WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid communication genetic

  1. Rapid Communication: Large exploitable genetic variability exists to shorten age at slaughter in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Cromie, A R; Judge, M M

    2017-10-01

    Apprehension among consumers is mounting on the efficiency by which cattle convert feedstuffs into human edible protein and energy as well as the consequential effects on the environment. Most (genetic) studies that attempt to address these issues have generally focused on efficiency metrics defined over a certain time period of an animal's life cycle, predominantly the period representing the linear phase of growth. The age at which an animal reaches the carcass specifications for slaughter, however, is also known to vary between breeds; less is known on the extent of the within-breed variability in age at slaughter. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to quantify the phenotypic and genetic variability in the age at which cattle reach a predefined carcass weight and subcutaneous fat cover. A novel trait, labeled here as the deviation in age at slaughter (DAGE), was represented by the unexplained variability from a statistical model, with age at slaughter as the dependent variable and with the fixed effects, among others, of carcass weight and fat score (scale 1 to 15 scored by video image analysis of the carcass at slaughter). Variance components for DAGE were estimated using either a 2-step approach (i.e., the DAGE phenotype derived first and then variance components estimated) or a 1-step approach (i.e., variance components for age at slaughter estimated directly in a mixed model that included the fixed effects of, among others, carcass weight and carcass fat score as well as a random direct additive genetic effect). The raw phenotypic SD in DAGE was 44.2 d. The genetic SD and heritability for DAGE estimated using the 1-step or 2-step models varied from 14.2 to 15.1 d and from 0.23 to 0.26 (SE 0.02), respectively. Assuming the (genetic) variability in the number of days from birth to reaching a desired carcass specifications can be exploited without any associated unfavorable repercussions, considerable potential exists to improve not only the

  2. Short Communication: Rapid Visual Assessment of Fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Rapid Visual Assessment of Fish Communities on Selected Reefs in the Bazaruto Archipelago. ... the Bazaruto reef types to provide a basis for their sound management and conservation. Keywords: Bazaruto Archipelago, Mozambique, ichthyofauna, fish surveys, underwater visual census, coral reefs.

  3. Integrating Rapid Prototyping into Graphic Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renmei; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Integrating different science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas can help students learn and leverage both the equipment and expertise at a single school. In comparing graphic communications classes with classes that involve rapid prototyping (RP) technologies like 3D printing, there are sufficient similarities between goals,…

  4. Genetics Home Reference: rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parkinsonism have been diagnosed with anxiety, social phobias, depression, and seizures. It is unclear whether these disorders are related to the genetic changes that cause rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism . Related ...

  5. Habitat fragmentation causes rapid genetic differentiation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... city buildings. These results were supported by multiple statistical analyses including Mantel's test, PCOORDA and AMOVA. Genetic enrichment and epigenetic variation studies can be included in habitat fragmentation analysis and its implications in inducing homogenization and susceptibility in natural plant populations.

  6. Habitat fragmentation causes rapid genetic differentiation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... 1Laboratory of Plant Molecular Epigenetics, Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun. 130024 ... epigenetic variation studies can be included in habitat fragmentation analysis and its implications in inducing ... together with the environment habitat selection pressure.

  7. Rapid Communication: v= 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 5. Rapid Communication: Δ υ = 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 − states and B ( E 3 ) systematics of Sn isotopes. BHOOMIKA MAHESHWARI SWATI GARG ASHOK KUMAR JAIN. Research Article Volume 89 Issue 5 November 2017 Article ID 75 ...

  8. Rapid Communication: seniority changing transitions in yrast states ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhoomika Maheshwari

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Rapid Communication: v = 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3− states and B(E3) systematics of Sn isotopes. BHOOMIKA MAHESHWARI1,∗. , SWATI GARG2 and ASHOK KUMAR JAIN2. 1Department of Physics, Banasthali University, Banasthali 304 022, India. 2Department of Physics, IIT Roorkee, ...

  9. Rapid Communication: Quasi-gedanken experiment challenging the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Demetrios A Kalamidas

    2017-12-11

    Dec 11, 2017 ... Indian Academy of Sciences https://doi.org/10.1007/s12043-017-1495-8. Rapid Communication: Quasi-gedanken experiment challenging the no-signalling theorem. DEMETRIOS A KALAMIDAS. Raith Nanolithography, 300 Jordan Rd, Troy, NY 12180, USA. E-mail: demetrios.kalamidas@raithamerica.com.

  10. Rapid communication: Production from beryllium target using 120 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Singh

    2017-11-30

    Nov 30, 2017 ... Rapid communication: K. 0. S. Production from beryllium target using 120 GeV/c protons beam interactions at the MIPP experiment. A SINGH1 ,∗. , A KUMAR1, R RAJA2, V BHATNAGAR1 and V SINGH3. 1Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India. 2Fermi National Accelerator ...

  11. A Rapid Prototyping Environment for Wireless Communication Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan A. Jones

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a rapid prototyping methodology which overcomes important barriers in the design and implementation of digital signal processing (DSP algorithms and systems on embedded hardware platforms, such as cellular phones. This paper describes rapid prototyping in terms of a simulation/prototype bridge and in terms of appropriate language design. The simulation/prototype bridge combines the strengths of simulation and of prototyping, allowing the designer to develop and evaluate next-generation communications systems, partly in simulation on a host computer and partly as a prototype on embedded hardware. Appropriate language design allows designers to express a communications system as a block diagram, in which each block represents an algorithm specified by a set of equations. Software tools developed for this paper implement both concepts, and have been successfully used in the development of a next-generation code division multiple access (CDMA cellular wireless communications system.

  12. Rapid detection of genetic modification for GMO monitoring in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sofija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic technology has expanded the ways of new genetic variability creation. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs are organisms which total genome is altered in a way that could not happen in nature. GM crops recorded a steady increase in its share in agricultural production. However, for the most part, GMO in agriculture has been limited to two cultivars - soy and corn, and the two genetic modifications, the total herbicide resistance and pest of the Lepidoptera genus. In order to monitor cultivation and trade of GMOs, tests of different precision are used, qualitatively and/or quantitatively determining the presence of genetic modification. Tests for the rapid determination of the presence of GM are suitable, since they can be implemented quickly and accurately, in terms of declared sensitivity, outside or in the laboratory. The example of the use of rapid tests demonstrates their value in use for rapid and efficient monitoring.

  13. Rapid Genetic Analysis in Congenital Hyperinsulinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Brusgaard, Klaus; Alm, Jan

    2007-01-01

    with a paternal germline ABCC8 or KCNJ11 mutation and a focal loss of maternal chromosome 11p15, whereas a maternal mutation, or homozygous/compound heterozygous ABCC8 and KCNJ11 mutations predict diffuse-type disease. However, genotyping usually takes too long to be helpful in the absence of a founder mutation....... One patient had a paternal KCNJ11 mutation and focal disease confirmed by positron emission tomography scan and biopsies. One patient had a de novo heterozygous ABBC8 mutation and unexplained diffuse disease confirmed by positron emission tomography scan and biopsies. CONCLUSION: A rapid analysis...

  14. Rapid genetic detection of ingested Amanita phalloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausterer, Christian; Penker, Martina; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Stein, Christina; Stimpfl, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Mushrooms are often poorly digested by humans. Thus, their remains (tissues, spores) may persist in the gastrointestinal tract and can be detected in feces several days after mushroom consumption. In this report, we present protocols for the rapid PCR-based detection of fungal traces in a variety of complex samples. Novel primers were designed to amplify portions of ribosomal DNA from deadly poisonous European members of the genus Amanita, namely the death cap (A. phalloides), the destroying angel (A. virosa) and the fool's mushroom (A. verna), respectively. Assay sensitivity was sufficient to discover diluted DNA traces in amounts below the genomic content of a single target mushroom cell. Specificity testing was performed with DNA extracts from a variety of mushroom species. Template amplification was exclusively observed with intended targets and it was not compromised by a vast excess of non-target DNA (i.e. DNA from human and human fecal origin, respectively). A series of experiments was conducted with prepared specimens in order to follow the course of mushroom food processing and digestion. Amplification by direct PCR was successful with raw, fried and digested mixed mushrooms. To improve assay performance with fecal samples, a rapid protocol for sample pre-processing (including water-ether sedimentation and bead beating) and a modified PCR reaction mix were applied. Thereby, it was possible to detect the presence of A. phalloides DNA in spiked feces as well as in clinical samples (vomit, stool) from two independent cases of suspected mushroom poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Communicating risk in prenatal genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Elena A

    2004-01-01

    Prenatal testing for Down syndrome and neural tube defects has become routine, and testing for other genetic conditions is becoming commonplace. Counseling about these tests involves a discussion of risk information, so pregnant women and their partners can use the information effectively when they make choices about testing. Discussing risk can be challenging, as many individuals, particularly those of lower literacy, have a poor understanding of the numerical concept of risk. Furthermore, whether risk is comprehended accurately or not, it is interpreted by patients in light of their existing knowledge and past experiences. Strategies available to optimize understanding of risk include communication of risk figures as frequencies rather than as probabilities or percentages and explicit discussion of a woman's preconceptions about her risk and about the condition being tested for.

  16. A family genetic risk communication framework: guiding tool development in genetics health services

    OpenAIRE

    Wiens, Miriam E.; Wilson, Brenda J.; Honeywell, Christina; Etchegary, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Family communication of genetic risk information is a complex process. Currently, there are no evidence-based interventions to help genetics professionals facilitate the process of disclosure within families. This study was designed to create a framework to assist in the development of tools to support patients in communicating genetic risk information to family members. A systematic review identified the factors relevant in communicating genetic risk information in families. A guiding theory...

  17. Partial status epilepticus - rapid genetic diagnosis of Alpers' disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCoy, Bláthnaid

    2011-11-01

    We describe four children with a devastating encephalopathy characterised by refractory focal seizures and variable liver dysfunction. We describe their electroencephalographic, radiologic, genetic and pathologic findings. The correct diagnosis was established by rapid gene sequencing. POLG1 based Alpers\\' disease should be considered in any child presenting with partial status epilepticus.

  18. Rapid genetic transformation of sweetpotato ( Ipomoea batatas (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It indicated an auxin to cytokinin treatment could improve the regeneration of transgenic calluses. This rapid organogenesis-based transformation strategy represents an important improvement over existing methods and will facilitate producing large-scale transgenic sweetpotato plants the genetic improvement of a crop ...

  19. Genetics of rapid eye movement sleep in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczyk, M.; Ambrosius, U; Lietzenmaier, S; Wichniak, A; Holsboer, F.; Friess, E

    2015-01-01

    The trait-like nature of electroencephalogram (EEG) is well established. Furthermore, EEG of wake and non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep has been shown to be highly heritable. However, the genetic effects on REM sleep EEG microstructure are as yet unknown. REM sleep is of special interest since animal and human data suggest a connection between REM sleep abnormalities and the pathophysiology of psychiatric and neurological diseases. Here we report the results of a study in monozygotic (MZ...

  20. Controversies in communication of genetic risk for hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Amy; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Bradbury, Angela R

    2009-01-01

    Increased availability and heightened consumer awareness of "cancer genes" has increased consumer interest in, and demand for breast cancer risk assessment, and thus a pressing need for providers to identify effective, efficient methods of communicating complicated genetic information to consumers and their potentially at-risk relatives. With increasing direct-to-consumer and -physician marketing of predictive genetic tests, there has been considerable growth in web- and telephone-based genetic services. There is urgent need to further evaluate the psychosocial and behavioral outcomes (i.e., risks and benefits) of telephone and web-based methods of delivery before they become fully incorporated into clinical care models. Given the implications of genetic test results for family members, and the inherent conflicts in health care providers' dual responsibilities to protect patient privacy and to "warn" those at-risk, new models for communicating risk to at-risk relatives are emerging. Additional controversies arise when the at-risk relative is a minor. Research evaluating the impact of communicating genetic risk to offspring is necessary to inform optimal communication of genetic risk for breast cancer across the lifespan. Better understanding the risks and benefits associated with each of these controversial areas in cancer risk communication are crucial to optimizing adherence to recommended breast cancer risk management strategies and ensuring psycho-social well-being in the clinical delivery of genetic services for breast cancer susceptibility.

  1. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Media Use and Communication Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirzinger, Ashley E.; Weber, Christopher; Johnson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of scholarly work has explored the motivations behind media consumption and other various communication traits. However, little research has investigated the sources of these motivations and virtually no research considers their potential genetic underpinnings. Drawing on the field of behavior genetics, we use a classical twin design…

  2. Communicating the role of genetics in management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary F. Mahalovich

    1997-01-01

    Three current issues serve as examples to convey the role of genetics in management. (1) Consequences of silvicultural systems on the genetic resource of tree species are limited to one generation of study and isozyme (qualitative) data. Results of simulated data for diameter (quantitative data) over several generations, illustrate the pitfalls of working towards...

  3. Communication of genetic information to families with inherited rhythm disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Charlotte; James, Cynthia; Ingles, Jodie

    2017-11-23

    Given the dynamic nature of the electrical activity of the heart and ongoing challenges in the diagnostics of inherited heart rhythm disorders, genetic information can be a vital aspect of family management. Communication of genetic information is complex, and the responsibility to convey this information to the family lies with the proband. Current practice falls short, requiring additional support from the clinician and multidisciplinary team. Communication is a 2-part iterative process, reliant on both the understanding of the probands and their ability to effectively communicate with relatives. With the surge of high-throughput genetic testing, results generated are increasingly complex, making the task of communication more challenging. Here we discuss 3 key issues. First, the probabilistic nature of genetic test results means uncertainty is inherent to the practice. Second, secondary findings may arise. Third, personal preferences, values, and family dynamics also come into play and must be acknowledged when considering how best to support effective communication. Here we provide insight into the challenges and provide practical advice for clinicians to support effective family communication. These strategies include acknowledging and managing genetic uncertainty, genetic counseling and informed consent, and consideration of personal and familial barriers to effective communication. We will explore the potential for developing resources to assist clinicians in providing patients with sufficient knowledge and support to communicate complex information to their at-risk relatives. Specialized multidisciplinary clinics remain the best equipped to manage patients and families with inherited heart rhythm disorders given the need for a high level of information and support. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Communication in genetic counseling: cognitive and emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lee; Kelly, Kimberly M; Reblin, Maija; Latimer, Seth; Roter, Debra

    2011-10-01

    The profession of genetic counseling has received limited guidance from theoretical models in how to communicate complex health information so that clients can actively use the information. In this study of a national sample of 145 genetic counselors conducting sessions with simulated clients, we apply two different approaches for analyzing and describing verbal health communication. The Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS) and linguistic inquiry word count (LIWC) were used to identify evidence of communication behaviors consistent with tenets of the social cognitive processing model (SCPM). These tools revealed descriptive evidence of counselor facilitation of client emotional processing and, to a lesser extent, facilitation of client cognitive processing and understanding. Conversely, descriptive analysis of client communication revealed evidence of cognitive processing, but less affective processing. Second, we assessed whether genetic counselor facilitative communication predicted simulated client responses consistent with the cognitive and emotional processing inherent in SCPM. These analyses revealed that counselor attempts to promote emotional expression and client insight were positively associated with client word usage indicative of expression of negative affect and cognitive processing. This study is the first to our knowledge to apply RIAS and LIWC in tandem and gives us a description of current practices within genetic counseling within a theoretical framework. Additionally, it provides suggestions for education and communication goals to improve providers' responses to patient emotions as well as skills to engender patient understanding and personal meaning-making of complex medical information.

  5. Apocalypse... Now? Molecular epidemiology, predictive genetic tests, and social communication of genetic contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis David Castiel

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the underlying theoretical aspects in the construction of the molecular watershed of epidemiology and the concept of genetic risk, focusing on issues raised by contemporary reality: new technologies, globalization, proliferation of communications strategies, and the dilution of identity matrices. He discusses problems pertaining to the establishment of such new interdisciplinary fields as molecular epidemiology and molecular genetics. Finally, he analyzes the repercussions of the social communication of genetic content, especially as related to predictive genetic tests and cloning of animals, based on triumphal, deterministic metaphors sustaining beliefs relating to the existence and supremacy of concepts such as 'purity', 'essence', and 'unification' of rational, integrated 'I's/egos'.

  6. Communicating Knowledge of Plant Genetic Resources to the Public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windfeldt, Louise

    This thesis analyses how knowledge of plant genetic resources was communicated to the public through demonstration-projects in a governmental grant-scheme, which was part of the EU Rural Development Programme 2007 to 2013. The grant-receivers were museums and other Informal Learning Environments....... Three studies were made using frameworks from educational research, communication theory, and network theory: At first an analysis of the conditions influencing the formulation of the grant-scheme was made, secondly a study of the grant-receivers’ communication was conducted, and finally the cooperation...... between the grant-receivers was analysed. It was found that the potential to disseminate knowledge of plant genetic resources to the public through the grant-scheme was high but limited in scope due to the conditions that made it. With these limits the grant-receivers were successful communicators...

  7. Modified AFLP technique for rapid genetic characterization in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, D G; Kane, M E; Guy, C L; Li, Q B

    2000-10-01

    The standard amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was modified to develop a convenient and reliable technique for rapid genetic characterization of plants. Modifications included (i) using one restriction enzyme, one adapter molecule and primer, (ii) incorporating formamide to generate more intense and uniform bands and (iii) using agarose gel electrophoresis. Sea oats (Uniola paniculata L.), pickerel-weed (Pontederia cordata L.), Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) and Penstemon heterophyllus Lindl. were used to determine the ability to generate adequate resolution power with both self- and cross-pollinated plant species including cultivars, ecotypes and individuals within populations. Reproducibility of bands was higher in all the AFLP experiments compared to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Formamide with or without bovine serum albumin improved band intensities compared to dimethyl sulfoxide and the standard reaction mixture with no organic solvents. Comparison between RAPD and modified AFLP using sea-oats population samples proved that modified AFLP exhibits (i) a low number of faint bands with increased specificity of amplified bands, (ii) a significantly higher number of polymorphic loci per primer, (iii) less primer screening time, (iv) easy scoring associated with fewer faint bands and (v) greatly enhanced reproducibility. The technique described here can be applied with a high degree of accuracy for plant genetic characterization.

  8. De-Problematizing 'GMOs': Suggestions for Communicating about Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Grunewald, Wim; De Jaeger, Geert

    2017-03-01

    The public debates concerning genetic engineering (GE) involve many non-scientific issues. The ensuing complexity is one reason why biotechnologists are reluctant to become involved. By sharing our personal experiences in science communication and suggesting ways to de-problematize GE, we aim to inspire our colleagues to engage with the public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Communication and The Challenges of Rapid Population Growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These factors include religious beliefs, customs and traditions, among others. The discourse also examined the various communication types in Africa and their appropriateness in educating Africans and their governments on the need to control high rate of population growth. Ironically, medical facilities available in African ...

  10. 77 FR 35962 - Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency AGENCY... seeks comment on the role of deployable aerial communications architecture (DACA) in facilitating... eRulemaking Portal, or (3) by filing paper copies. Comments and reply comments may be filed...

  11. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Conducting triangular chambers for EMC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi

    1999-03-01

    Conducting rectangular chambers have been used extensively for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) shielding and measurement applications. In this communication, conducting triangular chambers are investigated as an alternative structure for rectangular EMC reverberation chambers, which are becoming an increasingly important and powerful tool for both radiated immunity and emission tests. A prime consideration of designing such a system is the total possible number of modes inside the chamber. A new approach is introduced to obtain this parameter for three different triangular chambers. The initial study has demonstrated that triangular chambers may offer better performance in some cases than their rectangular counterparts.

  12. Rapid detection of genetic modification for GMO monitoring in agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrović Sofija; Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2015-01-01

    .... However, for the most part, GMO in agriculture has been limited to two cultivars - soy and corn, and the two genetic modifications, the total herbicide resistance and pest of the Lepidoptera genus...

  13. Leveraging rapid community-based hiv testing campaigns for non-communicable diseases in rural uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Chamie; Dalsone Kwarisiima; Clark, Tamara D; Jane Kabami; Vivek Jain; Elvin Geng; Petersen, Maya L; Harsha Thirumurthy; Moses R Kamya; Havlir, Diane V.; Charlebois, Edwin D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The high burden of undiagnosed HIV in sub-Saharan Africa limits treatment and prevention efforts. Community-based HIV testing campaigns can address this challenge and provide an untapped opportunity to identify non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We tested the feasibility and diagnostic yield of integrating NCD and communicable diseases into a rapid HIV testing and referral campaign for all residents of a rural Ugandan parish. Methods A five-day, multi-disease campaign, offering diag...

  14. Transposable elements as agents of rapid adaptation may explain the genetic paradox of invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapley, Jessica; Santure, Anna W; Dennis, Stuart R

    2015-05-01

    Rapid adaptation of invasive species to novel habitats has puzzled evolutionary biologists for decades, especially as this often occurs in the face of limited genetic variability. Although some ecological traits common to invasive species have been identified, little is known about the possible genomic/genetic mechanisms that may underlie their success. A common scenario in many introductions is that small founder population sizes will often lead to reduced genetic diversity, but that invading populations experience large environmental perturbations, such as changes in habitat and environmental stress. Although sudden and intense stress is usually considered in a negative context, these perturbations may actually facilitate rapid adaptation by affecting genome structure, organization and function via interactions with transposable elements (TEs), especially in populations with low genetic diversity. Stress-induced changes in TE activity can alter gene action and can promote structural variation that may facilitate the rapid adaptation observed in new environments. We focus here on the adaptive potential of TEs in relation to invasive species and highlight their role as powerful mutational forces that can rapidly create genetic diversity. We hypothesize that activity of transposable elements can explain rapid adaptation despite low genetic variation (the genetic paradox of invasive species), and provide a framework under which this hypothesis can be tested using recently developed and emerging genomic technologies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Highways block gene flow and cause a rapid decline in genetic diversity of desert bighorn sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epps, CW; Palsboll, PJ; Wehausen, JD; Roderick, GK; Ramey, RR; McCullough, DR

    2005-01-01

    The rapid expansion of road networks has reduced connectivity among populations of flora and fauna. The resulting isolation is assumed to increase population extinction rates, in part because of the loss of genetic diversity. However, there are few cases where loss of genetic diversity has been

  16. Free-space laser communication system with rapid acquisition based on astronomical telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianmin; Lv, Junyi; Zhao, Guang; Wang, Gang

    2015-08-10

    The general structure of a free-space optical (FSO) communication system based on astronomical telescopes is proposed. The light path for astronomical observation and for communication can be easily switched. A separate camera is used as a star sensor to determine the pointing direction of the optical terminal's antenna. The new system exhibits rapid acquisition and is widely applicable in various astronomical telescope systems and wavelengths. We present a detailed analysis of the acquisition time, which can be decreased by one order of magnitude compared with traditional optical communication systems. Furthermore, we verify software algorithms and tracking accuracy.

  17. Decoding Genetic Variations: Communications-Inspired Haplotype Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljiz, Zrinka; Vikalo, Haris

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies allow fast and affordable sequencing of individual genomes and thus enable unprecedented studies of genetic variations. Information about variations in the genome of an individual is provided by haplotypes, ordered collections of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Knowledge of haplotypes is instrumental in finding genes associated with diseases, drug development, and evolutionary studies. Haplotype assembly from high-throughput sequencing data is challenging due to errors and limited lengths of sequencing reads. The key observation made in this paper is that the minimum error-correction formulation of the haplotype assembly problem is identical to the task of deciphering a coded message received over a noisy channel-a classical problem in the mature field of communication theory. Exploiting this connection, we develop novel haplotype assembly schemes that rely on the bit-flipping and belief propagation algorithms often used in communication systems. The latter algorithm is then adapted to the haplotype assembly of polyploids. We demonstrate on both simulated and experimental data that the proposed algorithms compare favorably with state-of-the-art haplotype assembly methods in terms of accuracy, while being scalable and computationally efficient.

  18. Using Multiple Schedules during Functional Communication Training to Promote Rapid Transfer of Treatment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W.; Greer, Brian D.; Fuhrman, Ashley M.; Querim, Angie C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple schedules with signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction have been used to thin reinforcement schedules during functional communication training (FCT) to make the intervention more practical for parents and teachers. We evaluated whether these signals would also facilitate rapid transfer of treatment effects across settings and…

  19. Genetic basis for rapidly evolved tolerance in the wild ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) residing in some urban and industrialized estuaries of the US eastern seaboard demonstrate recently evolved and extreme tolerance to toxic aryl hydrocarbon pollutants, characterized as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Here we provide an unusually comprehensive accounting (69%) through Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis of the genetic basis for DLC tolerance in killifish inhabiting an urban estuary contaminated with PCB congeners, the most toxic of which are DLCs. Consistent with mechanistic knowledge of DLC toxicity in fish and other vertebrates, the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (ahr2) region accounts for 17% of trait variation; however, QTLs on independent linkage groups and their interactions have even greater explanatory power (44%). QTLs interpreted within the context of recently available Fundulus genomic resources and shared synteny among fish species suggest adaptation via inter-acting components of a complex stress response network. Some QTLs were also enriched in other killifish populations characterized as DLC tolerant and residing in distant urban estuaries contaminated with unique mixtures of pollutants. Together, our results suggest that DLC tolerance in killifish represents an emerging example of parallel contemporary evolution that has been driven by intense human-mediated selection on natural populations. This manuscript describes experimental studies that contribute to our understanding of the ecological

  20. The statistics of genetic diversity in rapidly adapting populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Evolutionary adaptation is driven by the accumulation of beneficial mutations, but the sequence-level dynamics of this process are poorly understood. The traditional view is that adaptation is dominated by rare beneficial ``driver'' mutations that occur sporadically and then rapidly increase in frequency until they fix (a ``selective sweep''). Yet in microbial populations, multiple beneficial mutations are often present simultaneously. Selection cannot act on each mutation independently, but only on linked combinations. This means that the fate of any mutation depends on a complex interplay between its own fitness effect, the genomic background in which it arises, and the rest of the sequence variation in the population. The balance between these factors determines which mutations fix, the patterns of sequence diversity within populations, and the degree to which evolution in replicate populations will follow parallel (or divergent) trajectories at the sequence level. Earlier work has uncovered signatures of these effects, but the dynamics of genomic sequence evolution in adapting microbial populations have not yet been directly observed. In this talk, I will describe how full-genome whole-population sequencing can be used to provide a detailed view of these dynamics at high temporal resolution over 1000 generations in 40 adapting Saccharomyces cerevisiaepopulations. This data shows how patterns of sequence evolution are driven by a balance between chance interference and hitchhiking effects, which increase stochastic variation in evolutionary outcomes, and the deterministic action of selection on individual mutations, which favors parallel solutions in replicate populations.

  1. Genetic drift and rapid evolution of viviparity in insular fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velo-Antón, G; Zamudio, K R; Cordero-Rivera, A

    2012-04-01

    Continental islands offer an excellent opportunity to investigate adaptive processes and to time microevolutionary changes that precede macroevolutionary events. We performed a population genetic study of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), a species that displays unique intraspecific diversity of reproductive strategies, to address the microevolutionary processes leading to phenotypic and genetic differentiation of island, coastal and interior populations. We used eight microsatellite markers to estimate genetic diversity, population structure and demographic parameters in viviparous insular populations and ovoviviparous coastal and interior populations. Our results show considerable genetic differentiation (F(ST) range: 0.06-0.27), and no clear signs of gene flow among populations, except between the large and admixed interior populations. We find no support for island colonization by rafting or intentional/accidental anthropogenic introductions, indicating that rising sea levels were responsible for isolation of the island populations approximately 9000 years ago. Our study provides evidence of rapid genetic differentiation between island and coastal populations, and rapid evolution of viviparity driven by climatic selective pressures on island populations, geographic isolation with genetic drift, or a combination of these factors. Studies of these viviparous island populations in early stages of divergence help us better understand the microevolutionary processes involved in rapid phenotypic shifts.

  2. How communication of genetic information within the family is addressed in genetic counselling: a systematic review of research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Álvaro; Paneque, Milena; Sousa, Liliana; Clarke, Angus; Sequeiros, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    Supporting consultands to communicate risk information with their relatives is key to obtaining the full benefits of genetic health care. To understand how health-care professionals address this issue in clinical practice and what interventions are used specifically to assist consultands in their communication of genetic information to appropriate relatives, we conducted a systematic review. Four electronic databases and four subject-specific journals were searched for papers published, in English, between January 1997 and May 2014. Of 2926 papers identified initially, 14 papers met the inclusion criteria for the review and were heterogeneous in design, setting and methods. Thematic data analysis has shown that dissemination of information within families is actively encouraged and supported by professionals. Three overarching themes emerged: (1) direct contact from genetic services: sending letters to relatives of mutation carriers; (2) professionals' encouragement of initially reluctant consultands to share relevant information with at-risk relatives and (3) assisting consultands in communicating genetic information to their at-risk relatives, which included as subthemes (i) psychoeducational guidance and (ii) written information aids. Findings suggest that professionals' practice and interventions are predicated on the need to proactively encourage family communication. We discuss this in the context of what guidance of consultands by professionals might be appropriate, as best practices to facilitate family communication, and of the limits to non-directiveness in genetic counselling.

  3. Genetics of schizophrenia: communicating scientific findings in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent new findings regarding the new genetic frontier, Copy Number Variations (CNV), are summarized and the genetic architecture of familial and sporadic schizophrenia applicable to the clinical situation is reviewed. A scenario in which genetic testing could be applied in velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) type ...

  4. Using rapid assessment and response to operationalise physical activity strategic health communication campaigns in Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Latu, Netina; Cocker-Palu, Elizabeth; Liavaa, Villiami; Vivili, Paul; Gloede, Sara; Simons, Allison

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify stakeholder and program beneficiary needs and wants in relation to a netball communication strategy in Tonga. In addition, the study aimed to more clearly identify audience segments for targeting of communication campaigns and to identify any barriers or benefits to engaging in the physical activity program. A rapid assessment and response (RAR) methodology was used. The elicitation research encompassed qualitative fieldwork approaches, including semistructured interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries. Desk research of secondary data sources supported in-field findings. A number of potential barriers to behavioural compliance existed, including cultural factors, gender discrimination, socioeconomic factors, stigmatising attitudes, the threat of domestic violence, infrastructure and training issues. Factors contributing to participation in physical activity included the fun and social aspects of the sport, incentives (including career opportunities, highlighting the health benefits of the activity and the provision of religious and cultural sanctions by local leaders towards the increased physical activity of women. The consultative approach of RAR provided a more in-depth understanding of the need for greater levels of physical activity and opportunities for engagement by all stakeholders. The approach facilitated opportunities for the proposed health behaviours to be realised through the communication strategy. Essential insights for the strategy design were identified from key informants, as well as ensuring future engagement of these stakeholders into the strategy. So what? The expanded use of RAR to inform the design of social marketing interventions is a practical approach to data collection for non-communicable diseases and other health issues in developing countries. The approach allows for the rapid mobilisation of scarce resources for the implementation of more

  5. Communication and general concern criterion prior to activation of the rapid response team: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martland, Jarrad; Chamberlain, Diane; Hutton, Alison; Smigielski, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Objective Patients commonly show signs and symptoms of deterioration for hours or days before cardiorespiratory arrest. Rapid response teams (RRT) were created to improve recognition and response to patient deterioration in these situations. Activation criteria include vital signs or 'general concern' by a clinician or family member. The general concern criterion for RRT activation accounts for nearly one-third of all RRT activity, and although it is well established that communication deficits between staff can contribute to poorer outcomes for patients, there is little evidence pertaining to communication and its effects on the general concern RRT activation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a substantive grounded theory related to the communication process between clinicians that preceded the activation of an RRT when general concern criterion was used. Methods Qualitative grounded theory involved collection of three types of data details namely personal notes from participants in focus groups with white board notes from discussions and audio recordings of the focus groups sessions. Focus groups were conducted with participants exploring issues associated with clinician communication and how it related to the activation of an RRT using the general concern criterion. Results The three main phases of coding (i.e. open, axial and selective coding) analysis identified 322 separate open codes. The strongest theme contributed to a theory of ineffective communication and decreased psychological safety, namely that 'In the absence of effective communication there is a subsequent increase in anxiety, fear or concern that can be directly attributed to the activation of an RRT using the 'general concern' criterion'. The RRT filled cultural and process deficiencies in the compliance with an escalation protocol. Issues such as 'not for resuscitation documentation' and 'inability to establish communication with and between medical or nursing personnel' rated

  6. Teaching Human Genetics with Mustard: Rapid Cycling "Brassica rapa" (Fast Plants Type) as a Model for Human Genetics in the Classroom Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Douglas L.; Pickard, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    We have developed experiments and materials to model human genetics using rapid cycling "Brassica rapa", also known as Fast Plants. Because of their self-incompatibility for pollination and the genetic diversity within strains, "B. rapa" can serve as a relevant model for human genetics in teaching laboratory experiments. The experiment presented…

  7. Rapid genetic diversification within dog breeds as evidenced by a case study on Schnauzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitberger, K; Schweizer, M; Kropatsch, R; Dekomien, G; Distl, O; Fischer, M S; Epplen, J T; Hertwig, S T

    2012-10-01

    As a result of strong artificial selection, the domesticated dog has arguably become one of the most morphologically diverse vertebrate species, which is mirrored in the classification of around 400 different breeds. To test the influence of breeding history on the genetic structure and variability of today's dog breeds, we investigated 12 dog breeds using a set of 19 microsatellite markers from a total of 597 individuals with about 50 individuals analysed per breed. High genetic diversity was noted over all breeds, with the ancient Asian breeds (Akita, Chow Chow, Shar Pei) exhibiting the highest variability, as was indicated chiefly by an extraordinarily high number of rare and private alleles. Using a Bayesian clustering method, we detected significant genetic stratification within the closely related Schnauzer breeds. The individuals of these three recently differentiated breeds (Miniature, Standard and Giant Schnauzer) could not be assigned to a single cluster each. This hidden genetic structure was probably caused by assortative mating owing to breeders' preferences regarding coat colour types and the underlying practice of breeding in separate lineages. Such processes of strong artificial disruptive selection for different morphological traits in isolated and relatively small lineages can result in the rapid creation of new dog types and potentially new breeds and represent a unique opportunity to study the evolution of genetic and morphological differences in recently diverged populations. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  8. Rapid changes in genetic architecture of behavioural syndromes following colonization of a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson Green, K; Eroukhmanoff, F; Harris, S; Pettersson, L B; Svensson, E I

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural syndromes, that is correlated behaviours, may be a result from adaptive correlational selection, but in a new environmental setting, the trait correlation might act as an evolutionary constraint. However, knowledge about the quantitative genetic basis of behavioural syndromes, and the stability and evolvability of genetic correlations under different ecological conditions, is limited. We investigated the quantitative genetic basis of correlated behaviours in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. In some Swedish lakes, A. aquaticus has recently colonized a novel habitat and diverged into two ecotypes, presumably due to habitat-specific selection from predation. Using a common garden approach and animal model analyses, we estimated quantitative genetic parameters for behavioural traits and compared the genetic architecture between the ecotypes. We report that the genetic covariance structure of the behavioural traits has been altered in the novel ecotype, demonstrating divergence in behavioural correlations. Thus, our study confirms that genetic correlations behind behaviours can change rapidly in response to novel selective environments. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. MANAGING RAPID DIFFUSION: THE CASE OF CELLULAR COMMUNICATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Buys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: TSouth Africa has experienced extraordinarily rapid growth in the cellular communications industry, with subscriber numbers growing from zero to 5,3 million in the first six years since its introduction in 1994. Research was conducted to investigate the way in which the industry managed this rapid diffusion. The study highlighted the way in which the diffusion of cellular communication was managed, particularly through networks and linkages between hardware suppliers, network operators and service providers. The study has found that industry cooperation is the most important factor that drives rapid diffusion of new technology in a non-integrated industry such as the cellular communications industry in South Africa. The findings of this single-case study support propositions based on the innovation network theory.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suid-Afrika het buitengewoon vinnige groei in die sellulêre kommunikasiebedryf ervaar, en intekenaarsyfers het van nul tot 5,3 miljoen in die eerste ses jaar sedert die bekendstelling daarvan in 1994 opgeskiet. Navorsing om vas te stel op watter wyse die bedryf hierdie snelle verspreiding bestuur het is, gedoen. Die studie het gekonsentreer op die manier waarop die verspreiding van sellulêre kommunikasie bestuur is, veral deur middel van netwerke en skakeling tussen apparatuurverskaffers, netwerkoperateurs en diensverskaffers. Die studie het bevind dat industriesamewerking die belangrikste faktor is wat vinnige verspreiding van nuwe tegnologie dryf in ʼn nie-geintegreerde nywerheid soos die sellulêre kommunikasiebedryf in Suid-Afrika. Die bevindinge van hierdie enkel-gevalstudie ondersteun proposisies gebaseer op die innovasie-netwerkteorie.

  10. Short communication : Genetic association between schizophrenia and cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, C.J.H.; Abdellaoui, A.; Nivard, Michel G; Sainz Cort, Alberto; Ligthart, R.S.L.; Draisma, Harmen H M; Minica, C.C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Previous studies have shown a relationship between schizophrenia and cannabis use. As both traits are substantially heritable, a shared genetic liability could explain the association. We use two recently developed genomics methods to investigate the genetic overlap between

  11. Short communication: Genetic association between schizophrenia and cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Abdellaoui, A.; Nivard, M.G.; Sainz Cort, A.; Ligthart, R.S.L.; Draisma, H.H.M.; Minica, C.C.; Gillespie, N.A.; Willemsen, G.; Hottenga, J.J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Vink, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim: Previous studies have shown a relationship between schizophrenia and cannabis use. As both traits are substantially heritable, a shared genetic liability could explain the association. We use two recently developed genomics methods to investigate the genetic overlap between

  12. Ethical and Social Implications of Genetic Testing for Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnos, Kathleen S.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in genetics and genomics have quickly led to clinical applications to human health which have far-reaching consequences at the individual and societal levels. These new technologies have allowed a better understanding of the genetic factors involved in a wide range of disorders. During the past decade, incredible progress has been made in…

  13. Genetics of schizophrenia: communicating scientific findings in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having a family history of the disorder is currently the best predictor for the development of several disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Does our current state of knowledge regarding the genetics of schizophrenia support the clinical application of this knowledge in the form of genetic counselling?

  14. Examining the Nexus of Science Communication and Science Education: A Content Analysis of Genetics News Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicole A.

    2015-01-01

    Access to science information via communications in the media is rapidly becoming a central means for the public to gain knowledge about scientific advancements. However, little is known about what content knowledge is essential for understanding issues presented in news media. Very few empirical studies attempt to bridge science communication and…

  15. A convenient and rapid method for genetic transformation of E. coli with plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Guo, P; Xie, Z; Shen, P

    2001-12-01

    A convenient and rapid method for the genetic transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids is proposed. By mixing the recipient cells and plasmid DNA and spreading them directly on selective medium plates containing Ca2+, the so-called 'plate transformation' could achieve almost the same transformation efficiency as the classical transformation method with calcium. The whole protocol takes only about 2 min, its simplicity compared favorably, not only to the usual protocol, but also to all other documented modifications.

  16. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods

    OpenAIRE

    Nelly eDatukishvili; Tamara eKutateladze; Inga eGabriadze; Kakha eBitskinashvili; Boris eVishnepolsky

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of C...

  17. Rapid and liquid-based selection of genetic switches using nucleoside kinase fused with aminoglycoside phosphotransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Tominaga

    Full Text Available The evolutionary design of genetic switches and circuits requires iterative rounds of positive (ON- and negative (OFF- selection. We previously reported a rapid OFF selection system based on the kinase activity of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (hsvTK on the artificial mutator nucleoside dP. By fusing hsvTK with the kanamycin resistance marker aminoglycoside-(3'-phosphotransferase (APH, we established a novel selector system for genetic switches. Due to the bactericidal nature of kanamycin and nucleoside-based lethal mutagenesis, both positive and negative selection could be completed within several hours. Using this new selector system, we isolated a series of homoserine lactone-inducible genetic switches with different expression efficiencies from libraries of the Vibrio fischeri lux promoter in two days, using only liquid handling.

  18. Short communication Population structure and genetic trends for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-05-23

    Carolino & Gama, 2008;. Oltenacu & Broom, 2010). The loss of genetic diversity due to increased inbreeding within cattle breeds has been reported to have negative effects on some production and fitness traits in dairy (Oltenacu ...

  19. Outcomes of a randomised controlled trial of a complex genetic counselling intervention to improve family communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jan; Metcalfe, Sylvia; Gaff, Clara; Donath, Susan; Delatycki, Martin B; Winship, Ingrid; Skene, Loane; Aitken, MaryAnne; Halliday, Jane

    2016-03-01

    When an inherited genetic condition is diagnosed in an individual it has implications for other family members. Privacy legislation and ethical considerations can restrict health professionals from communicating directly with other family members, and so it is frequently the responsibility of the first person in a family to receive the diagnosis (the proband) to share this news. Communication of genetic information is challenging and many at-risk family members remain unaware of important information that may be relevant to their or their children's health. We conducted a randomised controlled trial in six public hospitals to assess whether a specifically designed telephone counselling intervention improved family communication about a new genetic diagnosis. Ninety-five probands/parents of probands were recruited from genetics clinics and randomised to the intervention or control group. The primary outcome measure was the difference between the proportion of at-risk relatives who contacted genetics services for information and/or genetic testing. Audit of the family genetic file after 18 months revealed that 25.6% of intervention group relatives compared with 20.9% of control group relatives made contact with genetic services (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval 0.70-2.42, P=0.40). Although no major difference was detected overall between the intervention and control groups, there was more contact in the intervention group where the genetic condition conferred a high risk to offspring (adjusted OR 24.0, 95% confidence interval 3.4-168.5, P=0.001). The increasing sophistication and scope of genetic testing makes it imperative for health professionals to consider additional ways of supporting families in communicating genetic information.

  20. Effectiveness of public health messaging and communication channels during smoke events: A rapid systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jennifer A; Peters, Micah D J; Ramsey, Imogen; Sharplin, Greg; Corsini, Nadia; Eckert, Marion

    2017-05-15

    Exposure to smoke emitted from wildfire and planned burns (i.e., smoke events) has been associated with numerous negative health outcomes, including respiratory symptoms and conditions. This rapid review investigates recent evidence (post-2009) regarding the effectiveness of public health messaging during smoke events. The objectives were to determine the effectiveness of various communication channels used and public health messages disseminated during smoke events, for general and at-risk populations. A search of 12 databases and grey literature yielded 1775 unique articles, of which 10 were included in this review. Principal results were: 1) Smoke-related public health messages are communicated via a variety of channels, but limited evidence is available regarding their effectiveness for the general public or at-risk groups. 2) Messages that use simple language are more commonly recalled, understood, and complied with. Compliance differs according to socio-demographic characteristics. 3) At-risk groups may be advised to stay indoors before the general population, in order to protect the most vulnerable people in a community. The research included in this review was observational and predominantly descriptive, and is therefore unable to sufficiently answer questions regarding effectiveness. Experimental research, as well as evaluations, are required to examine the effectiveness of modern communication channels, channels to reach at-risk groups, and the 'stay indoors' message. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Research on formation of microsatellite communication with genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoqiang; Bai, Yuguang; Sun, Zhaowei

    2013-01-01

    For the formation of three microsatellites which fly in the same orbit and perform three-dimensional solid mapping for terra, this paper proposes an optimizing design method of space circular formation order based on improved generic algorithm and provides an intersatellite direct spread spectrum communication system. The calculating equation of LEO formation flying satellite intersatellite links is guided by the special requirements of formation-flying microsatellite intersatellite links, and the transmitter power is also confirmed throughout the simulation. The method of space circular formation order optimizing design based on improved generic algorithm is given, and it can keep formation order steady for a long time under various absorb impetus. The intersatellite direct spread spectrum communication system is also provided. It can be found that, when the distance is 1 km and the data rate is 1 Mbps, the input wave matches preferably with the output wave. And LDPC code can improve the communication performance. The correct capability of (512, 256) LDPC code is better than (2, 1, 7) convolution code, distinctively. The design system can satisfy the communication requirements of microsatellites. So, the presented method provides a significant theory foundation for formation-flying and intersatellite communication.

