the only one without a liquid cryomedium for heat transfer: rapid cooling of aqueous aerosol droplets on a solid cryoplate. This method is not limited to water and aqueous solutions, but can be used for the vitrification of any liquid aerosol, the only impurity being some codeposited vapor. The method can be applied in diverse fields such as cryobiology, cryomicroscopy, and low-temperature spectroscopy of water and dilute aqueous solutions to avoid the formation of crystalline ice.

  6. Mechanical response of local rapid cooling by spray water on constrained steel frame structure at high temperature in fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yunchun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Locally rapid cooling of spray water had strong impact on high temperature steel structure. When temperature of beam reached 600°C and cooling rate was more than 20°C/s, the maximum axial tension could reach more than 5 times of the originally compressive force. The compressive bending moment at joint of beam-to-column changed to tensile bending moment, and the maximum bending moment could reach above 4 times as that when heated. After rapid cooling by spray water, deflection at mid-span increased slightly.

  7. Research on rapid-cooling press hardening process and its effect for formability of ultra high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, L.; Hu, P.; Zhao, X.; Shi, D. Y.; Dai, M. H.; Yu, H. Y.; Chang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    In this study, a new rapid-cooling process in press hardening based on theoretical analysis, experimental test and optimal formability simulation were investigated for improving formability and obdurability of 22MnB5 boron steel. A series of non-isothermal flow behaviors in different plastic strain rates from 0.001s-1 to 0.1s-1 was investigated by thermal-mechanical uniaxial tensile tests. Furthermore, martensite transformation measurement was also involved in the temperature range from 600° to 800°. According to an interrelated Norton-Hoff constitutive model was developed to describe the complicated thermal-mechanical-phase transformation couple model, a typical deep drawing box used to simulate formability so as to compare with actual press hardening experiments used by the self-developed multi-field coupled static-explicit FE software KMAS and dynamic-explicit commercial software LS-DYNA respectively. The results showed the rapid-cooling process indicate the validity and efficiency of meeting the forming performance characteristics and the optimal process which temperature range from 650°C˜700°C can contribute to improve formability of press hardening manufacture.

  8. Numerical Modelling of Micro-Stresses in Carbonised Austenitic Cast Steel under Rapid Cooling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuleja J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of the numerical modelling of micro-stresses in carbonised austenitic cast steel being developed during rapid cooling due to differences in the values of thermal expansion coefficients for this material phases – carbides and austenitic matrix. Micro-stresses are indicated as the main cause of crack initiation in the tooling elements of carburising furnaces being mainly made of austenitic cast steel. A calculation model of carbonised and thermally fatigued austenitic cast steel was developed based on the microstructure images obtained using light microscopy techniques and the phase composition evaluated with the X-ray diffraction method. The values of the stress tensor components and the reduced stress in the complex models of test material structure were determined numerically by the finite element method. The effort analysis was performed and the areas where development of cracks is to be expected were identified, which was experimentally confirmed.

  9. Precipitation of metallic chromium during rapid cooling of Cr2O3 slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Burja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The slag systems of CaO-SiO2- Cr2O3 and Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2- Cr2O3 were analyzed. These slag systems occur in the production of stainless steel and are important from the process metallurgy point of view. Synthetic slag samples with different chromium oxide content were prepared and melted. The melted slag samples where then rapidly cooled on large steel plates, so that the high temperature microstructure was preserved. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The precipitation of different chromium oxide phases was studied, but most importantly the precipitation of metallic chromium was observed. These findings help us interpret industrial slag samples.

  10. Rapid short-duration hypothermia with cold saline and endovascular cooling before reperfusion reduces microvascular obstruction and myocardial infarct size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiberg Einar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of a rapid intravenous infusion of cold saline and endovascular hypothermia in a closed chest pig infarct model. Methods Pigs were randomized to pre-reperfusion hypothermia (n = 7, post-reperfusion hypothermia (n = 7 or normothermia (n = 5. A percutaneous coronary intervention balloon was inflated in the left anterior descending artery for 40 min. Hypothermia was started after 25 min of ischemia or immediately after reperfusion by infusion of 1000 ml of 4°C saline and endovascular hypothermia. Area at risk was evaluated by in vivo SPECT. Infarct size was evaluated by ex vivo MRI. Results Pre-reperfusion hypothermia reduced infarct size/area at risk by 43% (46 ± 8% compared to post-reperfusion hypothermia (80 ± 6%, p Conclusion Rapid hypothermia with cold saline and endovascular cooling before reperfusion reduces myocardial infarct size and microvascular obstruction. A novel finding is that hypothermia at the onset of reperfusion reduces microvascular obstruction without reducing myocardial infarct size. Intravenous administration of cold saline combined with endovascular hypothermia provides a method for a rapid induction of hypothermia suggesting a potential clinical application.

  11. Polyphase exhumation in the western Qinling Mountains, China: Rapid Early Cretaceous cooling along a lithospheric-scale tear fault and pulsed Cenozoic uplift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Bianca; Anzenbacher, Thomas; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Dong, Yunpeng; Dunkl, István

    2014-03-17

    The western sector of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt plays a key role in both Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous "Yanshanian" intracontinental tectonics and Cenozoic lateral escape triggered by India-Asia collision. The Taibai granite in the northern Qinling Mountains is located at the westernmost tip of a Yanshanian granite belt. It consists of multiple intrusions, constrained by new Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages (156 ± 3 Ma and 124 ± 1 Ma). Applying various geochronometers ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar on hornblende, biotite and K-feldspar, apatite fission-track, apatite [U-Th-Sm]/He) along a vertical profile of the Taibai Mountain refines the cooling and exhumation history. The new age constraints record the prolonged pre-Cenozoic intracontinental deformation as well as the cooling history mostly related to India-Asia collision. We detected rapid cooling for the Taibai granite from ca. 800 to 100 °C during Early Cretaceous (ca. 123 to 100 Ma) followed by a period of slow cooling from ca. 100 Ma to ca. 25 Ma, and pulsed exhumation of the low-relief Cretaceous peneplain during Cenozoic times. We interpret the Early Cretaceous rapid cooling and exhumation as a result from activity along the southern sinistral lithospheric scale tear fault of the recently postulated intracontinental subduction of the Archean/Palaeoproterozoic North China Block beneath the Alashan Block. A Late Oligocene to Early Miocene cooling phase might be triggered either by the lateral motion during India-Asia collision and/or the Pacific subduction zone. Late Miocene intensified cooling is ascribed to uplift of the Tibetan Plateau.

  12. Carbon savings resulting from the cooling effect of green areas: a case study in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenqi; Wu, Tinghai; Zhang, Chengguo; Yu, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Green areas cool the climate of a city, reduce the energy consumption caused by the urban heat island (UHI) effect, and bring along carbon savings. However, the calculation of carbon savings due to the cooling effect of green areas is still not well understood. We have used a Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image of Beijing, to identify the cooled areas, compute the possible energy used to maintain the temperature differences between cooled areas and their surrounding heated areas, and calculate the carbon savings owing to the avoidance of energy use. Results show that a total amount of 14315.37 tons carbon savings was achieved in the study area and the amount was related to the biomass, the size and the shape of green areas. These results demonstrate the importance of carbon savings resulting from green areas' cooling effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid short-term cooling following the Chicxulub impact at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellekoop, Johan; Sluijs, Appy; Smit, Jan; Schouten, Stefan; Weijers, Johan W H; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2014-05-27

    The mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, ∼ 66 Ma, is thought to be caused by the impact of an asteroid at Chicxulub, present-day Mexico. Although the precise mechanisms that led to this mass extinction remain enigmatic, most postulated scenarios involve a short-lived global cooling, a so-called "impact winter" phase. Here we document a major decline in sea surface temperature during the first months to decades following the impact event, using TEX86 paleothermometry of sediments from the Brazos River section, Texas. We interpret this cold spell to reflect, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence for the effects of the formation of dust and aerosols by the impact and their injection in the stratosphere, blocking incoming solar radiation. This impact winter was likely a major driver of mass extinction because of the resulting global decimation of marine and continental photosynthesis.

  14. Rapid short-term cooling following the Chicxulub impact at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellekoop, Johan; Sluijs, Appy; Smit, Jan; Schouten, Stefan; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2014-01-01

    The mass extinction at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, ∼66 Ma, is thought to be caused by the impact of an asteroid at Chicxulub, present-day Mexico. Although the precise mechanisms that led to this mass extinction remain enigmatic, most postulated scenarios involve a short-lived global cooling, a so-called “impact winter” phase. Here we document a major decline in sea surface temperature during the first months to decades following the impact event, using TEX86 paleothermometry of sediments from the Brazos River section, Texas. We interpret this cold spell to reflect, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence for the effects of the formation of dust and aerosols by the impact and their injection in the stratosphere, blocking incoming solar radiation. This impact winter was likely a major driver of mass extinction because of the resulting global decimation of marine and continental photosynthesis. PMID:24821785

  15. Experimental results for the rapid determination of the freezing point of fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiprakasam, B.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods for the rapid determination of the freezing point of fuels were investigated: an optical method, which detected the change in light transmission from the disappearance of solid particles in the melted fuel; and a differential thermal analysis (DTA) method, which sensed the latent heat of fusion. A laboratory apparatus was fabricated to test the two methods. Cooling was done by thermoelectric modules using an ice-water bath as a heat sink. The DTA method was later modified to eliminate the reference fuel. The data from the sample were digitized and a point of inflection, which corresponds to the ASTM D-2386 freezing point (final melting point), was identified from the derivative. The apparatus was modifified to cool the fuel to -60 C and controls were added for maintaining constant cooling rate, rewarming rate, and hold time at minimum temperature. A parametric series of tests were run for twelve fuels with freezing points from -10 C to -50 C, varying cooling rate, rewarming rate, and hold time. Based on the results, an optimum test procedure was established. The results showed good agreement with ASTM D-2386 freezing point and differential scanning calorimetry results.

  16. Rapid on-site monitoring of Legionella pneumophila in cooling tower water using a portable microfluidic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Goto, Satoko; Fujii, Yudai; Banno, Fumiya; Edagawa, Akiko

    2017-06-08

    Legionnaires' disease, predominantly caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila, has increased in prevalence worldwide. The most common mode of transmission of Legionella is inhalation of contaminated aerosols, such as those generated by cooling towers. Simple, rapid and accurate methods to enumerate L. pneumophila are required to prevent the spread of this organism. Here, we applied a microfluidic device for on-chip fluorescent staining and semi-automated counting of L. pneumophila in cooling tower water. We also constructed a portable system for rapid on-site monitoring and used it to enumerate target bacterial cells rapidly flowing in the microchannel. A fluorescently-labelled polyclonal antibody was used for the selective detection of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 in the samples. The counts of L. pneumophila in cooling tower water obtained using the system and fluorescence microscopy were similar. The detection limit of the system was 10 4  cells/ml, but lower numbers of L. pneumophila cells (10 1 to 10 3  cells/ml) could be detected following concentration of 0.5-3 L of the water sample by filtration. Our technique is rapid to perform (1.5 h), semi-automated (on-chip staining and counting), and portable for on-site measurement, and it may therefore be effective in the initial screening of Legionella contamination in freshwater.

  17. Results of scalp cooling during anthracycline containing chemotherapy depend on scalp skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komen, M M C; Smorenburg, C H; Nortier, J W R; van der Ploeg, T; van den Hurk, C J G; van der Hoeven, J J M

    2016-12-01

    The success of scalp cooling in preventing or reducing chemotherapy induced alopecia (CIA) is highly variable between patients undergoing similar chemotherapy regimens. A decrease of the scalp skin temperature seems to be an important factor, but data on the optimum temperature reached by scalp cooling to prevent CIA are lacking. This study investigated the relation between scalp skin temperature and its efficacy to prevent CIA. In this explorative study, scalp skin temperature was measured during scalp cooling in 62 breast cancer patients undergoing up to six cycles of anthracycline containing chemotherapy. Scalp skin temperature was measured by using two thermocouples at both temporal sides of the head. The primary end-point was the need for a wig or other head covering. Maximal cooling was reached after 45 min and was continued for 90 min after chemotherapy infusion. The scalp skin temperature after 45 min cooling varied from 10 °C to 31 °C, resulting in a mean scalp skin temperature of 19 °C (SEM: 0,4). Intrapersonal scalp skin temperatures during cooling were consistent for each chemotherapy cycle (ANOVA: P = 0,855). Thirteen out of 62 patients (21%) did not require a wig or other head covering. They appeared to have a significantly lower mean scalp skin temperature (18 °C; SEM: 0,7) compared to patients with alopecia (20 °C; SEM: 0,5) (P = 0,01). The efficacy of scalp cooling during chemotherapy is temperature dependent. A precise cut-off point could not be detected, but the best results seem to be obtained when the scalp temperature decreases below 18 °C. TRIALREGISTER. 3082. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid short-term cooling following the Chicxulub impact at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellekoop, Johan; Sluijs, Appy|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311474748; Smit, Jan; Schouten, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137124929; Weijers, Johan W H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310911516; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07401370X; Brinkhuis, Henk|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/095046097

    2014-01-01

    The mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, ~66 Ma, is thought to be caused by the impact of an asteroid at Chic-xulub, present-day Mexico. Although the precise mechanisms that led to this mass extinction remain enigmatic, most postulated scenarios involve a short-lived global cooling,

  19. Rapid short-term cooling following the Chicxulub impact at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellekoop, J.; Sluijs, A.; Smit, J.; Schouten, S.; Weijers, J.W.H.; Damsté, J.S.S.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2014-01-01

    The mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, ~66 Ma, is thought to be caused by the impact of an asteroid at Chic-xulub, present-day Mexico. Although the precise mechanisms that led to this mass extinction remain enigmatic, most postulated scenarios involve a short-lived global cooling,

  20. Carbon savings resulting from the cooling effect of green areas: A case study in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Wenqi, E-mail: linwq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Urban-rural Ecological Planning and Green Architecture, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wu Tinghai; Zhang Chengguo [Institute of Architectural and Urban Studies, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu Ting [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Urban-rural Ecological Planning and Green Architecture, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Green areas cool the climate of a city, reduce the energy consumption caused by the urban heat island (UHI) effect, and bring along carbon savings. However, the calculation of carbon savings due to the cooling effect of green areas is still not well understood. We have used a Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image of Beijing, to identify the cooled areas, compute the possible energy used to maintain the temperature differences between cooled areas and their surrounding heated areas, and calculate the carbon savings owing to the avoidance of energy use. Results show that a total amount of 14315.37 tons carbon savings was achieved in the study area and the amount was related to the biomass, the size and the shape of green areas. These results demonstrate the importance of carbon savings resulting from green areas' cooling effect. - Highlights: > We provide an integral equation for the calculation of energy conservation and carbon savings. > We show that carbon savings is partly influenced by green areas' features. > A strong correlation between biomass, size and shape of green areas and carbon savings. - An integral equation for the calculation of energy conservation and carbon savings; Showing that carbon savings is partly influenced by green areas' features.

  1. Results of 20- versus 45-min post-infusion scalp cooling time in the prevention of docetaxel-induced alopecia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.M.; Breed, W.P.; Smorenburg, C.H.; Ploeg, T. van der; Goey, S.H.; Hoeven, J.J.M. van der; Nortier, J.W.; Hurk, C.J. van den

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: For patients, chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is one of the most distressing side effects of treatment. Scalp cooling can prevent or minimise CIA; the results may depend on the duration of cooling. Since a previous study on post-infusion cooling time in patients treated with docetaxel

  2. THE FORMATION OF SECONDARY STELLAR GENERATIONS IN MASSIVE YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS FROM RAPIDLY COOLING SHOCKED STELLAR WINDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wünsch, R.; Palouš, J.; Ehlerová, S. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Boční II 1401, 141 31 Prague (Czech Republic); Tenorio-Tagle, G. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Optica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico)

    2017-01-20

    We study a model of rapidly cooling shocked stellar winds in young massive clusters and estimate the circumstances under which secondary star formation, out of the reinserted winds from a first stellar generation (1G), is possible. We have used two implementations of the model: a highly idealized, computationally inexpensive, spherically symmetric semi-analytic model, and a complex, three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic, simulation; they are in a good mutual agreement. The results confirm our previous findings that, in a cluster with 1G mass 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} and half-mass–radius 2.38 pc, the shocked stellar winds become thermally unstable, collapse into dense gaseous structures that partially accumulate inside the cluster, self-shield against ionizing stellar radiation, and form the second generation (2G) of stars. We have used the semi-analytic model to explore a subset of the parameter space covering a wide range of the observationally poorly constrained parameters: the heating efficiency, η {sub he}, and the mass loading, η {sub ml}. The results show that the fraction of the 1G stellar winds accumulating inside the cluster can be larger than 50% if η {sub he} ≲ 10%, which is suggested by the observations. Furthermore, for low η {sub he}, the model provides a self-consistent mechanism predicting 2G stars forming only in the central zones of the cluster. Finally, we have calculated the accumulated warm gas emission in the H30 α recombination line, analyzed its velocity profile, and estimated its intensity for super star clusters in interacting galaxies NGC4038/9 (Antennae) showing that the warm gas should be detectable with ALMA.

  3. Causes of false-positive HIV rapid diagnostic test results

    OpenAIRE

    Klarkowski, Derryck; O?Brien, Daniel P.; Shanks, Leslie; Singh, Kasha P.

    2014-01-01

    HIV rapid diagnostic tests have enabled widespread implementation of HIV programs in resource-limited settings. If the tests used in the diagnostic algorithm are susceptible to the same cause for false positivity, a false-positive diagnosis may result in devastating consequences. In resource-limited settings, the lack of routine confirmatory testing, compounded by incorrect interpretation of weak positive test lines and use of tie-breaker algorithms, can leave a false-positive diagnosis undet...

  4. DES14X3taz: A TYPE I SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA SHOWING A LUMINOUS, RAPIDLY COOLING INITIAL PRE-PEAK BUMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Castander, F. J.; Casas, R.; Prajs, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Nichol, R. C.; Karpenka, N. V.; Bernard, S. R.; Brown, P.; Cartier, R.; Cooke, J.; Curtin, C.; Davis, T. M.; Finley, D. A.; Foley, R. J.; Gal-Yam, A.; Goldstein, D. A.; González-Gaitán, S.; Gupta, R. R.; Howell, D. A.; Inserra, C.; Kessler, R.; Lidman, C.; Marriner, J.; Nugent, P.; Pritchard, T. A.; Sako, M.; Smartt, S.; Smith, R. C.; Spinka, H.; Thomas, R. C.; Wolf, R. C.; Zenteno, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; Costa, L. N. da; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.

    2016-02-03

    We present DES14X3taz, a new hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova program, with additional photometric data provided by the Survey Using DECam for Superluminous Supernovae. Spectra obtained using Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS show DES14X3taz is an SLSN-I at z = 0.608. Multi-color photometry reveals a double-peaked light curve: a blue and relatively bright initial peak that fades rapidly prior to the slower rise of the main light curve. Our multi-color photometry allows us, for the first time, to show that the initial peak cools from 22,000 to 8000 K over 15 rest-frame days, and is faster and brighter than any published core-collapse supernova, reaching 30% of the bolometric luminosity of the main peak. No physical Ni-56-powered model can fit this initial peak. We show that a shock-cooling model followed by a magnetar driving the second phase of the light curve can adequately explain the entire light curve of DES14X3taz. Models involving the shock-cooling of extended circumstellar material at a distance of similar or equal to 400 R-circle dot are preferred over the cooling of shock-heated surface layers of a stellar envelope. We compare DES14X3taz to the few double-peaked SLSN-I events in the literature. Although the rise. times and characteristics of these initial peaks differ, there exists the tantalizing possibility that they can be explained by one physical interpretation

  5. Causes of false-positive HIV rapid diagnostic test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarkowski, Derryck; O'Brien, Daniel P; Shanks, Leslie; Singh, Kasha P

    2014-01-01

    HIV rapid diagnostic tests have enabled widespread implementation of HIV programs in resource-limited settings. If the tests used in the diagnostic algorithm are susceptible to the same cause for false positivity, a false-positive diagnosis may result in devastating consequences. In resource-limited settings, the lack of routine confirmatory testing, compounded by incorrect interpretation of weak positive test lines and use of tie-breaker algorithms, can leave a false-positive diagnosis undetected. We propose that heightened CD5+ and early B-lymphocyte response polyclonal cross-reactivity are a major cause of HIV false positivity in certain settings; thus, test performance may vary significantly in different geographical areas and populations. There is an urgent need for policy makers to recognize that HIV rapid diagnostic tests are screening tests and mandate confirmatory testing before reporting an HIV-positive result. In addition, weak positive results should not be recognized as valid except in the screening of blood donors.

  6. Concept of the Cooling System of the ITS for ALICE: Technical Proposals, Theoretical Estimates, Experimental Results

    CERN Document Server

    Godisov, O N; Yudkin, M I; Gerasimov, S F; Feofilov, G A

    1994-01-01

    Contradictory demands raised by the application of different types of sensitive detectors in 5 layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) for ALICE stipulate the simultaneous use of different schemes of heat drain: gaseous cooling of the 1st layer (uniform heat production over the sensitive surface) and evaporative cooling for the 2nd-5th layers (localised heat production). The last system is also a must for the thermostabilization of Si-drift detectors within 0.1 degree C. Theoretical estimates of gaseous, evaporative and liquid cooling systems are done for all ITS layers. The results of the experiments done for evaporative and liquid heat drain systems are presented and discussed. The major technical problems of the evaporative systems' design are being considered: i) control of liquid supply; ii) vapour pressure control. Two concepts of the evaporative systems are proposed: 1) One channel system for joint transfer of two phases (liquid + gas); 2) Two channels system with separate transfer of phases. Both sy...

  7. NASA Applied Sciences Program Rapid Prototyping Results and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, E. L.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's Applied Sciences Program seeks to expand the use of Earth science research results to benefit current and future operational systems tasked with making policy and management decisions. The Earth Science Division within the Science Mission Directorate sponsors over 1000 research projects annually to answer the fundamental research question: How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth? As research results become available, largely from satellite observations and Earth system model outputs, the Applied Sciences Program works diligently with scientists and researchers (internal and external to NASA) , and other government agency officials (USDA, EPA, CDC, DOE, US Forest Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, DHS, USAID) to determine useful applications for these results in decision-making, ultimately benefiting society. The complexity of Earth science research results and the breadth of the Applied Sciences Program national priority areas dictate a broad scope and multiple approaches available to implement their use in decision-making. Over the past five years, the Applied Sciences Program has examined scientific and engineering practices and solicited the community for methods and steps that can lead to the enhancement of operational systems (Decision Support Systems - DSS) required for decision-making. In November 2006, the Applied Sciences Program launched an initiative aimed at demonstrating the applicability of NASA data (satellite observations, models, geophysical parameters from data archive centers) being incorporated into decision support systems and their related environments at a low cost and quick turnaround of results., i.e. designed rapid prototyping. Conceptually, an understanding of Earth science research (and results) coupled with decision-making requirements and needs leads to a demonstration (experiment) depicting enhancements or improvements to an operational decisions process through the use of NASA data. Five

  8. Second-generation stars in globular clusters from rapid radiative cooling of pre-supernova massive star winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Thompson, Todd A.

    2017-09-01

    Following work by Wünsch and collaborators, we investigate a self-enrichment scenario for second-generation star formation in globular clusters wherein wind material from the first-generation massive stars rapidly radiatively cools. Radiative energy loss allows retention of fast winds within the central regions of clusters, where it fuels star formation. Secondary star formation occurs in ˜3-5 Myr, before supernovae, producing uniform iron abundances in both populations. We derive the critical criteria for radiative cooling of massive star winds and the second-generation mass as a function of cluster mass, radius and metallicity. We derive a critical condition on M/R, above which second-generation star formation can occur. We speculate that above this threshold the strong decrease in the cluster wind energy and momentum allows ambient gas to remain from the cluster formation process. We reproduce large observed second-generation fractions of ˜30-80 per cent if wind material mixes with ambient gas. Importantly, the mass of ambient gas required is only of order the first generation's stellar mass. Second-generation helium enrichment ΔY is inversely proportional to mass fraction in the second generation; a large second generation can form with ΔY ˜ 0.001-0.02, while a small second generation can reach ΔY ˜ 0.16. Like other self-enrichment models for the second generation, we are not able to simultaneously account for both the full range of the Na-O anticorrelation and the second-generation fraction.

  9. Enhanced mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas welded AZ31 magnesium alloy joint using two-pass friction stir processing with rapid cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Nan, E-mail: xunan@hhu.edu.cn; Bao, Yefeng

    2016-02-08

    In this study, tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded AZ31 magnesium alloy joint was subjected to two-pass rapid cooling friction stir processing (RC-FSP). The main results show that, two-pass RC-FSP causes the significant dissolution of the coarse eutectic β-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase into the magnesium matrix and the remarkable grain refinement in the stir zone. The low-hardness region which frequently located at heat-affected zone was eliminated. The stir zone showed ultrafine grains of 3.1 μm, and exhibited a good combination of ultrahigh tensile strength of 284 MPa and large elongation of 7.1%. This work provides an effective strategy to enhance the strength of TIG welded magnesium alloy joint without ductility loss.

  10. PHENIX Results on Heavy-Flavor Yields at Forward Rapidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M.

    2016-12-01

    The PHENIX collaboration is actively pursuing a physics program to make precision open and closed heavy flavor measurements over a large rapidity range (- 2.2 production at all rapidities and are expanding our measurements of inclusive open heavy flavor to separated charm and beauty measurements carried out via single lepton measurements and through the separation of prompt and B → J / ψ + X production. We present the current status of these measurements.

  11. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (<1.0 wt % to avoid the formation of coarse intermetallics. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of Mn, research was carried out to investigate the possibility of increasing the content of Mn by studying the effect of cooling rate on the formation of Fe- and Mn-rich intermetallics at different content levels of Mn and Fe. The results indicated that in Al–5Mg–Mn alloy with low Fe content (<0.1 wt %, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al–5Mg–Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %. Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  12. In Situ Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies on Rapidly Heated and Cooled Ti-Al and Al-Cu-Mg Alloys Using Laser-Based Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenel, C.; Schloth, P.; Van Petegem, S.; Fife, J. L.; Grolimund, D.; Menzel, A.; Van Swygenhoven, H.; Leinenbach, C.

    2016-03-01

    Beam-based additive manufacturing (AM) typically involves high cooling rates in a range of 103-104 K/s. Therefore, new techniques are required to understand the non-equilibrium evolution of materials at appropriate time scales. Most technical alloys have not been optimized for such rapid solidification, and microstructural, phase, and elemental solubility behavior can be very different. In this work, the combination of complementary in situ synchrotron micro-x-ray diffraction (microXRD) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) studies with laser-based heating and rapid cooling is presented as an approach to study alloy behavior under processing conditions similar to AM techniques. In rapidly solidified Ti-48Al, the full solidification and phase transformation sequences are observed using microXRD with high temporal resolution. The high cooling rates are achieved by fast heat extraction. Further, the temperature- and cooling rate-dependent precipitation of sub-nanometer clusters in an Al-Cu-Mg alloy can be studied by SAXS. The sensitivity of SAXS on the length scales of the newly formed phases allows their size and fraction to be determined. These techniques are unique tools to help provide a deeper understanding of underlying alloy behavior and its influence on resulting microstructures and properties after AM. Their availability to materials scientists is crucial for both in-depth investigations of novel alloys and also future production of high-quality parts using AM.

  13. Effect of rapid cooling and acidic pH on cellular homeostasis of Pectinatus frisingensis, a strictly anaerobic beer-spoilage bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihib, N E; Tholozan, J L

    1999-06-01

    Pectinatus frisingensis is a strictly anaerobic mesophilic bacterium involved in bottled beer spoilage. Cellular volume, adenylate energy charge, intracellular pH and intracellular potassium concentration measurements were performed in late exponential-phase cell suspensions placed in different physiological conditions, to evaluate the capability of this bacterium to maintain cellular homeostasis. The intracellular pH was calculated from the intracellular accumulation of a [carboxyl-14C]benzoic acid. Optimum physiological conditions were the presence of a carbon source and pH of 6.2, hostile conditions were a pH 4.5, absence of a carbon source, and rapid cooling treatment. The cell was able to maintain a higher intracellular pH than the external pH under all conditions. Intracellular volume was lower at pH 4.5 than at pH 6.2. A low net potassium efflux rate was routinely measured in starving cells, while glucose addition promoted immediate net potassium uptake from the medium. Cooling treatment resulted in sudden net potassium efflux from the cell, a decrease of the intracellular pH, and low modifications of the adenylate energy charge in metabolizing-glucose cell suspensions. Thus, cold treatment perturbs the P. frisingensis homeostasis but the bacteria were able to restore their homeostasis in the presence of a carbon source, and under warm conditions.

  14. Advances in liquid metal cooled ADS systems, and useful results for the design of IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.; Debruyn, D. [SCK CEN, Mol (Belgium); Decreton, M. [Ghent Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Liquid metal cooled Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have a lot of design commonalities with the design of IFMIF. The use of a powerful accelerator and a liquid metal spallation source makes it similar to the main features of the IFMIF irradiator. Developments in the field of liquid metal ADS can thus be very useful for the design phase of IFMIF, and synergy between both domains should be enhanced to avoid dubbing work already done. The liquid metal ADS facilities are developed for testing materials under high fast (> 1 MeV) neutron flux, and also for studying the transmutation of actinides as foreseen in the P and T (Partitioning and Transmutation) strategy of future fission industry. The ADS are mostly constituted of a sub-critical fission fuel assembly matrix, a spallation source (situated at the centre of the fuel arrangement) and a powerful accelerator targeting the spallation source. In liquid metal ADS, the spallation source is a liquid metal (like Pb-Bi) which is actively cooled to remove the power generated by the particle beam, spallation reactions and neutrons. Based on an advanced ADS design (e.g. the MYRRHA/XT-ADS facility), the paper shows the various topics which are common for both facilities (ADS and IFMIF) and highlights their respective specificities, leading to focused R and D activities. This would certainly cover the common aspects related to high power accelerators, liquid metal targets and beam-target coupling. But problems of safety, radioprotection, source heating and cooling, neutrons shielding, etc... lead also to common features and developments. Results already obtained for the ADS development will illustrate this synergy. This paper will therefore allow to take profit of recent developments in both fission and fusion programs and enhance the collaboration among the R and D teams in both domains. (authors)

  15. Stigma in Canada: Results From a Rapid Response Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather; Patten, Scott B; Koller, Michelle; Modgill, Geeta; Liinamaa, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our paper presents findings from the first population survey of stigma in Canada using a new measure of stigma. Empirical objectives are to provide a descriptive profile of Canadian’s expectations that people will devalue and discriminate against someone with depression, and to explore the relation between experiences of being stigmatized in the year prior to the survey among people having been treated for a mental illness with a selected number of sociodemographic and mental health–related variables. Method: Data were collected by Statistics Canada using a rapid response format on a representative sample of Canadians (n = 10 389) during May and June of 2010. Public expectations of stigma and personal experiences of stigma in the subgroup receiving treatment for a mental illness were measured. Results: Over one-half of the sample endorsed 1 or more of the devaluation discrimination items, indicating that they believed Canadians would stigmatize someone with depression. The item most frequently endorsed concerned employers not considering an application from someone who has had depression. Over one-third of people who had received treatment in the year prior to the survey reported discrimination in 1 or more life domains. Experiences of discrimination were strongly associated with perceptions that Canadians would devalue someone with depression, younger age (12 to 15 years), and self-reported poor general mental health. Conclusions: The Mental Health Experiences Module reflects an important partnership between 2 national organizations that will help Canada fulfill its monitoring obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and provide a legacy to researchers and policy-makers who are interested in monitoring changes in stigma over time. PMID:25565699

  16. Electron cooling of 8-GeV antiprotons at Fermilab's Recycler: Results and operational implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, Alexey V.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kroc, T.; Leibfritz, J.; Nagaitsev, S.; Pruss, S.; Saewert, G.; Schmidt, C.W.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    Electron cooling of 8 GeV antiprotons at Fermilab's Recycler storage ring is now routinely used in the collider operation. It requires a 0.1-0.5 A, 4.3 MeV dc electron beam and is designed to increase the longitudinal phase-space density of the circulating antiproton beam. This paper briefly describes the characteristics of the electron beam that were achieved to successfully cool antiprotons. Then, results from various cooling force measurements along with comparison to a nonmagnetized model are presented. Finally, operational aspects of the implementation of electron cooling at the Recycler are discussed, such as adjustments to the cooling rate and the influence of the electron beam on the antiproton beam lifetime.

  17. Parametric investigation on transient boiling heat transfer of metal rod cooled rapidly in water pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chi Young [Department of Fire Protection Engineering, Pukyong National University, 45, Yongso-ro, Nam-gu, Busan 48513 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunwoo, E-mail: swkim@alaska.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Alaska Fairbanks, P. O. Box 755905, Fairbanks, AK 99775-5905 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Effects of liquid subcooling, surface coating, material property, and surface oxidation are examined. • Liquid subcooling affects remarkably the quenching phenomena. • Cr-coated surfaces for ATF might extend the quenching duration. • Solids with low heat capacity shorten the quenching duration. • Surface oxidation can affect strongly the film boiling heat transfer and MFB point. - Abstract: In this work, the effects of liquid subcooling, surface coating, material property, and surface oxidation on transient pool boiling heat transfer were investigated experimentally using the vertical metal rod and quenching method. The change in rod temperature was measured with time during quenching, and the visualization of boiling around the test specimen was performed using the high-speed video camera. As the test materials, the zircaloy (Zry), stainless steel (SS), niobium (Nb), and copper (Cu) were tested. In addition, the chromium-coated niobium (Cr-Nb) and chromium-coated stainless steel (Cr-SS) were prepared for accident tolerant fuel (ATF) application. Low liquid subcooling and Cr-coating shifted the quenching curve to the right, which indicates a prolongation of quenching duration. On the other hand, the material with small heat capacity and surface oxidation caused the quenching curve to move to the left. To examine the influence of the material property and surface oxidation on the film boiling heat transfer performance and minimum film boiling (MFB) point in more detail, the wall temperature and heat flux were calculated from the present transient temperature profile using the inverse heat transfer analysis, and then the curves of wall temperature and heat flux in the film boiling regime were obtained. In the present experimental conditions, the effect of material property on the film boiling heat transfer performance and MFB point seemed to be minor. On the other hand, based on the experimental results of the Cu test specimen, the surface

  18. Rapid alkali catalyzed transesterification of microalgae lipids to biodiesel using simultaneous cooling and microwave heating and its optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Loong, Teo; Idris, Ani

    2014-12-01

    Biodiesel with improved yield was produced from microalgae biomass under simultaneous cooling and microwave heating (SCMH). Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. which were known to contain higher lipid species were used. The yield obtained using this novel technique was compared with the conventional heating (CH) and microwave heating (MWH) as the control method. The results revealed that the yields obtained using the novel SCMH were higher; Nannochloropsis sp. (83.33%) and Tetraselmis sp. (77.14%) than the control methods. Maximum yields were obtained using SCMH when the microwave was set at 50°C, 800W, 16h of reaction with simultaneous cooling at 15°C; and water content and lipid to methanol ratio in reaction mixture was kept to 0 and 1:12 respectively. GC analysis depicted that the biodiesel produced from this technique has lower carbon components (<19 C) and has both reasonable CN and IV reflecting good ignition and lubricating properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Single family heating and cooling requirements: Assumptions, methods, and summary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritschard, R.L.; Hanford, J.W.; Sezgen, A.O. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The research has created a data base of hourly building loads using a state-of-the-art building simulation code (DOE-2.ID) for 8 prototypes, representing pre-1940s to 1990s building practices, in 16 US climates. The report describes the assumed modeling inputs and building operations, defines the building prototypes and selection of base cities, compares the simulation results to both surveyed and measured data sources, and discusses the results. The full data base with hourly space conditioning, water heating, and non-HVAC electricity consumption is available from GRI. In addition, the estimated loads on a per square foot basis are included as well as the peak heating and cooling loads.

  20. Rapid quantification of viable Legionella in nuclear cooling tower waters using filter cultivation, fluorescent in situ hybridization and solid-phase cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudart, J; Guillaume, C; Mercier, A; Lebaron, P; Binet, M

    2015-05-01

    To develop a rapid and sensitive method to quantify viable Legionella spp. in cooling tower water samples. A rapid, culture-based method capable of quantifying as few as 600 Legionella microcolonies per litre within 2 days in industrial waters was developed. The method combines a short cultivation step of microcolonies on GVPC agar plate, specific detection of Legionella cells by a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approach, and a sensitive enumeration using a solid-phase cytometer. Following optimization of the cultivation conditions, the qualitative and quantitative performance of the method was assessed and the method was applied to 262 nuclear power plant cooling water samples. The performance of this method was in accordance with the culture method (NF-T 90-431) for Legionella enumeration. The rapid detection of viable Legionella in water is a major concern to the effective monitoring of this pathogenic bacterium in the main water sources involved in the transmission of legionellosis infection (Legionnaires' disease). The new method proposed here appears to be a robust, efficient and innovative means for rapidly quantifying cultivable Legionella in cooling tower water samples within 48 h. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Comparison of simulated and experimental results of temperature distribution in a closed two-phase thermosyphon cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaanika, E.; Yamaguchi, K.; Miki, M.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.; Murase, Y.; Oryu, T.; Yanamoto, T.

    2017-12-01

    Superconducting generators offer numerous advantages over conventional generators of the same rating. They are lighter, smaller and more efficient. Amongst a host of methods for cooling HTS machinery, thermosyphon-based cooling systems have been employed due to their high heat transfer rate and near-isothermal operating characteristics associated with them. To use them optimally, it is essential to study thermal characteristics of these cryogenic thermosyphons. To this end, a stand-alone neon thermosyphon cooling system with a topology resembling an HTS rotating machine was studied. Heat load tests were conducted on the neon thermosyphon cooling system by applying a series of heat loads to the evaporator at different filling ratios. The temperature at selected points of evaporator, adiabatic tube and condenser as well as total heat leak were measured. A further study involving a computer thermal model was conducted to gain further insight into the estimated temperature distribution of thermosyphon components and heat leak of the cooling system. The model employed boundary conditions from data of heat load tests. This work presents a comparison between estimated (by model) and experimental (measured) temperature distribution in a two-phase cryogenic thermosyphon cooling system. The simulation results of temperature distribution and heat leak compared generally well with experimental data.

  2. Cracked reinforced concrete walls of chimneys, silos and cooling towers as result of using formworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Marek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are presented in this paper some problems connected with reinforced concrete shell objects operation in the aggressive environment and built in method of formworks. Reinforced concrete chimneys, cooling towers, silos and other shells were built for decades. Durability of cracked shells are one of the most important parameters during process of designing, construction and exploitation of shells. Some reasons of appearance of horizontal and vertical cracks as temperature, pressure of stored material, live loads e.g. dynamic character of wind, moisture, influence of construction joints, thermal insulation, chemistry active environmental etc. reduce the carrying capacity of the walls. Formworks, as is occurred recently, are the reason for technological joints with leaking connection, imperfections of flexible formworks slabs and as result can initiate cracks. Cracked surface of this constructions causes decreasing capacity and lower the state of reliability. Horizontal, vertical cracks can caused corrosion of concrete and steel bars, decreasing stiffness of contraction, increasing of deflection and carbonation of concrete cover. Local and global imperfactions of concrete shells are increasing according to greater number of cracks...

  3. Verification test results of a cutting technique for the ITER blanket cooling pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, Soichiro, E-mail: shigematsu.soichiro@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Tanigawa, Hisashi; Aburadani, Atsushi; Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Mori, Seiji; Nakahira, Masataka; Raffray, Rene; Merola, Mario [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2012-08-15

    For replacement of the first wall (FW) of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), cutting and welding tools for the cooling pipes must be able to access a pipe from the surface side of the FW and cut/weld the pipe from the inside the cooling pipe (inner diameter: 42.72 mm, thickness: 2.77 mm). The cutting tool for the pipe end is required to cut a flat plate circularly from the surface side of the FW (cutting diameter: approximately 44 mm, plate thickness: 5 mm). To determine the specifications for both the tools and the blanket hydraulic connections, the ITER Organization (IO) and the Japan Domestic Agency (JADA) conducted research and development activities regarding the FW replacement. This paper describes the current status of the development of cutting tools for the cooling pipe connection.

  4. Clast Selection and Metallographic Cooling Rates: Initial Results on Type 1A and 2A Mesosiderites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, B.; Cohen, B. A.; Rubin, A. E.; Frasl, B.; Corrigan, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We initiated a comprehensive study on selected clasts and metal of mesosiderites using SEM, electron microprobe and the complete suite of noble gases. Here we report initial results on the petrography of selected clasts and metallographic cooling rates using the central Ni method used in sev-eral publications. We focus on the approach of selecting grains in least recrystallized mesosiderites. Hence, especially (lithic) clasts in type 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B are the first choice. They provide highest primitive-ness and least annealing/metamorphism. All grains selected should be in close proximity to each other. Lithic clasts in mesosiderites are of high interest be-cause of their igneous texture and similarity to eucrites and howardite petrography. We find pyrox-enes (px) and plagioclase (plag) attached to each other which implies a common formation history. It will be interesting to see differences and similarities in their noble gas inventory (CRE ages, trapped components and closure temperature). In addition, we will investi-gate variations of the lithic clasts toward similar grains in the thick sections which are not igneous. Plag grains are the best bases for noble gas measurements con-cerning He to Ar and Ar-Ar dating since it delivers im-portant target elements. We focus on plag grains in close contact to olivine (olv) / px grains to assess weth-er both grains show noble gas patterns being similar or different. Phosphate grains are suitable for Kr and Xe measurements since they yield REE abundances (tar-get elements).

  5. Results of scalp cooling during anthracycline containing chemotherapy depend on scalp skin temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.M.; Smorenburg, C.H.; Nortier, J.W.; Ploeg, T. van der; Hurk, C.J. van den; Hoeven, J.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The success of scalp cooling in preventing or reducing chemotherapy induced alopecia (CIA) is highly variable between patients undergoing similar chemotherapy regimens. A decrease of the scalp skin temperature seems to be an important factor, but data on the optimum temperature reached

  6. Results of the ICTuS 2 Trial (Intravascular Cooling in the Treatment of Stroke 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyden, Patrick; Hemmen, Thomas; Grotta, James; Rapp, Karen; Ernstrom, Karin; Rzesiewicz, Teresa; Parker, Stephanie; Concha, Mauricio; Hussain, Syed; Agarwal, Sachin; Meyer, Brett; Jurf, Julie; Altafullah, Irfan; Raman, Rema

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is a potent neuroprotectant approved for cerebral protection after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and cardiac arrest. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute ischemic stroke is safe and feasible in pilot trials. We designed a study protocol to provide safer, faster therapeutic hypothermia in stroke patients. Safety procedures and 4°C saline infusions for faster cooling were added to the ICTuS trial (Intravascular Cooling in the Treatment of Stroke) protocol. A femoral venous intravascular cooling catheter after intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in eligible patients provided 24 hours cooling followed by a 12-hour rewarm. Serial safety assessments and imaging were performed. The primary end point was 3-month modified Rankin score 0,1. Of the intended 1600 subjects, 120 were enrolled before the study was stopped. Randomly, 63 were to receive hypothermia plus antishivering treatment and 57 normothermia. Compared with previous studies, cooling rates were improved with a cold saline bolus, without fluid overload. The intention-to-treat primary outcome of 90-day modified Rankin Score 0,1 occurred in 33% hypothermia and 38% normothermia subjects, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.81 (0.36-1.85). Serious adverse events occurred equally. Mortality was 15.9% hypothermia and 8.8% normothermia subjects, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.95 (0.56-7.79). Pneumonia occurred in 19% hypothermia versus 10.5% in normothermia subjects, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.99 (0.63-6.98). Intravascular therapeutic hypothermia was confirmed to be safe and feasible in recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator-treated acute ischemic stroke patients. Protocol changes designed to reduce pneumonia risk appeared to fail, although the sample is small. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01123161. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Cooling Properties of the Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Spacesuit: Results of an Environmental Chamber Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Gillis, David; Bue, Grant; Son, Chan; Norcross, Jason; Kuznetz, Larry; Chapman, Kirt; Chhipwadia, Ketan; McBride, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The shuttle crew wears the Advanced Crew Escape Spacesuit (ACES) to protect themselves from cabin decompression and to support bail out during landing. ACES is cooled by a liquid-cooled garment (LCG) that interfaces to a heat exchanger that dumps heat into the cabin. The ACES outer layer is made of Gore-Tex(Registered TradeMark), permitting water vapor to escape while containing oxygen. The crew can only lose heat via insensible water losses and the LCG. Under nominal landing operations, the average cabin temperature rarely exceeds 75 F, which is adequate for the ACES to function. Problem A rescue shuttle will need to return 11 crew members if the previous mission suffers a thermal protection system failure, preventing it from returning safely to Earth. Initial analysis revealed that 11 crew members in the shuttle will increase cabin temperature at wheel stop above 80 F, which decreases the ACES ability to keep crew members cool. Air flow in the middeck of the shuttle is inhomogeneous and some ACES may experience much higher temperatures that could cause excessive thermal stress to crew members. Methods A ground study was conducted to measure the cooling efficiency of the ACES at 75 F, 85 F, and 95 F at 50% relative humidity. Test subjects representing 5, 50, and 95 percentile body habitus of the astronaut corps performed hand ergometry keeping their metabolic rate at 400, 600, and 800 BTU/hr for one hour. Core temperature was measured by rectal probe and skin, while inside and outside the suit. Environmental chamber wall and cooling unit inlet and outlet temperatures were measured using high-resolution thermistors ( 0.2 C). Conclusions Under these test conditions, the ACES was able to protect the core temperature of all test subjects, however thermal stress due to high insensible losses and skin temperature and skin heat flow may impact crew performance. Further research should be performed to understand the impact on cognitive performance.

  8. Rapid atmospheric CO2 changes associated with the 8,200-years-B.P. cooling event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Aaby, B.; Visscher, H.

    2002-01-01

    By applying the inverse relation between numbers of leaf stomata and atmospheric CO2 concentration, stomatal frequency analysis of fossil birch leaves from lake deposits in Denmark reveals a century-scale CO2 change during the prominent Holocene cooling event that occurred in the North Atlantic

  9. Rapid Cooling Of The Neutron Star In The Quiescent Super-Eddington Transient XTE J1701-462

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, J.; Wijnands, R.; Mendez, M.; Cackett, E. M.; Altamirano, D.; Belloni, T. M.; Brown, E. F.; Degenaar, N.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade the observing of cooling neutron star transients after long-duration (year or longer) outbursts has entered as a new approach to constraining the properties of matter inside neutron stars. We present Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the super-Eddington neutron star transient

  10. Rapid Cooling of the Neutron Star in the Quiescent Super-Eddington Transient XTE J1701--462

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, Jeroen; Wijnands, Rudy; Méndez, Mariano; Cackett, Edward M.; Altamirano, Diego; Belloni, Tomaso M.; Brown, Edward F.; Degenaar, Nathalie; Lewin, Walter H. G.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade the observing of cooling neutron star transients after long-duration (year or longer) outbursts has entered as a new approach to constraining the properties of matter inside neutron stars. We present Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the super-Eddington neutron star transient

  11. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al-5Mg-Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Gaoren; Sun, Yimeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2016-01-29

    Mn was an important alloying element used in Al-Mg-Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (alloy with low Fe content (alloys (0.5 wt % Fe), intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %). Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  12. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Gaoren; Sun, Yimeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2016-01-01

    Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (alloy with low Fe content (alloys (0.5 wt % Fe), intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %). Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content. PMID:28787888

  13. Fracture behaviour of bread crust: Effect of bread cooling conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Beukelaer, H. de; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van

    2008-01-01

    The effect of air and vacuum cooling on the fracture behaviour and accompanying sound emission, moisture content and crispness of bread crust were investigated. Vacuum cooling resulted in rapid evaporative cooling of products that contained high moisture content. Fracture experiments showed a clear

  14. Recent results of research on supercritical water-cooled reactors in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starflinger, J.; Koehly, C.; Schulenberg, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Maraczy, C. [AEKI-KFKI, Budapest (Hungary); Toivonen, A.; Penttila, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre, Espoo (Finland); Chandra, L.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, J.A. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    In Europe, the research on Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors is integrated in a project called 'High Performance Light Water Reactor Phase 2' (HPLWR Phase 2), co-funded by the European Commission. Ten partners and three active supporters are working on critical scientific issues to determine the potential of this reactor concept in the electricity market. The recent design of the HPLWR including flow paths is described in this paper. Exemplarily, design analyses are presented addressing neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, thermo-mechanics, materials investigations and heat transfer. (author)

  15. Results of the Intravascular Cooling in the Treatment of Acute Stroke 2 Trial (ICTuS-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyden, Patrick; Hemmen, Thomas; Grotta, James; Rapp, Karen; Ernstrom, Karin; Rzesiewicz, Teresa; Parker, Stephanie; Concha, Mauricio; Syed, Hussain; Agarwal, Sachin; Meyer, Brett; Jurf, Julie; Altafullah, Irfan; Raman, Rema

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a potent neuroprotectant approved for cerebral protection after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and cardiac arrest. TH for acute ischemic stroke is safe and feasible in pilot trials. We designed a study protocol to provide safer, faster TH in stroke patients. Methods Safety procedures and 4°C saline infusions for faster cooling were added to the Intravascular Cooling Treatment in Acute Stroke (ICTuS) trial protocol. A femoral venous intravascular cooling catheter following intravenous rt-PA in eligible patients provided 24 hours cooling followed by a 12 hour re-warm. Serial safety assessments and imaging were performed. The primary endpoint was 3-month modified Rankin score 0,1. Results Of the intended 1600 subjects, 120 were enrolled before the study was stopped. Randomly, 63 were to receive hypothermia (HY) plus anti-shivering treatment and 57 normothermia (NT). Compared to prior studies, cooling rates were improved with a cold saline bolus, without fluid overload. The intention-to-treat primary outcome of 90-day mRS 0,1 occurred in 33% HY and 38% NT subjects, OR (95% CL) of 0.81 (0.36, 1.85). Serious adverse events occurred equally. Mortality was 15.9% HY and 8.8% NT subjects, OR (95% CL) of 1.95 (0.56, 7.79). Pneumonia occurred in 19% HY vs. 10.5% in NT subjects, OR (95% CL) of 1.99 (0.63, 6.98). Conclusion Intravascular TH was confirmed to be safe and feasible in rt-PA treated acute ischemic stroke patients. Protocol changes designed to reduce pneumonia risk appeared to fail, although the sample is small. Clinical trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT 01123161. PMID:27834742

  16. Investigating cryoinjury using simulations and experiments. 1: TF-1 cells during two-step freezing (rapid cooling interrupted with a hold time).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Rodriguez, L U; Elliott, J A W; McGann, L E

    2010-08-01

    There is significant interest in designing a cryopreservation protocol for hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) which does not rely on dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) as a cryoprotectant. Computer simulations that describe cellular osmotic responses during cooling and warming can be used to optimize the viability of cryopreserved HSC; however, a better understanding of cellular osmotic parameters is required for these simulations. As a model for HSC, the erythroleukemic human cell line TF-1 was used in this study. Simulations, based on the osmotic properties of TF-1 cells and on the solution properties of the intra- and extracellular compartments, were used to interpret cryoinjury associated with a two-step cryopreservation protocol. Calculated intracellular supercooling was used as an indicator of cryoinjury related to intracellular ice formation. Simulations were applied to the two-step cooling protocol (rapid cooling interrupted with a hold time) for TF-1 cells in the absence of Me(2)SO or other cryoprotectants and optimized by minimizing the indicator of cryoinjury. A comparison of simulations and experimental measurements of membrane integrity supports the concept that, for two-step cooling, increasing intracellular supercooling is the primary contributor to potential freezing injury due to the increase in the likelihood of intracellular ice formation. By calculating intracellular supercooling for each step separately and comparing these calculations with cell recovery data, it was demonstrated that it is not optimal simply to limit overall supercooling during two-step freezing procedures. More aptly, appropriate limitations of supercooling differ from the first step to the second step. This study also demonstrates why high cell recovery after cryopreservation could be achieved in the absence of traditional cryoprotectants. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Field trial of three different Plasmodium vivax-detecting rapid diagnostic tests with and without evaporative cool box storage in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nader

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate parasitological diagnosis of malaria is essential for targeting treatment where more than one species coexist. In this study, three rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs (AccessBio CareStart (CSPfPan, CareStart PfPv (CSPfPv and Standard Diagnostics Bioline (SDBPfPv were evaluated for their ability to detect natural Plasmodium vivax infections in a basic clinic setting. The potential for locally made evaporative cooling boxes (ECB to protect the tests from heat damage in high summer temperatures was also investigated. Methods Venous blood was drawn from P. vivax positive patients in Jalalabad, Afghanistan and tested against a panel of six RDTs. The panel comprised two of each test type; one group was stored at room temperature and the other in an ECB. RDT results were evaluated against a consensus gold standard based on two double-read reference slides and PCR. The sensitivity, specificity and a measure of global performance for each test were determined and stratified by parasitaemia level and storage condition. Results In total, 306 patients were recruited, of which 284 were positive for P. vivax, one for Plasmodium malariae and none for Plasmodium falciparum; 21 were negative. All three RDTs were specific for malaria. The sensitivity and global performance index for each test were as follows: CSPfPan [98.6%, 95.1%], CSPfPv [91.9%, 90.5%] and SDBPfPv [96.5%, 82.9%], respectively. CSPfPv was 16% less sensitive to a parasitaemia below 5,000/μL. Room temperature storage of SDBPfPv led to a high proportion of invalid results (17%, which reduced to 10% in the ECB. Throughout the testing period, the ECB maintained ~8°C reduction over ambient temperatures and never exceeded 30°C. Conclusions Of the three RDTs, the CSPfPan test was the most consistent and reliable, rendering it appropriate for this P. vivax predominant region. The CSPfPv test proved unsuitable owing to its reduced sensitivity at a parasitaemia below 5,000/

  18. Blast-cooling of beef-in-sauce catering meals: numerical results based on a dynamic zero-order model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Rabi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Beef-in-sauce catering meals under blast-cooling have been investigated in a research project which aims at quantitative HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point. In view of its prospective coupling to a predictive microbiology model proposed in the project, zero-order spatial dependence has proved to suitably predict meal temperatures in response to temperature variations in the cooling air. This approach has modelled heat transfer rates via the a priori unknown convective coefficient hc which is allowed to vary due to uncertainty and variability in the actual modus operandi of the chosen case study hospital kitchen. Implemented in MS Excel®, the numerical procedure has successfully combined the 4th order Runge-Kutta method, to solve the governing equation, with non-linear optimization, via the built-in Solver, to determine the coefficient hc. In this work, the coefficient hc was assessed for 119 distinct recently-cooked meal samples whose temperature-time profiles were recorded in situ after 17 technical visits to the hospital kitchen over a year. The average value and standard deviation results were hc = 12.0 ± 4.1 W m-2 K-1, whilst the lowest values (associated with the worst cooling scenarios were about hc » 6.0 W m-2 K-1.