  2. Molecular investigation of genetic assimilation during the rapid adaptive radiations of East African cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M; Schneider, Ralf F; Karner, Immanuel; Sturmbauer, Christian; Meyer, Axel

    2017-12-01

    Adaptive radiations are characterized by adaptive diversification intertwined with rapid speciation within a lineage resulting in many ecologically specialized, phenotypically diverse species. It has been proposed that adaptive radiations can originate from ancestral lineages with pronounced phenotypic plasticity in adaptive traits, facilitating ecologically driven phenotypic diversification that is ultimately fixed through genetic assimilation of gene regulatory regions. This study aimed to investigate how phenotypic plasticity is reflected in gene expression patterns in the trophic apparatus of several lineages of East African cichlid fishes, and whether the observed patterns support genetic assimilation. This investigation used a split brood experimental design to compare adaptive plasticity in species from within and outside of adaptive radiations. The plastic response was induced in the crushing pharyngeal jaws through feeding individuals either a hard or soft diet. We find that nonradiating, basal lineages show higher levels of adaptive morphological plasticity than the derived, radiated lineages, suggesting that these differences have become partially genetically fixed during the formation of the adaptive radiations. Two candidate genes that may have undergone genetic assimilation, gif and alas1, were identified, in addition to alterations in the wiring of LPJ patterning networks. Taken together, our results suggest that genetic assimilation may have dampened the inducibility of plasticity related genes during the adaptive radiations of East African cichlids, flattening the reaction norms and canalizing their feeding phenotypes, driving adaptation to progressively more narrow ecological niches. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Short communication: Genetic association between schizophrenia and cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Karin J H; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Nivard, Michel G; Sainz Cort, Alberto; Ligthart, Lannie; Draisma, Harmen H M; Minică, Camelia C; Gillespie, Nathan A; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Boomsma, Dorret I; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between schizophrenia and cannabis use. As both traits are substantially heritable, a shared genetic liability could explain the association. We use two recently developed genomics methods to investigate the genetic overlap between schizophrenia and cannabis use. Firstly, polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia were created based on summary statistics from the largest schizophrenia genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis to date. We analysed the association between these schizophrenia polygenic scores and multiple cannabis use phenotypes (lifetime use, regular use, age at initiation, and quantity and frequency of use) in a sample of 6,931 individuals. Secondly, we applied LD-score regression to the GWA summary statistics of schizophrenia and lifetime cannabis use to calculate the genome-wide genetic correlation. Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia were significantly (αcannabis use phenotypes, including lifetime use, regular use, and quantity of use, with risk scores explaining up to 0.5% of the variance. Associations were not significant for age at initiation of use and two measures of frequency of use analyzed in lifetime users only, potentially because of reduced power due to a smaller sample size. The LD-score regression revealed a significant genetic correlation of rg=0.22 (SE=0.07, p=0.003) between schizophrenia and lifetime cannabis use. Common genetic variants underlying schizophrenia and lifetime cannabis use are partly overlapping. Individuals with a stronger genetic predisposition to schizophrenia are more likely to initiate cannabis use, use cannabis more regularly, and consume more cannabis over their lifetime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Short communication Evaluation of genetic trends for traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RamatsomaN

    2014-03-27

    Mar 27, 2014 ... past two or three decades, have aided selection decisions. This has been ... evaluations for these traits and the noted potential for selection to implement favourable genetic trends, development of ... contrast, the annual trend for milk yield EBV of Brazilian Holsteins estimated from an animal model was 9.25.

  5. Short communication Population structure and genetic trends for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-05-23

    May 23, 2016 ... Population structure and genetic trends for indigenous African beef cattle breeds in South Africa ... and performance records of five indigenous African beef cattle breeds (Afrikaner, Boran, Drakensberger,. Nguni and Tuli) in ..... circumference and semen characteristics of Line 1 Hereford bulls. J. Anim. Sci.

  6. Genetic testing for Lynch syndrome: family communication and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.M. Leenen (Celine); M.D. Heijer (Mariska den); C.A. van der Meer (Conny); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M.E. van Leerdam (Monique); A. Wagner (Anja)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCurrent genetic counselling practice for Lynch syndrome (LS) relies on diagnosed index patients to inform their biological family about LS, referred to as the family-mediated approach. The objective of this study was to evaluate this approach and to identify factors influencing the

  7. Sex reversal triggers the rapid transition from genetic to temperature-dependent sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleley, Clare E; O'Meally, Denis; Sarre, Stephen D; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Ezaz, Tariq; Matsubara, Kazumi; Azad, Bhumika; Zhang, Xiuwen; Georges, Arthur

    2015-07-02

    Sex determination in animals is amazingly plastic. Vertebrates display contrasting strategies ranging from complete genetic control of sex (genotypic sex determination) to environmentally determined sex (for example, temperature-dependent sex determination). Phylogenetic analyses suggest frequent evolutionary transitions between genotypic and temperature-dependent sex determination in environmentally sensitive lineages, including reptiles. These transitions are thought to involve a genotypic system becoming sensitive to temperature, with sex determined by gene-environment interactions. Most mechanistic models of transitions invoke a role for sex reversal. Sex reversal has not yet been demonstrated in nature for any amniote, although it occurs in fish and rarely in amphibians. Here we make the first report of reptile sex reversal in the wild, in the Australian bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and use sex-reversed animals to experimentally induce a rapid transition from genotypic to temperature-dependent sex determination. Controlled mating of normal males to sex-reversed females produces viable and fertile offspring whose phenotypic sex is determined solely by temperature (temperature-dependent sex determination). The W sex chromosome is eliminated from this lineage in the first generation. The instantaneous creation of a lineage of ZZ temperature-sensitive animals reveals a novel, climate-induced pathway for the rapid transition between genetic and temperature-dependent sex determination, and adds to concern about adaptation to rapid global climate change.

  8. Development of a communication aid for explaining hypertrophic cardiomyopathy genetic test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagarinsky, Yana; Burns, Charlotte; Spinks, Catherine; Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie

    2017-01-01

    Large gene panels are now commonplace for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), increasing the yield of uncertain genetic findings. Few resources exist which aim to facilitate communication of HCM genetic test results. We sought to develop, pilot, and refine a communication aid for probands receiving HCM genetic test results. Development was a multi-step process involving expertise of a multidisciplinary team, literature review, and empirical experience. The aid went through an iterative revision process throughout the piloting phase to incorporate feedback. HCM probands attending a specialized multidisciplinary HCM clinic, aged ≥ 18 years and genetic test results available for disclosure between May and August 2016, or recently received their gene results (January-April 2015) were eligible. A purposive sampling strategy was employed, recruiting those attending clinic during the study period or those who could attend without difficulty. We developed and pilot tested a genetic counsellor-led communication aid. Based on clinical expertise, the aid addresses (a) what genetic testing is, (b) implications for the patient, (c) reasoning for variant classification, and (d) implications for the family. Pilot data were sought to assess knowledge, feasibility, and acceptability using a self-report survey 2 weeks post-intervention. Twelve of 13 participants completed the follow-up questionnaire. Participants valued the individualised nature of the aid, recommended use of the aid, and indicated genetic knowledge, and family communication was better facilitated. Iterative modification of images helped to more simply depict important genetic concepts. We have developed a tool that is feasible, acceptable, and helpful to patients receiving genetic results. This is an important first step, and trial of the aid to assess effectiveness compared to usual care will follow.

  9. Communication and technology in genetic counseling for familial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, H T; Snyder, C; Stacey, M; Olson, B; Peterson, S K; Buxbaum, S; Shaw, T; Lynch, P M

    2014-03-01

    When a cancer predisposing germline mutation is detected in an index case, the presence of the underlying syndrome is confirmed and the potential for predictive testing of at-risk relatives is established. However, the reporting of a positive family history does not routinely lead to communication of information about risk to close, much less distant relatives. This review summarizes information technology utilized to address penetration or 'reach' of knowledge of risk within extended families, including the use of telephone and video counseling to reach distant patients, and anticipate novel internet-based processes for communication between investigators and relatives. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Attitudes of medical genetics practitioners and psychiatrists toward communicating with patients about genetic risk for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi Zhou; Wilde, Alex; Meiser, Bettina; Mitchell, Philip B; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Schofield, Peter R

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the self-rated competencies and perceived roles of medical geneticists, genetic counselors, and psychiatrists in the communication of genetic risk for psychiatric disorders to patients and families at an increased risk for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder, and their perspectives on training needs in this field. Clinically active members of the Human Genetics Society of Australasia (HGSA) and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP) were invited to complete the online survey. A total of 157 responses were included in data analysis: 17 medical geneticists, 36 genetics counselors, and 104 psychiatrists. In all, 34.4% of the respondents disagreed that their professional training had prepared them to discuss genetic information about psychiatric illnesses with patients. Medical geneticists perceived significantly higher levels of self-rated competency to discuss with patients and families genetic information on psychiatric disorders compared with genetic counselors and psychiatrists (t=-0.61, P=0.001; β=0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.49, Pgenetic risk information to patients, suggesting that specialist programs are needed to better support health professionals. As self-rated competencies differed among the professional groups, training programs need to be tailored to participants' professional backgrounds.

  11. The Genetic Basis of Thought Disorder and Language and Communication Disturbances in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Deborah L; Coleman, Michael J; Sung, Heejong; Ji, Fei; Matthysse, Steven; Mendell, Nancy R; Titone, Debra

    2010-05-01

    Thought disorder as well as language and communication disturbances are associated with schizophrenia and are over-represented in clinically unaffected relatives of schizophrenics. All three kinds of dysfunction involve some element of deviant verbalizations, most notably, semantic anomalies. Of particular importance, thought disorder characterized primarily by deviant verbalizations has a higher recurrence in relatives of schizophrenic patients than schizophrenia itself. These findings suggest that deviant verbalizations may be more penetrant expressions of schizophrenia susceptibility genes than schizophrenia. This paper reviews the evidence documenting the presence of thought, language and communication disorders in schizophrenic patients and in their first-degree relatives. This familial aggregation potentially implicates genetic factors in the etiology of thought disorder, language anomalies, and communication disturbances in schizophrenia families. We also present two examples of ways in which thought, language and communication disorders can enrich genetic studies, including those involving schizophrenia.

  12. Sustaining global agriculture through rapid detection and deployment of genetic resistance to deadly crop diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyannan, Sambasivam

    2017-12-04

    Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: Genetically encoded resistance is a major component of crop disease management. Historically, gene loci conferring resistance to pathogens have been identified through classical genetic methods. In recent years, accelerated gene cloning strategies have become available through advances in sequencing, gene capture and strategies for reducing genome complexity. Here, I describe these approaches with key emphasis on the isolation of resistance genes to the cereal crop diseases that are an ongoing threat to global food security. Rapid gene isolation enables their efficient deployment through marker-assisted selection and transgenic technology. Together with innovations in genome editing and progress in pathogen virulence studies, this creates further opportunities to engineer long-lasting resistance. These approaches will speed progress towards a future of farming using fewer pesticides. © 2017 Commonwealth of Australia. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. How scary! An analysis of visual communication concerning genetically modified organisms in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Vera; Frisio, Dario G; Ferrazzi, Giovanni; Siletti, Elena

    2017-07-01

    Several studies provide evidence of the role of written communication in influencing public perception towards genetically modified organisms, whereas visual communication has been sparsely investigated. This article aims to evaluate the exposure of the Italian population to scary genetically modified organism-related images. A set of 517 images collected through Google are classified considering fearful attributes, and an index that accounts for the scary impact of these images is built. Then, through an ordinary least-squares regression, we estimate the relationship between the Scary Impact Index and a set of variables that describes the context in which the images appear. The results reveal that the first (and most viewed) Google result images contain the most frightful contents. In addition, the agri-food sector in Italy is strongly oriented towards offering a negative representation of genetically modified organisms. Exposure to scary images could be a factor that affects the negative perception of genetically modified organisms in Italy.

  14. Development of a communication protocol for telephone disclosure of genetic test results for cancer predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick-Miller, Linda J; Egleston, Brian L; Fetzer, Dominique; Forman, Andrea; Bealin, Lisa; Rybak, Christina; Peterson, Candace; Corbman, Melanie; Albarracin, Julio; Stevens, Evelyn; Daly, Mary B; Bradbury, Angela R

    2014-10-29

    Dissemination of genetic testing for disease susceptibility, one application of "personalized medicine", holds the potential to empower patients and providers through informed risk reduction and prevention recommendations. Genetic testing has become a standard practice in cancer prevention for high-risk populations. Heightened consumer awareness of "cancer genes" and genes for other diseases (eg, cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease), as well as the burgeoning availability of increasingly complex genomic tests (ie, multi-gene, whole-exome and -genome sequencing), has escalated interest in and demand for genetic risk assessment and the specialists who provide it. Increasing demand is expected to surpass access to genetic specialists. Thus, there is urgent need to develop effective and efficient models of delivery of genetic information that comparably balance the risks and benefits to the current standard of in-person communication. The aim of this pilot study was to develop and evaluate a theoretically grounded and rigorously developed protocol for telephone communication of BRCA1/2 (breast cancer) test results that might be generalizable to genetic testing for other hereditary cancer and noncancer syndromes. Stakeholder data, health communication literature, and our theoretical model grounded in Self-Regulation Theory of Health Behavior were used to develop a telephone communication protocol for the communication of BRCA1/2 genetic test results. Framework analysis of selected audiotapes of disclosure sessions and stakeholders' feedback were utilized to evaluate the efficacy and inform refinements to this protocol. Stakeholder feedback (n=86) and audiotapes (38%, 33/86) of telephone disclosures revealed perceived disadvantages and challenges including environmental factors (eg, non-private environment), patient-related factors (eg, low health literacy), testing-related factors (eg, additional testing needed), and communication factors (eg, no visual cues

  15. Leveraging rapid community-based HIV testing campaigns for non-communicable diseases in rural Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Chamie

    Full Text Available The high burden of undiagnosed HIV in sub-Saharan Africa limits treatment and prevention efforts. Community-based HIV testing campaigns can address this challenge and provide an untapped opportunity to identify non-communicable diseases (NCDs. We tested the feasibility and diagnostic yield of integrating NCD and communicable diseases into a rapid HIV testing and referral campaign for all residents of a rural Ugandan parish.A five-day, multi-disease campaign, offering diagnostic, preventive, treatment and referral services, was performed in May 2011. Services included point-of-care screening for HIV, malaria, TB, hypertension and diabetes. Finger-prick diagnostics eliminated the need for phlebotomy. HIV-infected adults met clinic staff and peer counselors on-site; those with CD4 ≤ 100/µL underwent intensive counseling and rapid referral for antiretroviral therapy (ART. Community participation, case-finding yield, and linkage to care three months post-campaign were analyzed.Of 6,300 residents, 2,323/3,150 (74% adults and 2,020/3,150 (69% children participated. An estimated 95% and 52% of adult female and male residents participated respectively. Adult HIV prevalence was 7.8%, with 46% of HIV-infected adults newly diagnosed. Thirty-nine percent of new HIV diagnoses linked to care. In a pilot subgroup with CD4 ≤ 100, 83% linked and started ART within 10 days. Malaria was identified in 10% of children, and hypertension and diabetes in 28% and 3.5% of adults screened, respectively. Sixty-five percent of hypertensives and 23% of diabetics were new diagnoses, of which 43% and 61% linked to care, respectively. Screening identified suspected TB in 87% of HIV-infected and 19% of HIV-uninfected adults; 52% percent of HIV-uninfected TB suspects linked to care.In an integrated campaign engaging 74% of adult residents, we identified a high burden of undiagnosed HIV, hypertension and diabetes. Improving male attendance and optimizing linkage to care

  16. The Climate Science Rapid Response Team - A Model for Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandia, S. A.; Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Ashley, M.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, there have been many independent initiatives which have commenced with the goal of improving communication between scientists and the larger public. These initiatives have often been motivated by the recognition that concerns amongst scientists related to the pending threats of climate change are not universally shared by the general public. Multiple studies have conclusively demonstrated that while the vast majority of climate scientists are in broad agreement that human-emitted greenhouse gases are causing increases in the Earth's temperature, the larger public is divided. Often, this divide mirrors divides on other political, societal, economic, or scientific issues. One unique approach to improve the conveyance of the state of climate-change science to the public is reflected by a self-organized effort of scientists themselves. This approach has lead to the formation of the Climate Science Rapid Response Team (CSRRT). The mission of this organization is to provide accurate and rapid information on any climate-science topic to general media and governmental inquirers. The CSRRT currently consists of approximately 135 world-class climate scientists whose members cover the sub-disciplines of climate change and include not only the natural sciences but also economics and policy. Since its formation, the CSRRT has fielded approximately four inquires each week from institutions that include The Associated Press, ABC, CBS, CNN, BBC, New York Times, Time of London, National Public Radio, The Guardian, The Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and the U.S. Congress, among others. Members of the CSRRT have been asked to provide quotations for news stories; they have also been asked to give radio, television, or print-media interviews. Some members of the CSRRT have undergone media training to help encourage the use of jargon-free language so that clear communication with the broader public can be more successful. The response from

  17. Rapid evolution of the intersexual genetic correlation for fitness in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Julie M.; Fuentes, Sara; Hesketh, Jack; Hill, Mark S.; Innocenti, Paolo; Morrow, Edward H.; Fowler, Kevin; Reuter, Max

    2016-01-01

    Sexual antagonism (SA) arises when male and female phenotypes are under opposing selection, yet genetically correlated. Until resolved, antagonism limits evolution toward optimal sex‐specific phenotypes. Despite its importance for sex‐specific adaptation and existing theory, the dynamics of SA resolution are not well understood empirically. Here, we present data from Drosophila melanogaster, compatible with a resolution of SA. We compared two independent replicates of the “LHM” population in which SA had previously been described. Both had been maintained under identical, controlled conditions, and separated for around 200 generations. Although heritabilities of male and female fitness were similar, the intersexual genetic correlation differed significantly, being negative in one replicate (indicating SA) but close to zero in the other. Using population sequencing, we show that phenotypic differences were associated with population divergence in allele frequencies at nonrandom loci across the genome. Large frequency changes were more prevalent in the population without SA and were enriched at loci mapping to genes previously shown to have sexually antagonistic relationships between expression and fitness. Our data suggest that rapid evolution toward SA resolution has occurred in one of the populations and open avenues toward studying the genetics of SA and its resolution. PMID:27077679

  18. Development of FOCUS-GC: Framework for Outcomes of Clinical Communication Services in Genetic Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragun, Deborah; Zierhut, Heather

    2017-10-12

    Conceptual frameworks bring together existing theories and models in order to identify, consolidate, and fill in gaps between theory, practice, and evidence. Given the vast number of possible outcomes that could be studied in genetic counseling, a framework for organizing outcomes and postulating relationships between communication services and genetic counseling outcomes was sought. Through an iterative approach involving literature review, thematic analysis, and consolidation, outcomes and processes were categorized to create and define components of a conceptual framework. The final product, "Framework for Outcomes of Clinical commUnication Services" (FOCUS) contains the following domains: communication strategy; communication process measures; patient care experience, patient changes, patient health; and family changes. A website was created to allow easier access and ongoing modifications to the framework. In addition, a step-by-step guide and two examples were created to show flexibility in how the framework can be used. FOCUS may help in conceptualizing, organizing and summarizing outcomes research related to risk communication and counseling in genetic service delivery as well as other healthcare settings.

  19. Adoption and the communication of genetic risk: experiences in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Y; Semaka, A; Hayden, M R

    2012-01-01

    Adoption agencies can use genetic information to determine the eligibility of prospective adoptive parents and to establish a child's suitability for adoption. We describe experiences and implications of communicating genetic risk for Huntington disease (HD) in the context of adoption. A secondary analysis was employed using data collected from a cross-sectional survey (n = 233) and two qualitative studies on the psychosocial effects of predictive testing for HD. We demonstrate several ethical and practical challenges in the search for and communication of genetic information for adoptees and their birth relatives. We also found that concern for adoption discrimination was reported by 13.7% of survey respondents (n = 32). Concerns were higher among tested respondents than those who had not been tested (n = 29 vs n = 3, p = 0.010). However, more respondents were concerned about being discriminated based on their family history (FHx) vs their genetic test results (GTR) (concern based on FHx: n = 18 vs based on GTR: n = 1 vs based on both: n =10). These findings contribute to the limited empirical literature by offering evidence on the experiences and implications of communicating genetic risk information in the context of adoption with reference to HD. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Virtual Full-Duplex Wireless Communication via Rapid On-Off-Division Duplex

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Dongning

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel paradigm for design- ing the physical and medium access control (MAC) layers of mobile ad hoc or peer-to-peer networks formed by half-duplex radios. A node equipped with such a radio cannot simultaneously transmit and receive useful signals at the same frequency. Unlike in conventional designs, where a node's transmission frames are scheduled away from its reception, each node transmits its signal through a randomly generated on-off duplex mask (or signature) over every frame interval, and receive a signal through each of its own off-slots. This is called rapid on-off- division duplex (RODD). Over the period of a single frame, every node can transmit a message to some or all of its peers, and may simultaneously receive a message from each peer. Thus RODD achieves virtual full-duplex communication using half-duplex radios and can simplify the design of higher layers of a network protocol stack significantly. The throughput of RODD is evaluated under some general settings, which is...

  1. Genetic counselor opinions of, and experiences with telephone communication of BRCA1/2 test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, A R; Patrick-Miller, L; Fetzer, D; Egleston, B; Cummings, S A; Forman, A; Bealin, L; Peterson, C; Corbman, M; O'Connell, J; Daly, M B

    2011-02-01

    BRCA1/2 test disclosure has, historically, been conducted in-person by genetics professionals. Given increasing demand for, and access to, genetic testing, interest in telephone and Internet genetic services, including disclosure of test results, has increased. Semi-structured interviews with genetic counselors were conducted to determine interest in, and experiences with telephone disclosure of BRCA1/2 test results. Descriptive data are summarized with response proportions. One hundred and ninety-four genetic counselors completed self-administered surveys via the web. Although 98% had provided BRCA1/2 results by telephone, 77% had never provided pre-test counseling by telephone. Genetic counselors reported perceived advantages and disadvantages to telephone disclosure. Thirty-two percent of participants described experiences that made them question this practice. Genetic counselors more frequently reported discomfort with telephone disclosure of a positive result or variant of uncertain significance (p disadvantages to telephone disclosure, and recognize the potential for testing and patient factors to impact patient outcomes. Further research evaluating the impact of testing and patient factors on cognitive, affective, social and behavioral outcomes of alternative models of communicating genetic information is warranted. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Translating human genetics into mouse: the impact of ultra-rapid in vivo genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Tomomi; Imahashi, Risa; Tanaka, Kohichi

    2014-01-01

    Gene-targeted mutant animals, such as knockout or knockin mice, have dramatically improved our understanding of the functions of genes in vivo and the genetic diversity that characterizes health and disease. However, the generation of targeted mice relies on gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES) cells, which is a time-consuming, laborious, and expensive process. The recent groundbreaking development of several genome editing technologies has enabled the targeted alteration of almost any sequence in any cell or organism. These technologies have now been applied to mouse zygotes (in vivo genome editing), thereby providing new avenues for simple, convenient, and ultra-rapid production of knockout or knockin mice without the need for ES cells. Here, we review recent achievements in the production of gene-targeted mice by in vivo genome editing. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  3. Rapid recent human evolution and the accumulation of balanced genetic polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    All evolutionary change can be traced to alterations in allele frequencies in populations over time. DNA sequencing on a massive scale now permits us to follow the genetic consequences as our species has diverged from our close relatives and as we have colonized different parts of the world and adapted to them. But it has been difficult to disentangle natural selection from many other factors that alter frequencies. These factors include mutation and intragenic reciprocal recombination, gene conversion, segregation distortion, random drift, and gene flow between populations (these last two are greatly influenced by splits and coalescences of populations over time). The first part of this review examines recent studies that have had some success in dissecting out the role of natural selection, especially in humans and Drosophila. Among many examples, these studies include those that have followed the rapid evolution of traits that may permit adaptation to high altitude in Tibetan and Andean populations. In some cases, directional selection has been so strong that it may have swept alleles close to fixation in the span of a few thousand years, a rapidity of change that is also sometimes encountered in other organisms. The second part of the review summarizes data showing that remarkably few alleles have been carried completely to fixation during our recent evolution. Some of the alleles that have not reached fixation may be approaching new internal equilibria, which would indicate polymorphisms that are maintained by balancing selection. Finally, the review briefly examines why genetic polymorphisms, particularly those that are maintained by negative frequency dependence, are likely to have played an important role in the evolution of our species. A method is suggested for measuring the contribution of these polymorphisms to our gene pool. Such polymorphisms may add to the ability of our species to adapt to our increasingly complex and challenging environment.

  4. Rapid P300 brain-computer interface communication with a head-mounted display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo eKäthner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual ERP (P300 based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs allow for fast and reliable spelling and are intended as a muscle-independent communication channel for people with severe paralysis. However, they require the presentation of visual stimuli in the field of view of the user. A head mounted display could allow convenient presentation of visual stimuli in situations, where mounting a conventional monitor might be difficult or not feasible (e.g. at a patient’s bedside. To explore if similar accuracies can be achieved with a virtual reality (VR headset compared to a conventional flat screen monitor, we conducted an experiment with 18 healthy participants. We also evaluated it with a person in the locked-in state (LIS to verify that usage of the headset is possible for a severely paralyzed person. Healthy participants performed online spelling with three different display methods. In one condition a 5x5 letter matrix was presented on a conventional 22 inch TFT monitor. Two configurations of the VR headset were tested. In the first (glasses A, the same 5x5 matrix filled the field of view of the user. In the second (glasses B, single letters of the matrix filled the field of view of the user. The participant in the LIS tested the VR headset on 3 different occasions (glasses A condition only. For healthy participants, average online spelling accuracies were 94% (15.5 bits/min using three flash sequences for spelling with the monitor and glasses A and 96% (16.2 bits/min with glasses B. In one session, the participant in the LIS reached an online spelling accuracy of 100% (10 bits/min using the glasses A condition. We also demonstrated that spelling with one flash sequence is possible with the VR headset for healthy users (mean: 32.1 bits/min, maximum reached by one user: 71.89 bits/min at 100% accuracy. We conclude that the VR headset allows for rapid P300 BCI communication in healthy users and may be a suitable display option for severely

  5. Communicating inherited genetic risk between parent and child: a meta-thematic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Emma; Metcalfe, Alison

    2013-06-01

    Communicating genetic risk is a distressing process for families affected by inherited genetic conditions. This systematic review identifies and explores the challenges faced by parents and their (non)affected or at risk children caused by the (non)disclosure of genetic risk information. Qualitative meta-synthesis and thematic analysis. Ovid databases; Ovid 'in progress', British Nursing Index, Embase, Medline and Psychinfo were combined with searches of EBSCOhost databases; CINAHL and ERIC and Web of science and ZETOC databases using truncations of communication, chronic illness and disease and words relating to family with specific genetic conditions; Cystic Fibrosis, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, Hereditary Non-polyposis Colorectal Cancer, Huntington's Disease, Neurofibromatosis and Sickle Cell Anaemia. This was augmented with free Internet and hand searches and an exploration of the bibliographies of all included papers. All papers were quality assessed to ascertain their research quality and methodological rigour. A total of 2033 citations were retrieved. Following the removal of duplicates, irrelevant articles and the application of an inclusion criterion, 12 articles remained. A further three papers were omitted due to poor quality leaving nine papers which focussed on the disclosure of genetic information between parent and child (misunderstanding, blame and secrecy. Early, age appropriate disclosure can better prepare children for future considerations such as care planning and reproductive decision-making. It also contributes to effective coping strategies that promote enhanced adaptation and emotional well being. Early disclosure also reduces parental anxieties concerning disclosure from an unwitting source. Research shows that children and young people want their parents to engage in open and honest discussions about the genetic condition. Therefore to help facilitate effective family communication health professionals

  6. Genetic isolation and morphological divergence mediated by high-energy rapids in two cichlid genera from the lower Congo rapids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiassny Melanie LJ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is hypothesized that one of the mechanisms promoting diversification in cichlid fishes in the African Great Lakes has been the well-documented pattern of philopatry along shoreline habitats leading to high levels of genetic isolation among populations. However lake habitats are not the only centers of cichlid biodiversity - certain African rivers also contain large numbers of narrowly endemic species. Patterns of isolation and divergence in these systems have tended to be overlooked and are not well understood. Results We examined genetic and morphological divergence among populations of two narrowly endemic cichlid species, Teleogramma depressum and Lamprologus tigripictilis, from a 100 km stretch of the lower Congo River using both nDNA microsatellites and mtDNA markers along with coordinate-based morphological techniques. In L. tigripictilis, the strongest genetic break was concordant with measurable phenotypic divergence but no morphological disjunction was detected for T. depressum despite significant differentiation at mtDNA and nDNA microsatellite markers. Conclusions The genetic markers revealed patterns of philopatry and estimates of genetic isolation that are among the highest reported for any African cichlid species over a comparable geographic scale. We hypothesize that the high levels of philopatry observed are generated and maintained by the extreme hydrology of the lower Congo River.

  7. Online communication about genetics and body weight: implications for health behavior and internet-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Susan; Sanderson, Saskia C; Koehly, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Social media, specifically online weight loss message board communities, may become an important conduit for information about genetics and body weight. This information has the capacity to influence individuals as it is naturally encountered online, or it could be strategically disseminated for public health purposes. However, little is known about how the public engages with information that they encounter related to genetic underpinnings of body weight, or how their interpretation of this information shapes health beliefs. The present study examined discussions about genetics and weight in message board communities devoted to discussion of weight loss. Fifty-four online discussions, comprising 505 individual posts from 3 weight-loss themed message boards, were coded using a closed-ended procedure. Individuals who discussed genetics and weight in online message board communities initiated these discussions mainly for personal reasons and primarily cited mass media-sourced information. Genetic causes of weight tended to be endorsed alongside behavioral causes. There was no association between cause endorsements and expressed frustration. These findings help elucidate the effects of naturally encountered information about genetics of weight. They may also have implications for the creation of online evidence-based tools to aid communication about genetic advances in ways that encourage positive dietary and physical activity behavior.

  8. A randomized trial Examining The Impact Of Communicating Genetic And Lifestyle Risks For Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catharine; Gordon, Erynn S; Norkunas, Tricia; Wawak, Lisa; Liu, Ching-Ti; Winter, Michael; Kasper, Rachel S; Christman, Michael F; Green, Robert C; Bowen, Deborah J

    2016-12-01

    Genetic testing for obesity is available directly to consumers, yet little is understood about its behavioral impact and its added value to nongenetic risk communication efforts based on lifestyle factors. A randomized trial examined the short-term impact of providing personalized obesity risk information, using a 2 × 2 factorial design. Participants were recruited from the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC) and randomized to receive (1) no risk information (control), (2) genetic risk, (3) lifestyle risk, or (4) combined genetic/lifestyle risks. Baseline and 3-month follow-up survey data were collected. Analyses examined the impact of risk feedback on intentions to lose weight and self-reported weight. A total of 696 participants completed the study. A significant interaction effect was observed for genetic and lifestyle information on intent to lose weight (P = 0.0150). Those who received genetic risk alone had greater intentions at follow-up, compared with controls (P = 0.0034). The impact of receiving elevated risk information on intentions varied by source and combination of risks presented. Non-elevated genetic risk did not lower intentions. No group differences were observed for self-reported weight. Genetic risk information for obesity may add value to lifestyle risk information depending on the context in which it is presented. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  9. Committee Opinion No. 693: Counseling About Genetic Testing and Communication of Genetic Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Given the increasing availability and complexity of genetic testing, it is imperative that the practicing obstetrician-gynecologist or other health care provider has a firm comprehension of the benefits, limitations, and risks of offering a specific genetic test, as well as the importance of appropriate pretest and posttest counseling. The purpose of this Committee Opinion is to provide an outline of how obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care providers can best incorporate these tests into their current practices and provide appropriate pretest and posttest counseling to patients. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care providers should determine which tests will be offered as the standard in their practices so that similar testing strategies are made available to all patients. Practices should have procedures in place that ensure timely disclosure of test results to patients. As with any medical test, expectations regarding the performance of a genetic test should be discussed with the patient before the test is ordered. After counseling, patients should have the option to decline any or all testing. Pretest and posttest counseling should be done in a clear, objective, and nondirective fashion, which allows patients sufficient time to understand information and make informed decisions regarding testing and further evaluation or treatment. In addition to counseling each patient about her own personal risk, obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care providers should counsel patients regarding the risk for family members, including their potential to have affected offspring.

  10. Committee Opinion No. 693 Summary: Counseling About Genetic Testing and Communication of Genetic Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Given the increasing availability and complexity of genetic testing, it is imperative that the practicing obstetrician-gynecologist or other health care provider has a firm comprehension of the benefits, limitations, and risks of offering a specific genetic test, as well as the importance of appropriate pretest and posttest counseling. The purpose of this Committee Opinion is to provide an outline of how obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care providers can best incorporate these tests into their current practices and provide appropriate pretest and posttest counseling to patients. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care providers should determine which tests will be offered as the standard in their practices so that similar testing strategies are made available to all patients. Practices should have procedures in place that ensure timely disclosure of test results to patients. As with any medical test, expectations regarding the performance of a genetic test should be discussed with the patient before the test is ordered. After counseling, patients should have the option to decline any or all testing. Pretest and posttest counseling should be done in a clear, objective, and nondirective fashion, which allows patients sufficient time to understand information and make informed decisions regarding testing and further evaluation or treatment. In addition to counseling each patient about her own personal risk, obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care providers should counsel patients regarding the risk for family members, including their potential to have affected offspring.

  11. Is There Any Evidence for Rapid, Genetically-Based, Climatic Niche Expansion in the Invasive Common Ragweed?

    OpenAIRE

    Gallien, Laure; Thuiller, Wilfried; Fort, No?mie; Boleda, Marti; Alberto, Florian J.; Rioux, Delphine; Lain?, Juliette; Lavergne, S?bastien

    2016-01-01

    Climatic niche shifts have been documented in a number of invasive species by comparing the native and adventive climatic ranges in which they occur. However, these shifts likely represent changes in the realized climatic niches of invasive species, and may not necessarily be driven by genetic changes in climatic affinities. Until now the role of rapid niche evolution in the spread of invasive species remains a challenging issue with conflicting results. Here, we document a likely genetically...

  12. Parents' and children's communication about genetic risk: a qualitative study, learning from families' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Alison; Plumridge, Gill; Coad, Jane; Shanks, Andrew; Gill, Paramjit

    2011-06-01

    Little is known about how parents explain to their children their risk of inheriting a gene that may cause disease in the child or in the child's future progeny. This study explored how genetic risk information is shared between family members and the factors affecting it, to ascertain the implications for children, young people and their parents to inform future service development and provision. A volunteer group of parents, children (8-11 years) and young people (12+ years) in families affected by or at risk of one of six inherited genetic conditions was interviewed. The semi-structured interviews explored the roles of family members, the language used and the self-reported psychological outcomes in a discussion on genetic risk information. The findings were analysed using grounded theory. A total of 33 families participated, which included 79 individuals. Parents often found discussing genetic risk information very difficult and emotionally painful. Discussions were not usually planned and often a major event prompted parents to finally explain genetic risks to their children; however, children usually preferred to learn about the genetic condition gradually throughout childhood. Parents identified a number of challenges they faced related to talking to children, and many thought health professionals should provide more advice to assist them in providing developmentally appropriate information. We therefore conclude that greater emphasis is required in supporting parents and children in discussing genetic risk information throughout their child's development. Open communication about genetic risks throughout childhood seemed to help children and parents cope better and come to terms with the implications of the genetic condition.

  13. Genetic counseling and neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis: an assessment of the communication process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciske, D J; Haavisto, A; Laxova, A; Rock, L Z; Farrell, P M

    2001-04-01

    To assess the effectiveness of communication between health care providers (physicians, nurses, genetic counselors) in Wisconsin and parents of children identified as heterozygote carriers for cystic fibrosis (CF) in the routine Wisconsin Newborn Screening Program that was implemented using trypsinogen/DNA testing. Routine CF neonatal screening, implemented in July 1994, involved a statewide system that recommended but did not mandate follow-up sweat tests at 1 of the Wisconsin's 2 certified CF centers. The Wisconsin Division of Health sent requests to participate to the parents of 483 infants identified as CF carriers between July 1994 and December 1997. Of the 483 parents, 183 agreed to participate and were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their CF newborn screening experiences and their knowledge of CF genetics and any changes they made in their reproductive behavior as a result of this knowledge. Follow-up telephone interviews by a genetic counselor were attempted within 1 year for those completing the questionnaire. Within 4 months after the mailing, 138 of 183 (75%) parents completed the questionnaire. Subsequently, 123 of the 138 responders (89%) were contacted and interviewed by telephone. We learned that 67.6% of parents recalled receiving genetic counseling, but 32.4% of parents apparently did not participate in a risk communication session. When asked, "Who performed the genetic counseling?" parents indicated that their communication was with physicians in 8% of cases, nurses in 12.4%, and certified genetic counselors in 32.8% of cases; 17.5% of parents did not recall who performed the genetic counseling and 29.2% of parents indicated they did not receive genetic counseling. Based on the 138 responses, it was found that 88.3% of parents understood that their child was a carrier for CF, but 15.4% of parents were unsure whether being a carrier could cause illness. In addition, 12.4% of parents were unsure whether at least 1 of them (parents) was

  14. Optimization lighting layout based on gene density improved genetic algorithm for indoor visible light communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Wang, Xin; Chen, Yong; Kong, Deqian; Xia, Peijie

    2017-05-01

    For indoor visible light communication system, the layout of LED lamps affects the uniformity of the received power on communication plane. In order to find an optimized lighting layout that meets both the lighting needs and communication needs, a gene density genetic algorithm (GDGA) is proposed. In GDGA, a gene indicates a pair of abscissa and ordinate of a LED, and an individual represents a LED layout in the room. The segmented crossover operation and gene mutation strategy based on gene density are put forward to make the received power on communication plane more uniform and increase the population's diversity. A weighted differences function between individuals is designed as the fitness function of GDGA for reserving the population having the useful LED layout genetic information and ensuring the global convergence of GDGA. Comparing square layout and circular layout, with the optimized layout achieved by the GDGA, the power uniformity increases by 83.3%, 83.1% and 55.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the convergence of GDGA is verified compared with evolutionary algorithm (EA). Experimental results show that GDGA can quickly find an approximation of optimal layout.

  15. Cellular Genetic Algorithm with Communicating Grids for Assembly Line Balancing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUDARU, O.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach with cellular multigrid genetic algorithms for the "I"-shaped and "U"-shaped assembly line balancing problems, including parallel workstations and compatibility constraints. First, a cellular hybrid genetic algorithm that uses a single grid is described. Appropriate operators for mutation, hypermutation, and crossover and two devoration techniques are proposed for creating and maintaining groups based on similarity. This monogrid algorithm is extended for handling many populations placed on different grids. In the multigrid version, the population of each grid is organized in clusters using the positional information of the chromosomes. A similarity preserving communication protocol between the clusters placed on different grids is introduced. The experimental evaluation shows that the multigrid cellular genetic algorithm with communicating grids is better than the hybrid genetic algorithm used for building it, whereas it dominates the monogrid version in all cases. Absolute performance is evaluated using classical benchmarks. The role of certain components of the cellular algorithm is explained and the effect of some parameters is evaluated.

  16. Factors influencing intrafamilial communication of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nycum, Gillian; Avard, Denise; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2009-07-01

    What factors influence intrafamilial communication of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) genetic risk information? Such information can have health implications for individuals who undergo genetic testing, but it can also have implications for their blood relatives. This literature review adopts an ecological model to summarize factors at the individual, familial, and community levels, as well as cross cutting factors relating to the complexity of HBOC genetic information and responsibilities that this information can give rise to. These factors are complex and may result in conflicting senses of responsibility. Faced with the task of communicating HBOC genetic information, the response may be to attempt to balance the potential negative impact of the information on the well-being of the informee (eg, can s/he handle this information?) against the potential health benefit that the knowledge could result in. This balancing represents an effort to reconcile conflicting approaches to protecting family members, and is a moral dilemma. This review sheds light on the factors that contribute to resolve this dilemma.

  17. Rapid genetic algorithm optimization of a mouse computational model: benefits for anthropomorphization of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Corina T; Kherlopian, Armen R; Ortega, Francis A; Christini, David J; Krogh-Madsen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    While the mouse presents an invaluable experimental model organism in biology, its usefulness in cardiac arrhythmia research is limited in some aspects due to major electrophysiological differences between murine and human action potentials (APs). As previously described, these species-specific traits can be partly overcome by application of a cell-type transforming clamp (CTC) to anthropomorphize the murine cardiac AP. CTC is a hybrid experimental-computational dynamic clamp technique, in which a computationally calculated time-dependent current is inserted into a cell in real-time, to compensate for the differences between sarcolemmal currents of that cell (e.g., murine) and the desired species (e.g., human). For effective CTC performance, mismatch between the measured cell and a mathematical model used to mimic the measured AP must be minimal. We have developed a genetic algorithm (GA) approach that rapidly tunes a mathematical model to reproduce the AP of the murine cardiac myocyte under study. Compared to a prior implementation that used a template-based model selection approach, we show that GA optimization to a cell-specific model results in a much better recapitulation of the desired AP morphology with CTC. This improvement was more pronounced when anthropomorphizing neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes to human-like APs than to guinea pig APs. CTC may be useful for a wide range of applications, from screening effects of pharmaceutical compounds on ion channel activity, to exploring variations in the mouse or human genome. Rapid GA optimization of a cell-specific mathematical model improves CTC performance and may therefore expand the applicability and usage of the CTC technique.

  18. A MATLAB Library for Rapid Prototyping of Wireless Communications Algorithms with the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) Radio Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    A MATLAB Library for Rapid Prototyping of Wireless Communications Algorithms with the Universal Software Radio Peripheral ( USRP ) Radio Family...Algorithms with the Universal Software Radio Peripheral ( USRP ) Radio Family Gunjan Verma and Paul Yu Computational and Information Sciences...Universal Software Radio Pheriphal ( USRP ) Radio Family 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gunjan Verma

  19. Video Feedforward for Rapid Learning of a Picture-Based Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jemma; Hand, Linda; Dowrick, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of video self modeling (VSM) using feedforward, to teach various goals of a picture exchange communication system (PECS). The participants were two boys with autism and one man with Down syndrome. All three participants were non-verbal with no current functional system of communication; the two children had long…

  20. Rapid Prototyping by 3D Printing for Advanced Radio Communications at 80 GHz and Above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, Adrian Ruiz; Rommel, Simon; Anufriyev, Eldar

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential of 3D printing for the manufacturing of spiral phase plates for the generation of radio vortex beams for advanced radio communications. The design and prototyping of a number of phase plates for communications at 80GHz with radio vortex beams is discussed...