  19. Indeterminate rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Matemo, D; Kinuthia, J.; John, F.; Chung, M.; Farquhar, C; John-Stewart, G.; Kiarie, J.

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of rapid HIV-1 tests may be altered during pregnancy and postpartum. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and correlates of false-positive Abbott Determine™ and false-negative Uni-Gold™ rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers attending a primary care clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Mothers were tested for HIV-1 using Abbott Determine™ and non-reactive results were considered HIV-1 antibody negative. Reactive samples by Determine wer...

  20. Tennis in hot and cool conditions decreases the rapid muscle torque production capacity of the knee extensors but not of the plantar flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien; Périard, Julien D

    2014-04-01

    To assess the time course of changes in rapid muscle force/torque production capacity and neuromuscular activity of lower limb muscles in response to prolonged (∼2 h) match-play tennis under heat stress. The rates of torque development (RTD) and electromyographic activity (EMG; ie, root mean square) rise were recorded from 0 to 30, -50, -100 and -200 ms during brief (3-5 s) explosive maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF), along with the peak RTD within the entirety of the torque-time curve. These values were recorded in 12 male tennis players before (prematch) and after (postmatch, 24 and 48 h) match-play in HOT (∼37°C) and COOL (∼22°C) conditions. The postmatch core temperature was greater in the HOT (∼39.4°C) vs COOL (∼38.7°C) condition (ptorque. Furthermore, the rate of KE EMG activity rise remained unchanged. Conversely, the PF contractile RTD and rate of EMG activity rise were unaffected by the exercise or environmental conditions. In the KE, a reduction in maximal torque production capacity following prolonged match-play tennis appears to account for the decrease in the rate of torque development, independent of environmental conditions, while remaining unchanged in the PF.

  1. Rapid cooling and exhumation as a consequence of extension and crustal thinning: Inferences from the Late Miocene to Pliocene Palu Metamorphic Complex, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Juliane; Hall, Robert; Forster, Margaret A.; Kohn, Barry P.; Lister, Gordon S.

    2017-08-01

    Metamorphic complexes forming high mountains of 1.5-2 km in Western Sulawesi were previously considered to be Mesozoic or older basement of Gondwana crust. However, many of the metamorphic rocks are much younger than previously thought. Some have Eocene sedimentary protoliths. New geothermobarometric and geochronological data from metamorphic rocks of the Palu Metamorphic Complex (PMC) and associated granitoids provide information on the timing and mechanisms of Neogene metamorphism and contemporaneous rapid exhumation. The metamorphic rocks are strongly deformed and some were partially melted to form migmatites. Schists contain relict andalusite, cordierite, staurolite and Mn-rich garnet which are wrapped by a pervasive fabric. 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite, white mica and amphibole from strongly deformed, mylonitic schists and recrystallised amphibolites reveals cooling occurred in the Early Pliocene (c. 5.3-4.8 Ma) in the northern part and during the Late Pliocene (c. 3.1-2.7 Ma) in the southern part of the PMC. U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He analyses of various minerals from PMC metamorphic and S-type magmatic rocks give very similar mid to Late Pliocene ages, indicating very fast cooling and rapid exhumation, and show the high speed at which tectonic processes, including magmatism, exhumation, and reworking into a sediment, must have occurred. The high rates could be unique to this area but we suggest they record the true speed of metamorphic complex exhumation in a very young orogenic belt. Rates in older orogens appear lower because they are averages measured over longer periods of time. Contemporaneous magmatism and deformation are interpreted as a consequence of decompressional melting due to extension and thinning of the crust, promoted by possible detachment faults and normal faulting at the major NW-trending Palu-Koro and Tambarana Faults. In contrast, I-type magmatic rocks, separated from the PMC by the Palu-Koro Fault, were exhumed from upper crustal

  2. Indeterminate and discrepant rapid HIV test results in couples' HIV testing and counselling centres in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Many HIV voluntary testing and counselling centres in Africa use rapid antibody tests, in parallel or in sequence, to establish same-day HIV status. The interpretation of indeterminate or discrepant results between different rapid tests on one sample poses a challenge. We investigated the use of an algorithm using three serial rapid HIV tests in cohabiting couples to resolve unclear serostatuses. Methods Heterosexual couples visited the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group testing centres in Kigali, Rwanda, and Lusaka, Zambia, to assess HIV infection status. Individuals with unclear HIV rapid antibody test results (indeterminate) or discrepant results were asked to return for repeat testing to resolve HIV status. If either partner of a couple tested positive or indeterminate with the screening test, both partners were tested with a confirmatory test. Individuals with indeterminate or discrepant results were further tested with a tie-breaker and monthly retesting. HIV-RNA viral load was determined when HIV status was not resolved by follow-up rapid testing. Individuals were classified based on two of three initial tests as "Positive", "Negative" or "Other". Follow-up testing and/or HIV-RNA viral load testing determined them as "Infected", "Uninfected" or "Unresolved". Results Of 45,820 individuals tested as couples, 2.3% (4.1% of couples) had at least one discrepant or indeterminate rapid result. A total of 65% of those individuals had follow-up testing and of those individuals initially classified as "Negative" by three initial rapid tests, less than 1% were resolved as "Infected". In contrast, of those individuals with at least one discrepant or indeterminate result who were initially classified as "Positive", only 46% were resolved as "Infected", while the remainder was resolved as "Uninfected" (46%) or "Unresolved" (8%). A positive HIV serostatus of one of the partners was a strong predictor of infection in the other partner as 48% of individuals who

  3. Synthesis of renewable diesel through hydrodeoxygenation reaction from nyamplung oil (Calophyllum Inophyllum oil) using NiMo/Z and NiMo/C catalysts with rapid heating and cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, B. H.; Prakasa, M. B.; Shahab, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    The synthesis of metal nanocrystal was conducted by modification preparation from simple heating method which heating and cooling process run rapidly. The result of NiMo/Z 575 °C characterizations are 33.73 m2/gram surface area and 31.80 nm crystal size. By used NiMo/C 700 °C catalyst for 30 minutes which had surface area of 263.21 m2/gram, had 31.77 nm crystal size, and good morphology, obtained catalyst with high activity, selectivity, and stability. After catalyst activated, synthesis of renewable diesel performed in hydrogenation reactor at 375 °C, 12 bar, and 800 rpm. The result of conversion was 81.99%, yield was 68.08%, and selectivity was 84.54%.

  4. Not cool with cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Barry

    2010-09-01

    I confess that I may have missed the point of Roland Ennos's article "Urban cool" (August pp22-25), which describes methods of cooling cities by mitigating and reversing the effect of solar heating and includes an illustration of "evapotranspiration" in, of all places, Greater Manchester.

  5. Power-cooling mismatch test series. Test PCM-2A; test results report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cawood, G.W.; Holman, G.W.; Martinson, Z.R.; Legrand, B.L.

    1976-09-01

    The report describes the results of an in-pile experimental investigation of pre- and postcritical heat flux (CHF) behavior of a single 36-inch-long, pressurized water reactor (PWR) type, UO/sub 2/-fueled, zircaloy-clad fuel rod. The nominal coolant conditions for pressure and temperature were representative of those found in a commercial PWR. Nine separate departures from nucleate boiling (DNB) cycles were performed by either of two different methods: (a) decreasing the coolant flow rate while the fuel rod power was held constant, or (b) increasing the fuel rod power while the coolant flow rate was held constant. DNB was obtained during eight of the nine cycles performed. For the final flow reduction, the mass flux was decreased to 6.1 x 10/sup 5/ lb/hr-ft/sup 2/ at a constant peak linear heat generation rate of 17.8 kW/ft. The fuel rod was allowed to remain in film boiling for about 210 seconds during this final flow reduction. The fuel rod remained intact during the test. Results of on-line measurements of the fuel rod behavior are presented together with discussion of instrument performance. A comparison of the data with Fuel Rod Analysis Program-Transient 2 (FRAP-T2) computer code calculations is included.

  6. Investigation of false positive results with an oral fluid rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafa, Krishna; Patel, Pragna; Mackellar, Duncan A; Sullivan, Patrick S; Delaney, Kevin P; Sides, Tracy L; Newman, Alexandra P; Paul, Sindy M; Cadoff, Evan M; Martin, Eugene G; Keenan, Patrick A; Branson, Bernard M

    2007-01-31

    In March 2004, the OraQuick rapid HIV antibody test became the first rapid HIV test approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use on oral fluid specimens. Test results are available in 20 minutes, and the oral fluid test is non-invasive. From August 2004-June 2005, we investigated a sudden increase in false-positive results occurring in a performance study of OraQuick oral-fluid rapid HIV tests in Minnesota. In a field investigation, we reviewed performance study data on oral-fluid and whole-blood OraQuick rapid HIV test device lots and expiration dates and assessed test performance and interpretation with oral-fluid and whole-blood specimens by operators who reported false-positive results. We used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate client demographic and risk characteristics associated with false-positive results. Next, we conducted an incidence study of false-positive OraQuick rapid HIV tests in nine US cities and tested both oral-fluid and finger-stick whole-blood specimens from clients; reactive tests were confirmed with Western blot. Sixteen (4.1%) false-positive oral-fluid results occurred in the performance study from April 15, 2004 through August 31, 2004 with unexpired devices from six test lots among 388 HIV-uninfected clients (specificity, 95.9%; 95% CI: 93.4-97.6). Three test operators who had reported false-positive results performed and interpreted the test according to package-insert instructions. In multivariate analysis, only older age was significantly associated with false-positive results (adjusted odds ratio = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.2-25.7). In the incidence study, all valid oral-fluid and whole-blood results from 2,268 clients were concordant and no false-positive results occurred (100% specificity). The field investigation did not identify a cause for the increase in false-positive oral-fluid results, and the incidence study detected no false-positive results. The findings suggest this was an isolated cluster; the test's overall

  7. Investigation of false positive results with an oral fluid rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Jafa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In March 2004, the OraQuick rapid HIV antibody test became the first rapid HIV test approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use on oral fluid specimens. Test results are available in 20 minutes, and the oral fluid test is non-invasive. From August 2004-June 2005, we investigated a sudden increase in false-positive results occurring in a performance study of OraQuick oral-fluid rapid HIV tests in Minnesota. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a field investigation, we reviewed performance study data on oral-fluid and whole-blood OraQuick rapid HIV test device lots and expiration dates and assessed test performance and interpretation with oral-fluid and whole-blood specimens by operators who reported false-positive results. We used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate client demographic and risk characteristics associated with false-positive results. Next, we conducted an incidence study of false-positive OraQuick rapid HIV tests in nine US cities and tested both oral-fluid and finger-stick whole-blood specimens from clients; reactive tests were confirmed with Western blot. Sixteen (4.1% false-positive oral-fluid results occurred in the performance study from April 15, 2004 through August 31, 2004 with unexpired devices from six test lots among 388 HIV-uninfected clients (specificity, 95.9%; 95% CI: 93.4-97.6. Three test operators who had reported false-positive results performed and interpreted the test according to package-insert instructions. In multivariate analysis, only older age was significantly associated with false-positive results (adjusted odds ratio = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.2-25.7. In the incidence study, all valid oral-fluid and whole-blood results from 2,268 clients were concordant and no false-positive results occurred (100% specificity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The field investigation did not identify a cause for the increase in false-positive oral-fluid results, and the incidence study detected no false

  8. Indeterminate rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matemo, D; Kinuthia, J; John, F; Chung, M; Farquhar, C; John-Stewart, G; Kiarie, J

    2009-11-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of rapid HIV-1 tests may be altered during pregnancy and postpartum. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and correlates of false-positive Abbott Determine and false-negative Uni-Gold rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers attending a primary care clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Mothers were tested for HIV-1 using Abbott Determine and non-reactive results were considered HIV-1 antibody negative. Reactive samples by Determine were re-tested by Uni-Gold. Vironostika HIV-1 and Uni-FORM II Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to confirm samples that had positive Abbott Determine and negative Uni-Gold. Among 2311 women who accepted HIV-1 testing, 1238 (54%) were tested antenatally and 1073 (46%) were tested postnatally. Of tested women, 274 (12%) women were reactive by Abbott Determine and on retesting with Uni-Gold 30 (11%) had indeterminate results. The prevalence of indeterminate results was significantly higher in antenatal women than in postnatal women (2% versus 1%, P = 0.03). In conclusion, indeterminate rapid HIV-1 test results are more common in the antenatal period and appropriate safeguards to confirm HIV-1 infection status should be implemented in antenatal programmes.

  9. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baveewo Steven

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Results Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold. However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2% were HIV negative. Conclusion Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.

  10. Blast-cooling of beef-in-sauce catering meals: numerical results based on a dynamic zero-order model

    OpenAIRE

    Jose A. Rabi; Evelyne Derens-Bertheau; Elisabeth Morelli; Isabelle Trezzani-Harbelot

    2014-01-01

    Beef-in-sauce catering meals under blast-cooling have been investigated in a research project which aims at quantitative HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point). In view of its prospective coupling to a predictive microbiology model proposed in the project, zero-order spatial dependence has proved to suitably predict meal temperatures in response to temperature variations in the cooling air. This approach has modelled heat transfer rates via the a priori unknown convective coefficient ...

  11. Blast-cooling of beef-in-sauce catering meals: numerical results based on a dynamic zeroorder model

    OpenAIRE

    Derens Bertheau, Evelyne; Morelli, Elisabeth; Trezzani-Harbelot, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Beef-in-sauce catering meals under blast-cooling have been investigated in a research project which aims at quantitative HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point). In view of its prospective coupling to a predictive microbiology model proposed in the project, zero-order spatial dependence has proved to suitably predict meal temperatures in response to temperature variations in the cooling air. This approach has modelled heat transfer rates via the a priori unknown...

  12. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baveewo, Steven; Kamya, Moses R; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Fatch, Robin; Bangsberg, David R; Coates, Thomas; Hahn, Judith A; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2012-03-19

    Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold). However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2%) were HIV negative. Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.

  13. Determinants of rapid weight gain during infancy: baseline results from the NOURISH randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihrshahi Seema

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid weight gain in infancy is an important predictor of obesity in later childhood. Our aim was to determine which modifiable variables are associated with rapid weight gain in early life. Methods Subjects were healthy infants enrolled in NOURISH, a randomised, controlled trial evaluating an intervention to promote positive early feeding practices. This analysis used the birth and baseline data for NOURISH. Birthweight was collected from hospital records and infants were also weighed at baseline assessment when they were aged 4-7 months and before randomisation. Infant feeding practices and demographic variables were collected from the mother using a self administered questionnaire. Rapid weight gain was defined as an increase in weight-for-age Z-score (using WHO standards above 0.67 SD from birth to baseline assessment, which is interpreted clinically as crossing centile lines on a growth chart. Variables associated with rapid weight gain were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results Complete data were available for 612 infants (88% of the total sample recruited with a mean (SD age of 4.3 (1.0 months at baseline assessment. After adjusting for mother's age, smoking in pregnancy, BMI, and education and infant birthweight, age, gender and introduction of solid foods, the only two modifiable factors associated with rapid weight gain to attain statistical significance were formula feeding [OR = 1.72 (95%CI 1.01-2.94, P = 0.047] and feeding on schedule [OR = 2.29 (95%CI 1.14-4.61, P = 0.020]. Male gender and lower birthweight were non-modifiable factors associated with rapid weight gain. Conclusions This analysis supports the contention that there is an association between formula feeding, feeding to schedule and weight gain in the first months of life. Mechanisms may include the actual content of formula milk (e.g. higher protein intake or differences in feeding styles, such as feeding to schedule

  14. Drowning of a barrier coastline under rapid rates of relative sea-level rise during the 8.2 ka cooling event: Cause or coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellett, C.; Hodgson, D. M.; Lang, A.; Mauz, B.; Plater, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Examples where barrier landforms and deposits are preserved offshore of a highstand shoreline are rare on contemporary continental shelves, and in the rock record. Therefore, understanding of the conditions required for preservation and the sedimentary processes-response to such factors is limited and heavily dependent on simulation models. Here, an integrated dataset of multibeam bathymetry and 2D seismic reflection profiles has uncovered an exceptionally well preserved drowned barrier complex at Hastings Bank, on the English Channel continental shelf, offshore of southeast England. Mapping of nine seismic stratigraphic units calibrated with lithological information from multiple vibrocores has enabled the interpretation of fluvial, shoreface, barrier, washover fan, back-barrier and tidal environments of deposition. Stratigraphic architecture is used as the basis for landscape evolution reconstructions that reveal phases of barrier progradation, degradation and retreat. Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of shoreface and beach deposits revealed ages in the range of 8.4 ± 0.2 ka and 7.8 ± 0.2 ka. These ages indicate the barrier developed under rapid rates of early Holocene sea-level rise and more specifically, correlate to the time period surrounding the 8.2 ka cooling event and associated sea-level 'jump'. To preserve a barrier beach including the barrier foreshore under such rapid rates of relative sea-level rise, sediment supply would have to be sufficient to keep pace to prevent the shoreline responding through continuous reworking, i.e. rollover. Further, the rate of transgression is conditioned by inherited topography with higher rates of retreat, and hence greater potential for drowning, expected across the shallowly dipping substrate. Using Hastings Bank as an example, it has also been demonstrated that the morphodynamic state of the barrier complex in terms of its ability to respond dynamically to relative sea-level rise, conditions its

  15. Bilateral rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint resulting from subchondral fracture with superimposed secondary osteonecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Takuaki; Iwamoto, Yukihide [Kyushu University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukuoka (Japan); Schneider, Robert [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology, New York (United States); Bullough, Peter G. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Laboratory Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A 57-year-old woman suffered rapid destruction of both hip joints over a 10 months period. At the first visit, her radiographs demonstrated slight joint space narrowing and acetabular cyst formation in both hips. Five months later, joint space narrowing had further progressed, and intra-articular injection of steroid was given in both hips. However, the hip pain gradually became worse. Five months later, both joint spaces had totally disappeared and both femoral heads had undergone massive collapse. At gross examination, both resected femoral heads showed extensive opaque yellow areas consistent with osteonecrosis. Microscopic examination of these areas revealed evidence of both extensive fracture and callus formation, as well as necrosis throughout, indicating that the osteonecrosis observed in this case was a secondary phenomenon superimposed on pre-existing osteoarthritis and subchondral fracture. There were many pseudogranulomatous lesions in the marrow space and necrotic area, where tiny fragments of bone and articular cartilage, surrounded by histiocytes and giant cells, were embedded, such as are typically seen in rapidly destructive arthrosis. No radiologic or morphologic evidence of primary osteonecrosis was noted. This case indicates that at least some cases of rapidly destructive arthritis are the result of subchondral fracture with superimposed secondary osteonecrosis. (orig.)

  16. Stochastic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  17. Rapid Sediment Accumulation Results in High Methane Effluxes from Coastal Sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Egger

    Full Text Available Globally, the methane (CH4 efflux from the ocean to the atmosphere is small, despite high rates of CH4 production in continental shelf and slope environments. This low efflux results from the biological removal of CH4 through anaerobic oxidation with sulfate in marine sediments. In some settings, however, pore water CH4 is found throughout the sulfate-bearing zone, indicating an apparently inefficient oxidation barrier for CH4. Here we demonstrate that rapid sediment accumulation can explain this limited capacity for CH4 removal in coastal sediments. In a saline coastal reservoir (Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands, we observed high diffusive CH4 effluxes from the sediment into the overlying water column (0.2-0.8 mol m-2 yr-1 during multiple years. Linear pore water CH4 profiles and the absence of an isotopic enrichment commonly associated with CH4 oxidation in a zone with high rates of sulfate reduction (50-170 nmol cm-3 d-1 both suggest that CH4 is bypassing the zone of sulfate reduction. We propose that the rapid sediment accumulation at this site (~ 13 cm yr-1 reduces the residence time of the CH4 oxidizing microorganisms in the sulfate/methane transition zone (< 5 years, thus making it difficult for these slow growing methanotrophic communities to build-up sufficient biomass to efficiently remove pore water CH4. In addition, our results indicate that the high input of organic matter (~ 91 mol C m-2 yr-1 allows for the co-occurrence of different dissimilatory respiration processes, such as (acetotrophic methanogenesis and sulfate reduction in the surface sediments by providing abundant substrate. We conclude that anthropogenic eutrophication and rapid sediment accumulation likely increase the release of CH4 from coastal sediments.

  18. Mechanical modelling of rapid cooling in porcelain tile-type systems; Modelizacion mecanica del enfriamiento rapido en sistemas tipo gres porcelanico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dal Bo, M.; Cantavella, Y.; Sanchez, E.; Hotza, D.; Boschi, A.

    2012-07-01

    This paper analyses the effect of cooling on mechanical behaviour, in particular, on the residual stresses that appear when materials of the porcelain tile type are involved. However, these compositions have a very complex microstructure, in which there are several crystalline phases and the glassy phase is not homogeneous. In this study a simpler composition was therefore formulated, using sodium feldspar as starting material to which quartz with different particle sizes was added. A viscoelastic model was used to estimate the residual stresses that develop during cooling. The parameters of the model were obtained either from the literature or were determined in laboratory tests. An assembly was designed that allowed non-contact measurement of the temperature at the top and bottom surfaces of the test pieces during cooling. The test pieces were subjected to different types of cooling and their residual stresses were then determined by the strain relaxation slotting method. (Author)

  19. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  20. Monitoring peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees and white surfaces in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) service area: Project design and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Bretz, S.; Hanford, J.; Rosenfeld, A.; Sailor, D.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bos, W. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Urban areas in warm climates create summer heat islands of daily average intensity of 3--5{degrees}C, adding to discomfort and increasing air-conditioning loads. Two important factors contributing to urban heat islands are reductions in albedo (lower overall city reflectance) and loss of vegetation (less evapotranspiration). Reducing summer heat islands by planting vegetation (shade trees) and increasing surface albedos, saves cooling energy, allows down-sizing of air conditioners, lowers air-conditioning peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from electric power plants. The focus of this multi-year project, jointly sponsored by SMUD and the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), was to measure the direct cooling effects of trees and white surfaces (mainly roofs) in a few buildings in Sacramento. The first-year project was to design the experiment and obtain base case data. We also obtained limited post retrofit data for some sites. This report provides an overview of the project activities during the first year at six sites. The measurement period for some of the sites was limited to September and October, which are transitional cooling months in Sacramento and hence the interpretation of results only apply to this period. In one house, recoating the dark roof with a high-albedo coating rendered air conditioning unnecessary for the month of September (possible savings of up to 10 kWh per day and 2 kW of non-coincidental peak power). Savings of 50% relative to an identical base case bungalow were achieved when a school bungalow`s roof and southeast wall were coated with a high-albedo coating during the same period. Our measured data for the vegetation sites do not indicate conclusive results because shade trees were small and the cooling period was almost over. We need to collect more data over a longer cooling season in order to demonstrate savings conclusively.

  1. Neutronics - thermal-hydraulics coupling: application to the helium-cooled fast reactor; Couplage neutronique - thermohydraulique: application au reacteur a neutrons rapides refroidi a l'helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaiana, F.

    2009-11-15

    This thesis focuses on the study of interactions between neutron-kinetics and thermal-hydraulics. Neutron-kinetics allow to calculate the power in a nuclear reactor and the temperature evolution of materials where this power is deposited is known thanks to thermal-hydraulics. Moreover, when the temperatures evolve, the densities and cross sections change. These two disciplines are thus coupled. The first part of this work corresponds to the study and development of a method which allows to simulate transients in nuclear reactors and especially with a Monte-Carlo code for neutron-kinetics. An algorithm for the resolution of the neutron transport equation has been established and validated with a benchmark. In thermal-hydraulics, a porous media approach, based on another thesis, is considered. This gives the opportunity to solve the equations on the whole core without unconscionable computation time. Finally, a theoretical study has been performed on the statistical uncertainties which result from the use of a Monte-Carlo code and which spread from the reactivity to the power and from the power to the temperatures. The second part deals with the study of a misplaced control rod withdrawing in a GFR (helium-cooled fast reactor), a fourth generation reactor. Some models allowing to calculate neutron-kinetics and thermal-hydraulics in the core (which contains assemblies built up with fuel plates) were defined. In thermal-hydraulics, a model for the core based on the porous media approach and a fuel plate homogenization model have been set up. A similar homogenization model has been studied for neutron-kinetics. Finally, the control rod withdrawing transient where we can observe the power raising and the stabilisation by thermal feedback has been performed with the Monte-Carlo code Tripoli for neutron-kinetics and the code Trio-U for thermal-hydraulics. (author)

  2. Rapid Endovascular Catheter Core Cooling combined with cold saline as an Adjunct to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention For the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction (The CHILL-MI trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlinge, David; Götberg, Matthias; Lang, Irene

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to confirm the cardioprotective effects of hypothermia using a combination of cold saline and endovascular cooling. BACKGROUND: Hypothermia has been reported to reduce infarct size (IS) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions. METHODS: In...

  3. Buffer substitution in malaria rapid diagnostic tests causes false-positive results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Ende Jef

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are kits that generally include 20 to 25 test strips or cassettes, but only a single buffer vial. In field settings, laboratory staff occasionally uses saline, distilled water (liquids for parenteral drugs dilution or tap water as substitutes for the RDT kit's buffer to compensate for the loss of a diluent bottle. The present study assessed the effect of buffer substitution on the RDT results. Methods Twenty-seven RDT brands were run with EDTA-blood samples of five malaria-free subjects, who were negative for rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies. Saline, distilled water and tap water were used as substitute liquids. RDTs were also run with distilled water, without adding blood. Results were compared to those obtained with the RDT kit's buffer and Plasmodium positive samples. Results Only eight cassettes (in four RDT brands showed no control line and were considered invalid. Visible test lines occurred for at least one malaria-free sample and one of the substitutes in 20/27 (74% RDT brands (saline: n = 16; distilled water: n = 17; and tap water: n = 20, and in 15 RDTs which were run with distilled water only. They occurred for all Plasmodium antigens and RDT formats (two-, three- and four-band RDTs. Clearance of the background of the strip was excellent except for saline. The aspects (colour, intensity and crispness of the control and the false-positive test lines were similar to those obtained with the RDT kits' buffer and Plasmodium positive samples. Conclusion Replacement of the RDT kit's dedicated buffer by saline, distilled water and tap water can cause false-positive test results.

  4. Evaluation of oral fluid enzyme immunoassay for confirmation of a positive rapid human immunodeficiency virus test result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, L G; Sanchez, T; MacKellar, D A; Branson, B M; Ethridge, S F; Constantine, N; Ketema, F; Sullivan, P S

    2009-07-01

    The CDC recommends that a reactive rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test be confirmed with an approved supplemental test; the performance of an intermediate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is optional. In support of this recommendation, it was found that of 1,431 reactive rapid HIV test results, 2 (0.1%) had false-negative oral fluid Western blot results and both had false-negative EIA results.

  5. Real-time PCR using mycobacteriophage DNA for rapid phenotypic drug susceptibility results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholwat, Suporn; Ehdaie, Beeta; Foongladda, Suporn; Kelly, Kimberly; Houpt, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Managing drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires drug susceptibility testing, yet conventional drug susceptibility testing is slow, and molecular testing does not yield results for all antituberculous drugs. We addressed these challenges by utilizing real-time PCR of mycobacteriophage D29 DNA to evaluate the drug resistance of clinical M. tuberculosis isolates. Mycobacteriophages infect and replicate in viable bacterial cells faster than bacterial cells replicate and have been used for detection and drug resistance testing for M. tuberculosis either by using reporter cells or phages with engineered reporter constructs. Our primary protocol involved culturing M. tuberculosis isolates for 48 h with and without drugs at critical concentrations, followed by incubation with 10(3) PFU/ml of D29 mycobacteriophage for 24 h and then real-time PCR. Many drugs could be incubated instantly with M. tuberculosis and phage for 24 h alone. The change in phage DNA real-time PCR cycle threshold (C(T)) between control M. tuberculosis and M. tuberculosis treated with drugs was calculated and correlated with conventional agar proportion drug susceptibility results. Specifically, 9 susceptible clinical isolates, 22 multidrug-resistant (MDR), and 1 extensively drug-resistant (XDR) M. tuberculosis strains were used and C(T) control-C(T) drug cutoffs of between +0.3 and -6.0 yielded 422/429 (98%) accurate results for isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, ethambutol, amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ethionamide, para-aminosalicylic acid, cycloserine, and linezolid. Moreover, the ΔC(T) values correlated with isolate MIC for most agents. This D29 quantitative PCR assay offers a rapid, accurate, 1- to 3-day phenotypic drug susceptibility test for first- and second-line drugs and may suggest an approximate MIC.

  6. FIRST RESULTS FROM THE RAPID-RESPONSE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS USING UKIRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mommert, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Petersen, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Borth, D. [Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz (DFKI), D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Jedicke, R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Butler, N. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Reyes-Ruiz, M. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Astronomía, Ensenada, B.C. 22860, México (Mexico); Pichardo, B. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Axelrod, T. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Moskovitz, N., E-mail: michael.mommert@nau.edu [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Using the Wide Field Camera for the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT), we measure the near-infrared colors of near-Earth objects (NEOs) in order to put constraints on their taxonomic classifications. The rapid-response character of our observations allows us to observe NEOs when they are close to the Earth and bright. Here we present near-infrared color measurements of 86 NEOs, most of which were observed within a few days of their discovery, allowing us to characterize NEOs with diameters of only a few meters. Using machine-learning methods, we compare our measurements to existing asteroid spectral data and provide probabilistic taxonomic classifications for our targets. Our observations allow us to distinguish between S-complex, C/X-complex, D-type, and V-type asteroids. Our results suggest that the fraction of S-complex asteroids in the whole NEO population is lower than the fraction of ordinary chondrites in the meteorite fall statistics. Future data obtained with UKIRT will be used to investigate the significance of this discrepancy.

  7. Maxillary ulceration resulting from using a rapid maxillary expander in a diabetic patient

    OpenAIRE

    Martins Maia, Luiz Guilherme [UNESP; Monini, Andre da Costa [UNESP; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini Júnior, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-01-01

    One of the characteristics of diabetes mellitus is the exaggerated inflammatory response. The present report shows the reaction from the use of a rapid maxillary expander in a diabetic patient. A 9-year-old child presented an uncommon reaction to the treatment with a rapid maxillary expander, and on follow-up examination, it was discovered that the patient had diabetes mellitus. After controlling the disease, the proposed treatment was used without further incidents. The case calls attention ...

  8. RapidSplint: virtual splint generation for orthognathic surgery – results of a pilot series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weichen; Keeve, Erwin; Hoffmeister, Bodo

    2014-01-01

    Background Within the domain of craniomaxillofacial surgery, orthognathic surgery is a special field dedicated to the correction of dentofacial anomalies resulting from skeletal malocclusion. Generally, in such cases, an interdisciplinary orthodontic and surgical treatment approach is required. After initial orthodontic alignment of the dental arches, skeletal discrepancies of the jaws can be corrected by distinct surgical strategies and procedures in order to achieve correct occlusal relations, as well as facial balance and harmony within individualized treatment concepts. To transfer the preoperative surgical planning and reposition the mobilized dental arches with optimal occlusal relations, surgical splints are typically used. For this purpose, different strategies have been described which use one or more splints. Traditionally, these splints are manufactured by a dental technician based on patient-specific dental casts; however, computer-assisted technologies have gained increasing importance with respect to preoperative planning and its subsequent surgical transfer. Methods : In a pilot study of 10 patients undergoing orthognathic corrections by a one-splint strategy, two final occlusal splints were produced for each patient and compared with respect to their clinical usability. One splint was manufactured in the traditional way by a dental technician according to the preoperative surgical planning. After performing a CBCT scan of the patient’s dental casts, a second splint was designed virtually by an engineer and surgeon working together, according to the desired final occlusion. For this purpose, RapidSplint®, a custom-made software platform, was used. After post-processing and conversion of the datasets into .stl files, the splints were fabricated by the PolyJet procedure using photo polymerization. During surgery, both splints were inserted after mobilization of the dental arches then compared with respect to their clinical usability according to the

  9. Rapid hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Clinical results in 178 advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Demange, L.; Froissart, D.; Panis, X.; Loirette, M.

    1985-07-01

    The authors present a series of 178 patients with Stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck treated by rapid irradiation using multiple and small fractions per day. An initial group of 91 patients (G1) received a total dose of 72 Gy in 80 sessions and 10 days, according to the following split course schedule: J1 to J5, 36 Gy in 40 sessions, eight daily fractions of .9 Gy separated by 2 hours; J6 to J20, rest period; J21 to J25, same as in J1 except that the spinal cord was shielded. This protocol was altered for the following 87 patients (G2) by lessening the total dose to 60 to 66 Gy and the number of fractions to 60. The rest period was lengthened to 4 weeks. All patients but five completed the whole program and the minimal follow-up period was 24 months. At the end of irradiation, 121 patients achieved a total remission, but local recurrences occurred in 56%. Moreover, acute intolerance was considered as severe in 34% of G1 patients, and included extensive mucosal necrosis and bleeding. Although this rate was significantly reduced in G2 patients, late complications were observed in 20 of the 25 survivors, and included trismus, cervical sclerosis, and recurrent laryngeal edema. The crude survival rate is 13% at 2 years. Although this study was not randomized, this particular type of accelerated and hyperfractionated combination of irradiation did not really improve the clinical results in advanced carcinoma of the head and neck. Other schedules and probably other tumors, less extended, should be tested.

  10. Use of Genomic Estimated Breeding Values Results in Rapid Genetic Gains for Drought Tolerance in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Vivek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of the 19 million ha of maize ( L. in tropical Asia is rainfed and prone to drought. The breeding methods for improving drought tolerance (DT, including genomic selection (GS, are geared to increase the frequency of favorable alleles. Two biparental populations (CIMMYT-Asia Population 1 [CAP1] and CAP2 were generated by crossing elite Asian-adapted yellow inbreds (CML470 and VL1012767 with an African white drought-tolerant line, CML444. Marker effects of polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were determined from testcross (TC performance of F families under drought and optimal conditions. Cycle 1 (C1 was formed by recombining the top 10% of the F families based on TC data. Subsequently, (i C2[PerSe_PS] was derived by recombining those C1 plants that exhibited superior per se phenotypes (phenotype-only selection, and (ii C2[TC-GS] was derived by recombining a second set of C1 plants with high genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs derived from TC phenotypes of F families (marker-only selection. All the generations and their top crosses to testers were evaluated under drought and optimal conditions. Per se grain yields (GYs of C2[PerSe_PS] and that of C2[TC-GS] were 23 to 39 and 31 to 53% better, respectively, than that of the corresponding F population. The C2[TC-GS] populations showed superiority of 10 to 20% over C2[PerSe-PS] of respective populations. Top crosses of C2[TC-GS] showed 4 to 43% superiority of GY over that of C2[PerSe_PS] of respective populations. Thus, GEBV-enabled selection of superior phenotypes (without the target stress resulted in rapid genetic gains for DT.

  11. Rapid changes in cell physiology as a result of acute thermal stress house sparrows, Passer domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana G; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-12-01

    Given that our climate is rapidly changing, Physiological Ecologists have the critical task of identifying characteristics of species that make them either resilient or susceptible to changes in their natural air temperature regime. Because climate change models suggest that heat events will become more common, and in some places more extreme, it is important to consider how extreme heat events might affect the physiology of a species. The implications of more frequent heat wave events for birds have only recently begun to be addressed, however, the impact of these events on the cellular physiology of a species is difficult to assess. We have developed a novel approach using dermal fibroblasts to explore how short-term thermal stress at the whole animal level might affect cellular rates of metabolism. House sparrows, Passer domesticus were separated into a "control group" and a "heat shocked" group, the latter acclimated to 43°C for 24h. We determined the plasticity of cellular thermal responses by assigning a "recovery group" that was heat shocked as above, but then returned to room temperature for 24h. Primary dermal fibroblasts were grown from skin of all treatment groups and the pectoralis muscle was collected. We found that glycolysis (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rates (OCR), measured using a Seahorse XF 96 analyzer, were significantly higher in the fibroblasts from the heat shocked group of House sparrows compared with their control counterparts. Additionally, muscle fiber diameters decreased and, in turn, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase maximal activity in the muscle significantly increased in heat shocked sparrows compared with birds in the control group. All of these physiological alterations due to short-term heat exposure were reversible within 24h of recovery at room temperature. These results show that acute exposure to heat stress significantly alters the cellular physiology of sparrows, but that this species is plastic enough to recover from such a thermal

  12. RapidSplint: virtual splint generation for orthognathic surgery - results of a pilot series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphs, Nicolai; Liu, Weichen; Keeve, Erwin; Hoffmeister, Bodo

    2014-01-01

    Within the domain of craniomaxillofacial surgery, orthognathic surgery is a special field dedicated to the correction of dentofacial anomalies resulting from skeletal malocclusion. Generally, in such cases, an interdisciplinary orthodontic and surgical treatment approach is required. After initial orthodontic alignment of the dental arches, skeletal discrepancies of the jaws can be corrected by distinct surgical strategies and procedures in order to achieve correct occlusal relations, as well as facial balance and harmony within individualized treatment concepts. To transfer the preoperative surgical planning and reposition the mobilized dental arches with optimal occlusal relations, surgical splints are typically used. For this purpose, different strategies have been described which use one or more splints. Traditionally, these splints are manufactured by a dental technician based on patient-specific dental casts; however, computer-assisted technologies have gained increasing importance with respect to preoperative planning and its subsequent surgical transfer. In a pilot study of 10 patients undergoing orthognathic corrections by a one-splint strategy, two final occlusal splints were produced for each patient and compared with respect to their clinical usability. One splint was manufactured in the traditional way by a dental technician according to the preoperative surgical planning. After performing a CBCT scan of the patient's dental casts, a second splint was designed virtually by an engineer and surgeon working together, according to the desired final occlusion. For this purpose, RapidSplint, a custom-made software platform, was used. After post-processing and conversion of the datasets into .stl files, the splints were fabricated by the PolyJet procedure using photo polymerization. During surgery, both splints were inserted after mobilization of the dental arches then compared with respect to their clinical usability according to the occlusal fitting. Using

  13. Rapid Forgetting Results from Competition over Time between Items in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertzov, Yoni; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is now established as a fundamental cognitive process across a range of species. Loss of information held in working memory has the potential to disrupt many aspects of cognitive function. However, despite its significance, the mechanisms underlying rapid forgetting remain unclear, with intense recent debate as to whether it is…

  14. Marketing of banana and banana products in Uganda: Results of a rapid rural appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Digges, Philip

    1994-01-01

    This report concerns a survey undertaken by NRI in Uganda during September and December 1993, which sought to characterise the banana and banana beer marketing systems. The study follows on from the recommendations of the Banana Based Cropping System Rapid Rural Appraisal (1991), and focuses upon the Kampala market.

  15. Agriculture and water in Shunyi District, Beijing; results of a rapid diagnostic appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, B.M.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Keulen, van H.; Cheng, X.; Lu, C.

    2004-01-01

    Land use and agriculture in Shunyi District were studied in a Rapid Diagnostic Appraisal (RDA) held November 2003 in the frame of the project `Resource Management Options in the Greater Beijing Area`. Officials of governmental institutions in Shunyi were interviewed and during three days, a team of

  16. Engaging Chicago residents in climate change action: Results from Rapid Ethnographic Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne M. Westphal; Jennifer. Hirsch

    2010-01-01

    Addressing climate change requires action at all levels of society, from neighborhood to international levels. Using Rapid Ethnography rooted in Asset Based Community Development theory, we investigated climate-friendly attitudes and behaviors in two Chicago neighborhoods in order to assist the City with implementation of its Climate Action Plan. Our research suggests...

  17. Ventilative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Kolokotroni, Maria

    -of-the-art of ventilative cooling potentials and limitations, its consideration in current energy performance regulations, available building components and control strategies and analysis methods and tools. In addition, the report provides twenty six examples of operational buildings using ventilative cooling ranging from...

  18. Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis, Phase 2 Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to establish the Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis assessment, which involved development of an enhanced simulation architecture using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II simulation tool. The assessment was requested to enhance the capability of the Agency to provide rapid evaluation of EDL characteristics in systems analysis studies, preliminary design, mission development and execution, and time-critical assessments. Many of the new simulation framework capabilities were developed to support the Agency EDL-Systems Analysis (SA) team that is conducting studies of the technologies and architectures that are required to enable human and higher mass robotic missions to Mars. The findings, observations, and recommendations from the NESC are provided in this report.

  19. RAPID: Collaboration Results from Three NASA Centers in Commanding/Monitoring Lunar Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, R. Jay; Allan, Mark; Hirsh, Robert; Wallick, Michael N.

    2009-01-01

    Three NASA centers are working together to address the challenge of operating robotic assets in support of human exploration of the Moon. This paper describes the combined work to date of the Ames Research Center (ARC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Johnson Space Center (JSC) on a common support framework to control and monitor lunar robotic assets. We discuss how we have addressed specific challenges including time-delayed operations, and geographically distributed collaborative monitoring and control, to build an effective architecture for integrating a heterogeneous collection of robotic assets into a common work. We describe the design of the Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate (RAPID) architecture that effectively addresses the problem of interfacing a family of robots including the JSC Chariot, ARC K-10 and JPL ATHLETE rovers. We report on lessons learned from the June 2008 field test in which RAPID was used to monitor and control all of these assets. We conclude by discussing some future directions to extend the RAPID architecture to add further support for NASA's lunar exploration program.

  20. Electron Cooling Study for MEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhang [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Electron cooling of the ion beams is one critical R&D to achieve high luminosities in JLab's MEIC proposal. In the present MEIC design, a multi-staged cooling scheme is adapted, which includes DC electron cooling in the booster ring and bunched beam electron cooling in the collider ring at both the injection energy and the collision energy. We explored the feasibility of using both magnetized and non-magnetized electron beam for cooling, and concluded that a magnetized electron beam is necessary. Electron cooling simulation results for the newly updated MEIC design is also presented.

  1. Does rapid HIV testing result in an early diagnosis and reduce the waiting time for patients to receive medical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Magaly Carvalho Vieira de; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Falcão, Ilka Veras; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of rapid HIV testing in Brazil began in 2006 for specific groups, and from 2009 was extended to the Counseling and Testing Centers (CTC) in certain Brazilian capitals. The aim of this study was to compare two groups of individuals: those diagnosed with HIV infection by conventional testing and those diagnosed with rapid testing, with respect to: the waiting time before receiving medical care, the time of the first laboratory tests and the virological, immune and clinical status. This is a cross-sectional study to compare a group with individuals diagnosed by conventional testing (2006-2008) and another with those diagnosed by rapid testing (2010-2011).The median time between blood collection and diagnosis of HIV in the conventional test group was 76 days, while in the rapid test group 94.2% of the subjects received their results on the same day of blood collection (p test group, the median period of time before the first consultation with an infectious disease specialist was 99 days, and for the rapid test group the time was 14 days (p test group (p test group (472) was higher than in the conventional test group (397) (p = 0.01). The introduction of rapid HIV testing as a diagnostic strategy has reduced the waiting times for medical care and laboratory tests and also allowed earlier diagnosis of HIV infection than with the conventional test.

  2. Improvement in elastic properties of CuAl{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.6}O{sub 4} spinel ferrite by rapid thermal cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, K. B., E-mail: kunalbmodi2003@yahoo.com; Shah, S. J., E-mail: kunalbmodi2003@yahoo.com; Pathak, T. K., E-mail: kunalbmodi2003@yahoo.com; Vasoya, N. H., E-mail: kunalbmodi2003@yahoo.com; Lakhani, V. K., E-mail: kunalbmodi2003@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Saurashtra University, Rajkot-360005 (India); Yahya, A. K. [School of Physics and Materials Studies, University Technology MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-04-24

    The elastic properties of spinel ferrite composition, CuAl{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.6}O{sub 4}, quenched from final sintering temperature of 1373 K to liquid nitrogen temperature (∼ 80K) have been studied by means of X-ray powder diffractometry and pulse echo-overlap technique (9 MHz) at 300 K. The magnitude of elastic constants is found to enhance by 15% compared to slowly-cooled counterpart. The observed mechanical strengthening has been discussed in the light of compressive stress on the surface, with tensile stresses at interior regions and corresponding changes in structural parameters. The B{sub o}/G{sub o} ratio indicates the brittle nature of CuAl{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.6}O{sub 4}.

  3. Rapid endovascular catheter core cooling combined with cold saline as an adjunct to percutaneous coronary intervention for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. The CHILL-MI trial: a randomized controlled study of the use of central venous catheter core cooling combined with cold saline as an adjunct to percutaneous coronary intervention for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlinge, David; Götberg, Matthias; Lang, Irene; Holzer, Michael; Noc, Marko; Clemmensen, Peter; Jensen, Ulf; Metzler, Bernhard; James, Stefan; Bötker, Hans Erik; Omerovic, Elmir; Engblom, Henrik; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan; Ostlund, Ollie; Wallentin, Lars; Harnek, Jan; Olivecrona, Göran K

    2014-05-13

    The aim of this study was to confirm the cardioprotective effects of hypothermia using a combination of cold saline and endovascular cooling. Hypothermia has been reported to reduce infarct size (IS) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions. In a multicenter study, 120 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (cold saline and endovascular cooling or standard of care. Hypothermia was initiated before percutaneous coronary intervention and continued for 1 h after reperfusion. The primary end point was IS as a percent of myocardium at risk (MaR), assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 4 ± 2 days. Mean times from symptom onset to randomization were 129 ± 56 min in patients receiving hypothermia and 132 ± 64 min in controls. Patients randomized to hypothermia achieved a core body temperature of 34.7°C before reperfusion, with a 9-min longer door-to-balloon time. Median IS/MaR was not significantly reduced (hypothermia: 40.5% [interquartile range: 29.3% to 57.8%; control: 46.6% [interquartile range: 37.8% to 63.4%]; relative reduction 13%; p = 0.15). The incidence of heart failure was lower with hypothermia at 45 ± 15 days (3% vs. 14%, p cold saline and endovascular cooling was feasible and safe, and it rapidly reduced core temperature with minor reperfusion delay. The primary end point of IS/MaR was not significantly reduced. Lower incidence of heart failure and a possible effect in patients with early anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions need confirmation. (Efficacy of Endovascular Catheter Cooling Combined With Cold Saline for the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction [CHILL-MI]; NCT01379261). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Negative results of a rapid antibody test for HIV in a 16-month-old infant with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunzhi; Wang, Jiangrong; Wilson, Gregory J; Tang, Yi-Wei; Lu, Hong-Zhou

    2008-01-01

    In a 16-mo-old infant born to an HIV-infected mother, repeatedly negative results of a HIV rapid antibody test had been reported during the past 6 mo. The infant presented with several HIV-defining illnesses and HIV RT-PCR testing confirmed the presence of HIV infection. There are at least 2 possible explanations for the child's false-negative rapid HIV test results: First, his primary antibody production may have been suppressed by the presence of maternal IgG antibodies. Second, his mother was highly immunosuppressed, so that the low level of maternally derived IgG was only detected by HIV-EIA and Western blot. Our data suggest that the HIV rapid antibody test may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect HIV antibodies in infants aged <18 mo.

  5. Uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia and spectacle coverage: results from a rapid assessment of refractive error survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Keeffe, Jill E; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia and spectacle coverage in subjects aged 15-50 years using rapid assessment methodology in the Mahabubnagar district of Andhra Pradesh, India. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted using cluster random sampling to enumerate 3,300 subjects from 55 clusters. Unaided, aided and pinhole visual acuity was assessed using a LogMAR chart at a distance of 4 meters. Near vision was assessed using N notation chart. Uncorrected refractive error was defined as presenting visual acuity worse than 6/12 but improving to at least 6/12 or better on using a pinhole. Presbyopia is defined as binocular near vision worse than N8 in subjects aged more than 35 years with binocular distance visual acuity of 6/12 or better. Of the 3,300 subjects enumerated from 55 clusters, 3,203 (97%) subjects were available for examination. Of these, 1,496 (46.7%) were females and 930 (29%) were > or = 40 years. Age and gender adjusted prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors causing visual impairment in the better eye was 2.7% (95% CI, 2.1-3.2%). Presbyopia was present in 690 (63.7%, 95% CI, 60.8-66.6%) subjects aged over 35 years. Spectacle coverage for refractive error was 29% and for presbyopia it was 19%. There is a large unmet need for refractive correction in this area in India. Rapid assessment methods are an effective means of assessing the need for services and the impact of models of care.

  6. Percutaneous treatment of liver tumors with an adapted probe for cooled-tip, impedance-controlled radio-frequency ablation under open-magnet MR guidance: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelekis, Alexis D.; Terraz, Sylvain; Roggan, Andre; Terrier, Francois; Majno, Pietro; Mentha, Gilles; Roth, Arnaud; Becker, Christoph D. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital, 24 rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2003-05-01

    Percutaneous radio-frequency (RF) ablation of liver tumors is usually performed under guidance of real-time US, but some tumor nodules in some patients cannot be adequately visualized with this technique. We report our preliminary results with an MR-compatible, internally perfused 17-G RF probe adapted to a standard RF generator for impedance-controlled RF ablation under MR guidance. Following initial testing of the probe for MR compatibility, artifacts and macroscopic effects on an ex vivo pig liver, four patients with eight neoplastic liver nodules (five metastatic and three primary), which could not be properly targeted by US, were treated with the cooled-tip technique under MRI guidance in an open 0.23-T magnet. Metallic artifacts produced by the probe were useful for accurate placement and did not interfere with MRI monitoring at the end of the procedure. Based on imaging findings, the immediate result of RF was considered adequate in all instances. Local recurrence occurred in one instance after 6 months, requiring repeat treatment. No adverse effects were noted. Initial experience suggests that the probe we used allows to perform impedance-controlled cooled-tip RF ablation of liver tumors under open-magnet MR guidance. (orig.)

  7. Cryogenic generator cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, P. W.; Fagan, T. J.; Parker, J. H., Jr.; Long, L. J.; Shestak, E. J.; Calfo, R. M.; Hannon, W. F.; Brown, D. B.; Barkell, J. W.; Patterson, A.

    The concept for a hydrogen cooled aluminum cryogenic generator was presented by Schlicher and Oberly in 1985. Following their lead, this paper describes the thermal design of a high voltage dc, multimegawatt generator of high power density. The rotor and stator are cooled by saturated liquid and supercritical hydrogen, respectively. The brushless exciter on the same shaft is also cooled by liquid hydrogen. Component development testing is well under way and some of the test results concerning the thermohydraulic performance of the conductors are reported. The aluminum cryogenic generator's characteristics are attractive for hydrogen economy applications.

  8. Measured Cooling Season Results Relating the Impact of Mechanical Ventilation on Energy, Comfort, and Indoor Air Quality in Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Eric; Amos, Bryan; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Widder, Sarah H.; Fonorow, Ken

    2014-08-22

    Conference Paper for ACEEE Summer Study in Buildings discussing results to date of a project evaluating the impact of ventialtion on energy use, comfort, durability, and cost in the hot humid climate.

  9. Innovation Incubator: LiquidCool Solutions Technical Evaluation. Laboratory Study and Demonstration Results of a Directed-Flow, Liquid Submerged Server for High-Efficiency Data Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-12

    LiquidCool Solutions (LCS) has developed liquid submerged server (LSS) technology that changes the way computer electronics are cooled. The technology provides an option to cool electronics by the direct contact flow of dielectric fluid (coolant) into a sealed enclosure housing all the electronics of a single server. The intimate dielectric fluid contact with electronics improves the effectiveness of heat removal from the electronics.

  10. Fully automated disc diffusion for rapid antibiotic susceptibility test results: a proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, Michael; Jetter, Marion; Blöchliger, Nicolas; Kolesnik-Goldmann, Natalia; Böttger, Erik C

    2017-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance poses a significant threat to patients suffering from infectious diseases. Early readings of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results could be of critical importance to ensure adequate treatment. Disc diffusion is a well-standardized, established and cost-efficient AST procedure; however, its use in the clinical laboratory is hampered by the many manual steps involved, and an incubation time of 16-18 h, which is required to achieve reliable test results. We have evaluated a fully automated system for its potential for early reading of disc diffusion diameters after 6-12 h of incubation. We assessed availability of results, methodological precision, categorical agreement and interpretation errors as compared with an 18 h standard. In total, 1028 clinical strains (291 Escherichia coli , 272 Klebsiella pneumoniae , 176 Staphylococcus aureus and 289 Staphylococcus epidermidis ) were included in this study. Disc diffusion plates were streaked, incubated and imaged using the WASPLab TM automation system. Our results demonstrate that: (i) early AST reading is possible for important pathogens; (ii) methodological precision is not hampered at early timepoints; and (iii) species-specific reading times must be selected. As inhibition zone diameters change over time and are phenotype/drug combination dependent, specific cut-offs and expert rules will be essential to ensure reliable interpretation and reporting of early susceptibility testing results.

  11. Rapid sediment accumulation results in high methane effluxes from coastal sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egger, M.J.; Lenstra, W.K.; Jong, Dirk; Meysman, Filip; Sapart, C.J.; van der Veen, C.; Röckmann, Thomas; Gonzalez, Santiago; Slomp, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the methane (CH4) efflux from the ocean to the atmosphere is small, despite high rates of CH4 production in continental shelf and slope environments. This low efflux results from the biological removal of CH4 through anaerobic oxidation with sulfate in marine sediments. In some settings,

  12. Tumor-Selective Cytotoxicity of Nitidine Results from Its Rapid Accumulation into Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Iwasaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We identified a nitidine- (NTD- accumulating organelle and evaluated the net cytotoxicity of accumulated NTD. To evaluate tumor cell selectivity of the drug, we evaluated its selective cytotoxicity against 39 human cancer cell lines (JFCR39 panel, and the profile was compared with those of known anticancer drugs. Organelle specificity of NTD was visualized using organelle-targeted fluorescent proteins. Real-time analysis of cell growth, proliferation, and cytotoxicity was performed using the xCELLigence system. Selectivity of NTD in the JFCR39 panel was evaluated. Mitochondria-specific accumulation of NTD was observed. Real-time cytotoxicity analysis suggested that the mechanism of NTD-induced cell death is independent of the cell cycle. Short-term treatment indicated that this cytotoxicity only resulted from the accumulation of NTD into the mitochondria. The results from the JFCR39 panel indicated that NTD-mediated cytotoxicity resulted from unique mechanisms compared with those of other known anticancer drugs. These results suggested that the cytotoxicity of NTD is only induced by its accumulation in mitochondria. The drug triggered mitochondrial dysfunction in less than 2 h. Similarity analysis of the selectivity of NTD in 39 tumor cell lines strongly supported the unique tumor cell specificity of NTD. Thus, these features indicate that NTD may be a promising antitumor drug for new combination chemotherapies.

  13. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wenxue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats. Results Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague–Dawley albino rats weighing 160–280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p p p Conclusions Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain.

  14. Incremental versus Rapid Internationalisation of Firms: Results of Exploratory Investigation from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of the article was to discuss the pace of internationalisation and its empirical verification among Polish firms taking into account two factors – strategic thinking and familiness of the studied firms. Research Design & Methods: The paper, apart from literature review and its critique, is based on results of a survey conducted among randomly selected 355 internationalised firms of different sizes from Poland. Findings: Firms having an internationalisation strategy rather internationalize faster than these lacking such a strategy, taking into account the average number of years elapses from its founding to the first internationalisation. The empirical results show that the average time of internationalisation is shorter in case of family firms than non-family firms. Implications & Recommendations: Strategic thinking seems to be very important while going international. A well thought-out strategy can stimulate the whole process of internationalisation, so decision makers, especially entrepreneurs, should pay more attention to strategic aspects, even in early stages of development or early internationalisation. Contribution & Value Added: The article attempts to enrich the ongoing scientific discourse on the role of time and the pace of internationalisation by adding some evidence from Poland illustrating and verifying the links between strategic thinking as well as familiness of firms and the speed of internationalisation measured in years from the establishment of firms.

  15. Changes to dryland rainfall result in rapid moss mortality and altered soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C.; Coe, Kirsten K.; Sparks, Jed P.; Housman, David C.; Zelikova, Tamara J.; Belnap, Jayne

    2012-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid ecosystems cover ~40% of Earth’s terrestrial surface, but we know little about how climate change will affect these widespread landscapes. Like many drylands, the Colorado Plateau in southwestern United States is predicted to experience elevated temperatures and alterations to the timing and amount of annual precipitation. We used a factorial warming and supplemental rainfall experiment on the Colorado Plateau to show that altered precipitation resulted in pronounced mortality of the widespread moss Syntrichia caninervis. Increased frequency of 1.2 mm summer rainfall events reduced moss cover from ~25% of total surface cover to fertility. Mosses are important members in many dryland ecosystems and the community changes observed here reveal how subtle modifications to climate can affect ecosystem structure and function on unexpectedly short timescales. Moreover, mortality resulted from increased precipitation through smaller, more frequent events, underscoring the importance of precipitation event size and timing, and highlighting our inadequate understanding of relationships between climate and ecosystem function in drylands.

  16. Acceptability and feasibility of universal offer of rapid point of care testing for HIV in an acute admissions unit: results of the RAPID project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Burns

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: UK guidance recommend all acute medical admissions be offered an HIV test. Our aim was to determine whether a dedicated staff member using a multimedia tool, a model found to be effective in the USA, is an acceptable, feasible, and cost-effective model when translated to a UK setting. DESIGN: Between 14(th Jan to 12(th May 2010, a Health advisor (HA approached 19-65 year olds at a central London acute medical admissions unit (AAU and offered a rapid HIV point of care test (POCT with the aid of an educational video. Patients with negative results had the option to watch a post-test video providing risk-reduction information. For reactive results the HA arranged a confirmatory test, and ensured linkage into HIV specialist care. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed through surveys and uptake rates. Costs per case of HIV identified were established. RESULTS: Of the 606 eligible people admitted during the pilot period, 324 (53.5% could not be approached or testing was deemed inappropriate. In total 23.0% of eligible admissions had an HIV POCT. Of the patients who watched the video and had not recently tested for HIV, 93.6% (131/140 agreed to an HIV test; four further patients had an HIV test but did not watch the video. Three tests (2.2%, 3/135 were reactive and all were confirmed HIV positive on laboratory testing. 97.5% felt HIV testing in this setting was appropriate, and 90.1% liked receiving the information via video. The cost per patient of the intervention was £21. DISCUSSION: Universal POCT HIV testing in an acute medical setting, facilitated by an educational video and dedicated staff appears to be acceptable, feasible, effective, and low cost. These findings support the recommendation of HIV testing all admissions to AAU in high prevalence settings, although with the model used a significant proportion remained untested.

  17. SOCIAL INEQUALITY IN CHINA AS A RESULT OF THE RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вероника Игоревна Шехурдина

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the period of openness in China, laid the foundation for more than 30 years ago, he has made remarkable progress in increasing incomes and reducing absolute poverty. However, they are caused by rising inequality. It should be noted that the rise in inequality was seen almost everywhere in the world over the past two decades. Growing dissatisfaction with the quality of economic growth is often seen in favor of certain groups more than the general population. This is clearly reflected in the growth of inequality between different groups - the rich are getting richer faster than the poor. The economic literature attributes this mainly to globalization, technological change, skills-based, and reduce the "power" of the workers. Growth model, which accompanies the last three decades to China, included a trade-off between high growth (and subsequent reduction of absolute poverty and worsening inequality. The government of China has recognized this problem and taken active steps to reduce the gap incomes and standards of living in the city and rural areas, which have already brought the first results.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-16

  18. Investigating Recent Testing among MSM: Results from Community-Based HIV Rapid Testing Attendees in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Lorente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to identify factors associated with recent HIV testing in MSM who attended two experimental community-based and nonmedicalized voluntary counselling and testing programmes (CB-VCT targeting MSM in France. Methods. This analysis was based on data collected in 2009–2011 through a self-administered pretesting questionnaire. An index measuring the level of participants’ sexual orientation disclosure was built: the higher the index, the greater the disclosure. Factors associated with recent HIV testing (last test ≤ 1 year were identified using a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for the CB-VCT programme of enrolment. Results. 716 MSM provided data on testing history. Overall, 49% were recently tested for HIV and 51% were not. Recently tested MSM had a higher homosexuality disclosure index (adjusted OR [95% confidence interval]: aOR = 1.2 [1.1–1.4], reported more inconsistent condom use during anal sex with men (aOR = 1.6 [1.2–2.1], and were less likely to have sex under the influence of club drugs (aOR = 0.6 [0.4–1.0]. Conclusion. New testing strategies should focus on those who live their homosexuality relatively secretly and those who use club drugs before sex. Governments should develop policies which encourage improved social acceptance of homosexuality as concealment of sexual orientation represents a major barrier to testing.

  19. The protocol and preliminary baseline survey results of the thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima [Rapid Communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Nakano, Keiichi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsunori; Kamiya, Kenji; Shimura, Hiroki; Suzuki, Satoru; Nakamura, Izumi; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011, the public of Japan became particularly concerned about the possibility of an increased risk of childhood thyroid cancer, similar to what was observed after the Chernobyl's accident. Due to serious public health perception, there was an urgency to evaluate the baseline levels of childhood thyroid status in Fukushima prefecture. Therefore we have commenced a thyroid ultrasound examination (TUE) survey of the approximately 360,000 pediatric inhabitants (0 to 18 years of age) who lived in Fukushima at the time of the accident in October 2011. The subjects were divided into three categories according to the standardized diagnostic criteria of ultrasound findings. Category A contained the subjects whose TUE findings were intact or benign. Category B were recommended a confirmatory TUE. Category C was recommended an immediate confirmatory TUE. The survey of 40,302 subjects in the first year was completed in March, 2013. There were 40,097 (99.5%), 205 (0.50%) and 0 subjects in categories A, B and C, respectively. Of the 82 category B subjects who underwent fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), 12 were diagnosed with a malignant tumor or were suspected to have malignancy. The 12 subjects received thyroid surgery and 11 thyroid cancers and one benign nodule were confirmed histologically after surgery. This is the first large-scaled TUE survey to employ sophisticated ultrasound screening and aim to evaluate the baseline frequency of childhood thyroid nodules and cysts. The results will become the golden standard of future comparative TUE in Fukushima, Japan.

  20. Preliminary results from EMERSITO, a rapid response network for site-effect studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bordoni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available On May 20, 2012, at 02:03 UTC, a Ml 5.9 reverse-fault earthquake occurred in the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy, at a hypocentral depth of 6.3 km (http://iside.rm.ingv.it/, close to the cities of Modena and Ferrara in the plain of the Po River. The epicenter was near the village of Finale Emilia where macroseismic intensity was assessed at 7 EMS98 [Tertulliani et al. 2012, this issue], while the closest accelerometric station, MRN, located less than 20 km west-ward at Mirandola (Figure 1 recorded peaks of ground accelerations of about 300 cm/s2 (www.protezionecivile.gov.it/resources/cms/documents/Report_DPC_1_Emilia_EQSd.pdf. The mainshock triggered liquefaction phenomena a few kilometers eastwards of the epicenter, around the village of San Carlo. On the same day, two other shocks of Ml 5.1 followed (02:07, 13:18 GMT; http://iside.rm.ingv.it/. On May 29, 2012, at 07:00 UTC another Ml 5.8 earthquake hit the region (http://iside.rm.ingv.it/, with the epicenter close to the village of Mirandola (Figure 1. Three other strong aftershocks occurred afterwards, of Ml 5.3 (May 29, at 10:55, Ml 5.2 (May 29, at 11:00 and Ml 5.1 (June 3, at 19:20. For a detailed description of the seismic sequence, see Moretti et al. [2012], Scognamiglio et al. [2012], and Massa et al. [2012], in this issue. The Emilia seismic sequence resulted in 25 casualties, several of whom were among the workers in the many factories that collapsed during working hours, and there was extensive damage to monuments, public buildings, industrial sites, and private homes. […

  1. A very cool cooling system

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 Gigatracker is a jewel of technology: its sensor, which delivers the time of the crossing particles with a precision of less than 200 picoseconds (better than similar LHC detectors), has a cooling system that might become the precursor to a completely new detector technique.   The 115 metre long vacuum tank of the NA62 experiment. The NA62 Gigatracker (GTK) is composed of a set of three innovative silicon pixel detectors, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. Installed in the heart of the NA62 detector, the silicon sensors are cooled down (to about -20 degrees Celsius) by a microfluidic silicon device. “The cooling system is needed to remove the heat produced by the readout chips the silicon sensor is bonded to,” explains Alessandro Mapelli, microsystems engineer working in the Physics department. “For the NA62 Gigatracker we have designed a cooling plate on top of which both the silicon sensor and the...

  2. Rapid prescreen of cervical liquid-based cytology preparations: results of a study in an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frable, William J; Pedigo, Mary Ann; Powers, Celeste N; Yarrell, Cheryl; Ortiz, Becky; Clark, Mary E; Ebron, Tameka

    2012-08-01

    A rapid prescreening or rapid rescreening method for quality assurance in cervical cytology has been used in Europe and in Canada but has not been accepted in the United States. The rapid prescreen method was tested in a cytology laboratory that serves an academic medical center with a high-risk population for cervical cancer. For a period of 3 months, a tray of 20 sequentially numbered Surepath™ liquid-based preparations, randomly selected from the cervical cytology daily workload, were each prescreened in a random fashion for 1 minute. Experienced cytotechnologists performed the rapid prescreen. Results were recorded as negative, further review needed, or epithelial cell abnormality, category specified. The 20 cervical cytology preparations were then replaced in their same position in the daily workload for routine screening performed by another cytotechnologist. Final interpretation was by a cytopathologist as requested or required by Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988. The rapid prescreen data was tabulated and compared with data for a similar time period using the laboratory's normal quality assurance program. Seven hundred and twelve cases underwent rapid prescreen. Six hundred and forty-two were interpreted as negative. Twenty-six cases were interpreted as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL) or higher. Forty-four cases were classified as needing further review. For the 642 negative cases by rapid prescreening, routine screening reported 537 as negative and 105 as either abnormal or needed cytopathologist review. The error rate for the rapid prescreen is 50 of 712 (7.0%); for LGSIL and above 19 of 712 (2.6%). Of the 105 abnormal cases or those submitted for cytopathologist review, 31 were interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undermined significance (ASCUS), 41 cases as reactive/repair, 17 as LGSIL, 4 as unsatisfactory, 1 as atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H), 8 as

  3. Foodborne transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to non-human primates results in preclinical rapid-onset obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Strom

    Full Text Available Obesity has become one of the largest public health challenges worldwide. Recently, certain bacterial and viral pathogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data, plasma samples and post-mortem tissue specimens derived from a risk assessment study in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-infected female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis. The original study design aimed to determine minimal infectious doses after oral or intracerebral (i.c. infection of macaques to assess the risk for humans. High-dose exposures resulted in 100% attack rates and a median incubation time of 4.7 years as described previously. Retrospective analyses of clinical data from high-dosed macaques revealed that foodborne BSE transmission caused rapid weight gain within 1.5 years post infection (β = 0.915; P<0.0001 which was not seen in age- and sex-matched control animals or i.c. infected animals. The rapid-onset obesity was not associated with impaired pancreatic islet function or glucose metabolism. In the early preclinical phase of oral transmission associated with body weight gain, prion accumulation was confined to the gastrointestinal tract. Intriguingly, immunohistochemical findings suggest that foodborne BSE transmission has a pathophysiological impact on gut endocrine cells which may explain rapid weight gain. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental model which clearly demonstrates that foodborne pathogens can induce obesity.

  4. Factors associated with false-positive results from fingerstick OraQuick ADVANCE rapid HIV 1/2 antibody test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Samara B; Owens, Lauren E; Greenwald, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    Identify factors associated with false-positive rapid HIV antibody tests. This retrospective cohort study with nested case-controls involved patients tested for HIV by Boston Medical Center (BMC) affiliates. Cases had a reactive fingerstick OraQuick ADVANCE rapid HIV 1/2 antibody test and a negative Western blot. Controls had nonreactive rapid tests. We compared the prevalence of HIV risk factors between cases and the total nonreactive population and the prevalence of other clinical factors between cases and controls. Of the 15 094 tests, 14 937 (98.9%) were negative and 11 (0.07%) were false positives (specificity of 99.9%). Cases were more likely to have had an HIV-infected sex partner and to be tested at certain sites compared to true negatives. More cases than controls had O-negative blood type. O-negative blood type and sex with an HIV-infected person may increase false-positive HIV fingerstick results. More targeted studies should examine these risk factors.

  5. The cost-effectiveness of rapid HIV testing in substance abuse treatment: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schackman, Bruce R; Metsch, Lisa R; Colfax, Grant N; Leff, Jared A; Wong, Angela; Scott, Callie A; Feaster, Daniel J; Gooden, Lauren; Matheson, Tim; Haynes, Louise F; Paltiel, A David; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2013-02-01

    The President's National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for coupling HIV screening and prevention services with substance abuse treatment programs. Fewer than half of US community-based substance abuse treatment programs make HIV testing available on-site or through referral. We measured the cost-effectiveness of three HIV testing strategies evaluated in a randomized trial conducted in 12 community-based substance abuse treatment programs in 2009: off-site testing referral, on-site rapid testing with information only, on-site rapid testing with risk-reduction counseling. Data from the trial included patient demographics, prior testing history, test acceptance and receipt of results, undiagnosed HIV prevalence (0.4%) and program costs. The Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC) computer simulation model was used to project life expectancy, lifetime costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for HIV-infected individuals. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (2009 US $/QALY) were calculated after adding costs of testing HIV-uninfected individuals; costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. Referral for off-site testing is less efficient (dominated) compared to offering on-site testing with information only. The cost-effectiveness ratio for on-site testing with information is $60,300/QALY in the base case, or $76,300/QALY with 0.1% undiagnosed HIV prevalence. HIV risk-reduction counseling costs $36 per person more without additional benefit. A strategy of on-site rapid HIV testing offer with information only in substance abuse treatment programs increases life expectancy at a cost-effectiveness ratio substance abuse treatment leaders should seek funding to implement on-site rapid HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs for those not recently tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vacuum cooling of meat products: current state-of-the-art research advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chaohui; Drummond, Liana; Zhang, Zhihang; Sun, Da-Wen; Wang, Qijun

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum cooling (VC) is commonly applied for cooling of several foodstuffs, to provide exceptionally rapid cooling rates with low energy consumption and resulting in high-quality food products. However, for products such as meat and cooked meat products, the higher cooling loss of vacuum cooling compared with established methods still means lower yields, and important meat quality parameters can be negatively affected. Substantial efforts during the past ten years have aimed to improve the technology in order to offer the meat industry, especially the cooked meat industry, optimized production in terms of safety regulations and guidelines, as well as meat quality. This review presents and discusses recent VC developments directed to the cooked meat industry. The principles of VC, and the basis for improvements of this technology, are firstly discussed; future prospects for research and development in this area are later explored, particularly in relation to cooling of cooked meat and meat products.

  7. Experimental and numerical investigations of internal heat transfer in an innovative trailing edge blade cooling system: stationary and rotation effects, part 2: numerical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniaiche, Ahmed; Ghenaiet, Adel; Carcasci, Carlo; Facchini, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a numerical validation of the aero-thermal study of a 30:1 scaled model reproducing an innovative trailing edge with one row of enlarged pedestals under stationary and rotating conditions. A CFD analysis was performed by means of commercial ANSYS-Fluent modeling the isothermal air flow and using k- ω SST turbulence model and an isothermal air flow for both static and rotating conditions (Ro up to 0.23). The used numerical model is validated first by comparing the numerical velocity profiles distribution results to those obtained experimentally by means of PIV technique for Re = 20,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. The second validation is based on the comparison of the numerical results of the 2D HTC maps over the heated plate to those of TLC experimental data, for a smooth surface for a Reynolds number = 20,000 and 40,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. Two-tip conditions were considered: open tip and closed tip conditions. Results of the average Nusselt number inside the pedestal ducts region are presented too. The obtained results help to predict the flow field visualization and the evaluation of the aero-thermal performance of the studied blade cooling system during the design step.

  8. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  9. Retrograde Renal Cooling to Minimize Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Colli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During partial nephrectomy, renal hypothermia has been shown to decrease ischemia induced renal damage which occurs from renal hilar clamping. In this study we investigate the infusion rate required to safely cool the entire renal unit in a porcine model using retrograde irrigation of iced saline via dual-lumen ureteral catheter. Materials and Methods: Renal cortical, renal medullary, bowel and rectal temperatures during retrograde cooling in a laparoscopic porcine model were monitored in six renal units. Iced normal saline was infused at 300 cc/hour, 600 cc/hour, 1000 cc/hour and gravity (800 cc/hour for 600 seconds with and without hilar clamping. Results: Retrograde cooling with hilar clamping provided rapid medullary renal cooling and significant hypothermia of the medulla and cortex at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. With hilar clamping, cortical temperatures decreased at -0.9° C/min. reaching a threshold temperature of 26.9° C, and medullary temperatures decreased at -0.90 C/min. reaching a temperature of 26.1° C over 600 seconds on average for combined data at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. The lowest renal temperatures were achieved with gravity infusion. Without renal hilum clamping, retrograde cooling was minimal at all infusion rates. Conclusions: Significant renal cooling by gravity infusion of iced cold saline via a duel lumen catheter with a clamped renal hilum was achieved in a porcine model. Continuous retrograde irrigation with iced saline via a two way ureteral catheter may be an effective method to induce renal hypothermia in patients undergoing robotic assisted and/or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

  10. Cool Flame Quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Cool flame quenching distances are generally presumed to be larger than those associated with hot flames, because the quenching distance scales with the inverse of the flame propagation speed, and cool flame propagation speeds are often times slower than those associated with hot flames. To date, this presumption has never been put to a rigorous test, because unstirred, non-isothermal cool flame studies on Earth are complicated by natural convection. Moreover, the critical Peclet number (Pe) for quenching of cool flames has never been established and may not be the same as that associated with wall quenching due to conduction heat loss in hot flames, Pe approx. = 40-60. The objectives of this ground-based study are to: (1) better understand the role of conduction heat loss and species diffusion on cool flame quenching (i.e., Lewis number effects), (2) determine cool flame quenching distances (i.e, critical Peclet number, Pe) for different experimental parameters and vessel surface pretreatments, and (3) understand the mechanisms that govern the quenching distances in premixtures that support cool flames as well as hot flames induced by spark-ignition. Objective (3) poses a unique fire safety hazard if conditions exist where cool flame quenching distances are smaller than those associated with hot flames. For example, a significant, yet unexplored risk, can occur if a multi-stage ignition (a cool flame that transitions to a hot flame) occurs in a vessel size that is smaller than that associated with the hot quenching distance. To accomplish the above objectives, a variety of hydrocarbon-air mixtures will be tested in a static reactor at elevated temperature in the laboratory (1g). In addition, reactions with chemical induction times that are sufficiently short will be tested aboard NASA's KC-135 microgravity (mu-g) aircraft. The mu-g results will be compared to a numerical model that includes species diffusion, heat conduction, and a skeletal kinetic mechanism

  11. Experimental and numerical investigations of internal heat transfer in an innovative trailing edge blade cooling system: stationary and rotation effects, part 1—experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniaiche, Ahmed; Ghenaiet, Adel; Facchini, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    The aero-thermal behavior of the flow field inside 30:1 scaled model reproducing an innovative smooth trailing edge of shaped wedge discharge duct with one row of enlarged pedestals have been investigated in order to determine the effect of rotation, inlet velocity and blowing conditions effects, for Re = 20,000 and 40,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. Two configurations are presented: with and without open tip configurations. Thermo-chromic liquid crystals technique is used to ensure a local measurement of the heat transfer coefficient on the blade suction side under stationary and rotation conditions. Results are reported in terms of detailed 2D HTC maps on the suction side surface as well as the averaged Nusselt number inside the pedestal ducts. Two correlations are proposed, for both closed and open tip configurations, based on the Re, Pr, Ro and a new non-dimensional parameter based on the position along the radial distance, to assess a reliable estimation of the averaged Nusselt number at the inter-pedestal region. A good agreement is found between prediction and experimental data with about ±10 to ±12 % of uncertainty, for the simple form correlation, and about ±16 % using a complex form. The obtained results help to predict the flow field visualization and the evaluation of the aero-thermal performance of the studied blade cooling system during the design step.

  12. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxue; Tan, Wei; Luo, Danping; Lin, Jianhua; Yu, Yaoqing; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Wangyeng; Wu, Buling; Chen, Jun; He, Jiman

    2012-12-04

    Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague-Dawley albino rats weighing 160-280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p < 0.001), from 31.2±2.3 Hz to 10.9±1.4 Hz (p < 0.001) when pressure was applied, and from 18.9±1.2 Hz to 7.6±1.1 Hz (p < 0.001) upon brushing. Thereafter, the mean firing rates gradually recovered. Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain.

  13. REACTOR COOLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  14. Cool collapsible

    OpenAIRE

    Linnér, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    Cool collabsible är ett projekt som har handlat om att skapa ett hopfällbart utomhusbord. Arbetet har utförts tillsammans med aka buna design consult. Projektet har fokuserats på att hitta en funktion, teknik och material för att sedan transformera detta till ett innovativt utomhusbord. Genom ett utförligt arbete med att definiera målgruppen skapades ramar som format ett bord till den typiska brukaren. Resultatet blev ett hopfällbart bord som hämtat sin inspiration från naturen. Ett bord som ...

  15. Assessment of Barotrauma Resulting from Rapid Decompression of Depth Acclimated Juvenile Chinook Salmon Bearing Radio Telemetry Transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Welch, Abigail E.; Stephenson, John R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Theriault, Marie-Helene

    2007-09-06

    A multifactor study was conducted by Battelle for the US Army Corps of Engineers to assess the significance of the presence of a radio telemetry transmitter on the effects of rapid decompression from simulated hydro turbine passage on depth acclimated juvenile run-of-the-river Chinook salmon. Study factors were: (1) juvenile chinook salmon age;, subyearling or yearling, (2) radio transmitter present or absent, (3) three transmitter implantation factors: gastric, surgical, and no transmitter, and (4) four acclimation depth factors: 1, 10, 20, and 40 foot submergence equivalent absolute pressure, for a total of 48 unique treatments. Exposed fish were examined for changes in behavior, presence or absence of barotrauma injuries, and immediate or delayed mortality. Logistic models were used to test hypotheses that addressed study objectives. The presence of a radio transmitter was found to significantly increase the risk of barotrauma injury and mortality at exposure to rapid decompression. Gastric implantation was found to present a higher risk than surgical implantation. Fish were exposed within 48 hours of transmitter implantation so surgical incisions were not completely healed. The difference in results obtained for gastric and surgical implantation methods may be the result of study design and the results may have been different if tested fish had completely healed surgical wounds. However, the test did simulate the typical surgical-release time frame for in-river telemetry studies of fish survival so the results are probably representative for fish passing through a turbine shortly following release into the river. The finding of a significant difference in response to rapid decompression between fish bearing radio transmitters and those not implies a bias may exist in estimates of turbine passage survival obtained using radio telemetry. However, the rapid decompression (simulated turbine passage) conditions used for the study represented near worst case exposure

  16. Mass extinction, gradual cooling, or rapid radiation? Reconstructing the spatiotemporal evolution of the ancient angiosperm genus Hedyosmum (Chloranthaceae) using empirical and simulated approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Alexandre; Sanmartín, Isabel

    2011-10-01

    Chloranthaceae is a small family of flowering plants (65 species) with an extensive fossil record extending back to the Early Cretaceous. Within Chloranthaceae, Hedyosmum is remarkable because of its disjunct distribution--1 species in the Paleotropics and 44 confined to the Neotropics--and a long "temporal gap" between its stem age (Early Cretaceous) and the beginning of the extant radiation (late Cenozoic). Is this gap real, reflecting low diversification and a recent radiation, or the signature of extinction? Here we use paleontological data, relaxed-clock molecular dating, diversification analyses, and parametric ancestral area reconstruction to investigate the timing, tempo, and mode of diversification in Hedyosmum. Our results, based on analyses of plastid and nuclear sequences for 40 species, suggest that the ancestor of Chloranthaceae and the Hedyosmum stem lineages were widespread in the Holarctic in the Late Cretaceous. High extinction rates, possibly associated with Cenozoic climatic fluctuations, may have been responsible for the low extant diversity of the family. Crown group Hedyosmum originated c. 36-43 Ma and colonized South America from the north during the Early-Middle Miocene (c. 20 Ma). This coincided with an increase in diversification rates, probably triggered by the uplift of the Northern Andes from the Mid-Miocene onward. This study illustrates the advantages of combining paleontological, phylogenetic, and biogeographic data to reconstruct the spatiotemporal evolution of an ancient lineage, for which the extant diversity is only a remnant of past radiations. It also shows the difficulties of inferring patterns of lineage diversification when incomplete taxon sampling is combined with high extinction rates.

  17. Cryopreservation: Vitrification and Controlled Rate Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles J

    2017-01-01

    Cryopreservation is the application of low temperatures to preserve the structural and functional integrity of cells and tissues. Conventional cooling protocols allow ice to form and solute concentrations to rise during the cryopreservation process. The damage caused by the rise in solute concentration can be mitigated by the use of compounds known as cryoprotectants. Such compounds protect cells from the consequences of slow cooling injury, allowing them to be cooled at cooling rates which avoid the lethal effects of intracellular ice. An alternative to conventional cooling is vitrification. Vitrification methods incorporate cryoprotectants at sufficiently high concentrations to prevent ice crystallization so that the system forms an amorphous glass thus avoiding the damaging effects caused by conventional slow cooling. However, vitrification too can impose damaging consequences on cells as the cryoprotectant concentrations required to vitrify cells at lower cooling rates are potentially, and often, harmful. While these concentrations can be lowered to nontoxic levels, if the cells are ultra-rapidly cooled, the resulting metastable system can lead to damage through devitrification and growth of ice during subsequent storage and rewarming if not appropriately handled.The commercial and clinical application of stem cells requires robust and reproducible cryopreservation protocols and appropriate long-term, low-temperature storage conditions to provide reliable master and working cell banks. Though current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) compliant methods for the derivation and banking of clinical grade pluripotent stem cells exist and stem cell lines suitable for clinical applications are available, current cryopreservation protocols, whether for vitrification or conventional slow freezing, remain suboptimal. Apart from the resultant loss of valuable product that suboptimal cryopreservation engenders, there is a danger that such processes will impose a selective

  18. Solenoidal ionization cooling lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Fernow

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore a practical approach for designing ionization cooling channels with periodic solenoidal focusing. We examine the lattice characteristics in terms of the properties of the coils and the cell geometry. The peak magnetic field in the coils is an important engineering constraint in lattice design. We examine the dependence of the peak field, momentum passband locations, and the beta function on the coil parameters. We make a systematic examination of all allowed lattice configurations taking into account the symmetry properties of the current densities and the beta function. We introduce a unique classification for comparing cooling lattice configurations. While solutions with a single coil per cell illustrate most of the effects that are important for cooling channel design, the introduction of additional coils allows more flexibility in selecting the lattice properties. We look at example solutions for the problem of the initial transverse cooling stage of a neutrino factory or muon collider and compare our results with the properties of some published cooling lattice designs. Scaling laws are used to compare solutions from different symmetry classes.

  19. Monitoring results and analysis of thermal comfort conditions in experimental buildings for different heating systems and ventilation regimes during heating and cooling seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendelis, S.; Jakovičs, A.; Ratnieks, J.; Bandeniece, L.

    2017-10-01

    This paper focuses on the long-term monitoring of thermal comfort and discomfort parameters in five small test buildings equipped with different heating and cooling systems. Calculations of predicted percentage of dissatisfied people (PPD) index and discomfort factors are provided for the room in winter season running three different heating systems – electric heater, air-air heat pump and air-water heat pump, as well as for the summer cooling with split type air conditioning systems. It is shown that the type of heating/cooling system and its working regime has an important impact on thermal comfort conditions in observed room. Recommendations for the optimal operating regimes and choice of the heating system from the thermal comfort point of view are summarized.

  20. Cool visitors

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Pictured, from left to right: Tim Izo (saxophone, flute, guitar), Bobby Grant (tour manager), George Pajon (guitar). What do the LHC and a world-famous hip-hop group have in common? They are cool! On Saturday, 1st July, before their appearance at the Montreux Jazz Festival, three members of the 'Black Eyed Peas' came on a surprise visit to CERN, inspired by Dan Brown's Angels and Demons. At short notice, Connie Potter (Head of the ATLAS secretariat) organized a guided tour of ATLAS and the AD 'antimatter factory'. Still curious, lead vocalist Will.I.Am met CERN physicist Rolf Landua after the concert to ask many more questions on particles, CERN, and the origin of the Universe.

  1. Cool Snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm; Grunert, Klaus G; Brunsø, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Young people snack and their snacking habits are not always healthy. We address the questions whether it is possible to develop a new snack product that adolescents will find attractive, even though it is based on ingredients as healthy as fruits and vegetables, and we argue that developing...... such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  2. Experimental Progress in Fast Cooling in the ESR

    CERN Document Server

    Steck, Markus; Beller, Peter; Franzke, Bernhard; Nolden, Fritz

    2005-01-01

    The ESR storage ring at GSI is operated with highly charged heavy ions. Due to the high electric charge the ions interact much stronger with electromagnetic fields. Therefore both cooling methods which are applied to stored ions in the ESR, stochastic cooling and electron cooling, are more powerful than for singly charged particles. The experimental results exhibit cooling times for stochastic cooling of a few seconds. For cold ion beams, electron cooling provides cooling times which are one to two orders of magnitude smaller. The beams are cooled to beam parameters which are limited by intrabeam scattering. At small ion numbers, however, intrabeam scattering is suppressed by electron cooling, clear evidence was found that the ion beam forms a one-dimensional ordered structure, a linear chain of ions. The strengths of stochastic cooling and electron cooling are complementary and can be combined favorably. Stochastic cooling is employed for pre-cooling of hot secondary beams followed by electron cooling to pro...

  3. How cool is Uchimizu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcerova, Anna; van Emmerik, Tim; Hilgersom, Koen; van de Ven, Frans; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) was first described 200 years ago, but ways to mitigate heat in urban areas reach much further into the past. Uchimizu is a 17th century Japanese tradition, in which water is sprinkled around houses, temples, and in gardens to cool the ground surface and the air, and to settle the dust. Nowadays, megacities such as Tokyo are aiming to revive the - by modern technology suppressed - method, and uchimizu is promoted by local authorities as a "clever way to feel cool". Unfortunately, the number of published studies that have quantified the cooling effects of uchimizu is limited, and only uses measurements of the surface temperature, or air temperature at a single height, as a measure of the cooling effect. In this research a dense 3D Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) setup was used to measure air temperature within once cubic meter of air above an urban surface with high spatial and temporal resolution. Six experiments were performed to systematically study the effect of (1) applied water amount, (2) initial surface temperature, and (3) shading on the cooling effect of uchimizu. We present the results and the subsequent analyses of these experiments, done during summer in Delft, The Netherlands. We show that this simple water sprinkling method has the potential to decrease extreme temperatures in impervious and paved parts of urban areas considerably. Besides mitigating the UHI, uchimizu practice is also an opportunity to increase awareness among citizens, and stimulate citizen participation in solving heat stress problems and energy saving. By providing refreshing insights on the cooling effect of uchimizu, we aim to contribute to the modern revival of this old tradition.

  4. Results of IEA SHC Task 45: Large Scale Solar Heating and Cooling Systems. Subtask A: “Collectors and Collector Loop”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bava, Federico; Nielsen, Jan Erik; Knabl, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    The IEA SHC Task 45 Large Scale Solar Heating and Cooling Systems, carried out between January 2011 and December 2014, had the main objective to assist in the development of a strong and sustainable market of large solar heating systems by focusing on high performance and reliability of systems. ...

  5. Active cooling system for Tokamak in-vessel operation manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Jianjun, E-mail: yuanjj@sjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Tan; Li, Fashe; Zhang, Weijun; Du, Liang

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We summarized most of the challenges of fusion devices to robot systems. • Propose an active cooling system to protect all of the necessary components. • Trial design test and theoretical analysis were conducted. • Overall implementation of the active cooling system was demonstrated. - Abstract: In-vessel operation/inspection is an indispensable task for Tokamak experimental reactor, for a robot/manipulator is more capable in doing this than human being with more precise motion and less risk of damaging the ambient equipment. Considering the demanding conditions of Tokamak, the manipulator should be adaptable to rapid response in the extreme conditions such as high temperature, vacuum and so on. In this paper, we propose an active cooling system embedded into such manipulator. Cameras, motors, gearboxes, sensors, and other mechanical/electrical components could then be designed under ordinary conditions. The cooling system cannot only be a thermal shield since the components are also heat sources in dynamics. We carry out a trial test to verify our proposal, and analyze the active cooling system theoretically, which gives a direction on the optimization by varying design parameters, components and distribution. And based on thermal sensors monitoring and water flow adjusting a closed-loop feedback control of temperature is added to the system. With the preliminary results, we believe that the proposal gives a way to robust and inexpensive design in extreme environment. Further work will concentrate on overall implementation and evaluation of this cooling system with the whole inspection manipulator.

  6. The learning curve is rapid in medical termination of pregnancy--first-year results from the Helsinki area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Satu; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Tikka, Marja; Haukkamaa, Maija

    2003-03-01

    Medical termination of pregnancy by means of mifepristone and prostaglandin became available in Finland in May 2000. We summarize the first year results of medical abortion in a large tertiary care unit in Helsinki. A regimen of 200 mg of mifepristone followed by 0.4 mg vaginally administered misoprostol 2 days later was used. The maximum duration of pregnancy was 56 days. Four hundred and seventeen women, 47% of those with a pregnancy duration of up to 56 days, chose medical instead of surgical abortion. The monthly percentage of medical abortions varied from 27% to 63%. The percentage of complete terminations increased from 92% among the first quarter of the subjects to 97% among the fourth quarter, the overall success rate being 95%. Subject satisfaction, duration and self-estimated amount of bleeding, as well as analgesia needs were similar to those reported elsewhere. Most subjects (61%) chose combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills for future contraception; 75% of the COCs were started around the day of misoprostol administration. The reported amounts and duration of bleeding were not influenced by the immediate start of oral contraceptives. Intrauterine contraception was planned for 28% of the subjects, and 16% of them chose a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device. We conclude that the learning curve in medical termination of pregnancy is rapid, and results comparable to those in centers with extensive experience with the method can be reached within the first year.

  7. Experimental evaluation of cooling efficiency of the high performance cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Patrik, E-mail: patrik.nemec@fstroj.uniza.sk; Malcho, Milan, E-mail: milan.malcho@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)

    2016-06-30

    This work deal with experimental evaluation of cooling efficiency of cooling device capable transfer high heat fluxes from electric elements to the surrounding. The work contain description of cooling device, working principle of cooling device, construction of cooling device. Experimental part describe the measuring method of device cooling efficiency evaluation. The work results are presented in graphic visualization of temperature dependence of the contact area surface between cooling device evaporator and electronic components on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 740 W and temperature dependence of the loop thermosiphon condenser surface on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 740 W.

  8. The effectiveness of cooling conditions on temperature of canine EDTA whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Tobias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Preanalytic factors such as time and temperature can have significant effects on laboratory test results. For example, ammonium concentration will increase 31% in blood samples stored at room temperature for 30 min before centrifugation. To reduce preanalytic error, blood samples may be placed in precooled tubes and chilled on ice or in ice water baths; however, the effectiveness of these modalities in cooling blood samples has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various cooling modalities on reducing temperature of EDTA whole blood samples. Methods Pooled samples of canine EDTA whole blood were divided into two aliquots. Saline was added to one aliquot to produce a packed cell volume (PCV of 40% and to the second aliquot to produce a PCV of 20% (simulated anemia. Thirty samples from each aliquot were warmed to 37.7 °C and cooled in 2 ml allotments under one of three conditions: in ice, in ice after transfer to a precooled tube, or in an ice water bath. Temperature of each sample was recorded at one minute intervals for 15 min. Results Within treatment conditions, sample PCV had no significant effect on cooling. Cooling in ice water was significantly faster than cooling in ice only or transferring the sample to a precooled tube and cooling it on ice. Mean temperature of samples cooled in ice water was significantly lower at 15 min than mean temperatures of those cooled in ice, whether or not the tube was precooled. By 4 min, samples cooled in an ice water bath had reached mean temperatures less than 4 °C (refrigeration temperature, while samples cooled in other conditions remained above 4.0 °C for at least 11 min. For samples with a PCV of 40%, precooling the tube had no significant effect on rate of cooling on ice. For samples with a PCV of 20%, transfer to a precooled tube resulted in a significantly faster rate of cooling than direct placement of the warmed tube onto ice

  9. Renewable Heating and Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  10. A rapid review examining purchasing changes resulting from fiscal measures targeted at high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Katharine E; Ells, Louisa J; McGowan, Victoria J; Machaira, Theodora; Targett, Victoria C; Allen, Rachel E; Tedstone, Alison E

    2017-12-15

    To aim of the review was to examine the most recent (2010 onwards) research evidence on the health and behavioural impacts, in adults and children, of fiscal strategies that target high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks (SSDs). A pragmatic rapid review was undertaken using a systematic search strategy. The review was part of a programme of work to support policy development in relation to high sugar food and SSDs. A total of 11 primary research publications were included, describing evidence from France (n = 1), the Netherlands (n = 3), and the United States of America (n = 7), assessed through a variety of study designs, with the majority in adult populations (n = 10). The evidence reviewed focused on consumer behaviour outcomes and suggested that fiscal strategies can influence purchases of high sugar products. Although the majority of studies (n = 10), including three field studies, demonstrated that an increase in the price of high sugar foods and SSDs resulted in a decrease in purchases, eight studies were conducted in a laboratory or virtual setting which may not reflect real-life situations.Findings from this review support evidence from the broader literature that suggests that fiscal measures can be effective in influencing the purchasing of high sugar foods and SSDs.

  11. Performance of rapid diagnostic tests for imported malaria in clinical practice: results of a national multicenter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Houzé

    Full Text Available We compared the performance of four rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs for imported malaria, and particularly Plasmodium falciparum infection, using thick and thin blood smears as the gold standard. All the tests are designed to detect at least one protein specific to P. falciparum (Plasmodium histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2 or Plasmodium LDH (PfLDH and one pan-Plasmodium protein (aldolase or Plasmodium LDH (pLDH. 1,311 consecutive patients presenting to 9 French hospitals with suspected malaria were included in this prospective study between April 2006 and September 2008. Blood smears revealed malaria parasites in 374 cases (29%. For the diagnosis of P. falciparum infection, the three tests detecting PfHRP2 showed high and similar sensitivity (96%, positive predictive value (PPV (90% and negative predictive value (NPV (98%. The PfLDH test showed lower sensitivity (83% and NPV (80%, despite good PPV (98%. For the diagnosis of non-falciparum species, the PPV and NPV of tests targeting pLDH or aldolase were 94-99% and 52-64%, respectively. PfHRP2-based RDTs are thus an acceptable alternative to routine microscopy for diagnosing P. falciparum malaria. However, as malaria may be misdiagnosed with RDTs, all negative results must be confirmed by the reference diagnostic method when clinical, biological or other factors are highly suggestive of malaria.

  12. Performance of rapid diagnostic tests for imported malaria in clinical practice: results of a national multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, Sandrine; Boutron, Isabelle; Marmorat, Anne; Dalichampt, Marie; Choquet, Christophe; Poilane, Isabelle; Godineau, Nadine; Le Guern, Anne-Sophie; Thellier, Marc; Broutier, Hélène; Fenneteau, Odile; Millet, Pascal; Dulucq, Stéphanie; Hubert, Véronique; Houzé, Pascal; Tubach, Florence; Le Bras, Jacques; Matheron, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    We compared the performance of four rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for imported malaria, and particularly Plasmodium falciparum infection, using thick and thin blood smears as the gold standard. All the tests are designed to detect at least one protein specific to P. falciparum (Plasmodium histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) or Plasmodium LDH (PfLDH)) and one pan-Plasmodium protein (aldolase or Plasmodium LDH (pLDH)). 1,311 consecutive patients presenting to 9 French hospitals with suspected malaria were included in this prospective study between April 2006 and September 2008. Blood smears revealed malaria parasites in 374 cases (29%). For the diagnosis of P. falciparum infection, the three tests detecting PfHRP2 showed high and similar sensitivity (96%), positive predictive value (PPV) (90%) and negative predictive value (NPV) (98%). The PfLDH test showed lower sensitivity (83%) and NPV (80%), despite good PPV (98%). For the diagnosis of non-falciparum species, the PPV and NPV of tests targeting pLDH or aldolase were 94-99% and 52-64%, respectively. PfHRP2-based RDTs are thus an acceptable alternative to routine microscopy for diagnosing P. falciparum malaria. However, as malaria may be misdiagnosed with RDTs, all negative results must be confirmed by the reference diagnostic method when clinical, biological or other factors are highly suggestive of malaria.

  13. The Subclonal Architecture of Metastatic Breast Cancer: Results from a Prospective Community-Based Rapid Autopsy Program “CASCADE”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flensburg, Christoffer; Alsop, Kathryn; Mansour, Mariam; Francis, Prudence A.; Thorne, Heather A.; Silva, Maria Joao; Kanu, Nnennaya; Dietzen, Michelle; Bowtell, David D.; Speed, Terence P.; Swanton, Charles; Loi, Sherene

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the cancer genome is seen as a key step in improving outcomes for cancer patients. Genomic assays are emerging as a possible avenue to personalised medicine in breast cancer. However, evolution of the cancer genome during the natural history of breast cancer is largely unknown, as is the profile of disease at death. We sought to study in detail these aspects of advanced breast cancers that have resulted in lethal disease. Methods and Findings Three patients with oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer and one patient with triple negative breast cancer underwent rapid autopsy as part of an institutional prospective community-based rapid autopsy program (CASCADE). Cases represented a range of management problems in breast cancer, including late relapse after early stage disease, de novo metastatic disease, discordant disease response, and disease refractory to treatment. Between 5 and 12 metastatic sites were collected at autopsy together with available primary tumours and longitudinal metastatic biopsies taken during life. Samples underwent paired tumour-normal whole exome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Subclonal architectures were inferred by jointly analysing all samples from each patient. Mutations were validated using high depth amplicon sequencing. Between cases, there were significant differences in mutational burden, driver mutations, mutational processes, and copy number variation. Within each case, we found dramatic heterogeneity in subclonal structure from primary to metastatic disease and between metastatic sites, such that no single lesion captured the breadth of disease. Metastatic cross-seeding was found in each case, and treatment drove subclonal diversification. Subclones displayed parallel evolution of treatment resistance in some cases and apparent augmentation of key oncogenic drivers as an alternative resistance mechanism. We

  14. The Subclonal Architecture of Metastatic Breast Cancer: Results from a Prospective Community-Based Rapid Autopsy Program "CASCADE".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Peter; Teo, Zhi Ling; Lefevre, Christophe; Flensburg, Christoffer; Caramia, Franco; Alsop, Kathryn; Mansour, Mariam; Francis, Prudence A; Thorne, Heather A; Silva, Maria Joao; Kanu, Nnennaya; Dietzen, Michelle; Rowan, Andrew; Kschischo, Maik; Fox, Stephen; Bowtell, David D; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Speed, Terence P; Swanton, Charles; Loi, Sherene

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the cancer genome is seen as a key step in improving outcomes for cancer patients. Genomic assays are emerging as a possible avenue to personalised medicine in breast cancer. However, evolution of the cancer genome during the natural history of breast cancer is largely unknown, as is the profile of disease at death. We sought to study in detail these aspects of advanced breast cancers that have resulted in lethal disease. Three patients with oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer and one patient with triple negative breast cancer underwent rapid autopsy as part of an institutional prospective community-based rapid autopsy program (CASCADE). Cases represented a range of management problems in breast cancer, including late relapse after early stage disease, de novo metastatic disease, discordant disease response, and disease refractory to treatment. Between 5 and 12 metastatic sites were collected at autopsy together with available primary tumours and longitudinal metastatic biopsies taken during life. Samples underwent paired tumour-normal whole exome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Subclonal architectures were inferred by jointly analysing all samples from each patient. Mutations were validated using high depth amplicon sequencing. Between cases, there were significant differences in mutational burden, driver mutations, mutational processes, and copy number variation. Within each case, we found dramatic heterogeneity in subclonal structure from primary to metastatic disease and between metastatic sites, such that no single lesion captured the breadth of disease. Metastatic cross-seeding was found in each case, and treatment drove subclonal diversification. Subclones displayed parallel evolution of treatment resistance in some cases and apparent augmentation of key oncogenic drivers as an alternative resistance mechanism. We also observed the role of

  15. Pandemic influenza preparedness and health systems challenges in Asia: results from rapid analyses in 6 Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putthasri Weerasak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003, Asia-Pacific, particularly Southeast Asia, has received substantial attention because of the anticipation that it could be the epicentre of the next pandemic. There has been active investment but earlier review of pandemic preparedness plans in the region reveals that the translation of these strategic plans into operational plans is still lacking in some countries particularly those with low resources. The objective of this study is to understand the pandemic preparedness programmes, the health systems context, and challenges and constraints specific to the six Asian countries namely Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Taiwan, Thailand, and Viet Nam in the prepandemic phase before the start of H1N1/2009. Methods The study relied on the Systemic Rapid Assessment (SYSRA toolkit, which evaluates priority disease programmes by taking into account the programmes, the general health system, and the wider socio-cultural and political context. The components under review were: external context; stewardship and organisational arrangements; financing, resource generation and allocation; healthcare provision; and information systems. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in the second half of 2008 based on a review of published data and interviews with key informants, exploring past and current patterns of health programme and pandemic response. Results The study shows that health systems in the six countries varied in regard to the epidemiological context, health care financing, and health service provision patterns. For pandemic preparation, all six countries have developed national governance on pandemic preparedness as well as national pandemic influenza preparedness plans and Avian and Human Influenza (AHI response plans. However, the governance arrangements and the nature of the plans differed. In the five developing countries, the focus was on surveillance and rapid containment of poultry related transmission

  16. Cooling of Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorian H.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the theoretical basis for modeling the cooling evolution of compact stars starting from Boltzmann equations in curved space-time. We open a discussion on observational verification of different neutron star models by consistent statistics. Particular interest has the question of existence of quark matter deep inside of compact object, which has to have a specific influence on the cooling history of the star. Besides of consideration of several constraints and features of cooling evolution, which are susceptible of being critical for internal structure of hot compact stars we have introduced a method of extraction of the mass distribution of the neutron stars from temperature and age data. The resulting mass distribution has been compared with the one suggested by supernove simulations. This method can be considered as an additional checking tool for the consistency of theoretical modeling of neutron stars. We conclude that the cooling data allowed existence of neutron stars with quark cores even with one-flavor quark matter.