  1. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  2. A Toolbox of Genetically Encoded FRET-Based Biosensors for Rapid l-Lysine Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Victoria; Otten, Julia; Engelmann, Susann; Radek, Andreas; Limberg, Michael; Koenig, Bernd W.; Noack, Stephan; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Pohl, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Background: The fast development of microbial production strains for basic and fine chemicals is increasingly carried out in small scale cultivation systems to allow for higher throughput. Such parallelized systems create a need for new rapid online detection systems to quantify the respective target compound. In this regard, biosensors, especially genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors, offer tremendous opportunities. As a proof-of-concept, we have created a toolbox of FRET-based biosensors for the ratiometric determination of l-lysine in fermentation broth. Methods: The sensor toolbox was constructed based on a sensor that consists of an optimized central lysine-/arginine-/ornithine-binding protein (LAO-BP) flanked by two fluorescent proteins (enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), Citrine). Further sensor variants with altered affinity and sensitivity were obtained by circular permutation of the binding protein as well as the introduction of flexible and rigid linkers between the fluorescent proteins and the LAO-BP, respectively. Results: The sensor prototype was applied to monitor the extracellular l-lysine concentration of the l-lysine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum) strain DM1933 in a BioLector® microscale cultivation device. The results matched well with data obtained by HPLC analysis and the Ninhydrin assay, demonstrating the high potential of FRET-based biosensors for high-throughput microbial bioprocess optimization. PMID:27690044

  3. A Toolbox of Genetically Encoded FRET-Based Biosensors for Rapid l-Lysine Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Steffen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fast development of microbial production strains for basic and fine chemicals is increasingly carried out in small scale cultivation systems to allow for higher throughput. Such parallelized systems create a need for new rapid online detection systems to quantify the respective target compound. In this regard, biosensors, especially genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based biosensors, offer tremendous opportunities. As a proof-of-concept, we have created a toolbox of FRET-based biosensors for the ratiometric determination of l-lysine in fermentation broth. Methods: The sensor toolbox was constructed based on a sensor that consists of an optimized central lysine-/arginine-/ornithine-binding protein (LAO-BP flanked by two fluorescent proteins (enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP, Citrine. Further sensor variants with altered affinity and sensitivity were obtained by circular permutation of the binding protein as well as the introduction of flexible and rigid linkers between the fluorescent proteins and the LAO-BP, respectively. Results: The sensor prototype was applied to monitor the extracellular l-lysine concentration of the l-lysine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum strain DM1933 in a BioLector® microscale cultivation device. The results matched well with data obtained by HPLC analysis and the Ninhydrin assay, demonstrating the high potential of FRET-based biosensors for high-throughput microbial bioprocess optimization.

  4. A Toolbox of Genetically Encoded FRET-Based Biosensors for Rapid l-Lysine Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Victoria; Otten, Julia; Engelmann, Susann; Radek, Andreas; Limberg, Michael; Koenig, Bernd W; Noack, Stephan; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Pohl, Martina

    2016-09-28

    Background: The fast development of microbial production strains for basic and fine chemicals is increasingly carried out in small scale cultivation systems to allow for higher throughput. Such parallelized systems create a need for new rapid online detection systems to quantify the respective target compound. In this regard, biosensors, especially genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors, offer tremendous opportunities. As a proof-of-concept, we have created a toolbox of FRET-based biosensors for the ratiometric determination of l-lysine in fermentation broth. Methods: The sensor toolbox was constructed based on a sensor that consists of an optimized central lysine-/arginine-/ornithine-binding protein (LAO-BP) flanked by two fluorescent proteins (enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), Citrine). Further sensor variants with altered affinity and sensitivity were obtained by circular permutation of the binding protein as well as the introduction of flexible and rigid linkers between the fluorescent proteins and the LAO-BP, respectively. Results: The sensor prototype was applied to monitor the extracellular l-lysine concentration of the l-lysine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum) strain DM1933 in a BioLector(®) microscale cultivation device. The results matched well with data obtained by HPLC analysis and the Ninhydrin assay, demonstrating the high potential of FRET-based biosensors for high-throughput microbial bioprocess optimization.

  5. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eDatukishvili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  6. HCCI Intelligent Rapid Modeling by Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdoulAhad Validi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Dynamic model of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI, based on chemical kinetics principles and artificial intelligence, is developed. The model can rapidly predict the combustion probability, thermochemistry properties, and exact timing of the Start of Combustion (SOC. A realization function is developed on the basis of the Sandia National Laboratory chemical kinetics model, and GRI3.0 methane chemical mechanism. The inlet conditions are optimized by Genetic Algorithm (GA, so that combustion initiates and SOC timing posits in the desired crank angle. The best SOC timing to achieve higher performance and efficiency in HCCI engines is between 5 and 15 degrees crank angle (CAD after top dead center (TDC. To achieve this SOC timing, in the first case, the inlet temperature and equivalence ratio are optimized simultaneously and in the second case, compression ratio is optimized by GA. The model’s results are validated with previous works. The SOC timing can be predicted in less than 0.01 second and the CPU time savings are encouraging. This model can successfully be used for real engine control applications.

  7. Family communication about genetic risk information: particular issues for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Gillian; Metcalfe, Alison; Coad, Jane; Gill, Paramjit

    2010-05-01

    Open family communication about genetic conditions and associated risk is important to children's identity, coping and decision making. Parents however find talking to their children difficult and because of associated care needs and emotional reactions it can be particularly stressful in families affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). This article reports on the findings of a group of families affected by DMD who formed part of a larger study where adult and child members of 33 families affected by one of six genetic conditions were interviewed. Parents thought they should talk to children about a genetic condition in their family and children wanted information and open discussion. In families affected by DMD clear gender differences were identified between mothers and fathers in coping and in their roles in relation to the condition. There was a particularly close bond between mothers and affected sons. For most conditions, mothers were central to giving children information but the identified issues made this problematic in families with DMD. This resulted in affected children receiving little information about their condition at all and female siblings being unlikely to receive information about their potential carrier status until they were about 16-year old. Insight into family communication within families affected by DMD assists healthcare professionals in recognizing and meeting the particular support needs of this group of families. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Use of Genomic Estimated Breeding Values Results in Rapid Genetic Gains for Drought Tolerance in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Vivek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of the 19 million ha of maize ( L. in tropical Asia is rainfed and prone to drought. The breeding methods for improving drought tolerance (DT, including genomic selection (GS, are geared to increase the frequency of favorable alleles. Two biparental populations (CIMMYT-Asia Population 1 [CAP1] and CAP2 were generated by crossing elite Asian-adapted yellow inbreds (CML470 and VL1012767 with an African white drought-tolerant line, CML444. Marker effects of polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were determined from testcross (TC performance of F families under drought and optimal conditions. Cycle 1 (C1 was formed by recombining the top 10% of the F families based on TC data. Subsequently, (i C2[PerSe_PS] was derived by recombining those C1 plants that exhibited superior per se phenotypes (phenotype-only selection, and (ii C2[TC-GS] was derived by recombining a second set of C1 plants with high genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs derived from TC phenotypes of F families (marker-only selection. All the generations and their top crosses to testers were evaluated under drought and optimal conditions. Per se grain yields (GYs of C2[PerSe_PS] and that of C2[TC-GS] were 23 to 39 and 31 to 53% better, respectively, than that of the corresponding F population. The C2[TC-GS] populations showed superiority of 10 to 20% over C2[PerSe-PS] of respective populations. Top crosses of C2[TC-GS] showed 4 to 43% superiority of GY over that of C2[PerSe_PS] of respective populations. Thus, GEBV-enabled selection of superior phenotypes (without the target stress resulted in rapid genetic gains for DT.

  9. A rapid, strong, and convergent genetic response to urban habitat fragmentation in four divergent and widespread vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Kathleen Semple; Riley, Seth P D; Fisher, Robert N

    2010-09-16

    Urbanization is a major cause of habitat fragmentation worldwide. Ecological and conservation theory predicts many potential impacts of habitat fragmentation on natural populations, including genetic impacts. Habitat fragmentation by urbanization causes populations of animals and plants to be isolated in patches of suitable habitat that are surrounded by non-native vegetation or severely altered vegetation, asphalt, concrete, and human structures. This can lead to genetic divergence between patches and in turn to decreased genetic diversity within patches through genetic drift and inbreeding. We examined population genetic patterns using microsatellites in four common vertebrate species, three lizards and one bird, in highly fragmented urban southern California. Despite significant phylogenetic, ecological, and mobility differences between these species, all four showed similar and significant reductions in gene flow over relatively short geographic and temporal scales. For all four species, the greatest genetic divergence was found where development was oldest and most intensive. All four animals also showed significant reduction in gene flow associated with intervening roads and freeways, the degree of patch isolation, and the time since isolation. Despite wide acceptance of the idea in principle, evidence of significant population genetic changes associated with fragmentation at small spatial and temporal scales has been rare, even in smaller terrestrial vertebrates, and especially for birds. Given the striking pattern of similar and rapid effects across four common and widespread species, including a volant bird, intense urbanization may represent the most severe form of fragmentation, with minimal effective movement through the urban matrix.

  10. ASD and schizophrenia show distinct developmental profiles in common genetic overlap with population-based social communication difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pourcain, B; Robinson, E B; Anttila, V; Sullivan, B B; Maller, J; Golding, J; Skuse, D; Ring, S; Evans, D M; Zammit, S; Fisher, S E; Neale, B M; Anney, R J L; Ripke, S; Hollegaard, M V; Werge, T; Ronald, A; Grove, J; Hougaard, D M; Børglum, A D; Mortensen, P B; Daly, M J; Davey Smith, G

    2017-01-03

    Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia do not appear before early adulthood. We investigated whether overlap in common genetic influences between these clinical conditions and impairments in social communication depends on the developmental stage of the assessed trait. Social communication difficulties were measured in typically-developing youth (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, N⩽5553, longitudinal assessments at 8, 11, 14 and 17 years) using the Social Communication Disorder Checklist. Data on clinical ASD (PGC-ASD: 5305 cases, 5305 pseudo-controls; iPSYCH-ASD: 7783 cases, 11 359 controls) and schizophrenia (PGC-SCZ2: 34 241 cases, 45 604 controls, 1235 trios) were either obtained through the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) or the Danish iPSYCH project. Overlap in genetic influences between ASD and social communication difficulties during development decreased with age, both in the PGC-ASD and the iPSYCH-ASD sample. Genetic overlap between schizophrenia and social communication difficulties, by contrast, persisted across age, as observed within two independent PGC-SCZ2 subsamples, and showed an increase in magnitude for traits assessed during later adolescence. ASD- and schizophrenia-related polygenic effects were unrelated to each other and changes in trait-disorder links reflect the heterogeneity of genetic factors influencing social communication difficulties during childhood versus later adolescence. Thus, both clinical ASD and schizophrenia share some genetic influences with impairments in social communication, but reveal distinct developmental profiles in their genetic links, consistent with the onset of clinical symptoms.Molecular Psychiatry advance online

  11. A rapid genetic assay for the identification of the most common Pocillopora damicornis genetic lineages on the Great Barrier Reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Torda

    Full Text Available Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758; Scleractinia, Pocilloporidae has recently been found to comprise at least five distinct genetic lineages in Eastern Australia, some of which likely represent cryptic species. Due to similar and plastic gross morphology of these lineages, field identification is often difficult. Here we present a quick, cost effective genetic assay as well as three novel microsatellite markers that distinguish the two most common lineages found on the Great Barrier Reef. The assay is based on PCR amplification of two regions within the mitochondrial putative control region, which show consistent and easily identifiable fragment size differences for the two genetic lineages after Alu1 restriction enzyme digestion of the amplicons.

  12. Chemopreventive agents attenuate rapid inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication induced by environmental toxicants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babica, Pavel; Čtveráčková, Lucie; Lenčešová, Zuzana; Trosko, J. E.; Upham, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 5 (2016), s. 827-837 ISSN 0163-5581 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12034 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : gap junctional intercellular communication * chemopreventive agents * environmental toxicants Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2016

  13. Rapid identification of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis full genetic drug resistance profile through whole genome sequencing directly from sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camus Nimmo

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: Compared to rapid molecular tests (which can only examine a limited number of mutations and WGS of culture isolates (which requires a culture step, WGS directly from sputum can quickly generate a complete genetic drug resistance profile. In this case, WGS altered the clinical management of drug-resistant tuberculosis and demonstrated potential for guiding individualized drug treatment where second-line drug resistance is common.

  14. Rapid genetic and epigenetic alterations under intergeneric genomic shock in newly synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium x Leucanthemum paludosum hybrids (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5-50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses.

  15. Rapid Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations under Intergeneric Genomic Shock in Newly Synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum Hybrids (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5–50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses. PMID:24407856

  16. Drifting to oblivion? Rapid genetic differentiation in an endangered lizard following habitat fragmentation and drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergast, Amy; Wood, Dustin A.; Thompson, Andrew R.; Fisher, Mark; Barrows, Cameron W.; Grant, Tyler J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim The frequency and severity of habitat alterations and disturbance are predicted to increase in upcoming decades, and understanding how disturbance affects population integrity is paramount for adaptive management. Although rarely is population genetic sampling conducted at multiple time points, pre- and post-disturbance comparisons may provide one of the clearest methods to measure these impacts. We examined how genetic properties of the federally threatened Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard (Uma inornata) responded to severe drought and habitat fragmentation across its range. Location Coachella Valley, California, USA. Methods We used 11 microsatellites to examine population genetic structure and diversity in 1996 and 2008, before and after a historic drought. We used Bayesian assignment methods and F-statistics to estimate genetic structure. We compared allelic richness across years to measure loss of genetic diversity and employed approximate Bayesian computing methods and heterozygote excess tests to explore the recent demographic history of populations. Finally, we compared effective population size across years and to abundance estimates to determine whether diversity remained low despite post-drought recovery. Results Genetic structure increased between sampling periods, likely as a result of population declines during the historic drought of the late 1990s–early 2000s, and habitat loss and fragmentation that precluded post-drought genetic rescue. Simulations supported recent demographic declines in 3 of 4 main preserves, and in one preserve, we detected significant loss of allelic richness. Effective population sizes were generally low across the range, with estimates ≤100 in most sites. Main conclusions Fragmentation and drought appear to have acted synergistically to induce genetic change over a short time frame. Progressive deterioration of connectivity, low Ne and measurable loss of genetic diversity suggest that conservation efforts have

  17. Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; O’Reilly, M.F.; Lang, R.; Singh, N.N.; Didden, H.C.M.; Green, V.A.; Marschik, P.B.

    2016-01-01

    Communication disorders are common among people with intellectual disabilities. Consequently, enhancing the communication skills of such individuals is a major intervention priority. This chapter reviews the nature and prevalence of the speech, language, and communication problems associated with

  18. Rapid communication with a P300 matrix speller using electrocorticographic signals (ECoG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eBrunner

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer interface (BCI can provide a non-muscular communication channel to severely disabled people. One particular realization of a BCI is the P300 matrix speller that was originally described by Farwell and Donchin in 1988. This speller uses event-related potentials (ERPs that include the P300 ERP. All previous online studies of the P300 matrix speller used scalp-recorded electroencephalography (EEG and were limited in their communication performance to only a few characters per minute.In our study, we investigated the feasibility of using electrocorticographic (ECoG signals for online operation of the matrix speller, and determined associated spelling rates. We used the matrix speller that is implemented in the BCI2000 system. This speller used ECoG signals that were recorded from frontal, parietal, and occipital areas in one subject. This subject spelled a total of 444 characters in online experiments.The results showed that the subject sustained a rate of 17 characters per minute (i.e., 69 bits/min, and achieved a peak rate of 22 characters per minute (i.e., 113 bits/min. Detailed analysis of the results suggests that ERPs over visual areas (i.e., VEPs contribute significantly to the performance of the matrix speller BCI system. Our results also point to potential reasons for the apparent advantages in spelling performance of ECoG compared to EEG. Thus, with additional verification in more subjects, these results may further extend the communication options for people with serious neuromuscular disabilities.

  19. Rapid identification of genetic modifications in Bacillus anthracis using whole genome draft sequences generated by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anthrax letter attacks of 2001 highlighted the need for rapid identification of biothreat agents not only for epidemiological surveillance of the intentional outbreak but also for implementing appropriate countermeasures, such as antibiotic treatment, in a timely manner to prevent further casualties. It is clear from the 2001 cases that survival may be markedly improved by administration of antimicrobial therapy during the early symptomatic phase of the illness; i.e., within 3 days of appearance of symptoms. Microbiological detection methods are feasible only for organisms that can be cultured in vitro and cannot detect all genetic modifications with the exception of antibiotic resistance. Currently available immuno or nucleic acid-based rapid detection assays utilize known, organism-specific proteins or genomic DNA signatures respectively. Hence, these assays lack the ability to detect novel natural variations or intentional genetic modifications that circumvent the targets of the detection assays or in the case of a biological attack using an antibiotic resistant or virulence enhanced Bacillus anthracis, to advise on therapeutic treatments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show here that the Roche 454-based pyrosequencing can generate whole genome draft sequences of deep and broad enough coverage of a bacterial genome in less than 24 hours. Furthermore, using the unfinished draft sequences, we demonstrate that unbiased identification of known as well as heretofore-unreported genetic modifications that include indels and single nucleotide polymorphisms conferring antibiotic and phage resistances is feasible within the next 12 hours. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Second generation sequencing technologies have paved the way for sequence-based rapid identification of both known and previously undocumented genetic modifications in cultured, conventional and newly emerging biothreat agents. Our findings have significant implications in

  20. Reproduction in farm animals in an era of rapid genetic change: will genetic change outpace our knowledge of physiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, G R

    2012-08-01

    Compared with other domestic species, genetic nucleus selection has gradually increased both prolificacy and productivity of the breeding sow and the post-natal growth performance of commercial progeny. However, increasing variation in litter birth weight and foetal development may be indirect consequences of interactions among multiple genes controlling prolificacy and prenatal development. Phenotypic plasticity in the litter phenotype also results from effects of sow metabolic state on the developing embryo. New genomic tools may provide the opportunity to better balance the selection of genes controlling the component traits affecting the size and quality of litters born, particularly in multiparous sows. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Rapid genotyping by low-coverage resequencing to construct genetic linkage maps of fungi: a case study in Lentinula edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Chun Hang; Cheung, Man Kit; Wong, Man Chun; Chu, Astley Kin Kan; Law, Patrick Tik Wan; Kwan, Hoi Shan

    2013-08-02

    Genetic linkage maps are important tools in breeding programmes and quantitative trait analyses. Traditional molecular markers used for genotyping are limited in throughput and efficiency. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has facilitated progeny genotyping and genetic linkage map construction in the major grains. However, the applicability of the approach remains untested in the fungal system. Shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, is a basidiomycetous fungus that represents one of the most popular cultivated edible mushrooms. Here, we developed a rapid genotyping method based on low-coverage (~0.5 to 1.5-fold) whole-genome resequencing. We used the approach to genotype 20 single-spore isolates derived from L. edodes strain L54 and constructed the first high-density sequence-based genetic linkage map of L. edodes. The accuracy of the proposed genotyping method was verified experimentally with results from mating compatibility tests and PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism on a few known genes. The linkage map spanned a total genetic distance of 637.1 cM and contained 13 linkage groups. Two hundred sequence-based markers were placed on the map, with an average marker spacing of 3.4 cM. The accuracy of the map was confirmed by comparing with previous maps the locations of known genes such as matA and matB. We used the shiitake mushroom as an example to provide a proof-of-principle that low-coverage resequencing could allow rapid genotyping of basidiospore-derived progenies, which could in turn facilitate the construction of high-density genetic linkage maps of basidiomycetous fungi for quantitative trait analyses and improvement of genome assembly.

  2. A rapid chemical-genetic screen utilizing impaired movement phenotypes in C. elegans: Input into genetics of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeisser, Kathrin; Fardghassemi, Yasmin; Parker, J Alex

    2017-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder with a constantly increasing prevalence. Model organisms may be tools to identify underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms, as well as aid the discovery and development of novel therapeutic approaches. A simple animal such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans may provide insights into the extreme complexity of ASD genetics. Despite its potential, using C. elegans in ASD research is a controversial approach and has not yet been used extensively in this context. In this study, we present a screening approach of potential C. elegans mutants as potential ASD models. We screened these mutants for motor-deficiency phenotypes, which can be exploited to study underlying mechanisms of the disorder. Selected motor-deficient mutants were then used in a comprehensive drug screen of over 3900 compounds, including many FDA-approved and natural molecules, that were analyzed for their ability to suppress motility defects caused by ASD-associated gene orthologues. This genetic-chemical approach, i.e. establishing C. elegans models for ASD and screening of a well-characterized compound library, might be a promising first step to understand the mechanisms of how gene variations cause neuronal dysfunction, leading to ASD and other neurological disorders. Positively acting compounds could also be promising candidates for preclinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid Prototyping for Heterogeneous Multicomponent Systems: An MPEG-4 Stream over a UMTS Communication Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorel Y

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Future generations of mobile phones, including advanced video and digital communication layers, represent a great challenge in terms of real-time embedded systems. Programmable multicomponent architectures can provide suitable target solutions combining flexibility and computation power. The aim of our work is to develop a fast and automatic prototyping methodology dedicated to signal processing application implementation on parallel heterogeneous architectures, two major features required by future systems. This paper presents the whole methodology based on the SynDEx CAD tool that directly generates a distributed implementation onto various platforms from a high-level application description, taking real-time aspects into account. It illustrates the methodology in the context of real-time distributed executives for multilayer applications based on an MPEG-4 video codec and a UMTS telecommunication link.

  4. Rapid Prototyping for Heterogeneous Multicomponent Systems: An MPEG-4 Stream over a UMTS Communication Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulet, M.; Urban, F.; Nezan, J.-F.; Moy, C.; Deforges, O.; Sorel, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Future generations of mobile phones, including advanced video and digital communication layers, represent a great challenge in terms of real-time embedded systems. Programmable multicomponent architectures can provide suitable target solutions combining flexibility and computation power. The aim of our work is to develop a fast and automatic prototyping methodology dedicated to signal processing application implementation on parallel heterogeneous architectures, two major features required by future systems. This paper presents the whole methodology based on the SynDEx CAD tool that directly generates a distributed implementation onto various platforms from a high-level application description, taking real-time aspects into account. It illustrates the methodology in the context of real-time distributed executives for multilayer applications based on an MPEG-4 video codec and a UMTS telecommunication link.

  5. RAPID COMMUNICATION: A TALIF calibration method for quantitative oxygen atom density measurement in plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilecce, G.; Vigliotti, M.; DeBenedictis, S.

    2000-03-01

    In this communication we propose a calibration method for two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF). It can be carried out without any addition or modification to the O atom TALIF set-up. It is based on the measurement of the collision quenching of the laser-excited state (3p3 P2 ) in a pure O2 system in which a high dissociation degree can be achieved. Since the collision rate constant by O is largely lower than that by O2 , the quenching rate can be correlated to the O density. The incertitude in this procedure is comparable to other calibration techniques. We have applied this method to the spatially resolved measurement of O atom density in an O2 rf plasma jet.

  6. Short communication: HIV type 1 escapes inactivation by saliva via rapid escape into oral epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Elizabeth A; Gebhard, Kristin H; Fasching, Claudine E; Giacaman, Rodrigo A; Kappes, John C; Ross, Karen F; Herzberg, Mark C

    2012-12-01

    Saliva contains anti-HIV-1 factors, which show unclear efficacy in thwarting mucosal infection. When incubated in fresh, unfractionated whole saliva, infectious HIV-1 IIIb and BaL (X4- and R5-tropic, respectively) persisted from 4 to at least 30 min in a saliva concentration-dependent manner. In salivary supernatant for up to 6 h, both infectious HIV-1 strains "escaped" into immortalized oral epithelial cells; infectious BaL showed selectively enhanced escape in the presence of saliva. Fluorescently labeled HIV-1 virus-like particles entered oral epithelial cells within minutes of exposure. Using a previously unrecognized mechanism, therefore, strains of HIV-1 escape inactivation by saliva via rapid uptake into oral epithelial cells.

  7. Nonverbal communication and conversational contribution in breast cancer genetic counseling: Are counselors' nonverbal communication and conversational contribution associated with counselees' satisfaction, needs fulfillment and state anxiety in breast cancer genetic counseling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.; Albada, A.; Cronauer, C. Klockner; Ausems, M.G.; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine how counselors' nonverbal communication (i.e. nonverbal encouragements and counselee-directed eye gaze) and conversational contribution (i.e. verbal dominance and interactivity) during the final visit within breast cancer genetic counseling relate to

  8. Nonverbal communication and conversational contribution in breast cancer genetic counseling: are counselors' nonverbal communication and conversational contribution associated with counselees' satisfaction, needs fulfillment and state anxiety in breast cancer genetic counseling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.; Albada, A.; Klöckner Cronauer, C.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study aimed to examine how counselors’ nonverbal communication (i.e. nonverbal encouragements and counselee-directed eye gaze) and conversational contribution (i.e. verbal dominance and interactivity) during the final visit within breast cancer genetic counseling relate to

  9. Rapid growth and genetic diversity retention in an isolated reintroduced black bear population in the central appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean M.; Cox, John J.; Clark, Joseph D.; Augustine, Benjamin J.; Hast, John T.; Gibbs, Dan; Strunk, Michael; Dobey, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Animal reintroductions are important tools of wildlife management to restore species to their historical range, and they can also create unique opportunities to study population dynamics and genetics from founder events. We used non-invasive hair sampling in a systematic, closed-population capture-mark-recapture (CMR) study design at the Big South Fork (BSF) area in Kentucky during 2010 and Tennessee during 2012 to estimate the demographic and genetic characteristics of the black bear (Ursus americanus) population that resulted from a reintroduced founding population of 18 bears in 1998. We estimated 38 (95% CI: 31–66) and 190 (95% CI: 170–219) bears on the Kentucky and Tennessee study areas, respectively. Based on the Tennessee abundance estimate alone, the mean annual growth rate was 18.3% (95% CI: 17.4–19.5%) from 1998 to 2012. We also compared the genetic characteristics of bears sampled during 2010–2012 to bears in the population during 2000–2002, 2–4 years following reintroduction, and to the source population. We found that the level of genetic diversity since reintroduction as indicated by expected heterozygosity (HE) remained relatively constant (HE(source, 2004) = 0.763, HE(BSF, 2000–2002) = 0.729, HE(BSF, 2010–2012) = 0.712) and the effective number of breeders (NB) remained low but had increased since reintroduction in the absence of sufficient immigration (NB(BSF, 2000–2002) = 12, NB(BSF, 2010–2012)  = 35). This bear population appears to be genetically isolated, but contrary to our expectations, we did not find evidence of genetic diversity loss or other deleterious genetic effects typically observed from small founder groups. We attribute that to high initial genetic diversity in the founder group combined with overlapping generations and rapid population growth. Although the population remains relatively small, the reintroduction using a small founder group appears to be demographically and genetically

  10. Immortalizing the Complexity of Cancer Metastasis Genetic Features of Lethal Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Obtained from Rapid Autopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embuscado, Erlinda E.; Laheru, Daniel; Ricci, Francesca; Yun, Ki Jung; de Boom Witzel, Sten; Seigel, Allison; Flickinger, Katie; Hidalgo, Manuel; Bova, G. Steven; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    The virtual lack of well-characterized metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues for study has limited systematic studies of the metastatic process of this deadly disease. To address this important issue, we have instituted a rapid autopsy protocol for the collection of high quality tissues from patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, called the Gastrointestinal Cancer Rapid Medical Donation Program (GICRMDP). At the time of preparation of this manuscript, 20 patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and one patient with metastatic colon cancer have undergone a rapid autopsy in association with the GICRMDP. The average time interval achieved for these 21 patients was 8.0 hours, with more than 500 individual samples of matched high quality primary and metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues, peritoneal/pleural fluid and blood obtained so far. For the first four patients in which the autopsy was performed in <6 hours, we have successfully xenografted the primary tumor and/or two to four independent matched metastases from a variety of target organ sites, with a take rate of almost 60% for the first 26 xenografted tumors attempted. In an initial survey of KRAS2, TP53 and DPC4 genetic status in lethal metastatic pancreatic cancers, activating KRAS2 mutations were detected in 82% of cases and inactivating TP53 mutations in 55% of cases, consistent with rates of genetic alteration of these genes in early stage pancreatic cancers. However, DPC4 inactivation was found in 75% of patients analyzed, suggesting that genetic inactivation of the DPC4 tumor suppressor gene continues to be selected for with growth at the primary site and metastatic spread to other organs. The invaluable tissue resources generated by the success of the GICRMDP will provide an unparalleled resource for study of metastatic pancreatic cancer and of the metastatic process in general. PMID:15846069

  11. Immortalizing the complexity of cancer metastasis: genetic features of lethal metastatic pancreatic cancer obtained from rapid autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embuscado, Erlinda E; Laheru, Daniel; Ricci, Francesca; Yun, Ki Jung; de Boom Witzel, Sten; Seigel, Allison; Flickinger, Katie; Hidalgo, Manuel; Bova, G Steven; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A

    2005-05-01

    The virtual lack of well-characterized metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues for study has limited systematic studies of the metastatic process of this deadly disease. To address this important issue, we have instituted a rapid autopsy protocol for the collection of high quality tissues from patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, called the Gastrointestinal Cancer Rapid Medical Donation Program (GICRMDP). At the time of preparation of this manuscript, 20 patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and one patient with metastatic colon cancer have undergone a rapid autopsy in association with the GICRMDP. The average time interval achieved for these 21 patients was 8.0 hours, with more than 500 individual samples of matched high quality primary and metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues, peritoneal/pleural fluid and blood obtained so far. For the first four patients in which the autopsy was performed in <6 hours, we have successfully xenografted the primary tumor and/or two to four independent matched metastases from a variety of target organ sites, with a take rate of almost 60% for the first 26 xenografted tumors attempted. In an initial survey of KRAS2, TP53 and DPC4 genetic status in lethal metastatic pancreatic cancers, activating KRAS2 mutations were detected in 82% of cases and inactivating TP53 mutations in 55% of cases, consistent with rates of genetic alteration of these genes in early stage pancreatic cancers. However, DPC4 inactivation was found in 75% of patients analyzed, suggesting that genetic inactivation of the DPC4 tumor suppressor gene continues to be selected for with growth at the primary site and metastatic spread to other organs. The invaluable tissue resources generated by the success of the GICRMDP will provide an unparalleled resource for study of metastatic pancreatic cancer and of the metastatic process in general.

  12. Multiple reciprocal adaptations and rapid genetic change upon experimental coevolution of an animal host and its microbial parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Rebecca D; Makus, Carsten; Hasert, Barbara; Michiels, Nico K; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2010-04-20

    The coevolution between hosts and parasites is predicted to have complex evolutionary consequences for both antagonists, often within short time periods. To date, conclusive experimental support for the predictions is available mainly for microbial host systems, but for only a few multicellular host taxa. We here introduce a model system of experimental coevolution that consists of the multicellular nematode host Caenorhabditis elegans and the microbial parasite Bacillus thuringiensis. We demonstrate that 48 host generations of experimental coevolution under controlled laboratory conditions led to multiple changes in both parasite and host. These changes included increases in the traits of direct relevance to the interaction such as parasite virulence (i.e., host killing rate) and host resistance (i.e., the ability to survive pathogens). Importantly, our results provide evidence of reciprocal effects for several other central predictions of the coevolutionary dynamics, including (i) possible adaptation costs (i.e., reductions in traits related to the reproductive rate, measured in the absence of the antagonist), (ii) rapid genetic changes, and (iii) an overall increase in genetic diversity across time. Possible underlying mechanisms for the genetic effects were found to include increased rates of genetic exchange in the parasite and elevated mutation rates in the host. Taken together, our data provide comprehensive experimental evidence of the consequences of host-parasite coevolution, and thus emphasize the pace and complexity of reciprocal adaptations associated with these antagonistic interactions.

  13. A history into genetic and epigenetic evolution of food tolerance: how humanity rapidly evolved by drinking milk and eating wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Carine

    2017-12-01

    Human exposure to wheat and milk is almost global worldwide. Yet the introduction of milk and wheat is very recent (5000-10 000 years) when compared to the human evolution. The last 4 decades have seen a rise in food allergy and food intolerance to milk and wheat. Often described as plurifactorial, the cause of allergic diseases is the result from an interplay between genetic predisposition and epigenetic in the context of environmental changes. Genetic and epigenetic understanding and their contribution to allergy or other antigen-driven diseases have considerably advanced in the last few years. Yet, environmental factors are also quite difficult to identify and associate with disease risk. Can we rethink our old findings and learn from human history and recent genetic studies? More than one million years separate Homo habilis to today's mankind, more than 1 million years to develop abilities to obtain food by foraging in diverse environments. One million year to adjust and fine-tune our genetic code and adapt; and only 1% of this time, 10 000 years, to face the three biggest revolutions of the human kind: the agricultural revolution, the industrial revolution and the postindustrial revolution. With big and rapid environmental changes come adaptation but with no time for fine-tuning. Today tolerance and adverse reactions to food may be a testimony of adaptation successes and mistakes.

  14. Is There Any Evidence for Rapid, Genetically-Based, Climatic Niche Expansion in the Invasive Common Ragweed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Gallien

    Full Text Available Climatic niche shifts have been documented in a number of invasive species by comparing the native and adventive climatic ranges in which they occur. However, these shifts likely represent changes in the realized climatic niches of invasive species, and may not necessarily be driven by genetic changes in climatic affinities. Until now the role of rapid niche evolution in the spread of invasive species remains a challenging issue with conflicting results. Here, we document a likely genetically-based climatic niche expansion of an annual plant invader, the common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., a highly allergenic invasive species causing substantial public health issues. To do so, we looked for recent evolutionary change at the upward migration front of its adventive range in the French Alps. Based on species climatic niche models estimated at both global and regional scales we stratified our sampling design to adequately capture the species niche, and localized populations suspected of niche expansion. Using a combination of species niche modeling, landscape genetics models and common garden measurements, we then related the species genetic structure and its phenotypic architecture across the climatic niche. Our results strongly suggest that the common ragweed is rapidly adapting to local climatic conditions at its invasion front and that it currently expands its niche toward colder and formerly unsuitable climates in the French Alps (i.e. in sites where niche models would not predict its occurrence. Such results, showing that species climatic niches can evolve on very short time scales, have important implications for predictive models of biological invasions that do not account for evolutionary processes.

  15. Is There Any Evidence for Rapid, Genetically-Based, Climatic Niche Expansion in the Invasive Common Ragweed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallien, Laure; Thuiller, Wilfried; Fort, Noémie; Boleda, Marti; Alberto, Florian J; Rioux, Delphine; Lainé, Juliette; Lavergne, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Climatic niche shifts have been documented in a number of invasive species by comparing the native and adventive climatic ranges in which they occur. However, these shifts likely represent changes in the realized climatic niches of invasive species, and may not necessarily be driven by genetic changes in climatic affinities. Until now the role of rapid niche evolution in the spread of invasive species remains a challenging issue with conflicting results. Here, we document a likely genetically-based climatic niche expansion of an annual plant invader, the common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), a highly allergenic invasive species causing substantial public health issues. To do so, we looked for recent evolutionary change at the upward migration front of its adventive range in the French Alps. Based on species climatic niche models estimated at both global and regional scales we stratified our sampling design to adequately capture the species niche, and localized populations suspected of niche expansion. Using a combination of species niche modeling, landscape genetics models and common garden measurements, we then related the species genetic structure and its phenotypic architecture across the climatic niche. Our results strongly suggest that the common ragweed is rapidly adapting to local climatic conditions at its invasion front and that it currently expands its niche toward colder and formerly unsuitable climates in the French Alps (i.e. in sites where niche models would not predict its occurrence). Such results, showing that species climatic niches can evolve on very short time scales, have important implications for predictive models of biological invasions that do not account for evolutionary processes.

  16. Rapid Py-GC/MS assessment of the structural alterations of lignins in genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rencoret, Jorge; Del Río, José Carlos; Nierop, Klaas G J; Gutiérrez, Ana; Ralph, John

    Genetic modifications for perturbing the lignin pathway in three different species of angiosperm plants, including non-woody (Arabidopsis and alfalfa) and woody (poplar) plants, were readily evaluated by analytical pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Pyrolysis

  17. Reconstructing transmission trees for communicable diseases using densely sampled genetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worby, Colin J.; O'Neill, Philip D.; Kypraios, Theodore; Robotham, Julie V.; De Angelis, Daniela; Cartwright, Edward J. P.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Cooper, Ben S.

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing of pathogens from multiple hosts in an epidemic offers the potential to investigate who infected whom with unparalleled resolution, potentially yielding important insights into disease dynamics and the impact of control measures. We considered disease outbreaks in a setting with dense genomic sampling, and formulated stochastic epidemic models to investigate person-to-person transmission, based on observed genomic and epidemiological data. We constructed models in which the genetic distance between sampled genotypes depends on the epidemiological relationship between the hosts. A data augmented Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm was used to sample over the transmission trees, providing a posterior probability for any given transmission route. We investigated the predictive performance of our methodology using simulated data, demonstrating high sensitivity and specificity, particularly for rapidly mutating pathogens with low transmissibility. We then analyzed data collected during an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a hospital, identifying probable transmission routes and estimating epidemiological parameters. Our approach overcomes limitations of previous methods, providing a framework with the flexibility to allow for unobserved infection times, multiple independent introductions of the pathogen, and within-host genetic diversity, as well as allowing forward simulation. PMID:27042253

  18. Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Alan

    An informal introduction to the study of communication deals with the major topics in the field. It presents basic theories of communication and language, reviews how language takes on meaning, explains the stimulus-response and Piaget theories of learning, and presents major theories dealing with communications and society. These theories include…

  19. Defective folding and rapid degradation of mutant proteins is a common disease mechanism in genetic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Bross, P; Jørgensen, M M

    2000-01-01

    Many disease-causing point mutations do not seriously compromise synthesis of the affected polypeptide but rather exert their effects by impairing subsequent protein folding or stability of the folded protein. This often results in rapid degradation of the affected protein. The concepts...

  20. Defective folding and rapid degradation of mutant proteins is a common disease mechanism in genetic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Bross, Peter; Jørgensen, Malene Munk

    2000-01-01

    Many disease-causing point mutations do not seriously compromise synthesis of the affected polypeptides but rather exert their effects by impairing subsequent protein folding or stability of the folded protein. This often results in rapid degradation of the affected protein. The concepts...

  1. ASD and schizophrenia show distinct developmental profiles in common genetic overlap with population-based social communication difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    St Pourcain, B; Robinson, E B; Anttila, V

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic......-developing youth (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, N⩽5553, longitudinal assessments at 8, 11, 14 and 17 years) using the Social Communication Disorder Checklist. Data on clinical ASD (PGC-ASD: 5305 cases, 5305 pseudo-controls; iPSYCH-ASD: 7783 cases, 11 359 controls) and schizophrenia (PGC-SCZ2: 34...... effects were unrelated to each other and changes in trait-disorder links reflect the heterogeneity of genetic factors influencing social communication difficulties during childhood versus later adolescence. Thus, both clinical ASD and schizophrenia share some genetic influences with impairments in social...

  2. Communicating the risks and benefits of genetically engineered food products to the public: The view of experts from four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Balderjahn, Ingo; Will, Simone

    Executive summary 1. Previous research on the risks and benefits of genetically engineered food products has not accounted for risk communication issues. The introductory part of this paper develops a more comprehensive model. Risks and benefits enter the model as the input of a risk communication......, and the United Kingdom. Leading representatives of the following parties took part: scientific research, authorities responsible for the approval of genetically modified organisms, suppliers of genetically modified organisms, the food processing industry, associations of the food industry, agricultural...... to communication about genetically modified food products....

  3. Family communication between children and their parents about inherited genetic conditions: a meta-synthesis of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Alison; Coad, Jane; Plumridge, Gill M; Gill, Paramjit; Farndon, Peter

    2008-10-01

    In families affected by an inherited genetic condition, parents face a difficult task of having to communicate genetic risk information to their children. A systematic review of all major health and medical research databases was undertaken using current guidelines to identify original relevant research papers from 1980 to 2007, which explore the issues surrounding parents and their children's communication about inherited genetic risk. A total of 9698 abstracts were found of which 158 research papers were reviewed as potentially relevant. A final 17 papers were identified which met predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Using a meta-ethnographic approach, all identified studies' findings were analysed as primary data sources by three researchers, who independently identified the key concepts. A high level of congruence emerged between researchers, and agreed concepts were used to examine similarities and differences between papers. The findings informed the development of a narrative framework exploring the issues that related to parents' explanations of inherited genetic risk to their children, the reasons for sharing information, children's understanding of parents' explanations, the emotions evoked for family members and the support and guidance received from health professionals. Providing information, checking understanding, and explaining and managing the emotional feelings that arise were integral to supporting children's coping with genetic risk information. However, many parents struggled with one or more of these components and required more support specific to the child's developmental stage, and family members' transition of readjustment to the impact of the genetic condition.

  4. Rapid genetically modified organism (GMO screening of various food products and animal feeds using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha, V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available modified crops which brought up a controversy on the safety usage of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. It has been implemented globally that all GMO products and its derived ingredients should have regulations on the usage and labelling. Thus, it is necessary to develop methods that allow rapid screening of GMO products to comply with the regulations. This study employed a reliable and flexible multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method for the rapid detection of transgenic elements in genetically modified soy and maize along with the soybean LECTIN gene and maize ZEIN gene respectively. The selected four common transgenic elements were 35S promoter (35S; Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator (NOS; 5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (epsps gene; and Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab gene. Optimization of the multiplex PCR methods were carried out by using 1% Roundup ReadyTM Soybean (RRS as the certified reference material for soybean that produced fourplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene and soybean LECTIN gene and by using 1% MON810 as the certified reference material for maize that produced triplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, cry1Ab gene and maize ZEIN gene prior to screening of the GMO traits in various food products and animal feeds. 1/9 (11.1% of the animal feed contained maize and 1/15 (6.7% of the soybean food products showed positive results for the detection of GMO transgenic gene. None of the maize food products showed positive results for GMO transgenic gene. In total, approximately 4% of the food products and animal feed were positive as GMO. This indicated GMOs have not widely entered the food chain. However, it is necessary to have an appropriate screening method due to GMOs’ unknown potential risk to humans and to animals. This rapid screening method will provide leverage in terms of being economically wise, time saving and reliable.