  17. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    2001-05-13

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling.

  18. A comparison of microwave ablation and bipolar radiofrequency ablation both with an internally cooled probe: Results in ex vivo and in vivo porcine livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Jie, E-mail: bqyjbb@sina.com.cn [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Liang Ping, E-mail: liangping301@hotmail.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Yu Xiaoling, E-mail: dyuxl301@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Liu Fangyi, E-mail: fangyi0317@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Chen Lei, E-mail: Chenlei301@hotmail.com [Department of Otolaryngology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Wang Yang, E-mail: wangyang301@hotmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of microwave (MW) ablation and radiofrequency (RF) ablation using a single internally cooled probe in a hepatic porcine model. Materials and methods: In the ex vivo experiment, MW ablations (n = 40) were performed with a 2450 MHz and 915 MHz needle antenna, respectively at 60 W, 70 W power settings. Bipolar RF ablations (n = 20) were performed with a 3-cm (T30) and 4-cm (T40) active tip needle electrodes, respectively at a rated power 30 W and 40 W according to automatically systematic power setting. In the in vivo experiment, the 2450 MHz and 915 MHz MW ablation both at 60 W and T30 bipolar RF ablation at 30 W were performed (n = 30). All of the application time were 10 min. Long-axis diameter (Dl), short-axis diameter (Ds), ratio of Ds/Dl, the temperature data 5 mm from the needle and the time of temperature 5 mm from the needle rising to 54 deg. C were measured. Results: Both in ex vivo and in vivo models, Ds and Dl of 915 MHz MW ablations were significantly larger than all the RF ablations (P < 0.05); the Ds for all the 2450 MHz MW ablations were significantly larger than that of T30 RF ablations (P < 0.05). 2450 MHz MW and T30 RF ablation tended to produce more elliptical-shaped ablation zone. Tissue temperatures 5 mm from the needle were considerably higher with MW ablation, meanwhile MW ablation achieved significantly faster rate of temperature rising to 54 deg. C than RF ablation. For in vivo study after 10 min of ablation, the Ds and Dl of 2450 MHz MW, 915 MHz MW and Bipolar RF were 2.35 {+-} 0.75, 2.95 {+-} 0.32, 1.61 {+-} 0.33 and 3.86 {+-} 0.81, 5.79 {+-} 1.03, 3.21 {+-} 0.51, respectively. Highest tissue temperatures 5 mm from the needle were 80.07 {+-} 12.82 deg. C, 89.07 {+-} 3.52 deg. C and 65.56 {+-} 15.31 deg. C and the time of temperature rising to 54 deg. C were respectively 37.50 {+-} 7.62 s, 24.50 {+-} 4.09 s and 57.29 {+-} 23.24 s for three applicators. Conclusion: MW

  19. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system; 1976 nendo taiyonetsu reidanbo kyuto system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1974-76 research result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems. Research was made on survey and analysis of current R and D states, system analysis, energy impact analysis, installation sites of solar collectors, diffusion policy, profitability, and performance evaluation method. Main research results obtained are as follows. The effect of solar cooling/heating and hot water supply on the Japanese energy demand in 2000 is estimated to be 13% for residences and 5% for the other buildings. Environment pollution derived from solar cooling/heating is extremely less than that from conventional energy quantitatively. The facility cost is estimated to be probably 27,000yen/m{sup 2} in collector cost, and nearly 100,000yen/t in heat storage tank cost. As design data for solar cooling/heating systems, the estimation method of heat collection for every solar radiation rank, performance comparison of honeycomb type collectors, and various data for air heat collection systems are presented. (NEDO)

  20. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  1. Rapid diagnostic tests failing to detect Plasmodium falciparum infections in Eritrea: an investigation of reported false negative RDT results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Araia; Russom, Mulugeta; Bahta, Iyassu; Hagos, Filmon; Ghirmai, Michael; Uqubay, Selam

    2017-03-06

    Relatively large number of false-negative malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) results for microscopically confirmed Plasmodium falciparum cases were reported from five of the six administrative regions of Eritrea in 2015. This activated the Ministry of Health to conduct an initial exploratory investigation. The main objective of the investigation was to confirm the sensitivity of the RDTs in the field in microscopically confirmed malaria cases, identify the possible causes of the failure and recommend further actions to be taken. A team composed of the National Malaria Control Programme, National Medicines and Food Administration and Laboratory Unit of the Ministry of Health was established to confirm the sensitivity of the SD Bioline® RDTs. A 'Malaria RDT quality monitoring form' was prepared and distributed to 13 health facilities selected on availability of microscopy services, experienced laboratory personnel and malaria endemicity, to carry out preliminary investigation on the suspected RDT quality defect. In parallel, field visits to central and regional medical warehouses as well as selected health facilities were conducted to assess the storage conditions, handling and operator procedures. Furthermore, joint field assessment was conducted with the manufacturer, SD Bioline RDTs. During the time frame of 15 July 2015 to 19 January 2016, 65 microscopically confirmed patients were tested with Malaria RDTs SD Bioline Pf/Pv/Mixed Combo cassettes. A total of 65 blood specimens (50 P. falciparum, 13 Plasmodium vivax and 2 mixed) confirmed microscopically were tested against the available lots of malaria RDTs. Out of the 50 P. falciparum infected blood specimens, only 10 were confirmed positive with all the lots of PfHRP-2 detecting RDTs making the false negativity rate at 80% [41/51]. The false negative result for RDT targeting PfHRP2 antigen ranged from 65% [11/17] in Gash Barka region to 100% [12/12] in Northern Red Sea Region. In addition, supervisory visits

  2. Use of rapid HIV assays as supplemental tests in specimens with repeatedly reactive screening immunoassay results not confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Delaney, Kevin P; Meyer, William A; Blatt, Amy J; Bennett, Berry; Chavez, Pollyanna; Granade, Timothy C; Owen, Michele

    2013-09-01

    An alternate HIV testing algorithm has been proposed which includes a fourth-generation immunoassay followed by an HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation supplemental test for reactive specimens and a nucleic acid test (NAT) for specimens with discordant results. To evaluate the performance of five rapid tests (Alere Clearview, Bio-Rad Multispot, OraSure OraQuick, MedMira Reveal, and Trinity Biotech Unigold) as the supplemental antibody assay in the algorithm. A total of 3273 serum and plasma specimens that were third-generation immunoassay repeatedly reactive and Western blot (WB) negative or indeterminate were tested with rapid tests and NAT. Specimens were classified by NAT: (1) HIV-1 infected (NAT-reactive; n=184, 5.6%), (2) HIV-status unknown (NAT nonreactive; n=3078, 94.2%) or by Multispot, (3) HIV-2 positive (n=5), and (4) HIV-1 and HIV-2 positive (n=6). Excluding HIV-2 positive specimens, we calculated the proportion of reactive rapid tests among specimens with reactive and nonreactive NAT. The proportion of infected specimens with reactive rapid test results and negative or indeterminate WB ranged from 30.4% (56) to 47.8% (88) depending on the rapid test. From 1% to 2% of NAT-negative specimens had reactive rapid test results. In these diagnostically challenging specimens, all rapid tests identified infections that were missed by the Western blot, but only Multispot could differentiate HIV-1 from HIV-2. Regardless of which rapid test is used as a supplemental test in the alternative algorithm, false-positive algorithm results (i.e., reactive screening and rapid test in uninfected person) may occur, which will need to be resolved during the baseline medical evaluation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Imaging of acute pulmonary embolism using a dual energy CT system with rapid kVp switching: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, Lucas L., E-mail: Lucas.Geyer@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Scherr, Michael, E-mail: michael.scherr@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Körner, Markus, E-mail: markus.koerner@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Wirth, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.wirth@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Deak, Paul, E-mail: paul.deak@ge.com [GE Healthcare, Oskar-Schlemmer-Straße 11, 80807 Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F., E-mail: maximilian.reiser@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Linsenmaier, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.linsenmaier@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is considered as clinical gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE). Whereas conventional CTPA only offers anatomic information, dual energy CT (DECT) provides functional information on blood volume as surrogate of perfusion by assessing the pulmonary iodine distribution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of lung perfusion imaging using a single-tube DECT scanner with rapid kVp switching. Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with suspicion of acute PE underwent DECT. Two experienced radiologists assessed the CTPA images and lung perfusion maps regarding the presence of PE. The image quality was rated using a semi-quantitative 5-point scale: 1 (=excellent) to 5 (=non-diagnostic). Iodine concentrations were quantified by a ROI analysis. Results: Seventy perfusion defects were identified in 266 lung segments: 13 (19%) were rated as consistent with PE. Five patients had signs of PE at CTPA. All patients with occlusive clots were correctly identified by DECT perfusion maps. On a per patient basis the sensitivity and specificity were 80.0% and 88.9%, respectively, while on a per segment basis it was 40.0% and 97.6%, respectively. None of the patients with a homogeneous perfusion map had an abnormal CTPA. The overall image quality of the perfusion maps was rated with a mean score of 2.6 ± 0.6. There was a significant ventrodorsal gradient of the median iodine concentrations (1.1 mg/cm{sup 3} vs. 1.7 mg/cm{sup 3}). Conclusion: Lung perfusion imaging on a DE CT-system with fast kVp-switching is feasible. DECT might be a helpful adjunct to assess the clinical severity of PE.

  4. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Singh Senjam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI due to uncorrected refractive error (URE and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA was assessed in each eye using Snellen's "E" chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was <20/60 in either eye and ocular examination to ascertain the cause of VI. Barriers to utilization of services for refractive error were recorded with questionnaires. Results: Of 2421 individuals enumerated, 2331 (96% individuals were examined. Females were 50.7% among them. The mean age of all examined subjects was 51.32 ± 10.5 years (standard deviation. VI in either eye due to URE was present in 275 individuals (11.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.5-13.1. URE was identified as the most common cause (53.4% of VI. The overall prevalence of VI due to URE in the study population was 6.1% (95% CI: 5.1-7.0. The elder population as well as females were more likely to have VI due to URE (odds ratio [OR] = 12.3; P < 0.001 and OR = 1.5; P < 0.02. Lack of felt need was the most common reported barrier (31.5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of VI due to URE among the urban adult population of Delhi is still high despite the availability of abundant eye care facilities. The majority of reported barriers are related to human behavior and attitude toward the refractive error. Understanding these aspects will help in planning appropriate strategies to eliminate VI due to URE.

  5. Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (US); Clark, N.

    2000-11-07

    In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative fuels, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG fueling stations.

  6. CLIC inner detectors cooling simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Ramos, F.; Villarejo Bermudez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The strict requirements in terms of material budget for the inner region of the CLIC detector concepts require the use of a dry gas for the cooling of the respective sen- sors. This, in conjunction with the compactness of the inner volumes, poses several challenges for the design of a cooling system that is able to fulfil the required detec- tor specifications. This note introduces a detector cooling strategy using dry air as a coolant and shows the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations used to validate the proposed strategy.

  7. CO$_2$ cooling experience (LHCb)

    CERN Document Server

    Van Lysebetten, Ann; Verlaat, Bart

    2007-01-01

    The thermal control system of the LHCb VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a two-phase C0$_2$ cooling system based on the 2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) method. Liquid carbon dioxide is mechanically pumped in a closed loop, chilled by a water-cooled freon chiller and evaporated in the VELO detector. The main goal of the system is the permanent cooling of the VELO silicon sensors and of the heat producing front-end electronics inside a vacuum environment. This paper describes the design and the performance of the system. First results obtained during commissioning are also presented.

  8. Influence of cryogenic cooling rate on mechanical properties of tool steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, G.; Ladizhensky, I.; Shapiro, A.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of the rapid cryogenic treatment on hardness and wear resistance of several kinds of tool steel was examined. Two ways of cryogenic cooling were evaluated: direct immersion of the metallic samples into liquid nitrogen and three-stage rapid cryogenic cooling (1 - precooling in LN2 to -20°C, 2 - formation on the sample of a frost layer from air by natural humidity, 3 - second cooling of the frost-covered sample in LN2 to -195.7°C). Material in “as is” conditions and after a preliminary heat treatment (850°C) were used as the reference points. The HV microhardness and the wear rate under dry abrasive friction were evaluated. Despite the very different types of the examined metals’ nature, microstructure, and hardening mechanisms, the rapid cryogenic cooling improves both the hardness and the wear resistance values. For all investigated metals rapid cryogenic cooling assisted with the frost layer produces the best results.

  9. Results of Pulse-Scaling Experiments on Rapid-Growth DKDP Triplers Using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runkel, M; Burnham, A K; Milam, D; Sell, W; Feit, M; Rubenchik, A

    2000-12-11

    Results are reported from recently performed bulk-damage, pulse-scaling experiments on DKDP tripler samples taken from NIF-size, rapid-growth boule BD7. The tests were performed on LLNL's Optical Sciences Laser. A matrix of samples was exposed to single shots at 351 mn (3 {omega}) with average fluences from 4 to 8 J/cm{sup 2} for pulse durations of 1, 3 and 10 ns. The damage sites were scatter-mapped after testing to determine the damage evolution as a function of local beam fluence. The average bulk damage microcavity (pinpoint) density varied nearly linearly with fluence with peak values of approximately 16,000 pp/mm{sup 3} at 1 ns, 10,000 pp/mm{sup 3} at 3 ns and 400 pp/mm{sup 3} at 10 ns for fluences in the 8-10 J/cm{sup 2} range. The average size of a pinpoint was 10(+14,-9) {micro}m at 1 ns, 37 {+-} 20 {micro}m at 3 ns and {approx} 110 {micro}m at 10 ns, although all pulse durations produced pinpoints with a wide distribution of sizes. Analysis of the pinpoint density data yielded pulse-scaling behavior of t{sup 0.35}. Significant planar cracking around the pinpoint as was observed for the 10 ns case but not for the 1 and 3 ns pulses. Crack formation around pinpoints has also been observed frequently for Zeus ADT tests at {approx}8 ns. The high pinpoint densities also lead to significant eruption of near-surface bulk damage. Measurements of the damage site area for surface and bulk gave ratios (A{sub surf}/A{sub bulk}) of 2:1 at 1 ns, 7:1 at 3 ns and 110:1 at 10 ns. Maximum aperture averaged transmission losses on the order 15 percent have been measured by photometry for the worst damage at 1 and 3 ns for beam fluences in the 8-10 J/cm{sup 2} range. Analysis of this data yielded a pulse-scaling behavior of t{sup 0.25} for the obscured area. It was also determined that the crystals used in this test would survive unconditioned exposure to 4 J/cm{sup 2} shots on the NIF laser and still meet the obscuration requirement of 0.1%.

  10. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Suraj Singh Senjam; Praveen Vashist; Noopur Gupta; Sumit Malhotra; Vasundhara Misra; Amit Bhardwaj; Vivek Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) due to uncorrected refractive error (URE) and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was assessed in each eye using Snellen's E chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was

  11. Effects of rapid temperature fluctuations prior to breeding on reproductive efficiency in replacement gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, we determined that rapidly cooling pigs after acute heat stress (HS) resulted in a pathological condition, and because rapid temperature fluctuations are often associated with reduced reproductive success in sows it lends itself to the hypothesis that these conditions may be linked. Study ...

  12. The influence of cooling rate on the microstructure of stainless steel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, J.W.

    1988-09-01

    The emergence of high energy density welding, laser surface modification and rapid solidification as commonly used metallurgical processing techniques has greatly increased the range of cooling rates that can be accessed during the solidification of metals and alloys. The microstructures which develop during these rapid cooling conditions may be significantly different from those which develop during low cooling rate conditions as the result of access to new metastable phases with the additional kinetic limitations that accompany rapid solidification. This investigation explores the influence of cooling rate on a series of seven ternary alloys which span the line of two-fold saturation in the Fe-Ni-Cr system. High speed electron beam surface melting was used to resolidify these alloys at scan speeds up to 5 m/s. The resulting cooling rates were estimated from dendrite arm spacing measurements and were confirmed by heat flow modeling to vary from 7 /times/ 10/sup 0/ /degree/C/s to 8 /times/ 10/sup 6/ /degree/C/s. The microstructures that developed from each solidification condition were examined using optical metallography, electron microprobe analysis, scanning electron microscopy and a vibrating sample magnetometer. These results were used to create diagrams to predict the primary mode of solidification, the ferrite content and the complex microstructural morphologies which develop as a function of interface velocity and composition. 158 refs., 90 figs., 45 tabs.

  13. Analysis of annual cooling energy requirements for glazed academic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, S.A. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hassan, A.H. [Vinyl Chloride Malaysia Sdn Bhd, Terengganu (Malaysia). Dept. of Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Malaysia experienced rapid increase in energy consumption in the last decade due to its high economic growth and increase in the standard living of household. Energy is becoming more costly and the situation is worsened by the global warming as a result of greenhouse gas emission. A more efficient energy usage and significant reduction in the released emission is therefore required. Space cooling with the use of air conditioners is practiced all year round in Malaysia and this accounts for 42% of total electricity energy consumption for commercial buildings and 30% of residential buildings. Reduction in the energy used for cooling in the built environment is a vital step to energy conservation in Malaysia. The objective of the present study was to analyze the annual cooling energy of highly glazed academic buildings which are located in a university in Malaysia. The outcome of the study would enable further remedial actions in reducing the energy consumption of the buildings' air conditioning system. The study is conducted by computer simulation using EnergyPlus software to calculate the cooling energy of a selected building or area. Comparison is made against the rated equipment load (i.e., the air handling unit) installed in the buildings. Since the buildings in the present study are not constructed parallel to each other the effect of building orientations with respect to the sun positions are also studied. The implications of shades such as venetian blind on the cooling energy are investigated in assessing their effectiveness in reducing the cooling energy, apart from providing thermal comfort to the occupants. In the aspect of operation, the present study includes the effects of reducing the set point air temperature and infiltration of outdoor air due to doors that are left open by the occupants. It is found from the present study that there are significant potentials for savings in the cooling energy of the buildings.

  14. Ice for air cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, J.

    1987-04-09

    The first ice plant on an industrial scale came into service at Harmony goldmine in November 1985. This surface installation has a refrigeration output of about 5.2 MW, corresponding to 1000 t/d of ice. The ice melting tank is at a depth of 1088m. The planning and construction of this first industrial-scale ice plant were based on the result obtained from a research project which gave particular emphasis to investigating the problems related to the transport of ice in pipelines and to the ice-to-water heat transfer in ice-melting tanks. The particular advantage of ice as a coolant is that the mass circulation needed with ice is five times less than with water. It is claimed that, in the circumstances which are specific to Harmony mine, ice cooling is economically viable at a depth of only 1,100 m or thereabouts; however, calculations for very powerful cooling systems have shown that ice has a cost advantage over water + Pelton turbines only at depths of 3,000 m or more. Cost comparisons apart, this ice plant is useful for the testing of technology and safety in the production, transport and melting of the ice and prepares the way for a powerful ice cooling system which will work at great depths. 6 references.

  15. Restaurant Food Cooling Practices†

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, LAURA GREEN; RIPLEY, DANNY; BLADE, HENRY; REIMANN, DAVE; EVERSTINE, KAREN; NICHOLAS, DAVE; EGAN, JESSICA; KOKTAVY, NICOLE; QUILLIAM, DANIELA N.

    2017-01-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014

  16. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjam, Suraj Singh; Vashist, Praveen; Gupta, Noopur; Malhotra, Sumit; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit; Gupta, Vivek

    2016-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) due to uncorrected refractive error (URE) and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi. A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was assessed in each eye using Snellen's "E" chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was attitude toward the refractive error. Understanding these aspects will help in planning appropriate strategies to eliminate VI due to URE.

  17. Adiabatic Cooling of Antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielse, G; McConnell, R; Richerme, P; Kalra, R; Novitski, E; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zielinski, M; Fitzakerley, D; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Mullers, A; Walz, J

    2011-01-01

    Adiabatic cooling is shown to be a simple and effective method to cool many charged particles in a trap to very low temperatures. Up to 3 x 10(6) (p) over bar are cooled to 3.5 K-10(3) times more cold (p) over bar and a 3 times lower (p) over bar temperature than previously reported. A second cooling method cools (p) over bar plasmas via the synchrotron radiation of embedded (p) over bar (with many fewer (p) over bar than (p) over bar) in preparation for adiabatic cooling. No (p) over bar are lost during either process-a significant advantage for rare particles.

  18. In-vessel Retention Strategy for High Power Reactors - K-INERI Final Report (includes SBLB Test Results for Task 3 on External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) Boiling Data and CHF Enhancement Correlations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. B. Cheung; J. Yang; M. B. Dizon; J. Rempe

    2005-01-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Westinghouse Advanced 600 MWe PWR (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing LWRs. However, it is not clear that currently proposed external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) without additional enhancements could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe). Hence, a collaborative, three-year, U.S. - Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project was completed in which the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Seoul National University (SNU), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) investigated the performance of ERVC and an in-vessel core catcher (IVCC) to determine if IVR is feasible for reactors up to 1500 MWe.

  19. Experimental results and modeling of poultry carcass cooling by water immersion Resultados experimentais e modelagem do resfriamento de carcaças de frango por imersão em água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Augusto Mattar Carciofi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry carcasses have to be chilled to reduce the central breast temperatures from approximately 40 to 4 °C, which is crucial to ensure safe products. This work investigated the cooling of poultry carcasses by water immersion. Poultry carcasses were taken directly from an industrial processing plant and cooled in a pilot chiller, which was built to investigate the influence of the method and the water stirring intensity on the carcasses cooling. A simplified empiric mathematical model was used to represent the experimental results. These results indicated clearly that the understanding and quantification of heat transfer between the carcass and the cooling water is crucial to improve processes and equipment. The proposed mathematical model is a useful tool to represent the dynamics of carcasses cooling, and it can be used to compare different chiller operational conditions in industrial plants. Therefore, this study reports data and a simple mathematical tool to handle an industrial problem with little information available in the literature.As carcaças de aves devem ser rapidamente resfriadas reduzindo a temperatura do centro do músculo peitoral de aproximadamente 40 a 4 °C, o que é crucial para garantir inocuidade do produto. Este trabalho avaliou o resfriamento de carcaças de frango através da imersão em água. As carcaças foram coletadas diretamente da linha de processamento industrial e resfriadas em um tanque piloto de resfriamento construído para avaliar a influência do método e da intensidade da agitação da água no resfriamento das carcaças. Um modelo matemático simplificado foi utilizado para representar os resultados experimentais. Estes resultados indicaram claramente que a compreensão e a quantificação da transferência de calor entre as carcaças e a água de resfriamento são essenciais para a melhoria dos processos e equipamentos. O modelo matemático proposto é uma ferramenta útil para representar a din

  20. Intrinsic Evaporative Cooling by Hygroscopic Earth Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rempel, Alexandra; Rempel, Alan

    2016-01-01

    .... Diverse evaporative cooling strategies have resulted worldwide, including roof ponds and sprinklers, courtyard fountains, wind catchers with qanats, irrigated green roofs, and fan-assisted evaporative coolers...

  1. Cook & Chill - Rapid Chilling of Food 'in situ'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Rapid cooling of products is of increasing importance for food preservation and for industrial processes. Slurry ice (Binary Ice) is a two-phase cooling fluid consisting of suspended ice crystals in an aqueous solution or mixture. Latent energy contained in the fluid yields rapid cooling which...

  2. Cooling of chiller condensers by district cooling in supermarkets; Kylning av kylmaskiners kondensorer med fjaerrkyla i livsmedelsbutiker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund Stignor, Caroline [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Cooling of the chiller condensers in supermarkets can be performed in different ways. To start with, the condensers can be cooled by use of outdoor air in dry coolers, but the ventilation air can also perform the cooling, totally or partially. In such a way the total or a part of the heating demand of the supermarket might be covered. A third alternative for condenser cooling is use of district cooling. However, in such a case the possibility to heat the supermarket by heat recovery is lost. The purpose of this study is to outline when district cooling offers the most advantageous alternative for condenser cooling in comparison to the other alternatives. This assessment is to be performed taking costs, electricity use and environmental impact into consideration separately. The results from calculations for a case supermarket show that the price for district cooling is generally to high for making it profitable for a supermarket to cool the condensers by district cooling. However, cooling the condensers by district cooling might lead to savings for the supermarket, both in terms of investments and use of electricity. This leads to the fact that cooling the condensers by district cooling could offer a profitable alternative for the supermarket, if the prices are adapted to this type of costumer. Hopefully, such a business could be profitable for the producers of district cooling as well. In addition, there are other advantages associated with condenser cooling by district cooling, which are hard to evaluate in economic terms. When it comes to the comparison of electricity use, it is shown that condenser cooling by district cooling is the alternative that uses least electricity in a national point of view, if the district cooling is produced by a deep-water source. In this comparison, the electricity used for production of district cooling and district heating is included as well. If district cooling is co-produced with district heating in heat pumps, the result is

  3. Comparison of burnout characteristics in jet impingement cooling and stray cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C. S. K.; Wu, K.

    Characteristics of spray cooling and jet impingement methods were investigated. The jet impingement cooling method created a large dry area on the test surface when the burnout heat flux was approached. In the spray cooling method, a liquid film with nucleate boiling was maintained for the entire experiment until a burnout was occurred. The spray cooling method produced a higher burnout heat flux than the jet impingement cooling method for the same liquid flow rate. In the spray cooling method, sprayed droplet velocity was a parameter for determining the burnout heat flux. The burnout heat flux in jet impingement cooling also showed dependency on the liquid jet velocity. Results of two methods for cooling the surface area were compared and correlated with the Weber number.

  4. A rapid Q-PCR titration protocol for adenovirus and helper-dependent adenovirus vectors that produces biologically relevant results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, Sean D.; Berk, Arnold J.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses are employed in the study of cellular processes and as expression vectors used in gene therapy. The success and reproducibility of these studies is dependent in part on having accurate and meaningful titers of replication competent and helper-dependent adenovirus stocks, which is problematic due to the use of varied and divergent titration protocols. Physical titration methods, which quantify the total number of viral particles, are used by many, but are poor at estimating activity. Biological titration methods, such as plaque assays, are more biologically relevant, but are time consuming and not applicable to helper-dependent gene therapy vectors. To address this, a protocol was developed called “infectious genome titration” in which viral DNA is isolated from the nuclei of cells ~3 h post-infection, and then quantified by Q-PCR. This approach ensures that only biologically active virions are counted as part of the titer determination. This approach is rapid, robust, sensitive, reproducible, and applicable to all forms of adenovirus. Unlike other Q-PCR-based methods, titers determined by this protocol are well correlated with biological activity. PMID:23624118

  5. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  6. The influence of cooling rate on the ferrite content of stainless steel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, J.W.; Allen, S.M.; Eagar, T.W.

    1989-03-24

    Electron-beam surface melting was used to rapidly solidify a series of high-purity 59% Fe-Ni-Cr alloys at cooling rates between 7 /degree/C/s and 7.5 /times/ 10/sup 6/ /degree/C/s. The primary solidification mode was identified in each of the resolidified melts using optical metallography; the residual ferrite content was measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The cooling rate was shown to dramatically alter the residual ferrite content of these alloys through its influence on the amount of solute redistribution that occurs during solidification and through its subsequent influence on the extent of the solid-state transformation of ferrite. The results show that the solidification mode, cooling rate, and specific alloy composition are equally important, interrelated factors in the prediction of the residual ferrite. The residual ferrite content of primary-austenite solidified alloys decreases with increasing cooling rate whereas the residual ferrite content of primary-ferrite solidified alloys increases with increasing cooling rate. Exceptions to this general behavior occur when: ferrite transforms to austenite by a massive transformation in fully-ferritic-solidified alloys and an alloy changes its mode of solidification from primary-ferrite at low cooling rates to primary-austenite at high cooling rates. 12 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Recurrent selection with reduced herbicide rates results in the rapid evolution of herbicide resistance in Lolium rigidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Paul; Powles, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    There has been much debate regarding the potential for reduced rates of herbicide application to accelerate evolution of herbicide resistance. We report a series of experiments that demonstrate the potential for reduced rates of the acetyl-co enzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicide diclofop-methyl to rapidly select for resistance in a susceptible biotype of Lolium rigidum. Thirty-six percent of individuals from the original VLR1 population survived application of 37.5 g diclofop-methyl ha(-1) (10% of the recommended field application rate). These individuals were grown to maturity and bulk-crossed to produce the VLR1 low dose-selected line VLR1 (0.1). Subsequent comparisons of the dose-response characteristics of the original and low dose-selected VLR1 lines demonstrated increased tolerance of diclofop-methyl in the selected line. Two further rounds of selection produced VLR1 lines that were resistant to field-applied rates of diclofop-methyl. The LD50 (diclofop-methyl dose required to cause 50% mortality) of the most resistant line was 56-fold greater than that of the original unselected VLR1 population, indicating very large increases in mean population survival after three cycles of selection. In vitro ACCase inhibition by diclofop acid confirmed that resistance was not due to an insensitive herbicide target-site. Cross-resistance studies showed increases in resistance to four herbicides: fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-R-methyl, clethodim and imazethapyr. The potential genetic basis of the observed response and implications of reduced herbicide application rates for management of herbicide resistance are discussed.

  8. Rapid and sustainable detoxication of airborne pollutants by broccoli sprout beverage: results of a randomized clinical trial in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Patricia A; Chen, Jian-Guo; Zarth, Adam T; Ng, Derek K; Wang, Jin-Bing; Kensler, Kevin H; Jacobson, Lisa P; Muñoz, Alvaro; Johnson, Jamie L; Groopman, John D; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tao-Yang; Qian, Geng-Sun; Carmella, Steven G; Hecht, Stephen S; Kensler, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    Broccoli sprouts are a convenient and rich source of the glucosinolate, glucoraphanin, which can generate the chemopreventive agent, sulforaphane, an inducer of glutathione S-transferases (GST) and other cytoprotective enzymes. A broccoli sprout-derived beverage providing daily doses of 600 μmol glucoraphanin and 40 μmol sulforaphane was evaluated for magnitude and duration of pharmacodynamic action in a 12-week randomized clinical trial. Two hundred and ninety-one study participants were recruited from the rural He-He Township, Qidong, in the Yangtze River delta region of China, an area characterized by exposures to substantial levels of airborne pollutants. Exposure to air pollution has been associated with lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases. Urinary excretion of the mercapturic acids of the pollutants, benzene, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde, were measured before and during the intervention using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid and sustained, statistically significant (P ≤ 0.01) increases in the levels of excretion of the glutathione-derived conjugates of benzene (61%), acrolein (23%), but not crotonaldehyde, were found in those receiving broccoli sprout beverage compared with placebo. Excretion of the benzene-derived mercapturic acid was higher in participants who were GSTT1-positive than in the null genotype, irrespective of study arm assignment. Measures of sulforaphane metabolites in urine indicated that bioavailability did not decline over the 12-week daily dosing period. Thus, intervention with broccoli sprouts enhances the detoxication of some airborne pollutants and may provide a frugal means to attenuate their associated long-term health risks. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Real Data and Rapid Results: Ocean Color Data Analysis with Giovanni (GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, J. G.; Leptoukh, G.; Kempler, S.; Gregg, W.; Berrick, S.; Zhu, T.; Liu, Z.; Rui, H.; Shen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has taken a major step addressing the challenge of using archived Earth Observing System (EOS) data for regional or global studies by developing an infrastructure with a World Wide Web interface which allows online, interactive, data analysis: the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure, or "Giovanni." Giovanni provides a data analysis environment that is largely independent of underlying data file format. The Ocean Color Time-Series Project has created an initial implementation of Giovanni using monthly Standard Mapped Image (SMI) data products from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission. Giovanni users select geophysical parameters, and the geographical region and time period of interest. The system rapidly generates a graphical or ASCII numerical data output. Currently available output options are: Area plot (averaged or accumulated over any available data period for any rectangular area); Time plot (time series averaged over any rectangular area); Hovmeller plots (image view of any longitude-time and latitude-time cross sections); ASCII output for all plot types; and area plot animations. Future plans include correlation plots, output formats compatible with Geographical Information Systems (GIs), and higher temporal resolution data. The Ocean Color Time-Series Project will produce sensor-independent ocean color data beginning with the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) mission and extending through SeaWiFS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data sets, and will enable incorporation of Visible/lnfrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data, which will be added to Giovanni. The first phase of Giovanni will also include tutorials demonstrating the use of Giovanni and collaborative assistance in the development of research projects using the SeaWiFS and Ocean Color Time-Series Project data in the online Laboratory

  10. Calculation of Radioactivity and Dose Rate of Activated Corrosion Products in Water-Cooled Fusion Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In water-cooled reactor, the dominant radioactive source term under normal operation is activated corrosion products (ACPs, which have an important impact on reactor inspection and maintenance. A three-node transport model of ACPs was introduced into the new version of ACPs source term code CATE in this paper, which makes CATE capable of theoretically simulating the variation and the distribution of ACPs in a water-cooled reactor and suitable for more operating conditions. For code testing, MIT PWR coolant chemistry loop was simulated, and the calculation results from CATE are close to the experimental results from MIT, which means CATE is available and credible on ACPs analysis of water-cooled reactor. Then ACPs in the blanket cooling loop of water-cooled fusion reactor ITER under construction were analyzed using CATE and the results showed that the major contributors are the short-life nuclides, especially Mn-56. At last a point kernel integration code ARShield was coupled with CATE, and the dose rate around ITER blanket cooling loop was calculated. Results showed that after shutting down the reactor only for 8 days, the dose rate decreased nearly one order of magnitude, which was caused by the rapid decay of the short-life ACPs.

  11. A study on cooling efficiency using 1-d analysis code suitable for cooling system of thermoforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhen Zhe; Heo, Kwang Su; Xuan, Dong Ji; Seol, Seoung Yun [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    Thermoforming is one of the most versatile and economical processes available for polymer products, but cycle time and production cost must be continuously reduced in order to improve the competitive power of products. In this study, water spray cooling was simulated to apply to a cooling system instead of compressed air cooling in order to shorten the cycle time and reduce the cost of compressed air used in the cooling process. At first, cooling time using compressed air was predicted in order to check the state of mass production. In the following step, the ratio of removed energy by air cooling or water spray cooling among the total removed energy was found by using 1-D analysis code of the cooling system under the condition of checking the possibility of conversion from 2-D to 1-D problem. The analysis results using water spray cooling show that cycle time can be reduced because of high cooling efficiency of water spray, and cost of production caused by using compressed air can be reduced by decreasing the amount of the used compressed air. The 1-D analysis code can be widely used in the design of a thermoforming cooling system, and parameters of the thermoforming process can be modified based on the recommended data suitable for a cooling system of thermoforming

  12. Experimental demonstration of relativistic electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaitsev, S.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, Alexey V.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kazakevich, Grigory M.; Kroc, T.; Prost, L.; Pruss, S.; Sutherland, M.; Schmidt,; Seletskiy, S.; Shemyakin, A.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A.; /Fermilab /Novosibirsk, IYF /Rochester U.

    2005-11-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration of electron cooling of high-energy antiprotons circulating in a storage ring. In our experiments, electron cooling, a well-established method at low energies (< 500 MeV/nucleon), was carried out in a new region of beam parameters, requiring a multi-MeV dc electron beam and an unusual beam transport line. In this letter we present the results of the longitudinal cooling force measurements and compare them with theoretical predictions.

  13. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  14. Temperature responsive cooling apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weker, M.L.; Stearns, R.M.

    1987-08-11

    A temperature responsive cooling apparatus is described for an air conditioner or refrigeration system in operative association with a reservoir of fluid, the air conditioner or refrigeration system having an air cooled coil and means for producing a current of air for cooling the coil, the temperature responsive cooling apparatus comprising: (a) means for transferring the fluid from the reservoir to the air conditioner temperature responsive cooling apparatus, (b) a fluid control device activated by the current of air for cooling the coil; (c) a temperature activated, nonelectrical device for terminating and initiating the flow of fluid therethrough in an intermittent fashion for enhancing the operability of the compressor associated with the refrigeration system and for reducing the quantity of fluid required to cool the coil of the refrigeration system, (d) a fluid treatment device for preventing, reducing or mitigating the deposition of nonevaporative components on the air cooled coil, and (e) means for dispersing the fluid to the air cooled coil from the fluid control device for cooling the coil and increasing the efficiency of the air conditioner thereby reducing the cost of operating and maintaining the air conditioner without damaging the air conditioner and without the deposition of nonevaporative components thereupon.

  15. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  16. Repeat confirmatory testing for persons with discordant whole blood and oral fluid rapid HIV test results: findings from post marketing surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura G Wesolowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB, immunofluorescent assay (IFA or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result, repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons with discordant results. METHODOLOGY: Post-marketing surveillance was conducted in 368 testing sites affiliated with 14 state and 2 city health departments from August 11, 2004 to June 30, 2005 and one health department through December 31, 2005. For persons with discordant results, data were collected on demographics, risk behaviors, HIV test results and specimen types. Persons with repeat confirmatory results were classified as HIV-infected or uninfected. Regression models were created to assess risk factors for not having repeat testing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 167,371 rapid tests conducted, 2589 (1.6% were reactive: of these, 2417 (93% had positive WB/IFA, 172 (7% had negative or indeterminate WB/IFA. Of 89/172 (52% persons with a repeat confirmatory test: 17 (19% were HIV-infected, including 3 with indeterminate WB and positive NAAT; 72 (81% were uninfected, including 12 with repeat indeterminate WB. Factors associated with HIV-infection included having an initial indeterminate WB/IFA (vs. negative (p<0.001 and having an initial oral fluid WB (vs. serum (p<0.001. Persons who had male-female sex (vs. male-male sex were at increased risk for not having a repeat test [adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.3, 4.9]. CONCLUSIONS: Though only half of persons with discordant results had repeat confirmatory testing, of those who did, nearly one in five were HIV-infected. These findings underscore the need for rapid HIV testing programs to increase repeat confirmatory testing for

  17. Confidence ellipses: A variation based on parametric bootstrapping applicable on Multiple Factor Analysis results for rapid graphical evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender L. P.

    2012-01-01

    A new way of parametric bootstrapping allows similar construction of confidence ellipses applicable on all results from Multiple Factor Analysis obtained from the FactoMineR package in the statistical program R. With this procedure, a similar approach will be applied to Multiple Factor Analysis...... results regardless of the origin of data and the nature of the original variables. The approach is suitable for getting an overview of product confidence intervals and also applicable for data obtained from ‘one repetition’ evaluations. Furthermore, it is a convenient way to get an overview of variations...

  18. New cooling regulation technology of secondary cooling station in DCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan; Yan, Jun-wei; Zhu, Dong-sheng; Liu, Fei-long; Lei, Jun-xi [The Key Lab of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Liang, Lie-quan [The Key Lab of E-Commerce Market Application Technology of Guangdong Province, Guangdong University of Business Studies, Guangzhou 510320 (China)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a kind of new control technology of secondary cooling station (constant flow rate/variable temperature difference) in district cooling system (DCS) is proposed in view of serial consequences including low efficiency and high operating cost caused by low temperature of supply water in DCS. This technology has been applied in DCS of Guangzhou University City. The result has already indicated that such technology can increase the supply and return temperatures of buildings, return water temperature of primary side in the plate heat exchanger unit, moreover, the efficiency of both the chiller and the whole system are improved significantly. (author)

  19. Improvement of the decay heat removal characteristics of the generation IV gas-cooled fast reactor; Amelioration des caracteristiques de la dissipation de la chaleur de decroissance pour les reacteurs a neutrons rapides de quatrieme generation refroidi au gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epiney, A.S.

    2010-09-07

    The main drawback of the GFR is the difficulty to evacuate decay heat following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) due to the low thermal inertia of the core, as well as to the low coolant density. The present doctoral research focuses on the improvement of decay heat removal (DHR) for the Generation-IV GFR. The reference GFR system design considered in the thesis is the 2006 CEA concept, with a power of 2400 MWth. The CEA 2006 DHR strategy foresees, in all accidental cases (independent of the system pressure), that the reactor is shut down. For high pressure events, dedicated DHR loops with blowers and heat exchangers are designed to operate when the power conversion system cannot be used to provide acceptable core temperatures under natural convection conditions. For de-pressurized events, the strategy relies on a dedicated small containment (called the guard containment) providing an intermediate back-up pressure. The DHR blowers, designed to work under these pressure conditions, need to be powered either by the power grid or by batteries for at least 24 hours. The specific contributions of the present research - aimed at achieving enhanced passivity of the DHR system for the GFR - are design and analysis related to (1) the injection of heavy gas into the primary circuit after a LOCA, to enable natural convection cooling at an intermediate-pressure level, and (2) an autonomous Brayton loop to evacuate decay heat at low primary pressure in case of a loss of the guard containment pressure. Both these developments reduce the dependence on blower power availability considerably. First, the thermal-hydraulic codes used in the study - TRACE and CATHARE - are validated for gas cooling. The validation includes benchmark comparisons between the codes, serving to identify the sensitivity of the results to the different modeling assumptions. The parameters found to be the most sensitive in this analysis, such as heat transfer and friction models, are then validated via a

  20. Gas turbine cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancalari, Eduardo E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  1. Evaporative Cooling Availability in Water Based Sensible Cooling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Costelloe, Ben; Finn, Donal

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments have prompted a review of evaporative cooling technology as an effective means of cooling modern deep plan buildings. Prominent among these developments is the success of high temperature sensible cooling systems, such as chilled ceilings, which require a supply of cooling water at 14 to 18°C. Crucial to the success of evaporative cooling technology, as a significant means of cooling in modern applications, is the ability to generate cooling water, in an indirect circuit, ...

  2. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  3. X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.R.; /SLAC; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

    2006-01-17

    We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

  4. Rapid, Non-Contact Method for Measurement of Si-Wafer Thickness: Principles and Preliminary Results; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.; Auriemma, C.; Li, C.; Madjdpour, J.

    2003-08-01

    The thickness of a semiconductor wafer can critically influence mechanical and/or electronic yield of the device(s) fabricated on it. For most microelectronic (surface) devices, the thickness of a wafer is important primarily for mechanical reasons--to provide control and stability of devices by minimizing stresses resulting from various device-fabrication processes. However, for minority-carrier devices, such as solar cells, the entire thickness of the wafer participates in the optical and electronic performance of the device. In either case, control of wafer thickness through careful measurement is a fundamental requirement in the commercial fabrication of electronic devices.

  5. High-resolution measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing PROglacial Systems of the Alps - results from the PROSA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Ludwig; Dusik, Jana-Marie; Heckmann, Tobias; Haas, Florian; Näher, Martin; Philipp, Rumohr; Philipp, Glira; Lucas, Vehling; Michael, Becht

    2016-04-01

    In June 2012, the PROSA-project was initiated with the goal to construct a sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal Valley, Ötztal Alps, Austria. A unique feature of the project being the dedicated usage of study-area wide multi-volume LiDAR survey data of relatively high density on a meso-scale catchment resulting in a data base of over 4 billion LiDAR measurement points. A high effort was undertaken to produce classified point data as a methodological backbone of the project. Both ALS and georeferenced TLS data as well as other remote sensing and mapping products were used in addition to extensive fieldwork as basis for a regionalization of monitoring-site based measurements to arrive at basin-wide sediment production rates and identification of sediment pathways. Results can now be presented for: Rock fall (plot-based measurement and subsequent model-based regionalization), debris flows (study area-wide direct measurement from LiDAR and analysis of historical orthophotos), rock glaciers (feature-tracking and direct differencing), hillslope channels (plot-based measurements and model-based regionalization) and avalanches (sample site measurement, mapping and extrapolation). Sediment budgets were subsequently constructed for different representative subsystems within the 62.5 km2 catchment. Although also glacier and main channel transport was looked into by the PROSA-project, the presentation will focus on the processes mentioned above.

  6. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    In 1977, in a record-time of 9 months, the magnets of the g-2 experiment were modified and used to build a proton/antiproton storage ring: the "Initial Cooling Experiment" (ICE). It served for the verification of the cooling methods to be used for the "Antiproton Project". Stochastic cooling was proven the same year, electron cooling followed later. Also, with ICE the experimental lower limit for the antiproton lifetime was raised by 9 orders of magnitude: from 2 microseconds to 32 hours. For its previous life as g-2 storage ring, see 7405430. More on ICE: 7711282, 7809081, 7908242.

  7. Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew

    2017-10-25

    A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be used to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.

  8. CD4 depletion in SIV-infected macaques results in macrophage and microglia infection with rapid turnover of infected cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Micci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In rhesus macaques (RMs, experimental depletion of CD4+ T-cells prior to SIV infection results in higher viremia and emergence of CD4-independent SIV-envelopes. In this study we used the rhesus recombinant anti-CD4 antibody CD4R1 to deplete RM CD4+ T-cells prior to SIVmac251 infection and investigate the sources of the increased viral burden and the lifespan of productively infected cells. CD4-depleted animals showed (i set-point viral load two-logs higher than controls; (ii macrophages constituting 80% of all SIV vRNA+ cells in lymph node and mucosal tissues; (iii substantial expansion of pro-inflammatory monocytes; (iv aberrant activation and infection of microglial cells; and (v lifespan of productively infected cells significantly longer in comparison to controls, but markedly shorter than previously estimated for macrophages. The net effect of CD4+ T-cell depletion is an inability to control SIV replication and a shift in the tropism of infected cells to macrophages, microglia, and, potentially, other CD4-low cells which all appear to have a shortened in vivo lifespan. We believe these findings have important implications for HIV eradication studies.

  9. Assessing the impact of common forensic presumptive tests on the ability to obtain results using a novel rapid DNA platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donachie, Gillian E; Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah; Duxbury, Nicola J; Tribble, Nicholas D

    2015-07-01

    The rise of DNA evidence to the forefront of forensic science has led to high sample numbers being submitted for profiling by investigators to casework laboratories: bottleneck effects are often seen resulting in slow turnaround times and sample backlog. The ParaDNA(®) Screening and Intelligence Tests have been designed to guide investigators on the viability of potential sources of DNA allowing them to determine which samples should be sent for full DNA analysis. Both tests are designed to augment the arsenal of available forensic tests for end users and be used concurrently to those commonly available. Therefore, assessing the impact that common forensic tests have on such novel technology is important to measure. The systems were tested against various potential inhibitors to which samples may be exposed as part of the investigative process. Presumptive test agents for biological materials (blood, semen and saliva) and those used as fingerprint enhancement agents were both used. The Screening Test showed a drop in performance following application of aluminium powder and cyanoacrylate (CNA) on fingerprints samples; however this drop in performance was not replicated with high template DNA. No significant effect was observed for any agent using the Intelligence Test. Therefore, both tests stand up well to the chemical agents applied and can be used by investigators with confidence that system performance will be maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid environmental surveying using mobile gamma ray spectrometry Processing of results from the RESUME99 exercise, Gaevle, Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    Smetkurst, M A

    2000-01-01

    Data from mobile measuring teams participating in the RESUME99 Fixed Route exercise in Sweden have been processed to facilitate a detailed comparison between the data sets. The exercise was organised by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) and is part of the BOK-1.2 project Mobile Measurements and Measurements Strategies within the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) programme for 1998-2000. 11 car borne gamma ray spectrometer systems measured a fixed route in the vicinity of Gaevle in Sweden so that the capabilities of the different measuring systems in determining the levels and patterns of sup 1 37Cs contamination along the route could be studied. This report describes how the data sets from the different measuring systems were projected into the known trace of the fixed route so that the results can be compared. Estimates of equivalent surface activity of sup 1 37Cs from the different measuring systems were normalised to data obtained by the Danish Emergency management Agency (system DKA1) an...

  11. Cooling performance of a water-cooling panel system for modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Shoji; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Sudo, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on a water cooling panel system were performed to investigate its heat removal performance and the temperature distribution of components for a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). The analytical code THANPACST2 was applied to analyze the experimental results to verify the validity of the analytical method and the model.

  12. Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Results in Rapid Interleukin-1β Release and Macrophage Transepithelial Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Elise A.; O'Grady, Scott M.; Davis, William C.; Eckstein, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Pathogen processing by the intestinal epithelium involves a dynamic innate immune response initiated by pathogen-epithelial cell cross talk. Interactions between epithelium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis have not been intensively studied, and it is currently unknown how the bacterium-epithelial cell cross talk contributes to the course of infection. We hypothesized that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis harnesses host responses to recruit macrophages to the site of infection to ensure its survival and dissemination. We investigated macrophage recruitment in response to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using a MAC-T bovine macrophage coculture system. We show that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection led to phagosome acidification within bovine epithelial (MAC-T) cells as early as 10 min, which resulted in upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) at transcript and protein levels. Within 10 min of infection, macrophages were recruited to the apical side of MAC-T cells. Inhibition of phagosome acidification or IL-1β abrogated this response, while MCP-1/CCL-2 blocking had no effect. IL-1β processing was dependent upon Ca2+ uptake from the extracellular medium and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, as determined by EGTA and BAPTA-AM [1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester)] treatments. Thus, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is an opportunist that takes advantage of extracellular Ca2+-dependent phagosome acidification and IL-1β processing in order to efficiently transverse the epithelium and enter its niche—the macrophage. PMID:22778093

  13. Snpdat: Easy and rapid annotation of results from de novo snp discovery projects for model and non-model organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doran Anthony G

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most abundant genetic variant found in vertebrates and invertebrates. SNP discovery has become a highly automated, robust and relatively inexpensive process allowing the identification of many thousands of mutations for model and non-model organisms. Annotating large numbers of SNPs can be a difficult and complex process. Many tools available are optimised for use with organisms densely sampled for SNPs, such as humans. There are currently few tools available that are species non-specific or support non-model organism data. Results Here we present SNPdat, a high throughput analysis tool that can provide a comprehensive annotation of both novel and known SNPs for any organism with a draft sequence and annotation. Using a dataset of 4,566 SNPs identified in cattle using high-throughput DNA sequencing we demonstrate the annotations performed and the statistics that can be generated by SNPdat. Conclusions SNPdat provides users with a simple tool for annotation of genomes that are either not supported by other tools or have a small number of annotated SNPs available. SNPdat can also be used to analyse datasets from organisms which are densely sampled for SNPs. As a command line tool it can easily be incorporated into existing SNP discovery pipelines and fills a niche for analyses involving non-model organisms that are not supported by many available SNP annotation tools. SNPdat will be of great interest to scientists involved in SNP discovery and analysis projects, particularly those with limited bioinformatics experience.

  14. Development and analysis of a new integrated power and cooling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cooling needs are increasing rapidly at hot climatic countries with increased global warming. The existed vapour compression refrigeration (VCR) system demands electricity for its operation which is more expensive. The concept of a newly proposed cooling cogeneration cycle has been developed by clubbing the power ...

  15. Research and implementation of the integrated cooling system for focal plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Cheng, Lixuan; Chu, Jiaru; Hu, Hongzhuan; Zhou, Zengxiang

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of multi-objective astronomical survey telescope technology, the heat of focal plate which high-density optical fiber positioners were mounted in has become the key factor of system precision. The new integrated cooling system designed multi curved composite grooves on the surface of focal plate for forced convection was proposed. Meanwhile, the manufacturing process, sealing structure and heat dissipation performance of the system were analyzed and tested with detail in the paper. The experimental results suggested that the new integrated cooling system of focal plate has a fast response speed and good heat dissipation performance.

  16. Heat recovery with milk cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindt, P.

    1980-01-01

    Considerable enregy costs in the milk industry come from hot water preparation. Simultaneously, surplus heat results from the milk cooling process. Heat recovery systems are described, and cost benefits will be compared with investment costs. Such systems work economically for operations with more than 25 cows; the amortization period here is between four and five years.

  17. Magnetic entropy and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Some manifestations of magnetism are well-known and utilized on an everyday basis, e.g. using a refrigerator magnet for hanging that important note on the refrigerator door. Others are, so far, more exotic, such as cooling by making use of the magnetocaloric eect. This eect can cause a change...... in the temperature of a magnetic material when a magnetic eld is applied or removed. For many years, experimentalists have made use of dilute paramagnetic materials to achieve milliKelvin temperatures by use of the magnetocaloric eect. Also, research is done on materials, which might be used for hydrogen, helium...... the eect: the isothermal magnetic entropy change and the adiabatic temperature change. Some of the manifestations and utilizations of the MCE will be touched upon in a general way and nally I will talk about the results I have obtained on a sample of Gadolinium Iron Garnet (GdIG, Gd3Fe5O12), which...

  18. The Solidification Behavior of AA2618 Aluminum Alloy and the Influence of Cooling Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulin; Liu, Ming; Luo, Lei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2014-01-01

    In AA2618 aluminum alloy, the iron- and nickel-rich intermetallics formed during solidification are of great effect on the mechanical properties of the alloy at both room temperature and elevated temperatures. However, the solidification behavior of the alloy and the formation mechanism of the intermetallics during solidification of the alloy are not clear. This research fills the gap and contributes to understanding the intermetallic of the alloy. The results showed that cooling rate was of great influence on the formation of the intermetallics. Under the condition of slow cooling, the as-cast microstructures of the alloy were complex with many coarse eutectic compounds including Al9FeNi, Al7(CuNi)5, Si, Al2Cu and Al2CuMg. The phase Al9FeNi was the dominant intermetallic compound, which precipitated at the earlier stage of the solidification by eutectic reaction L → α-Al + Al9FeNi. Increasing the cooling rate would suppress the formation of the coarse eutectic intermetallics. Under the condition of near-rapid cooling, the as-cast microstructures of the alloy consisted of metastable intermetallics Al9FeNi and Al2Cu; the equilibrium eutectic compounds were suppressed. This research concluded that intermetallics could be refined to a great extent by near-rapid cooling. PMID:28788281

  19. The Solidification Behavior of AA2618 Aluminum Alloy and the Influence of Cooling Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulin; Liu, Ming; Luo, Lei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2014-12-09

    In AA2618 aluminum alloy, the iron- and nickel-rich intermetallics formed during solidification are of great effect on the mechanical properties of the alloy at both room temperature and elevated temperatures. However, the solidification behavior of the alloy and the formation mechanism of the intermetallics during solidification of the alloy are not clear. This research fills the gap and contributes to understanding the intermetallic of the alloy. The results showed that cooling rate was of great influence on the formation of the intermetallics. Under the condition of slow cooling, the as-cast microstructures of the alloy were complex with many coarse eutectic compounds including Al₉FeNi, Al₇(CuNi)₅, Si, Al₂Cu and Al₂CuMg. The phase Al₉FeNi was the dominant intermetallic compound, which precipitated at the earlier stage of the solidification by eutectic reaction L → α-Al + Al₉FeNi. Increasing the cooling rate would suppress the formation of the coarse eutectic intermetallics. Under the condition of near-rapid cooling, the as-cast microstructures of the alloy consisted of metastable intermetallics Al₉FeNi and Al₂Cu; the equilibrium eutectic compounds were suppressed. This research concluded that intermetallics could be refined to a great extent by near-rapid cooling.

  20. Rectlinear cooling scheme for bright muon sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    A fast cooling technique is described that simultaneously reduces all six phase-space dimensions of a charged particle beam. In this process, cooling is accomplished by reducing the beam momentum through ionization energy loss in absorbers and replenishing the momentum loss only in the longitudinal direction rf cavities. In this work we review its main features and describe the main results.

  1. Process integration: Cooling water systems design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available . The cooling tower model is used to predict the thermal performance of the cooling towers. Two case studies are presented to illustrate the proposed technique. The first case results in a nonlinear program (NLP) formulation and the second case yields mixed...

  2. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  3. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still

  4. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  5. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  6. The final cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    Thursday 29th May, the cool-down of the final sector (sector 4-5) of LHC has begun, one week after the start of the cool-down of sector 1-2. It will take five weeks for the sectors to be cooled from room temperature to 5 K and a further two weeks to complete the cool down to 1.9 K and the commissioning of cryogenic instrumentation, as well as to fine tune the cryogenic plants and the cooling loops of cryostats.Nearly a year and half has passed since sector 7-8 was cooled for the first time in January 2007. For Laurent Tavian, AT/CRG Group Leader, reaching the final phase of the cool down is an important milestone, confirming the basic design of the cryogenic system and the ability to operate complete sectors. “All the sectors have to operate at the same time otherwise we cannot inject the beam into the machine. The stability and reliability of the cryogenic system and its utilities are now very important. That will be the new challenge for the coming months,” he explains. The status of the cool down of ...

  7. INITIAL COOLING EXPERIMENT (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    ICE was built in 1977, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring (see 7405430). Its purpose was to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project. Stochastic cooling proved a resounding success early in 1978 and the antiproton project could go ahead, now entirely based on stochastic cooling. Electron cooling was experimented with in 1979. The 26 kV equipment is housed in the cage to the left of the picture, adjacent to the "e-cooler" located in a straight section of the ring. With some modifications, the cooler was later transplanted into LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) and then, with further modifications, into the AD (Antiproton Decelerator), where it cools antiprotons to this day (2006). See also: 7711282, 7802099, 7809081.

  8. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    ICE was built in 1977, in a record time of 9 months, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring. Its purpose was to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project, to be launched in 1978. Already early in 1978, stochastic cooling proved a resounding success, such that the antiproton (p-pbar)project was entirely based on it. Tests of electron cooling followed later: protons of 46 MeV kinetic energy were cooled with an electron beam of 26 kV and 1.3 A. The cage seen prominently in the foreground houses the HV equipment, adjacent to the "cooler" installed in a straight section of the ring. With some modifications, the cooler was later transplanted into LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) and then, with further modifications, into the AD (Antiproton Decelerator), where it cools antiprotons to this day (2006). See also: 7711282, 7802099, 7908242.

  9. Homogenous Population Genetic Structure of the Non-Native Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Europe as a Result of Rapid Population Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygala, Frank; Korablev, Nikolay; Ansorge, Hermann; Fickel, Joerns; Isomursu, Marja; Elmeros, Morten; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Baltrunaite, Laima; Balciauskas, Linas; Saarma, Urmas; Schulze, Christoph; Borkenhagen, Peter; Frantz, Alain C

    2016-01-01

    The extent of gene flow during the range expansion of non-native species influences the amount of genetic diversity retained in expanding populations. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in north-eastern and central Europe. This invasive species is of management concern because it is highly susceptible to fox rabies and an important secondary host of the virus. We hypothesized that the large number of introduced animals and the species' dispersal capabilities led to high population connectivity and maintenance of genetic diversity throughout the invaded range. We genotyped 332 tissue samples from seven European countries using 16 microsatellite loci. Different algorithms identified three genetic clusters corresponding to Finland, Denmark and a large 'central' population that reached from introduction areas in western Russia to northern Germany. Cluster assignments provided evidence of long-distance dispersal. The results of an Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis supported a scenario of equal effective population sizes among different pre-defined populations in the large central cluster. Our results are in line with strong gene flow and secondary admixture between neighbouring demes leading to reduced genetic structuring, probably a result of its fairly rapid population expansion after introduction. The results presented here are remarkable in the sense that we identified a homogenous genetic cluster inhabiting an area stretching over more than 1500km. They are also relevant for disease management, as in the event of a significant rabies outbreak, there is a great risk of a rapid virus spread among raccoon dog populations.

  10. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor helium compatibility studies: results of 10,000-hour exposure of selected alloys in simulated reactor helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechtenberg, T.A.; Stevenson, R.D.; Johnson, W.R.

    1980-05-01

    Work on the HTGR Helium Compatibility Task accomplished during the period March 31, 1977 through September 30, 1979, is documented in this report. Emphasis is on the results and analyses of creep data to 10,000 h and the detailed metallurgical evaluations performed on candidate alloy specimens tested for up to 10,000 h. Long-term creep and unstressed aging data in controlled-impurity helium and in air at 800, 900, and 1000/sup 0/C are reported for alloys included in the program in FY-76, including the wrought solid-solution-strengthened alloys, Hastelloy X, Hastelloy S, RA 333, and HD 556, and the centrifugally cast austenitic alloys, HK 40, Supertherm, Manaurite 36X, Manaurite 36XS, and Manaurite 900.

  11. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  12. Indirect evaporative cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, M.J.; Chapman, H.L.; Pescod, D.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics and applications of three indirect evaporative cooling systems are described. The rock bed regenerative unit is now in licensed production and some operational experience is available, while the plastic plate heat exchanger unit has been demonstrated to be effective. A third system, based on a rotary heat exchanger is included. Although less development has been done on it, several successful applications of the heat exchanger are operational. All systems provide comfort cooling in which building indoor temperature varies over the day at an operating cost less than 50% of that of a comparable refrigerated cooling system.

  13. Fundamental Limitation on Cooling under Classical Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jun; Chhajlany, Ravindra W; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2017-03-14

    We prove a general theorem that the action of arbitrary classical noise or random unitary channels can not increase the maximum population of any eigenstate of an open quantum system, assuming initial system-environment factorization. Such factorization is the conventional starting point for descriptions of open system dynamics. In particular, our theorem implies that a system can not be ideally cooled down unless it is initially prepared as a pure state. The resultant inequality rigorously constrains the possibility of cooling the system solely through temporal manipulation, i.e., dynamical control over the system Hamiltonian without resorting to measurement based cooling methods. It is a substantial generalization of the no-go theorem claiming that the exact ground state cooling is forbidden given initial system-thermal bath factorization, while here we prove even cooling is impossible under classical noise.

  14. Solar heating and cooling systems: operational results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Forty-six papers are included. One paper was abstracted previously. Separate abstracts were prepared for each paper. Summary reviews of each session and the introductory remarks were not abstracted. (MHR)

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of structural and dynamical properties of rapidly quenched Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, B.; Liu, C. Y.; Jia, Y.; Yue, G. Q.; Ke, F. S.; Zhao, H. B.; Chen, L. Y.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    The structural and dynamical properties of rapidly quenched Al are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The pair-correlation function of high temperature liquid Al agrees well with the experimental results. Different cooling rates are applied with high cooling rates leading to glass formation, while low cooling rates leading to crystallization. The local structures are characterized by Honeycutt–Andersen indices and Voronoi tessellation analysis. The results show that for high cooling rates, the local structures of the liquid and glassy Al are predominated by icosahedral clusters, together with considerable amount of face-centered cubic and hexagonal close packed short-range orders. These short-range order results are further confirmed using the recently developed atomic cluster alignment method. Moreover, the atomic cluster alignment clearly shows the crystal nucleation process in supercooled liquid of Al. Finally, the mean square displacement for the liquid is also analyzed, and the corresponding diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature is calculated.

  16. LHC cooling gains ground

    CERN Multimedia

    Huillet-Miraton Catherine

    The nominal cryogenic conditions of 1.9 K have been achieved in sectors 5-6 and 7-8. This means that a quarter of the machine has reached the nominal conditions for LHC operation, having attained a temperature of below 2 K (-271°C), which is colder than interstellar space! Elsewhere, the cryogenic system in Sector 8-1 has been filled with liquid helium and cooled to 2K and will soon be available for magnet testing. Sectors 6-7 and 2-3 are being cooled down and cool-down operations have started in Sector 3-4. Finally, preparations are in hand for the cool-down of Sector 1-2 in May and of Sector 4-5, which is currently being consolidated. The LHC should be completely cold for the summer. For more information: http://lhc.web.cern.ch/lhc/Cooldown_status.htm.

  17. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  18. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  19. Epicyclic helical channels for parametric resonance ionization cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johson, Rolland Paul [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-08-23

    Proposed next-generation muon colliders will require major technical advances to achieve rapid muon beam cooling requirements. Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. In PIC, a half-integer parametric resonance causes strong focusing of a muon beam at appropriately placed energy absorbers while ionization cooling limits the beam’s angular spread. Combining muon ionization cooling with parametric resonant dynamics in this way should then allow much smaller final transverse muon beam sizes than conventional ionization cooling alone. One of the PIC challenges is compensation of beam aberrations over a sufficiently wide parameter range while maintaining the dynamical stability with correlated behavior of the horizontal and vertical betatron motion and dispersion. We explore use of a coupling resonance to reduce the dimensionality of the problem and to shift the dynamics away from non-linear resonances. PIC simulations are presented.

  20. Intrinsic Evaporative Cooling by Hygroscopic Earth Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra R. Rempel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phase change of water from liquid to vapor is one of the most energy-intensive physical processes in nature, giving it immense potential for cooling. Diverse evaporative cooling strategies have resulted worldwide, including roof ponds and sprinklers, courtyard fountains, wind catchers with qanats, irrigated green roofs, and fan-assisted evaporative coolers. These methods all require water in bulk liquid form. The evaporation of moisture that has been sorbed from the atmosphere by hygroscopic materials is equally energy-intensive, however, yet has not been examined for its cooling potential. In arid and semi-arid climates, hygroscopic earth buildings occur widely and are known to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures, but evaporation of moisture from their walls and roofs has been regarded as unimportant since water scarcity limits irrigation and rainfall; instead, their cool interiors are attributed to well-established mass effects in delaying the transmission of sensible gains. Here, we investigate the cooling accomplished by daily cycles of moisture sorption and evaporation which, requiring only ambient humidity, we designate as “intrinsic” evaporative cooling. Connecting recent soil science to heat and moisture transport studies in building materials, we use soils, adobe, cob, unfired earth bricks, rammed earth, and limestone to reveal the effects of numerous parameters (temperature and relative humidity, material orientation, thickness, moisture retention properties, vapor diffusion resistance, and liquid transport properties on the magnitude of intrinsic evaporative cooling and the stabilization of indoor relative humidity. We further synthesize these effects into concrete design guidance. Together, these results show that earth buildings in diverse climates have significant potential to cool themselves evaporatively through sorption of moisture from humid night air and evaporation during the following day’s heat. This finding

  1. Cooling a Single Atom in an Optical Tweezer to Its Quantum Ground State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kaufman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report cooling of a single neutral atom to its three-dimensional vibrational ground state in an optical tweezer. After employing Raman sideband cooling for tens of milliseconds, we measure via sideband spectroscopy a three-dimensional ground-state occupation of about 90%. We further observe coherent control of the spin and motional state of the trapped atom. Our demonstration shows that an optical tweezer, formed simply by a tightly focused beam of light, creates sufficient confinement for efficient sideband cooling. This source of ground-state neutral atoms will be instrumental in numerous quantum simulation and logic applications that require a versatile platform for storing and manipulating ultracold single neutral atoms. For example, these results will improve current optical-tweezer experiments studying atom-photon coupling and Rydberg quantum logic gates, and could provide new opportunities such as rapid production of single dipolar molecules or quantum simulation in tweezer arrays.

  2. Cooling tower waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.

    1998-05-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

  3. Homogenous Population Genetic Structure of the Non-Native Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides in Europe as a Result of Rapid Population Expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Drygala

    Full Text Available The extent of gene flow during the range expansion of non-native species influences the amount of genetic diversity retained in expanding populations. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides in north-eastern and central Europe. This invasive species is of management concern because it is highly susceptible to fox rabies and an important secondary host of the virus. We hypothesized that the large number of introduced animals and the species' dispersal capabilities led to high population connectivity and maintenance of genetic diversity throughout the invaded range. We genotyped 332 tissue samples from seven European countries using 16 microsatellite loci. Different algorithms identified three genetic clusters corresponding to Finland, Denmark and a large 'central' population that reached from introduction areas in western Russia to northern Germany. Cluster assignments provided evidence of long-distance dispersal. The results of an Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis supported a scenario of equal effective population sizes among different pre-defined populations in the large central cluster. Our results are in line with strong gene flow and secondary admixture between neighbouring demes leading to reduced genetic structuring, probably a result of its fairly rapid population expansion after introduction. The results presented here are remarkable in the sense that we identified a homogenous genetic cluster inhabiting an area stretching over more than 1500km. They are also relevant for disease management, as in the event of a significant rabies outbreak, there is a great risk of a rapid virus spread among raccoon dog populations.

  4. Stacking with Stochastic Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles seen by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly protected from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently shielded against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 105, the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters)....

  5. Effects of rapid versus standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing on receipt rate of HIV test results: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Lu, Wenli

    2015-03-01

    Rapid HIV voluntary counselling and testing (RVCT) is an alternative method of standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing (SVCT). Less is known about whether RVCT improves the receipt rate of HIV test results among clients who seek HIV counselling and testing. We aimed to evaluate effectiveness of RVCT on result receipt rate. We conducted a comprehensive search of databases containing Medline, EBSCO, Web of science, and Cochrane library to identify studies published up to August 2012. Reviewers extracted information independently. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing study quality. Five randomised controlled trials were included and analysed for the result receipt rate using a random-effects model. The pooled receipt rate of HIV test results in the RVCT was significantly higher than in the SVCT (RR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.47-2.07). Our results suggest RVCT as a favourable method to increase the receipt of HIV test results. Only two included studies assessed the modification of risk behaviour after HIV-CT in a different manner; also, the sample size was small in the current meta-analysis. In future research, it is necessary to confirm the effect of RVCT on disinhibition of post-test risk behaviour. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Analytical model of transient thermal effect on convectional cooled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The transient analytical solutions of temperature distribution, stress, strain and optical path difference in convectional cooled end-pumped laser rod are derived. The results are compared with other works and good agreements are found. The effects of increasing the edge cooling and face cooling are studied.

  7. Influence of Shading on Cooling Energy Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabczak, Sławomir; Bukowska, Maria; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Nowak, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    The article presents an analysis of the building cooling load taking into account the variability of the factors affecting the size of the heat gains. In order to minimize the demand for cooling, the effect of shading elements installed on the outside on the windows and its effect on size of the cooling capacity of air conditioning system for the building has been estimated. Multivariate building cooling load calculations to determine the size of the reduction in cooling demand has derived. Determination of heat gain from the sun is laborious, but gives a result which reflects the influence of the surface transparent partitions, devices used as sunscreen and its location on the building envelope in relation to the world, as well as to the internal heat gains has great attention in obtained calculation. In this study, included in the balance sheet of solar heat gains are defined in three different shading of windows. Calculating the total demand cooling is made for variants assuming 0% shading baffles transparent, 50% shading baffles transparent external shutters at an angle of 45 °, 100% shading baffles transparent hours 12 from the N and E and from 12 from the S and W of the outer slat blinds. The calculation of the average hourly cooling load was taken into account the option assuming the hypothetical possibility of default by up to 10% of the time assumed the cooling season temperatures in the rooms. To reduce the consumption of electricity energy in the cooling system of the smallest variant identified the need for the power supply for the operation of the cooling system. Also assessed the financial benefits of the temporary default of comfort.

  8. Use of the BD vacutainer rapid serum tube reduces false-positive results for selected beckman coulter Unicel DxI immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathmann, Frederick G; Ka, Michael M; Rainey, Petrie M; Baird, Geoffrey S

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the use of serum samples from BD Vacutainer rapid serum tubes (RSTs; BD, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to reduce undetermined interferences contributing to false-positive immunoassay results in heparin plasma samples. Patients being evaluated for suspected myocardial infarction had specimens drawn into an RST in addition to the standard lithium-heparin plasma separator tube (PST). We measured 28 separate analytes in both specimens using immunoassay, electrochemical, and spectrophotometric methods. Higher results were observed in some PST specimens tested for troponin I, creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme, human chorionic gonadotropin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone. These discrepancies were investigated by repeating analyses after recentrifugation of both specimens. Reanalysis gave results for the PST specimens that were lower and agreed well with initial results from RSTs, suggesting false-positive rates of 10.8% for troponin I and about 2% for each of the other 3 analytes. Overall, specimens collected in RSTs had fewer false-positive immunoassay results than specimens collected in plasma separator tubes.

  9. A combined capillary cooling system for cooling fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ana Paula; Pelizza, Pablo Rodrigo; Galante, Renan Manozzo; Bazzo, Edson [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (LabCET/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos], Emails: ana@labcet.ufsc.br, pablo@labcet.ufsc.br, renan@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br

    2010-07-01

    The operation temperature control has an important influence over the PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) performance. A two-phase heat transfer system is proposed as an alternative for cooling and thermal control of PEMFC. The proposed system consists of a CPL (Capillary Pumped Loop) connected to a set of constant conductance heat pipes. In this work ceramic wick and stainless mesh wicks have been used as capillary structure of the CPL and heat pipes, respectively. Acetone has been used as the working fluid for CPL and deionized water for the heat pipes. Experimental results of three 1/4 inch stainless steel outlet diameter heats pipes and one CPL have been carried out and presented in this paper. Further experiments are planned coupling the proposed cooling system to a module which simulates the fuel cell. (author)

  10. Renewables for Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This timely report examines the technologies, current markets and relative costs for heat and cold production using biomass, geothermal and solar-assisted systems. It evaluates a range of national case studies and relevant policies. Should the successful and more cost-effective policies be implemented by other countries, then the relatively untapped economic potential of renewable energy heating and cooling systems could be better realised, resulting in potential doubling of the present market within the next few years.

  11. Rapid aqueous release of fission products from high burn-up LWR fuel: Experimental results and correlations with fission gas release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Günther-Leopold, I.; Kobler Waldis, J.; Linder, H. P.; Low, J.; Cui, D.; Ekeroth, E.; Spahiu, K.; Evins, L. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the rapid aqueous release of fission products from UO 2 and MOX fuel are of interest for the assessment of the safety of geological disposal of spent fuel, because of the associated potential contribution to dose in radiological safety assessment. Studies have shown that correlations between fission gas release (FGR) and the fraction rapidly leached of various long-lived fission products can provide a useful method to obtain some of this information. Previously, these studies have been limited largely to fuel with burn-up values below 50 MWd/kg U. Collaborative studies involving SKB, Studsvik, Nagra and PSI have provided new data on short-term release of 137Cs and 129I for a number of fuels irradiated to burn-ups of 50-75 MWd/kgU. In addition a method for analysis of leaching solutions for 79Se was developed. The results of the studies show that the fractional release of 137Cs is usually much lower than the FGR covering the entire range of burn-ups studied. Fractional 129I releases are somewhat larger, but only in cases in which the fuel was forcibly extracted from the cladding. Despite the expected high degree of segregation of fission gas (and by association 137Cs and 129I) in the high burn-up rim, no evidence was found for a significant contribution to release from the rim region. The method for 79Se analysis developed did not permit its detection. Nonetheless, based on the detection limit, the results suggest that 79Se is not preferentially leached from spent fuel.

  12. Optimal design variable considerations in the use of phase change materials in indirect evaporative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilakapaty, Ankit Paul

    The demand for sustainable, energy efficient and cost effective heating and cooling solutions is exponentially increasing with the rapid advancement of computation and information technology. Use of latent heat storage materials also known as phase change materials (PCMs) for load leveling is an innovative solution to the data center cooling demands. These materials are commercially available in the form of microcapsules dispersed in water, referred to as the microencapsulated phase change slurries and have higher heat capacity than water. The composition and physical properties of phase change slurries play significant role in energy efficiency of the cooling systems designed implementing these PCM slurries. Objective of this project is to study the effect of PCM particle size, shape and volumetric concentration on overall heat transfer potential of the cooling systems designed with PCM slurries as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). In this study uniform volume heat source model is developed for the simulation of heat transfer potential using phase change materials in the form of bulk temperature difference in a fully developed flow through a circular duct. Results indicate the heat transfer potential increases with PCM volumetric concentration with gradually diminishing returns. Also, spherical PCM particles offer greater heat transfer potential when compared to cylindrical particles. Results of this project will aid in efficient design of cooling systems based on PCM slurries.

  13. Part II/Addendum Electron Beam Cooling between EBIS LINAC and Booster; Is Single Pass Cooling Possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch,A.

    2008-07-01

    Due to some miscommunication, incomplete data was erroneously used in examining electron beam cooling for reducing momentum of gold ions exiting the EBIS LINAC before injection into the booster. Corrected calculations still indicate that single pass cooling is, in principle, feasible; momentum spread can be reduced by an order of magnitude in about one meter. Preliminary results suggest that this cooling deserves further consideration.

  14. Fast Quasi-Adiabatic Gas Cooling: An Experiment Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oss, S.; Gratton, L. M.; Calza, G.; Lopez-Arias, T.

    2012-01-01

    The well-known experiment of the rapid expansion and cooling of the air contained in a bottle is performed with a rapidly responsive, yet very cheap thermometer. The adiabatic, low temperature limit is approached quite closely and measured with our apparatus. A straightforward theoretical model for this process is also presented and discussed.…

  15. Furnace for rapid thermal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Duine, P.A.; Sluis, P. van der

    2001-01-01

    A Method (1) for Rapid Thermal Processing of a wafer (7), wherein the wafer (7) is heated by lamps (9), and the heat radiation is reflected by an optical switching device (15,17) which is in the reflecting state during the heating stage. During the cooling stage of the wafer (7), the heat is

  16. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  17. Are participants in a street-based HIV testing program able to perform their own rapid test and interpret the results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis de la Fuente

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Availability of over-the-counter rapid HIV tests could improve access to testing those reluctant or unable to use current services. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of HIV self-testing using a finger-stick whole-blood rapid test (Determine™ HIV Combo to detect both antigen and antibody. METHODS: Before being tested, 313 participants in a street-based testing program were given adapted instructions and a test kit, and performed the self-test without supervision. These participants, together with another 207 who performed supervised self-testing, received additional instructions on how to interpret the test results shown in six colour photos and filled out a questionnaire. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: About 8.0% (95%CI:4.8%-11.2% obtained an invalid self-test. An invalid result was inversely associated with male participants who had sex with men (OR=0.3;95%CI:0.1-1.0. Of the 3111 photos interpreted,4.9% (95%CI:4.1-5.7 were incorrect. Only 1.1% (95%CI:0.3-1.8 of the positive results were interpreted as negative. Age 30 or older (OR=2.1; 95%CI:1.2-3.7, having been born in Latin America (OR=1.6; 95%CI:1.1-2.2,and not having university education (OR=2.1;95%CI:1.2-3.7 were associated with misinterpreting test results in the GEE. Participant's perceptions of both their proficiency when conducting the test and interpretation were related with actual outcomes. Most participants (83.9% were more motivated than before to use the self-test in the future, and 51.7% would pay >10 Euros for the test if it was sold in pharmacies. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study showing that blood-based self-testing with current technology is feasible in HIV-negative participants demanding the test and without prior training or supervision. Bearing in mind that it was conducted under difficult weather conditions and using a complex kit, over-the-counter tests could be a feasible

  18. Fuel Cell Thermal Management Through Conductive Cooling Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Burke, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis was performed to evaluate the concept of utilizing conductive cooling plates to remove heat from a fuel cell stack, as opposed to a conventional internal cooling loop. The potential advantages of this type of cooling system are reduced stack complexity and weight and increased reliability through the reduction of the number of internal fluid seals. The conductive cooling plates would extract heat from the stack transferring it to an external coolant loop. The analysis was performed to determine the required thickness of these plates. The analysis was based on an energy balance between the thermal energy produced within the stack and the heat removal from the cooling plates. To accomplish the energy balance, the heat flow into and along the plates to the cooling fluid was modeled. Results were generated for various numbers of cells being cooled by a single cooling plate. The results provided cooling plate thickness, mass, and operating temperature of the plates. It was determined that utilizing high-conductivity pyrolitic graphite cooling plates can provide a specific cooling capacity (W/kg) equivalent to or potentially greater than a conventional internal cooling loop system.

  19. Flat structure cooled detector assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Nathalie; Coutures, Bernard; Gerin, Nicolas; Reale, S.; Guille, B.

    1994-07-01

    Long wavelength IR detectors need to be cooled at cryogenic temperature to achieve high performances. This specific need makes it difficult to integrate the detector because of high cost of dewar and cooling device designed to fulfill severe vibration conditions. A new era for IR detection could begin with flat structures allowing intrinsic vibration resistance for detectors to be plugged on electronics board. Sofradir has carried out a study about feasibility of detector dewar assembly including a flat Joule-Thomson cooler with porous heat exchanger in cooperation with Air Liquide. The aim of this paper is to put forward the interest of such a product. The very good results achieved demonstrate a promising future for such flat structure detector assembly.

  20. High Performance Torso Cooling Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Bruce; Makinen, Janice

    2016-01-01

    The concept proposed in this paper is to improve thermal efficiencies of the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) in the torso area, which could facilitate removal of LCVG tubing from the arms and legs, thereby increasing suited crew member mobility. EVA space suit mobility in micro-gravity is challenging, and it becomes even more challenging in the gravity of Mars. By using shaped water tubes that greatly increase the contact area with the skin in the torso region of the body, the heat transfer efficiency can be increased. This increase in efficiency could provide the required liquid cooling via torso tubing only; no arm or leg LCVG tubing would be required. Benefits of this approach include increased crewmember mobility, enhanced evaporation cooling, increased comfort during Mars EVA tasks, and easing of the overly dry condition in the helmet associated with the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) ventilation loop currently under development. This report describes analysis and test activities performed to evaluate the potential improvements to the thermal performance of the LCVG. Analyses evaluated potential tube shapes for improving the thermal performance of the LCVG. The analysis results fed into the selection of flat flow strips to improve thermal contact with the skin of the suited test subject. Testing of small segments was performed to compare thermal performance of the tubing approach of the current LCVG to the flat flow strips proposed as the new concept. Results of the testing is presented along with recommendations for future development of this new concept.

  1. Are participants in a street-based HIV testing program able to perform their own rapid test and interpret the results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Luis; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Hoyos, Juan; Pulido, José; Santos, Sara; Bravo, María José; Barrio, Gregorio; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; Belza, María José

    2012-01-01

    Availability of over-the-counter rapid HIV tests could improve access to testing those reluctant or unable to use current services. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of HIV self-testing using a finger-stick whole-blood rapid test (Determine™ HIV Combo) to detect both antigen and antibody. Before being tested, 313 participants in a street-based testing program were given adapted instructions and a test kit, and performed the self-test without supervision. These participants, together with another 207 who performed supervised self-testing, received additional instructions on how to interpret the test results shown in six colour photos and filled out a questionnaire. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used in the statistical analysis. About 8.0% (95%CI:4.8%-11.2%) obtained an invalid self-test. An invalid result was inversely associated with male participants who had sex with men (OR=0.3;95%CI:0.1-1.0). Of the 3111 photos interpreted,4.9% (95%CI:4.1-5.7) were incorrect. Only 1.1% (95%CI:0.3-1.8) of the positive results were interpreted as negative. Age 30 or older (OR=2.1; 95%CI:1.2-3.7), having been born in Latin America (OR=1.6; 95%CI:1.1-2.2),and not having university education (OR=2.1;95%CI:1.2-3.7) were associated with misinterpreting test results in the GEE. Participant's perceptions of both their proficiency when conducting the test and interpretation were related with actual outcomes. Most participants (83.9%) were more motivated than before to use the self-test in the future, and 51.7% would pay >10 Euros for the test if it was sold in pharmacies. This is the first study showing that blood-based self-testing with current technology is feasible in HIV-negative participants demanding the test and without prior training or supervision. Bearing in mind that it was conducted under difficult weather conditions and using a complex kit, over-the-counter tests could be a feasible option to complement current diagnostic strategies

  2. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Don E [ORNL; Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Becklehimer, Jeff [Cray, Inc.; Donovan, Matthew J [ORNL; Layton, Christopher C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  3. Muon ionization cooling experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    A neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring is the ultimate tool for studies of neutrino oscillations, including possibly leptonic CP violation. It is also the first step towards muon colliders. The performance of this new and promising line of accelerators relies heavily on the concept of ionisation cooling of minimum ionising muons, for which much R&D is required. The concept of a muon ionisation cooling experiment has been extensively studied and first steps are now being taken towards its realisation by a joint international team of accelerator and particle physicists. The aim of the workshop is to to explore at least two versions of an experiment based on existing cooling channel designs. If such an experiment is feasible, one shall then select, on the basis of effectiveness, simplicity, availability of components and overall cost, a design for the proposed experiment, and assemble the elements necessary to the presentation of a proposal. Please see workshop website.

  4. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.; AHRENS,L.; BRENNAN,M.; HARRISON,M.; KEWISCH,J.; MACKAY,W.; PEGGS,S.; ROSER,T.; SATOGATA,T.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    2001-06-18

    We introduce plans for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This project has a number of new features as electron coolers go: It will cool 100 GeV/nucleon ions with 50 MeV electrons; it will be the first attempt to cool a collider at storage-energy; and it will be the first cooler to use a bunched beam and a linear accelerator as the electron source. The linac will be superconducting with energy recovery. The electron source will be based on a photocathode gun. The project is carried out by the Collider-Accelerator Department at BNL in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics.

  5. Coherent electron cooling demonstration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brutus, J.C.; Fedotov, A.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Meng, W.; McIntyre, G.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Pinayev, I.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Sheehy, B.; Tepikian, S.; Than, R.; Trbojevic, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G.; Poelker, M.; Rimmer, R.; Bruhwiler, D.; Abell, D.T.; Nieter, C.; Ranjbar, V.; Schwartz, B.; Kholopov M.; Shevchenko, O.; McIntosh, P.; Wheelhouse, A.

    2011-09-04

    Coherent electron cooling (CEC) has a potential to significantly boost luminosity of high-energy, high-intensity hadron-hadron and electron-hadron colliders. In a CEC system, a hadron beam interacts with a cooling electron beam. A perturbation of the electron density caused by ions is amplified and fed back to the ions to reduce the energy spread and the emittance of the ion beam. To demonstrate the feasibility of CEC we propose a proof-of-principle experiment at RHIC using SRF linac. In this paper, we describe the setup for CeC installed into one of RHIC's interaction regions. We present results of analytical estimates and results of initial simulations of cooling a gold-ion beam at 40 GeV/u energy via CeC. We plan to complete the program in five years. During first two years we will build coherent electron cooler in IP2 of RHIC. In parallel we will develop complete package of computer simulation tools for the start-to-end simulation predicting exact performance of a CeC. The later activity will be the core of Tech X involvement into the project. We will use these tools to predict the performance of our CeC device. The experimental demonstration of the CeC will be undertaken in years three to five of the project. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the cooling of ion beam and to compare its measured performance with predictions made by us prior to the experiments.

  6. Observations of Cool-Star Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansgar Reiners

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cool stars like the Sun harbor convection zones capable of producing substantial surface magnetic fields leading to stellar magnetic activity. The influence of stellar parameters like rotation, radius, and age on cool-star magnetism, and the importance of the shear layer between a radiative core and the convective envelope for the generation of magnetic fields are keys for our understanding of low-mass stellar dynamos, the solar dynamo, and also for other large-scale and planetary dynamos. Our observational picture of cool-star magnetic fields has improved tremendously over the last years. Sophisticated methods were developed to search for the subtle effects of magnetism, which are difficult to detect particularly in cool stars. With an emphasis on the assumptions and capabilities of modern methods used to measure magnetism in cool stars, I review the different techniques available for magnetic field measurements. I collect the analyses on cool-star magnetic fields and try to compare results from different methods, and I review empirical evidence that led to our current picture of magnetic fields and their generation in cool stars and brown dwarfs.

  7. Statistics Analysis Measures Painting of Cooling Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zacharopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the cooling tower of Megalopolis (construction 1975 and protection from corrosive environment. The maintenance of the cooling tower took place in 2008. The cooling tower was badly damaged from corrosion of reinforcement. The parabolic cooling towers (factory of electrical power are a typical example of construction, which has a special aggressive environment. The protection of cooling towers is usually achieved through organic coatings. Because of the different environmental impacts on the internal and external side of the cooling tower, a different system of paint application is required. The present study refers to the damages caused by corrosion process. The corrosive environments, the application of this painting, the quality control process, the measures and statistics analysis, and the results were discussed in this study. In the process of quality control the following measurements were taken into consideration: (1 examination of the adhesion with the cross-cut test, (2 examination of the film thickness, and (3 controlling of the pull-off resistance for concrete substrates and paintings. Finally, this study refers to the correlations of measurements, analysis of failures in relation to the quality of repair, and rehabilitation of the cooling tower. Also this study made a first attempt to apply the specific corrosion inhibitors in such a large structure.

  8. Self-reported HIV-positive status but subsequent HIV-negative test result using rapid diagnostic testing algorithms among seven sub-Saharan African military populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Harbertson

    Full Text Available HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs combined in an algorithm are the current standard for HIV diagnosis in many sub-Saharan African countries, and extensive laboratory testing has confirmed HIV RDTs have excellent sensitivity and specificity. However, false-positive RDT algorithm results have been reported due to a variety of factors, such as suboptimal quality assurance procedures and inaccurate interpretation of results. We conducted HIV serosurveys in seven sub-Saharan African military populations and recorded the frequency of personnel self-reporting HIV positivity, but subsequently testing HIV-negative during the serosurvey. The frequency of individuals who reported they were HIV-positive but subsequently tested HIV-negative using RDT algorithms ranged from 3.3 to 91.1%, suggesting significant rates of prior false-positive HIV RDT algorithm results, which should be confirmed using biological testing across time in future studies. Simple measures could substantially reduce false-positive results, such as greater adherence to quality assurance guidelines and prevalence-specific HIV testing algorithms as described in the World Health Organization's HIV testing guidelines. Other measures to improve RDT algorithm specificity include classifying individuals with weakly positive test lines as HIV indeterminate and retesting. While expansion of HIV testing in resource-limited countries is critical to identifying HIV-infected individuals for appropriate care and treatment, careful attention to potential causes of false HIV-positive results are needed to prevent the significant medical, psychological, and fiscal costs resulting from individuals receiving a false-positive HIV diagnosis.

  9. Self-reported HIV-positive status but subsequent HIV-negative test result using rapid diagnostic testing algorithms among seven sub-Saharan African military populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbertson, Judith; Hale, Braden R; Tran, Bonnie R; Thomas, Anne G; Grillo, Michael P; Jacobs, Marni B; McAnany, Jennifer; Shaffer, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) combined in an algorithm are the current standard for HIV diagnosis in many sub-Saharan African countries, and extensive laboratory testing has confirmed HIV RDTs have excellent sensitivity and specificity. However, false-positive RDT algorithm results have been reported due to a variety of factors, such as suboptimal quality assurance procedures and inaccurate interpretation of results. We conducted HIV serosurveys in seven sub-Saharan African military populations and recorded the frequency of personnel self-reporting HIV positivity, but subsequently testing HIV-negative during the serosurvey. The frequency of individuals who reported they were HIV-positive but subsequently tested HIV-negative using RDT algorithms ranged from 3.3 to 91.1%, suggesting significant rates of prior false-positive HIV RDT algorithm results, which should be confirmed using biological testing across time in future studies. Simple measures could substantially reduce false-positive results, such as greater adherence to quality assurance guidelines and prevalence-specific HIV testing algorithms as described in the World Health Organization's HIV testing guidelines. Other measures to improve RDT algorithm specificity include classifying individuals with weakly positive test lines as HIV indeterminate and retesting. While expansion of HIV testing in resource-limited countries is critical to identifying HIV-infected individuals for appropriate care and treatment, careful attention to potential causes of false HIV-positive results are needed to prevent the significant medical, psychological, and fiscal costs resulting from individuals receiving a false-positive HIV diagnosis.

  10. Improvement of Cooling Technology through Atmosphere Gas Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renard, Michel; Dosogne, Edgaar; Crutzen, Jean Pierre; Raick, Jean Mare [DREVER INTERNATIONAL S.A., Liege (Belgium); Ji, Ma Jia; Jun, Lv; Zhi, Ma Bing [SHOUGANG Cold Rolling Mill Headquarter, Beijin (China)

    2009-12-15

    The production of advanced high strength steels requires the improvement of cooling technology. The use of high cooling rates allows relatively low levels of expensive alloying additions to ensure sufficient hardenability. In classical annealing and hot-dip galvanizing lines a mixing station is used to provide atmosphere gas containing 3-5% hydrogen and 97-95% nitrogen in the various sections of the furnace, including the rapid cooling section. Heat exchange enhancement in this cooling section can be insured by the increased hydrogen concentration. Driver international developed a patented improvement of cooling technology based on the following features: pure hydrogen gas is injected only in the rapid cooling section whereas the different sections of the furnace are supplied with pure nitrogen gas: the control of flows through atmosphere gas management allows to get high hydrogen concentration in cooling section and low hydrogen content in the other furnace zones. This cooling technology development insures higher cooling rates without additional expensive hydrogen gas consumption and without the use of complex sealing equipment between zones. In addition reduction in electrical energy consumption is obtained. This atmosphere control development can be combined with geometrical design improvements in order to get optimised cooling technology providing high cooling rates as well as reduced strip vibration amplitudes. Extensive validation of theoretical research has been conducted on industrial lines. New lines as well as existing lines, with limited modifications, can be equipped with this new development. Up to now this technology has successfully been implemented on 6 existing and 7 new lines in Europe and Asia.

  11. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  12. Cool half of the H-R diagram in soft X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, T.R.; Linsky, J.L.; Vaiana, G.S.; Golub, L.; Rosner, R.

    1981-11-01

    We report results of an Einstein Guest Observing program to map the occurrence of soft x-ray emission, which is a signature of hot stellar coronae (T>10/sup 6/ K), in the cool half of the Hertzsprung Russell (H-R) diagram. We detect X-rays from F--M dwarfs and late F through early K giants, but not from the cooler giants, other than the spectroscopic binary epsilon Car (K0 II+B), or from any supergiants, other than Canopus (F0IB--II). The empirical separation of the cool half of the H-R diagram into a region where stellar soft X-ray emission is a common phenomenon, and a region where hot coronae are rare, if present at all among single stars, is similar to that found previously by Linsky and Haisch for C IV lambdalambda1548,1551 emission (Troughly-equal10/sup 5/ K) and by Stencel and Mullan for the onset of rapid mass loss in strong, cool (T< or approx. =10/sup 4/ K) stellar winds. We discuss the energy balance in the outer atmospheres of the coronal stars, the likely absorption of X-ray emission by cool winds in the ''hybrid-spectrum'' supergiants, a rotation-activity connection among the G dwarfs, and possible evolutionary origins of the structure seen in the cool half of the X-ray H-R diagram.

  13. The evaluation of pressure effects on the ex-vessel cooling for KNGR with MELCOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hwa; Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Dong Ha

    2001-03-01

    In this report, the effect of external vessel cooling on debris coolability and vessel integrity for the KNGR were examined from the two typical pressure range of high(170 bar) and low(5 bar)case using the lower plenum model in MELCOR1.8.4. As the conditions of these calculations, 80 ton of debris was relocated simultaneously into the lower vessel head and the debris relocation temperature from the core region was 2700 K. The decay heat has been assumed to be that of one hour after reactor shutdown. The creep failure of the vessel wall was simulated with 1-D model, which can consider the rapid temperature gradient over the wall thickness during the ex-vessel cooling. From the calculation results, both the coolant temperature and the total amount of coolant mass injected into the cavity are known to be the important factors in determining the time period to keep the external vessel cool. Therefore, a long-term strategy to keep the coolant temperature subcooled throughout the transient is suggested to sustain or prolong the effect of external vessel cooling. Also, it is expected that to keep the primary side at low pressure and to perform the ex-vessel flooding be the essential conditions to sustain the vessel integrity. From MELCOR, the penetration failure always occurs after relocation regardless of the RCS pressure or availability of the external vessel cooling. Therefore, It is expected that the improvement of the model for the penetration tube failure will be necessary.

  14. The initial cooling of pahoehoe flow lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.; Denlinger, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new thermal model for the initial cooling of pahoehoe lava flows. The accurate modeling of this initial cooling is important for understanding the formation of the distinctive surface textures on pahoehoe lava flows as well as being the first step in modeling such key pahoehoe emplacement processes as lava flow inflation and lava tube formation. This model is constructed from the physical phenomena observed to control the initial cooling of pahoehoe flows and is not an empirical fit to field data. We find that the only significant processes are (a) heat loss by thermal radiation, (b) heat loss by atmospheric convection, (c) heat transport within the flow by conduction with temperature and porosity-dependent thermal properties, and (d) the release of latent heat during crystallization. The numerical model is better able to reproduce field measurements made in Hawai'i between 1989 and 1993 than other published thermal models. By adjusting one parameter at a time, the effect of each of the input parameters on the cooling rate was determined. We show that: (a) the surfaces of porous flows cool more quickly than the surfaces of dense flows, (b) the surface cooling is very sensitive to the efficiency of atmospheric convective cooling, and (c) changes in the glass forming tendency of the lava may have observable petrographic and thermal signatures. These model results provide a quantitative explanation for the recently observed relationship between the surface cooling rate of pahoehoe lobes and the porosity of those lobes (Jones 1992, 1993). The predicted sensitivity of cooling to atmospheric convection suggests a simple field experiment for verification, and the model provides a tool to begin studies of the dynamic crystallization of real lavas. Future versions of the model can also be made applicable to extraterrestrial, submarine, silicic, and pyroclastic flows.

  15. Coffee consumption rapidly reduces background DNA strand breaks in healthy humans: Results of a short-term repeated uptake intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuradze, Tamara; Lang, Roman; Hofmann, Thomas; Schipp, Dorothea; Galan, Jens; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2016-03-01

    Intervention studies provide evidence that long-term coffee consumption correlates with reduced DNA background damage in healthy volunteers. Here, we report on short-term kinetics of this effect, showing a rapid onset after normal coffee intake. In a short-term human intervention study, we determined the effects of coffee intake on DNA integrity during 8 h. Healthy male subjects ingested coffee in 200 mL aliquots every second hour up to a total volume of 800 mL. Blood samples were taken at baseline, immediately before the first coffee intake and subsequently every 2 h, prior to the respective coffee intake. DNA integrity was assayed by the comet assay. The results show a significant (p coffee intake. Continued coffee intake was associated with further decrements in background DNA damage within the 8 h intervention (p coffee consumption). Repeated coffee consumption was associated with reduced background DNA strand breakage, clearly measurable as early as 2 h after first intake resulting in a cumulative overall reduction by about one-third of the baseline value. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  17. Asexual reproduction induces a rapid and permanent loss of sexual reproduction capacity in the rice fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae: results of in vitro experimental evolution assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Dounia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual reproduction is common in eukaryotic microorganisms, with few species reproducing exclusively asexually. However, in some organisms, such as fungi, asexual reproduction alternates with episodic sexual reproduction events. Fungi are thus appropriate organisms for studies of the reasons for the selection of sexuality or clonality and of the mechanisms underlying this selection. Magnaporthe oryzae, an Ascomycete causing blast disease on rice, reproduces mostly asexually in natura. Sexual reproduction is possible in vitro and requires (i two strains of opposite mating types including (ii at least one female-fertile strain (i.e. a strain able to produce perithecia, the female organs in which meiosis occurs. Female-fertile strains are found only in limited areas of Asia, in which evidence for contemporary recombination has recently been obtained. We induced the forced evolution of four Chinese female-fertile strains in vitro by the weekly transfer of asexual spores (conidia between Petri dishes. We aimed to determine whether female fertility was rapidly lost in the absence of sexual reproduction and whether this loss was controlled genetically or epigenetically. Results All the strains became female-sterile after 10 to 19 rounds of selection under asexual conditions. As no single-spore isolation was carried out, the observed decrease in the production of perithecia reflected the emergence and the invasion of female-sterile mutants. The female-sterile phenotype segregated in the offspring of crosses between female-sterile evolved strains and female-fertile wild-type strains. This segregation was maintained in the second generation in backcrosses. Female-sterile evolved strains were subjected to several stresses, but none induced the restoration of female fertility. This loss of fertility was therefore probably due to genetic rather than epigenetic mechanisms. In competition experiments, female-sterile mutants produced similar

  18. Thermal Energy Storage for Space Cooling--Federal Technology Alert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R

    2000-12-31

    Cool storage technology can be used to significantly reduce energy costs by allowing energy-intensive, electrically driven cooling equipment to be predominantly operated during off peak hours when electricity rates are lower. This Federal Technology Alert, which is sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), describes the basic types of cool storage technologies and cooling system integration options. In addition, it defines the savings potential in the federal sector, presents application advice, and describes the performance experience of specific federal users. The results of a case study of a GSA building using cool storage technology are also provided.

  19. Thermal Energy for Space Cooling--Federal Technology Alert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.

    2000-12-31

    Cool storage technology can be used to significantly reduce energy costs by allowing energy-intensive, electrically driven cooling equipment to be predominantly operated during off peak hours when electricity rates are lower. This Federal Technology Alert, which is sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), describes the basic types of cool storage technologies and cooling system integration options. In addition, it defines the savings potential in the federal sector, presents application advice, and describes the performance experience of specific federal users. The results of a case study of a GSA building using cool storage technology are also provided.

  20. Elementary stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G

    1983-12-01

    Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)

  1. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  2. Comparative field performance and adherence to test results of four malaria rapid diagnostic tests among febrile patients more than five years of age in Blantyre, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Joaquin Miguel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs can increase availability of laboratory-based diagnosis and improve the overall management of febrile patients in malaria endemic areas. In preparation to scale-up RDTs in health facilities in Malawi, an evaluation of four RDTs to help guide national-level decision-making was conducted. Methods A cross sectional study of four histidine rich-protein-type-2- (HRP2 based RDTs at four health centres in Blantyre, Malawi, was undertaken to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs, assess prescriber adherence to RDT test results and explore operational issues regarding RDT implementation. Three RDTs were evaluated in only one health centre each and one RDT was evaluated in two health centres. Light microscopy in a reference laboratory was used as the gold standard. Results A total of 2,576 patients were included in the analysis. All of the RDTs tested had relatively high sensitivity for detecting any parasitaemia [Bioline SD (97%, First response malaria (92%, Paracheck (91%, ICT diagnostics (90%], but low specificity [Bioline SD (39%, First response malaria (42%, Paracheck (68%, ICT diagnostics (54%]. Specificity was significantly lower in patients who self-treated with an anti-malarial in the previous two weeks (odds ratio (OR 0.5; p-value 15 years old (OR 0.4, p-value Conclusions The results of this evaluation, combined with other published data and global recommendations, have been used to select RDTs for national scale-up. In addition, the study identified some key issues that need to be further delineated: the low field specificity of RDTs, variable RDT performance by different cadres of health workers and the need for a robust quality assurance system. Close monitoring of RDT scale-up will be needed to ensure that RDTs truly improve malaria case management.