  5. Using a new molecular genetic of genotype and liquid culture medium for rapid diagnosis tb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ганна Іванівна Барбова

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of molecular genetic test system GenoType multyresistentens MTBDRplus. It was established that the presence of mutations associated with resistance to isoniazid, only 93.1 % of cases of MBT to isoniazid during the test in a liquid medium. Work carried out under the National Programme to combat tuberculosisMaterials and methods. We investigated the clinical sputum samples from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. The applied system GenoType. Principle DNA strip technology GenoType is that the DNA-coated strip specific test that are complementary to the derived PCR amplicon. After the single-stranded amplicon denaturation associated with tests on strip (hybridize, and visualized in a sequential enzymatic reaction with streptavydynom and alkaline phosphatase. Evaluation of hybridization is performed automatically. For culturing sputum liquid culture medium used - Middlebrook broth 7N9 VASTES MGIT system.Results and discussion. The results of molecular genetic studies of samples of sputum-concentrated and concentrated by a system GenoType not differed (P>0.05. Diagnostic value of two methods (molecular and genetic – system GenoType and phenotype – VASTES MGIT 960 system was very high (100%. Two systems have tested positive in the study 756 (95.5 % Mycobacterium strains that were identified in the system VASTES MGIT 960, formed Cord Factor and the results were positive identification test ID MTB MGIT they attributed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. 36 (4.5 % samples from positive MGIT tubes were negative. As a result of molecular-genetic identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria complex it was found that 18 (2.3 % strains of mycobacteria belonging to the M. avium-intracellulare, 12 (1.5 % mycobacterial cultures were attributed to M. kansasii, 6 (0, 7 % cultures were identified as M. fortuitum. The results of the molecular study of MS on Mycobacterium resistance profile INN + RIF coincided in 95.5 % (894

  6. [Rapid first-tier genetic diagnosis in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ács, Orsolya Dóra; Péterfia, Bálint; Hollósi, Péter; Haltrich, Irén; Sallai, Ágnes; Luczay, Andrea; Buiting, Karin; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Török, Dóra; Szabó, András; Fekete, György

    2018-01-01

    According to the international literature, DNA methylation analysis of the promoter region of SNRPN locus is the most efficient way to start genetic investigation in patients with suspected Prader-Willi syndrome. Our aim was to develop a simple, reliable first-tier diagnosis to confirm Prader-Willi syndrome, therefore to compare our self-designed simple, cost-efficient high-resolution melting analysis and the most commonly used methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to confirm Prader-Willi syndrome. We studied 17 clinically suspected Prader-Willi syndrome children and their DNA samples. With self-designed primers, bisulfite-sensitive polymerase chain reaction, high-resolution melting analysis and, as a control, methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were performed. Prader-Willi syndrome was genetically confirmed in 6 out of 17 clinically suspected Prader-Willi syndrome patients. The results of high-resolution melting analysis and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were equivalent in each case. Using our self-designed primers and altered bisulfite-specific PCR conditions, high-resolution melting analysis appears to be a simple, fast, reliable and effective method for primarily proving or excluding clinically suspected Prade-Willi syndrome cases. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(2): 64-69.

  7. Rapid construction of insulated genetic circuits via synthetic sequence-guided isothermal assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torella, Joseph P; Boehm, Christian R; Lienert, Florian; Chen, Jan-Hung; Way, Jeffrey C; Silver, Pamela A

    2014-01-01

    In vitro recombination methods have enabled one-step construction of large DNA sequences from multiple parts. Although synthetic biological circuits can in principle be assembled in the same fashion, they typically contain repeated sequence elements such as standard promoters and terminators that interfere with homologous recombination. Here we use a computational approach to design synthetic, biologically inactive unique nucleotide sequences (UNSes) that facilitate accurate ordered assembly. Importantly, our designed UNSes make it possible to assemble parts with repeated terminator and insulator sequences, and thereby create insulated functional genetic circuits in bacteria and mammalian cells. Using UNS-guided assembly to construct repeating promoter-gene-terminator parts, we systematically varied gene expression to optimize production of a deoxychromoviridans biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli. We then used this system to construct complex eukaryotic AND-logic gates for genomic integration into embryonic stem cells. Construction was performed by using a standardized series of UNS-bearing BioBrick-compatible vectors, which enable modular assembly and facilitate reuse of individual parts. UNS-guided isothermal assembly is broadly applicable to the construction and optimization of genetic circuits and particularly those requiring tight insulation, such as complex biosynthetic pathways, sensors, counters and logic gates.

  8. Rapid construction of insulated genetic circuits via synthetic sequence-guided isothermal assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torella, JP; Boehm, CR; Lienert, F; Chen, JH; Way, JC; Silver, PA

    2013-12-28

    In vitro recombination methods have enabled one-step construction of large DNA sequences from multiple parts. Although synthetic biological circuits can in principle be assembled in the same fashion, they typically contain repeated sequence elements such as standard promoters and terminators that interfere with homologous recombination. Here we use a computational approach to design synthetic, biologically inactive unique nucleotide sequences (UNSes) that facilitate accurate ordered assembly. Importantly, our designed UNSes make it possible to assemble parts with repeated terminator and insulator sequences, and thereby create insulated functional genetic circuits in bacteria and mammalian cells. Using UNS-guided assembly to construct repeating promoter-gene-terminator parts, we systematically varied gene expression to optimize production of a deoxychromoviridans biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli. We then used this system to construct complex eukaryotic AND-logic gates for genomic integration into embryonic stem cells. Construction was performed by using a standardized series of UNS-bearing BioBrick-compatible vectors, which enable modular assembly and facilitate reuse of individual parts. UNS-guided isothermal assembly is broadly applicable to the construction and optimization of genetic circuits and particularly those requiring tight insulation, such as complex biosynthetic pathways, sensors, counters and logic gates.

  9. Uncertainty management and communication preferences related to genetic relativism among families affected by down syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Roxanne; Peters, Kathryn F; Traeder, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Genes hold opportunities for us to look backward and forward in family health and disease incidence. Our beliefs about genes' roles in health form around frameworks relating to personal control, and the influence of social networks and/or religious faith on genetic expression in health. These genetic relativistic frameworks were found to predict levels of illness uncertainty among 541 diagnosed adults and family members affected by neurofibromatosis, Down syndrome, and Marfan syndrome. Participants were recruited and surveyed about their expectations and preferences for communicating about their respective disorder, with illness uncertainty found to predict the desire to communicate about the condition and to manage related uncertainty. The desire to manage uncertainty in ways that foster control and hope partially mediated the relationship between illness uncertainty and communication preferences. Negative feelings about the condition, which were stronger for affected participants than for family members, related to illness uncertainty, the desire to manage uncertainty, and communication preferences, mediating the relationship between illness uncertainty and uncertainty management. Findings contribute to research in illness uncertainty management and have pragmatic implications for the design of counseling and educational materials associated with the genetic conditions considered in this research.

  10. The Arctic Report Card: Communicating the State of the Rapidly Changing Arctic to a Diverse Audience via the Worldwide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, M. O.; Richter-Menge, J.; Overland, J. E.; Soreide, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid change is occurring throughout the Arctic environmental system. The goal of the Arctic Report Card is to communicate the nature of the many changes to a diverse audience via the Worldwide Web. First published in 2006, the Arctic Report Card is a peer-reviewed publication containing clear, reliable and concise scientific information on the current state of the Arctic environment relative to observational records. Available only online, it is intended to be an authoritative source for scientists, teachers, students, decision-makers, policy-makers and the general public interested in the Arctic environment and science. The Arctic Report Card is organized into five sections: Atmosphere; Sea Ice & Ocean; Marine Ecosystem; Terrestrial Ecosystem; Terrestrial Cryosphere. Arctic Report Card 2012, the sixth annual update, comprised 20 essays on physical and biological topics prepared by an international team of 141 scientists from 15 different countries. For those who want a quick summary, the Arctic Report Card home page provides highlights of key events and findings, and a short video that is also available on YouTube. The release of the Report Card each autumn is preceded by a NOAA press release followed by a press conference, when the Web site is made public. The release of Arctic Report Card 2012 at an AGU Fall Meeting press conference on 5 December 2012 was subsequently reported by leading media organizations. The NOAA Arctic Web site, of which the Report Card is a part, is consistently at the top of Google search results for the keyword 'arctic', and the Arctic Report Card Web site tops search results for keyword "arctic report" - pragmatic indications of a Web site's importance and popularity. As another indication of the Web site's impact, in December 2012, the month when the 2012 update was released, the Arctic Report Card Web site was accessed by 19,851 unique sites in 105 countries, and 4765 Web site URLs referred to the Arctic Report Card. The 2012 Arctic

  11. Rise and fall of a wolf population: genetic diversity and structure during recovery, rapid expansion and drastic decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, E; Ruokonen, M; Kojola, I; Aspi, J

    2012-11-01

    The grey wolves (Canis lupus) of Finland have had a varied history, with a period of rapid population expansion after the mid-1990s followed by a decline with a current census size of about 140 wolves. Here, we investigate the impact of unstable population size and connectivity on genetic diversity and structure in a long-term genetic study of 298 Finnish wolves born in 1995-2009 and genotyped for 17 microsatellite loci. During the initial recovery and prior to population expansion, genetic diversity was high (1995-1997: LD-N(e)  = 67.2; H(o)  = 0.749; H(e)  = 0.709) despite a small census size and low number of breeders (N(c)  < 100; N(b)  < 10) likely reflecting the status of the Russian source population. Surprisingly, observed heterozygosity decreased significantly during the study period (t = -2.643, P = 0.021) despite population expansion, likely a result of an increase in inbreeding (F(IS)  = 0.108 in 2007-2009) owing to a low degree of connectivity with adjacent Russian wolf population (m = 0.016-0.090; F(ST)  = 0.086, P < 0.001) and population crash after 2006. However, population growth had a temporary positive impact on N(e) and number of family lines. This study shows that even strong population growth alone might not be adequate to retain genetic diversity, especially when accompanied with low amount of subsequent gene flow and population decline. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Rapid DNA extraction protocol from stool, suitable for molecular genetic diagnosis of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza; Velayati, Arash; Tavasoli, Alireza; Dadkhah, Ezzat

    2007-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common forms of cancers in the world and is curable if diagnosed at the early stage. Analysis of DNA extracted from stool specimens is a recent advantage to cancer diagnostics. Many protocols have been recommended for DNA extraction from stool, and almost all of them are difficult and time consuming, dealing with high amount of toxic materials like phenol. Their results vary due to sample collection method and further purification treatment. In this study, an easy and rapid method was optimized for isolating the human DNA with reduced PCR inhibitors present in stool. Fecal samples were collected from 10 colonoscopy-negative adult volunteers and 10 patients with CRC. Stool (1 g) was extracted using phenol/chloroform based protocol. The amplification of P53 exon 9 was examined to evaluate the extraction efficiency for human genomic targets and also compared its efficiency with Machiels et al. and Ito et al. protocols. The amplification of exon 9 of P53 from isolated fecal DNA was possible in most cases in 35 rounds of PCR using no additional purification procedure for elimination of the remaining inhibitors.inhibitors. A useful, rapid and easy protocol for routine extraction of DNA from stool was introduced and compared with two previous protocols.

  13. A Genetic Algorithm for the Generation of Packetization Masks for Robust Image Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Quiñones, Katherine; Duran-Faundez, Cristian; Gutiérrez, Gilberto; Lecuire, Vincent; Arredondo-Flores, Christopher; Jara-Lipán, Hugo

    2017-04-28

    Image interleaving has proven to be an effective solution to provide the robustness of image communication systems when resource limitations make reliable protocols unsuitable (e.g., in wireless camera sensor networks); however, the search for optimal interleaving patterns is scarcely tackled in the literature. In 2008, Rombaut et al. presented an interesting approach introducing a packetization mask generator based in Simulated Annealing (SA), including a cost function, which allows assessing the suitability of a packetization pattern, avoiding extensive simulations. In this work, we present a complementary study about the non-trivial problem of generating optimal packetization patterns. We propose a genetic algorithm, as an alternative to the cited work, adopting the mentioned cost function, then comparing it to the SA approach and a torus automorphism interleaver. In addition, we engage the validation of the cost function and provide results attempting to conclude about its implication in the quality of reconstructed images. Several scenarios based on visual sensor networks applications were tested in a computer application. Results in terms of the selected cost function and image quality metric PSNR show that our algorithm presents similar results to the other approaches. Finally, we discuss the obtained results and comment about open research challenges.

  14. Stratification by Genetic and Demographic Characteristics Improves Diagnostic Accuracy of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Rapidly Progressive Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, André; Llorens, Franc; Schmitz, Matthias; Arora, Amandeep Singh; Zafar, Saima; Lange, Peter; Schmidt, Christian; Zerr, Inga

    2016-10-18

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are routinely used for the differential diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia, but are also affected by patients' characteristics. To assess if stratification by age, sex, and genetic risk factors improves the accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in patients with rapidly progressive dementia. 1,538 individuals with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), 173 with classic Alzheimer's disease (cAD), 37 with rapidly progressive Alzheimer's disease (rpAD), and 589 without signs of dementia were included in this retrospective diagnostic study. The effect of age, sex, PRNP codon 129, and APOE genotype on CSF levels of tau, p-tau, Aβ1-42, and Aβ1-40 values measured at time of diagnostic work-up was assessed. Tau was a better marker for the differentiation of CJD and rpAD in older (AUC:0.97; 95% CI:0.96-1.00) than in younger (AUC:0.91; 95% CI:0.87-0.94) patients as tau levels increased with age in CJD patients, but not in rpAD patients. PRNP codon 129 and APOE genotype had complex effects on biomarkers in all diseases, making stratification by genotype a powerful tool. In females (AUC:0.78; 95% CI:0.65-0.91) and patients older than 70 (AUC:0.78; 95% CI:0.62-0.93), tau was able to differentiate with moderate accuracy between cAD and rpAD patients. Implementation of stratum-specific reference ranges improves the diagnostic accuracy of CSF biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia. Diagnostic criteria developed for this setting have to take this into account.

  15. Communicating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursen, David

    Chapter 8 in a volume on school leadership, this chapter is a revised version of "Communications in the Open Organization." It offers suggestions from a number of authorities for administrators who want to learn how to communicate more effectively with a variety of groups within and outside the school. It begins by explaining the human…

  16. Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue on communication includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROM and computer software, videos, books, and professional resources that deal with various methods of communication. Sidebars discuss mythology, photojournalism, sharing ideas on the Web, and songs of protest. Suggestions for class activities are also included. (LRW)

  17. Limitations and Pitfalls of Using Family Letters to Communicate Genetic Risk: a Qualitative Study with Patients and Healthcare Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheensa, Sandi; Lucassen, Anneke; Fenwick, Angela

    2017-11-01

    European genetic testing guidelines recommend that healthcare professionals (HCPs) discuss the familial implications of any test with a patient and offer written material to help them share the information with family members. Giving patients these "family letters" to alert any relatives of their risk has become part of standard practice and has gone relatively unquestioned over the years. Communication with at-risk relatives will become an increasingly pressing issue as mainstream and routine practice incorporates broad genome tests and as the number of findings potentially relevant to relatives increases. This study therefore explores problems around the use of family letters to communicate about genetic risk. We conducted 16 focus groups with 80 HCPs, and 35 interviews with patients, recruited from across the UK. Data were analyzed thematically and we constructed four themes: 1) HCPs writing family letters: how to write them and why?, 2) Patients' issues with handing out family letters, 3) Dissemination becomes an uncontrolled form of communication, and 4) When the relative has the letter, is the patient's and HCP's duty discharged? We conclude by suggesting alternative and supplementary methods of communication, for example through digital tools, and propose that in comparison to communication by family letter, direct contact by HCPs might be a more appropriate and successful option.

  18. Clinical usefulness of multiplex PCR lateral flow in MRSA detection: a novel, rapid genetic testing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihonyanagi, Shin; Kanoh, Yuhsaku; Okada, Kiyomi; Uozumi, Toshiki; Kazuyama, Yukumasa; Yamaguchi, Tokiko; Nakazaki, Nobuhiko; Sakurai, Keizou; Hirata, Yasuyoshi; Munekata, Shinichi; Ohtani, Shinichi; Takemoto, Tsuyoshi; Bandoh, Yuki; Akahoshi, Tohru

    2012-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with exogenous cassette DNA containing the methicillin-resistant gene mecA (SCCmec) poses a problem as a drug-resistant bacterium responsible for hospital- and community-acquired infections. The frequency of MRSA detection has recently been increasing rapidly in Japan, and SCCmec has also been classified more diversely into types I-V. A rapid test is essential for early diagnosis and treatment of MRSA infections, but detection by conventional methods requires at least two days. The newly developed multiplex PCR lateral flow method allows specific amplification of femA to detect S. aureus, mecA to detect SCCmec, and kdpC to detect SCCmec type II; moreover, PCR products can be evaluated visually in about 3 h. In the present study, we developed a PCR lateral flow method for MRSA using this method and investigated its clinical usefulness in the detection of MRSA. The results showed a diagnostic concordance rate of 91.7% for MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus between bacteriological examination and PCR lateral flow, and a high level of specificity in PCR lateral flow. In addition, a higher detection rate for S. aureus using the same sample was observed for PCR lateral flow (70.2%) than for bacteriological tests (48.6%). The above results show that PCR lateral flow for MRSA detection has high sensitivity, specificity, and speed, and its clinical application as a method for early diagnosis of MRSA infections appears to be feasible.

  19. Rapid Genetic Adaptation during the First Four Months of Survival under Resource Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrani, Sarit; Bolotin, Evgeni; Katz, Sophia; Hershberg, Ruth

    2017-07-01

    Many bacteria, including the model bacterium Escherichia coli can survive for years within spent media, following resource exhaustion. We carried out evolutionary experiments, followed by whole genome sequencing of hundreds of evolved clones to study the dynamics by which E. coli adapts during the first 4 months of survival under resource exhaustion. Our results reveal that bacteria evolving under resource exhaustion are subject to intense selection, manifesting in rapid mutation accumulation, enrichment in functional mutation categories and extremely convergent adaptation. In the most striking example of convergent adaptation, we found that across five independent populations adaptation to conditions of resource exhaustion occurs through mutations to the three same specific positions of the RNA polymerase core enzyme. Mutations to these three sites are strongly antagonistically pleiotropic, in that they sharply reduce exponential growth rates in fresh media. Such antagonistically pleiotropic mutations, combined with the accumulation of additional mutations, severely reduce the ability of bacteria surviving under resource exhaustion to grow exponentially in fresh media. We further demonstrate that the three positions at which these resource exhaustion mutations occur are conserved for the ancestral E. coli allele, across bacterial phyla, with the exception of nonculturable bacteria that carry the resource exhaustion allele at one of these positions, at very high frequencies. Finally, our results demonstrate that adaptation to resource exhaustion is not limited by mutational input and that bacteria are able to rapidly adapt under resource exhaustion in a temporally precise manner through allele frequency fluctuations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Development of Rapid Detection and Genetic Characterization of Salmonella in Poultry Breeder Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Ricke

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered.

  1. Development of Rapid Detection and Genetic Characterization of Salmonella in Poultry Breeder Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquin, Robin; Hanning, Irene; Ahn, Soohyoun; Ricke, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered. PMID:22346699

  2. Rapid communication: K 0

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. A SINGH1 A KUMAR1 R RAJA2 V BHATNAGAR1 V SINGH3. Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India; Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia 50610, USA; Banarus Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India ...

  3. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION RAPID COMMUNICATION ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sulfated polyborate: A mild, efficient catalyst for synthesis of N-tert- butyl/N-trityl protected amides via Ritter reaction. KRISHNA S INDALKAR, CHETAN K KHATRI and GANESH U CHATURBHUJ*. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 019 ...

  4. Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Popular mediums : Paper postal service, newspapers. Air (Wireless) person to person communication, mobile phones, satellite systems. Copper Wire ( Land - line) POTS based telephone system; Other mediums optical fiber, water etc.

  5. DNA-based genetic markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa (Fast Plants type designed for the teaching laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryn E. Slankster

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr, also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for Brassica rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based markers and 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR-type markers spread over four chromosomes. The DNA sequences of these markers represent variation in a wide range of genomic features. Among the VNTR-type markers, there are examples of variation in a nongenic region, variation within an intron, and variation in the coding sequence of a gene. Among the SNP-based markers there are examples of polymorphism in intronic DNA and synonymous substitution in a coding sequence. Thus these markers can serve laboratory exercises in both transmission genetics and molecular biology.

  6. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; van Oorschot, Inge; Hanhart, Corrie; Bonnema, Guusje; Jansen-van den Bosch, Tanja; Mank, Rolf; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Meng, Lin; Wu, Jian; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel, and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 centiMorgan (cM) with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 and 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis. PMID:22912644

  7. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat eBagheri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant inbred line (RIL population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 SNP, 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 cM with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to QTL analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 to 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis.

  8. DNA-Based Genetic Markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica Rapa (Fast Plants Type) Designed for the Teaching Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slankster, Eryn E.; Chase, Jillian M.; Jones, Lauren A.; Wendell, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr), also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for B. rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based markers and 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR)-type markers spread over four chromosomes. The DNA sequences of these markers represent variation in a wide range of genomic features. Among the VNTR-type markers, there are examples of variation in a non-genic region, variation within an intron, and variation in the coding sequence of a gene. Among the SNP-based markers there are examples of polymorphism in intronic DNA and synonymous substitution in a coding sequence. Thus these markers can serve laboratory exercises in both transmission genetics and molecular biology. PMID:22675329

  9. Communications

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    1982-01-01

    Communications are read for interest in issues that have importance for all who practice and use management science. They are not refereed for technical correctness, as are articles and Notes that appear in Management Science. The reader is therefore cautioned that the publication of any Communication implies neither scientific standing nor acceptance per se on the part of either Management Science or TIMS. Centers Within Universities: Management and Evaluation by James G. Taaffe, On a Common...

  10. Genetic Screening Strategy for Rapid Access to Polyether Ionophore Producers and Products in Actinomycetes ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Ning; Xi, Lijun; Rong, Xiaoying; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Polyether ionophores are a unique class of polyketides with broad-spectrum activity and outstanding potency for the control of drug-resistant bacteria and parasites, and they are produced exclusively by actinomycetes. A special epoxidase gene encoding a critical tailoring enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds has been found in all five of the complete gene clusters of polyether ionophores published so far. To detect potential producer strains of these antibiotics, a pair of degenerate primers was designed according to the conserved regions of the five known polyether epoxidases. A total of 44 putative polyether epoxidase gene-positive strains were obtained by the PCR-based screening of 1,068 actinomycetes isolated from eight different habitats and 236 reference strains encompassing eight major families of Actinomycetales. The isolates spanned a wide taxonomic diversity based on 16S rRNA gene analysis, and actinomycetes isolated from acidic soils seemed to be a promising source of polyether ionophores. Four genera were detected to contain putative polyether epoxidases, including Micromonospora, which has not previously been reported to produce polyether ionophores. The designed primers also detected putative epoxidase genes from diverse known producer strains that produce polyether ionophores unrelated to the five published gene clusters. Moreover, phylogenetic and chemical analyses showed a strong correlation between the sequence of polyether epoxidases and the structure of encoded polyethers. Thirteen positive isolates were proven to be polyether ionophore producers as expected, and two new analogues were found. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using this epoxidase gene screening strategy to aid the rapid identification of known products and the discovery of unknown polyethers in actinomycetes. PMID:21421776

  11. Rapid Operational Access and Maneuver Support (ROAMS) Platform for Improved Military Logistics Lines of Communication and Operational Vessel Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Platform for Improved Military Logistics Lines of Communication and Operational Vessel Routing by Drew Loney, Kimberly Pevey, Jennifer McAlpin...provides improved knowledge of potential lines of communication and vessel routes through hydrodynamic modeling and path optimization under a variety of...classified into two types of activities: logistics and operational. Logistics activities are concerned with the establishment of lines of communication

  12. Mapping genetic research in non-communicable disease publications in selected Arab countries: first step towards a guided research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddine, Zeina; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Othman, Shahd; Yazbek, Soha

    2016-11-10

    In the Arab world, intervention and policy response to non-communicable diseases (NCD) has been weak despite extensive epidemiological evidence highlighting the alarmingly increased prevalence of chronic diseases. Generating genetic information is one key component to promote efficient disease management strategies. This study undertook a scoping review to generate the profile of the undertaken research on genetics of NCD publications in selected Arab countries. An analysis of the research produced examined the extent, range, nature, topic and methods of published research. The study aimed at identifying the gaps in genetic NCD research to inform policy action for NCD prevention and control. The scoping review was conducted based on the five-stage methodological framework and included countries in Arab region selected to represent various economies and epidemiological transitions. The search identified 555 articles that focus on genetics-NCD research in the selected Arab countries over the duration of this study (January 2000 to December 2013). The most commonly conducted research was descriptive and clinically focused, rather than etiologically focused. Country-specific carrier and risk screening studies were not among the top research designs. The genetic component of certain highly heritable diseases, as well as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic lung dysfunction and metabolic syndrome were all under investigated. This scoping review identified gaps for further research in the context of bioinformatics and genome-wide association studies. Genetic research in the Arab region has to be redirected towards NCDs with the highest morbidity, heritability and health burden within each country. A focused research plan to include community genetics is required for its proper integration in the Arab community.

  13. Ancestral genetic diversity associated with the rapid spread of stress-tolerant coral symbionts in response to Holocene climate change

    KAUST Repository

    Hume, Benjamin C. C.

    2016-04-05

    Coral communities in the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) withstand unusually high salinity levels and regular summer temperature maxima of up to ∼35 °C that kill conspecifics elsewhere. Due to the recent formation of the PAG and its subsequent shift to a hot climate, these corals have had only <6, 000 y to adapt to these extreme conditions and can therefore inform on how coral reefs may respond to global warming. One key to coral survival in the world\\'s warmest reefs are symbioses with a newly discovered alga, Symbiodinium thermophilum. Currently, it is unknown whether this symbiont originated elsewhere or emerged from unexpectedly fast evolution catalyzed by the extreme environment. Analyzing genetic diversity of symbiotic algae across >5, 000 km of the PAG, the Gulf of Oman, and the Red Sea coastline, we show that S. thermophilum is a member of a highly diverse, ancient group of symbionts cryptically distributed outside the PAG. We argue that the adjustment to temperature extremes by PAG corals was facilitated by the positive selection of preadapted symbionts. Our findings suggest that maintaining the largest possible pool of potentially stress-tolerant genotypes by protecting existing biodiversity is crucial to promote rapid adaptation to present-day climate change, not only for coral reefs, but for ecosystems in general.

  14. Risky knowledges: the sociocultural impacts of personal genetics in a knowledge-driven economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Michael; Fitzgerald, Ruth

    2007-09-21

    The rapid developments in modern genetics are changing the way disease and wellness may be considered. New concepts are emerging such as predictive genetic testing and forecasting future disease, as well as internet genetic analysis available to the public. In this short communication we consider some of the implications relating to predictive genetic testing in the public domain.

  15. Homogenous Population Genetic Structure of the Non-Native Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Europe as a Result of Rapid Population Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygala, Frank; Korablev, Nikolay; Ansorge, Hermann; Fickel, Joerns; Isomursu, Marja; Elmeros, Morten; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Baltrunaite, Laima; Balciauskas, Linas; Saarma, Urmas; Schulze, Christoph; Borkenhagen, Peter; Frantz, Alain C

    2016-01-01

    The extent of gene flow during the range expansion of non-native species influences the amount of genetic diversity retained in expanding populations. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in north-eastern and central Europe. This invasive species is of management concern because it is highly susceptible to fox rabies and an important secondary host of the virus. We hypothesized that the large number of introduced animals and the species' dispersal capabilities led to high population connectivity and maintenance of genetic diversity throughout the invaded range. We genotyped 332 tissue samples from seven European countries using 16 microsatellite loci. Different algorithms identified three genetic clusters corresponding to Finland, Denmark and a large 'central' population that reached from introduction areas in western Russia to northern Germany. Cluster assignments provided evidence of long-distance dispersal. The results of an Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis supported a scenario of equal effective population sizes among different pre-defined populations in the large central cluster. Our results are in line with strong gene flow and secondary admixture between neighbouring demes leading to reduced genetic structuring, probably a result of its fairly rapid population expansion after introduction. The results presented here are remarkable in the sense that we identified a homogenous genetic cluster inhabiting an area stretching over more than 1500km. They are also relevant for disease management, as in the event of a significant rabies outbreak, there is a great risk of a rapid virus spread among raccoon dog populations.

  16. Short communication: Development of a new polymorphic genetic marker in Araucaria araucana (Mol) K. Koch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, F.; Martin, M. A.; Alvarez, A.; Molina, J. R.; Alvarez, J. B.; Herrera, M. A.; Martin, L. M.

    2012-11-01

    Seed storage proteins have been used as genetic marker in forest species to evaluate genetic variability, demonstrating its effectiveness both in conifers and broad-leaved. In conifers, megagametophyte storage proteins are particularly useful because of their haploid nature. The aim of this study was to determine whether these proteins could be used as a new marker of genetic diversity in Araucaria araucana, one of the oldest conifers of South America and a representative symbol of Chilean forest biodiversity. For this, megagametophytes from two A. araucana populations were assessed to identify polymorphic bands and to obtain a preliminary estimation of the genetic diversity. The results revealed that globulin is the best fraction for measuring the variability in the species, due to their high level of variation (20 identified bands, 11 of them polymorphic). Both populations showed high genetic diversity, with more than 92% of the variation within populations. The study highlighted that these proteins can be used to measure the genetic diversity in A. araucana, providing good information to ensure the preservation of the species genetic resources. (Author) 29 refs.

  17. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  18. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  19. Communicating about the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods: The mediating role of trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Bredahl, Lone

    2003-01-01

    (either product-specific information or balanced/general information about genetic modification in food production) and were asked to evaluate different types of genetically modified foods (either beer or yoghurt). The information materials were attributed to different information sources (either...... estimated in a multi-sample structural equation model. The results showed that information provision had little effect on people's attitudes towards genetically modified foods, and that perceptions of information source characteristics contributed very little to attitude change. Furthermore, the type...... of information strategy adopted had almost no impact on post-experimental attitudes. The extent to which people trusted the information sources appeared to be driven by people's attitudes to genetically modified foods, rather than trust influencing the way that people reacted to the information. Trust...

  20. Non-responsiveness to intervention: children with autism spectrum disorders who do not rapidly respond to communication interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Lashley, Erin; Rispoli, Mandy Jenkins

    2010-01-01

    Providing a detailed description of two participants who failed to acquire functional communication skills following a verbal modelling intervention and Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) training. Single-case research; Independent verbal requests, imitated verbal requests, word approximations and independent picture requests were assessed in a toddler and a pre-schooler with autism before and during two interventions. Although both participants used some vocalizations over the course of the study, experimental control was not demonstrated and the participants did not acquire a functional communication system prior to the cessation of intervention. Future research should include additional, detailed reports that provide insight to why some children with autism do not respond to particular communication interventions and should investigate the pairing of particular child characteristics with targeted interventions.

  1. Genetic studies of acute tolerance, rapid tolerance, and drinking in the dark in the LXS recombinant inbred strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Richard A; Larson, Colin; Bennett, Beth

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that rapid tolerance (1-day tolerance) for the duration of the loss of righting reflex ("sleep time" [ST]) was mediated by an increase in acute functional tolerance (AFT). We also hypothesized that increased AFT would correspond to increased drinking. These questions were addressed using the LXS recombinant inbred mouse strain panel. Mice were given a pretreatment dose of either saline or 5 g/kg alcohol on day 1. On day 2, mice were tested for ST (4.1 g/kg) using a method with which it is possible to accurately assess AFT. Genetic correlation analysis was conducted among the ST-related variables and also with "drinking in the dark" (DID) which was previously measured by Saba and colleagues (2011). Saline-pretreated mice showed a continuous distribution of ST ranging from ~40 minutes to over 3 hours. Of the 43 strains tested, 9 showed significantly decreased ST after alcohol pretreatment, while in 3 strains, ST was significantly increased. AFT scores ranged from 0 to over 200 mg% in the saline group, and in the alcohol group, 8 strains showed a significant increase in AFT and 2 strains showed significant decrease in AFT. In the saline group, AFT was significantly correlated with ST (r = -0.47), but not in the alcohol group (r = -0.22). DID was significantly correlated with only AFT in the alcohol pretreated group (r = 0.64). The results suggest that AFT is an important component of the overall ST response, but that the alcohol pretreatment-induced change in AFT does not contribute to rapid ST tolerance. The significant correlation between DID and AFT in the alcohol group suggests that AFT may be a more relevant predictor of drinking behavior than the static measurement of ST. Moreover, preexposure to alcohol seems to change AFT in a way that makes it an even stronger predictor of drinking behavior. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Psychosocial and Clinical Factors Associated with Family Communication of Cancer Genetic Test Results among Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer at a Young Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrick, Ashley; Ashida, Sato; Ivanovich, Jennifer; Lyons, Sarah; Biesecker, Barbara B; Goodman, Melody S; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2017-02-01

    Genetic test results have medical implications beyond the patient that extend to biological family members. We examined psychosocial and clinical factors associated with communication of genetic test results within families. Women (N = 1080) diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger completed an online survey; 920 women that reported prior cancer genetic testing were included in analysis. We examined the proportion of immediate family members to whom they communicated genetic test results, and built multivariable regression models to examine clinical and psychosocial variables associated with the proportion score. Participants were most likely to communicate test results to their mother (83 %) and least likely to their son (45 %). Participants who carried a BRCA mutation (OR = 1.34; 95 % CI = 1.06, 1.70), had higher interest in genomic information (OR = 1.55; 95 % CI = 1.26, 1.91) and lower genetic worry (OR = 0.91; 95 % CI = 0.86, 0.96) communicated genetic test results to a greater proportion of their immediate family members. Participants with a BRCA1/2 mutation shared their genetic test results with more male family members (OR = 1.72; 95 % CI = 1.02, 2.89). Our findings suggest that patients with high worry about genetic risks, low interest in genomic information, or receive a negative genetic test result will likely need additional support to encourage family communication.

  3. Health communication, genetic determinism, and perceived control: the roles of beliefs about susceptibility and severity versus disease essentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Roxanne; Kahl, Mary L; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; Traeder, Tara

    2012-08-01

    This research examined the lay public's beliefs about genes and health that might be labeled deterministic. The goals of this research were to sort through the divergent and contested meanings of genetic determinism in an effort to suggest directions for public health genomic communication. A survey conducted in community-based settings of 717 participants included 267 who self-reported race as African American and 450 who self-reported race as Caucasian American. The survey results revealed that the structure of genetic determinism included 2 belief sets. One set aligned with perceived threat, encompassing susceptibility and severity beliefs linked to genes and health. The other set represents beliefs about biological essentialism linked to the role of genes for health. These concepts were found to be modestly positively related. Threat beliefs predicted perceived control over genes. Public health efforts to communicate about genes and health should consider effects of these messages for (a) perceived threat relating to susceptibility and severity and (b) perceptions of disease essentialism. Perceived threat may enhance motivation to act in health protective ways, whereas disease essentialist beliefs may contribute to a loss of motivation associated with control over health.

  4. Examining the Genetic and Environmental Associations between Autistic Social and Communication Deficits and Psychopathic Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth O'Nions

    Full Text Available Difficulties in appropriate social interaction are characteristic of both children with autism spectrum disorders and children with callous-unemotional traits (who are at risk of developing psychopathy. Extant experimental studies suggest that the nature of atypical social cognition that characterises these two profiles is not identical. However, 'empathizing' difficulties have been hypothesised for both groups, raising questions about the degree of aetiological separation between social impairments that characterize each disorder. This study explored the relative contribution of independent vs. shared aetiological influences to social and communication impairments associated with autistic traits and callous-unemotional traits, indexed by parent-report in a population-based cohort of twins.Participants were over 5,000 twin pairs from a UK cohort (the Twins Early Development Study; TEDS, assessed for callous-unemotional traits at 7 years and autistic social and communication impairments at 8 years. Multivariate model-fitting was used to explore the relative contribution of independent vs. overlapping genetic/environmental influences on these traits.Both social and communication impairments and callous-unemotional traits were highly heritable, although the genetic and environmental influences accounting for individual differences on each domain were predominantly independent.Extant evidence from experimental and neuro-imaging studies has suggested that, despite some superficially overlapping behaviours, the social difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and callous-unemotional traits are largely distinct. The current study is the first to demonstrate considerable aetiological independence of the social interaction difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and those with callous-unemotional traits.

  5. Examining the Genetic and Environmental Associations between Autistic Social and Communication Deficits and Psychopathic Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Tick, Beata; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Happé, Francesca; Plomin, Robert; Ronald, Angelica; Viding, Essi

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in appropriate social interaction are characteristic of both children with autism spectrum disorders and children with callous-unemotional traits (who are at risk of developing psychopathy). Extant experimental studies suggest that the nature of atypical social cognition that characterises these two profiles is not identical. However, 'empathizing' difficulties have been hypothesised for both groups, raising questions about the degree of aetiological separation between social impairments that characterize each disorder. This study explored the relative contribution of independent vs. shared aetiological influences to social and communication impairments associated with autistic traits and callous-unemotional traits, indexed by parent-report in a population-based cohort of twins. Participants were over 5,000 twin pairs from a UK cohort (the Twins Early Development Study; TEDS), assessed for callous-unemotional traits at 7 years and autistic social and communication impairments at 8 years. Multivariate model-fitting was used to explore the relative contribution of independent vs. overlapping genetic/environmental influences on these traits. Both social and communication impairments and callous-unemotional traits were highly heritable, although the genetic and environmental influences accounting for individual differences on each domain were predominantly independent. Extant evidence from experimental and neuro-imaging studies has suggested that, despite some superficially overlapping behaviours, the social difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and callous-unemotional traits are largely distinct. The current study is the first to demonstrate considerable aetiological independence of the social interaction difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and those with callous-unemotional traits.

  6. Short Communication: Genetic and environmental relationships between milk yield and kidding interval in dairy goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    First-parity 305-day milk yield and intervals between first and second kiddings from 1975 through 2005 were analyzed to estimate genetic and environmental parameters for U.S. Alpine, Nubian, Saanen, and Toggenburg dairy goats. The complete data set included information from 5,180 sires, 23,827 does ...

  7. Communicating about the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods: the mediating role of trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, Lynn J; Scholderer, Joachim; Bredahl, Lone

    2003-12-01

    Recent research suggests that public attitudes toward emerging technologies are mainly driven by trust in the institutions promoting and regulating these technologies. Alternative views maintain that trust should be seen as a consequence rather than a cause of such attitudes. To test its actual role, direct as well as mediating effects of trust were tested in an attitude change experiment involving 1,405 consumers from Denmark, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom. After prior attitudes to genetic modification in food production had been assessed, participants received different information materials (either product-specific information or balanced/general information about genetic modification in food production) and were asked to evaluate different types of genetically modified foods (either beer or yoghurt). The information materials were attributed to different information sources (either an industry association, a consumer organization, or a government source). After completion, perceived risk and perceived benefit were assessed, and participants indicated their trust in the information sources to which the materials had been attributed. Direct and trust-mediated attitude change effects were estimated in a multi-sample structural equation model. The results showed that information provision had little effect on people's attitudes toward genetically modified foods, and that perceptions of information source characteristics contributed very little to attitude change. Furthermore, the type of information strategy adopted had almost no impact on postexperimental attitudes. The extent to which people trusted the information sources appeared to be driven by people's attitudes to genetically modified foods, rather than trust influencing the way that people reacted to the information. Trust was not driving risk perception-rather, attitudes were informing perceptions of the motivation of the source providing the information.

  8. Affiliative behavior, ultrasonic communication and social reward are influenced by genetic variation in adolescent mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules B Panksepp

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Social approach is crucial for establishing relationships among individuals. In rodents, social approach has been studied primarily within the context of behavioral phenomena related to sexual reproduction, such as mating, territory defense and parental care. However, many forms of social interaction occur before the onset of reproductive maturity, which suggests that some processes underlying social approach among juvenile animals are probably distinct from those in adults. We conducted a longitudinal study of social investigation (SI in mice from two inbred strains to assess the extent to which genetic factors influence the motivation for young mice to approach one another. Early-adolescent C57BL/6J (B6 mice, tested 4-6 days after weaning, investigated former cage mates to a greater degree than BALB/cJ (BALB mice, irrespective of the sex composition within an interacting pair. This strain difference was not due to variation in maternal care, the phenotypic characteristics of stimulus mice or sensitivity to the length of isolation prior to testing, nor was it attributable to a general difference in appetitive motivation. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV production was positively correlated with the SI responses of mice from both strains. Interestingly, several USV characteristics segregated with the genetic background of young mice, including a higher average frequency and shorter duration for the USVs emitted by B6 mice. An assessment of conditioned place preference responses indicated that there was a strain-dependent difference in the rewarding nature of social contact. As adolescent mice aged, SI responses gradually became less sensitive to genetic background and more responsive to the particular sex of individuals within an interacting pair. We have thus identified a specific, genetic influence on the motivation of early-adolescent mice to approach one another. Consistent with classical theories of motivation, which propose a functional

  9. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... mother and medications). These include: Asthma Cancer Coronary heart disease Diabetes Hypertension Stroke MITOCHONDRIAL DNA-LINKED DISORDERS Mitochondria ...

  10. Digital Clinical Communication for Families and Caregivers of Children or Young People With Short- or Long-Term Conditions: Rapid Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armoiry, Xavier; Sturt, Jackie; Phelps, Emma Elizabeth; Walker, Clare-Louise; Court, Rachel; Taggart, Frances; Sutcliffe, Paul; Griffiths, Frances; Atherton, Helen

    2018-01-05

    The communication relationship between parents of children or young people with health conditions and health professionals is an important part of treatment, but it is unclear how far the use of digital clinical communication tools may affect this relationship. The objective of our study was to describe, assess the feasibility of, and explore the impact of digital clinical communication between families or caregivers and health professionals. We searched the literature using 5 electronic databases. We considered all types of study design published in the English language from January 2009 to August 2015. The population of interest included families and caregivers of children and young people aged less than 26 years with any type of health condition. The intervention was any technology permitting 2-way communication. We included 31 articles. The main designs were randomized controlled trials (RCTs; n=10), cross-sectional studies (n=9), pre- and postintervention uncontrolled (pre/post) studies (n=7), and qualitative interview studies (n=2); 6 had mixed-methods designs. In the majority of cases, we considered the quality rating to be fair. Many different types of health condition were represented. A breadth of digital communication tools were included: videoconferencing or videoconsultation (n=14), and Web messaging or emails (n=12). Health care professionals were mainly therapists or cognitive behavioral therapists (n=10), physicians (n=8), and nurses (n=6). Studies were very heterogeneous in terms of outcomes. Interventions were mainly evaluated using satisfaction or acceptance, or outcomes relating to feasibility. Clinical outcomes were rarely used. The RCTs showed that digital clinical communication had no impact in comparison with standard care. Uncontrolled pre/post studies showed good rates of satisfaction or acceptance. Some economic studies suggested that digital clinical communication may save costs. This rapid review showed an emerging body of literature on

  11. Homogenous Population Genetic Structure of the Non-Native Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides in Europe as a Result of Rapid Population Expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Drygala

    Full Text Available The extent of gene flow during the range expansion of non-native species influences the amount of genetic diversity retained in expanding populations. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides in north-eastern and central Europe. This invasive species is of management concern because it is highly susceptible to fox rabies and an important secondary host of the virus. We hypothesized that the large number of introduced animals and the species' dispersal capabilities led to high population connectivity and maintenance of genetic diversity throughout the invaded range. We genotyped 332 tissue samples from seven European countries using 16 microsatellite loci. Different algorithms identified three genetic clusters corresponding to Finland, Denmark and a large 'central' population that reached from introduction areas in western Russia to northern Germany. Cluster assignments provided evidence of long-distance dispersal. The results of an Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis supported a scenario of equal effective population sizes among different pre-defined populations in the large central cluster. Our results are in line with strong gene flow and secondary admixture between neighbouring demes leading to reduced genetic structuring, probably a result of its fairly rapid population expansion after introduction. The results presented here are remarkable in the sense that we identified a homogenous genetic cluster inhabiting an area stretching over more than 1500km. They are also relevant for disease management, as in the event of a significant rabies outbreak, there is a great risk of a rapid virus spread among raccoon dog populations.