  3. Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Predicting Early Development in Reading and Spelling: Results from a Cross-Linguistic Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) were investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230 Scandinavian children were followed longitudinally between kindergarten and 2nd grade. PA and RAN were measured in kindergarten and Grade 1, while word recognition, phonological decoding, and spelling were measured in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. In general, high stability was observed for the various reading and spelling measures, such that little additional variance was left open for PA and RAN. However, results demonstrated that RAN was more related to reading than spelling across orthographies, with the opposite pattern shown for PA. In addition, tests of measurement invariance show that the factor loadings of each observed indicator on the latent PA factor was the same across U.S./Australia and Scandinavia. Similar findings were obtained for RAN. In general, tests of structural invariance show that models of early literacy development are highly transferable across languages. PMID:21359098

  4. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 blockade augments the T-cell response primed by attenuated Listeria monocytogenes resulting in more rapid clearance of virulent bacterial challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jared H; Johanns, Tanner M; Ertelt, James M; Lai, Joseph C; Way, Sing Sing

    2009-09-01

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) uniformly suppresses antigen-specific T cells during chronic infection with bacterial, parasitic or viral pathogens. However, the importance of CTLA-4 in controlling the T-cell response during acute infection or after priming with live attenuated vaccine vectors has not been well characterized. Since strategies aimed at blocking CTLA-4 are being actively developed to therapeutically augment T-cell-mediated immunity, the effects of CTLA-4 blockade on T-cell activation during these conditions need to be more clearly defined. We have examined the role of CTLA-4 in a prime-challenge model of acute bacterial infection using both attenuated and virulent strains of the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Although Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T cells are the predominant CTLA-4-expressing cell type in naïve mice, antigen-specific Foxp3(-) CD4(+) cells upregulate CTLA-4 expression after primary L. monocytogenes infection. Blockade of CTLA-4 results in increased numbers of L. monocytogenes-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells after primary infection with attenuated L. monocytogenes, and confers more rapid bacterial clearance after secondary challenge with virulent L. monocytogenes. Accordingly, CTLA-4 plays an important suppressive role in T-cell priming and protective immunity in a prime-challenge model of acute bacterial infection.

  5. Towards Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV: The Impact of a Rapid Results Initiative in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa L. Dillabaugh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many HIV-positive pregnant women and infants are still not receiving optimal services, preventing the goal of eliminating mother-to-child transmission (MTCT and improving maternal child health overall. A Rapid Results Initiative (RRI approach was utilized to address key challenges in delivery of prevention of MTCT (PMTCT services including highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART uptake for women and infants. The RRI was conducted between April and June 2011 at 119 health facilities in five districts in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Aggregated site-level data were compared at baseline before the RRI (Oct 2010–Jan 2011, during the RRI, and post-RRI (Jul–Sep 2011 using pre-post cohort analysis. HAART uptake amongst all HIV-positive pregnant women increased by 40% (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.7 and continued to improve post-RRI (RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4–1.8. HAART uptake in HIV-positive infants remained stable (RR 1.1, 95% CI 0.9–1.4 during the RRI and improved by 30% (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0–1.6 post-RRI. Significant improvement in PMTCT services can be achieved through introduction of an RRI, which appears to lead to sustained benefits for pregnant HIV-infected women and their infants.

  6. Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Predicting Early Development in Reading and Spelling: Results from a Cross-Linguistic Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) were investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230 Scandinavian children were followed longitudinally between kindergarten and 2nd grade. PA and RAN were measured in kindergarten and Grade 1, while word recognition, phonological decoding, and spelling were measured in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. In general, high stability was observed for the various reading and spelling measures, such that little additional variance was left open for PA and RAN. However, results demonstrated that RAN was more related to reading than spelling across orthographies, with the opposite pattern shown for PA. In addition, tests of measurement invariance show that the factor loadings of each observed indicator on the latent PA factor was the same across U.S./Australia and Scandinavia. Similar findings were obtained for RAN. In general, tests of structural invariance show that models of early literacy development are highly transferable across languages.

  7. Oceanic signals in rapid polar motion: results from a barotropic forward model with explicit consideration of self-attraction and loading effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Quinn, Katherine J.; Ponte, Rui M.

    2017-04-01

    Numerical modeling of non-tidal variations in ocean currents and bottom pressure has played a key role in closing the excitation budget of Earth's polar motion for a wide range of periodicities. Non-negligible discrepancies between observations and model accounts of pole position changes prevail, however, on sub-monthly time scales and call for examination of hydrodynamic effects usually omitted in general circulation models. Specifically, complete hydrodynamic cores must incorporate self-attraction and loading (SAL) feedbacks on redistributed water masses, effects that produces ocean bottom pressure perturbations of typically about 10% relative to the computed mass variations. Here, we report on a benchmark simulation with a near-global, barotropic forward model forced by wind stress, atmospheric pressure, and a properly calculated SAL term. The latter is obtained by decomposing ocean mass anomalies on a 30-minute grid into spherical harmonics at each time step and applying Love numbers to account for seafloor deformation and changed gravitational attraction. The increase in computational time at each time step is on the order of 50%. Preliminary results indicate that the explicit consideration of SAL in the forward runs increases the fidelity of modeled polar motion excitations, in particular on time scales shorter than 5 days as evident from cross spectral comparisons with geodetic excitation. Definite conclusions regarding the relevance of SAL in simulating rapid polar motion are, however, still hampered by the model's incomplete domain representation that excludes parts of the highly energetic Arctic Ocean.

  8. Heating and cooling processes in disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitke, Peter

    2015-09-01

    This chapter summarises current theoretical concepts and methods to determine the gas temperature structure in protoplanetary disks by balancing all relevant heating and cooling rates. The processes considered are non-LTE line heating/cooling based on the escape probability method, photo-ionisation heating and recombination cooling, free-free heating/cooling, dust thermal accommodation and high-energy heating processes such as X-ray and cosmic ray heating, dust photoelectric and PAH heating, a number of particular follow-up heating processes starting with the UV excitation of H2, and the release of binding energy in exothermal reactions. The resulting thermal structure of protoplanetary disks is described and discussed. 10th Lecture from Summer School "Protoplanetary Disks: Theory and Modelling Meet Observations"

  9. DETAILED STUDIES OF ELECTRON COOLING FRICTION FORCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEDOTOV, A.V.; BRUHWILER, D.L.; ABELL, D.T.; SIDORIN, A.O.

    2005-09-18

    High-energy electron cooling for RHIC presents many unique features and challenges. An accurate estimate of the cooling times requires detailed simulation of the electron cooling process. The first step towards such calculations is to have an accurate description of the cooling force. Numerical simulations are being used to explore various features of the friction force which appear due to several effects, including the anisotropy of the electron distribution in velocity space and the effect of a strong solenoidal magnetic field. These aspects are being studied in detail using the VORFAL code, which explicitly resolves close binary collisions. Results are compared with available asymptotic and empirical formulas and also, using the BETACOOL code, with direct numerical integration of less approximate expressions over the specified electron distribution function.

  10. Effect of stack channel radius on the cooling performance of a thermoacoustic cooling system with diameter-expanded prime movers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, So; Sakamoto, Shin-ichi; Orino, Yuichiro

    2017-07-01

    We study a thermoacoustic cooling system with diameter-expanded two-stage prime movers to improve the cooling performance of the system. The heat flow, which depends on the amplitude of the progressive wave, is expected to increase when the heat-pump stack channel radius is decreased. In this study, we investigate the effect of the heat-pump stack channel radius on the cooling performance. The experimental results show that the temperature difference formed at the heat-pump stack is large as the channel radius is decreased. To improve the cooling performance, it is suggested that the proportion of the heat flow that prevents cooling should be decreased.

  11. Cooling Tower (Evaporative Cooling System) Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boyd, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lewis, Taylor [Colorado Energy Office, Denver, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M and V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with cooling tower efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M and V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  12. Sorption cooling: a valid extension to passive cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornink, D.J.; Burger, Johannes Faas; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Passive cooling has shown to be a very dependable cryogenic cooling method for space missions. Several missions employ passive radiators to cool down their delicate sensor systems for many years, without consuming power, without exporting vibrations or producing electromagnetic interference. So for

  13. Biofouling control of industrial seawater cooling towers

    KAUST Repository

    Albloushi, Mohammed

    2017-11-01

    . Test results of GAC bio-filter showed that around 70 % removal of total organic carbon in the seawater feed was achieved and was effective in keeping the microbial growth to a minimum. The measured results from this study enable designers of seawater cooling towers to manage the biofouling problems when such cooling towers are extrapolated to a pilot scale.

  14. Comparative field performance and adherence to test results of four malaria rapid diagnostic tests among febrile patients more than five years of age in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinkhumba, Jobiba; Skarbinski, Jacek; Chilima, Ben; Campbell, Carl; Ewing, Victoria; San Joaquin, Miguel; Sande, John; Ali, Doreen; Mathanga, Don

    2010-07-20

    Malaria rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs) can increase availability of laboratory-based diagnosis and improve the overall management of febrile patients in malaria endemic areas. In preparation to scale-up RDTs in health facilities in Malawi, an evaluation of four RDTs to help guide national-level decision-making was conducted. A cross sectional study of four histidine rich-protein-type-2- (HRP2) based RDTs at four health centres in Blantyre, Malawi, was undertaken to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs, assess prescriber adherence to RDT test results and explore operational issues regarding RDT implementation. Three RDTs were evaluated in only one health centre each and one RDT was evaluated in two health centres. Light microscopy in a reference laboratory was used as the gold standard. A total of 2,576 patients were included in the analysis. All of the RDTs tested had relatively high sensitivity for detecting any parasitaemia [Bioline SD (97%), First response malaria (92%), Paracheck (91%), ICT diagnostics (90%)], but low specificity [Bioline SD (39%), First response malaria (42%), Paracheck (68%), ICT diagnostics (54%)]. Specificity was significantly lower in patients who self-treated with an anti-malarial in the previous two weeks (odds ratio (OR) 0.5; p-value 15 years old (OR 0.4, p-value < 0.001) and when the RDT was performed by a community health worker versus a laboratory technician (OR 0.4; p-value < 0.001). Health workers correctly prescribed anti-malarials for patients with positive RDT results, but ignored negative RDT results with 58% of patients with a negative RDT result treated with an anti-malarial. The results of this evaluation, combined with other published data and global recommendations, have been used to select RDTs for national scale-up. In addition, the study identified some key issues that need to be further delineated: the low field specificity of RDTs, variable RDT performance by different cadres of health workers and the need

  15. Comments on Ionization Cooling Channel Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics

    2013-12-04

    Ionization cooling channels with a wide variety of characteristics and cooling properties are being developed. These channels can produce cooling performances that are largely consistent with the ionization cooling theory developed previously. In this paper we review ionization cooling theory, discuss its application to presently developing cooling channels, and discuss criteria for optimizing cooling.

  16. Effects of Cooling During Exercise on Thermoregulatory Responses of Men With Paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Coen C W G; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; van Nes, Ilse J W; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2016-05-01

    People with spinal cord injury (SCI) have an altered afferent input to the thermoregulatory center, resulting in a reduced efferent response (vasomotor control and sweating capacity) below the level of the lesion. Consequently, core body temperature rises more rapidly during exercise in individuals with SCI compared with people who are able-bodied. Cooling strategies may reduce the thermophysiological strain in SCI. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a cooling vest on the core body temperature response of people with a thoracic SCI during submaximal exercise. Ten men (mean age=44 years, SD=11) with a thoracic lesion (T4-T5 or below) participated in this randomized crossover study. Participants performed two 45-minute exercise bouts at 50% maximal workload (ambient temperature 25°C), with participants randomized to a group wearing a cooling vest or a group wearing no vest (separate days). Core body temperature and skin temperature were continuously measured, and thermal sensation was assessed every 3 minutes. Exercise resulted in an increased core body temperature, skin temperature, and thermal sensation, whereas cooling did not affect core body temperature. The cooling vest effectively decreased skin temperature, increased the core-to-trunk skin temperature gradient, and tended to lower thermal sensation compared with the control condition. The lack of differences in core body temperature among conditions may be a result of the relative moderate ambient temperature in which the exercise was performed. Despite effectively lowering skin temperature and increasing the core-to-trunk skin temperature gradient, there was no impact of the cooling vest on the exercise-induced increase in core body temperature in men with low thoracic SCI. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  17. Use of local convective and radiant cooling at warm environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Krejcirikova, Barbora; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four local cooling devices (convective, radiant and combined) on SBS symptoms reported by 24 subjects at 28 ˚C and 50% RH was studied. The devices studied were: (1) desk cooling fan, (2) personalized ventilation providing clean air, (3) two radiant panels and (4) two radiant panels....... The acceptability of the thermal environment was similar for all cooling devices. The acceptability of air movement and PAQ increased when the local cooling methods were used. The best results were achieved with personalized ventilation and cooling fan. The minimal improvement in PAQ was reported when the radiant...... with one panel equipped with small fans. A reference condition without cooling was tested as well. The response of the subjects to the exposed conditions was collected by computerized questionnaires. The cooling devices significantly (p

  18. Rapid cooling experiments and use of an anionic nuclear probe to sense the spin transition of the 1D coordination polymers [Fe(NH2trz)3]SnF6n x H2O (NH2trz=4-amino-1,2,4-triazole).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Yann; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Mentior, Sophie; Dîrtu, Marinela M; Gieck, Christine; Bhatthacharjee, Ashis; Gütlich, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    [Fe(NH2trz)3]SnF6n x H2O (NH(2)trz=4-amino-1,2,4-triazole; n=1 (1), n=0.5 (2)) are new 1D spin-crossover coordination polymers. Compound 2 exhibits an incomplete spin transition centred at around 210 K with a thermal hysteresis loop approximately 16 K wide. The spin transition of 2 was detected by the Mössbauer resonance of the 119Sn atom in the SnF6 (2-) anion primarily on the basis of the evolution of its local distortion. Rapid-cooling 57Fe Mössbauer and superconducting quantum interference device experiments allow dramatic widening of the hysteresis width of 2 from 16 K up to 82 K and also shift the spin-transition curve into the room temperature region. This unusual behaviour of quenched samples on warming is attributed to activation of the molecular motion of the anions from a frozen distorted form towards a regular form at temperatures well above approximately 210 K. Potential applications of this new family of materials are discussed.

  19. Spatial variations in cooling rate in the mantle section of the Samail ophiolite in Oman: Implications for formation of lithosphere at mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygert, Nick; Kelemen, Peter B.; Liang, Yan

    2017-05-01

    To understand how the mantle cools beneath mid-ocean ridge spreading centers, we applied a REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer and major element thermometers to peridotites from the Wadi Tayin massif in the southern part of the Samail ophiolite in the Sultanate of Oman, which represent more than 10 km of structural depth beneath the paleo-Moho. Closure temperatures for REEs in pyroxenes deduced from the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer (TREE) decrease smoothly and systematically with depth in the section, from >1300 °C near the crust to <1100 °C near the metamorphic sole, consistent with previously observed, similar variations in mineral thermometers with lower cooling temperatures. Estimated cooling rates decrease from ∼0.3 °C/y just below the crust-mantle transition zone (MTZ) to ∼10-3 °C/y at a depth of six km below the MTZ. Cooling rates derived from Ca-in-olivine thermometry also decrease moving deeper into the section. These variations in cooling rate are most consistent with conductive cooling of the mantle beneath a cold overlying crust. In turn, this suggests that hydrothermal circulation extended to the MTZ near the axis of the fast-spreading ridge where the igneous crust of the Samail ophiolite formed. These observations are consistent with the Sheeted Sills model for accretion of lower oceanic crust, and with previous work demonstrating very rapid cooling rates in the crust of the Wadi Tayin massif. Our observations, combined with previous results, suggest that efficient hydrothermal circulation beneath fast spreading centers cools the uppermost mantle from magmatic temperatures to <1000 °C as quickly as tectonic exhumation at amagmatic spreading centers. In contrast, thermometers sensitive to cooling over lower temperature intervals indicate that the Wadi Tayin peridotites cooled more slowly than tectonically exhumed peridotites sampled near the seafloor along mid-ocean ridges. Hydrothermal cooling of the crust may have waned, so that the crust

  20. Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

  1. Initial Cooling Experiments (ICE) at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Krienen, F

    1980-01-01

    The Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE) has been a four-year study on the feasibility of high-energy proton-antiproton colliding beam experiments. It was realized that a cooling scheme aimed at increasing the phase-space density of the antiproton beam was essential for providing luminosities of the order of 10/sup 30/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ in the collider. Stochastic cooling of protons at about 2 GeV/c and electron cooling of protons at about 50 MeV kinetic energy were successfully tried in the ICE storage ring. During these tests it turned out that stochastic cooling alone would be sufficient to implement the 0.5 TeV c.m. collider of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Besides physics at high energy, ICE opened up the road to antiproton physics at low (eventually very low) energies. This resulted in Project LEAR, now in the course of construction. It has been possible to cool, store, and stack antiprotons in ICE with a view to the determination of a lower limit on the antiproton lifetime. ICE has therefore ...

  2. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  3. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  4. Availability and price of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in the public and private health sectors in 2011: results from 10 nationally representative cross-sectional retail surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyer, Stephen; Shewchuk, Tanya; Tougher, Sarah; Ye, Yazoume; Mann, Andrea G; Willey, Barbara A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Taylor, Mark; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Mberu, Blessing; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Juma, Elizabeth; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Diap, Graciela; Bruxvoort, Katia; Ansong, Daniel; Hanson, Kara; Arnold, Fred; Goodman, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    To describe the state of the public and private malaria diagnostics market shortly after WHO updated its guidelines for testing all suspected malaria cases prior to treatment. Ten nationally representative cross-sectional cluster surveys were conducted in 2011 among public and private health facilities, community health workers and retail outlets (pharmacies and drug shops) in nine countries (Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar surveyed separately). Eligible outlets had antimalarials in stock on the day of interview or had stocked antimalarials in the past 3 months. Three thousand four hundred and thirty-nine rapid diagnostic test (RDT) products from 39 manufacturers were audited among 12,197 outlets interviewed. Availability was typically highest in public health facilities, although availability in these facilities varied greatly across countries, from 15% in Nigeria to >90% in Madagascar and Cambodia. Private for-profit sector availability was 46% in Cambodia, 20% in Zambia, but low in other countries. Median retail prices for RDTs in the private for-profit sector ranged from $0.00 in Madagascar to $3.13 in Zambia. The reported number of RDTs used in the 7 days before the survey in public health facilities ranged from 3 (Benin) to 50 (Zambia). Eighteen months after WHO updated its case management guidelines, RDT availability remained poor in the private sector in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the ongoing importance of the private sector as a source of fever treatment, the goal of universal diagnosis will not be achievable under current circumstances. These results constitute national baselines against which progress in scaling-up diagnostic tests can be assessed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Laboratory study on the cooling effect of flash water evaporative cooling technology for ventilation and air-conditioning of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Yuan, Shu; Yang, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    environments and the other simulated an air-conditioned indoor environment. The flash water evaporation cooling device was installed in the chamber that simulated indoor environment. The air from the chamber simulating outdoor environment was introduced into the cooling device and cooled by the flash water...... evaporation. Two outdoor summer climates were simulated in the study, i.e. the design summer climate of Las Vegas and the extreme summer climate of Copenhagen represented hot/dry and warm/dry climates. The results showed that the flash evaporative cooling technology, a simple and green cooling technology......This paper presents a simple cooling technology using flash water evaporation. The technology combines a water atomizer with a plate heat exchanger used for heat recovery of a ventilation system. It is mainly used to cool the ventilation airflow from outdoors and is particularly suitable to be used...

  6. Heating, ventilation and cooling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available air and diluting the humidity or mixing the cool humid air with the air from a conventional air conditioner. Climate Specific The performance of an evaporative cooler is highly dependant on atmospheric conditions. Evaporative coolers work best... that an installed system is being maintained correctly by competent persons to ensure both smooth and efficient operation as well as to prevent mould growth. Legionnaires disease is a concern within evaporative coolers if it is not maintained correctly...

  7. Laser Cooling of Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Panel (b) com- pares the cooling efficiencies of available thermoelectric coolers ( TECs ) with ZBLANP:Yb3+-based optical refrigerators. Devices based...on materials with low parasitic heating will outperform TECs below 200 . Coolers made from current materials are less efficient than TECs at all...luminescence extraction efficiency are being explored as well. A novel method based on the frustrated total internal reflection across a vacuum “ nano -gap” is

  8. Confirmation of shutdown cooling effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kotaro, E-mail: ksato@nelted.co.jp; Tabuchi, Masato; Sugimura, Naoki; Tatsumi, Masahiro [Nuclear Engineering, Limited, 1-3-7 Tosabori Nishi-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 550-0001 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    After the Fukushima accidents, all nuclear power plants in Japan have gradually stopped their operations and have long periods of shutdown. During those periods, reactivity of fuels continues to change significantly especially for high-burnup UO{sub 2} fuels and MOX fuels due to radioactive decays. It is necessary to consider these isotopic changes precisely, to predict neutronics characteristics accurately. In this paper, shutdown cooling (SDC) effects of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels that have unusual operation histories are confirmed by the advanced lattice code, AEGIS. The calculation results show that the effects need to be considered even after nuclear power plants come back to normal operation.

  9. Theoretical insight of adsorption cooling

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2011-06-03

    This letter proposes and presents a thermodynamic formulation to calculate the energetic performances of an adsorption cooler as a function of pore widths and volumes of solid adsorbents. The simulated results in terms of the coefficient of performance are validated with experimental data. It is found from the present analysis that the performance of an adsorption cooling device is influenced mainly by the physical characteristics of solid adsorbents, and the characteristics energy between the adsorbent-adsorbate systems. The present study confirms that there exists a special type of silicagel having optimal physical characteristics that allows us to obtain the best performance.

  10. Non-Laser Cooling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilico, Laurent

    We first review trapped ion radiative cooling and show that it is only efficient for high frequency oscillating particles in Penning traps. We then describe in detail resistive cooling and explain in the frame of an exercice why and how thermal equilibrium with the resistor is reached. We finally discuss buffer gas cooling in Paul traps.

  11. Persistent Graves' hyperthyroidism despite rapid negative conversion of thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assay results: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Kaneko, Masanori; Kitazawa, Masaru; Uemura, Yasuyuki; Minagawa, Shinichi; Miyakoshi, Masashi; Kaneko, Kenzo; Kamoi, Kyuzi

    2017-02-06

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disorder characterized by hyperthyroidism, and patients exhibit thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody. The major methods of measuring circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody include the thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays. Although the diagnostic accuracy of these assays has been improved, a minority of patients with Graves' disease test negative even on second-generation and third-generation thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins. We report a rare case of a thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin-positive patient with Graves' disease who showed rapid lowering of thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin levels following administration of the anti-thyroid drug thiamazole, but still experienced Graves' hyperthyroidism. A 45-year-old Japanese man presented with severe hyperthyroidism (serum free triiodothyronine >25.0 pg/mL; reference range 1.7 to 3.7 pg/mL) and tested weakly positive for thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins on second-generation tests (2.1 IU/L; reference range Graves' hyperthyroidism. The possible explanations for serial changes in the thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin results in our patient include the presence of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody, which is bioactive but less reactive on thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays, or the effect of reduced levels of circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody upon improvement of thyroid autoimmunity with thiamazole treatment. Physicians should keep in mind that patients with Graves' disease may show thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assay results that do not reflect the severity of Graves' disease or indicate the outcome of the disease, and that active Graves' disease may persist even after negative

  12. Low mass integrated cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Low mass on - detec tor cooling systems are being developed and stud ied by the Detector Technology group (PH - DT) in the CERN Physics Department in close collaboration with LHC and non - LHC experiments . Two approaches are currently being investigated. The first approach, for barrel configurations, consists in integrating the cooli ng apparatus in light mechanical structures support ing the detectors. In this case , the thermal management can be achieved either with light cooling pipes and thin plates or with a network of microchannels embedded in thin strips of silicon or polyimide . Both configuratio ns are being investigated in the context of the 2018 upgrade program of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). Moreover, it is also possible to use a s ilicon microchannel cooling device itself as structural support for the detectors and electronics. Such a configur ation has been adopted by the NA62 collaboration for the ir GigaTracKer (GTK) as well as by the LHCb collaboration for the 2018 major upgrade of...

  13. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  14. Cooling lubricants; Kuehlschmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Breuer, D. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Blome, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Deininger, C. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Hahn, J.U. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Kleine, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Nies, E. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Pflaumbaum, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Stockmann, R. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Willert, G. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Sonnenschein, G. [Maschinenbau- und Metall-Berufsgenossenschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    As a rule, the base substances used are certain liquid hydrocarbons from mineral oils as well as from native and synthetic oils. Through the addition of further substances the cooling lubricant takes on the particular qualities required for the use in question. Employees working with cooling lubricants are exposed to various hazards. The assessment of the concentrations at the work station is carried out on the basis of existing technical rules for contact with hazardous substances. However, the application/implementation of compulsory investigation and supervision in accordance with these rules is made difficult by the fact that cooling lubricants are, as a rule, made up of complicated compound mixtures. In addition to protecting employees from exposure to mists and vapours from the cooling lubricants, protection for the skin is also of particular importance. Cooling lubricants should not, if at all possible, be brought into contact with the skin. Cleansing the skin and skin care is just as important as changing working clothes regularly, and hygiene and cleanliness at the workplace. Unavoidable emissions are to be immediately collected at the point where they arise or are released and safely disposed of. This means taking into account all sources of emissions. The programme presented in this report therefore gives a very detailed account of the individual protective measures and provides recommendations for the design of technical protection facilities. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Als Basisstoffe dienen in der Regel bestimmte fluessige Kohlenwasserstoffverbindungen aus Mineraloelen sowie aus nativen oder synthetischen Oelen. Durch die Zugabe von weiteren Stoffen erlangt der Kuehlschmierstoff seine fuer den jeweiligen Anwendungsabfall geforderten Eigenschaften. Beschaeftigte, die mit Kuehlschmierstoffen umgehen, sind unterschiedliche Gefahren ausgesetzt. Die Beurteilung der Kuehlschmierstoffkonzentrationen in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz erfolgt auf der Grundlage bestehender

  15. [The effect of two different methods of rapid maxillary expansion on treatment results of skeletal Class III malocclusion patients with maxillary protraction in early permanent dentition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi-hua; Xie, Xing-qian

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the effect of single rapid maxillary expansion and repetitive rapid expansion and constriction with maxillary protraction in treating early permanent skeletal Class III patients. Twenty children with skeletal Class III malocclusion were randomly divided into two groups.Ten patients received 1 week of rapid expansion,followed by maxillary protraction(group A) and the other ten patients received 5 weeks of repetitive rapid expansion and constriction followed by maxillary protraction (group B).Cephalometric analysis was performed before and after treatment. The data was analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software package for paired t test. Significant changes in cranio-maxillofacial structures were observed in both groups after 6 months of treatment.Point A moved forward. SNA, ANB, UL-EP, U1-PP, SN-MP, ANS-Me/N-Me, Wit's value increased. L1-MP, LL-EP decreased. Significant differences were found in SNA,ANB,UL-EP between the two groups(PClass III malocclusion patients.

  16. How often do GPs use rapid computer access to laboratory results? A description of 18 months’ use by 72 practices in Tayside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Clark

    2004-02-01

    This pattern conforms to that describing the introduction of new technologies in other settings. Continued use in practice and the concordance of usage between practices confirms that rapid and reliable access to laboratory reports from primary care is both useful and used.

  17. Standardized measurement of the Modified Early Warning Score results in enhanced implementation of a Rapid Response System: a quasi-experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludikhuize, Jeroen; Borgert, Marjon; Binnekade, Jan; Subbe, Christian; Dongelmans, Dave; Goossens, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of protocolized measurement (three times daily) of the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) versus measurement on indication on the degree of implementation of the Rapid Response System (RRS). A quasi-experimental study was conducted in a University Hospital in Amsterdam between

  18. Corrosion of metals in wood : comparing the results of a rapid test method with long-term exposure tests across six wood treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Donald S. Stone

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares two methods of measuring the corrosion of steel and galvanized steel in wood: a long-term exposure test in solid wood and a rapid test method where fasteners are electrochemically polarized in extracts of wood treated with six different treatments. For traditional wood preservatives, the electrochemical extract method correlates with solid wood...

  19. Compared to glibenclamide, repaglinide treatment results in a more rapid fall in glucose level and beta-cell secretion after glucose stimulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink-Zandbergen, E.J.; Wal, P.S. van der; Sweep, C.G.J.; Smits, P.; Tack, C.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The more rapid onset of action and the shorter half-life of repaglinide may reduce the post-load glucose excursion and limit sustained insulin secretion compared to sulphonylurea (SU) derivatives. METHODS: We studied 12 patients with type 2 diabetes (age 62 +/- 2 years, BMI 28.3 +/- 1.3

  20. Laser cooling by adiabatic transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcia, Matthew; Cline, Julia; Bartolotta, John; Holland, Murray; Thompson, James

    2017-04-01

    We have demonstrated a new method of laser cooling applicable to particles with narrow linewidth optical transitions. This simple and robust cooling mechanism uses a frequency-swept laser to adiabatically transfer atoms between internal and motional states. The role of spontaneous emission is reduced (though is still critical) compared to Doppler cooling. This allows us to achieve greater slowing forces than would be possible with Doppler cooling, and may make this an appealing technique for cooling molecules. In this talk, I will present a demonstration of this technique in a cold strontium system. DARPA QUASAR, NIST, NSF PFC.

  1. Cooling treatment of olive paste during the oil processing: Impact on the yield and extra virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, G; Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Urbani, S; Selvaggini, R; Di Maio, I; Sordini, B; Servili, M

    2017-04-15

    In recent years, the temperature of processed olives in many olive-growing areas was often close to 30°C, due to the global warming and an early harvesting period. Consequently, the new trends in the extraction process have to include the opportunity to cool the olives or olive paste before processing to obtain high quality EVOO. A tubular thermal exchanger was used for a rapid cooling treatment (CT) of olive paste after crushing. The results did not show a significant difference in the oil yield or any modifications in the legal parameters. The cooling process determined a significant improvement of phenolic compounds in all the three Italian cultivar EVOOs analyzed, whereas the volatile compounds showed a variability largely affected by the genetic origin of the olives with C6 aldehydes that seem to be more stable than C6 alcohols and esters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Field measurements in the Fermilab electron cooling solenoid prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. C. Crawford et al.

    2003-10-02

    To increase the Tevatron luminosity, Fermilab is developing a high-energy electron cooling system [1] to cool 8.9-GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring. The schematic layout of the Recycler Electron Cooling (REC) system is shown in Figure 1. Cooling of antiprotons requires a round electron beam with a small angular spread propagating through a cooling section with a kinetic energy of 4.3 MeV. To confine the electron beam tightly and to keep its transverse angles below 10{sup -4} rad, the cooling section will be immersed into a solenoidal field of 50-150G. As part of the R&D effort, a cooling section prototype consisting of 9 modules (90% of the total length of a future section) was assembled and measured. This paper describes the technique of measuring and adjusting the magnetic field quality in the cooling section and presents preliminary results of solenoid prototype field measurements. The design of the cooling section solenoid is discussed in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes details of a dedicated measurement system, capable of measuring small transverse field components, while the system's measurement errors are analyzed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains measured field distributions of individual elements of the cooling section as well as an evaluation of the magnetic shielding efficiency. An algorithm of field adjustments for providing lowest possible electron trajectory perturbations is proposed in Chapter 6; also, this chapter shows the results of our first attempts of implementing the algorithm.

  3. CoolCalc: A Long-Haul Truck Thermal Load Estimation Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Rugh, J. P.; Rister, B. R.; Venson, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs annually for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel per year. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling isprimarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, hasflexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches. It is intended for rapid trade-off studies, technology impact estimation, and preliminary HVAC sizing design and to complement more detailed and expensive CAE tools by exploring and identifying regions of interest in the design space. This paper describesthe CoolCalc tool, provides outdoor long-haul truck thermal testing results, shows validation using these test results, and discusses future applications of the tool.

  4. Laser Cooling of Molecular Anions

    CERN Document Server

    Yzombard, Pauline; Gerber, Sebastian; Doser, Michael; Comparat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme for laser cooling of negatively charged molecules. We briefly summarise the requirements for such laser cooling and we identify a number of potential candidates. A detailed computation study with C$\\_2^-$, the most studied molecular anion, is carried out. Simulations of 3D laser cooling in a gas phase show that this molecule could be cooled down to below 1 mK in only a few tens of milliseconds, using standard lasers. Sisyphus cooling, where no photo-detachment process is present, as well as Doppler laser cooling of trapped C$\\_2^-$, are also simulated. This cooling scheme has an impact on the study of cold molecules, molecular anions, charged particle sources and antimatter physics.

  5. A comparative analysis of costs of single and dual rapid HIV and syphilis diagnostics: results from a randomised controlled trial in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Gaitan-Duarte, Hernando; Losada Saenz, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Lina; Angel-Muller, Edith; Laverty, Maura; Perez, Freddy

    2017-11-01

    HIV and congenital syphilis are major public health burdens contributing to substantial perinatal morbidity and mortality globally. Although studies have reported on the costs and cost-effectiveness of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for syphilis screening within antenatal care in a number of resource-constrained settings, empirical evidence on country-specific cost and estimates of single RDTs compared with dual RDTs for HIV and syphilis are limited. A cluster randomised controlled study design was used to compare the incremental costs of two testing algorithms: (1) single RDTs for HIV and syphilis and (2) dual RDTs for HIV and syphilis, in 12 health facilities in Bogota and Cali, Colombia. The costs of single HIV and syphilis RDTs and dual HIV and syphilis RDTs were collected from each of the health facilities. The economic costs per woman tested for HIV and syphilis and costs per woman treated for syphilis defined as the total costs required to test and treat one woman for syphilis were estimated. A total of 2214 women were tested in the study facilities. Cost per pregnant woman tested and cost per woman treated for syphilis were US$10.26 and US$607.99, respectively in the single RDT arm. For the dual RDTs, the cost per pregnant woman tested for HIV and syphilis and cost per woman treated for syphilis were US$15.89 and US$1859.26, respectively. Overall costs per woman tested for HIV and syphilis and cost per woman treated for syphilis were lower in Cali compared with Bogota across both intervention arms. Staff costs accounted for the largest proportion of costs while treatment costs comprised <1% of the preventive programme. Findings show lower average costs for single RDTs compared with dual RDTs with costs sensitive to personnel costs and the scale of output at the health facilities. NCT02454816; results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Resistance of Alkali Activated Water-Cooled Slag Geopolymer to Sulphate Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Hasanein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground granulated blast furnace slag is a finely ground, rapidly chilled aluminosilicate melt material that is separated from molten iron in the blast furnace as a by-product. Rapid cooling results in an amorphous or a glassy phase known as GGBFS or water cooled slag (WCS. Alkaline activation of latent hydraulic WCS by sodium hydroxide and/or sodium silicate in different ratios was studied. Curing was performed under 100 % relative humidity and at a temperature of 38°C. The results showed that mixing of both sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate in ratio of 3:3 wt.,% is the optimum one giving better mechanical as well as microstructural characteristics as compared with cement mortar that has various cement content (cement : sand were 1:3 and 1:2. Durability of the water cooled slag in 5 % MgSO4 as revealed by better microstructure and high resistivity-clarifying that activation by 3:3 sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate, respectively is better than using 2 and 6 % of sodium hydroxide.

  7. Lava cooling modelled with GPUSPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganci, Gaetana; Zago, Vito; Bilotta, Giuseppe; Cappello, Annalisa; Herault, Alexis; Del Negro, Ciro

    2017-04-01

    Lava flows are highly complex flows exhibiting non-Newtonian rheology with temperature dependent viscosity and phase transition. The details of the rheology and its dependency on the physical and chemical properties of the lava need to be further addressed. GPUSPH is a fully three-dimensional model for the simulation of the thermal and rheological evolution of lava flows that relies on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) numerical method. Thanks to the Lagrangian, meshless nature of SPH, the model incorporates a more complete physical description of the emplacement process and rheology of lava that considers the free surface, the irregular boundaries represented by the topography, the solidification fronts and the non-Newtonian rheology. We present here the validation of the GPUSPH thermal model, including phase transition (particularly solidification). Validation is done against a number of different problems of growing complexity: the classical Stefan problem, for which analytical solutions are possible, the cooling of a lava lake (compared against semi-analytical solutions) and the cooling of a lava flow comparing the results against a FEM model. We also model the crust formation and thickening, studying the evolution of solidification over time in relation to emplacement characteristics such as total flow thickness and the thermal parameter of liquid and solid lava (emissivity and conductivity). Finally we compare GPUSPH results with a real case study on Etna volcano during the 12th August 2011 lava fountain for which we collected thermal camera data.

  8. Resource-Saving Cleaning Technologies for Power Plant Waste-Water Cooling Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakonnova, Lyudmila; Nikishkin, Igor; Rostovzev, Alexandr

    2017-11-01

    One of the frequently encountered problems of power plant small cooling ponds is rapid eutrophication and related intensified development of phytoplankton ("hyperflow") and overgrowing of ponds by higher aquatic vegetation. As a result of hyper-flowering, an enormous amount of detritus settles on the condenser tubes, reducing the efficiency of the power plant operation. The development of higher aquatic vegetation contributes to the appearing of the shoals. As a result the volume, area and other characteristics of the cooling ponds are getting changed. The article describes the environmental problems of small manmade ponds of power plants and coal mines in mining regions. Two approaches to the problem of eutrophication are considered: technological and ecological. The negative effects of herbicides application to aquatic organisms are experimentally proved. An ecological approach to solving the problem by fish-land reclamation method is shown.

  9. Resource-Saving Cleaning Technologies for Power Plant Waste-Water Cooling Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakonnova Lyudmila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the frequently encountered problems of power plant small cooling ponds is rapid eutrophication and related intensified development of phytoplankton (“hyperflow” and overgrowing of ponds by higher aquatic vegetation. As a result of hyper-flowering, an enormous amount of detritus settles on the condenser tubes, reducing the efficiency of the power plant operation. The development of higher aquatic vegetation contributes to the appearing of the shoals. As a result the volume, area and other characteristics of the cooling ponds are getting changed. The article describes the environmental problems of small manmade ponds of power plants and coal mines in mining regions. Two approaches to the problem of eutrophication are considered: technological and ecological. The negative effects of herbicides application to aquatic organisms are experimentally proved. An ecological approach to solving the problem by fish-land reclamation method is shown.

  10. Optical cavity cooling of mechanical modes of a semiconductor nanomembrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usami, Koji; Naesby, A.; Bagci, Tolga

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical oscillators can be optically cooled using a technique known as optical-cavity back-action. Cooling of composite metal–semiconductor mirrors, dielectric mirrors and dielectric membranes has been demonstrated. Here we report cavity cooling of mechanical modes in a high...... an alternative cooling mechanism that is a result of electronic stress via the deformation potential, and outline future directions for cavity optomechanics with optically active semiconductors.......-quality-factor and optically active semiconductor nanomembrane. The cooling is a result of electron–hole generation by cavity photons. Consequently, the cooling factor depends on the optical wavelength, varies drastically in the vicinity of the semiconductor bandgap, and follows the excitonic absorption behaviour...

  11. Calculation of the hardness distribution in cooled steel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Processing and Heat Treatment of Materials, Espoo (Finland)); Kivivuori, S. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Processing and Heat Treatment of Materials, Espoo (Finland)); Korhonen, A.S. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Processing and Heat Treatment of Materials, Espoo (Finland))

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare different computer methods in hardness distribution calculations on cooled steel products. A micro-alloyed steel, a direct quenching steel and two hardening and tempering steels were investigated. The methods used to calculate the hardness distributions were based on Jominy curves and the formulas devised by the Creusot-Loire group. For the micro-alloyed steel a method based on a TTT diagram and Avrami equation was also used. In the present work different cooling methods were also investigated. The test specimens were cooled by using spray cooling, quenching in water and quenching in oil. From the cooling tests the following results were obtained. The hardness calculation method based on the Jominy curves gives fairly good results. Spray cooling compared with quenching in water gives a more uniform hardness distribution. It was also observed that inverse hardening may occur if the film phase breaks down at a low surface temperature. (orig.)

  12. Keeping cool, staying virtuous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waltorp, Karen

    2015-01-01

    their everyday lives. I focus on love and marriage, the imperatives of appearing cool among peers, and keeping the family’s honour intact through the display of virtuous behaviour. Building on Bourdieu’s writings on the split habitus, I introduce the term composite habitus, as it underscores the aspect...... of a habitus that is split between (sometimes contradictory) composite parts. The composite habitus of the young women is more than a hysteresis effect (where disposition and field are in mismatch and the habitus misfires), as the composite habitus also opens up to a range of possible strategies. I present...

  13. Film cooling adiabatic effectiveness measurements of pressure side trailing edge cooling configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Becchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays total inlet temperature of gas turbine is far above the permissible metal temperature; as a consequence, advanced cooling techniques must be applied to protect from thermal stresses, oxidation and corrosion the components located in the high pressure stages, such as the blade trailing edge. A suitable design of the cooling system for the trailing edge has to cope with geometric constraints and aerodynamic demands; state-of-the-art of cooling concepts often use film cooling on blade pressure side: the air taken from last compressor stages is ejected through discrete holes or slots to provide a cold layer between hot mainstream and the blade surface. With the goal of ensuring a satisfactory lifetime of blades, the design of efficient trailing edge film cooling schemes and, moreover, the possibility to check carefully their behavior, are hence necessary to guarantee an appropriate metal temperature distribution. For this purpose an experimental survey was carried out to investigate the film covering performance of different pressure side trailing edge cooling systems for turbine blades. The experimental test section consists of a scaled-up trailing edge model installed in an open loop suction type test rig. Measurements of adiabatic effectiveness distributions were carried out on three trailing edge cooling system configurations. The baseline geometry is composed by inclined slots separated by elongated pedestals; the second geometry shares the same cutback configuration, with an additional row of circular film cooling holes located upstream; the third model is equipped with three rows of in-line film cooling holes. Experiments have been performed at nearly ambient conditions imposing several blowing ratio values and using carbon dioxide as coolant in order to reproduce a density ratio close to the engine conditions (DR=1.52. To extend the validity of the survey a comparison between adiabatic effectiveness measurements and a prediction by

  14. Numerical Analysis of Supersonic Film Cooling in Supersonic Flow in Hypersonic Inlet with Isolator

    OpenAIRE

    Silong Zhang; Jiang Qin; Wen Bao; Long Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Supersonic film cooling is an efficient method to cool the engine with extremely high heat load. In order to study supersonic film cooling in a real advanced engine, a two-dimensional model of the hypersonic inlet in a scramjet engine with supersonic film cooling in the isolator is built and validated through experimental data. The simulation results show that the cooling effect under different coolant injection angles does not show clear differences; a small injection angle can ensure both t...

  15. ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARDS NON-UNIFORM COOLING SYSTEM MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Yevdulov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The paper considers a mathematical model of non-uniform cooling of electronic circuit boards. The block diagram of the system implementing this approach, the method of calculation of the electronic board temperature field, as well as the principle of its thermal performance optimizing are presented. In the considered scheme the main heat elimination from electronic board is produced by the radiator system, and additional cooling of the most temperature-sensitive components is produced by thermoelectric batteries. Are given the two-dimensional temperature fields of the electronic board during its uniform and non-uniform cooling, is carried out their comparison. As follows from the calculations results, when using a uniform overall cooling of electronic unit there is a waste of energy for the cooling 0f electronic board parts which temperature is within acceptable temperature range without the cooling system. This approach leads to the increase in the cooling capacity of used thermoelectric batteries in comparison with the desired values. This largely reduces the efficiency of heat elimination system. The use for electronic boards cooling of non-uniform local heat elimination removes this disadvantage. The obtained dependences show that in this case, the energy required to create a given temperature is smaller than when using a common uniform cooling. In this approach the temperature field of the electronic board is more uniform and the cooling is more efficient. 

  16. Cooling performance of solar cell driven, thermoelectric cooling prototype headgear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, T.; Azuma, H.; Shimizu, H.; Obora, H.; Sato, S. [Nippon Inst. of Technology, Saitama (Japan). Dept. of Systems Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Cooling performance of solar cell-driven, thermoelectric cooling prototype headgear was examined experimentally. Three types of prototype headgear were made and examined. They were cooled by thermoelectric elements and driven by solar cells. Conventional cooling caps driven by solar cells only blow ambient air to the face with an electric fan. A thermoelectric element was set at the front of the headgear to cool the forehead. Solar cells were mounted on the top and the brim of the headgear to work the thermoelectric element. Three prototypes of headgear with solar cells and a thermoelectric element were made and tested. Refrigeration capacity and thermal comfort were examined by subject in cases of sitting, walking and bicycling. The temperature difference between ambient and cooling temperature was required to be 4-5 degrees Celsius for thermal comfort. (author)

  17. Onderzoeksrapportage duurzaam koelen : EOS Renewable Cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeze, J.; Sluis, van der S.; Wissink, E.

    2010-01-01

    For reducing energy use for cooling, alternative methods (that do not rely on electricity) are needed. Renewable cooling is based on naturally available resources such as evaporative cooling, free cooling, phase change materials, ground subcooling, solar cooling, wind cooling, night radiation &

  18. Viscous Particle Breakup within a Cooling Nuclear Fireball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lock Haven Univ., Lock Haven, PA (United States); Knight, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramon, C. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reid, J. D. [Lock Haven Univ., Lock Haven, PA (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Following the surface detonation of a nuclear weapon, the Earth’s crust and immediate surroundings are drawn into the fireball and form melts. Fallout is formed as these melts incorporate radioactive material from the bomb vapor and cool rapidly. The resultant fallout plume and dispersion of radioactive contamination is a function of several factors including weather patterns and fallout particle shapes and size distributions. Accurate modeling of the size distributions of fallout forms an important data point for dispersion codes that calculate the aerial distribution of fallout. While morphological evidence for aggregation of molten droplets is well documented in fallout glass populations, the breakup of these molten droplets has not been similarly studied. This study documents evidence that quenched fallout populations preserve evidence of molten breakup mechanisms.

  19. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  20. Plants for passive cooling. A preliminary investigation of the use of plants for passive cooling in temperate humid climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirn, A W; Santos, A N; Johnson, D A; Harder, L B; Rios, M W

    1981-04-01

    The potential of vegetation for cooling small, detached residential and commercial structures in temperate, humid climates is discussed. The results of the research are documented, a critical review of the literature is given, and a brief review of energy transfer processes is presented. A checklist of design objectives for passive cooling, a demonstration of design applications, and a palette of selected plant species suitable for passive cooling are included.

  1. Effect of Precipitable Water Vapor Amount on Radiative Cooling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingke; Zhao, Bin; Ao, Xianze; Pei, Gang

    2017-05-01

    A radiative cooler based on aluminum-evaporated polyvinyl-fluoride surface was employed to investigate the effect of precipitable water vapor amount on its radiative cooling performance. A mathematic model of steady heat transfer that considers the spectral radiant distribution of the sky, the transparent cover and the collecting surface was established. The results indicate that the amount of precipitable water vapor shows a remarkable and negative effect on radiative cooling performance of the radiative cooler. Both the temperature difference between the cooler and surroundings and the net radiative cooling power decrease as the precipitable water vapor amount increases. The net radiative cooling power drops by about 41.0% as the the precipitable water vapor amount changes from 1.0 cm to 7.0 cm. Besides, the radiative cooler shows better cooling performance in winter than in summer. The net radiative cooling power in summer of Hefei is about 82.2% of that in winter.

  2. Introduction of a Cooling-Fan Efficiency Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiavon, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    , while cooling capacity and efficiency of energy use are unknown. To address this knowledge gap, this paper introduces the cooling-fan efficiency (CFE) index, defined as the ratio between the cooling effect (measured with a thermal manikin) generated by the device and its power consumption. The index...... cooling effect and an index for determining fan efficiency, such as the CFE index proposed in this study, need to be developed. The cooling fans generate a nonuniform velocity field around occupants, which cannot be described with a single air-velociry value. Therefore, it is not clear how to apply...... was determined for a ceiling fan, a desk fan, standing fan, and a tower fan in a real office at three room air temperatures and at different fan speed levels. The results reveal that the index is sensitive enough to identify differences in the performance of the cooling devices. A standard method for testing fan...

  3. Spray mist cooling heat transfer in glass tempering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozbir, Nedim; Yao, S. C.

    2017-05-01

    Energy saving is a very important issue in glass plants, especially in a glass tempering process, where very high velocity air jet impingement is applied during the cooling process of glass tempering. In fact, air compressor energy may be reduced by a spray cooling due to its high heat transfer capabilities. Presently, in this paper, both pure air and water mist spray cooling are investigated in the glass tempering process. The test results indicate that thin and low-cost tempered glass can be made by mist cooling without fracture. It is possible to find the optimal water flux and duration of mist application to achieve a desirable temperature distribution in the glass for deep penetration of the cooling front but without inducing cracking during the tempering. The use of mist cooling could give about 29 % air pressure reduction for 2-mm glass plate and 50 % reduction for both 3- and 4-mm glass plates.

  4. Changes in copper sulfate crystal habit during cooling crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulietti, M.; Seckler, M. M.; Derenzo, S.; Valarelli, J. V.

    1996-09-01

    The morphology of technical grade copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate crystals produced from batch cooling experiments in the temperature range of 70 to 30°C is described and correlated with the process conditions. A slow linear cooling rate (batch time of 90 min) predominantly caused the appearance of well-formed crystals. Exponential cooling (120 min) resulted in the additional formation of agglomerates and twins. The presence of seeds for both cooling modes led to round crystals, agglomerates and twins. Fast linear cooling (15 min) gave rise to a mixture of the former types. Broken crystals and adhering fragments were often found. Growth zoning was pronounced in seeded and linear cooling experiments. Fluid inclusions were always found and were more pronounced for larger particles. The occurrence of twinning, zoning and fluid inclusions was qualitatively explained in terms of fundamental principles.

  5. Rapid DNA amplification using a battery-powered thin-film resistive thermocycler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Keith E; Sergeev, Nikolay; Matviyenko, Andriy; Rasooly, Avraham

    2009-01-01

    A prototype handheld, compact, rapid thermocycler was developed for multiplex analysis of nucleic acids in an inexpensive, portable configuration. Instead of the commonly used Peltier heating/cooling element, electric thin-film resistive heater and a miniature fan enable rapid heating and cooling of glass capillaries leading to a simple, low-cost Thin-Film Resistive Thermocycler (TFRT). Computer-based pulse width modulation control yields heating rates of 6-7 K/s and cooling rates of 5 K/s. The four capillaries are closely coupled to the heater, resulting in low power consumption. The energy required by a nominal PCR cycle (20 s at each temperature) was found to be 57+/-2 J yielding an average power of approximately 1.0 W (not including the computer and the control system). Thus the device can be powered by a standard 9 V alkaline battery (or other 9 V power supply). The prototype TFRT was demonstrated (in a benchtop configuration) for detection of three important food pathogens (E. coli ETEC, Shigella dysenteriae, and Salmonella enterica). PCR amplicons were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. The 35 cycle PCR protocol using a single channel was completed in less then 18 min. Simple and efficient heating/cooling, low cost, rapid amplification, and low power consumption make the device suitable for portable DNA amplification applications including clinical point of care diagnostics and field use.

  6. Operational cost minimization in cooling water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an optimization model that considers thermal and hydraulic interactions is developed for a cooling water system. It is a closed loop consisting of a cooling tower unit, circulation pump, blower and heat exchanger-pipe network. Aside from process disturbances, climatic fluctuations are considered. Model constraints include relations concerning tower performance, air flowrate requirement, make-up flowrate, circulating pump performance, heat load in each cooler, pressure drop constraints and climatic conditions. The objective function is operating cost minimization. Optimization variables are air flowrate, forced water withdrawal upstream the tower, and valve adjustment in each branch. It is found that the most significant operating cost is related to electricity. However, for cooled water temperatures lower than a specific target, there must be a forced withdrawal of circulating water and further makeup to enhance the cooling tower capacity. Additionally, the system is optimized along the months. The results corroborate the fact that the most important variable on cooling tower performance is not the air temperature itself, but its humidity.

  7. Cognitive performances and mild cognitive impairment in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: results of a longitudinal follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzaghi, Michele; Zucchella, Chiara; Rustioni, Valter; Sinforiani, Elena; Manni, Raffaele

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the capacity of neuropsychological deficits in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) to predict the development of dementia and/or parkinsonism. Prospective longitudinal follow-up study. Tertiary sleep center. Twenty patients with initial iRBD (19 males, mean age 66.1 ± 7.1) underwent a clinical and neuropsychological follow-up within a mean of 43 ± 19 months. Neuropsychological performances at baseline were compared with those of healthy controls matched for sex, age, and education. Discontinuation of clonazepam at least 7 days before the follow-up evaluation. At follow-up, the Wilcoxon test showed a significant worsening of scores on Raven Colored Matrices 47 (P = 0.01), Attentive matrices (P = 0.002), phonemic (P = 0.04) and sematic (P = 0.04) fluency. Thirteen patients (65%) showed cognitive deterioration involving multiple domains. Of these, four patients (20%) maintained a stable cognitive dysfunction and nine (45%) showed a progression of cognitive dysfunction: six (30%) in constructional abilities (P = 0.03), four (20%) in short-term memory (P = NS), three (15%) in executive functions and non-verbal logic (P = NS), one (5%) in verbal fluency (P = NS), and one (5%) in long-term memory (P = NS) (McNemar test). Seven patients (35%) retained a normal cognitive profile. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was diagnosed at baseline in seven patients (35%). At follow-up, three of these patients showed overt dementia that was accompanied by parkinsonism in all cases; one had worsened from non-amnesic single-domain to nonamnesic multiple-domain MCI, two were stable, and one patient no longer met the criteria for MCI. Four patients (20%) without MCI at baseline had MCI at follow-up. Patients who developed MCI/dementia had an older age at disease onset (65.8 ± 5.4 versus 56.8 ± 9.3; P = 0.01) compared with those who did not. Our findings corroborate evidence that visuospatial abilities constitute the area most affected in

  8. Longitudinal dynamics of laser-cooled fast ion beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidemüller, M.; Eike, B.; Eisenbarth, U.

    1999-01-01

    We present recent results of our experiments on laser cooling of fast stored ion beams at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring. The longitudinal motion of the ions is directly cooled by the light pressure force, whereas efficient transverse cooling is obtained indirectly by longitudinal....... When applying laser cooling in square-well buckets over long time intervals, hard Coulomb collisions suddenly disappear and the longitudinal temperature drops by about a factor of three. The observed longitudinal behaviour of the beam shows strong resemblance with the transition to an Coulomb...

  9. RF and Stochastic Cooling System of the HESR

    CERN Document Server

    Stassen, R; Schug, G; Stockhorst, H; Katayama, T; Thorndahl, L

    2012-01-01

    The High-Energy Storage Ring HESR (1.5-15 GeV/c) for antiprotons at the FAIR complex (Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research) in Darmstadt (GSI) will have a dedicated stochastic cooling system not only during the experiments to fulfill the beam requirements, but also during the accumulation due to the postponed RESR. Here the cooperation of stochastic cooling with different barrier-bucket configurations is necessary for high accumulation efficiency. The latest hardware configurations and recent tests results of both the RFsystem with air-cooled cavities and the stochastic cooling based on slot-ring couplers will be presented.

  10. Post-recombination early Universe cooling by translation-internal inter-conversion: The role of minor constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, Anthony J

    2015-09-14

    Little is known of the mechanism by which H and H2, the principal constituents of the post-re-combination early Universe, cooled sufficiently to permit cluster formation, nucleosynthesis, and, eventually, the formation of structured objects. Radiative decay primarily cools the internal modes of H2, as Δj = - 2 jumps accompany quadrupolar emission. This, however, would be a self-limiting mechanism. In this work, a translational energy cooling mechanism based on collision-induced, translation-to-internal mode conversion, is extended, following an earlier study [A. J. McCaffery and R. J. Marsh, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234310 (2013)] of ensembles comprising H2 in a H atom bath gas. Here, the possible influence of minor species, such as HD, on this cooling mechanism is investigated. Results suggest that the influence of HD is small but not insignificant. Conversion is very rapid and an overall translation-to-internal energy conversion efficiency of some 5% could be expected. This finding may be of use in the further development of models of this complex phase of early Universe evolution. An unexpected finding in this study was that H2 + HD ensembles are capable of very rapid translation-to-internal conversion with efficiencies of >40% and relaxation rates that appear to be relatively slow. This may have potential as an energy storage mechanism.

  11. The influence of rapid solidification on the microstructure of the 17Cr–9Ni–3Mo precipitation hardened steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziewiec, Aneta, E-mail: aziewiec@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Tasak, Edmund; Zielińska-Lipiec, Anna [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Ziewiec, Krzysztof [Pedagogical University of Cracow, Institute of Technology, ul. Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków (Poland); Kowalska, Joanna [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Model of the microstructures formed at different cooling rates was proposed. • Effect of cooling rate on the massive formation of austenite was defined. • Influence of sub-zero treatment on the volume fraction of austenite was shown. - Abstract: The 17Cr–9Ni–3Mo precipitation hardened (PH) steel was processed after re-melting using different cooling rates including copper plate chilling and the melt-spinning. The effect of different cooling rates and the sub-zero treatment on the microstructure of the 17Cr–9Ni–3Mo steel was studied. The microstructure and the phase composition of the steel was investigated using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results show that the microstructure of 17Cr–9Ni–3Mo steel after rapid solidification consists of austenite and δ-ferrite. The quantity of austenite increases with the increase of cooling rate. Sub-zero treatment of the samples cooled at the rate of 4 × 10{sup 4} K/s and 2 × 10{sup 5} K/s reduces the quantity of austenite as a result of austenite → martensite transformation. For the samples cooled at the rate of 2 × 10{sup 6} K/s the quantity of austenite in the microstructure does not change when compared to the state before and after sub-zero treatment. The model for the formation of microstructures during rapid cooling was proposed.

  12. Radiation cooling and gain calculation for C VI 182 A line in C/Se plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, C.H.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.; Feldman, U.

    1986-04-01

    A model is developed which is capable of describing the evolution of gain resulting from both rapid radiative and expansion cooling of a recombining, freely expanding plasma. It is demonstrated for the particular case of a carbon/selenium plasma that the cooling rate which leads to optimal gain can be achieved by adjusting the admixture of an efficiently radiating material (selenium) in the gain medium (carbon). Comparison is made to a recent observation of gain in a recent NRL/Rochester experiment with carbon/selenium plasma for the n = 3 ..-->.. 2 transition in C VI occurring at 182 A. The predicted maximum gain is approx.10 cm/sup -1/, as compared to observation of 2 to 3 cm/sup -1/.

  13. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  14. Theory of tapered laser cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Hiromi; Wei, J.

    1998-03-25

    A theory of tapered laser cooling for fast circulating ion beams in a storage ring is constructed. The authors describe the fundamentals of this new cooling scheme, emphasizing that it might be the most promising way to beam crystallization. The cooling rates are analytically evaluated to study the ideal operating condition. They discuss the physical implication of the tapering factor of cooling laser, and show how to determine its optimum value. Molecular dynamics method is employed to demonstrate the validity of the present theory.

  15. Dynamical backaction cooling with free electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niguès, A; Siria, A; Verlot, P

    2015-09-18

    The ability to cool single ions, atomic ensembles, and more recently macroscopic degrees of freedom down to the quantum ground state has generated considerable progress and perspectives in fundamental and technological science. These major advances have been essentially obtained by coupling mechanical motion to a resonant electromagnetic degree of freedom in what is generally known as laser cooling. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the first self-induced coherent cooling mechanism that is not mediated by an electromagnetic resonance. Using a focused electron beam, we report a 50-fold reduction of the motional temperature of a nanowire. Our result primarily relies on the sub-nanometre confinement of the electron beam and generalizes to any delayed and spatially confined interaction, with important consequences for near-field microscopy and fundamental nanoscale dissipation mechanisms.

  16. Heat diffusion in fractal geometry cooling surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramšak Matjaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the numerical simulation of heat diffusion in the fractal geometry of Koch snowflake is presented using multidomain mixed Boundary Element Method. The idea and motivation of work is to improve the cooling of small electronic devices using fractal geometry of surface similar to cooling ribs. The heat diffusion is assumed as the only principle of heat transfer. The results are compared to the heat flux of a flat surface. The limiting case of infinite small fractal element is computed using Richardson extrapolation.

  17. Research on the Compatibility of the Cooling Unit in an Automotive Exhaust-based Thermoelectric Generator and Engine Cooling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. D.; Liu, X.; Chen, S.; Xing, H. B.; Su, C. Q.

    2014-06-01

    The temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of thermoelectric modules is a key factor affecting the conversion efficiency of an automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG). In the work discussed in this paper the compatibility of TEG cooling unit and engine cooling system was studied on the basis of the heat transfer characteristics of the TEG. A new engine-cooling system in which a TEG cooling unit was inserted was simulated at high power and high vehicle speed, and at high power and low vehicle speed, to obtain temperatures and flow rates of critical inlets and outlets. The results show that coolant temperature exceeds its boiling point at high power and low vehicle speed, so the new system cannot meet cooling requirements under these conditions. Measures for improvement to optimize the cooling system are proposed, and provide a basis for future research.

  18. Analysis of Turbine Blade Relative Cooling Flow Factor Used in the Subroutine Coolit Based on Film Cooling Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Heat transfer correlations of data on flat plates are used to explore the parameters in the Coolit program used for calculating the quantity of cooling air for controlling turbine blade temperature. Correlations for both convection and film cooling are explored for their relevance to predicting blade temperature as a function of a total cooling flow which is split between external film and internal convection flows. Similar trends to those in Coolit are predicted as a function of the percent of the total cooling flow that is in the film. The exceptions are that no film or 100 percent convection is predicted to not be able to control blade temperature, while leaving less than 25 percent of the cooling flow in the convection path results in nearing a limit on convection cooling as predicted by a thermal effectiveness parameter not presently used in Coolit.

  19. The Development of Rapidly Solidified Magnesium – Copper Ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastuszak M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to plan and carry out an experiment consisting of amorphization of industrial magnesium alloy WE 43 (Mg - 4 Y - 3 RE - 0.5 Zr modified by the copper addition. Investigated alloy modified with 20% of copper was rapidly quenched with the use of melt spinning technique. The effects of cooling rate on the structure and properties of the obtained material were extensively analyzed. The structure and phase analysis of samples were examined using X-ray diffraction method (XRD while the thermal stability of the samples was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Microstructure observations were also conducted. The microhardness tests (HV0.02 and corrosion resistance tests were carried out to investigate the properties of the material. Corrosion resistance measurements were held using a typical three-electrode system. As the result of the research, the effect of cooling rate on microstructure and properties of investigated alloy was determined.

  20. ATLAS' major cooling project

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, a considerable effort has been put into commissioning the various units of ATLAS' complex cryogenic system. This is in preparation for the imminent cooling of some of the largest components of the detector in their final underground configuration. The liquid helium and nitrogen ATLAS refrigerators in USA 15. Cryogenics plays a vital role in operating massive detectors such as ATLAS. In many ways the liquefied argon, nitrogen and helium are the life-blood of the detector. ATLAS could not function without cryogens that will be constantly pumped via proximity systems to the superconducting magnets and subdetectors. In recent weeks compressors at the surface and underground refrigerators, dewars, pumps, linkages and all manner of other components related to the cryogenic system have been tested and commissioned. Fifty metres underground The helium and nitrogen refrigerators, installed inside the service cavern, are an important part of the ATLAS cryogenic system. Two independent helium refrigerators ...

  1. Film cooling for a closed loop cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2003-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. At least one film cooling hole is defined through a wall of at least one of the cavities for flow communication between an interior of the cavity and an exterior of the vane. The film cooling hole(s) are defined adjacent a potential low LCF life region, so that cooling medium that bleeds out through the film cooling hole(s) reduces a thermal gradient in a vicinity thereof, thereby the increase the LCF life of that region.

  2. Can Coolness Predict Technology Adoption? Effects of Perceived Coolness on User Acceptance of Smartphones with Curved Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Joon; Shin, Dong-Hee; Park, Eunil

    2015-09-01

    This study proposes an acceptance model for curved-screen smartphones, and explores how the sense of coolness induced by attractiveness, originality, subcultural appeal, and the utility of the curved screen promotes smartphone adoption. The results of structural equation modeling analyses (N = 246) show that these components of coolness (except utility) increase the acceptance of the technology by enhancing the smartphones' affectively driven qualities rather than their utilitarian ones. The proposed coolness model is then compared with the original technology acceptance model to validate that the coolness factors are indeed equally effective determinants of usage intention, as are the extensively studied usability factors such as perceived ease of use and usefulness.

  3. A Chandra X-Ray Analysis of Abell 1664: Cooling, Feedback, and Star Formation in the Central Cluster Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, C. C.; McNamara, B. R.; Rafferty, D. A.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Bîrzan, L.; Kazemzadeh, F.; Wise, M. W.; Gitti, M.; Cavagnolo, K. W.

    2009-05-01

    The brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the Abell 1664 cluster is unusually blue and is forming stars at a rate of ~ 23 M sun yr-1. The BCG is located within 5 kpc of the X-ray peak, where the cooling time of 3.5 × 108 yr and entropy of 10.4 keV cm2 are consistent with other star-forming BCGs in cooling flow clusters. The center of A1664 has an elongated, "barlike" X-ray structure whose mass is comparable to the mass of molecular hydrogen, ~1010 M sun in the BCG. We show that this gas is unlikely to have been stripped from interloping galaxies. The cooling rate in this region is roughly consistent with the star formation rate, suggesting that the hot gas is condensing onto the BCG. We use the scaling relations of Bîrzan et al. to show that the active galactic nucleus (AGN) is underpowered compared to the central X-ray cooling luminosity by roughly a factor of three. We suggest that A1664 is experiencing rapid cooling and star formation during a low state of an AGN feedback cycle that regulates the rates of cooling and star formation. Modeling the emission as a single-temperature plasma, we find that the metallicity peaks 100 kpc from the X-ray center, resulting in a central metallicity dip. However, a multi-temperature cooling flow model improves the fit to the X-ray emission and is able to recover the expected, centrally peaked metallicity profile.

  4. Innovative intraoral cooling device better tolerated and equally effective as ice cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walladbegi, Java; Gellerstedt, Martin; Svanberg, Anncarin; Jontell, Mats

    2017-11-01

    Most of the patients who receive myeloablative therapy prior to stem cell transplantation develop oral mucositis (OM). This adverse reaction manifests as oral mucosal erythema and ulcerations and may require high doses of morphine for pain alleviation. OM may also interfere with food intake and result in weight loss, a need for parenteral nutrition, and impaired quality of life. To date, there have been very few studies of evidence-based interventions for the prevention of OM. Cryotherapy, using ice chips, has been shown to reduce in an efficient manner the severity and extent of OM, although clinical applications are still limited due to several shortcomings, such as adverse tooth sensations, problems with infectious organisms in the water, nausea, and uneven cooling of the oral mucosa. The present proof-of-concept study was conducted to compare the tolerability, temperature reduction, and cooling distribution profiles of an intra-oral cooling device and ice chips in healthy volunteers who did not receive myeloablative treatment, and therefore, did not experience the symptoms of OM. Twenty healthy volunteers used the cooling device and ice chips for a maximum of 60 min each, using a cross-over design. The baseline and final temperatures were measured at eight intra-oral locations using an infra-red thermographic camera. The thermographic images were analysed using two digital software packages. A questionnaire was used to assess the tolerability levels of the two interventions. The intra-oral cooling device was significantly better tolerated than the ice-chips (p = 0.0118). The two interventions were equally effective regarding temperature reduction and cooling distribution. The intra-oral cooling device shows superior tolerability in healthy volunteers. Furthermore, this study shows that temperature reduction and cooling distribution are achieved equally well using either method.

  5. RRTM: A rapid radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlawer, E.J.; Taubman, S.J.; Clough, S.A. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM) for the calculation of longwave clear-sky fluxes and cooling rates has been developed. The model, which uses the correlated-k method, is both accurate and computationally fast. The foundation for RRTM is the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) from which the relevant k-distributions are obtained. LBLRTM, which has been extensively validated against spectral observations e.g., the high-resolution sounder and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, is used to validate the flux and cooling rate results from RRTM. Validations of RRTM`s results have been performed for the tropical, midlatitude summer, and midlatitude winter atmospheres, as well as for the four Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) cases from the Spectral Radiance Experiment (SPECTRE). Details of some of these validations are presented below. RRTM has the identical atmospheric input module as LBLRTM, facilitating intercomparisons with LBLRTM and application of the model at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Cloud and Radiation Testbed sites.

  6. Recurrent selection with reduced 2,4-D amine doses results in the rapid evolution of 2,4-D herbicide resistance in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Michael B; Walsh, Michael J; Flower, Ken C; Powles, Stephen B

    2016-11-01

    When used at effective doses, weed resistance to auxinic herbicides has been slow to evolve when compared with other modes of action. Here we report the evolutionary response of a herbicide-susceptible population of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) and confirm that sublethal doses of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) amine can lead to the rapid evolution of 2,4-D resistance and cross-resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. Following four generations of 2,4-D selection, the progeny of a herbicide-susceptible wild radish population evolved 2,4-D resistance, increasing the LD 50 from 16 to 138 g ha -1 . Along with 2,4-D resistance, cross-resistance to the ALS-inhibiting herbicides metosulam (4.0-fold) and chlorsulfuron (4.5-fold) was evident. Pretreatment of the 2,4-D-selected population with the cytochrome P450 inhibitor malathion restored chlorsulfuron to full efficacy, indicating that cross-resistance to chlorsulfuron was likely due to P450-catalysed enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism. This study is the first to confirm the rapid evolution of auxinic herbicide resistance through the use of low doses of 2,4-D and serves as a reminder that 2,4-D must always be used at highly effective doses. With the introduction of transgenic auxinic-herbicide-resistant crops in the Americas, there will be a marked increase in auxinic herbicide use and therefore the risk of resistance evolution. Auxinic herbicides should be used only at effective doses and with diversity if resistance is to remain a minimal issue. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Theoretical analysis of the performance of different cooling strategies with the concept of cool exergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    for the ventilation system being outdoor air vs. air from the crawl-space, and air-to-water heat pump vs. ground heat exchanger as cooling source) on system exergy performance were investigated. It is crucial to minimize the cooling demand because it is possible to use a wide range of heat sinks (ground, lake, sea...... exergy input of air-based systems was significantly larger than the water-based systems. The use of available cool exergy in the crawl-space resulted in 54% and 29% smaller exergy input to the power plant for the air-based and water-based cooling systems, respectively. For floor cooling, the exergy input...... to the power plant can be reduced by 90% and 93%, with the use of ground, and use of the ground and the air in the crawl-space, respectively. A new approach to exergy efficiency was introduced and used to prove that the exergy supply from the ground matches well with the low exergy demand of the floor cooling...

  8. The Role of Absorption Cooling for Reaching Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindmark, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    This thesis focuses on the role and potential of absorption cooling in future energy systems. Two types of energy systems are investigated: a district energy system based on waste incineration and a distributed energy system with natural gas as fuel. In both cases, low temperature waste heat is used as driving energy for the absorption cooling. The main focus is to evaluate the absorption technology in an environmental perspective, in terms of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Economic evaluations are also performed. The reduced electricity when using absorption cooling instead of compression cooling is quantified and expressed as an increased net electrical yield. The results show that absorption cooling is an environmentally friendly way to produce cooling as it reduces the use of electrically driven cooling in the energy system and therefore also reduces global CO{sub 2} emissions. In the small-scale trigeneration system the electricity use is lowered with 84 % as compared to cooling production with compression chillers only. The CO{sub 2} emissions can be lowered to 45 CO{sub 2}/MWh{sub c} by using recoverable waste heat as driving heat for absorption chillers. However, the most cost effective cooling solution in a district energy system is a combination between absorption and compression cooling technologies according to the study. Absorption chillers have the potential to be suitable bottoming cycles for power production in distributed systems. Net electrical yields over 55 % may be reached in some cases with gas motors and absorption chillers. This small-scale system for cogeneration of power and cooling shows electrical efficiencies comparable to large-scale power plants and may contribute to reducing peak electricity demand associated with the cooling demand.

  9. Design of conformal cooling for plastic injection moulding by heat transfer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Marques

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooling channels of a mold for plastic injection have to be as close as possible to the part geometry in order to ensure fast and homogeneous cooling. However, conventional methods to manufacture cooling channels (drilling can only produce linear holes. Selective laser melting (SLM is an additive manufacturing technique capable to manufacture complex cooling channels (known as conformal cooling. Nevertheless, because of the high costs of SLM the benefits of conformal collings are still not clear. The current work investigates two designs of conformal coolings: i parallel circuit; ii serial circuit. Both coolings are evaluated against to traditional cooling circuits (linear channels by CAE simulation to produce parts of polypropylene. The results show that if the conformal cooling is not properly designed it cannot provide reasonable results. The deformation of the product can be reduced significantly after injection but the cycle time reduced not more than 6%.

  10. Permeability evolution model and numerical analysis of coupled coal deformation, failure and liquid nitrogen cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui ZHANG

    by flowing liquid nitrogen through gas production well in Wangyingzi mine, Liaoning province, is simulated and the results include: 1 When liquid nitrogen(LN2 is injected into a rock at warm reservoir temperature, heat from the rock will quickly transfer to the liquid nitrogen resulting in rapid cooling and contraction of coal bed. The nearer the position is to bore hole, the bigger the shrinkage deformation and thermal stress and coal fail when tension stress sufficiently built up. In this paper the tension failure band after 10 days' LN2 cooling is 0.65 m. 2 In tension failure area the cracks from cooling stimulation lead to the significant growth of permeability. The maximum permeability for element is 1.97×105 times more than that before cooling. 3 Apart from the bore hole, the thermal tensile stress leads to the growth of permeability at a rate of 1%~14%, far less than that in the tension failure area. 4 With increasing time the failure area gradually slowly grows up. It indicates that the longer cooling time does not mean better effects. 5 The cooling fracturing area is found to have a 1.0 m band. In practical engineering the pressure in hole bore and phase transition of water also influences the deformation and failure of coal, which leads to much more failure zone of cooling. 6 The evolution process of permeability of coupled coal deformation, failure and liquid introgen cooling can be better reflected by the model in this paper. This study is hoped to provide a simple but reasonable description of the permeability evolution of rocks subject to liquid nitrogen cooling.

  11. Impact of the Younger Dryas cooling event upon lowland vegetation of Maritime Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayle, F.E.; Cwynar, L.C. [Univ. of New Brunsick, Fredericton (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the response of the vegetation in coastal Maritime Canada to the Younger Dryas cooling event ({approx} 10800-10000 {sup 14}C yr BP) that interrupted the warming trend following the last glaciation. Detailed paleoecological studies were carried out on the organic, pollen, and plant macrofossil content of sediment cores recovered from six small lakes in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Results show that there was regional variation in the vegetation response to the cooling. Records from Splan Pond, Mayflower Lake, and Little Lake show a change from boreal forest or woodland to shrub-tundra as a result of the cooling, while Lac a Magie shows floristic changes of shrub-tundra, and Chase Pond and Main-a-Dieu Pond show replacement of shrub-tundra by herb-tundra in response to the Younger Dryas. The climate warming signifying the end of the Younger Dryas caused succession from shrub-tundra to boreal forest, or from herb-tundra to shrub-tundra. Macrofossil evidence of arctic/alpine species such as Dryas integrifolia, Salix herbacea, and Cassiope hypnoides attests to the severity of the Younger Dryas cooling. Vegetation changes in response to the climate cooling and warming, marketing the onset and termination of the Younger Dryas respectively, were very rapid, taking only 50-100 yr. However, the response of some taxa, such as dwarf birch, appears to have lagged the onset of the climate change by several decades, although the duration of the lag varies between sites. 53 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. PRELIMINARYANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT COOLING SYSTEMS OF SOWS IN FARROWING ROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Barbari

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary evaluation of different cooling systems for farrowing - lactating sows was conducted in a pig farm in the North of Italy. In an experimental farrowing room 16 crates were used to study different cooling solutions during three cycles of observations. The evaluated systems were: drip cooling (five crates, drip and snout cooling (six crates, drip cooling and a full steel sheet placed under the body of the sow (five crates. Rectal and skin temperatures were measured during hot hours of the day. Fat thickness was measured and body condition score of the sows was estimated at the beginning and at the end of the lactating period. A closed-circuit television system was also installed to collect information about the behaviour of the sows cooled with the drip system or with both drip and snout cooling system. While differences concerning body and skin temperatures as well as BCS and fat thickness were not significant, the behavioural patterns showed how the sows appreciated the contemporaneous use of the drip and snout cooling methods. The sows preferred to lie with the snout towards the air outlet especially during the hottest hours of the day. In order to obtain the best thermal conditions inside the farrowing crate, the drip system had to be coupled with the snout cooling system and the full metal floor placed under the head of the sows. Further studies are necessary to confirm the preliminary obtained results.

  13. Cooling and bunching of ion beams for collinear laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Nieminen, A; Billowes, J; Forest, D H; Griffith, J A R; Huikari, J; Jokinen, A; Moore, I D; Moore, R; Tungate, G; Äystö, J

    2003-01-01

    A greatly increased sensitivity in collinear laser spectroscopy experiments has been achieved by the application of new on-line ion cooling and bunching techniques. Cooling of a low-energy ion beam to low emittance and low velocity spread is shown to increase the peak efficiency while bunching the beam results in highly efficient background suppression.

  14. Experimental study of air evaporative cooling process using microporous membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Englart Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the potential use of microporous membranes in evaporative cooling applications for air conditioning. The structure of membrane contractor and the measuring device are described. On the basis of the results of the measurements air cooling effectiveness coefficient has been determined.

  15. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  16. Be Cool, Man! / Jevgeni Levik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levik, Jevgeni

    2005-01-01

    Järg 1995. aasta kriminaalkomöödiale "Tooge jupats" ("Get Shorty") : mängufilm "Be Cool, Chili Palmer on tagasi!" ("Be Cool") : režissöör F. Gary Gray, peaosades J. Travolta ja U. Thurman : USA 2005. Lisatud J. Travolta ja U. Thurmani lühiintervjuud

  17. Dialogues in the COOL Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, S.I.P.; Kroeze, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Options for the Long-term (COOL) Project is a participatory integrated assessment (PIA) comprising extensive dialogues at three levels: national, European and global. The objective of the COOL Project was to ‘develop strategic notions on how to achieve drastic reductions of greenhouse

  18. Effect of Half Time Cooling on Thermoregulatory Responses and Soccer-Specific Performance Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined two active coolings (forearm and hand cooling, and neck cooling during a simulated half-time recovery on thermoregulatory responses and subsequent soccer-specific exercise performance. Following a 45-min treadmill run in the heat, participants (N=7 undertook 15-min recovery with either passive cooling, forearm and hand cooling, or neck cooling in a simulated cooled locker room environment. After the recovery, participants performed a 6×15-m sprint test and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 test (YYIR1 in a temperate environment. During the 15-min recovery, rectal temperature fell significantly (p<0.05. Neither active coolings induced further reduction in rectal temperature compared to passive cooling. No effect of active coolings was found in repeated sprint test. However, neck cooling reduced (p<0.05 the thermal sensation (TS compared to passive cooling during the 15-min recovery. Active coolings attenuated (p<0.05 the sweat rate compared to passive cooling: 1.2±0.3 l•h-1 vs. 0.8±0.1 l•h-1 vs. 0.8±0.3 l•h-1, for passive cooling, forearm and hand cooling, and neck cooling, respectively. For passive cooling, elevated sweat rate resulted in higher (p<0.05 dehydration (2.1±0.3% compared to neck cooling (1.5±0.3% and forearm and hand cooling (1.4±0.3%. YYIR1 was improved (p<0.05 following forearm and hand cooling (869±320 m and neck cooling (814±328 m compared to passive cooling (654±311 m. Neck cooling (4.6±0.6 reduced (p=0.03 the session TS compared to passive cooling (5.3±0.5. These results suggest that active coolings effectively improved comfort and sweating response, which delayed exercise-heat induced performance diminish during a second bout of exercise.

  19. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface....... To prevent wet discomfort, the T-shirt was made of a polyester material having a water-repellent silicon coating on the inner surface. The chest, front upper arms, and nape of the neck were adopted as the cooling areas of the human body. We conducted human subject experiments in an office with air...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  20. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  1. Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Osgood, Sarah Jane; Bagepalli, Radhakrishna; Webbon, Waylon Willard; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.

  2. Fluid Flow Analysis of Jacket Cooling System for Marine Diesel Engine 93 Kw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguk Zuhdi Muhammad Fathallah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main function of cooling system is to control the temperature in the engine. To know the flow in the jacket cooling system for marine diesel engine 93 KW and the couple simulation between 1D modeling and 3D modeling, the methodology used. The analysis process was performed by using 3 diffrent softwares. The methodology to analysis fluid flow is CFD (computational fluid dynamic with steps were problem identification, literature study, design the jacket cooling system based on the cummin diesel engine 93 KW, 1D modeling of cooling system, 3D modeling fluid flow in jacket cooling system, and conclusion. The input of 3D jacket cooling simulation are mass flow, fluid temperature, wall temperature, and heat transfer. The result from this bachelor thesis is fluid flow in jacket cooling system and another parameter output such as temperature flow and velocity if fluid in the jacket cooling system. The result of the flow in jacket cooling is much turbulance in various are of jacket cooling its mean the jacket cooling have a good enfficiency of heat transfer, and the fluid temperature show the increasing temperature from inlet to outlet because of heat transfer happen in the jacket cooling between wall of jacket cooling and fluid. The engine speed will affect the cooling system, if the engine speed is increasing, the speed of flow will increase because the cylinder block need more coolant and the temperature of cylinder block will increase

  3. First results in rapid MR imaging of focal liver and spleen lesions using field echos and small angle excitation (gradient echo sequences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebel, J.; Hess, C.F.; Kurtz, B.; Klose, U.; Kueper, K.

    1987-01-01

    15 healthy subjects and 39 patients with focal liver and spleen lesions were examined via MR tomography at 1.5 tesla. Gradient field echos at small angle excitation (< 90/sup 0/) were employed. The imaging time per layer was 10 seconds so that rapid imaging could be carried out at respiratory standstill. This enabled visualisation of liver and spleen without interference by breathing artifacts and with accurate localisation. Focal lesions can be imaged best at low flip-angle pulses (liver) or low to medium-angle pulses (spleen). The primary liver cell carcinoma is visualised as an inhomogeneous structure with similar signal intensity as the surrounding tissue. All other examined liver lesions (metastases, haemangiomas, lymphatic infiltrates, echinococcus cysts, FNH, gummae) showed greater signal intensity than the remaining organ at small angle excitation. Furthermore, contrast reversals were seen at medium-angle pulses. Contrariwise, with the exception of the light-coloured spleen infarcts, spleen lesions (lymphatic infiltrate, Boeck's disease or sarcoidosis) appeared darker at all excitation angles than the surrounding tissue.

  4. Grip strength after forearm cooling in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Reis Rabelo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Muscle strength has shown different responses to the cooling of neuromuscular tissue and its behavior is still unclear. Objective: To verify the behavior of maximum grip strength before and after forearm cooling. Methods: The cooling intervention consisted of immersing the forearm up to the elbow in water cooled to 10° C. Grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer prior to cooling, immediately after immersion, and at 5, 10 and 30 minutes of forearm exposure to ambient temperature (recovery phase concomitantly to measurement of skin surface temperature. The sample consisted of 30 healthy individuals. Results: Grip strength decreased significantly (p < 0.05 between the period prior to cooling and all the time intervals following immersion in ice water. There was also a gradual increase in grip strength during the recovery phase, with significant differences (p < 0.05 between the mean immediately after immersion and means at 5, 15 and 30 minutes after exposure to ambient temperature. Conclusion: The results indicate that immersion in ice water (10ºC for 15 minutes significantly reduced (p < 0.05 grip strength for up to 30 minutes after forearm cooling. Strength also recovered progressively after removal of the cold stimulus. Further research is needed to obtain definitive results regarding the effects of cooling on muscle strength in healthy individuals.

  5. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping COAST... Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have an equivalent standby... cooling system. (b) Each tankship that has a cargo tank with a required cooling system must have a manual...

  6. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.

  7. Mapping the dark matter in the NGC 5044 group with ROSAT: Evidence for a nearly homogeneous cooling flow with a cooling wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Laurence P.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William; Daines, Stuart

    1994-01-01

    The NGC 5044 group of galaxies was observed by the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) for 30 ks during its reduced pointed phase (1991 July). Due to the relatively cool gas temperature in the group (kT = 0.98 +/- 0.02 keV) and the excellent photon statistics (65,000 net counts), we are able to determine precisely a number of fundamental properties of the group within 250 kpc of the central galaxy. In particular, we present model-independent measurements of the total gravitating mass, the temperature and abundance profiles of the gas, and the mass accretion rate. Between 60 and 250 kpc, the gas is nearly isothermal with T varies as r(exp (-0.13 +/- 0.03)). The total gravitating mass of the group can be unambiguously determined from the observed density and temperature profiles of the gas using the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium. Within 250 kpc, the gravitating mass is 1.6 x 10(exp 13) solar mass, yielding a mass-to-light ratio of 130 solar mass/solar luminosity. The baryons (gas and stars) comprise 12% of the total mass within this radius. At small radii, the temperature clearly increases outward and attains a maximum value at 60 kpc. The positive temperature gradient in the center of the group confirms the existence of a cooling flow. The cooling flow region extends well beyond the temperature maximum with a cooling radius between 100 and 150 kpc. There are two distinct regions in the cooling flow separated by the temperature maximum. In the outer region, the gas is nearly isothermal with a unifor m Fe abundance of approximately 80% solar, the flow is nearly homogeneous with dot-M= 20 to 25 solar mass/year, the X-ray contours are spherically symmetric, and rho(sub gas) varies as r(exp -1.6). In the inner region, the temperature profile has a positive gradient, the mass accretion rate decreases rapidly inward, the gas density profile is steeper, and the X-ray image shows some substrucutre. NGC 5044 is offset from the centroid of the outer X

  8. Counter-Flow Cooling Tower Test Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, Lukáš; Nožička, Jiří

    2014-03-01

    The article contains a design of a functional experimental model of a cross-flow mechanical draft cooling tower and the results and outcomes of measurements. This device is primarily used for measuring performance characteristics of cooling fills, but with a simple rebuild, it can be used for measuring other thermodynamic processes that take part in so-called wet cooling. The main advantages of the particular test cell lie in the accuracy, size, and the possibility of changing the water distribution level. This feature is very useful for measurements of fills of different heights without the influence of the spray and rain zone. The functionality of this test cell has been verified experimentally during assembly, and data from the measurement of common film cooling fills have been compared against the results taken from another experimental line. For the purpose of evaluating the data gathered, computational scripts were created in the MATLAB numerical computing environment. The first script is for exact calculation of the thermal balance of the model, and the second is for determining Merkel's number via Chebyshev's method.

  9. Central cooling: absorptive chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-08-01

    This technology evaluation covers commercially available single-effect, lithium-bromide absorption chillers ranging in nominal cooling capacities of 3 to 1,660 tons and double-effect lithium-bromide chillers from 385 to 1,060 tons. The nominal COP measured at operating conditions of 12 psig input steam for the single-effect machine, 85/sup 0/ entering condenser water, and 44/sup 0/F exiting chilled-water, ranges from 0.6 to 0.65. The nominal COP for the double-effect machine varies from 1.0 to 1.15 with 144 psig entering steam. Data are provided to estimate absorption-chiller performance at off-nominal operating conditions. The part-load performance curves along with cost estimating functions help the system design engineer select absorption equipment for a particular application based on life-cycle costs. Several suggestions are offered which may be useful for interfacing an absorption chiller with the remaining Integrated Community Energy System. The ammonia-water absorption chillers are not considered to be readily available technology for ICES application; therefore, performance and cost data on them are not included in this evaluation.

  10. Heat Driven Cooling in District Energy Systems; Vaermedriven Kyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydstrand, Magnus; Martin, Viktoria; Westermark, Mats [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2004-07-01

    This report is reviewing different heat driven technologies for the production of cooling. It is shown that the supply of cooling gives the highest fuel utilization if heat from CHP production is used for the production of cooling instead of maximizing the electricity output in a condensing plant. High fuel utilization is reached since the direct production of cooling from heat is a thermodynamic shortcut as compared to the production of electricity as an intermediate product before cooling is produced. At direct production of cooling from heat it is possible to obtain 70 percent of the obtainable cooling of an ideal process. If electricity is produced from heat, 70 percent electricity could be obtained as compared to an ideal process. If this electricity would be used for the production of cooling 70 percent of the obtainable cooling in an ideal process would the result. The total production of cooling from heat with electricity as an intermediate product would therefore give 50 percent cooling as compared to an ideal process. Hence, heat driven cooling will give more cooling for a given fuel input. In the review of the different heat driven cooling options it was found that there are many alternatives suitable for different applications. Absorption cooling is suitable for water distributed cooling if the latent cooling load is low. Desiccant cooling is believed to have a large market in climates (applications) with high latent cooling loads. In the energy efficiency evaluation it is found that the highest fuel utilization is given for a central production of electricity using either district heating or district cooling as the energy carrier to supply cooling. In fact the potential of district heating as the energy carrier is thought to be the largest in large cities with humid climates. Further it is found that the chiller heat sink can contribute significantly to the cost in many applications, especially if water and/or electricity consumption are issues with

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of an Evaporative Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapilan N.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of chlorofluorocarbon based refrigerants in the air-conditioning system increases the global warming and causes the climate change. The climate change is expected to present a number of challenges for the built environment and an evaporative cooling system is one of the simplest and environmentally friendly cooling system. The evaporative cooling system is most widely used in summer and in rural and urban areas of India for human comfort. In evaporative cooling system, the addition of water into air reduces the temperature of the air as the energy needed to evaporate the water is taken from the air. Computational fluid dynamics is a numerical analysis and was used to analyse the evaporative cooling system. The CFD results are matches with the experimental results.

  12. Nozzle cooling of hot surfaces with various orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsky Jaroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is an investigation of hot surface orientation influence on heat transfer during cooling by a nozzle. Two types of nozzles were used for the experiments (air-mist nozzle and hydraulic nozzle. A test plate was cooled in three positions – top, side and bottom position. The aim was to simulate a cooling situation in the secondary zone of a continuous casting machine. Temperature was measured in seven locations under the cooled surface by thermocouples. These data were used for an inverse heat conduction problem and then boundary conditions were computed. These boundary conditions are represented by surface temperature, heat transfer coefficient and heat flux. Results from an inverse calculation were compared in each position of thermocouples separately. The total cooling intensity was specified for all configurations of nozzles and test plate orientation. Results are summarised in a graphical and numerical format.

  13. Note: A microfluidic freezer based on evaporative cooling of atomized aqueous microdroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin; Chung, Minsub; Kim, Dohyun

    2015-01-01

    We report for the first time water-based evaporative cooling integrated into a microfluidic chip for temperature control and freezing of biological solution. We opt for water as a nontoxic, effective refrigerant. Aqueous solutions are atomized in our device and evaporation of microdroplets under vacuum removes heat effectively. We achieve rapid cooling (-5.1 °C/s) and a low freezing temperature (-14.1 °C). Using this approach, we demonstrate freezing of deionized water and protein solution. Our simple, yet effective cooling device may improve many microfluidic applications currently relying on external power-hungry instruments for cooling and freezing.

  14. Evaporative cooling for Holstein dairy cows under grazing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtorta, Silvia E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.

    . Twenty-four grazing Holstein cows in mid and late lactation were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control and cooled. The trial was performed at the Experimental Dairy Unit, Rafaela Agricultural Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the effects of sprinkler and fan cooling before milkings on milk production and composition. The effects of the cooling system on rectal temperature and respiration rate were also evaluated. Cooled cows showed higher milk production (1.04 l cow-1 day-1). The concentration and yield of milk fat and protein increased in response to cooling treatment. The cooling system also reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate. No effects were observed on body condition. It was concluded that evaporative cooling, which is efficient for housed animals, is also appropriate to improve yields and animal well-being under grazing systems. These results are impressive since the cooling system was utilized only before milkings, in a system where environmental control is very difficult to achieve. This trial was performed during a mild summer. The results would probably be magnified during hotter weather.

  15. Longitudinal dynamics of laser-cooled fast ion beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidemüller, M.; Eike, B.; Eisenbarth, U.

    1999-01-01

    We present recent results of our experiments on laser cooling of fast stored ion beams at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring. The longitudinal motion of the ions is directly cooled by the light pressure force, whereas efficient transverse cooling is obtained indirectly by longitudinal-transverse co......We present recent results of our experiments on laser cooling of fast stored ion beams at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring. The longitudinal motion of the ions is directly cooled by the light pressure force, whereas efficient transverse cooling is obtained indirectly by longitudinal......-transverse coupling mechanisms. Laser cooling in novel bunch forms consisting of square-well buckets leads to longitudinally space-charge dominated beams. The observed longitudinal ion density distributions can be well described by a self-consistent mean-field model based on a thermodynamic Debye-Huckel approach....... When applying laser cooling in square-well buckets over long time intervals, hard Coulomb collisions suddenly disappear and the longitudinal temperature drops by about a factor of three. The observed longitudinal behaviour of the beam shows strong resemblance with the transition to an Coulomb...

  16. A study of cooling process in bulk metallic glasses fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G. N.; Shao, Y.; Yao, K. F.; Chen, S. Q.

    2015-11-01

    To study the temperature distribution and evolution during bulk metallic glasses fabrication, finite element method was taken to simulate the cooling process in glassy alloys fabricated by water quenching and copper mold casting. The temperature distribution and evolution in different-sized samples in the two methods were successfully reproduced. The result showed that the temperature distribution in the alloy was strongly affected by fabricating method. Two relations were then proposed to estimate the cooling rate in different-sized samples prepared by these two methods. By comparing the reported data of critical size and critical cooling rate, we showed that the reported critical size and critical cooling rate of metallic glasses didn't follow a heat transfer relation. Those critical-sized glassy alloys actually experienced cooling rates much larger than the critical cooling rates estimated by the classical nucleation theory or experiments on milligram-scaled samples. It results from the increasing degree of heterogeneity with sample size, and therefore a larger sample requires a faster cooling rate to avoid crystallization. This work clearly shows the temperature field evolution in bulk metallic glasses fabrication and reveals that the critical cooling rate of metallic glasses might be size-dependent.

  17. New Technique for Cryogenically Cooling Small Test Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Karen M.; Henderson, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    Convective heat removal techniques to rapidly cool small test articles to Earth-Moon L2 temperatures of 77 K were accomplished through the use of liquid nitrogen (LN2). By maintaining a selected pressure range on the saturation curve, test articles were cooled below the LN2 boiling point at ambient pressure in less than 30 min. Difficulties in achieving test pressures while maintaining the temperature tolerance necessitated a modification to the original system to include a closed loop conductive cold plate and cryogenic shroud

  18. Measurements of Beam Cooling in Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohayai, Tanaz; Snopok, Pavel; Rogers, Chris; Neuffer, David; Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Cooled muon beams are essential for production of high-flux neutrino beams at the Neutrino Factory and high luminosity muon beams at the Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment, MICE aims to demonstrate muon beam cooling through ionization energy loss of muons in material. The standard figure of merit for cooling in MICE is the transverse RMS emittance reduction and to measure this, the individual muon positions and momenta are reconstructed using scintillating-fiber tracking detectors, before and after a low-Z absorbing material. In this study, in addition to a preview on the standard measurement technique, an alternative technique is described, which is the measurement of phase-space density using the novel Kernel Density Estimation method. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE - AC05 - 06OR23100.

  19. A mouse model for inducible overexpression of Prdm14 results in rapid-onset and highly penetrant T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi L. Carofino

    2013-11-01

    PRDM14 functions in embryonic stem cell (ESC maintenance to promote the expression of pluripotency-associated genes while suppressing differentiation genes. Expression of PRDM14 is tightly regulated and typically limited to ESCs and primordial germ cells; however, aberrant expression is associated with tumor initiation in a wide variety of human cancers, including breast cancer and leukemia. Here, we describe the generation of a Cre-recombinase-inducible mouse model for the spatial and temporal control of Prdm14 misexpression [ROSA26 floxed-stop Prdm14 (R26PR]. When R26PR is mated to either of two Cre lines, Mx1-cre or MMTV-cre, mice develop early-onset T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL with median overall survival of 41 and 64 days for R26PR;Mx1-cre and R26PR;MMTV-cre, respectively. T-ALL is characterized by the accumulation of immature single-positive CD8 cells and their widespread infiltration. Leukemia is preceded by a dramatic expansion of cells resembling hematopoietic stem cells and lymphoid-committed progenitors prior to disease onset, accompanied by a blockage in B-cell differentiation at the early pro-B stage. Rapid-onset PRDM14-induced T-ALL requires factors that are present in stem and progenitor cells: R26PR;dLck-cre animals, which express Prdm14 starting at the double-positive stage of thymocyte development, do not develop disease. PRDM14-induced leukemic cells contain high levels of activated NOTCH1 and downstream NOTCH1 targets, including MYC and HES1, and are sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of NOTCH1 with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. Greater than 50% of human T-ALLs harbor activating mutations in NOTCH1; thus, our model carries clinically relevant molecular aberrations. The penetrance, short latency and involvement of the NOTCH1 pathway will make this hematopoietic R26PR mouse model ideal for future studies on disease initiation, relapse and novel therapeutic drug combinations. Furthermore, breeding R26PR to additional Cre

  20. Sympathetic Cooling of Quantum Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Meghana; Weimer, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    We discuss the possibility of maximizing the cooling of a quantum simulator by controlling the system-environment coupling such that the system is driven into the ground state. We make use of various analytical tools such as effective operator formalism and the quantum master equations to exactly solve the model of an Ising spin chain consisting of N particles coupled to a radiation field. We maximize the cooling by finding the dependence of the effective rate of transitions of the various excited states into the ground state. We show that by adding a single dissipative qubit, we already get quite substantial cooling rates. Volkswagen Foundation, DFG.

  1. Cooling towers principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D

    1990-01-01

    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  2. LS1 Report: Summer cool down

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    As the final LS1 activities are carried out in the machine, teams have been cooling down the accelerator sector by sector in preparation for beams.   The third sector of the LHC to be cooled down - sector 1-2 - has seen the process begin this week. During the cool-down phase, survey teams are measuring and smoothing (or realigning) the magnets at cold. By the end of August, five sectors of the machine will be in the process of cooling down, with one (sector 6-7) at cold. The LHC Access Safety System (LASS) is now being commissioned, and will be validated during the DSO tests at the beginning of October. As teams consolidate the modifications made to LASS during the shutdown, many points were closed for testing purposes. The CSCM (copper stabiliser continuity measurement) tests have been completed in the first sector (6-7) and no defect has been found. These results will be presented to the LHC Machine Committee next week. CSCM tests will start in the second sector in mid-August. Following many...

  3. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  4. Passive low energy cooling of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Baruch

    1994-01-01

    A practical sourcebook for building designers, providing comprehensive discussion of the impact of basic architectural choices on cooling efficiency, including the layout and orientation of the structure, window size and shading, exterior color, and even the use of plantings around the site. All major varieties of passive cooling systems are presented, with extensive analysis of performance in different types of buildings and in different climates: ventilation; radiant cooling; evaporative cooling; soil cooling; and cooling of outdoor spaces.

  5. New Technology in Hydrogen Absorbers for Muon Cooling Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Cummings, M A C

    2005-01-01

    Ionization cooling is the only technique fast enough to cool and focus muons for neutrino factories and muon colliders, and hydrogen is the optimal material for maximum cooling and minimal multiple scattering. Liquid hydrogen absorber R&D for the Muon Collaboration has proceeded on parallel and complementary fronts. The continuing LH2 absorber engineering and technical developments by the MuCool group conducted by ICAR* institutions (NIU, IIT and UIUC), the University of Mississippi and Oxford University, in cooperation with Fermilab, will be summarized, including results from the first hydrogen absorber tests at the newly constructed FNAL Mucool Test Area (MTA). The program includes designs for the high-powered test of an absorber prototype (external heat exchange) at the MTA which are nearing completion to be installed by summer 2005, an alternative absorber design (internal heat exchange) being finalized for the approved cooling experiment (MICE) at Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, and a novel idea for ...

  6. Investigation of the cooling film distribution in liquid rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antonio Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of the investigation of a cooling method widely used in the combustion chambers, which is called cooling film, and it is applied to a liquid rocket engine that uses as propellants liquid oxygen and kerosene. Starting from an engine cooling, whose film is formed through the fuel spray guns positioned on the periphery of the injection system, the film was experimentally examined, it is formed by liquid that seeped through the inner wall of the combustion chamber. The parameter used for validation and refinement of the theoretical penetration of the film was cooling, as this parameter is of paramount importance to obtain an efficient thermal protection inside the combustion chamber. Cold tests confirmed a penetrating cold enough cooling of the film for the length of the combustion chamber of the studied engine.

  7. Collisional Cooling of Light Ions by Cotrapped Heavy Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Sawant, Rahul; Rangwala, S A

    2017-03-17

    We experimentally demonstrate cooling of trapped ions by collisions with cotrapped, higher-mass neutral atoms. It is shown that the lighter ^{39}K^{+} ions, created by ionizing ^{39}K atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), when trapped in an ion trap and subsequently allowed to cool by collisions with ultracold, heavier ^{85}Rb atoms in a MOT, exhibit a longer trap lifetime than without the localized ^{85}Rb MOT atoms. A similar cooling of trapped ^{85}Rb^{+} ions by ultracold ^{133}Cs atoms in a MOT is also demonstrated in a different experimental configuration to validate this mechanism of ion cooling by localized and centered ultracold neutral atoms. Our results suggest that the cooling of ions by localized cold atoms holds for any mass ratio, thereby enabling studies on a wider class of atom-ion systems irrespective of their masses.

  8. Self-Reported HIV-Positive Status But Subsequent HIV-Negative Test Result Using Rapid Diagnostic Testing Algorithms Among Seven Sub-Saharan African Military Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-07

    in many sub-Saharan African countries, and extensive laboratory testing has con- firmed HIV RDTs have excellent sensitivity and specificity. However... interpretation of results. We conducted HIV serosur- veys in seven sub-Saharan African military populations and recorded the frequency of per- sonnel...positive results, such as greater adherence to quality assurance guidelines and prevalence-specific HIV testing algorithms as described in the World

  9. Advance in MEIC cooling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Ya. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, D. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Hutton, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Kimber, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Li, R. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Nissen, E. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, H. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Cooling of ion beams is essential for achieving a high luminosity for MEIC at Jefferson Lab. In this paper, we present the design concept of the electron cooling system for MEIC. In the design, two facilities are required for supporting a multi-staged cooling scheme; one is a 2 MeV DC cooler in the ion pre-booster; the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) ERL-circulator cooler in the collider ring. The simulation studies of beam dynamics in an ERL-circulator cooler are summarized and followed by a report on technology development for this cooler. We also discuss two proposed experiments for demonstrating high energy cooling with a bunched electron beam and the ERL-circulator cooler.

  10. Cooled Ceramic Turbine Vane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — N&R Engineering will investigate the feasibility of cooled ceramics, such as ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine blade concepts that can decrease specific...

  11. Extraluminal cooling of bilateral common carotid arteries as a method to achieve selective brain cooling for neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo; Hartings, Jed A; Yang, Xiaofang; Tortella, Frank C; Lu, Xi-Chun M

    2008-05-01

    Systemic cooling to achieve brain hypothermia has been investigated as a neuroprotective therapy but can present serious adverse effects. Here we describe a novel method to selectively cool the rat brain and investigate its neuroprotective effects following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). The novelty of our method of selective brain cooling (SBC) was that the extraluminal cooling of the carotid arterial blood was achieved by using a cooling cuff wrapped around each common carotid artery (CCA). Within 20 min of CCA cooling, brain temperature could be lowered by 2-5 degrees C below the baseline and maintained stable for approximately 2 h while maintaining body temperature at 37 degrees C. No adverse effects of SBC were observed on systemic physiology, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), bleeding time, or tissue histology in normal animals. In rats having sustained 2-h MCAo, intra-ischemic SBC for 90 min, initiated 30 min following the onset of ischemia, significantly reduced infarction measured at 24 h post-injury (normothermic rats=312+/-51 mm3, SBC rats=139+/-83 mm3). In subgroup experiments, the incidence of peri-infarct depolarization (PID) was assessed during the MCAo and cooling period. Compared to normothermic but ischemic rats, SBC significantly reduced the number of PID events from 6.2+/-2.5 to 2.0+/-2.5, and reduced infarct volumes from 323+/-79 to 139+/-102 mm3. In conclusion, this extralumimal cooling method of SBC provides a safe and efficient approach to rapidly and safely achieve hypothermic neuroprotection.