  12. Rapid Buildup of Genetic Diversity in Founder Populations of the Gynodioecious Plant Species Origanum vulgare after Semi-Natural Grassland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, Kenny; Jacquemyn, Hans; Hermy, Martin; Vandepitte, Katrien; Honnay, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    In most landscapes the success of habitat restoration is largely dependent on spontaneous colonization of plant species. This colonization process, and the outcome of restoration practices, can only be considered successful if the genetic makeup of founding populations is not eroded through founder effects and subsequent genetic drift. Here we used 10 microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic effects of recent colonization of the long-lived gynodioecious species Origanum vulgare in restored semi-natural grassland patches. We compared the genetic diversity and differentiation of fourteen recent populations with that of thirteen old, putative source populations, and we evaluated the effects of spatial configuration of the populations on colonization patterns. We did not observe decreased genetic diversity in recent populations, or inflated genetic differentiation among them. Nevertheless, a significantly higher inbreeding coefficient was observed in recent populations, although this was not associated with negative fitness effects. Overall population genetic differentiation was low (FST = 0.040). Individuals of restored populations were assigned to on average 6.1 different source populations (likely following the ‘migrant pool’ model). Gene flow was, however, affected by the spatial configuration of the grasslands, with gene flow into the recent populations mainly originating from nearby source populations. This study demonstrates how spontaneous colonization after habitat restoration can lead to viable populations in a relatively short time, overcoming pronounced founder effects, when several source populations are nearby. Restored populations can therefore rapidly act as stepping stones and sources of genetic diversity, likely increasing overall metapopulation viability of the study species. PMID:23840642

  13. Short communication. An improved intersubspecific genetic map in Lens including functional markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. de la Puente

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A previous Lens genetic map was improved by adding 31 molecular genetic markers, reaching a total of 190 markers with undistorted segregation. Data were obtained from the segregational analysis of 113 F2 plants generated from a single hybrid of Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris × L. c. ssp. orientalis. The added markers are predominantly codominant (15 SSRs, five CAPSs, four presence-absence polymorphisms, three length polymorphisms, two RAPDs, and two SRAPs. At a LOD score of 3.0, the 190 markers were grouped into eight linkage groups (LG covering 2,234.4 cM, with an average distance between markers of 12.28 cM. This linkage map has reduced the numbers of linkage groups from ten in the previous map to eight. Most of the added markers must be functional markers since primers were mostly designed to amplify transcribed sequences. Some of the amplicons were sequenced to test if they were functional markers. One of the sequences showed homology with the Pisum TFL1a gene, involved in the transition from vegetative to flowering stages. This lentil gene was located in the LG 1 thanks to the presence of a polymorphic microsatellite in the first intron of the gene. Since L. culinaris ssp. orientalis is the primary source of additional genetic variability for lentil, this improved map could help in the use of such variability in lentil breeding programs.

  14. Short communication: genetic and environmental relationships between milk yield and kidding interval in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, H H; Valencia-Posadas, M; Wiggans, G R; Shepard, L; Torres-Vázquez, J A

    2010-01-01

    First-parity 305-d milk yield and intervals between first and second kiddings from 1975 through 2005 were analyzed to estimate genetic and environmental parameters for United States Alpine, LaMancha, Nubian, Saanen, and Toggenburg dairy goats. The data set included 43,612 does with first-parity milk yield and 25,863 does with first kidding interval. Parameters were estimated by REML using bivariate mixed models within and across breeds. Fixed effects were month and herd-year of kidding within breed and month and breed-herd-year of kidding across breeds. Random effects were animal and residual. The heritability estimate for first-parity milk yield was 0.36+/-0.01 across breeds and ranged from 0.35 to 0.38 within breed; heritability for first kidding interval was 0.05+/-0.01 across breeds and ranged from 0.00 to 0.15 within breed. The estimate of the genetic correlation between first-parity milk yield and first kidding interval was positive (unfavorable) across breeds (0.35+/-0.09). Estimates of environmental correlations within and across breeds were positive (0.16-0.25). The presence of unfavorable genetic relationships between milk yield and kidding interval indicates a need to include reproductive performance as a selection criterion. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical correlates and genetic linkage of social and communication difficulties in families with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Results from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Jack; Shugart, Yin Yao; Wang, Ying; Grados, Marco A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Pinto, Anthony; Rauch, Scott L; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Knowles, James A; Fyer, Abby J; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Cullen, Bernadette; Rasmussen, Steven A; Stewart, S Evelyn; Geller, Dan A; Maher, Brion S; Goes, Fernando S; Murphy, Dennis L; McCracken, James T; Riddle, Mark A; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-06-01

    Some individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have autistic-like traits, including deficits in social and communication behaviors (pragmatics). The objective of this study was to determine if pragmatic impairment aggregates in OCD families and discriminates a clinically and genetically distinct subtype of OCD. We conducted clinical examinations on, and collected DNA samples from, 706 individuals with OCD in 221 multiply affected OCD families. Using the Pragmatic Rating Scale (PRS), we compared the prevalence of pragmatic impairment in OCD-affected relatives of probands with and without pragmatic impairment. We also compared clinical features of OCD-affected individuals in families having at least one, versus no, individual with pragmatic impairment, and assessed for linkage to OCD in the two groups of families. The odds of pragmatic impairment were substantially greater in OCD-affected relatives of probands with pragmatic impairment. Individuals in high-PRS families had greater odds of separation anxiety disorder and social phobia, and a greater number of schizotypal personality traits. In high-PRS families, there was suggestive linkage to OCD on chromosome 12 at marker D12S1064 and on chromosome X at marker DXS7132 whereas, in low-PRS families, there was suggestive linkage to chromosome 3 at marker D3S2398. Pragmatic impairment aggregates in OCD families. Separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, and schizotypal personality traits are part of a clinical spectrum associated with pragmatic impairment in these families. Specific regions of chromosomes 12 and X are linked to OCD in high-PRS families. Thus, pragmatic impairment may distinguish a clinically and genetically homogeneous subtype of OCD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Rapid Communication with a “P300” Matrix Speller Using Electrocorticographic Signals (ECoG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Peter; Ritaccio, Anthony L.; Emrich, Joseph F.; Bischof, Horst; Schalk, Gerwin

    2010-01-01

    A brain–computer interface (BCI) can provide a non-muscular communication channel to severely disabled people. One particular realization of a BCI is the P300 matrix speller that was originally described by Farwell and Donchin (1988). This speller uses event-related potentials (ERPs) that include the P300 ERP. All previous online studies of the P300 matrix speller used scalp-recorded electroencephalography (EEG) and were limited in their communication performance to only a few characters per minute. In our study, we investigated the feasibility of using electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals for online operation of the matrix speller, and determined associated spelling rates. We used the matrix speller that is implemented in the BCI2000 system. This speller used ECoG signals that were recorded from frontal, parietal, and occipital areas in one subject. This subject spelled a total of 444 characters in online experiments. The results showed that the subject sustained a rate of 17 characters/min (i.e., 69 bits/min), and achieved a peak rate of 22 characters/min (i.e., 113 bits/min). Detailed analysis of the results suggests that ERPs over visual areas (i.e., visual evoked potentials) contribute significantly to the performance of the matrix speller BCI system. Our results also point to potential reasons for the apparent advantages in spelling performance of ECoG compared to EEG. Thus, with additional verification in more subjects, these results may further extend the communication options for people with serious neuromuscular disabilities. PMID:21369351

  17. High-precision approach to localization scheme of visible light communication based on artificial neural networks and modified genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Weipeng; Wu, Yuxiang; Xie, Canyu; Chen, Hao; Cai, Ye; Chen, Yingcong

    2017-10-01

    An indoor positioning algorithm based on visible light communication (VLC) is presented. This algorithm is used to calculate a three-dimensional (3-D) coordinate of an indoor optical wireless environment, which includes sufficient orders of multipath reflections from reflecting surfaces of the room. Leveraging the global optimization ability of the genetic algorithm (GA), an innovative framework for 3-D position estimation based on a modified genetic algorithm is proposed. Unlike other techniques using VLC for positioning, the proposed system can achieve indoor 3-D localization without making assumptions about the height or acquiring the orientation angle of the mobile terminal. Simulation results show that an average localization error of less than 1.02 cm can be achieved. In addition, in most VLC-positioning systems, the effect of reflection is always neglected and its performance is limited by reflection, which makes the results not so accurate for a real scenario and the positioning errors at the corners are relatively larger than other places. So, we take the first-order reflection into consideration and use artificial neural network to match the model of a nonlinear channel. The studies show that under the nonlinear matching of direct and reflected channels the average positioning errors of four corners decrease from 11.94 to 0.95 cm. The employed algorithm is emerged as an effective and practical method for indoor localization and outperform other existing indoor wireless localization approaches.

  18. The Displacement of Base Station in Mobile Communication with Genetic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Nam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the displacement of a base station with optimization approach. A genetic algorithm is used as optimization approach. A new representation that describes base station placement, transmitted power with real numbers, and new genetic operators is proposed and introduced. In addition, this new representation can describe the number of base stations. For the positioning of the base station, both coverage and economy efficiency factors were considered. Using the weighted objective function, it is possible to specify the location of the base station, the cell coverage, and its economy efficiency. The economy efficiency indicates a reduction in the number of base stations for cost effectiveness. To test the proposed algorithm, the proposed algorithm was applied to homogeneous traffic environment. Following this, the proposed algorithm was applied to an inhomogeneous traffic density environment in order to test it in actual conditions. The simulation results show that the algorithm enables the finding of a near optimal solution of base station placement, and it determines the efficient number of base stations. Moreover, it can offer a proper solution by adjusting the weighted objective function.

  19. Rapid Gene Turnover as a Significant Source of Genetic Variation in a Recently Seeded Population of a Healthcare-Associated Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Graña-Miraglia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing has been useful to gain an understanding of bacterial evolution. It has been used for studying the phylogeography and/or the impact of mutation and recombination on bacterial populations. However, it has rarely been used to study gene turnover at microevolutionary scales. Here, we sequenced Mexican strains of the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii sampled from the same locale over a 3 year period to obtain insights into the microevolutionary dynamics of gene content variability. We found that the Mexican A. baumannii population was recently founded and has been emerging due to a rapid clonal expansion. Furthermore, we noticed that on average the Mexican strains differed from each other by over 300 genes and, notably, this gene content variation has accrued more frequently and faster than the accumulation of mutations. Moreover, due to its rapid pace, gene content variation reflects the phylogeny only at very short periods of time. Additionally, we found that the external branches of the phylogeny had almost 100 more genes than the internal branches. All in all, these results show that rapid gene turnover has been of paramount importance in producing genetic variation within this population and demonstrate the utility of genome sequencing to study alternative forms of genetic variation.

  20. Rapid Gene Turnover as a Significant Source of Genetic Variation in a Recently Seeded Population of a Healthcare-Associated Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña-Miraglia, Lucía; Lozano, Luis F; Velázquez, Consuelo; Volkow-Fernández, Patricia; Pérez-Oseguera, Ángeles; Cevallos, Miguel A; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Genome sequencing has been useful to gain an understanding of bacterial evolution. It has been used for studying the phylogeography and/or the impact of mutation and recombination on bacterial populations. However, it has rarely been used to study gene turnover at microevolutionary scales. Here, we sequenced Mexican strains of the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii sampled from the same locale over a 3 year period to obtain insights into the microevolutionary dynamics of gene content variability. We found that the Mexican A. baumannii population was recently founded and has been emerging due to a rapid clonal expansion. Furthermore, we noticed that on average the Mexican strains differed from each other by over 300 genes and, notably, this gene content variation has accrued more frequently and faster than the accumulation of mutations. Moreover, due to its rapid pace, gene content variation reflects the phylogeny only at very short periods of time. Additionally, we found that the external branches of the phylogeny had almost 100 more genes than the internal branches. All in all, these results show that rapid gene turnover has been of paramount importance in producing genetic variation within this population and demonstrate the utility of genome sequencing to study alternative forms of genetic variation.

  1. The rumen plasmidome: A genetic communication hub for the rumen microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2012-05-01

    Plasmids are episomally replicating genetic elements which carry backbone genes that are important for their replication and maintenance within their host, and accessory genes that might confer an advantage to their host in its ecological niche. As such, they are often perceived as a powerful evolutionary force, which horizontally introduces new traits into bacterial cells and genomes. In our recent publication "Insight into the rumen plasmidome" we characterized the metagenomic plasmid population of the bovine rumen microbial ecological niche. The rumen is the first compartment of the digestive tract of ruminants; it functions as a pre-gastric anaerobic fermentation chamber, where plant fibers are degraded and converted into chemical compounds which are subsequently absorbed and digested by the animal.

  2. Intercellular communication in plants: evidence for two rapidly transmitted systemic signals generated in response to electromagnetic field stimulation in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubois, Elisabeth; Girard, Sebastien; Lallechere, Sebastien; Davies, Eric; Paladian, Françoise; Bonnet, Pierre; Ledoigt, Gerard; Vian, Alain

    2007-07-01

    Exposing all of a wild-type tomato plant to electromagnetic radiation evoked rapid and substantial accumulation of basic leucine-zipper transcription factor (bZIP) mRNA in the terminal leaf (#4) with kinetics very similar to that seen in response to wounding, while in the abscisic acid (ABA) mutant (Sitiens), the response was more rapid, but transient. Submitting just the oldest leaf (#1) of a wild-type plant to irradiation evoked bZIP mRNA accumulation both locally in the exposed leaf and systemically in the unexposed (distant) leaf #4, although systemic accumulation was delayed somewhat. Accumulation of Pin2 mRNA was less than bZIP in both the exposed and distant leaves in wild type, but there was no delay in the systemic response. In Sitiens, bZIP mRNA accumulation was far less than in wild type in both local and distant leaves, while Pin2 mRNA accumulation was stronger in the exposed leaf, but totally prevented in the systemic leaf. In the jasmonic acid (JA) mutant (JL-5) and in wild-type plants treated with the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, naproxen, responses were similar to those in the ABA mutant, while treatment of the exposed leaf with calcium antagonists totally abolished both local and systemic increases in bZIP transcript accumulation.

  3. Implications of the circumpolar genetic structure of polar bears for their conservation in a rapidly warming Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Peacock

    Full Text Available We provide an expansive analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus circumpolar genetic variation during the last two decades of decline in their sea-ice habitat. We sought to evaluate whether their genetic diversity and structure have changed over this period of habitat decline, how their current genetic patterns compare with past patterns, and how genetic demography changed with ancient fluctuations in climate. Characterizing their circumpolar genetic structure using microsatellite data, we defined four clusters that largely correspond to current ecological and oceanographic factors: Eastern Polar Basin, Western Polar Basin, Canadian Archipelago and Southern Canada. We document evidence for recent (ca. last 1-3 generations directional gene flow from Southern Canada and the Eastern Polar Basin towards the Canadian Archipelago, an area hypothesized to be a future refugium for polar bears as climate-induced habitat decline continues. Our data provide empirical evidence in support of this hypothesis. The direction of current gene flow differs from earlier patterns of gene flow in the Holocene. From analyses of mitochondrial DNA, the Canadian Archipelago cluster and the Barents Sea subpopulation within the Eastern Polar Basin cluster did not show signals of population expansion, suggesting these areas may have served also as past interglacial refugia. Mismatch analyses of mitochondrial DNA data from polar and the paraphyletic brown bear (U. arctos uncovered offset signals in timing of population expansion between the two species, that are attributed to differential demographic responses to past climate cycling. Mitogenomic structure of polar bears was shallow and developed recently, in contrast to the multiple clades of brown bears. We found no genetic signatures of recent hybridization between the species in our large, circumpolar sample, suggesting that recently observed hybrids represent localized events. Documenting changes in subpopulation

  4. Implications of the circumpolar genetic structure of polar bears for their conservation in a rapidly warming Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Sonsthagen, Sarah A; Obbard, Martyn E; Boltunov, Andrei; Regehr, Eric V; Ovsyanikov, Nikita; Aars, Jon; Atkinson, Stephen N; Sage, George K; Hope, Andrew G; Zeyl, Eve; Bachmann, Lutz; Ehrich, Dorothee; Scribner, Kim T; Amstrup, Steven C; Belikov, Stanislav; Born, Erik W; Derocher, Andrew E; Stirling, Ian; Taylor, Mitchell K; Wiig, Øystein; Paetkau, David; Talbot, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    We provide an expansive analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) circumpolar genetic variation during the last two decades of decline in their sea-ice habitat. We sought to evaluate whether their genetic diversity and structure have changed over this period of habitat decline, how their current genetic patterns compare with past patterns, and how genetic demography changed with ancient fluctuations in climate. Characterizing their circumpolar genetic structure using microsatellite data, we defined four clusters that largely correspond to current ecological and oceanographic factors: Eastern Polar Basin, Western Polar Basin, Canadian Archipelago and Southern Canada. We document evidence for recent (ca. last 1-3 generations) directional gene flow from Southern Canada and the Eastern Polar Basin towards the Canadian Archipelago, an area hypothesized to be a future refugium for polar bears as climate-induced habitat decline continues. Our data provide empirical evidence in support of this hypothesis. The direction of current gene flow differs from earlier patterns of gene flow in the Holocene. From analyses of mitochondrial DNA, the Canadian Archipelago cluster and the Barents Sea subpopulation within the Eastern Polar Basin cluster did not show signals of population expansion, suggesting these areas may have served also as past interglacial refugia. Mismatch analyses of mitochondrial DNA data from polar and the paraphyletic brown bear (U. arctos) uncovered offset signals in timing of population expansion between the two species, that are attributed to differential demographic responses to past climate cycling. Mitogenomic structure of polar bears was shallow and developed recently, in contrast to the multiple clades of brown bears. We found no genetic signatures of recent hybridization between the species in our large, circumpolar sample, suggesting that recently observed hybrids represent localized events. Documenting changes in subpopulation connectivity will allow

  5. Implications of the circumpolar genetic structure of polar bears for their conservation in a rapidly warming Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Regehr, Eric V.; Ovsyanikov, Nikita; Aars, Jon; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Sage, George K.; Hope, Andrew G.; Zeyl, Eve; Bachmann, Lutz; Ehrich, Dorothee; Scribner, Kim T.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Belikov, Stanislav; Born, Erik W.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Stirling, Ian; Taylor, Mitchell K.; Wiig, Øystein; Paetkau, David; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    We provide an expansive analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) circumpolar genetic variation during the last two decades of decline in their sea-ice habitat. We sought to evaluate whether their genetic diversity and structure have changed over this period of habitat decline, how their current genetic patterns compare with past patterns, and how genetic demography changed with ancient fluctuations in climate. Characterizing their circumpolar genetic structure using microsatellite data, we defined four clusters that largely correspond to current ecological and oceanographic factors: Eastern Polar Basin, Western Polar Basin, Canadian Archipelago and Southern Canada. We document evidence for recent (ca. last 1–3 generations) directional gene flow from Southern Canada and the Eastern Polar Basin towards the Canadian Archipelago, an area hypothesized to be a future refugium for polar bears as climate-induced habitat decline continues. Our data provide empirical evidence in support of this hypothesis. The direction of current gene flow differs from earlier patterns of gene flow in the Holocene. From analyses of mitochondrial DNA, the Canadian Archipelago cluster and the Barents Sea subpopulation within the Eastern Polar Basin cluster did not show signals of population expansion, suggesting these areas may have served also as past interglacial refugia. Mismatch analyses of mitochondrial DNA data from polar and the paraphyletic brown bear (U. arctos) uncovered offset signals in timing of population expansion between the two species, that are attributed to differential demographic responses to past climate cycling. Mitogenomic structure of polar bears was shallow and developed recently, in contrast to the multiple clades of brown bears. We found no genetic signatures of recent hybridization between the species in our large, circumpolar sample, suggesting that recently observed hybrids represent localized events. Documenting changes in subpopulation connectivity will

  6. The large-scale blast score ratio (LS-BSR pipeline: a method to rapidly compare genetic content between bacterial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Sahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. As whole genome sequence data from bacterial isolates becomes cheaper to generate, computational methods are needed to correlate sequence data with biological observations. Here we present the large-scale BLAST score ratio (LS-BSR pipeline, which rapidly compares the genetic content of hundreds to thousands of bacterial genomes, and returns a matrix that describes the relatedness of all coding sequences (CDSs in all genomes surveyed. This matrix can be easily parsed in order to identify genetic relationships between bacterial genomes. Although pipelines have been published that group peptides by sequence similarity, no other software performs the rapid, large-scale, full-genome comparative analyses carried out by LS-BSR.Results. To demonstrate the utility of the method, the LS-BSR pipeline was tested on 96 Escherichia coli and Shigella genomes; the pipeline ran in 163 min using 16 processors, which is a greater than 7-fold speedup compared to using a single processor. The BSR values for each CDS, which indicate a relative level of relatedness, were then mapped to each genome on an independent core genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based phylogeny. Comparisons were then used to identify clade specific CDS markers and validate the LS-BSR pipeline based on molecular markers that delineate between classical E. coli pathogenic variant (pathovar designations. Scalability tests demonstrated that the LS-BSR pipeline can process 1,000 E. coli genomes in 27–57 h, depending upon the alignment method, using 16 processors.Conclusions. LS-BSR is an open-source, parallel implementation of the BSR algorithm, enabling rapid comparison of the genetic content of large numbers of genomes. The results of the pipeline can be used to identify specific markers between user-defined phylogenetic groups, and to identify the loss and/or acquisition of genetic information between bacterial isolates. Taxa-specific genetic markers can then be translated

  7. A quantitative high-resolution genetic profile rapidly identifies sequence determinants of hepatitis C viral fitness and drug sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangfei Qi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Widely used chemical genetic screens have greatly facilitated the identification of many antiviral agents. However, the regions of interaction and inhibitory mechanisms of many therapeutic candidates have yet to be elucidated. Previous chemical screens identified Daclatasvir (BMS-790052 as a potent nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A inhibitor for Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection with an unclear inhibitory mechanism. Here we have developed a quantitative high-resolution genetic (qHRG approach to systematically map the drug-protein interactions between Daclatasvir and NS5A and profile genetic barriers to Daclatasvir resistance. We implemented saturation mutagenesis in combination with next-generation sequencing technology to systematically quantify the effect of every possible amino acid substitution in the drug-targeted region (domain IA of NS5A on replication fitness and sensitivity to Daclatasvir. This enabled determination of the residues governing drug-protein interactions. The relative fitness and drug sensitivity profiles also provide a comprehensive reference of the genetic barriers for all possible single amino acid changes during viral evolution, which we utilized to predict clinical outcomes using mathematical models. We envision that this high-resolution profiling methodology will be useful for next-generation drug development to select drugs with higher fitness costs to resistance, and also for informing the rational use of drugs based on viral variant spectra from patients.

  8. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-assisted gene targeting enables rapid and precise genetic manipulation of mammalian neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Raul Bardini; Dewari, Pooran Singh; Kalantzaki, Maria; Gangoso, Ester; Matjusaitis, Mantas; Garcia-Diaz, Claudia; Blin, Carla; Grant, Vivien; Bulstrode, Harry; Gogolok, Sabine; Skarnes, William C; Pollard, Steven M

    2017-02-15

    Mammalian neural stem cell (NSC) lines provide a tractable model for discovery across stem cell and developmental biology, regenerative medicine and neuroscience. They can be derived from foetal or adult germinal tissues and continuously propagated in vitro as adherent monolayers. NSCs are clonally expandable, genetically stable, and easily transfectable - experimental attributes compatible with targeted genetic manipulations. However, gene targeting, which is crucial for functional studies of embryonic stem cells, has not been exploited to date in NSC lines. Here, we deploy CRISPR/Cas9 technology to demonstrate a variety of sophisticated genetic modifications via gene targeting in both mouse and human NSC lines, including: (1) efficient targeted transgene insertion at safe harbour loci (Rosa26 and AAVS1); (2) biallelic knockout of neurodevelopmental transcription factor genes; (3) simple knock-in of epitope tags and fluorescent reporters (e.g. Sox2-V5 and Sox2-mCherry); and (4) engineering of glioma mutations (TP53 deletion; H3F3A point mutations). These resources and optimised methods enable facile and scalable genome editing in mammalian NSCs, providing significant new opportunities for functional genetic analysis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Impact of experience when using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment to assess postural risk in children using information and communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Janice D; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Parsons, Richard; Buzzard, Jennifer; Ciccarelli, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is an observation-based screening tool that has been used to assess postural risks of children in school settings. Studies using eye-tracking technology suggest that visual search strategies are influenced by experience in the task performed. This study investigated if experience in postural risk assessments contributed to differences in outcome scores on the RULA and the visual search strategies utilized. While wearing an eye-tracker, 16 student occupational therapists and 16 experienced occupational therapists used the RULA to assess 11 video scenarios of a child using different mobile information and communication technologies (ICT) in the home environment. No significant differences in RULA outcome scores, and no conclusive differences in visual search strategies between groups were found. RULA can be used as a screening tool for postural risks following a short training session regardless of the assessor's experience in postural risk assessments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  11. Congruence-Incongruence Patterns in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Couples' Genetic Determinist Beliefs and Perceived Control over Genes: Implications for Clinical and Public Health Genomic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Roxanne L; Smith, Rachel A; Hong, Soo Jung; Worthington, Amber

    2015-06-01

    Genomics makes possible the isolation of multiple genes as co-factors that increase, but do not determine, risk for many adult-onset medical conditions, including alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). Those diagnosed with an adult-onset medical condition, such as AATD, are often married and make decisions about testing and care as a couple. We examined genetic essentialist and threat beliefs, focusing on beliefs about the genetic contribution to disease susceptibility and severity, as well as perceptions of control related to genes and health for married couples (N =59), in which one spouse has been tested for genetic mutations associated with AATD. The intraclass correlation for spouses' beliefs about genetic essentialism was strong and statistically significant, but the associations for their other beliefs were not. Incongruence between AATD participants and their spouses regarding genes' influence on disease severity directly related to incongruent perceptions of control and genetic contribution to disease susceptibility. Results revealed an inverse relationship to AATD participants' perceptions of behavioral control and a direct relationship to their beliefs about genes' influence on disease severity. This suggests a pattern of incongruence in which AATD participants have low levels of perceived control over genes' influence on health and high levels of perceived genetic influence on disease severity compared to spouses. With public health communication efforts lagging behind the science of genomics, insights regarding the congruence or incongruence associated with married couples' beliefs about genes' influence on disease afford pathways to guide clinical and public health communication about genomics.

  12. Short communication: Genetic study of methane production predicted from milk fat composition in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, S; Bovenhuis, H; Dijkstra, J; van Arendonk, J A M; Visker, M H P W

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cows produce enteric methane, a greenhouse gas with 25 times the global warming potential of CO2. Breeding could make a permanent, cumulative, and long-term contribution to methane reduction. Due to a lack of accurate, repeatable, individual methane measurements needed for breeding, indicators of methane production based on milk fatty acids have been proposed. The aim of the present study was to quantify the genetic variation for predicted methane yields. The milk fat composition of 1,905 first-lactation Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows was used to investigate 3 different predicted methane yields (g/kg of DMI): Methane1, Methane2, and Methane3. Methane1 was based on the milk fat proportions of C17:0anteiso, C18:1 rans-10+11, C18:1 cis-11, and C18:1 cis-13 (R(2)=0.73). Methane2 was based on C4:0, C18:0, C18:1 trans-10+11, and C18:1 cis-11 (R(2)=0.70). Methane3 was based on C4:0, C6:0, and C18:1 trans-10+11 (R(2)=0.63). Predicted methane yields were demonstrated to be heritable traits, with heritabilities between 0.12 and 0.44. Breeding can, thus, be used to decrease methane production predicted based on milk fatty acids. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of Bioresorbable Hydrogels and Genetic Engineering to Accomplish Rapid Stabilization and Healing in Segmental Long Bone Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    Pediatrics, Pediatrics- Nutrition , Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA 5Department of Pediatrics, Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of...undergoing differentiation (Fig. 7A–F). DISCUSSION Heterotopic ossification is a disorder involving rapid bone formation within muscle, tendon , and

  14. The efficacy of a standardized questionnaire in facilitating personalized communication about problems encountered in cancer genetic counseling: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijzenga, Willem; Aaronson, Neil K; Kluijt, Irma; Sidharta, Grace N; Hahn, Daniela Ee; Ausems, Margreet Gem; Bleiker, Eveline Ma

    2014-01-15

    Individuals with a personal or family history of cancer, can opt for genetic counseling and DNA-testing. Approximately 25% of these individuals experience clinically relevant levels of psychosocial distress, depression and/or anxiety after counseling. These problems are frequently left undetected by genetic counselors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a cancer genetics-specific screening questionnaire for psychosocial problems, the 'Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer (PAHC) questionnaire' together with the Distress Thermometer, in: (1) facilitating personalized counselor-counselee communication; (2) increasing counselors' awareness of their counselees' psychosocial problems; and (3) facilitating the management of psychosocial problems during and after genetic counseling. This multicenter, randomized controlled trial will include 264 individuals undergoing cancer genetic counseling in two family cancer clinics in the Netherlands. Participants will be randomized to either: (1) an intervention group that completes the PAHC questionnaire, the results of which are made available to the genetic counselor prior to the counseling session; or (2) a control group that completes the PAHC questionnaire, but without feedback being given to the genetic counselor. The genetic counseling sessions will be audiotaped for content analysis. Additionally, study participants will be asked to complete questionnaires at baseline, three weeks after the initial counseling session, and four months after a telephone follow-up counseling session. The genetic counselors will be asked to complete questionnaires at the start of and at completion of the study, as well as a checklist directly after each counseling session. The questionnaires/checklists of the study include items on communication during genetic counseling, counselor awareness of their clients' psychosocial problems, the (perceived) need for professional psychosocial support, cancer worries, general

  15. A rapid assessment and response approach to review and enhance advocacy, communication and social mobilisation for tuberculosis control in Odisha state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamineni, Vishnu Vardhan; Turk, Tahir; Wilson, Nevin; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Chauhan, Lakbir Singh

    2011-06-10

    Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in India with the country accounting for 1 in 5 of all TB cases reported globally. An advocacy, communication and social mobilisation project for Tuberculosis control was implemented and evaluated in Odisha state of India. The purpose of the study was to identify the impact of project interventions including the use of 'Interface NGOs' and involvement of community groups such as women's self-help groups, local government bodies, village health sanitation committees, and general health staff in promoting TB control efforts. The study utilized a rapid assessment and response (RAR) methodology. The approach combined both qualitative field work approaches, including semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with empirical data collection and desk research. Results revealed that a combination of factors including the involvement of Interface NGOs, coupled with increased training and engagement of front line health workers and community groups, and dissemination of community based resources, contributed to improved awareness and knowledge about TB in the targeted districts. Project activities also contributed towards improving health worker and community effectiveness to raise the TB agenda, and improved TB literacy and treatment adherence. Engagement of successfully treated patients also assisted in reducing community stigma and discrimination. The expanded use of advocacy, communication and social mobilisation activities in TB control has resulted in a number of benefits. These include bridging pre-existing gaps between the health system and the community through support and coordination of general health services stakeholders, NGOs and the community. The strategic use of 'tailored messages' to address specific TB problems in low performing areas also led to more positive behavioural outcomes and improved efficiencies in service delivery. Implications for future studies are that a comprehensive and well

  16. A rapid assessment and response approach to review and enhance Advocacy, Communication and Social Mobilisation for Tuberculosis control in Odisha state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana Srinath

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in India with the country accounting for 1 in 5 of all TB cases reported globally. An advocacy, communication and social mobilisation project for Tuberculosis control was implemented and evaluated in Odisha state of India. The purpose of the study was to identify the impact of project interventions including the use of 'Interface NGOs' and involvement of community groups such as women's self-help groups, local government bodies, village health sanitation committees, and general health staff in promoting TB control efforts. Methods The study utilized a rapid assessment and response (RAR methodology. The approach combined both qualitative field work approaches, including semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with empirical data collection and desk research. Results Results revealed that a combination of factors including the involvement of Interface NGOs, coupled with increased training and engagement of front line health workers and community groups, and dissemination of community based resources, contributed to improved awareness and knowledge about TB in the targeted districts. Project activities also contributed towards improving health worker and community effectiveness to raise the TB agenda, and improved TB literacy and treatment adherence. Engagement of successfully treated patients also assisted in reducing community stigma and discrimination. Conclusion The expanded use of advocacy, communication and social mobilisation activities in TB control has resulted in a number of benefits. These include bridging pre-existing gaps between the health system and the community through support and coordination of general health services stakeholders, NGOs and the community. The strategic use of 'tailored messages' to address specific TB problems in low performing areas also led to more positive behavioural outcomes and improved efficiencies in service delivery

  17. Development and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for rapid visual detection of cry2Ab and cry3A genes in genetically-modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feiwu; Yan, Wei; Long, Likun; Qi, Xing; Li, Congcong; Zhang, Shihong

    2014-08-27

    The cry2Ab and cry3A genes are two of the most important insect-resistant exogenous genes and had been widely used in genetically-modified crops. To develop more effective alternatives for the quick identification of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) containing these genes, a rapid and visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect the cry2Ab and cry3A genes is described in this study. The LAMP assay can be finished within 60 min at an isothermal condition of 63 °C. The derived LAMP products can be obtained by a real-time turbidimeter via monitoring the white turbidity or directly observed by the naked eye through adding SYBR Green I dye. The specificity of the LAMP assay was determined by analyzing thirteen insect-resistant genetically-modified (GM) crop events with different Bt genes. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was evaluated by diluting the template genomic DNA. Results showed that the limit of detection of the established LAMP assays was approximately five copies of haploid genomic DNA, about five-fold greater than that of conventional PCR assays. All of the results indicated that this established rapid and visual LAMP assay was quick, accurate and cost effective, with high specificity and sensitivity. In addition, this method does not need specific expensive instruments or facilities, which can provide a simpler and quicker approach to detecting the cry2Ab and cry3A genes in GM crops, especially for on-site, large-scale test purposes in the field.

  18. Development and Application of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays for Rapid Visual Detection of cry2Ab and cry3A Genes in Genetically-Modified Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiwu Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cry2Ab and cry3A genes are two of the most important insect-resistant exogenous genes and had been widely used in genetically-modified crops. To develop more effective alternatives for the quick identification of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs containing these genes, a rapid and visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method to detect the cry2Ab and cry3A genes is described in this study. The LAMP assay can be finished within 60 min at an isothermal condition of 63 °C. The derived LAMP products can be obtained by a real-time turbidimeter via monitoring the white turbidity or directly observed by the naked eye through adding SYBR Green I dye. The specificity of the LAMP assay was determined by analyzing thirteen insect-resistant genetically-modified (GM crop events with different Bt genes. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was evaluated by diluting the template genomic DNA. Results showed that the limit of detection of the established LAMP assays was approximately five copies of haploid genomic DNA, about five-fold greater than that of conventional PCR assays. All of the results indicated that this established rapid and visual LAMP assay was quick, accurate and cost effective, with high specificity and sensitivity. In addition, this method does not need specific expensive instruments or facilities, which can provide a simpler and quicker approach to detecting the cry2Ab and cry3A genes in GM crops, especially for on-site, large-scale test purposes in the field.

  19. S-Ketamine Rapidly Reverses Synaptic and Vascular Deficits of Hippocampus in Genetic Animal Model of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardalan, Maryam; Wegener, Gregers; H Rafati, Ali

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The neurovascular plasticity of hippocampus is an important theory underlying major depression. Ketamine as a novel glutamatergic antidepressant drug can induce rapid antidepressant effect within hours. In a mechanistic proof-of-this concept, we examined whether ketamine leads......) area of hippocampus. RESULTS: The immobility time in the forced swim test among FSL rats with ketamine treatment was significantly lower compared with FSL rats without treatment. The number of non-perforated and perforated synapses was significantly higher in the FSL-ketamine versus the FSL...

  20. Evaluation of a rapid single multiplex microsatellite-based assay for use in forensic genetic investigations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Leigh Anne; Famula, Thomas R; Murphy, Keith E

    2004-10-01

    To develop a set of microsatellite markers, composed of a minimal number of these markers, suitable for use in forensic genetic investigations in dogs. Blood, tissue, or buccal epithelial cells from 364 dogs of 85 breeds and mixed breeds and 19 animals from related species in the family Canidae. 61 tetranucleotide microsatellite markers were characterized on the basis of number and size of alleles, ease of genotyping, chromosomal location, and ability to be coamplified. The range in allele size, number of alleles, total heterozygosity, and fixation index for each marker were determined by use of genotype data from 383 dogs and related species. Polymorphism information content was calculated for several breeds of dogs. 7 microsatellite markers could be coamplified. These markers were labeled with fluorescent dyes, multiplexed into a single reaction, and optimized for resolution in a commercial genetic analyzer. The multiplex set was used to identify sires for 2 mixed litters. The test was not species specific; genotype information collected for wolves, coyotes, jackals, New Guinea singing dogs, and an African wild dog could not distinguish between these species. This set of 7 microsatellite markers is useful in forensic applications (ie, identification of dogs and determination of parentage) in closely related animals and is applicable to a wide range of species belonging to the family Canidae.

  1. Rapid Cellular Phenotyping of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes using a Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Voltage Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan S. Leyton-Mange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their promise in regenerative medicine, pluripotent stem cells have proved to be faithful models of many human diseases. In particular, patient-specific stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes recapitulate key features of several life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia syndromes. For both modeling and regenerative approaches, phenotyping of stem cell-derived tissues is critical. Cellular phenotyping has largely relied upon expression of lineage markers rather than physiologic attributes. This is especially true for cardiomyocytes, in part because electrophysiological recordings are labor intensive. Likewise, most optical voltage indicators suffer from phototoxicity, which damages cells and degrades signal quality. Here we present the use of a genetically encoded fluorescent voltage indicator, ArcLight, which we demonstrate can faithfully report transmembrane potentials in human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We demonstrate the application of this fluorescent sensor in high-throughput, serial phenotyping of differentiating cardiomyocyte populations and in screening for drug-induced cardiotoxicity.

  2. Effect of Genetic Information Regarding Salt-Sensitive Hypertension on the Intent to Maintain a Reduced Salt Diet: Implications for Health Communication in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Keiko; Iwakuma, Miho; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-03-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between the awareness of dietary salt and genetics and the intent to maintain a low-salt diet. In particular, they assessed whether hypothetical genetic information regarding salt-sensitive hypertension motivates the intent to reduce dietary salt for communicating the health benefits of lower salt consumption to citizens. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with 2500 randomly sampled residents aged 30 to 69 years living in Nagahama, Japan. Genetic information regarding higher salt sensitivity increased motivation to reduce salt intake for both those who agreed that genes cause hypertension and those who did not. Less than 50% of those who agreed that genes cause hypertension lost their intention to lower their salt consumption when they found they did not possess the susceptibility gene. Communicating genetic information positively affected motivation to reduce salt intake. The present study clarifies the difficulty in changing the behavioral intent of those who have significantly less incentive to reduce salt intake. Therefore, a multidimensional approach is crucial to reduce salt consumption. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Genetic variation of pfhrp2 in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Yemen and the performance of HRP2-based malaria rapid diagnostic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atroosh, Wahib M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Jasari, Adel; Sady, Hany; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Nasr, Nabil A; Dawaki, Salwa; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Ithoi, Init; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik; Surin, Johari

    2015-07-22

    The genetic variation in the Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) gene that may compromise the use of pfhrp2-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for the diagnosis of malaria was assessed in P. falciparum isolates from Yemen. This study was conducted in Hodeidah and Al-Mahwit governorates, Yemen. A total of 622 individuals with fever were examined for malaria by CareStart malaria HRP2-RDT and Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood films. The Pfhrp2 gene was amplified and sequenced from 180 isolates, and subjected to amino acid repeat types analysis. A total of 188 (30.2%) participants were found positive for P. falciparum by the RDT. Overall, 12 different amino acid repeat types were identified in Yemeni isolates. Six repeat types were detected in all the isolates (100%) namely types 1, 2, 6, 7, 10 and 12 while types 9 and 11 were not detected in any of the isolates. Moreover, the sensitivity and specificity of the used PfHRP2-based RDTs were high (90.5% and 96.1%, respectively). The present study provides data on the genetic variation within the pfhrp2 gene, and its potential impact on the PfHRP2-based RDTs commonly used in Yemen. CareStart Malaria HRP2-based RDT showed high sensitivity and specificity in endemic areas of Yemen.

  4. Rapid assessment of genetic ancestry in populations of unknown origin by genome-wide genotyping of pooled samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charleston W K Chiang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As we move forward from the current generation of genome-wide association (GWA studies, additional cohorts of different ancestries will be studied to increase power, fine map association signals, and generalize association results to additional populations. Knowledge of genetic ancestry as well as population substructure will become increasingly important for GWA studies in populations of unknown ancestry. Here we propose genotyping pooled DNA samples using genome-wide SNP arrays as a viable option to efficiently and inexpensively estimate admixture proportion and identify ancestry informative markers (AIMs in populations of unknown origin. We constructed DNA pools from African American, Native Hawaiian, Latina, and Jamaican samples and genotyped them using the Affymetrix 6.0 array. Aided by individual genotype data from the African American cohort, we established quality control filters to remove poorly performing SNPs and estimated allele frequencies for the remaining SNPs in each panel. We then applied a regression-based method to estimate the proportion of admixture in each cohort using the allele frequencies estimated from pooling and populations from the International HapMap Consortium as reference panels, and identified AIMs unique to each population. In this study, we demonstrated that genotyping pooled DNA samples yields estimates of admixture proportion that are both consistent with our knowledge of population history and similar to those obtained by genotyping known AIMs. Furthermore, through validation by individual genotyping, we demonstrated that pooling is quite effective for identifying SNPs with large allele frequency differences (i.e., AIMs and that these AIMs are able to differentiate two closely related populations (HapMap JPT and CHB.

  5. Developing Universal Genetic Tools for Rapid and Efficient Deletion Mutation in Vibrio Species Based on Suicide T-Vectors Carrying a Novel Counterselectable Marker, vmi480.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Luo

    Full Text Available Despite that Vibrio spp. have a significant impact on the health of humans and aquatic animals, the molecular basis of their pathogenesis is little known, mainly due to the limited genetic tools for the functional research of genes in Vibrio. In some cases, deletion of target DNAs in Vibrio can be achieved through the use of suicide vectors. However, these strategies are time-consuming and lack universality, and the widely used counterselectable gene sacB does not work well in Vibrio cells. In this study, we developed universal genetic tools for rapid and efficient deletion mutations in Vibrio species based on suicide T-Vectors carrying a novel counterselectable marker, vmi480. We explored two uncharacterized genes, vmi480 and vmi470, in a genomic island from Vibrio mimicus VM573 and confirmed that vmi480 and vmi470 constitute a two-component toxin-antitoxin system through deletion and expression of vmi480 and vmi470. The product of vmi480 exhibited strong toxicity to Escherichia coli cells. Based on vmi480 and the PBAD or PTAC promoter system, we constructed two suicide T-vectors, pLP11 and pLP12, and each of these vectors contained a multiple cloning region with two AhdI sites. Both vectors linearized by AhdI digestion could be stored and directly ligated with purified PCR products without a digestion step. By using pLP11 and pLP12 coupled with a highly efficient conjugation system provided by E. coli β2163, six genes from four representative Vibrio species were easily deleted. By using the counterselective marker vmi480, we obtained 3-12 positive colonies (deletion mutants among no more than 20 colonies randomly selected on counterselection plates. The strategy does not require the digestion of PCR products and suicide vectors every time, and it avoids large-scale screening colonies on counterselective plates. These results demonstrate that we successfully developed universal genetic tools for rapid and efficient gene deletion in Vibrio

  6. PAPR Reduction in OFDM-based Visible Light Communication Systems Using a Combination of Novel Peak-value Feedback Algorithm and Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Honggui; Liu, Yan; Ren, Shuang; He, Hailang; Tang, Chengying

    2017-10-01

    We propose an enhanced partial transmit sequence technique based on novel peak-value feedback algorithm and genetic algorithm (GAPFA-PTS) to reduce peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals in visible light communication (VLC) systems(VLC-OFDM). To demonstrate the advantages of our proposed algorithm, we analyze the flow of proposed technique and compare the performances with other techniques through MATLAB simulation. The results show that GAPFA-PTS technique achieves a significant improvement in PAPR reduction while maintaining low bit error rate (BER) and low complexity in VLC-OFDM systems.