  12. Small Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor Safety Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minato, A; Ueda, N; Wade, D; Greenspan, E; Brown, N

    2005-11-02

    The Small Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor Safety Study documents results from activities conducted under Small Liquid Metal Fast Reactor Coordination Program (SLMFR-CP) Agreement, January 2004, between the Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) of Japan and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)[1]. Evaluations were completed on topics that are important to the safety of small sodium cooled and lead alloy cooled reactors. CRIEPI investigated approaches for evaluating postulated severe accidents using the CANIS computer code. The methods being developed are improvements on codes such as SAS 4A used in the US to analyze sodium cooled reactors and they depend on calibration using safety testing of metal fuel that has been completed in the TREAT facility. The 4S and the small lead cooled reactors in the US are being designed to preclude core disruption from all mechanistic scenarios, including selected unprotected transients. However, postulated core disruption is being evaluated to support the risk analysis. Argonne National Laboratory and the University of California Berkeley also supported LLNL with evaluation of cores with small positive void worth and core designs that would limit void worth. Assessments were also completed for lead cooled reactors in the following areas: (1) continuing operations with cladding failure, (2) large bubbles passing through the core and (3) recommendations concerning reflector control. The design approach used in the US emphasizes reducing the reactivity in the control mechanisms with core designs that have essentially no, or a very small, reactivity change over the core life. This leads to some positive void worth in the core that is not considered to be safety problem because of the inability to identify scenarios that would lead to voiding of lead. It is also believed that the void worth will not dominate the severe accident analysis. The approach used by 4S requires negative void worth throughout

  13. Role of intracellular freezing in the death of cells cooled at supraoptimal rates. [Preservation of erythrocytes, bone marrow cells, and yeasts by freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, P.

    1976-01-01

    Cooling velocity is one of the major factors that determines whether viable cells can be frozen to temperatures that permit indefinite storage. Cooling either too slowly or too rapidly tends to be damaging. Optimum cooling rates are reported for mouse marrow stem cells, yeast, and human red cells.

  14. Lightweight Passive Microclimate Cooling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    adsorption of working fluid vapor is exo- thermic , so this chamber will reject heat to the environment and will be finned to promote natural convection...estimate of the cooling capacity. The water reservoir was immersed in one liter of water contained in an insulated vessel. A heater was placed in the...placed in a pocket in the vest, which has insulation on the outside. This arrangement limits the cooling lost to the outside. 22 SH-cULI)ER STRAP CKET

  15. Wear Resistance of Steel 20MnCr5 After Surfacing with Micro-jet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasiuk W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of experimental research concerning the impact of an innovative method of micro-jet cooling on the padding weld performed with MIG welding. Micro-jet cooling is a novel method patented in 2011. It enables to steer the parameters of weld cooling in a precise manner. In addition, various elements which may e.g. enhance hardness or alter tribological properties can be entered into its top surface, depending on the applied cooling gas. The material under study was steel 20MnCr5, which was subject to the welding process with micro-jet cooling and without cooling. Nitrogen was used as a cooling gas. The main parameter of weld assessment was wear intensity. The tests were conducted in a tribological pin-on-disc type position. The following results exhibit growth at approximately 5% in wear resistance of padding welds with micro-jet cooling.

  16. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  17. A surge of p-values between 0.041 and 0.049 in recent decades (but negative results are increasing rapidly too)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodou, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    It is known that statistically significant (positive) results are more likely to be published than non-significant (negative) results. However, it has been unclear whether any increasing prevalence of positive results is stronger in the “softer” disciplines (social sciences) than in the “harder” disciplines (physical sciences), and whether the prevalence of negative results is decreasing over time. Using Scopus, we searched the abstracts of papers published between 1990 and 2013, and measured longitudinal trends of multiple expressions of positive versus negative results, including p-values between 0.041 and 0.049 versus p-values between 0.051 and 0.059, textual reporting of “significant difference” versus “no significant difference,” and the reporting of p 0.05. We found no support for a “hierarchy of sciences” with physical sciences at the top and social sciences at the bottom. However, we found large differences in reporting practices between disciplines, with p-values between 0.041 and 0.049 over 1990–2013 being 65.7 times more prevalent in the biological sciences than in the physical sciences. The p-values near the significance threshold of 0.05 on either side have both increased but with those p-values between 0.041 and 0.049 having increased to a greater extent (2013-to-1990 ratio of the percentage of papers = 10.3) than those between 0.051 and 0.059 (ratio = 3.6). Contradictorily, p 0.05 (ratios = 1.4 and 4.8, respectively), while the use of “significant difference” has shown only a modest increase compared to “no significant difference” (ratios = 1.5 and 1.1, respectively). We also compared reporting of significance in the United States, Asia, and Europe and found that the results are too inconsistent to draw conclusions on cross-cultural differences in significance reporting. We argue that the observed longitudinal trends are caused by negative factors, such as an increase of questionable research practices, but also by

  18. Nuclear superfluidity and cooling time of neutron-star crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monrozeau, C.; Margueron, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud, F-91406 Orsay CEDEX (France); Sandulescu, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud, F-91406 Orsay CEDEX (France); Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-03-15

    We analyse the effect of neutron superfluidity on the cooling time of inner crust matter in neutron stars, in the case of a rapid cooling of the core. The specific heat of the inner crust, which determines the thermal response of the crust, is calculated in the framework of HFB approach at finite temperature. The calculations are performed with two paring forces chosen to simulate the pairing properties of uniform neutron matter corresponding respectively to Gogny-BCS approximation and to many-body techniques including polarisation effects. Using a simple model for the heat transport across the inner crust, it is shown that the two pairing forces give very different values for the cooling time. (authors)

  19. Analysis of a solid desiccant cooling system with indirect evaporative cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo

    and electricity. Results indicate that solar energy is utilized more efficiently than fossil fuels for supplying low regeneration temperatures. In the end, a novel technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources is introduced. Water desorbed from the desiccant...... dehumidifier is condensed in a closed regeneration circuit and used to run evaporative coolers. This solution enables the system to run regardless of water availability, and avoids the use of water demineralization equipment, which consumes additional water and increases operational costs and maintenance....... These benefits are achieved at the expense of higher electricity consumption, regeneration temperatures, space requirements and investment costs. The solution is analysed for the desiccant cooling system operating with dew point cooling. Mediterranean climatic conditions are considered for seasonal system...

  20. Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

    2014-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

  1. Optimization for blast furnace slag dry cooling granulation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazhan, Sheng; Yali, Wang; Ruiyun, Wang; Suping, Cui; Xiaoyu, Ma

    2017-03-01

    Since the large accumulation amount of blast furnace slag (BFS) with recycling value, it has become a hot topic for recovery utilization. Compared with the existing various BFS granulation process, the dry granulation process can promote the use of blast furnace granulated slag as cement substitute and concrete admixtures. Our research group developed a novel dry cooling granulation experiment device to treat BFS. However, there are still some problems to be solved. The purpose of this research is to improve the cooling and granulation efficiency of the existing dry type cooling equipment. This topic uses the FLUENT simulation software to study the impact of the number of air inlet on the cooling effect of the device. The simulation result is that the device possessing eight air inlets can increase the number of hot and cold gas exchanged, resulting in a better cooling effect. According to the power consumption, LCA analysis was carried out on the cooling granulation process. The results show that the device equipped eight air inlets not only improved the original equipment cooling granulation effect, but also increased resource utilization ratio, realized energy-saving and emission reduction.

  2. Rapid response of hydrological loss of DOC to water table drawdown and warming in Zoige peatland: results from a mesocosm experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Dong Lou

    Full Text Available A large portion of the global carbon pool is stored in peatlands, which are sensitive to a changing environment conditions. The hydrological loss of dissolved organic carbon (DOC is believed to play a key role in determining the carbon balance in peatlands. Zoige peatland, the largest peat store in China, is experiencing climatic warming and drying as well as experiencing severe artificial drainage. Using a fully crossed factorial design, we experimentally manipulated temperature and controlled the water tables in large mesocosms containing intact peat monoliths. Specifically, we determined the impact of warming and water table position on the hydrological loss of DOC, the exported amounts, concentrations and qualities of DOC, and the discharge volume in Zoige peatland. Our results revealed that of the water table position had a greater impact on DOC export than the warming treatment, which showed no interactive effects with the water table treatment. Both DOC concentration and discharge volume were significantly increased when water table drawdown, while only the DOC concentration was significantly promoted by warming treatment. Annual DOC export was increased by 69% and 102% when the water table, controlled at 0 cm, was experimentally lowered by -10 cm and -20 cm. Increases in colored and aromatic constituents of DOC (measured by Abs(254 nm, SUVA(254 nm, Abs(400 nm, and SUVA(400 nm were observed under the lower water tables and at the higher peat temperature. Our results provide an indication of the potential impacts of climatic change and anthropogenic drainage on the carbon cycle and/or water storage in a peatland and simultaneously imply the likelihood of potential damage to downstream ecosystems. Furthermore, our results highlight the need for local protection and sustainable development, as well as suggest that more research is required to better understand the impacts of climatic change and artificial disturbances on peatland degradation.

  3. Monosegment ALPPS: A new variant of the techniques for rapid hepatic regeneration. Critical review of the initial results of our series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvá Orón, Eva María; Maupoey Ibáñez, Javier; Bañuelos Carrillo, Rómulo; Boscà Robledo, Andrea; Orbis Castellanos, Juan Francisco; Moya Herraiz, Ángel; Ballester Vallés, Carmen; Pérez Rojas, Judith; Aparicio Urtasun, Jorge; López-Andújar, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) is a novel surgical technique that provides fast and effective growth of liver remnant volume, allowing surgical resection of hepatic lesions initially considered unresectable. Short and long-term results and the convenience of carrying out this technique are issues that still remain under debate while waiting for the final outcomes of the multicenter registries with larger number of cases. The aim of this paper is to describe, from a critical point of view, the outcomes of the cases performed at our center (n=8). On the other hand, it is possible to leave only one hepatic segment as a liver remnant and we illustrate this new surgical procedure (ALPPS monosegment) performed in one patient. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Overview of Resources for Geothermal Absorption Cooling for Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a literature review in three areas: available low-temperature/coproduced geothermal resources in the United States, energy use for space conditioning in commercial buildings, and state of the art of geothermal absorption cooling.

  5. A cooling vest for working comfortably in a moderately hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Naoe; Tanabe, Shin-ichi; Hayama, Hirofumi; Komatsu, Masayoshi

    2002-01-01

    To alleviate worker's thermal discomfort in a moderately hot environment, a new cooling vest was designed and proposed in this paper. To investigate the effect of the cooling vest and to collect the knowledge for the design of comfortable cooling vest, subjective experiments were conducted. Two kinds of cooling vests, the new one and the commercially available one, were used for comparison. The new cooling vest had more insulation and its surface temperature was higher than the commercially available one. Experiments were performed in the climatic chamber where operative temperature was controlled at 30.2 degrees C and relative humidity was at 37% under still air. In addition, experiment without cooling vest was carried out as a control condition. The results obtained in these experiments were as follow: 1) By wearing both types of cooling vest, the whole body thermal sensation was closer to the neutral conditions than those without cooling vest. This effect was estimated to be equal to the 5.7 degrees C decrement of operative temperature. The subjects felt more comfortable with the cooling vest than without it. They felt more thermally acceptable than that without cooling vest. Wearing the cooling vest was useful to decrease the sweating sensation. 2) The local discomfort was observed when the local thermal sensation was "cool" approximately "cold" with the cooling vest. 3) The new cooling vest kept the skin temperature at chest at about 32.6 degrees C. On the other hand, by wearing the commercially available one, it lowered to about 31.1 degrees C. By wearing the new cooling vest, there was a tendency that local thermal sensation vote was higher and local comfort sensation vote was more comfortable than those of the condition wearing the commercially available one. It is important for the design of a comfortable cooling garment to prevent over-cool down from the body.

  6. Performance Analysis on Passive Emergency Core Cooling System in the Low Power and Shutdown Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soon Il; Hong, Soon Joon [FNC TECH. Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sang Hee; Kim, Han Gon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A Passive Emergency Core Cooling System (PECCS) is to be adopted as an improved safety design feature of APR+. During plant Shutdowns, certain maintenance and testing activities require a drain down of the RCS to a partially filled condition. And Shutdown Cooling System(SCS) is placed into service to accomplish Reactor coolant system(RCS) cooldown to refueling temperatures. If SCS operation is not re-established, core boiling and pressurization can produce rapid core uncovery. When unfavorable accidents such loss of SCS happen, the PECCS should be able to make up the core and then cool down the core. This study discusses the applicability of PECCS and the performance analysis during loss of SCS or RCS inventory. In this study, the applicability of PECCS and analysis performance during loss of SCS or RCS inventory were assessed. RELAP5 calculations show that PECCS can make up the core and then prevent the core from being damaged. Resultant analysis shows the role of the ADV for RCS depressurization, and SITs for RCS making up.

  7. Heating and Cooling of Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-04-27

    25-27) 41 Nomenclature 45 Referencee ^ Figures: 1. Diagram of Thermocouple Locations 0 2. Time-Temperature Curve, Cooling of 2.75-in...is independent of the position ratio n. The experimental results of Fig. 3—5 and of Table 1 confirm this behavior. From the Heisler chart, an...n; however, the theoretical relation derived from Eq. 7, or Gurney- Lurie or Heisler charts, will give a rough approximation. iMPORTANCt OF FILM

  8. Time-resolved crystallization of deeply cooled liquid hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehnel, Matthias

    2014-02-15

    This thesis serves two main purposes: 1. The introduction of a novel experimental method to investigate phase change dynamics of supercooled liquids 2. First-time measurements for the crystallization behaviour for hydrogen isotopes under various conditions (1) The new method is established by the synergy of a liquid microjet of ∼ 5 μm diameter and a scattering technique with high spatial resolution, here linear Raman spectroscopy. Due to the high directional stability and the known velocity of the liquid filament, its traveling axis corresponds to a time axis static in space. Utilizing evaporative cooling in a vacuum environment, the propagating liquid cools down rapidly and eventually experiences a phase transition to the crystalline state. This temporal evolution is probed along the filament axis, ultimately resulting in a time resolution of 10 ns. The feasibility of this approach is proven successfully within the following experiments. (2) A main object of study are para-hydrogen liquid filaments. Raman spectra reveal a temperature gradient of the liquid across the filament. This behaviour can quantitatively be reconstructed by numerical simulations using a layered model and is rooted in the effectiveness of evaporative cooling on the surface and a finite thermal conductivity. The deepest supercoolings achieved are ∼ 30% below the melting point, at which the filament starts to solidify from the surface towards the core. With a crystal growth velocity extracted from the data the appropriate growth mechanism is identified. The crystal structure that initially forms is metastable and probably the result of Ostwald's rule of stages. Indications for a transition within the solid towards the stable equilibrium phase support this interpretation. The analog isotope ortho-deuterium is evidenced to behave qualitatively similar with quantitative differences being mass related. In further measurements, isotopic mixtures of para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium are

  9. Gases vacuum dedusting and cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey А. Burov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Represented are the results of operating the ladle degassing vacuum plant (productivity: 120 tons of liquid steel with various dust collectors. The process gases’ cooling and dedusting, obtained in the closed loop buran study, provides opportunity to install a bag filter after that closed loop and its efficient use. Proven is the effectiveness of the cylindrical cyclone replacement with a multichannel (buran dust collector, based on a system of closed-loop (return coupling serially connected curved ducts, where the dusty gas flow rotation axis is vertically positioned. The system of closed-loop serially connected curvilinear channels creates preconditions for the emergence of a negative feedback at the curvilinear gas flow containing transit and circulating flows. These conditions are embodied with circulating flows connecting the in- and outputs of the whole system each channel. The transit flow multiple continuous filtration through the circulating dust layers leads to the formation and accumulation of particles aggregates in the collection chamber. The validity of such a dusty flow control mechanism is confirmed by experimental data obtained in a vacuum chamber. Therefore, replacing one of the two buran’s forevacuum pumps assemblies with the necessary number of curved channels (closed loop is estimated in a promising method.

  10. New constraints on the rapid crustal motion of the Aegean region: recent results inferred from GPS measurements (1993-1998) across the West Hellenic Arc, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocard, M.; Kahle, H.-G.; Peter, Y.; Geiger, A.; Veis, G.; Felekis, S.; Paradissis, D.; Billiris, H.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper we present the most recent observations of crustal motion across the entire West Hellenic Arc (WHA). These are based on repeated GPS measurements carried out in the period from 1993 to 1998. The results are presented in terms of trajectories and rates, relative to Eurasia. Within these five years southwestern Greece has moved to the southwest by an average rate of 30 mm/a, increasing from 10 mm/a at the island of Lefkada, in the center of the Ionian islands, to nearly 40 mm/a along the southwest part of the Peloponnesus and to 35 mm/a on the islands of Crete and Gavdhos. The data provide strong evidence that distributed shear strain starts at the Kephalonia Fault Zone (KFZ), were an anomalously high earthquake activity is also observed. A striking interruption of the motion is seen at the island of Strofades, at the southwest leading edge of the WHA, where a south-oriented displacement of 12 cm was detected, coincident with the M = 6.4 Strofades earthquake of Nov. 18, 1997.

  11. Impingement jet cooling in gas turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Due to the requirement for enhanced cooling technologies on modern gas turbine engines, advanced research and development has had to take place in field of thermal engineering. Impingement jet cooling is one of the most effective in terms of cooling, manufacturability and cost. This is the first to book to focus on impingement cooling alone.

  12. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  13. Cooled Low-Noise HEMT Microwave Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, J. Javier; Ortiz, Gerardo G.; Duh, Kuanghann George

    1992-01-01

    Prototype cooled low-noise microwave amplifiers based on high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMT's) considered as replacements for cooled ruby masers used as low-noise receiver-front-end amplifiers in communications, radio science, radar systems, radio astronomy, and telemetry. HEMT amplifier operates at 12 K, requires less cooling power and operates at lower cost with simpler, more-reliable cooling system.

  14. Abrupt cooling over the North Atlantic in modern climate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgubin, Giovanni; Swingedouw, Didier; Drijfhout, Sybren; Mary, Yannick; Bennabi, Amine

    2017-02-15

    Observations over the 20th century evidence no long-term warming in the subpolar North Atlantic (SPG). This region even experienced a rapid cooling around 1970, raising a debate over its potential reoccurrence. Here we assess the risk of future abrupt SPG cooling in 40 climate models from the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Contrary to the long-term SPG warming trend evidenced by most of the models, 17.5% of the models (7/40) project a rapid SPG cooling, consistent with a collapse of the local deep-ocean convection. Uncertainty in projections is associated with the models' varying capability in simulating the present-day SPG stratification, whose realistic reproduction appears a necessary condition for the onset of a convection collapse. This event occurs in 45.5% of the 11 models best able to simulate the observed SPG stratification. Thus, due to systematic model biases, the CMIP5 ensemble as a whole underestimates the chance of future abrupt SPG cooling, entailing crucial implications for observation and adaptation policy.

  15. Radiative cooling of relativistic electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhirong [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Modern high-energy particle accelerators and synchrotron light sources demand smaller and smaller beam emittances in order to achieve higher luminosity or better brightness. For light particles such as electrons and positrons, radiation damping is a natural and effective way to obtain low emittance beams. However, the quantum aspect of radiation introduces random noise into the damped beams, yielding equilibrium emittances which depend upon the design of a specific machine. In this dissertation, the author attempts to make a complete analysis of the process of radiation damping and quantum excitation in various accelerator systems, such as bending magnets, focusing channels and laser fields. Because radiation is formed over a finite time and emitted in quanta of discrete energies, he invokes the quantum mechanical approach whenever the quasiclassical picture of radiation is insufficient. He shows that radiation damping in a focusing system is fundamentally different from that in a bending system. Quantum excitation to the transverse dimensions is absent in a straight, continuous focusing channel, and is exponentially suppressed in a focusing-dominated ring. Thus, the transverse normalized emittances in such systems can in principle be damped to the Compton wavelength of the electron, limited only by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. In addition, he investigates methods of rapid damping such as radiative laser cooling. He proposes a laser-electron storage ring (LESR) where the electron beam in a compact storage ring repetitively interacts with an intense laser pulse stored in an optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction gives rise to rapid cooling of electron beams and can be used to overcome the space charge effects encountered in a medium energy circular machine. Applications to the designs of low emittance damping rings and compact x-ray sources are also explored.

  16. Cooled membrane for high sensitivity gas sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruifen; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2014-04-18

    A novel sample preparation method that combines the advantages of high surface area geometry and cold surface effect was proposed to achieve high sensitivity gas sampling. To accomplish this goal, a device that enables the membrane to be cooled down was developed for sampling, and a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer was used for separation and quantification analysis. Method development included investigation of the effect of membrane temperature, membrane size, gas flow rate and humidity. Results showed that high sensitivity for equilibrium sampling, such as limonene sampling in the current study could be achieved by either cooling down the membrane and/or using a large volume extraction phase. On the other hand, for pre-equilibrium extraction, in which the extracted amount was mainly determined by membrane surface area and diffusion coefficient, high sensitivity could be obtained by using thinner membranes with a larger surface and/or a higher sampling flow rate. In addition, humidity showed no significant influence on extraction efficiency, due to the absorption property of the liquid extraction phase. Next, the limit of detection (LOD) was found, and the reproducibility of the developed cooled membrane gas sampling method was evaluated. Results showed that LODs with a membrane diameter of 19mm at room temperature sampling were 9.2ng/L, 0.12ng/L, 0.10ng/L for limonene, cinnamaldehyde and 2-pentadecanone, respectively. Intra- and inter-membrane sampling reproducibility revealed RSD% lower than 8% and 13%, respectively. Results uniformly demonstrated that the proposed cooled membrane device could serve as an alternative powerful tool for future gas sampling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cooling profile following prosthetic preparation of 1-piece dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Omer; Gabay, Eran; Machtei, Eli E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of water irrigation on heat dissipation kinetics following abutment preparation of 1-piece dental implants. UNO 1-piece dental implants were mounted on Plexiglas apparatus clamping the implant at the collar. T-type thermocouple was attached to the first thread of the implant and recorded thermal changes at 100 millisecond intervals. Implants were prepared using highspeed dental turbine at 400,000 RPM with a coarse diamond bur. Once temperature reached 47 degrees C, abutment preparation was discontinued. Thirty implants were divided into 2 groups. Group A: Passive cooling without water irrigation. Group B: Cooling with turbine's water spray adjacent to the implant (30 mL/min). The following parameters were measured: T47 (time from peak temperature to 47 degrees C), T50%, T75% (time until the temperature amplitude decayed by 50% and 75%, respectively), dTemp50%/dt decay, and dTemp75%/dt decay (cooling rate measured at 50% and 75% of amplitude decay, respectively). Water spray irrigation significantly reduced T47 (1.37+/-0.29 seconds vs 19.97+/-3.06 seconds, Pspray irrigation also increased cooling capacity ninefold: dTemp50%/dt decay (4.14+/-0.61 degrees C/s vs 0.48+/-0.06 degrees C/s, Pspray adjacent to the abutment following the cessation of implant preparation might prove beneficial for rapid cooling of the implant.

  18. Beam Cooling with ionisation losses

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo; Kadi, Y; Vlachoudis, V

    2006-01-01

    A novel type of particle "cooling", called Ionization Cooling, is applicable to slow (v of the order of 0.1c) ions stored in a small ring. The many traversals through a thin foil enhance the nuclear reaction probability, in a steady configuration in which ionisation losses are recovered at each turn by a RF-cavity. For a uniform target "foil" the longitudinal momentum spread diverges exponentially since faster (slower) particles ionise less (more) than the average. In order to "cool" also longitudinally, a chromaticity has to be introduced with a wedge shaped "foil". Multiple scattering and straggling are then "cooled" in all three dimensions, with a method similar to the one of synchrotron cooling, but valid for low energy ions. Particles then stably circulate in the beam indefinitely, until they undergo for instance nuclear processes in the thin target foil. This new method is under consideration for the nuclear production of a few MeV/A ion beams. Simple reactions, for instance Li 7 + D Li 8 + p, are more ...

  19. Search for a permanent EDM using laser cooled radioactive atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Hirokazu; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Kato, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    2014-03-01

    The search for the electric-dipole moment (EDM) of laser-cooled francium (Fr) atoms could lead to a measurement for the electron EDM. It is predicted that the electron EDM would be enhanced by approximately three orders of magnitude in heavy atoms such as Fr. Laser-cooling and trapping techniques are expected to suppress statistical and systematic errors in precision measurements. The magneto-optical trap was achieved using stable rubidium in a developing factory of laser-cooled radioactive atoms. In light of the results from the rubidium experiments, we found that an upgrade of each apparatus is preferred for Fr trapping.

  20. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences, Multiple-family Residences and commercial applications.

  1. Search for a permanent EDM using laser cooled radioactive atom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamura Hirokazu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for the electric-dipole moment (EDM of laser-cooled francium (Fr atoms could lead to a measurement for the electron EDM. It is predicted that the electron EDM would be enhanced by approximately three orders of magnitude in heavy atoms such as Fr. Laser-cooling and trapping techniques are expected to suppress statistical and systematic errors in precision measurements. The magneto-optical trap was achieved using stable rubidium in a developing factory of laser-cooled radioactive atoms. In light of the results from the rubidium experiments, we found that an upgrade of each apparatus is preferred for Fr trapping.

  2. Advances in open-cycle solid desiccant cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, T R; Maclaine-cross, I

    1985-05-01

    Of the solar cooling options available open cycle solid desiccant cooling looks very promising. A brief review of the experimental and analytical efforts to date shows that within the last 10 years thermal performance has doubled. Research centers have been developed to explore new materials and geometry options and to improve and validate mathematical models that can be used by design engineers to develop new product lines. Typical results from the Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) Desiccant Cooling Research Program are shown. Innovative ideas for new cycles and spinoff benefits provide incentives to continue research in this promising field.

  3. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    A summary is presented of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items in this report include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences (SFR), Multiple-Family Residences (MFR), and commerical applications.

  4. A new laser cooling method for lithium atom interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geena

    W), we achieved a sub-Doppler cooling of lithium by a new laser cooling method despite the fact that lithium has un-resolved hyperfine structure. We identified that the Sisyphus cooling and the adiabatic cooling mechanisms cooperate and give both lower temperature and higher cooling efficiency than the result that can be achieved by each alone. We cooled 7Li atoms to ˜ 50 muK (about 8 times the recoil temperature) in a one dimensional lattice with cooling efficiency of 50%. In three dimensions the cooling temperature was limited to 90,muK due to instability of our 3D lattice, however the same principle applies and potentially a lower temperature can be achieved in 3D as well.

  5. Rock bed storage for cooling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyer, E C; Bourne, J G; Paglia, L; Walker, D H

    1978-09-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using night-effect rock bed cooling as a means of building air conditioning has been evaluated for the various climatic regions existing in the United States. The night-effect concept has been found to be a technically viable means of achieving resonable levels of human thermal comfort in wide regions of the country. Use of a night-effect rock bed cooling system may result in excessive humidity in humid northern and northeastern regions while occasional undesirable building temperature extremes may occur in western regions because of practical control difficulties. The night-effect system is not technically feasible in the South Central and Southeast. (MOW)

  6. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Data format for rapid prototyping systems; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Sekiso zokei system yo data format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the rapid prototyping (RP) system use new RP format and the related software, the paper promoted the international standardization in consideration of relationships with an international standard, STEP. RP, which is a technology to rapidly prototype a solid body based on the three-dimensional CAD data, is used in various fields of product manufacture, medical field, etc., and is expected to further expand its field of application. In this R and D, an international version of the RP software system developed for domestic use was developed, and at the same time a software was trially manufactured so that the data on STEP/AP203/CC5 and CC6 can be delivered to the system. Moreover, a plan on new AIC51X as the STEP/AIC suitable for PR was studied. Relating to these results, the paper conducted the publicity work to the persons concerned in RP in the U.S. and Europe, and also explained those at ISO/TC184/SC4 (STEP Conference). The PR use interface enabling highly rapid and accurate data processing reached to a stage of the international commercialization, and at the same time the study items were materialized for proposal of the new STEP standards suitable for RP. 18 refs., 80 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Liquid nitrogen cooling in IR thermography applied to steel specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, L.; Ferrarini, G.; Bortolin, A.; Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.; Maldague, X.

    2017-05-01

    Pulsed Thermography (PT) is one of the most common methods in Active Thermography procedures of the Thermography for NDT & E (Nondestructive Testing & Evaluation), due to the rapidity and convenience of this inspection technique. Flashes or lamps are often used to heat the samples in the traditional PT. This paper mainly explores exactly the opposite external stimulation in IR Thermography: cooling instead of heating. A steel sample with flat-bottom holes of different depths and sizes has been tested. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is sprinkled on the surface of the specimen and the whole process is captured by a thermal camera. To obtain a good comparison, two other classic NDT techniques, Pulsed Thermography and Lock-In Thermography, are also employed. In particular, the Lock-in method is implemented with three different frequencies. In the image processing procedure, the Principal Component Thermography (PCT) method has been performed on all thermal images. For Lock-In results, both Phase and Amplitude images are generated by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Results show that all techniques presented part of the defects while the LN2 technique displays the flaws only at the beginning of the test. Moreover, a binary threshold post-processing is applied to the thermal images, and by comparing these images to a binary map of the location of the defects, the corresponding Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves are established and discussed. A comparison of the results indicates that the better ROC curve is obtained using the Flash technique with PCT processing method.

  8. Sperm Membrane Behaviour during Cooling and Cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieme, H; Oldenhof, H; Wolkers, W F

    2015-09-01

    Native sperm is only marginally stable after collection. Cryopreservation of semen facilitates transport and storage for later use in artificial reproduction technologies, but cryopreservation processing may result in cellular damage compromising sperm function. Membranes are thought to be the primary site of cryopreservation injury. Therefore, insights into the effects of cooling, ice formation and protective agents on sperm membranes may help to rationally design cryopreservation protocols. In this review, we describe membrane phase behaviour of sperm at supra- and subzero temperatures. In addition, factors affecting membrane phase transitions and stability, sperm osmotic tolerance limits and mode of action of cryoprotective agents are discussed. It is shown how cooling only results in minor thermotropic non-cooperative phase transitions, whereas freezing causes sharp lyotropic fluid-to-gel phase transitions. Membrane cholesterol content affects suprazero membrane phase behaviour and osmotic tolerance. The rate and extent of cellular dehydration coinciding with freezing-induced membrane phase transitions are affected by the cooling rate and ice nucleation temperature and can be modulated by cryoprotective agents. Permeating agents such as glycerol can move across cellular membranes, whereas non-permeating agents such as sucrose cannot. Both, permeating and non-permeating protectants preserve biomolecular and cellular structures by forming a protective glassy state during freezing. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. COOL CORE CLUSTERS FROM COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasia, E.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.; Planelles, S.; Biffi, V.; Granato, G. L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Beck, A. M.; Steinborn, L. K.; Dolag, K. [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Scheinerstr.1, D-81679 München (Germany); Ragone-Figueroa, C., E-mail: rasia@oats.inaf.it [Instituto de Astronomá Teórica y Experimental (IATE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientiíficas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET), Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, X5000BGR, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2015-11-01

    We present results obtained from a set of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters, aimed at comparing predictions with observational data on the diversity between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters. Our simulations include the effects of stellar and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback and are based on an improved version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET-3, which ameliorates gas mixing and better captures gas-dynamical instabilities by including a suitable artificial thermal diffusion. In this Letter, we focus our analysis on the entropy profiles, the primary diagnostic we used to classify the degree of cool-coreness of clusters, and the iron profiles. In keeping with observations, our simulated clusters display a variety of behaviors in entropy profiles: they range from steadily decreasing profiles at small radii, characteristic of CC systems, to nearly flat core isentropic profiles, characteristic of NCC systems. Using observational criteria to distinguish between the two classes of objects, we find that they occur in similar proportions in both simulations and observations. Furthermore, we also find that simulated CC clusters have profiles of iron abundance that are steeper than those of NCC clusters, which is also in agreement with observational results. We show that the capability of our simulations to generate a realistic CC structure in the cluster population is due to AGN feedback and artificial thermal diffusion: their combined action allows us to naturally distribute the energy extracted from super-massive black holes and to compensate for the radiative losses of low-entropy gas with short cooling time residing in the cluster core.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell application in district cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Ayman; ElSherbini, Abdelrahman; Al-Ajmi, Kholoud

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents analysis of the performance of a combined cooling and power (CCP) system for district cooling. The cogeneration system is designed to provide cooling for a low-rise residential district of 27,300 RT (96 MWc). A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generates electric power to operate chillers, and the exhaust fuel and heat from the SOFC run gas turbines and absorption chillers. Thermal energy storage is utilized to reduce system capacity. Part-load operation strategies target maximizing energy efficiency. The operation of the system is compared through an hourly simulation to that of packaged air-conditioning units typically used to cool homes. The CCP system with the district cooling arrangement improves the cooling-to-fuel efficiency by 346%. The peak power requirement is reduced by 57% (24 MW) and the total fuel energy is reduced by 54% (750 TJ y-1). The system cuts annual carbon dioxide emissions to less than half and reduces other harmful emissions. A cost analysis of the system components and operation resulted in a 53% reduction in the cost per ton-hour of cooling over traditional systems.

  11. Development of the electron cooling simulation program for JLEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, He [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Chen, Jie [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Huang, He [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Luo, Li-Shi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    In the JLab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) project the traditional electron cooling technique is used to reduce the ion beam emittance at the booster ring, and to compensate the intrabeam scattering effect and maintain the ion beam emittance during collision at the collider ring. A new electron cooling process simulation program has been developed to fulfill the requirements of the JLEIC electron cooler design. The new program allows the users to calculate the electron cooling rate and simulate the cooling process with either DC or bunched electron beam to cool either coasting or bunched ion beam. It has been benchmarked with BETACOOL in aspect of accuracy and efficiency. In typical electron cooling process of JLEIC, the two programs agree very well and we have seen a significant improvement of computational speed using the new one. Being adaptive to the modern multicore hardware makes it possible to further enhance the efficiency for computationally intensive problems. The new program is being actively used in the electron cooling study and cooler design for JLEIC. We will present our models and some simulation results in this paper.

  12. Manipulation of operating configuration of cool air supply in buildings for reduction of cooling energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Shaharin A.; Rashid, Mohd Syazwan Ab; Hassan, Ahmad Hadi

    2012-06-01

    The cooling energy in different rooms can be different particularly if there are rooms that are very seldom occupied. With uncertainties in the cost and availability of local and global energy nowadays, it is imperative that a study on the actual cooling load of a building system be performed to reduce the energy consumption. In this paper, the effect of manipulation of the operating configuration of the cool air supply system is studied experimentally and also by computer simulation on selected occupied air-conditioned areas. The study is mainly conducted by re-configuring the damper opening and mode of control depending on the trend of occupancy throughout a typical working day for a selected zone within a campus building. The potential savings in energy as a result of the proposed strategy are estimated based on computer simulation. The results are compared with those of the experiment. The study reveals that there are significant potentials for savings in the cooling energy of the buildings.

  13. Simulated Measurements of Cooling in Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohayai, Tanaz [IIT, Chicago; Rogers, Chris [Rutherford; Snopok, Pavel [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    Cooled muon beams set the basis for the exploration of physics of flavour at a Neutrino Factory and for multi-TeV collisions at a Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) measures beam emittance before and after an ionization cooling cell and aims to demonstrate emittance reduction in muon beams. In the current MICE Step IV configuration, the MICE muon beam passes through low-Z absorber material for reducing its transverse emittance through ionization energy loss. Two scintillating fiber tracking detectors, housed in spectrometer solenoid modules upstream and downstream of the absorber are used for reconstructing position and momentum of individual muons for calculating transverse emittance reduction. However, due to existence of non-linear effects in beam optics, transverse emittance growth can be observed. Therefore, it is crucial to develop algorithms that are insensitive to this apparent emittance growth. We describe a different figure of merit for measuring muon cooling which is the direct measurement of the phase space density.

  14. The New English: Hot Stuff or Cool, Man, Cool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Robert W.

    1971-01-01

    The new English, the cool English, requires that teachers and students alike become learners in the quest for the understanding of language. McLuhan speaks directly to all English teachers, and provides insights into the crucial changes in communication that are now going on. (Author)

  15. New Approaches to Final Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab

    2014-11-10

    A high-energy muon collider scenario require a “final cooling” system that reduces transverse emittances by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.

  16. Photoexcitation and cooling of positronium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermer, C.D.; Howell, R.H.; Jones, K.M.; Liang, E.P.; Magnotta, F.; Ziock, K.P.

    1988-08-01

    Our demonstration of multiple-photon resonant cycling between the 1/sup 3/S and 2/sup 3/P states of ortho-Positronium (oPs) makes possible the production of cold positronium (Ps) through the technique of laser cooling. A simplified analysis of magnetic mixing in excited-state Ps is given. This effect is important both as a diagnostic of resonant cycling and Ps cooling. The significance of cold Ps in fine structure measurements and the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate is discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for existing detached houses); 1974 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kison kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-28

    This report describes the fiscal 1974 research result on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems for existing detached houses. The program for calculating heat collection rates was prepared by integrating peripheral conditions and every calculation step of heat collection rate, mean value, accumulated value and changes caused by disturbance. The cooling/heating load calculation program was also prepared for unsteady dynamic thermal analysis of houses. Another program was prepared for hot water supply load because of a large difference in life pattern. The profitability and energy conservation of 644 systems different in heat source, heat discharge, heat collection, heat storage, auxiliary heat source and equipment were evaluated by heat balance calculation program. Survey and study were also made on various heat engines such as heat pump, absorption refrigerator and Rankine cycle engine. Based on the survey result on existing technology for plane collectors, the optimum design method of collectors were established through various characteristic tests. Some kinds of suitable fusion latent heat type heat media were selected, and their operation stabilities were studied. (NEDO)

  18. Cooling Mediterranean Sea surface temperatures during the Late Miocene provide a climate context for evolutionary transitions in Africa and Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanova, Alexandrina; Herbert, Timothy D.; Peterson, Laura

    2015-06-01

    In the Late Miocene, grasslands proliferated, succulent plants diversified in the mid-latitudes, and the desert-like conditions appeared in the Sahara. Despite this major environmental change on land, the coeval deep-sea oxygen isotope record does not provide evidence for significant high latitude cooling or continental ice growth, making it difficult to relate widespread terrestrial environmental change to global climatic changes. A U37K‧ -derived sea surface temperature (SST) reconstruction spanning 13 to 6 Ma from uplifted hemipelagic sediments in Northern Italy provides the first continuous mid-latitude temperature record with which to compare the evolution of aridity and biotic events at similar latitudes in Northern Africa and Pakistan. Between 13 and 8.8 Ma, Mediterranean SST lay near the upper limit of the alkenone temperature proxy (∼28 °C), exceeding modern SST at the site by as much as 10 °C. Throughout the record, sapropel layers correspond to local SST maxima, suggesting that Late Miocene hydrological conditions in the Mediterranean responded to insolation forcing via mechanisms similar to those documented for the Plio-Pleistocene. Mediterranean SST cooled rapidly beginning at ∼8 Ma, with an episode of intense cooling to ∼19 °C between 7.2 Ma and 6.6 Ma, followed by a rebound to ∼25 °C preceding the Messinian Salinity Crisis at 5.9 Ma. These observations establish, for the first time, a direct relationship between increasing aridity in the Northern hemisphere mid-latitudes and significant cooling. Evidently, this cooling was not accompanied by significant growth in continental ice volume. The extreme warmth and subsequent cooling of the Mediterranean Sea are not well-represented in current Late Miocene climate models, which our results suggest underestimate regional warmth prior to the Late Miocene cooling. Evidence of secular cooling during the Late Miocene gives new support to the much-debated link between a possible decline in

  19. Surface cooling due to forest fire smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan

    1991-11-01

    In four different cases of extensive forest fire smoke the surface temperature effects were determined under the smoke cloud. In all cases, daytime cooling and no nighttime effects were found. The locations of smoke clouds from extensive forest fires in western Canada in 1981 and 1982, in northern China and Siberia in 1987, and in Yellowstone National Park in northwestern Wyoming in 1988 were determined from satellite imagery. As these smoke clouds passed over the midwestern United States for the Canadian and Yellow-stone fires and over Alaska for the Chinese/Siberian fires, surface air temperature effects were determined by comparing actual surface air temperatures with those forecast by model output statistics (MOS) of the United States National Weather Service. MOS error fields corresponding to the smoke cloud locations showed day-time cooling of 1.5° to 7°C under the smoke but no nighttime effects. These results correspond to theoretical estimates of the effects of smoke, and they serve as observational confirmation of a portion of the nuclear winter theory. This also implies that smoke from biomass burning can have a daytime cooling effect of a few degrees over seasonal time scales. In order to properly simulate the present climate with a numerical climate model in regions of regular burning it may be necessary to include this smoke effect.

  20. Analysis of film cooling in rocket nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Keith A.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the findings on the NASA contract NAG8-212, Task No. 3. The overall project consists of three tasks, all of which have been successfully completed. In addition, some supporting supplemental work, not required by the contract, has been performed and is documented herein. Task 1 involved the modification of the wall functions in the code FDNS (Finite Difference Navier-Stokes) to use a Reynolds Analogy-based method. This task was completed in August, 1992. Task 2 involved the verification of the code against experimentally available data. The data chosen for comparison was from an experiment involving the injection of helium from a wall jet. Results obtained in completing this task also show the sensitivity of the FDNS code to unknown conditions at the injection slot. This task was completed in September, 1992. Task 3 required the computation of the flow of hot exhaust gases through the P&W 40K subscale nozzle. Computations were performed both with and without film coolant injection. This task was completed in July, 1993. The FDNS program tends to overpredict heat fluxes, but, with suitable modeling of backside cooling, may give reasonable wall temperature predictions. For film cooling in the P&W 40K calorimeter subscale nozzle, the average wall temperature is reduced from 1750R to about 1050R by the film cooling. The average wall heat flux is reduced by a factor of 3.

  1. Narcissus analysis for cooled staring IR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng-Yun; Cui, Ji-Cheng; Feng, Shu-Long; Zhang, Xin

    2007-12-01

    Narcissus can have a deleterious effect on image quality for cooled infrared imaging systems. Therefore, analysis of narcissus is important for designing both scanning and staring optics. Narcissus is generally assumed to be negligible in staring IR optical designs because the shading effects can be removed by calibration of the detector array data. However, the calibration usually decreases sensitiveness of the system and Narcissus variation may be noticeable for sensors when the conditions changes as follows: 1. warming and cooling the optical housing, 2. zooming optical elements, 3. movement of lenses for focus. In that case, it will result in shading and other image defects even after calibration. To minimize these effects, narcissus should be assessed and controlled during the design of staring array IR system. We provided a direct and fast method for analyzing the narcissus variation in the presence of software such as LightTools, TracePro and ASAP, and proposed the principles in optical design of staring IR systems to reduce narcissus. A cooled staring IR system with serious narcissus was estimated and reoptimized. Narcissus analysis of this IR system confirmed the efficiency of the analysis method.

  2. Modeling of Fuel Film Cooling on Chamber Hot Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics CMFR = Core Mass Flow Rate FFC = Fuel Film Cooling M&S = Modeling and Simulation PDE = Partial Differential Equation PDF ...along with mutual exchange of mass, momentum and energy. As the fluid in the film heats up, it undergoes cracking or pyrolysis , and the resultant...species undergo oxidation by the excess oxidizer diffusing from the hot cross flow. The pyrolysis produces a further cooling effect by its

  3. Heat pipe radiation cooling evaluation: Task 2 concept studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverstein, C.C.

    1991-10-01

    This report presents the result of Task 2, Concept Studies for Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC), which was performed for Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract 9-XT1-U9567. Studies under a prior contract defined a reference HPRC conceptual design for hypersonic aircraft engines operating at Mach 5 and an altitude of 80,000 ft. Task 2 involves the further investigation of heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) systems for additional design and operating conditions.

  4. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Zweben

    2011-05-16

    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ~10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF COOLING DEVICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report details progress in the following areas: (1) Development of a miniature vaneaxial fan with improved air delivery and efficiency. Various...configurations are shown and results detailed. (2) Design and development of a motor suitable for driving the vaneaxial fan. One design using

  6. On synthesis and optimization of cooling water systems with multiple cooling towers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available minimization, which incorporates the performances of the cooling towers involved. The study focuses mainly on cooling systems consisting of multiple cooling towers that supply a common set of heat exchangers. The heat exchanger network is synthesized using...

  7. Experimental study and modeling of cooling ceiling systems using steady-state analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Thermodynamic Laboratory, University of Liege Belgium, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecuanica, AA. 97 Pereira (Colombia); Lebrun, Jean [Thermodynamic Laboratory, University of Liege Belgium, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Andre, Philippe [Departement Sciences et Gestion de l' Environnement, University of Liege Belgium, 185, Avenue de Longwy, B-6700 Arlon (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    This article presents the results of an experimental study performed to develop a computational model of cooling ceiling systems. The model considers the cooling ceiling as a fin. Only the dry regime is considered. From ceiling and room dimensions, material description of the cooling ceiling and measurement of supply water mass flow rate and air and water temperatures, the model calculates the cooling ceiling capacity, ceiling surface average temperature and water exhaust temperature. Fin efficiency, mixed convection close to the cooling ceiling (generated by the ventilation system) and panel perforations influence are studied. The theoretical approach gives to the user an appropriate tool for preliminary calculation, design and diagnosis in commissioning processes in order to determine the main operating conditions of the system in cooling mode. A series of experimental results got on four types of cooling ceilings are used in order to validate the model. (author)

  8. Cool dust and baby stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eales, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The helium that is cooling its camera is about to run out, but the data from the Herschel Space Observatory, which is designed to study how stars and galaxies form, are likely to keep sub-millimetre-wavelength astronomers busy for years to come. Steve Eales explains.

  9. A cool present for LEIR

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    LEIR (Low Energy Ion Ring), which will supply lead ions to the LHC experiments, has taken delivery of one of its key components, its electron cooling system. From left to right, Gérard Tranquille, Virginia Prieto and Roland Sautier, in charge of the electron cooling system for LEIR at CERN, and Christian Lacroix, in charge of installation for the LEIR machine. On 16 December, the day before CERN's annual closure, the LEIR teams received a rather impressive Christmas present. The "parcel" from Russia, measuring 7 metres in length and 4 metres in height, weighed no less than 20 tonnes! The component will, in fact, be one of the key elements of the future LEIR, namely its electron cooling system. LEIR is one of the links in the injector chain that will supply lead ions to the LHC experiments, in particular ALICE (see Bulletin No. 28/2004 of 5 July 2004), within the framework of the I-LHC Project. The electron cooling system is designed to reduce and standardise transverse ion velocity. This focuses the bea...

  10. Cool Runnings For String 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    String 2 is a series of superconducting magnets that are prototypes of those which will be installed in the LHC. It was cooled down to 1.9 Kelvin on September 14th. On Thursday last week, the dipoles of String 2 were successfully taken to nominal current, 11850 A.

  11. Solar-powered cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-12-24

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

  12. International Ventilation Cooling Application Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzer, Peter; Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; OSullivan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The currently running International Energy Agency, Energy and Conservation in Buildings, Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling (VC) project, is coordinating research towards extended use of VC. Within this Annex 62 the joint research activity of International VC Application Database has been carried out, ...

  13. Advanced Refrigerant-Based Cooling Technologies for Information and Communication Infrastructure (ARCTIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, Todd

    2012-12-13

    Faster, more powerful and dense computing hardware generates significant heat and imposes considerable data center cooling requirements. Traditional computer room air conditioning (CRAC) cooling methods are proving increasingly cost-ineffective and inefficient. Studies show that using the volume of room air as a heat exchange medium is wasteful and allows for substantial mixing of hot and cold air. Further, it limits cabinet/frame/rack density because it cannot effectively cool high heat density equipment that is spaced closely together. A more cost-effective, efficient solution for maximizing heat transfer and enabling higher heat density equipment frames can be accomplished by utilizing properly positioned phase change or two-phase pumped refrigerant cooling methods. Pumping low pressure, oil-free phase changing refrigerant through microchannel heat exchangers can provide up to 90% less energy consumption for the primary cooling loop within the room. The primary benefits of such a solution include reduced energy requirements, optimized utilization of data center space, and lower OPEX and CAPEX. Alcatel-Lucent recently developed a modular cooling technology based on a pumped two-phase refrigerant that removes heat directly at the shelf level of equipment racks. The key elements that comprise the modular cooling technology consist of the following. A pump delivers liquid refrigerant to finned microchannel heat exchangers mounted on the back of equipment racks. Fans drive air through the equipment shelf, where the air gains heat dissipated by the electronic components therein. Prior to exiting the rack, the heated air passes through the heat exchangers, where it is cooled back down to the temperature level of the air entering the frame by vaporization of the refrigerant, which is subsequently returned to a condenser where it is liquefied and recirculated by the pump. All the cooling air enters and leaves the shelves/racks at nominally the same temperature. Results

  14. Multi-pass cooling for turbine airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, George [Palm City, FL

    2011-06-28

    An airfoil for a turbine vane of a gas turbine engine. The airfoil includes an outer wall having pressure and suction sides, and a radially extending cooling cavity located between the pressure and suction sides. A plurality of partitions extend radially through the cooling cavity to define a plurality of interconnected cooling channels located at successive chordal locations through the cooling cavity. The cooling channels define a serpentine flow path extending in the chordal direction. Further, the cooling channels include a plurality of interconnected chambers and the chambers define a serpentine path extending in the radial direction within the serpentine path extending in the chordal direction.

  15. Gas turbine heat transfer and cooling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin; Ekkad, Srinath

    2012-01-01

    FundamentalsNeed for Turbine Blade CoolingTurbine-Cooling TechnologyTurbine Heat Transfer and Cooling IssuesStructure of the BookReview Articles and Book Chapters on Turbine Cooling and Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 2010ReferencesTurbine Heat TransferIntroductionTurbine-Stage Heat TransferCascade Vane Heat-Transfer ExperimentsCascade Blade Heat TransferAirfoil Endwall Heat TransferTurbine Rotor Blade Tip Heat TransferLeading-Edge Region Heat TransferFlat-Surface Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 20102.10 ClosureReferencesTurbine Film CoolingIntroductionFilm Cooling on Rotat

  16. Cooling tower selection and installation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristowe, K.

    1981-02-01

    Conserving and recycling water in industrial plants cooling towers are discussed. The fundamental principles of a cooling tower are explained by considering a droplet of water inside a cooling tower. The need for correct wet bulb selection for a given re-cooled water temperature in order to choose the proper cooling tower size is discussed. Site considerations, which are mainly dependent on the piping requirements and pump placements, are presented. Benefits of various types of pack and maintenance for cooling towers are discussed. (MCW)

  17. Cool quark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi

    2016-07-20

    We generalize the state-of-the-art perturbative Equation of State of cold quark matter to nonzero temperatures, needed in the description of neutron star mergers and core collapse processes. The new result is accurate to order g^5 in the gauge coupling, and is based on a novel framework for dealing with the infrared sensitive soft field modes of the theory. The zero Matsubara mode sector is treated using a dimensionally reduced effective theory, while the soft non-zero modes are resummed using the Hard Thermal Loop approximation. This combination of known effective descriptions offers unprecedented access to small but nonzero temperatures, both in and out of beta equilibrium.

  18. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  19. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF CONFORMAL COOLING CHANNELS IN INJECTION MOULDING TOOLS DESIGN: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Dimla, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Design of the cooling system in the thermoplastic injection moulding process is one of the most important steps during mould design. It has a direct influence on the quality of the parts produced, and thereby impinges on the cycle time. Cooling channel design has traditionally been limited to comparatively simple configurations due to the main process for manufacturing being restricted to the drilling of straight holes. Nowadays, with the emergence and rapid uptake of 3D printing, complex sha...

  20. Model-Based Fault Detection and Isolation of a Liquid-Cooled Frequency Converter on a Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peng; Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of wind energy technologies and growth of installed wind turbine capacity in the world, the reliability of the wind turbine becomes an important issue for wind turbine manufactures, owners, and operators. The reliability of the wind turbine can be improved by implementing...... on the developed dynamical model. The designed fault detection and isolation algorithm is applied on a set of measured experiment data in which different faults are artificially introduced to the scaled cooling system. The experimental results conclude that the different faults are successfully detected...