  7. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA of CaMV-35S Promoter and nos Terminator for Rapid Detection of Genetically Modified Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Xu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA is a novel isothermal DNA amplification and detection technology that enables the amplification of DNA within 30 min at a constant temperature of 37–42 °C by simulating in vivo DNA recombination. In this study, based on the regulatory sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV-35S promoter and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase gene (nos terminator, which are widely incorporated in genetically modified (GM crops, we designed two sets of RPA primers and established a real-time RPA detection method for GM crop screening and detection. This method could reliably detect as few as 100 copies of the target molecule in a sample within 15–25 min. Furthermore, the real-time RPA detection method was successfully used to amplify and detect DNA from samples of four major GM crops (maize, rice, cotton, and soybean. With this novel amplification method, the test time was significantly shortened and the reaction process was simplified; thus, this method represents an effective approach to the rapid detection of GM crops.

  8. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) of CaMV-35S Promoter and nos Terminator for Rapid Detection of Genetically Modified Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Li, Liang; Jin, Wujun; Wan, Yusong

    2014-01-01

    Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel isothermal DNA amplification and detection technology that enables the amplification of DNA within 30 min at a constant temperature of 37–42 °C by simulating in vivo DNA recombination. In this study, based on the regulatory sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV-35S) promoter and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase gene (nos) terminator, which are widely incorporated in genetically modified (GM) crops, we designed two sets of RPA primers and established a real-time RPA detection method for GM crop screening and detection. This method could reliably detect as few as 100 copies of the target molecule in a sample within 15–25 min. Furthermore, the real-time RPA detection method was successfully used to amplify and detect DNA from samples of four major GM crops (maize, rice, cotton, and soybean). With this novel amplification method, the test time was significantly shortened and the reaction process was simplified; thus, this method represents an effective approach to the rapid detection of GM crops. PMID:25310647

  9. Brief Communication: Quantitative- and molecular-genetic differentiation in humans and chimpanzees: implications for the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Timothy D

    2014-08-01

    Estimates of the amount of genetic differentiation in humans among major geographic regions (e.g., Eastern Asia vs. Europe) from quantitative-genetic analyses of cranial measurements closely match those from classical- and molecular-genetic markers. Typically, among-region differences account for ∼10% of the total variation. This correspondence is generally interpreted as evidence for the importance of neutral evolutionary processes (e.g., genetic drift) in generating among-region differences in human cranial form, but it was initially surprising because human cranial diversity was frequently assumed to show a strong signature of natural selection. Is the human degree of similarity of cranial and DNA-sequence estimates of among-region genetic differentiation unusual? How do comparisons with other taxa illuminate the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification? Chimpanzees provide a useful starting point for placing the human results in a broader comparative context, because common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) are the extant species most closely related to humans. To address these questions, I used 27 cranial measurements collected on a sample of 861 humans and 263 chimpanzees to estimate the amount of genetic differentiation between pairs of groups (between regions for humans and between species or subspecies for chimpanzees). Consistent with previous results, the human cranial estimates are quite similar to published DNA-sequence estimates. In contrast, the chimpanzee cranial estimates are much smaller than published DNA-sequence estimates. It appears that cranial differentiation has been limited in chimpanzees relative to humans. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Using the Communication in Science Inquiry Project Professional Development Model to Facilitate Learning Middle School Genetics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dale R.; Lewis, Elizabeth B.; Uysal, Sibel; Purzer, Senay; Lang, Michael; Baker, Perry

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the effect of embedding content in the Communication in Inquiry Science Project professional development model for science and language arts teachers. The model uses four components of successful professional development (content focus, active learning, extended duration, participation by teams of teachers from the same school…

  11. Effect of routine assessment of specific psychosocial problems on personalized communication, counselors’ awareness, and distress levels in cancer genetic counseling practice: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijzenga, Willem; Aaronson, Neil K; Hahn, Daniela E E; Sidharta, Grace N; van der Kolk, Lizet E; Velthuizen, Mary E; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Bleiker, Eveline M A

    2014-09-20

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a cancer genetics–specific questionnaire in facilitating communication about, awareness of, and management of psychosocial problems, as well as in lowering distress levels. Individuals referred to genetic counseling for cancer at two family cancer clinics in The Netherlands were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. All participants completed the psychosocial questionnaire before counseling. In the intervention group, the counselors received the results of this questionnaire before the counseling session. All sessions were audiotaped for content analysis. Primary outcomes were the frequency with which psychosocial problems were discussed, the genetic counselors’ awareness of these problems, and their management. Secondary outcomes included cancer worries and psychological distress, duration and dynamics of the counseling, and satisfaction. The frequency with which psychosocial problems were discussed with 246 participating counselees was significantly higher in the intervention group (n = 127) than in the control group (n =119; P = .004), as was the counselors’ awareness of psychosocial problems regarding hereditary predisposition (P problems in the intervention group (P problems by questionnaire facilitates genetic counselors’ recognition and discussion of their clients’ psychosocial problems and reduces clients’ distress levels.

  12. A handheld flow genetic analysis system (FGAS): towards rapid, sensitive, quantitative and multiplex molecular diagnosis at the point-of-care level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bowen; Zhang, Chunsun; Xing, Da

    2015-06-21

    A handheld flow genetic analysis system (FGAS) is proposed for rapid, sensitive, multiplex and real-time quantification of nucleic acids at the point-of-care (POC) level. The FGAS includes a helical thermal-gradient microreactor and a microflow actuator, as well as control circuitry for temperature, fluid and power management, and smartphone fluorescence imaging. All of these features are integrated into a field-portable and easy-to-use molecular diagnostic platform powered by lithium batteries. Due to the unique design of the microreactor, not only steady temperatures for denaturation and annealing/extension but also a linear thermal gradient for spatial high-resolution melting can be achieved through simply maintaining a single heater at constant temperature. The smartphone fluorescence imaging system has a wide field of view that captures all PCR channels of the microreactor in a single snapshot without the need for any mechanical scanning. By these designs, the FGAS enables real-time monitoring of the temporal and spatial fluorescence signatures of amplicons during continuous-flow amplification. On the current FGAS, visual detection of as little as 10 copies per μL of genomic DNA of Salmonella enterica was achieved in 15 min, with real-time quantitative detection of the DNA over 6 orders of magnitude concentration from 10(6) to 10(1) copies per μL also completed in 7.5-15 min. In addition, multiple pathogenic DNA targets could be simultaneously discriminated with direct bar-chart readout or multiplex spatial melting in serial flow. We anticipate that the FGAS has great potential to become a next-generation gene analyzer for POC molecular diagnostics.

  13. Tailoring communication in cancer genetic counseling through individual video-supported feedback: A controlled pretest–posttest design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, A.H.; Dulmen, A.M. van; Beemer, F.A.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Bensing, J.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the influence of a 1-day individual video-feedback training for cancer genetic counselors on the interaction during initial visits. Feedback was intended to help counselors make counselees’ needs more explicit and increase counselors’ sensitivity to these. Methods: In total

  14. "Sickle Cell Anemia: Tracking down a Mutation": An Interactive Learning Laboratory That Communicates Basic Principles of Genetics and Cellular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients…

  15. Short communication: Multi-trait estimation of genetic parameters for milk protein composition in the Danish Holstein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreyesus, G.; Lund, M.S.; Janss, L.; Poulsen, N.A.; Larsen, L.B.; Bovenhuis, H.; Buitenhuis, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for the major milk proteins using bivariate and multi-trait models based on genomic relationships between animals. The analyses included, apart from total protein percentage, αS1-casein (CN), αS2-CN, β-CN, κ-CN, α-lactalbumin, and

  16. Genetic uptake in BRCA-mutation families is related to emotional and behavioral communication characteristics of index patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsbergen, K.M.; Verhaak, C.M.; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carriers of a hereditary mutation in BRCA are at high risk for breast and ovarian cancer. The first person from a family known to carry the mutation, the index person, has to share genetic information with relatives. This study is aimed at determining the number of relatives tested for

  17. Genome wide association identifies novel loci involved in fungal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Guerrero, Javier; Hall, Charles R; Kowbel, David; Welch, Juliet; Taylor, John W; Brem, Rachel B; Glass, N Louise

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how genomes encode complex cellular and organismal behaviors has become the outstanding challenge of modern genetics. Unlike classical screening methods, analysis of genetic variation that occurs naturally in wild populations can enable rapid, genome-scale mapping of genotype to phenotype with a medium-throughput experimental design. Here we describe the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) used to identify novel loci underlying trait variation in a microbial eukaryote, harnessing wild isolates of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We genotyped each of a population of wild Louisiana strains at 1 million genetic loci genome-wide, and we used these genotypes to map genetic determinants of microbial communication. In N. crassa, germinated asexual spores (germlings) sense the presence of other germlings, grow toward them in a coordinated fashion, and fuse. We evaluated germlings of each strain for their ability to chemically sense, chemotropically seek, and undergo cell fusion, and we subjected these trait measurements to GWAS. This analysis identified one gene, NCU04379 (cse-1, encoding a homolog of a neuronal calcium sensor), at which inheritance was strongly associated with the efficiency of germling communication. Deletion of cse-1 significantly impaired germling communication and fusion, and two genes encoding predicted interaction partners of CSE1 were also required for the communication trait. Additionally, mining our association results for signaling and secretion genes with a potential role in germling communication, we validated six more previously unknown molecular players, including a secreted protease and two other genes whose deletion conferred a novel phenotype of increased communication and multi-germling fusion. Our results establish protein secretion as a linchpin of germling communication in N. crassa and shed light on the regulation of communication molecules in this fungus. Our study demonstrates the power

  18. Evaluation of the accuracy of the microplate Alamar Blue assay for rapid detection of MDR-TB in Peru [Short Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chauca, J.A; Palomino, J-C; Guerra, H

    2007-01-01

    .... This study evaluates the usefulness of the colorimetric method using Alamar Blue for the rapid detection of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid in 63 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Peru...

  19. Effect of communicating genetic and phenotypic risk for type 2 diabetes in combination with lifestyle advice on objectively measured physical activity: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godino Job G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D is associated with increased risk of morbidity and premature mortality. Among those at high risk, incidence can be halved through healthy changes in behaviour. Information about genetic and phenotypic risk of T2D is now widely available. Whether such information motivates behaviour change is unknown. We aim to assess the effects of communicating genetic and phenotypic risk of T2D on risk-reducing health behaviours, anxiety, and other cognitive and emotional theory-based antecedents of behaviour change. Methods In a parallel group, open randomised controlled trial, approximately 580 adults born between 1950 and 1975 will be recruited from the on-going population-based, observational Fenland Study (Cambridgeshire, UK. Eligible participants will have undergone clinical, anthropometric, and psychosocial measurements, been genotyped for 23 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with T2D, and worn a combined heart rate monitor and accelerometer (Actiheart® continuously for six days and nights to assess physical activity. Participants are randomised to receive either standard lifestyle advice alone (control group, or in combination with a genetic or a phenotypic risk estimate for T2D (intervention groups. The primary outcome is objectively measured physical activity. Secondary outcomes include self-reported diet, self-reported weight, intention to be physically active and to engage in a healthy diet, anxiety, diabetes-related worry, self-rated health, and other cognitive and emotional outcomes. Follow-up occurs eight weeks post-intervention. Values at follow-up, adjusted for baseline, will be compared between randomised groups. Discussion This study will provide much needed evidence on the effects of providing information about the genetic and phenotypic risk of T2D. Importantly, it will be among the first to examine the impact of genetic risk information using a randomised controlled trial design, a

  20. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... et al., 1999). The assay represents a rapid, inexpensive and simple bioassay for testing plant extracts bioactivity which in most cases correlates reasonably well with cytotoxic and anti-tumor properties. The brine shrimp lethality assay is based on the ability of the extract to show lethality in laboratory. Short Communication ...

  1. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Intercellular communication between the cells of the pigmented epithelium rapidly reduces as a result of inflammatory reactions. During the initial phase the condensed chromatin of the PEC nuclei becomes prog- ressively dispersed, the nuclear volume increases and melanosomes move towards the peripheral regions of ...

  2. A more rapid approach to systematically assessing published associations of genetic polymorphisms and disease risk: type 2 diabetes as a test case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho AH

    2012-01-01

    top 10 "most-studied" genes were selected for focused searches and final inclusion/exclusion determinations. To demonstrate the ability to efficiently update this two-step search for additions to the literature, an update of the second-step search was conducted 9 months later. Abstracted data were sorted based on study design, risk model, and specific SNPs. Meta-analyses were performed for individual SNPs, with separate analyses done for case-control and prospective studies, and were compared with the results of more recent genome-wide association studies.Results: The first-step search found 1116 articles covering 108 different genes. The top ten "most-studied" genes were: ABCC8 (or SUR1, ACE, CAPN10, KCNJ11 (or Kir6.2, HNF1 alpha, HNF4 alpha, IL-6, PGC-1 alpha, PPAR gamma 2, and TCF7L2. The second-step search found a total of 658 articles, yielding 124 articles for initial data abstraction and analysis. We also demonstrated the ability to update this search as newer studies appeared, using the same method almost a year later to find an additional 107 articles (77 were ultimately excluded, bringing the number of included studies to 154. From these studies, data on 90 different DNA variants within the ten genes were abstracted. Simultaneous meta-analyses found that higher-risk alleles for SNPs rs7903146 and rs12255372 in TCF7L2, rs1801282 in PPAR gamma 2, rs5219 in KCNJ11, rs3792267 in CAPN10, rs2144909 in HNF4 alpha, and rs1800795 in IL-6 appeared to be associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. These findings were generally highly concordant with the results of traditional literature-based meta-analyses performed for individual genes.Conclusions: The methodology described in this manuscript represents a reasonable approach to more rapidly identifying and evaluating frequently studied genetic-risk markers for diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Comparison with results of traditional meta-analyses suggests that these gains in efficiency do not necessarily come at

  3. Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition. 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulrich, K; Böhme, H; Daenicke, R; Halle, I; Flachowsky, G

    2001-01-01

    During the last few years, animal nutrition has been confronted with genetically modified organisms (GMO), and their significance will increase in the future. The study presents investigations on the substantial equivalence of the transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn and the corresponding nontransgenic hybrid Cesar and parameters of nutrition physiology such as digestibility and energy content for poultry, pigs and ruminants. The results of the analysed corn samples as well as of the silage samples illustrated substantial equivalence in all investigated ingredients, such as crude nutrients, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and non-starch polysaccharides. The results of the experiments using poultry, pigs, wethers and fattening bulls were not influenced by the genetic modification of corn. The determined values for the digestibilities and the energy contents for poultry, pigs and wethers were not affected by the used corn variety. Neither the examined parameters of the fattening experiments with bulls nor the slaughter results showed any significant differences between the bulls fed on silages made from the nontransgenic or transgenic corn.

  4. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  5. The Antithesis of Entropy: Biosemiotic Communication from Genetics to Human Language with Special Emphasis on the Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Oller

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Entropy can be defined as the antithesis of well-formed true reports that agree with each other and with the material facts accessible through the experience of one or more competent observers. The abstract convergence (strictly formal, logical agreement of true narrative representations (TNRs—ordinary valid reports of facts of experience—makes them formally more complete than fictions, errors, lies, and nonsense. A limit of absolute entropy is theoretically reached if all resemblance to a TNR is lost. As argued here, TNRs—formally defined along the lines of Peirce's exact logic—provide the necessary foundation for functional human languages and for biosemiotic systems. The theoretical concepts of pragmatic mapping—the fitting of a TNR to whatever facts it represents—and the constructive cycle of abstraction that enables a child to discover the systems underlying such mappings are introduced and illustrated from child development and then shown to apply to the human neuroarchitecture, genetics, fetal development, and our immune systems. It is also argued that biological disorders and disease conditions logically must involve corrupted (damaged, undeveloped, or otherwise incomplete representations at one or many levels.

  6. PRESTO: Rapid calculation of order statistic distributions and multiple-testing adjusted P-values via permutation for one and two-stage genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browning Brian L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale genetic association studies can test hundreds of thousands of genetic markers for association with a trait. Since the genetic markers may be correlated, a Bonferroni correction is typically too stringent a correction for multiple testing. Permutation testing is a standard statistical technique for determining statistical significance when performing multiple correlated tests for genetic association. However, permutation testing for large-scale genetic association studies is computationally demanding and calls for optimized algorithms and software. PRESTO is a new software package for genetic association studies that performs fast computation of multiple-testing adjusted P-values via permutation of the trait. Results PRESTO is an order of magnitude faster than other existing permutation testing software, and can analyze a large genome-wide association study (500 K markers, 5 K individuals, 1 K permutations in approximately one hour of computing time. PRESTO has several unique features that are useful in a wide range of studies: it reports empirical null distributions for the top-ranked statistics (i.e. order statistics, it performs user-specified combinations of allelic and genotypic tests, it performs stratified analysis when sampled individuals are from multiple populations and each individual's population of origin is specified, and it determines significance levels for one and two-stage genotyping designs. PRESTO is designed for case-control studies, but can also be applied to trio data (parents and affected offspring if transmitted parental alleles are coded as case alleles and untransmitted parental alleles are coded as control alleles. Conclusion PRESTO is a platform-independent software package that performs fast and flexible permutation testing for genetic association studies. The PRESTO executable file, Java source code, example data, and documentation are freely available at http://www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~browning/presto/presto.html.

  7. A Rapid Coliform Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E-coli with minimal...

  8. Rapid communication. New incursions of West Nile virus lineage 2 in Italy in 2013: the value of the entomological surveillance as early warning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Calzolari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is one of the most serious public health threats that Europe and the Mediterranean countries are currently facing. In Italy, WNV emerged in 1998 and has been circulating since 2008. To tackle its continuous incursions, Italian national and regional institutions set up a surveillance program, which includes the serological screening of sentinel horses, sentinel-chickens and backyard poultry flocks and the surveillance on all equine neurological cases, resident captured and wild dead birds, and vectors. This communication aims to assess the importance of the entomological surveillance program as an early warning system for WNV circulation. In the province of Modena, the circulation of WNV lineage 2 strains was first detected in pools of Culex pipiens on July the 3rd, 42 days prior to the onset of the first 2013 human WNV neuroinvasive case reported in the same province. Similarly in Veneto, WNV was first detected on July 3rd in a pool of Cx. pipiens collected in the province of Venezia. The first human neuroinvasive case in this region occurred in the Rovigo province on July the 24th, seven days after the detection of WNV lineage 2 in a mosquito pool collected in the same province. Up to the end of July 2013, WNV circulation was further detected in several other pools of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes collected in Emilia-Romagna, Veneto and Lombardia. According to the NS3 partial sequence alignments including all recent European and Italian Lineage 2 strains, the new circulating WNV lineage 2 strains share high nt homology with the Hungarian and with the previous lineage 2 strains isolated in Veneto and Sardegna in 2011 and 2012. These data provide a clear and practical demonstration of the relevance of a reliable entomological surveillance program to early detect WNV in Italy.

  9. Evaluation of genetic diversity in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. alboglabra Bailey) by using rapid amplified polymorphic DNA and sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Zhang, L G

    2014-02-14

    Chinese kale is an original Chinese vegetable of the Cruciferae family. To select suitable parents for hybrid breeding, we thoroughly analyzed the genetic diversity of Chinese kale. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity across 21 Chinese kale accessions from AVRDC and Guangzhou in China. A total of 104 bands were detected by 11 RAPD primers, of which 66 (63.5%) were polymorphic, and 229 polymorphic bands (68.4%) were observed in 335 bands amplified by 17 SRAP primer combinations. The dendrogram showed the grouping of the 21 accessions into 4 main clusters based on RAPD data, and into 6 clusters based on SRAP and combined data (RAPD + SRAP). The clustering of accessions based on SRAP data was consistent with petal colors. The Mantel test indicated a poor fit for the RAPD and SRAP data (r = 0.16). These results have an important implication for Chinese kale germplasm characterization and improvement.

  10. Evidence for genetic association between East Asian and western North American Crataegus L. (Rosaceae) and rapid divergence of the eastern North American lineages based on multiple DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Eugenia Y Y; Stefanović, Sasa; Christensen, Knud Ib; Dickinson, Timothy A

    2009-05-01

    Phylogeographic relationships were constructed for 72 Old and New World Crataegus species using combinations of four chloroplast and up to five nuclear regions. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian results yield consistent relationships among major lineages. The close associations of the East Asian and western North American species point toward ancient trans-Beringian migrations. Relationships among eastern North American species are poorly resolved and few groups are identified that are congruent with existing classifications. Scant variation and short internal branches among these species suggest rapid divergence associated with polyploidy and hybridization. Incongruence between the chloroplast and nuclear data, and morphology suggest hybrid origins of three species from an extinct European lineage (the male parent) and three different North American female parents. Europe and eastern North America are suggested as the most recent common areas for Crataegus; at least four dispersal events are inferred to explain the present distribution of the genus.

  11. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and specific detection of common genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiawang; Tang, Shiming; Liu, Lideng; Kuang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Hu, Songnan; You, Shuzhu

    2015-03-01

    Here, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for 11 common transgenic target DNA in GMOs. Six sets of LAMP primer candidates for each target were designed and their specificity, sensitivity, and reproductivity were evaluated. With the optimized LAMP primers, this LAMP assay was simply run within 45-60 min to detect all these targets in GMOs tested. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproductivity of the LAMP assay were further analyzed in comparison with those of Real-Time PCR. In consistent with real-time PCR, detection of 0.5% GMOs in equivalent background DNA was possible using this LAMP assay for all targets. In comparison with real-time PCR, the LAMP assay showed the same results with simple instruments. Hence, the LAMP assay developed can provide a rapid and simple approach for routine screening as well as specific events detection of many GMOs.

  12. One simple DNA extraction device and its combination with modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid on-field detection of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Liu, Yinan; Chen, Lili; Quan, Sheng; Jiang, Shimeng; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-02

    Quickness, simplicity, and effectiveness are the three major criteria for establishing a good molecular diagnosis method in many fields. Herein we report a novel detection system for genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which can be utilized to perform both on-field quick screening and routine laboratory diagnosis. In this system, a newly designed inexpensive DNA extraction device was used in combination with a modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (vLAMP) assay. The main parts of the DNA extraction device included a silica gel membrane filtration column and a modified syringe. The DNA extraction device could be easily operated without using other laboratory instruments, making it applicable to an on-field GMO test. High-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isothermal amplification could be quickly isolated from plant tissues using this device within 15 min. In the modified vLAMP assay, a microcrystalline wax encapsulated detection bead containing SYBR green fluorescent dye was introduced to avoid dye inhibition and cross-contaminations from post-LAMP operation. The system was successfully applied and validated in screening and identification of GM rice, soybean, and maize samples collected from both field testing and the Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) proficiency test program, which demonstrated that it was well-adapted to both on-field testing and/or routine laboratory analysis of GMOs.

  13. Communication without communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratina Boris R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the necessary conditions for successful communication. It is well known that post-modernity, described as an era of control, produces only decentralized, imploded subjectivities, who are neither able to question their own being nor to relate one with another in authentic bonds of communication. Today, virtual communication has become an ultimate model of every possible communication whatsoever. The authors, therefore, pose the question of conditions for possibility of subjectivities who would be able and apt for authentic communication, wherein faith, fidelity, truth, and capability of keeping one's word occupy the central place.

  14. Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samyobrata Mukherjee

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... spline interpolation from the data of Johnson and Christy. [31]. But first, we have to deal with normalization in order to make our comparisons of the transverse spin for different wavelengths and metal film thicknesses d meaningful. We normalize the power flow into the sys- tem at x = 0 to unity. ∫ ∞. −∞.

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION Rapid Visual Assessment of Fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of five islands and is located approximately 20 km off the coast of. Mozambique in the Western Indian. Ocean (WIO). The seas around the archipelago are rich in ... snorkelling is allowed in the no-take zones. A new management plan is being developed for the Park but, at the time of writing, had not yet been implemented.

  16. Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study theoretically the transverse spin associated with the eigenmodes of a thinmetal film embedded in a dielectric. We show ... Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500 046, India; Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India ...

  17. Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Samyobrata; Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. Dutta

    2017-08-01

    We study theoretically the transverse spin associated with the eigenmodes of a thin metal film embedded in a dielectric. We show that the transverse spin has a direct dependence on the nature and strength of the coupling leading to two distinct branches for the long- and short-range modes. We show that the short-range mode exhibits larger extraordinary spin because of its more `structured' nature due to higher decay in propagation. In contrast to some of the earlier studies, calculations are performed retaining the full lossy character of the metal. In the limit of vanishing losses, we present analytical results for the extraordinary spin for both the coupled modes. The results can have direct implications for enhancing the elusive transverse spin exploiting the coupled plasmon structures.

  18. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Diffusion thermopower in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, R. G.; Kamatagi, M. D.; Sankeshwar, N. S.; Mulimani, B. G.

    2010-09-01

    The diffusion thermopower of graphene, Sd, is studied for 30 < T < 300 K, considering the electrons to be scattered by impurities, vacancies, surface roughness and acoustic and optical phonons via deformation potential couplings. Sd is found to increase almost linearly with temperature, determined mainly by vacancy and impurity scatterings. A departure from linear behaviour due to optical phonons is noticed. As a function of carrier concentration, a change in the sign of |Sd| is observed. Our analysis of recent thermopower data obtains a good fit. The limitations of Mott formula are discussed. Detailed analysis of data will enable a better understanding of the scattering mechanisms operative in graphene.

  19. Genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Neto, João Monteiro de

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this review of genetic counseling (GC) is to describe the current concepts and philosophical and ethical principles accepted by the great majority of countries and recommended by the World Health Organization, the stages of the process, its results and the psychological impact that a genetic disease has on a family. The concepts presented are based on an historical synthesis of the literature on GC since the 1930s until today, and the articles cited represent the most important research published which today provides the foundation for the theory and practice of GC. The modern definition of GC is a process of communication that deals with the human problems related with the occurrence of a genetic disease in a family. It is of fundamental importance that health professionals are aware of the psychological aspects triggered by genetic diseases and the ways in which these can be managed. In the field of human and medical genetics we are still living in a phase in which technical and scientific aspects predominate, with little emphasis on the study of emotional reactions and people's processes of adaptation to these diseases, which leads to clients having a low level of understanding of the events that have taken place, with negative consequences for family life and for society. The review concludes by discussing the need to refer families with genetic diseases for GC and the need for professionals working in this area to invest more in humanizing care and developing non-directive psychological GC techniques.

  20. Wireless communication with multiple antennas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    admin

    Wireless communications has seen a very rapid growth, both in practice and theory, during the past one decade. Most of the present wireless communication systems use one transmit antenna and one receive antenna. However, communication with multiple transmit and multiple receive antennas can enormously increase ...

  1. Short communication: Modification of genetic evaluation of herd life from a three-trait to a five-trait model in Canadian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewalem, A; Miglior, F; Kistemaker, G J; Sullivan, P; Huapaya, G; Van Doormaal, B J

    2007-04-01

    The national genetic evaluation of herd life for Canadian dairy breeds was modified from a 3-trait to a 5-trait animal model. The genetic evaluation incorporates information from daughter survival (direct herd life) and information from conformation, fertility, and udder health traits that are related to longevity (indirect herd life). Genetic evaluations for direct herd life were based on cows' survival from first calving to 120 days in milk (DIM), from 120 to 240 DIM, from 240 DIM to second calving, survival to third calving, and survival to fourth calving, which were analyzed using a multiple-trait animal model. Sire evaluations obtained for each of the 5 survival traits were combined into an overall sire evaluation for direct herd life. Sire evaluations for indirect herd life were based on an index of sire evaluations for dairy strength, feet and legs, overall mammary, rump angle, somatic cell score, milking speed, nonreturn rate in cows, and interval from calving to first service. A multiple-trait sire model based on multiple-trait across-country evaluation methodology was used to combine direct and indirect genetic evaluations for herd life into an overall genetic evaluation for herd life. Sire evaluations for herd life were expressed as an estimated transmitting ability for the number of lactations. The transmitting ability represents expected differences among daughters for herd life; and the average herd life was set to 3 lactations.

  2. Efficacy of a web-based intelligent tutoring system for communicating genetic risk of breast cancer: a fuzzy-trace theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R; Reyna, Valerie F; Widmer, Colin L; Cedillos, Elizabeth M; Fisher, Christopher R; Brust-Renck, Priscila G; Weil, Audrey M

    2015-01-01

    . Many healthy women consider genetic testing for breast cancer risk, yet BRCA testing issues are complex. . To determine whether an intelligent tutor, BRCA Gist, grounded in fuzzy-trace theory (FTT), increases gist comprehension and knowledge about genetic testing for breast cancer risk, improving decision making. . In 2 experiments, 410 healthy undergraduate women were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: an online module using a Web-based tutoring system (BRCA Gist) that uses artificial intelligence technology, a second group read highly similar content from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Web site, and a third that completed an unrelated tutorial. . BRCA Gist applied FTT and was designed to help participants develop gist comprehension of topics relevant to decisions about BRCA genetic testing, including how breast cancer spreads, inherited genetic mutations, and base rates. . We measured content knowledge, gist comprehension of decision-relevant information, interest in testing, and genetic risk and testing judgments. . Control knowledge scores ranged from 54% to 56%, NCI improved significantly to 65% and 70%, and BRCA Gist improved significantly more to 75% and 77%, P Intelligent tutors, such as BRCA Gist, are scalable, cost-effective ways of helping people understand complex issues, improving decision making. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. “Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation”: an interactive learning laboratory that communicates basic principles of genetics and cellular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David

    2016-01-01

    “Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation” is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients have the sickle cell genotype/phenotype using DNA and blood samples from wild-type and transgenic mice that carry a sickle cell mutation. The inquiry-based, problem-solving approach facilitates the students' understanding of the basic concepts of genetics and cellular and molecular biology and provides experience with contemporary tools of biotechnology. It also leads to students' appreciation of the causes and consequences of this genetic disease, which is relatively common in individuals of African descent, and increases their understanding of the first principles of genetics. This protocol provides optimal learning when led by well-trained facilitators (including the classroom teacher) and carried out in small groups (6:1 student-to-teacher ratio). This high-quality experience can be offered to a large number of students at a relatively low cost, and it is especially effective in collaboration with a local science museum and/or university. Over the past 15 yr, >12,000 students have completed this inquiry-based learning experience and demonstrated a consistent, substantial increase in their understanding of the disease and genetics in general. PMID:26873898

  4. Reactive biomolecular divergence in genetically altered yeast cells and isolated mitochondria as measured by biocavity laser spectroscopy : a rapid diagnostic method for studying cellular responses to stress and disease.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, Michael P. (University of California, San Diego, CA); Gourley, Paul Lee; Copeland, Robert Guild; McDonald, Anthony Eugene; Hendricks, Judy K.; Naviaux, Robert K. (Univesity of California, San Diego, CA)

    2006-12-01

    We report an analysis of four strains of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) using biocavity laser spectroscopy. The four strains are grouped in two pairs (wild type and altered), in which one strain differs genetically at a single locus, affecting mitochondrial function. In one pair, the wild-type rho+ and a rho0 strain differ by complete removal of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In the second pair, the wild-type rho+ and a rho- strain differ by knock-out of the nuclear gene encoding Cox4, an essential subunit of cytochrome c oxidase. The biocavity laser is used to measure the biophysical optic parameter Deltalambda, a laser wavelength shift relating to the optical density of cell or mitochondria that uniquely reflects its size and biomolecular composition. As such, Deltalambda is a powerful parameter that rapidly interrogates the biomolecular state of single cells and mitochondria. Wild-type cells and mitochondria produce Gaussian-like distributions with a single peak. In contrast, mutant cells and mitochondria produce leptokurtotic distributions that are asymmetric and highly skewed to the right. These distribution changes could be self-consistently modeled with a single, log-normal distribution undergoing a thousand-fold increase in variance of biomolecular composition. These features reflect a new state of stressed or diseased cells that we call a reactive biomolecular divergence (RBD) that reflects the vital interdependence of mitochondria and the nucleus.

  5. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  6. Understanding communicative actions: A repetitive TMS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared

  7. Nursing and genetic biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Jennifer E; Yu, Erica; Udtha, Malini; Williams, Pamela Holtzclaw

    2013-12-01

    Biobanks function as vital components in genetic research, which often requires large disease-based or population-based biospecimens and clinical data to study complex or rare diseases. Genetic biobanks aim to provide resources for translational research focusing on rapidly moving scientific findings from the laboratory into health care practice. The nursing profession must evolve as genetic biobanking practices advance. Nursing involvement in genetic biobanking practices comes with a distinct set of educational, ethical, and practice competencies. In response to these growing competency standards, nursing science developed a conceptual framework and continues to study ethical considerations to guide genetic biobanking initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Autism: genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abha R; State, Matthew W

    2006-05-01

    Autism is a strongly genetic disorder, with an estimated heritability of greater than 90%. A combination of phenotypic heterogeneity and the likely involvement of multiple interacting loci have hampered efforts at gene discovery. As a consequence, the genetic etiology of the spectrum of autism related disorders remains largely unknown. Over the past several years, the convergence of rapidly advancing genomic technologies, the completion of the human genome project, and increasingly successful collaborative efforts to increase the number of patients available for study have led to the first solid clues to the biological origins of these disorders. This paper will review the literature to date summarizing the results of linkage, cytogenetic, and candidate gene studies with a focus on recent progress. In addition, promising avenues for future research are considered.

  9. Communications article

    KAUST Repository

    Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-07-20

    Seamless, covert communications using a communications system integrated or incorporated within an article of clothing is described. In one embodiment, the communications system is integrated or incorporated into a shoe insole and includes a haptic feedback mechanism, a communications module, a flexible pressure sensor, and a battery. The communications module includes a wireless communications module for wireless communications, a wired interface for wired communications, a microcontroller, and a battery charge controller. The flexible pressure sensor can be actuated by an individual\\'s toe, for example, and communication between two communications nodes can be achieved using coded signals sent by individuals using a combination of long and short presses on the pressure sensor. In response to the presses, wireless communications modules can transmit and receive coded signals based on the presses.

  10. Usability of a Novel Clinician Interface for Genetic Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Pamela M.; Pollard, Stephanie E.; Volk, Lynn A.; Newmark, Lisa; Varugheese, Matthew; Baxter, Samantha; Aronson, Samuel J.; Rehm, Heidi L.; Bates, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity and rapid growth of genetic data demand investment in information technology to support effective use of this information. Creating infrastructure to communicate genetic information to health care providers and enable them to manage that data can positively affect a patient’s care in many ways. However, genetic data are complex and present many challenges. We report on the usability of a novel application designed to assist providers in receiving and managing a patient’s genetic profile, including ongoing updated interpretations of the genetic variants in those patients. Because these interpretations are constantly evolving, managing them represents a challenge. We conducted usability tests with potential users of this application and reported findings to the application development team, many of which were addressed in subsequent versions. Clinicians were excited about the value this tool provides in pushing out variant updates to providers and overall gave the application high usability ratings, but had some difficulty interpreting elements of the interface. Many issues identified required relatively little development effort to fix suggesting that consistently incorporating this type of analysis in the development process can be highly beneficial. For genetic decision support applications, our findings suggest the importance of designing a system that can deliver the most current knowledge and highlight the significance of new genetic information for clinical care. Our results demonstrate that using a development and design process that is user focused helped optimize the value of this application for personalized medicine. PMID:22521718

  11. Participatory Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical...... experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate......, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society....

  12. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    beyond, but not past instrumental, rational plans in order to become better able to understand and manage the concrete, incremental practices and contexts in which communication becomes strategic. Thus, we argue that although strategic communicators do (and should) make plans, a plan in itself does...... of the specific communicative disciplines and practices employed by the organization and/or its individual members, be they marketing, public relations, corporate communication, branding, public affairs or social advocacy. In all cases, strategic communicators do well to focus more on the process of communicating...... and less on the plan to communicate. Against the backdrop of the comprehensive changes to communication in and about organizations brought about by the rise of digital communication technologies and related contextual developments, Strategizing Communication provides better and more up to date tools...

  13. CSR communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golob, Ursa; Podnar, Klement; Elving, Wim

    2013-01-01

    communications. The most important outlets for CSR communication-related topics are Journal of Business Ethics and Corporate Communications: An International Journal. Originality/value – This paper represents the first attempt to perform a systematic and comprehensive overview of CSR communication papers...... a summary of the state of CSR communication knowledge. Design/methodology/approach – The existing literature on CSR communication was approached via systematic review. with a combination of conventional and summative qualitative content analysis. The final dataset contained 90 papers from two main business...

  14. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  15. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kovacic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  16. System impairment compensation in coherent optical communications by using a bio-inspired detector based on artificial neural network and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danshi; Zhang, Min; Li, Ze; Song, Chuang; Fu, Meixia; Li, Jin; Chen, Xue

    2017-09-01

    A bio-inspired detector based on the artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm is proposed in the context of a coherent optical transmission system. The ANN is designed to mitigate 16-quadrature amplitude modulation system impairments, including linear impairment: Gaussian white noise, laser phase noise, in-phase/quadrature component imbalance, and nonlinear impairment: nonlinear phase. Without prior information or heuristic assumptions, the ANN, functioning as a machine learning algorithm, can learn and capture the characteristics of impairments from observed data. Numerical simulations were performed, and dispersion-shifted, dispersion-managed, and dispersion-unmanaged fiber links were investigated. The launch power dynamic range and maximum transmission distance for the bio-inspired method were 2.7 dBm and 240 km greater, respectively, than those of the maximum likelihood estimation algorithm. Moreover, the linewidth tolerance of the bio-inspired technique was 170 kHz greater than that of the k-means method, demonstrating its usability for digital signal processing in coherent systems.

  17. Agricultural informational flow in informal communication networks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the rapid growth in the use of modern communication media to improve access to agricultural information, local information networks remain an important means of communication among rural folk. This study examined informal communication networks of rural farmers in the Ahafo Ano south district of Ghana to ...

  18. Sex Determination, Sex Ratios, and Genetic Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werren, John H.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms of sex determination are unexpectedly diverse and change rapidly during evolution. We review the role of genetic conflict as the driving force behind this diversity and turnover. Genetic conflict occurs when different components of a genetic system are subject to selection in

  19. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    not determine the success of strategic communication. Rather, contextual factors such as competition, technological developments, global cultural trends and local traditions as well as employees’ skills and attitudes will determine the organization’s communicative success. This holds true regardless...... and less on the plan to communicate. Against the backdrop of the comprehensive changes to communication in and about organizations brought about by the rise of digital communication technologies and related contextual developments, Strategizing Communication provides better and more up to date tools......Strategizing Communication offers a unique perspective on the theory and practice of strategic communication. Written for students and practitioners interested in learning about and acquiring tools for dealing with the technological, environmental and managerial challenges, which organizations face...

  20. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    Strategizing Communication offers a unique perspective on the theory and practice of strategic communication. Written for students and practitioners interested in learning about and acquiring tools for dealing with the technological, environmental and managerial challenges, which organizations face...... when communicating in today’s mediascape, this book presents an array of theories, concepts and models through which we can understand and practice communication strategically. The core of the argument is in the title: strategizing – meaning the act of making something strategic. This entails looking...... of the specific communicative disciplines and practices employed by the organization and/or its individual members, be they marketing, public relations, corporate communication, branding, public affairs or social advocacy. In all cases, strategic communicators do well to focus more on the process of communicating...

  1. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    of the specific communicative disciplines and practices employed by the organization and/or its individual members, be they marketing, public relations, corporate communication, branding, public affairs or social advocacy. In all cases, strategic communicators do well to focus more on the process of communicating......Strategizing Communication offers a unique perspective on the theory and practice of strategic communication. Written for students and practitioners interested in learning about and acquiring tools for dealing with the technological, environmental and managerial challenges, which organizations face...... when communicating in today’s mediascape, this book presents an array of theories, concepts and models through which we can understand and practice communication strategically. The core of the argument is in the title: strategizing – meaning the act of making something strategic. This entails looking...

  2. Data communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining computer communication systems used in nuclear power plants. The recommendations cover three areas important to these communications systems: system design, communication protocols, and communication media. The first area, system design, considers three aspects of system design--questions about architecture, specific risky design elements or omissions to look for in designs being reviewed, and recommendations for multiplexed data communication systems used in safety systems. The second area reviews pertinent aspects of communication protocol design and makes recommendations for newly designed protocols or the selection of existing protocols for safety system, information display, and non-safety control system use. The third area covers communication media selection, which differs significantly from traditional wire and cable. The recommendations for communication media extend or enhance the concerns of published IEEE standards about three subjects: data rate, imported hazards and maintainability.

  3. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    when communicating in today’s mediascape, this book presents an array of theories, concepts and models through which we can understand and practice communication strategically. The core of the argument is in the title: strategizing – meaning the act of making something strategic. This entails looking...... not determine the success of strategic communication. Rather, contextual factors such as competition, technological developments, global cultural trends and local traditions as well as employees’ skills and attitudes will determine the organization’s communicative success. This holds true regardless...... of the specific communicative disciplines and practices employed by the organization and/or its individual members, be they marketing, public relations, corporate communication, branding, public affairs or social advocacy. In all cases, strategic communicators do well to focus more on the process of communicating...

  4. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    and less on the plan to communicate. Against the backdrop of the comprehensive changes to communication in and about organizations brought about by the rise of digital communication technologies and related contextual developments, Strategizing Communication provides better and more up to date tools......Strategizing Communication offers a unique perspective on the theory and practice of strategic communication. Written for students and practitioners interested in learning about and acquiring tools for dealing with the technological, environmental and managerial challenges, which organizations face...... when communicating in today’s mediascape, this book presents an array of theories, concepts and models through which we can understand and practice communication strategically. The core of the argument is in the title: strategizing – meaning the act of making something strategic. This entails looking...

  5. Existential Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Charles C.

    Focusing on the seminal work "Being and Nothingness," this paper explores the implications of the ideas of Jean-Paul Sartre for the study of communication in society. The paper redefines communication from an existential point of view, explores some implications of this redefinition for the study of communication within the social…

  6. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    Communication complexity. Strategy I. Alice x ∈ {0, 1}n. ⇒. ⇐. Bob y ∈ {0, 1}n. Naive strategy. Alice sends x to Bob. Bob tells Alice if x = y. Cost. Requires n + 1 bits of communication. Jaikumar Radhakrishnan. Communication Complexity ...

  7. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    beyond, but not past instrumental, rational plans in order to become better able to understand and manage the concrete, incremental practices and contexts in which communication becomes strategic. Thus, we argue that although strategic communicators do (and should) make plans, a plan in itself does...... for understanding and managing strategic communication processes.......Strategizing Communication offers a unique perspective on the theory and practice of strategic communication. Written for students and practitioners interested in learning about and acquiring tools for dealing with the technological, environmental and managerial challenges, which organizations face...

  8. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    when communicating in today’s mediascape, this book presents an array of theories, concepts and models through which we can understand and practice communication strategically. The core of the argument is in the title: strategizing – meaning the act of making something strategic. This entails looking...... beyond, but not past instrumental, rational plans in order to become better able to understand and manage the concrete, incremental practices and contexts in which communication becomes strategic. Thus, we argue that although strategic communicators do (and should) make plans, a plan in itself does...... for understanding and managing strategic communication processes....

  9. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  10. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  11. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as...

  12. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book chapt......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology.......Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as...

  13. Fading and interference mitigation in wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Panic, Stefan; Anastasov, Jelena; Spalevic, Petar

    2013-01-01

    The rapid advancement of various wireless communication system services has created the need to analyze the possibility of their performance improvement. Introducing the basic principles of digital communications performance analysis and its mathematical formalization, Fading and Interference Mitigation in Wireless Communications will help you stay up to date with recent developments in the performance analysis of space diversity reception over fading channels in the presence of cochannel interference.The book presents a unified method for computing the performance of digital communication sys

  14. Genetic analysis of interacting trophic levels in a stressed pinyon-juniper community: A model for examining community responses to a rapid and recent environmental changes. Final report, May 1, 1994--April 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, P.; Whithmam, T.; Cobb, N.; Gehring, C.

    1998-05-01

    The goals of this project were to examine the genetic component of a pinyon-juniper woodland that had recently experienced a dramatic environmental change. The environmental change was increased temperature and decreased water associated with the volcanic cinder field at Sunset Crater National Monument. In all of these experiments we have used adjacent soil sites as controls for the effects of the stressed locations. We have examined mycorrhizal colonization and diversity in order to understand this important component in community {open_quotes}adaptation{close_quotes} to climate change. We have examined genetic diversity in the pinyon pine populations to determine what level of genetic differentiation has occurred between stressed and nonstressed locations. In addition, we have recently expanded our environmental parameters to include elevated CO{sub 2} on mycorrhizal performance and diversity.

  15. The picture exchange communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, A S; Frost, L A

    1998-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was developed as a means to teach children with autism and related developmental disabilities a rapidly acquired, self-initiating, functional communication system. Its theoretical roots combine principles from applied behavior analysis and guidelines established within the field of alternative and augmentative communication. This approach has several potential advantages relative to imitation-based strategies (both vocal and gestural) and symbol selection strategies. The system begins with the exchange of simple icons but rapidly builds "sentence" structure. The system also emphasizes developing the request function prior to developing responding to simple questions and commenting. The development of requesting with a sentence structure also permits the rapid development of attributes more traditionally taught within a receptive mode. The relationship between the introduction of PECS and various other behavioral issues (i.e., social approach and behavior management) as well as its relationship to the codevelopment of speech are reviewed.

  16. Communication theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...... is not a data processing device. In this chapter, communication is understood as a process of shared meaning-making (Bruner, 1990). Human beings interpret their environment, other people, and themselves on the basis of their dynamic interaction with the surrounding world. Meaning is essential because people...... ascribe specific meanings to their experiences, their actions in life or work, and their interactions. Meaning is reshaped, adapted, and transformed in every communication encounter. Furthermore, meaning is cocreated in dialogues or in communities of practice, such as in teams at a workplace or in school...

  17. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    Strategizing Communication offers a unique perspective on the theory and practice of strategic communication. Written for students and practitioners interested in learning about and acquiring tools for dealing with the technological, environmental and managerial challenges, which organizations face...... when communicating in today’s mediascape, this book presents an array of theories, concepts and models through which we can understand and practice communication strategically. The core of the argument is in the title: strategizing – meaning the act of making something strategic. This entails looking...... beyond, but not past instrumental, rational plans in order to become better able to understand and manage the concrete, incremental practices and contexts in which communication becomes strategic. Thus, we argue that although strategic communicators do (and should) make plans, a plan in itself does...

  18. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    not determine the success of strategic communication. Rather, contextual factors such as competition, technological developments, global cultural trends and local traditions as well as employees’ skills and attitudes will determine the organization’s communicative success. This holds true regardless......Strategizing Communication offers a unique perspective on the theory and practice of strategic communication. Written for students and practitioners interested in learning about and acquiring tools for dealing with the technological, environmental and managerial challenges, which organizations face...... when communicating in today’s mediascape, this book presents an array of theories, concepts and models through which we can understand and practice communication strategically. The core of the argument is in the title: strategizing – meaning the act of making something strategic. This entails looking...

  19. MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanescu, Camelia; Popa, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The new spirit of business must be marked by efficient managerial communication. To build, to develop and to run business means, first of all, to communicate, to transmit information, opinions and decisions and, at the same time, to receive answers to such. In practice, the manager is required to have certain qualities that are indispensable for the managerial activity, and the ability to communicate efficiently is one of them. Under the pressure of the changes occurring in the business envir...

  20. Medical genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorde, L.B.; Carey, J.C.; White, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    This book on the subject of medical genetics is a textbook aimed at a very broad audience: principally, medical students, nursing students, graduate, and undergraduate students. The book is actually a primer of general genetics as applied to humans and provides a well-balanced introduction to the scientific and clinical basis of human genetics. The twelve chapters include: Introduction, Basic Cell Biology, Genetic Variation, Autosomal Dominant and Recessive Inheritance, Sex-linked and Mitochondrial Inheritance, Clinical Cytogenetics, Gene Mapping, Immunogenetics, Cancer Genetics, Multifactorial Inheritance and Common Disease, Genetic Screening, Genetic Diagnosis and Gene Therapy, and Clinical Genetics and Genetic Counseling.

  1. Current Genetic Testing Tools in Neonatal Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Lalani, Seema R.

    2017-01-01

    With the growing understanding of the magnitude of genetic diseases in newborns and equally rapid advancement of tools used for genetic diagnoses, healthcare providers must have a sufficient knowledge base to both recognize and evaluate genetic diseases in the neonatal period. Genetic assessment has become an essential aspect of medicine, and professionals need to know when genetic evaluation is indispensable. Much progress has been made in recent years in utilizing massively parallel sequenc...

  2. Analysis of Japanese newspaper articles on genetic modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuma Shineha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of technologies involving the application of “Genetic Modification (GM” raised the need for science communication on this new technology in society. To consider the communication on GM in the society, an understanding of the current mass media is required. This paper shows the whole picture of newspaper discourses on GM in Japan. For the Japanese public, newspapers represent one of the major sources of information on GM. We subjected the two Japanese newspapers with the largest circulation, the Asahi Shimbun and Yomiuri Shimbun, to an analysis of the full text of approximately 4000 articles on GM published over the past to perform an assessment of the change of reportage on GM. As for the most important results, our analysis shows that there are two significant shifts with respect to the major topics addressed in articles on GM by Japanese newspapers.

  3. [Verbal communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Fulvio; Panini, Roberta; Ameri, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    The communication is an action that occupies a lot of part of the life of every individual and understands a whole activity that the purpose has to reach a preset goal: the communication obligatorily foresees the presence of a recipient/receiving.During communication we used both the word, but also the gesture and the way of do/say. The oral communication represents the most complete system however, evolved, end and thin to communicate, able to also express concepts and thoughts and not only behaviors: with it he can also lie and to supply misinformation. The oral communication also possesses an important temporal value, in how much you/he/she can define him now, the before and the then, but also the ability to determine the human relationships, because it participates in to define the different roles in which broadcasting station and receiver are found at that time. The truest power of the words is that to create, to maintain, to modify other people's behaviors; a natural correlation exists that is between communication and behavior. The final objective of the communication results therefore that to create or to modify the relationships and the human behaviors; in other terms we can be affirmed that the words can determine the reality. The true ragion to be to communicate is the purpose however, that who speaks he/she wants to reach: it is a voluntary, both mental and physical effort, that originates from a need both explicit and implicit of whom sends forth the message.

  4. Intercultural Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Georgeta Modiga

    2014-01-01

    .... Meanwhile, conjunction and theoretical approaches we witness interference, under the imperative of interdisciplinary vision lead us, often up to a damaging confusion between communication and culture...

  5. Genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  6. Genetic testing in cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Nynke; van Langen, Irene; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2010-01-01

    To review the current state and different aspects, including the yield, of genetic counseling and genetic testing in inherited heart disease. The number of counselees is growing rapidly all over the world, and the first studies about patients' perspectives and follow-up have been published. Progress

  7. Short communication: A novel method using immunomagnetic separation with a fluorescent nanobeads lateral flow assay for the rapid detection of low-concentration Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Cui, Xi; Xie, Quan-Yuan; Liu, Dao-Feng; Lai, Wei-Hua

    2016-12-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important serotype of enterohemorrhagic E. coli that was first identified as a human pathogen in 1982. This pathogen causes several serious diseases. In this study, immunomagnetic separation was coupled with a fluorescent nanobeads lateral flow assay to establish a sensitive and rapid detection method for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw milk. The pathogen was captured from raw milk by immunomagnetic separation with immunomagnetic nanobeads and then detected using a fluorescent nanobeads lateral flow assay. A fluorescent line was formed in the test line of the test strip and quantitatively detected using a fluorescent reader. Screening times, which included immunomagnetic separation and the fluorescent nanobeads lateral flow assay, were 8, 7, 6, and 5h when 1, 5, 25, and 125 cfu of E. coli O157:H7, respectively, were inoculated into 25mL of raw milk. The established method could be widely applied to the rapid onsite detection of other pathogens to ensure food safety. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The value of cardiac genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Jodie; Semsarian, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    Genetic testing is an important and necessary aspect of the management of families with cardiac genetic conditions. Commercial genetic tests are available for most cardiac genetic diseases, and increasing uptake amongst patients has contributed to a vastly improved knowledge of the genetic basis of these diseases. The incredible advances in genetic technologies have translated to faster, more comprehensive, and inexpensive commercial genetic tests and has completely changed the landscape of commercial genetic testing in recent years. While there are enormous challenges, mostly relating to interpretation of variants, the value of a genetic diagnosis should not be underestimated. In almost all cases, the single greatest utility is for the predictive genetic testing of family members. This review will describe the value of cardiac genetic testing in the current climate of rapid genetic advancements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haina; Peng, Nan; Shah, Shiraz Ali

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes, such as spind......SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes...... on archaeal ECEs has just started to unravel the molecular biology of these genetic entities and their interactions with archaeal hosts, it is expected to accelerate in the next decade....

  10. Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic counseling provides information and support to people who have, or may be at risk for, genetic disorders. A ... meets with you to discuss genetic risks. The counseling may be for yourself or a family member. ...

  11. Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been added to your dashboard . KEY POINTS Genetic counseling helps you understand how genes, birth defects and medical ... in your area. What is genetic counseling? Genetic counseling helps you understand how genes , birth defects and other ...

  12. Communicating Information

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was a mathematical theory of information and communication even prior to Shannon. Shannon's land- mark contribution is in his use of probability theory to quantify information communicated across a chan- nel and in the operational significance of his definitions and theorems. Further, his definitions turned out to.

  13. Communicating up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Chief communicators at many U.S. institutions are interested in forging closer ties with governing boards. Proponents say such relationships can increase board trust and confidence in communicators before a crisis occurs, making it easier to manage the institution's reputation and limit negative publicity when one does. At some institutions, such…

  14. Interracial Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    This course explores the inextricable and multidimensional relationships among race, culture, and communication by providing students with an extensive theoretical framework to enhance their understanding of interracial communication. Specific attention is geared toward the construction of one's own racial and ethnic identity as well as those of…

  15. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  16. Championship Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerveer, Beth; Butterick, Betsy

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses team development and focuses specifically on championship communication and team-building activities. Team development takes time and the process typically occurs in stages. Regardless of the sport or what the competitive field may look like, communication is an often overlooked, yet vital element in cultivating a…

  17. Patient-doctor communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, Carol

    2003-09-01

    randomized clinical trials and analytic studies of physician-patient communication confirmed a positive influence of quality communication on health outcomes. Continuing research in this arena is important. For a successful and humanistic encounter at an office visit, one needs to be sure that the patient's key concerns have been directly and specifically solicited and addressed. To be effective, the clinician must gain an understanding of the patient's perspective on his or her illness. Patient concerns can be wide ranging, including fear of death, mutilation, disability; ominous attribution to pain symptoms; distrust of the medical profession; concern about loss of wholeness, role, status, or independence; denial of reality of medical problems; grief; fear of leaving home; and other uniquely personal issues. Patient values, cultures, and preferences need to be explored. Gender is another element that needs to be taken into consideration. Ensuring key issues are verbalized openly is fundamental to effective patient-doctor communication. The clinician should be careful not to be judgmental or scolding because this may rapidly close down communication. Sometimes the patient gains therapeutic benefit just from venting concerns in a safe environment with a caring clinician. Appropriate reassurance or pragmatic suggestions to help with problem solving and setting up a structured plan of action may be an important part of the patient care that is required. Counseling around unhealthy or risky behaviors is an important communication skill that should be part of health care visits. Understanding the psychology of behavioral change and establishing a systematic framework for such interventions, which includes the five As of patient counseling (assess, advise, agree, assist, and arrange) are steps toward ensuring effective patient-doctor communication. Historically in medicine, there was a paternalistic approach to deciding what should be done for a patient: the physician knew best

  18. Why Do International Students Avoid Communicating with Americans?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I-Ching Wang; Janet N Ahn; Hyojin J Kim; Xiaodong Lin-Siegler

    2017-01-01

    Keywords: communication, ESL, foreign accent, intercultural competence, perceived bias Over the past decade, the number of international students enrolling in higher education in America has been growing rapidly...

  19. Communicating health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A

    1995-01-01

    Routine production of communication materials without paying attention to utilization, field test, and impact analysis is ineffective. The concept of information, education, and communication (IEC) should encompass voluntary activity of health education in a tradition of innovation. One seminal factor may be the communication technologies developed by the National Technology Missions. The missions were participatory by seeking solutions among communities and analyzing health issues from the perspective of those directly involved, rather than from the top down. The prime focus of the national drinking water mission was convenience, hence messages concentrating on health advantages were ignored. At this juncture, influencing health behavior required decentralization reflecting local cultures. Thus community-based partners became the foundation of a strategy of communicating safe water. As national strategies emerged in each of the technology missions, communication addressed advocacy of the need for political will, dissemination of technical information, and influencing patterns of behavior. Despite learning a new understanding, the danger exists that IEC remains just another label of mass communication with posters, advertisements, brochures, radio, and television. Decisions on contraceptive choice and use requires more than just accurate information; it requires the power to make such a decision. A new approach demands a priority for communication skills taking into account people's aspirations. The HIV-AIDS crisis underlines the urgency with which communication has to respond to health challenges. A series of experiments facilitated by the World Conservation Union helped build communication capabilities among environmental groups working in Latin America, Africa, and India. The International Reference Center on Water and Sanitation initiated pilot communication projects in West Africa for community health.

  20. Communication about Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Perspective of Filipino Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Peter James B; Anonuevo, Cora A; Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Abad, Lorna R; Padilla, Carmencita D; Laurino, Mercy Y

    2017-08-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), like other genetic conditions, is a relational disease from both the biological and psychosocial perspectives since the diagnosis gives rise to a variety of health, reproductive, and psychosocial implications. It is in these contexts that family communication of genetic information is important to study. Hence, this research aimed to explore genetic information communication in Filipino families affected with CAH. Using a qualitative descriptive design, families with a child affected with CAH were recruited through the CAH parent support group and were interviewed. Semi-structured interviews explored flow and content of genetic information communicated, the meanings the families attach to the communicated information, and the motivating and hindering factors in communication. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the findings. A total of five families participated, which included 11 individuals. Findings revealed that the diagnosis of CAH is not kept secret and it is openly shared with the family. The decision to communicate is influenced by several factors including the family's desire to seek further information about their family history. Initially, the focus of the communicated information is on the health implications and while communication about genetics occurs, this is almost always confined to the immediate family. The mother and grandmother serve as primary communicators in the family. The families have limited understanding of CAH especially its genetic implications including recurrence risk and carrier status. The findings can guide genetic counselors in supporting families in communicating information about CAH with the rest of the family.

  1. Current Genetic Testing Tools in Neonatal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Seema R

    2017-04-01

    With the growing understanding of the magnitude of genetic diseases in newborns and equally rapid advancement of tools used for genetic diagnoses, healthcare providers must have a sufficient knowledge base to both recognize and evaluate genetic diseases in the neonatal period. Genetic assessment has become an essential aspect of medicine, and professionals need to know when genetic evaluation is indispensable. Much progress has been made in recent years in utilizing massively parallel sequencing for rapid diagnosis of genetic conditions in neonates. Next-generation sequencing is increasingly being used for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis, and it may become an essential component of newborn screening. This review will define some basic genetic terms and concepts, explain the gamut of genetic testing available for early diagnosis of genetic diseases, and describe some common chromosomal abnormalities, genomic disorders, and single-gene diseases relevant to neonatal medicine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Current Genetic Testing Tools in Neonatal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema R. Lalani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growing understanding of the magnitude of genetic diseases in newborns and equally rapid advancement of tools used for genetic diagnoses, healthcare providers must have a sufficient knowledge base to both recognize and evaluate genetic diseases in the neonatal period. Genetic assessment has become an essential aspect of medicine, and professionals need to know when genetic evaluation is indispensable. Much progress has been made in recent years in utilizing massively parallel sequencing for rapid diagnosis of genetic conditions in neonates. Next-generation sequencing is increasingly being used for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis, and it may become an essential component of newborn screening. This review will define some basic genetic terms and concepts, explain the gamut of genetic testing available for early diagnosis of genetic diseases, and describe some common chromosomal abnormalities, genomic disorders, and single-gene diseases relevant to neonatal medicine.

  3. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... among pine species. Genome, 45:51-58. Peng SL, Li QF, Wang DP (2003). Genetic diversity of Pinus massoniana revealed by RAPD markers. Silvae Genet. 52(2):60-63. Stange C, Prehn D, Johnson PA (1998). Isolation of Pinus radiata. Genomic DNA suitable for RAPD analysis. Plant Mol. Biol. Report.

  4. Visual Information Communications International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Zhang, Kang; VINCI'09

    2010-01-01

    Visual Information Communication is based on VINCI'09, The Visual Information Communications International Conference, September 2009 in Sydney, Australia. Topics covered include The Arts of Visual Layout, Presentation & Exploration, The Design of Visual Attributes, Symbols & Languages, Methods for Visual Analytics and Knowledge Discovery, Systems, Interfaces and Applications of Visualization, Methods for Multimedia Data Recognition & Processing. This cutting-edge book addresses the issues of knowledge discovery, end-user programming, modeling, rapid systems prototyping, education, and design activities. Visual Information Communications is an edited volume whose contributors include well-established researchers worldwide, from diverse disciplines including architects, artists, engineers, and scientists. Visual Information Communication is designed for a professional audience composed of practitioners and researchers working in the field of digital design and visual communications. This volume i...

  5. Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of culture has become one of strategic importance for all disciplines studying human and social universe, being invested today with multiple explanatory connotations. Meanwhile, conjunction and theoretical approaches we witness interference, under the imperative of interdisciplinary vision lead us, often up to a damaging confusion between communication and culture. Distinction between symbolic and instrumental, of culture and civilization are necessary to not confuse the contents of symbolic culture media of communication technology. An inventory of issues and social transformations that have acquired an indisputable relevance in contemporary development equation surgery is necessary but difficult. It should be mentioned two of them, given their global significance: the rediscovery of culture as a defining factor of the social and importance that have acquired communication processes in living societies. In fact, between the two aspects there is a relationship of inherent and consubstantiality, validated by actual historical experience. Culture and Communication is now a binomial with terms interchangeably, the two processes intertwined in a single block. Welding of the two dimensions was otherwise devoted to the vocabulary of social sciences and humanities through the concepts of culture media and intercultural communication. If we examine the paradigm shift in the theoretical space of the last century, the most surprising phenomena that we observe is that theories concerning communication space literally invaded the area that was traditionally reserved for theories about culture. For theorists today, communication is a structural constituent and all definitions, descriptions and characterizations that build on contemporary culture.

  6. Science communication as political communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2014-09-16

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science.

  7. Science communication as political communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  8. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  9. Polio communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaway, Michael

    2005-12-01

    Substantial investments are being made in the area of communication and social mobilisation to interrupt transmission of wild poliovirus. A number of organisations with active support from the Government of India and various state governments are implementing activities to raise awareness and encourage all families to immunise their children. A mass media campaign is the most recognised health promotion effort on media. Mass media efforts are being backed by intensive social mobilisation and interpersonal communication efforts in polio-endemic states. Advocacy and editorial media environment are key elements of the overall communication approach, creating a conducive environment for the polio programme.

  10. Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A technology utilization project led to the commercial adaptation of a Space Shuttle Orbiter wireless infrared voice communications system. The technology was adapted to a LAN system by Wilton Industries, one of the participants. Because the system is cable-free, installation charges are saved, and it can be used where cable is impractical. Resultant products include the IRplex 6000. Transceivers can be located anywhere and can include mobile receivers. The system provides wireless LAN coverage up to 44,000 square feet. applications include stock exchange communications, trade shows, emergency communications, etc.

  11. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... chapters represent review articles covering the most relevant areas of the field. They are written with the goal of providing students with comprehensive introductions. Further they offer a supply of numerous references to the relevant literature. Besides its usefulness as a textbook, this will make...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as...

  12. Aesthetic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Based on Niklas Luhmann's systems theory, aesthetics is defined as a manner of reinforcing the connectivity, or Anschlusswert, of communication. Without changing the content, a message can be made more attractive, strengthening the receiver's willingness to be attentive and accepting....... As communication inevitably makes use of a sensuous medium, such as light or sound, all communication has an aesthetic dimension. In the 19th Century, an important distinction was made between pure and applied art, following Immanuel Kant's separation of theory of knowledge, moral theory and aesthetic theory....... Whereas pure art is produced in order to be observed, applied art has to fulfill practical purposes as well. Modern organizations, defined as systems of communication, may use art works to embellish and define themselves. But they inevitably use applied art as a practical tool in their normal...

  13. Animal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gisela

    2014-11-01

    Animal communication is first and foremost about signal transmission and aims to understand how communication occurs. It is a field that has contributed to and been inspired by other fields, from information technology to neuroscience, in finding ever better methods to eavesdrop on the actual 'message' that forms the basis of communication. Much of this review deals with vocal communication as an example of the questions that research on communication has tried to answer and it provides an historical overview of the theoretical arguments proposed. Topics covered include signal transmission in different environments and different species, referential signaling, and intentionality. The contention is that animal communication may reveal significant thought processes that enable some individuals in a small number of species so far investigated to anticipate what conspecifics might do, although some researchers think of such behavior as adaptive or worth dismissing as anthropomorphizing. The review further points out that some species are more likely than others to develop more complex communication patterns. It is a matter of asking how animals categorize their world and which concepts require cognitive processes and which are adaptive. The review concludes with questions of life history, social learning, and decision making, all criteria that have remained relatively unexplored in communication research. Long-lived, cooperative social animals have so far offered especially exciting prospects for investigation. There are ample opportunities and now very advanced technologies as well to tap further into expressions of memory of signals, be they vocal or expressed in other modalities. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:661-677. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1321 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Architecture and communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Hudnik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents effects of technology, science and capital strategies on changes in traditional forms and definitions of space, architecture and bodies. It confronts us with new processes of thinking and living that are constantly being transformed into new dynamic time and spatial contexts. Space is becoming the information filter, communication network. A cross-section of three landscapes: landscape of megastructures, nomadic landscapes and psychedelic landscapes, theory contributes to understanding of media and space-age technology, information technology and electronical language. It offers designs of various megastructures, media surfaces and envelopes of contemporary information society: the anthropological module, hyper- and infra-bodies, bio-electronical bodies and population genetics bodies. It presents the architecture of communication.

  15. Exploring geovisualization symbology for landscape genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoidh, Eoin Mac; Martinsohn, Jann Th.; Maes, Gregory E.

    2013-01-01

    of effective communication of usable information in a suitable format for application by stakeholders such as wildlife regulators or managers. To improve the communication of suitable information, geovisualization of results should be facilitated in a comprehensible format for stakeholders without GIS...... or genetic expertise. While specialist applications exist, alternative accessible solutions do not provide adequate support for the visualization of multi‐attribute spatially referenced genetic population structure information. As a solution, we document our exploration for an appropriate symbology...... to communicate landscape genetic information through an accessible, web‐based interface. A full problem description, review of available technologies, development rationale, and discussion of the symbology exploration are provided....

  16. Rapid parapatric speciation on holey adaptive landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilets, S; Vose, M D; Gavrilets, Sergey; Li, Hai; Vose, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    A classical view of speciation is that reproductive isolation arises as a by-product of genetic divergence. Here, individual-based simulations are used to evaluate whether the mechanisms implied by this view may result in rapid speciation if the only source of genetic divergence are mutation and random genetic drift. Distinctive features of the simulations are the consideration of the complete process of speciation (from initiation until completion), and of a large number of loci, which was only one order of magnitude smaller than that of bacteria. It is demonstrated that rapid speciation on the time scale of hundreds of generations is plausible without the need for extreme founder events, complete geographic isolation, the existence of distinct adaptive peaks or selection for local adaptation. The plausibility of speciation is enhanced by population subdivision. Simultaneous emergence of more than two new species from a subdivided population is highly probable. Numerical examples relevant to the theory of ce...

  17. Underwater sensing and communication platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Kui; van Kleunen, W.A.P.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Tijs, Emiel

    2011-01-01

    Currently the interest in underwater acoustic communication is growing rapidly as more and more underwater monitoring systems are deployed around the world. In order to cope with the challenges of the complex underwater acoustic channel many node platforms, networking protocols, and signal

  18. Statistical methods in spatial genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles; Leblois, Raphael; Coulon, Aurelie

    2009-01-01

    The joint analysis of spatial and genetic data is rapidly becoming the norm in population genetics. More and more studies explicitly describe and quantify the spatial organization of genetic variation and try to relate it to underlying ecological processes. As it has become increasingly difficult...... to keep abreast with the latest methodological developments, we review the statistical toolbox available to analyse population genetic data in a spatially explicit framework. We mostly focus on statistical concepts but also discuss practical aspects of the analytical methods, highlighting not only...

  19. Geochronology of diamond-bearing zircons from garnet peridotite in the North Qaidam UHPM belt, Northern Tibetan Plateau: A record of complex histories from oceanic lithosphere subduction to continental collision [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuguang; Zhang, Lifei; Niu, Yaoling; Su, Li; Jian, Ping; Liu, Dunyi

    2005-05-01

    to Late Devonian, including the emplacement of ultramafic cumulate probably in the shallow section of a mantle wedge, deep (> 200 km) subduction of the cumulate induced by the subducting slab, and ultimate exhumation genetically associated with continental collision.

  20. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural Animal. Genetics ...

  1. Sources of variability in human communicative skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volman, Inge; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Toni, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    When established communication systems cannot be used, people rapidly create novel systems to modify the mental state of another agent according to their intentions. However, there are dramatic inter-individual differences in the implementation of this human competence for communicative innovation.

  2. Roadmap of optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrell, Erik; Karlsson, Magnus; Chraplyvy, A. R.; Richardson, David J.; Krummrich, Peter M.; Winzer, Peter; Roberts, Kim; Fischer, Johannes Karl; Savory, Seb J.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Secondini, Marco; Kschischang, Frank R.; Lord, Andrew; Prat, Josep; Tomkos, Ioannis; Bowers, John E.; Srinivasan, Sudha; Brandt-Pearce, Maïté; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Lightwave communications is a necessity for the information age. Optical links provide enormous bandwidth, and the optical fiber is the only medium that can meet the modern society's needs for transporting massive amounts of data over long distances. Applications range from global high-capacity networks, which constitute the backbone of the internet, to the massively parallel interconnects that provide data connectivity inside datacenters and supercomputers. Optical communications is a diverse and rapidly changing field, where experts in photonics, communications, electronics, and signal processing work side by side to meet the ever-increasing demands for higher capacity, lower cost, and lower energy consumption, while adapting the system design to novel services and technologies. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of this rich research field, Journal of Optics has invited 16 researchers, each a world-leading expert in their respective subfields, to contribute a section to this invited review article, summarizing their views on state-of-the-art and future developments in optical communications.

  3. Communication Offline or Communication Online?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria-Magdalena Lupu

    2014-01-01

      About the communication it has been said and wrote a lot of volumes and it seems that the subject is far to be exhausted, the specific problem of this domain instead of being restricted, it extends...

  4. Communicability testing for voice communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Tardelli, J.D.; Hassanein, H.; Ray, B.; Collura, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, the performance of low bit rate coders was measured by two performance characteristics, namely quality and intelligibility. However, those characteristics are not adequate for measuring the performance over a realistic communication link, where factors such as hannel conditions

  5. Covert Communication Using a Dissimilar Cover

    OpenAIRE

    H S Jayaramu; K B ShivaKumar; Srinidhi G A; A K Goutam

    2013-01-01

    Communication is all about information exchange. Recently with the advancement in technology and the rapid exponential growthin the means of communication there are various domains emerged in the field of communication. Data hiding is a recently developed technique in the field of information security and has received significant attention from both academia and industry. Steganography is the practice of encoding secret information in a manner such that the very existence of the information i...

  6. 78 FR 58470 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications... review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal...

  7. Sources of variability in human communicative skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volman, Inge; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Toni, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    When established communication systems cannot be used, people rapidly create novel systems to modify the mental state of another agent according to their intentions. However, there are dramatic inter-individual differences in the implementation of this human competence for communicative innovation. Here we characterize psychological sources of inter-individual variability in the ability to build a shared communication system from scratch. We consider two potential sources of variability in communicative skills. Cognitive traits of two individuals could independently influence their joint ability to establish a communication system. Another possibility is that the overlap between those individual traits influences the communicative performance of a dyad. We assess these possibilities by quantifying the relationship between cognitive traits and behavior of communicating dyads. Cognitive traits were assessed with psychometric scores quantifying cooperative attitudes and fluid intelligence. Competence for implementing successful communicative innovations was assessed by using a non-verbal communicative task. Individual capacities influence communicative success when communicative innovations are generated. Dyadic similarities and individual traits modulate the type of communicative strategy chosen. The ability to establish novel communicative actions was influenced by a combination of the communicator's ability to understand intentions and the addressee's ability to recognize patterns. Communicative pairs with comparable systemizing abilities or behavioral inhibition were more likely to explore the search space of possible communicative strategies by systematically adding new communicative behaviors to those already available. No individual psychometric measure seemed predominantly responsible for communicative success. These findings support the notion that the human ability for fast communicative innovations represents a special type of complex collaborative activity.

  8. The Evolving Diagnostic and Genetic Landscapes of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziats, Mark N; Rennert, Owen M

    2016-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome.

  9. The evolving diagnostic and genetic landscapes of autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Nicholas Ziats

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome.

  10. Management & Communication

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Calendar of courses for September to December 2006 Please check our Web site to find out the number of places available, which may vary. Management Curriculum 2nd semester 2006 Titles Dates Language Quality Management 18, 19 September Bilingual Managing Teams 19, 20, 21 September English Communicating Effectively - Residential 20, 21, 22 septembre Bilingual (Full) Personal Awareness & Impact 26, 27, 28 September Bilingual Introduction to Leadership 4, 5, 6 October Bilingue IProject Scheduling & Costing 12, 13 October English CDP-SL part 1 Several sessions Dates to be fixed English or French Personal Awareness & Impact 23, 24 October Bilingual Communicating to Convince 23, 24, 25 October Bilingual CDP-GL part 2 25, 26, 27 October English CDP-GL part 1 Dates to be fixed Bilingual Risk Management 20, 21 December Bilingual Communication curriculum 2nd semester 2006 Titles Dates Language Techniques d'exposé et de présentation 18, 19 sept...

  11. Communication & Management

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2006-01-01

    Calendar of courses for September to December 2006 Please check our Web site to find out the number of places available, which may vary. Management Curriculum 2nd semester 2006 Titles Dates Language Quality Management 18, 19 September Bilingual Managing Teams 19, 20, 21 September English Communicating Effectively - Residential 20, 21, 22 septembre Bilingual (Full) Personal Awareness & Impact 26, 27, 28 September Bilingual Introduction to Leadership 4, 5, 6 October Bilingue IProject Scheduling & Costing 12, 13 October English CDP-SL part 1 Several sessions Dates to be fixed English or French Personal Awareness & Impact 23, 24 October Bilingual Communicating to Convince 23, 24, 25 October Bilingual CDP-GL part 2 25, 26, 27 October English CDP-GL part 1 Dates to be fixed Bilingual Risk Management 20, 21 December Bilingual Communication curriculum 2nd semester 2006 Titles Dates Language Techniques d'exposé et de présentation 18, 19 s...

  12. Communicative Musicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    plots of the interactions of mother infant dyads, the theory of communicative musicality found precise formulation in terms of the parameters: pulse, quality and narrative. This was first reported in Malloch (1999/2000), in the Special Issue of Musicae Scientiae, known to many of NJMT’s readers...... of the hearing and production of our musicality? If musicality is an intrinsic aspect of being human, how does it express itself in our living, feeling, thinking and being? What is the basis for this in our psyche and biology? The proposed answers come from different scientific areas: evolutionary theory...... of meaning for a sexually abused child (Robarts), and fostering communication in children with autistic spectrum disorders or with Rett Syndrome (Wigram & Elefant). Communicative Musicality is also shown in dance therapy with a group of children, born partially deaf and blind with disabilities (Bond...

  13. Interlimb communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    A continual coordination between the two legs is necessary for maintaining a symmetric walking pattern and adapting to changes in the external environment. Recent evidence in animals and humans suggests that spinal interneuronal circuits under supraspinal control may mediate communication between...... the lower limbs. The overall objective of the present thesis was to further investigate and elucidate neural pathways underlying interlimb communication in humans, focusing primarily on the possible interlimb connections to the biceps femoris muscle. The major aims were 1) to investigate whether interlimb...... walking (Study IV). The results of the this thesis provide new insights into the neural mechanisms underlying human interlimb communication, as well as their functional relevance to human locomotion. Although it is difficult to propose the exact neural pathways mediating interlimb reflexes...

  14. Constructive communication

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Richard Ellis is a consultant in communications and the successful author of 'Communication for Engineers'. In each chapter he highlights key points and situations, and provides exercises to consolidate what has already been learnt. The book ends with a 'toolbox' of useful information on subjects such as writing letters, spelling, punctuation, using abbreviations, studying for exams, using libraries and training.Written in clear, informative English, with the emphasis on the practical, this book is essential reading for both students and professionals in the con

  15. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  16. Digital communication

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Apurba

    2010-01-01

    ""Digital Communications"" presents the theory and application of the philosophy of Digital Communication systems in a unique but lucid form. This book inserts equal importance to the theory and application aspect of the subject whereby the authors selected a wide class of problems. The Salient features of the book are: the foundation of Fourier series, Transform and wavelets are introduces in a unique way but in lucid language; the application area is rich and resemblance to the present trend of research, as we are attached with those areas professionally; a CD is included which contains code

  17. Communicating Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Edsko; Koutavas, Vasileios; Hennessy, Matthew

    We propose a novel language construct called communicating transactions, obtained by dropping the isolation requirement from classical transactions, which can be used to model automatic error recovery in distributed systems. We extend CCS with this construct and give a simple semantics for the extended calculus, called TransCCS. We develop a behavioural theory which is sound and complete with respect to the may-testing preorder, and use it to prove interesting laws and reason compositionally about example systems. Finally, we prove that communicating transactions do not increase the observational power of processes; thus CCS equivalences are preserved in the extended language.

  18. Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  19. Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and their families. Clinical Geneticists Clinical geneticists are medical doctors with special training in genetics. In addition to educating families about genetic conditions, they perform clinical exams and order lab tests to diagnose the causes ...

  20. Genetic progress in the poultry industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    company (A.F. Gristwood, personal communication) has increased livemass gain by 65- ... in food utilization, is an exciting prospect for genetic selection in the future. .... individual (mass) selection was applied against them. It was apparent that ...

  1. Propagation Engineering in Wireless Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid

    2012-01-01

    Wireless communications has seen explosive growth in recent decades, in a realm that is both broad and rapidly expanding to include satellite services, navigational aids, remote sensing, telemetering, audio and video broadcasting, high-speed data communications, mobile radio systems and much more. Propagation Engineering in Wireless Communications deals with the basic principles of radiowaves propagation for frequency bands used in radio-communications, offering descriptions of new achievements and newly developed propagation models. The book bridges the gap between theoretical calculations and approaches, and applied procedures needed for advanced radio links design. The primary objective of this two-volume set is to demonstrate the fundamentals, and to introduce propagation phenomena and mechanisms that engineers are likely to encounter in the design and evaluation of radio links of a given type and operating frequency. Volume one covers basic principles, along with tropospheric and ionospheric propagation,...

  2. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  3. Genetic modification and genetic determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-06-26

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  4. Imaging Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen E.; Hyde, Luke W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an experimental strategy that integrates molecular genetics and neuroimaging technology to examine biological mechanisms that mediate differences in behavior and the risks for psychiatric disorder. The basic principles in imaging genetics and the development of the field are discussed.

  5. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  6. Magnetostatic communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, William D [Livermore, CA

    2008-02-26

    A system for providing communication of information by modulating a magnetostatic field with a magnetostatic transmitter that modulates said magnetostatic field to contain the information and detecting the information in the modulated field at a distance with a magnetostatic detector that detects the modulated magnetic field containing the information.

  7. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Document Server

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  8. Nonverbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmier, Mary; Frank, Cheryl

    This booklet presents 10 activities that deal with nonverbal communication. Activities in the booklet involve nonverbal messages present in the style of lettering, design, and color in advertisements; comic strips; facial expressions; body movement; idioms (such as "to be all eyes"); personal space; handshakes; clothing; and nonverbal…

  9. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Health Research Bulletin (2005), Vol. 7, No. 2. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Palliative care in Tanzania: a needs assessment study of family caregivers in urban setting. T. NGOMA. Ocean Road Cancer Institute, PO. Box 3592 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania;. Email: ngoma@uccmail.co.tz. Tanzania, with a population of ...

  10. Short communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-23

    May 23, 2015 ... the majority of birds in one image (Fig. 2). Figure 2. Partial stack of 100+ Levant Sparrowhawks over the Mara North Conservancy, 23 February 2014. Photo: M. Mockler. Short communications. 33. Figure 1. Photographs confirming the identification of Levant Sparrowhawk. Accipiter brevipes. Photos: M.

  11. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... Keywords. Cre-lox; inducible promoter; marker removal; site-specific recombination; transgenic rice. Brief communication ..... USA 88 10558–10562. Gidoni D, Srivastava V and Carmi N 2008 Site-specific excisional recombination strategies for elimination of undesirable transgenes from crop plants. In Vitro ...

  12. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-22

    Jan 22, 2016 ... Berberis lycium; large pollen sac; male function; pollination; staminal filament. Brief communication. Published online: 22 January .... 2006 Anther evolution: pollen presentation strategies when pol- linators differ. Am. J. Bot. 167 288–296. Cota-sanchez JH, Almeida OJG, Falconer DJ, Choi HJ and. Bevan L ...

  13. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-05

    Nov 5, 2013 ... Harrell FE 2001 Regression modeling strategies (New York: Springer). Hasson O 1991 Pursuit-deterrent signals: communication between prey and predator. Trends. Ecol. Evol. 6 325–329. Kramer DL and Bonenfant M 1997 Direction of predator approach and the decision to flee to a refuge. Anim. Behav.

  14. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  15. Quantum communications

    CERN Document Server

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates that a quantum communication system using the coherent light of a laser can achieve performance orders of magnitude superior to classical optical communications Quantum Communications provides the Masters and PhD signals or communications student with a complete basics-to-applications course in using the principles of quantum mechanics to provide cutting-edge telecommunications. Assuming only knowledge of elementary probability, complex analysis and optics, the book guides its reader through the fundamentals of vector and Hilbert spaces and the necessary quantum-mechanical ideas, simply formulated in four postulates. A turn to practical matters begins with and is then developed by: ·         development of the concept of quantum decision, emphasizing the optimization of measurements to extract useful information from a quantum system; ·         general formulation of a transmitter–receiver system ·         particular treatment of the most popular quantum co...

  16. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (2011), 19(2): 304-307. ISSN 0794-5698. Short Communication. Lead and Cadmium Levels of Five Commonly and Widely Consumed Leafy Vegetables in. Kano State, Nigeria. *M.I. Mohammed and ... the agreed international requirements. This is particularly important for farm ...

  17. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  18. Health communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mariann B.

    communication changes from information to conversation and negotiation of a chared understanding and challenges the concept of professionalism. The success of conversations depends on the interactions and the capacity to deal with several voices in a complex context. The study discusses the opportunity...

  19. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    specifically has one AciI restriction site, producing two fragments, and A supergroup Wolbachia has two AciI. Brief communication. Frequency of infection with A and B supergroup Wolbachia in insects and pests associated with mulberry and silkworm. B M PRAKASH and H P PUTTARAJU*. Laboratory of Seribiotechnology ...

  20. Communication Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development Communication Report, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Communication planning in developing countries is discussed in individual articles on theory, knowledge production and utilization, planning at the regional level, software, and rural development. A nutrition education project and three experiments in developing educational materials with feedback from villagers in Africa are described in the…

  1. Communicating Information

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 2. Communicating Information. K Viswanath. General Article Volume 7 Issue 2 February 2002 pp 26-32. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/02/0026-0032. Keywords. Entropy ...

  2. Science communication a practical guide for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Bowater, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Science communication is a rapidly expanding area and meaningful engagement between scientists and the public requires effective communication. Designed to help the novice scientist get started with science communication, this unique guide begins with a short history of science communication before discussing the design and delivery of an effective engagement event. Along with numerous case studies written by highly regarded international contributors, the book discusses how to approach face-to-face science communication and engagement activities with the public while providing tips to avoid potential pitfalls. This book has been written for scientists at all stages of their career, including undergraduates and postgraduates wishing to engage with effective science communication for the first time, or looking to develop their science communication portfolio.

  3. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  4. Digital communication communication, multimedia, security

    CERN Document Server

    Meinel, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The authors give a detailed summary about the fundamentals and the historical background of digital communication. This includes an overview of the encoding principles and algorithms of textual information, audio information, as well as images, graphics, and video in the Internet. Furthermore the fundamentals of computer networking, digital security and cryptography are covered. Thus, the book provides a well-founded access to communication technology of computer networks, the internet and the WWW. Numerous pictures and images, a subject-index and a detailed list of historical personalities in

  5. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  6. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABS'I'RACT. Populations of amaranthus 1Amarwnhus 5p.) obtained {mm a physical-genetic admixture were studied to identify the best performing cultivars and determine the most important yield components. Most of the characters showed .... analysis suggests that production improvement programmes could be directed ...

  7. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Nephrotic cystinosis is an autosomally determined recessive genetic disorder that results from a defect in the lysosomal efflux of cystine. This is caused by mutations in the gene,. CTNS, that encodes the transporter cystinosin, which mediates the efflux of cystine from the lysosome to the cytosol. A defect in the CTNS gene ...

  8. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pranisha

    2014-12-11

    Dec 11, 2014 ... Abstract. Porcine stress syndrome (PSS) is a genetic disorder caused by a recessive mutation in the halothane. (HAL) gene and results in sudden death of pigs when placed under stress during transport and pre- slaughtering conditions. Animals that are affected by this mutation tend to develop pale, soft ...

  9. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doğan Narinç

    being priced per animal. This limits the genetic evaluation studies on live-weight. In addition, many producers want to obtain heavier quails since small quails are not preferred by consumers, which extend the rearing period. However, it has been confirmed that most of the weight increases are due to abdominal fat.

  10. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... Studies were undertaken to identify genetic relationship in four different species of Pinus L. through randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of 500 DNA fragments ranging from 234 to 1353 bp were amplified using 5 selected primers. The number of amplification products produced by.

  11. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mike MacNeil

    All genotypes were collected on a LiCor 4200 DNA. Analysis System (Lincoln, NE, USA). Genotypes were independently scored by two individuals. PCR was repeated for discrepancies that could not be resolved. Anomalous genotypes were detected using GenoProb. (Thallman et al., 2001a,b). Genetic linkage maps were ...

  12. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... Mager DL 2007 Repeated recruitment of LTR retrotransposons as promoters by the anti-apoptotic locus NAIP during mammalian evolution. PLoS Genet. 3 e10. Ryan FP 2011 Human endogenous retroviruses in multiple sclerosis: Potential for Novel neuro-pharmacological research. Curr. Neuropharmacol.

  13. What drives successful verbal communication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eDe Boer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a vast amount of potential mappings between behaviours and intentions in communication: a behaviour can indicate a multitude of different intentions, and the same intention can be communicated with a variety of behaviours. Humans routinely solve these many-to-many referential problems when producing utterances for an Addressee. This ability might rely on social cognitive skills, for instance, the ability to manipulate unobservable summary variables to disambiguate ambiguous behaviour of other agents (mentalizing and the drive to invest resources into changing and understanding the mental state of other agents (communicative motivation. Alternatively, the ambiguities of verbal communicative interactions might be solved by general-purpose cognitive abilities that process cues that are incidentally associated with the communicative interaction. In this study, we assess these possibilities by testing which cognitive traits account for communicative success during a verbal referential task. Cognitive traits were assessed with psychometric scores quantifying motivation, mentalizing abilities, and general-purpose cognitive abilities, taxing abstract visuo-spatial abilities. Communicative abilities of participants were assessed by using an on-line interactive task that required a speaker to verbally convey a concept to an Addressee. The communicative success of the utterances was quantified by measuring how frequently a number of Evaluators would infer the correct concept. Speakers with high motivational and general-purpose cognitive abilities generated utterances that were more easily interpreted. These findings extend to the domain of verbal communication the notion that motivational and cognitive factors influence the human ability to rapidly converge on shared communicative innovations.

  14. Laser communications for UAV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Scott H.; Chan, Victor J.; Arnold, Robert L.; Kremer, Richard M.; Liu, C. S.

    1995-09-01

    Laser communications between high flying aircraft such as high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles offers the potential to transfer extremely high amounts of information faster and with a much smaller package than is possible using current radio frequency and microwave technologies. This can be especially important in transferring time sensitive reconnaissance information because the value of the data can deteriorate rapidly with time. BMDO has funded a number of technology efforts through the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command reducing the risks associated with laser communications. One of these efforts, at ThermoTrex Corporation in San Diego, California, is now being carried forward towards an advanced technology demonstration. The program leads to the demonstration of high data rate communications of 270 MBPS (mega bits per second) to 1.2 GBPS (giga bits per second) between high altitude aircraft and between a satellite and the ground. The laser communications terminals incorporate atomic line filter technology for background light rejection during acquisition, reactionless Roto-Lok offset cable drive gimbals for fast slewing and high accuracy pointing, and direct digital modulation of semiconductor diode lasers detected with low noise avalanche photodiodes. We present results of a 42 km, 1.2 GBPS laser communications demonstration performed at NASA/JPL Table Mountain facility in Wrightwood, Calif., a 10 km, 1.2 GBPS laser communications demonstration at NRAD in San Diego, Calif., and preliminary results of a 150 km, 1.2 GBPS laser communications demonstration between the islands of Maui and Hawaii.

  15. Science Communication Training: What Are We Trying to Teach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Lewenstein, Bruce V.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth in public communication of science and technology has led to many diverse training programs. We ask: What are learning goals of science communication training? A comprehensive set of learning goals for future trainings will draw fully from the range of fields that contribute to science communication. Learning goals help decide what to…

  16. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    On exposure to a hypotonic environment, cells swell rapidly because of a redistribution of osmolytes and water. (Hoffmann et al. 2009). The cell volume is challenged thus during a variety of pathophysiological conditions. Some examples of these are hypoxia/ischaemia, hyponatremia,. (when hormonal and renal functions ...

  17. Communicating Arctic Change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serreze, M.

    2009-12-01

    Nowhere on the planet are emerging signals of climate change more visible than in the Arctic. Rapid warming, a quickly shrinking summer sea ice cover, and thawing permafrost, will have impacts that extend beyond the Arctic and may reverberate around the globe. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) of the University of Colorado has taken a leading role in trying to effectively communicate the science and importance of Arctic change. Our popular “Sea Ice News and Analysis” web site tracks the Arctic’s shrinking ice cover and provides scientific analysis with language that is accurate yet accessible to a wide audience. Our Education Center provides accessible information on all components of the Earth’s cryosphere, the changes being seen, and how scientists conduct research. A challenge faced by NSIDC is countering the increasing level of confusion and misinformation regarding Arctic and global change, a complex problem that reflects the low level of scientific literacy by much of the public, the difficulties many scientists face in communicating their findings in accurate but understandable terms, and efforts by some groups to deliberately misrepresent and distort climate change science. This talk will outline through examples ways in which NSIDC has been successful in science communication and education, as well as lessons learned from failures.

  18. Trends and patterns in communication research on Asia: A review of publications in top SSCI journals, 1995-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Xun "Sunny" Liu; Ran Wei

    2017-01-01

    Communication research in Asia has enjoyed rapid growth in the 20th century amid Asia’s economic boom, rapid growth in communication technologies and expanded university faculty. To explore the extent to which the rise of Asian communication research continued in the 21st century, a total of 558 publications on Asian communication research in 14 top-ranked SSCI communication journals from 1995 to 2014 were analyzed. Results indicate that the rise of Asian communication research is afoot in th...

  19. Evaluation of four simple/rapid assays and two fourth-generation ELISAs for the identification of HIV infection on a serum panel representing the HIV-1 group M genetic diversity in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghokeng, Avelin Fobang; Ewane, Léonard; Awazi, Bih; Nanfack, Aubin; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Zekeng, Léopold

    2004-12-15

    The performance of 4 rapid and simple assays: Camstix-HIV 1+2 (Camdiagnostix, Yaounde, Cameroon); Determine HIV 1+2+0 (Abbott Laboratories, Tokyo, Japan); Genie II HIV-1/HIV-2 (Bio-Rad, Marnes la Coquette, France); ImmunoComb II HIV 1 & 2 BiSpot (Orgenics, Yavne, Israel); and 2 fourth-generation ELISAs: Enzygnost HIV Integral (Dade Behring, Marburg, Germany) and Genscreen plus HIV Ag-Ab (Bio-Rad, Marnes la Coquette, France) currently used in Cameroon to detect HIV infections were evaluated on a local serum panel. A total of 503 samples were collected, using the Camstix-HIV 1+2 assay. Overall, 280 samples were confirmed HIV positive, 181 were negative, and 42 were indeterminate. All positive samples belonged to group M: CRF02_AG (73.5%), A1 (7.1%), A2 (1.2%), G (4.7%), F2 (5.1%), D (1.6%), CRF11 (1.6%), CRF06 (1.2%), and CRF01_AE (1.6%). Sensitivity, specificity, test efficiency, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated both including and excluding indeterminate samples. Except for Genie II and ImmunoComb II (98.9 and 99.3%, respectively), sensitivities were 100% for the remaining 4 tests. Specificities, efficiencies, and positive predictive values of all assays were negatively affected by the addition of HIV-indeterminate samples in the calculations. These data show the importance of prior test evaluations on local serum panels and in field conditions before a national policy for HIV screening is decided on and stress also the need to use tests and algorithms that can reduce the high number of HIV-indeterminate results in Africa.

  20. MedRapid--medical community & business intelligence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkeissen, E; Fuchs, H; Jakob, T; Wetter, T

    2002-01-01

    currently, it takes at least 6 months for researchers to communicate their results. This delay is caused (a) by partial lacks of machine support for both representation as well as communication and (b) by media breaks during the communication process. To make an integrated communication between researchers and practitioners possible, a general structure for medical content representation has been set up. The procedure for data entry and quality management has been generalized and implemented in a web-based authoring system. The MedRapid-system supports the medical experts in entering their knowledge into a database. Here, the level of detail is still below that of current medical guidelines representation. However, the symmetric structure for an area-wide medical knowledge representation is highly retrievable and thus can quickly be communicated into daily routine for the improvement of the treatment quality. In addition, other sources like journal articles and medical guidelines can be references within the MedRapid-system and thus be communicated into daily routine. The fundamental system for the representation of medical reference knowledge (from reference works/books) itself is not sufficient for the friction-less communication amongst medical staff. Rather, the process of (a) representing medical knowledge, (b) refereeing the represented knowledge, (c) communicating the represented knowledge, and (d) retrieving the represented knowledge has to be unified. MedRapid will soon support the whole process on one server system.

  1. Intercultural communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouaoui ,Merbouh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in international trade, the global economy and the globalization of English usage, more and more students are seeking to study in order to gain intercultural understanding, to achieve individual academic goals. One of the most common reasons for students wanting to study is to improve their English competence and to improve their communicative ability with other people. One effect of the globalization of the English language is a significant increase in the number of intercultural interactions. More people than ever before are involved in interactions with foreigners and communities are becoming increasingly multilingual and multicultural to mix with people from their own community rather than interact or communicate with students from other cultural backgrounds.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Schindler disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... childhood, with some features of autism spectrum disorders. Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by impaired communication and socialization skills. Related Information What does it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family? What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? ...

  3. A Revised Communication Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a communication process model that distinguishes between active and passsive communication. Discusses the various stages in communication, including pretransmission, transmission, and posttransmission. (CH)

  4. Rapid communication The correct use of Sr isotopes in river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stable isotopes are used extensively in hydrology as a means of establishing the contribution of different reservoirs and sources to the water budget. If the information contained in stable isotope data is to be used in a quantitative sense, appropriate mass balance equations have to be used. Specifically, differences in the ...

  5. Fusion-fission-fusion fast ignition plasma focus [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, F.

    2005-03-01

    A crucial advancement in the problem for the controlled release of energy by nuclear fusion appears possible by an autocatalytic fusion-fission-fusion microexplosion, where the deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reaction of a dense magnetized DT plasma placed inside a thin liner made up of U238, Th232 (perhaps B10) releases a sufficient number of 14 MeV fusion neutrons which by fission reactions in the liner implode the liner on the DT plasma. The liner implosion increases the DT plasma density and with it the neutron output accelerating the fast fission reactions. Following the fast fission assisted ignition, a thermonuclear detonation wave can propagate into unburnt DT to reach a high gain. The simplest way for the realization of this concept appears to be the dense plasma focus configuration, amended with a nested high voltage magnetically insulated transmission line for the heating of the DT. The large magnetic field needed for the α-particle entrapment of the DT fusion reaction is here generated by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect, amplifying the magnetic field of the plasma focus current sheet.

  6. Rapid Communication: Quasi-gedanken experiment challenging the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Quantum information; quantum entanglement; no-signalling theorem ... the construction of empirically testable schemes wherein superluminal exchange of information can occur. In light of this thesis,we present a potentially feasible quantum-optical scheme that purports to enable superluminal signalling.

  7. Genetic barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weier, Heinz -Ulrich G

    2015-08-04

    Herein are described multicolor FISH probe sets termed "genetic barcodes" targeting several cancer or disease-related loci to assess gene rearrangements and copy number changes in tumor cells. Two, three or more different fluorophores are used to detect the genetic barcode sections thus permitting unique labeling and multilocus analysis in individual cell nuclei. Gene specific barcodes can be generated and combined to provide both numerical and structural genetic information for these and other pertinent disease associated genes.

  8. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  9. Interdisciplinary Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib Callaos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication is fundamental in scientific practice and an integral part of academic work. The practice of communication cannot be neglected by those who are trying to advance scientific research. Effective means should continuously be identified in order to open channels of communication within and among disciplines, among scientists and between scientists and the general public.[1]The increasing importance of interdisciplinary communication has been pointed out by an increasing number of researchers and scholars, as well as in conferences and roundtables on the subject. Some authors even estimate that "interdisciplinary study represents the future of the university."[2] Since interdisciplinary study is "the most underthought critical, pedagogical and institutional concept in modern academy"[3] it is important to think and reflect, and even do some research, on this concept or notion. Research and practice based reflections with regards to this issue are important especially because the increasing complexity and proliferation of scientific research is generating countless specialties, sub-specialties and sub-sub-specialties, with their respective special languages; which were "created for discrete local areas of research based upon the disconnected branches of science."[4] On the other hand, scientific, technical and societal problems are requiring multi- or inter-disciplinary consideration. Consequently, interdisciplinary communication channels are being needed with urgency, and scientific research should be integrated, not just in the context of its discipline, but also in the context of related disciplines. Much more reflection and research should be done on this issue. Research on adequate research integration and communication is urgently required, i.e. meta-research efforts should be done in order to relate research results in an adequate and more useful way. This meta-research effort might be done in the context of each particular

  10. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  11. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  12. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  13. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  14. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at NHGRI About About the Institute Budget and Financial Information Divisions Director's Page How to Contact Us Institute ... genome, has greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic ... for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov], as well as ...

  15. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  16. Communicating EAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    Since the early years of electro acoustic music great self-awareness is found among the field’s composers who often and willingly have communicated historical chronology, thoughts about analysis, aesthetic directions and rivalries. This we find both in relation to the historical studios (Schaeffe......Since the early years of electro acoustic music great self-awareness is found among the field’s composers who often and willingly have communicated historical chronology, thoughts about analysis, aesthetic directions and rivalries. This we find both in relation to the historical studios...... (Schaeffer’s work in Paris, the studio in Cologne and in the studio EMS in Stockholm) and in relation to today’s discussions of EAM and Sound Art. The extended rhetoric about the music and the production of it is a useful tool in our discussions of musical development and analysis, but can in some cases lead...... to the disappearing of the aesthetic work and contemplation. In the paper I will illustrate this by presenting an analysis of the rhetoric at the electronic music studio EMS, Stockholm: It’s aesthetic and scientific context and its function in a political context. I will discuss what impact this displacement of focus...

  17. Communicating BRCA research results to patients enrolled in international clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulford, David J; Harter, Philipp; Floquet, Anne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The focus on translational research in clinical trials has the potential to generate clinically relevant genetic data that could have importance to patients. This raises challenging questions about communicating relevant genetic research results to individual patients. METHODS: An exp...

  18. Living Melodies - Coevolution Of Sonic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; Nordahl, Mats G.

    2001-01-01

    The authors have constructed an artificial world of coevolving communicating agents. The behavior of the agents is described in terms of a simple genetic programming framework, which allows the evolution of foraging behavior and movement in order to reproduce, as well as sonic communication. The ....... The sound of the entire world is used as musical raw material for the work. Musically interesting and useful structures are found to emerge....

  19. Genetic testing in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Anne-Karin; MacRae, Calum A

    2014-05-01

    The review is designed to outline the major developments in genetic testing in the cardiovascular arena in the past year or so. This is an exciting time in genetic testing as whole exome and whole genome approaches finally reach the clinic. These new approaches offer insight into disease causation in families in which this might previously have been inaccessible, and also bring a wide range of interpretative challenges. Among the most significant recent findings has been the extent of physiologic rare coding variation in the human genome. New disease genes have been identified through whole exome studies in neonatal arrhythmia, congenital heart disease and coronary artery disease that were simply inaccessible with other techniques. This has not only shed light on the challenges of genetic testing at this scale, but has also sharply defined the limits of prior gene-panel focused testing. As novel therapies targeting specific genetic subsets of disease become available, genetic testing will become a part of routine clinical care. The pace of change in sequencing technologies has begun to transform clinical medicine, and cardiovascular disease is no exception. The complexity of such studies emphasizes the importance of real-time communication between the genetics laboratory and genetically informed clinicians. New efforts in data and knowledge management will be central to the continued advancement of genetic testing.

  20. Creativity in clinical communication: from communication skills to skilled communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Peter; Young, Bridget

    2011-03-01

    Medical Education 2011: 45: 217-226 Objectives  The view that training in communication skills produces skilled communication is sometimes criticised by those who argue that communication is individual and intuitive. We therefore examine the validity of the concept of communication as a skill and identify alternative principles to underpin future development of this field. Methods  We critically examine research evidence about the nature of clinical communication, and draw from theory and evidence concerning education and evaluation, particularly in creative disciplines. Results  Skilled communication cannot be fully described using the concept of communication skills. Attempts to do so risk constraining and distorting pedagogical development in communication. Current education practice often masks the difficulties with the concept by introducing subjectivity into the definition and assessment of skills. As all clinical situations differ to some extent, clinical communication is inherently creative. Because it is rarely possible to attribute specific effects to specific elements of communication, communication needs to be taught and evaluated holistically. Conclusions  For communication teaching to be pedagogically and clinically valid in supporting the inherent creativity of clinical communication, it will need to draw from education theory and practice that have been developed in explicitly creative disciplines. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  1. From Genetics to Genetic Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strings of artificial genetic systems are analogous to chromosomes. GENERAL I ARTICLE. GAs operate by combining the information present in different possible solutions for a given problem, in such a way that a better solution is obtained in future generations. Terminologies used in natural genetic systems (NGS) and.

  2. Communication spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

  3. Multiparadigm communications in Java for Grid computing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getov, V.; von Laszewski, G.; Philippsen, M.; Foster, I.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Westminster; Univ. of Karlsruhe

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we argue that the rapid development of Java technology now makes it possible to support, in a single object-oriented framework, the different communication and coordination structures that arise in scientific applications. We outline how this integrated approach can be achieved, reviewing in the process the state-of-the-art in communication paradigms within Java. We also present recent evaluation results indicating that this integrated approach can be achieved without compromising on performance.

  4. [Neuronal communication and synaptic metabolism in childhood epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cazorla, Àngels; Cortès-Saladelafont, Elisenda; Duarte, Sofia

    2015-03-01

    Basic neuroscience and neurometabolism are providing a rapidly increasing amount of knowledge on paediatric epilepsy and, more specifically, on the mechanisms involved in synaptic communication. There is, however, a mismatch between these advances and a vision that integrates them in a global way, in clinical and therapeutic practice. To offer an integrative view of the different molecular and metabolic mechanisms that are known and postulated in paediatric epilepsy, and to suggest concepts such as 'synaptic metabolism' and 'synaptic phenotypes' as useful tools for developing this approach. We also review the most notable studies that attempt to explain the essential characteristics of synaptic communication in the developing brain by means of different molecules, essentially synaptic proteins, ion channels (chlorine, sodium and potassium co-transporters), and pre- and post-synaptic compartmentalisation, as well as the main players in metabolism (neurotransmitters, energy metabolism, growth factors and lipids). This combination of biological mechanisms has led to examples of 'synaptic phenotypes' being suggested in two specific cases of genetic (SCN1A) and metabolic epilepsy (epilepsy with response to pyridoxine). A holistic perspective, which takes into account the diversity of elements that are related and which take place at certain times in neurodevelopment, can help to define phenotypes, channels for synaptic metabolism and brain connectivity, which facilitate not only the understanding of the pathophysiology, but also new therapeutic approaches in paediatric epilepsy.

  5. Genetic counseling for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuang, D W; Faraone, S V; Tsuang, M T

    2001-04-01

    Like other medical conditions, some psychiatric disorders are inherited, whereas others are not. Human genetics research is moving at a rapid pace. Genes for over 450 genetic disorders have been cloned and many disease-causing mutations have also been identified. The explosion of this new knowledge has created many new exciting opportunities in the diagnosis of these heritable disorders. The rapid pace of gene discovery will aid the identification of susceptibility genes for psychiatric disorders. Indeed, we can look forward to answers to many clinical and research questions. These are some of the gifts that the expanding field of human genetics research will continue to bring to medical science. However, as genetic tests for the detection of psychiatric disorders become available, many ethical, legal, and social implications will need to be considered. In this article, we review the principles of genetic counseling for psychiatric disorders, as well as the social and ethical dilemmas that genetic testing may bring. Although medical and scientific advances may bring many gifts, we should approach this new knowledge with caution, as one of the gifts may be a Pandora's box.

  6. Microsatellites evolve more rapidly in humans than in chimpanzees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinsztein, D.C.; Leggo, J.; Amos, W. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-10

    Microsatellites are highly polymorphic markers consisting of varying numbers of tandem repeats. At different loci, these repeats can consist of one to five nucleotides. Microsatellites have been used in many fields of genetics, including genetic mapping, linkage disequilibrium analyses, forensic studies, and population genetics. It is important that we understand their mutational processes better so that they can be exploited optimally for studies of human diversity and evolutionary genetics. We have analyzed 24 microsatellite loci in chimpanzees, East Anglians, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The stepwise-weighted genetic distances between the humans and the chimpanzees and between the two human populations were calculated according to the method described by Deka et al. The ratio of the genetic distances between the chimpanzees and the humans relative to that between the Africans and the East Anglians was more than 10 times smaller than expected. This suggests that microsatellites have evolved more rapidly in humans than in chimpanzees. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  8. Deciphering the language of plant communication: volatile chemotypes of sagebrush

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karban, Richard; Wetzel, William C; Shiojiri, Kaori; Ishizaki, Satomi; Ramirez, Santiago R; Blande, James D

    2014-01-01

    ... more effective between individuals that are genetically identical or related relative to between strangers. The chemical nature of the cues involved in volatile communication remains unknown for this and...

  9. Quel Responsable de Communication pour les Entreprises de Demain ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa YASSAFI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Communication in general, and the function of the head of communication department in particular, is considered to be one of the vital activities of the company. Its mission is to promote the image of the company and its components (managers, products, employees.... Today, in the light of the rapid changes of the 21st century, business and corporate communication strategies have become more complex. Communication specialists have got to learn to live up to the expectations of targets that are better informed, more demanding and more volatile. The ever-increasing diversification of stakeholders of the company has placed the issue of communicative skills at the heart the head of communication department. This article aims to redefine the challenges of training for head of communication in Moroccan companies. It will also try to enhance the development of communication strategies through a reflection on the role of communication in ensuring sustainable competitive advantage of the company.

  10. New Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RNA, transcription, RNA splicing, translation, ribosomes, antibiotics, genetic diseases, gene chips. » more Chapter 2: RNA and DNA Revealed: New Roles, New Rules Covers microRNAs, RNAi, epigenetics, telomeres, mtDNA, recombinant DNA. » more Chapter 3: Life's ...

  11. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Genetic Discrimination Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features ...

  12. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  13. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Juan D [Menan, ID; Schmitt, Michael J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Warren F [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  14. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  15. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  16. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  17. Rapid genetic transformation of sweetpotato ( Ipomoea batatas (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fluorophenoxyacetic acid (4-FA) and zeatin was used in two independent transformation experiments yielding 20% and 10% transformation efficiency, respectively. When using indolacetic acid (IAA) in regeneration media, the transformation efficiency ...

  18. Rapid SNP discovery and genetic mapping using sequenced RAD markers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baird, Nathan A; Etter, Paul D; Atwood, Tressa S; Currey, Mark C; Shiver, Anthony L; Lewis, Zachary A; Selker, Eric U; Cresko, William A; Johnson, Eric A

    2008-01-01

    .... Here we describe the sequencing of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) tags, which identified more than 13,000 SNPs, and mapped three traits in two model organisms, using less than half the capacity of one Illumina sequencing run...

  19. DIORAMA Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galassi, Mark C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-05-24

    Diorama is written as a collection of modules that can run in separate threads or in separate processes. This defines a clear interface between the modules and also allows concurrent processing of different parts of the pipeline. The pipeline is determined by a description in a scenario file[Norman and Tornga, 2012, Tornga and Norman, 2014]. The scenario manager parses the XML scenario and sets up the sequence of modules which will generate an event, propagate the signal to a set of sensors, and then run processing modules on the results provided by those sensor simulations. During a run a variety of “observer” and “processor” modules can be invoked to do interim analysis of results. Observers do not modify the simulation results, while processors may affect the final result. At the end of a run results are collated and final reports are put out. A detailed description of the scenario file and how it puts together a simulation are given in [Tornga and Norman, 2014]. The processing pipeline and how to program it with the Diorama API is described in Tornga et al. [2015] and Tornga and Wakeford [2015]. In this report I describe the communications infrastructure that is used.

  20. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  1. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  2. Optimal configuration of digital communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yong G.

    1990-12-01

    As the costs for maintaining computer communication networks are rapidly rising, it is particularly important to design the network efficiently. The objective of this thesis is to model the minimum cost design of digital communications networks and propose a heuristical solution approach to the formulated model. The minimum cost design has been modeled as a zero-one integer programming problem. The Lagrangian relaxation method and subgradient optimization procedure have been used to find reasonably good feasible solutions. Although the reliability for computer communication networks is as important as the cost factor, only the cost factor is considered in the context of this thesis.

  3. Effects of clinical communication interventions in hospitals: a systematic review of information and communication technology adoptions for improved communication between clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert C; Tran, Kim; Lo, Vivian; O'Leary, Kevin J; Morra, Dante; Quan, Sherman D; Perrier, Laure

    2012-11-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify, describe and assess interventions of information and communication technology on the processes of communication and associated patient outcomes within hospital settings. Studies published from the years 1996 to 2010 were considered and were selected if they described an evaluation of information and communication technology interventions to improve clinical communication within hospitals. Two authors abstracted data from full text articles, and the quality of individual articles were appraised. Results of interventions were summarized by their effect. There were 18 identified studies that evaluated the use of interventions that included alphanumeric paging, hands-free communication devices, mobile phones, smartphones, task management systems and a display based paging system. Most quantitative studies used a before and after study design and were of lower quality. Of all the studies, there was only one prospective randomized study, but this study used only simulated communication events. Quantitative studies identified improved perceptions of communication and some improvement in communication metrics. Qualitative studies described improvements in efficiency of communication but also issues of loss of control and reliability. Despite the rapid advancement in information and communications technology over the last decade, there is limited evidence suggesting improvements in the ability of health professionals to communicate effectively. Given the critical nature of communication, we advocate further evaluation of information and communication technology designed to improve communication between clinicians. Outcome measures should include measures of patient-oriented outcomes and efficiency for clinicians. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The genomic landscape of rapid repeated evolutionary ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–based signaling pathway as a shared target of selection. This suggests evolutionary constraint on adaptive solutions to complex toxicant mixtures at each site. However, distinct molecular variants apparently contribute to adaptive pathway modification among tolerant populations. Selection also targets other toxicity-mediatinggenes and genes of connected signaling pathways; this indicates complex tolerance phenotypes and potentially compensatory adaptations. Molecular changes are consistent with selection on standing genetic variation. In killifish, high nucleotide diversityhas likely been a crucial substrate for selective sweeps to propel rapid adaptation. This manuscript describes genomic evaluations that contribute to our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary risks associated with chronic contaminant exposures to wildlife populations. Here, we assessed genetic patterns associated with long-term response to an important class of highly toxic environmental pollutants. Specifically, chemical-specific tolerance has rapidly and repeatedly evolved in an estuarine fish species resident to estuaries of the Atlantic U.S. coast. We used laboratory studies to ch

  5. Bioinspired Chemical Communication between Synthetic Nanomotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanrui; Chang, Xiaocong; Teymourian, Hazhir; Ramírez-Herrera, Doris E; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Lu, Xiaolong; Li, Jinxing; He, Sha; Fang, Chengcheng; Liang, Yuyan; Mou, Fangzhi; Guan, Jianguo; Wang, Joseph

    2018-01-02

    While chemical communication plays a key role in diverse natural processes, the intelligent chemical communication between synthetic nanomotors remains unexplored. The design and operation of bioinspired synthetic nanomotors is presented. Chemical communication between nanomotors is possible and has an influence on propulsion behavior. A chemical "message" is sent from a moving activator motor to a nearby activated (receiver) motor by release of Ag+ ions from a Janus polystyrene/Ni/Au/Ag activator motor to the activated Janus SiO2 /Pt nanomotor. The transmitted silver signal is translated rapidly into a dramatic speed change associated with the enhanced catalytic activity of activated motors. Selective and successive activation of multiple nanomotors is achieved by sequential localized chemical communications. The concept of establishing chemical communication between different synthetic nanomotors paves the way to intelligent nanoscale robotic systems that are capable of cooperating with each other. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The Genetics of Keratoconus: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Joshua; Hauser, Michael A.; Afshari, Natalie A.; Allingham, R. Rand; Liu, Yutao

    2013-01-01

    Keratoconus is the most common ectatic disorder of the corneal. Genetic and environmental factors may contribute to its pathogenesis. The focus of this article is to summarize current research into the complex genetics of keratoconus. We discuss the evidence of genetic etiology including family-based linkage studies, twin studies, genetic mutations, and genome-wide association studies. The genes implicated potentially include VSX1, miR-184, DOCK9, SOD1, RAB3GAP1, and HGF. Besides the coding mutations, we also highlight the potential contribution of DNA copy number variants in the pathogenesis of keratoconus. Finally, we present future directions for genetic research in the understanding of the complex genetics of keratoconus and its clinical significance. As new functional, candidate genes for keratoconus are being discovered at a rapid pace, the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying keratoconus pathogenesis will advance our understanding of keratoconus and promote the development of a novel therapy. PMID:23795306

  7. J. Genet. classic 17

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 1, April 2004. 17. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 1, April 2004. 18. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 1, April 2004. 19. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 1, April 2004. 20. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  8. J. Genet. classic 99

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 2, August 2005. 99. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 2, August 2005. 100. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 2, August 2005. 101. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 2, August 2005. 102. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  9. J. Genet. classic 37

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 37. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 38. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 39. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 40. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  10. J. Genet. classic 101

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 101. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 102. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 103. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 104. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  11. J. Genet. classic 125

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 125. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 126. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 127. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 128. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  12. J. Genet. classic 17

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 17. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 18. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 19. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 20. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  13. Communicating Biotech Advances: Fiction versus Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małyska, Aleksandra; Bolla, Robert; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2017-11-22

    Bioscience novels use selected technologies of genetic engineering and synthetic biology to create entertaining stories. These novels are usually based on scientific knowledge, but they may arouse public concerns about technology and drive public reluctance to accept innovative technologies. The scientific community must adopt more efficient communication and transparency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Communicating novel and conventional scientific metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sanne

    2005-01-01

    . But we still need empirical studies of the career of metaphors in scientific discourse and of the communicative strategies identifying a given metaphor as either novel or conventional. This paper presents a case study of the discursive development of the metaphor of "the genetic code" from...

  15. Genetics of Dyslipidemia and Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita; Baliga, Ragavendra R

    2017-05-01

    Genetic dyslipidemias contribute to the prevalence of ischemic heart disease. The field of genetic dyslipidemias and their influence on atherosclerotic heart disease is rapidly developing and accumulating increasing evidence. The purpose of this review is to describe the current state of knowledge in regard to inherited atherogenic dyslipidemias. The disorders of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and elevated lipoprotein(a) will be detailed. Genetic technology has made rapid advancements, leading to new discoveries in inherited atherogenic dyslipidemias, which will be explored in this review, as well as a description of possible future developments. Increasing attention has come upon the genetic disorders of familial hypercholesterolemia and elevated lipoprotein(a). This review includes new knowledge of these disorders including description of these disorders, their method of diagnosis, their prevalence, their genetic underpinnings, and their effect on the development of cardiovascular disease. In addition, it discusses major advances in genetic technology, including the completion of the human genome sequence, next-generation sequencing, and genome-wide association studies. Also discussed are rare variant studies with specific genetic mechanisms involved in inherited dyslipidemias, such as in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) enzyme. The field of genetics of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease is rapidly growing, which will result in a bright future of novel mechanisms of action and new therapeutics.

  16. About Genetic Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeing a genetic counselor? Q. What is a genetic counselor? A. Genetic counselors are healthcare professionals with ... and serve as patient advocates. Q. What is genetic counseling? A. Genetic counseling is the process of ...

  17. The art of communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warnecke, Emma

    2014-01-01

    .... The technical aspects of good communication can be known but the art of communication is the development of these skills and finding a style of communication that suits the clinician and produces...

  18. Communication and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We will not sell or share your name. Communication and Alzheimer's Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print ... stage Communication in the late stage Changes in communication In addition to changes in the brain caused ...

  19. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  20. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  1. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  2. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  3. RAPID: Collaborative Commanding and Monitoring of Lunar Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Powell, Mark W.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Abramyan, Lucy; Shams, Khawaja S.; Wallick, Michael; Allan, Mark; hide

    2011-01-01

    RAPID (Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate) software utilizes highly robust technology to facilitate commanding and monitoring of lunar assets. RAPID provides the ability for intercenter communication, since these assets are developed in multiple NASA centers. RAPID is targeted at the task of lunar operations; specifically, operations that deal with robotic assets, cranes, and astronaut spacesuits, often developed at different NASA centers. RAPID allows for a uniform way to command and monitor these assets. Commands can be issued to take images, and monitoring is done via telemetry data from the asset. There are two unique features to RAPID: First, it allows any operator from any NASA center to control any NASA lunar asset, regardless of location. Second, by abstracting the native language for specific assets to a common set of messages, an operator may control and monitor any NASA lunar asset by being trained only on the use of RAPID, rather than the specific asset. RAPID is easier to use and more powerful than its predecessor, the Astronaut Interface Device (AID). Utilizing the new robust middleware, DDS (Data Distribution System), developing in RAPID has increased significantly over the old middleware. The API is built upon the Java Eclipse Platform, which combined with DDS, provides platform-independent software architecture, simplifying development of RAPID components. As RAPID continues to evolve and new messages are being designed and implemented, operators for future lunar missions will have a rich environment for commanding and monitoring assets.

  4. Genetic GIScience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey; Sabel, Clive E; Shi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The exposome, defined as the totality of an individual's exposures over the life course, is a seminal concept in the environmental health sciences. Although inherently geographic, the exposome as yet is unfamiliar to many geographers. This article proposes a place-based synthesis, genetic...... geographic information science (genetic GIScience), that is founded on the exposome, genome+, and behavome. It provides an improved understanding of human health in relation to biology (the genome+), environmental exposures (the exposome), and their social, societal, and behavioral determinants (the behavome......). Genetic GIScience poses three key needs: first, a mathematical foundation for emergent theory; second, process-based models that bridge biological and geographic scales; third, biologically plausible estimates of space?time disease lags. Compartmental models are a possible solution; this article develops...

  5. Contribution of genetics to ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos, Jose Luis; Pacioni, Carlo; Spencer, Peter B S; Craig, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems has emerged as a critical tool in the fight to reverse and ameliorate the current loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Approaches derived from different genetic disciplines are extending the theoretical and applied frameworks on which ecological restoration is based. We performed a search of scientific articles and identified 160 articles that employed a genetic approach within a restoration context to shed light on the links between genetics and restoration. These articles were then classified on whether they examined association between genetics and fitness or the application of genetics in demographic studies, and on the way the studies informed restoration practice. Although genetic research in restoration is rapidly growing, we found that studies could make better use of the extensive toolbox developed by applied fields in genetics. Overall, 41% of reviewed studies used genetic information to evaluate or monitor restoration, and 59% provided genetic information to guide prerestoration decision-making processes. Reviewed studies suggest that restoration practitioners often overlook the importance of including genetic aspects within their restoration goals. Even though there is a genetic basis influencing the provision of ecosystem services, few studies explored this relationship. We provide a view of research gaps, future directions and challenges in the genetics of restoration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Communication theory and multicellular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, I S; Rose, C

    2011-04-01

    In this Perspective, we propose that communication theory--a field of mathematics concerned with the problems of signal transmission, reception and processing--provides a new quantitative lens for investigating multicellular biology, ancient and modern. What underpins the cohesive organisation and collective behaviour of multicellular ecosystems such as microbial colonies and communities (microbiomes) and multicellular organisms such as plants and animals, whether built of simple tissue layers (sponges) or of complex differentiated cells arranged in tissues and organs (members of the 35 or so phyla of the subkingdom Metazoa)? How do mammalian tissues and organs develop, maintain their architecture, become subverted in disease, and decline with age? How did single-celled organisms coalesce to produce many-celled forms that evolved and diversified into the varied multicellular organisms in existence today? Some answers can be found in the blueprints or recipes encoded in (epi)genomes, yet others lie in the generic physical properties of biological matter such as the ability of cell aggregates to attain a certain complexity in size, shape, and pattern. We suggest that Lasswell's maxim "Who says what to whom in what channel with what effect" provides a foundation for understanding not only the emergence and evolution of multicellularity, but also the assembly and sculpting of multicellular ecosystems and many-celled structures, whether of natural or human-engineered origin. We explore how the abstraction of communication theory as an organising principle for multicellular biology could be realised. We highlight the inherent ability of communication theory to be blind to molecular and/or genetic mechanisms. We describe selected applications that analyse the physics of communication and use energy efficiency as a central tenet. Whilst communication theory has and could contribute to understanding a myriad of problems in biology, investigations of multicellular biology

  7. Intervehicle Communication Research – Communication Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarūnas Stanaitis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently intervehicle communications are attracting much attention from industry and academia. Upcoming standard for intervehicle communication IEEE 802.11p, known as Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE, is still in its draft stage, but already coming into final standardization phase. Problematic, regarding mobile WAVE nodes, are described in several articles, simulations prepared and experiments done. But most of these works do not consider possible maximal communication load. This paper presents intervehicle communication scenario in respect to radio communications, mobility and other aspects of vehicular environments.Article in English

  8. Major Development Communication Paradigms and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    experience change and actually to guide it. An intensified exchange of ideas among all ... process is greatly determined by the communication paradigm and practices adopted by the source (media requesting ... to create awareness and interest that encourages evaluation, trials and rapid adoption of development ideas.

  9. Information and communication technology and bank performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different sectors of world economies are rapidly being affected by improved technology. Banking sector is also witnessing the trend in Nigeria. Information and communication Technology is said to have impacted the banking sector massively as the banks in Nigeria introduce products that would help improve their efficiency ...

  10. Message transfer in a communication network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 70; Issue 6. Message transfer in a communication network. Satyam Mukherjee ... a rapid drop in the average travel time as a function of hub density. This power-law tail arises as a consequence of the log-normal distribution of travel times seen at high hub densities.

  11. Availability and Utilization of Information Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Availability and Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) for Teaching and Learning: A Case Study of Michael Otedola College of Primary Education, Epe, Lagos State. ... With the rapid development of ICT, the traditional approach of teaching and learning at higher education institutions also changing.

  12. communicative language teaching: time for review? introduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    late sixties in reaction to the artificiality and limitations of second or foreign language teaching practice prevailing at the time. A resetting of sights became necessary. The needs of rapidly increasing numbers of foreign language speakers whose work required them to communicate with the speakers of languages other than ...

  13. Genetics in Ophthalmology II–Anterior Segment Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Aslı Utine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diseases are congenital or acquired hereditary diseases that result from structural/functional disorders of the human genome. Today, the genetic factors that play a role in many diseases are being highlighted with the rapid progress in the field of genetics science. It becomes increasingly important that physicians from all disciplines have knowledge about the basic principles of genetics, patterns of inheritance, etc., so that they can follow the new developments. In genetic eye diseases, ophthalmologists should know the basic clinical and recently rapidly developing genetic characteristics of these diseases in order to properly approach the diagnosis and treatment and to provide genetic counseling. In this paper, anterior segment eye diseases of genetic origin are reviewed, and aniridia, anterior segment dysgenesis, glaucoma, corneal dystrophies, cataract, ectopia lentis, myopia, and other refractive errors are covered. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 378-85

  14. The role of technology in clinician-to-clinician communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Lisa M; Ladner, Daniela P; Holl, Jane L

    2013-12-01

    Incomplete, fragmented and poorly organised communications contribute to more than half the errors that lead to adverse and sentinel events. Meanwhile, communication software and devices with expanding capabilities are rapidly proliferating and being introduced into the healthcare setting. Clinicians face a large communication burden, which has been exacerbated by the additional challenge of selecting a mode of communication. In addition to specific communication devices, some hospitals have implemented advanced technological systems to assist with communication. However, few studies have provided empirical evidence of the specific advantages and disadvantages of the different devices used for communication. Given the increasing quantities of information transmitted to and by clinicians, evaluations of how communication methods and devices can improve the quality, safety and outcomes of healthcare are needed.

  15. Rapid Prototyping of Tangibles with a Capacitive Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Esbensen, Morten; Kogutowska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    lays the capacitive surface and communication capa- bilities of a Microsoft TouchMouse, both of which are ap- propriated to fulfill the mentined requirements. Unlike ex- isting approaches for rapid prototyping of tangibles like the Arduino boards, using the Toki toolkit does not require de- velopers...

  16. Collaborative Discourse Facilitates Efficient Communication and New Learning in Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Melissa C.; Hengst, Julie A.; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J.

    2008-01-01

    In previous work we reported robust collaborative learning for referential labels in patients with hippocampal amnesia, resulting in increasingly rapid and economical communication or "common ground" with their partners [Duff, M. C., Hengst, J., Tranel, D., & Cohen, N. J. (2006). "Development of shared information in communication despite…

  17. Fostering Information and Communication Technology Literacy: Insights from Telecommunications Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jenifer S.

    2007-01-01

    The author argues that the rapid growth of information and communication technologies and an increasingly complex global environment have brought about the need for information and communication technology (ICT) literacy, the ability to use information technology effectively and evaluate its role in society critically. She presents a strategy for…

  18. Journal of Development and Communication Studies Vol. 4. No. 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thomas Gill

    communication networks of rural farmers in the Ahafo Ano south district of Ghana to determine how they can be harnessed to ... the rapid growth and expansion of communication technologies there has been a lot of research in ..... The findings of the study indicated the presence of a network for transmission of agricultural.

  19. Integrating Computer-Mediated Communication into an EAP Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Cao, Ru-hua

    2006-01-01

    The development of the computer along with the widespread use of the Internet has rapidly promoted Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) as a very important communication media, which can be used widely and effectively in foreign language teaching and learning. This essay tries to explore the advantages of CMC as well as its proposed application,…

  20. Successful Climate Science Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, P.

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade, efforts to communicate the facts of global change have not successfully moved political leaders and the general public to action. In response, a number of collaborative efforts between scientists and professional communicators, writers, journalists, bloggers, filmmakers, artists and others have arisen seeking to bridge that gap. As a result, a new cadre of science-literate communicators, and media-savvy scientists have made themselves visible across diverse mainstream, traditional, and social media outlets. Because of these collaborations, in recent years, misinformation, and disinformation have been successfully met with accurate and credible rebuttals within a single news cycle.Examples of these efforts is the Dark Snow Project, a science/communication collaboration focusing initially on accelerated arctic melt and sea level rise, and the Climate Science Rapid Response team, which matches professional journalists with appropriate science experts in order to respond within a single news cycle to misinformation or misunderstandings about climate science.The session will discuss successful examples and suggest creative approaches for the future.

  1. Genetic Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  2. Genetic counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MF, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 30. Review Date 1/25/2016 Updated by: Chad Haldeman-Englert, MD, FACMG, Fullerton Genetics Center, Asheville, NC. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ...

  3. Genetic Romanticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro

    2016-01-01

    The role that national epic poetry has played in romantic nationalism during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is well documented. The role that the new genetics has played in such processes, however, is less well known and understood as a form of writing national narratives of origin...

  4. Genetics and Neuropsychology: A Merger Whose Time Has Come

    OpenAIRE

    Kremen, William S.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2016-01-01

    Genetics and neuropsychology have historically been two rather distant and unrelated fields. With the very rapid advances that have been taking place in genetics, research and treatment of disorders of cognition in the 21st century are likely to be increasingly informed by individual differences in genetics and epigenetics. Although neuropsychologists are not expected to become geneticists, it is our view that increased training in genetics should become more central to training in neuropsych...

  5. Ship-shore packet switched communications system and an application in Hellenic Navy

    OpenAIRE

    Agapiou, Evagelos S.

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Computer to computer communications have advanced rapidly in the last years. High Frequency (HF) communications systems have not kept pace with these advances and have generally not been considered suitable for high speed data communications This thesis presents an architecture for ship-shore sea service communications. It starts with the problems that make sea service communications different from conventional sys...

  6. PUBLIC RELATION BASED MODEL OF INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ljupka Naumovska; Daliborka Blazeska

    2016-01-01

    The marketing communications industry and theory are facing rapid changes in accordance with global business and society fluctuations. Global and local market conditions are constantly varying and thus creating hardly predictable environment. The most implemented tool for marketing communications – advertising, is losing its power for effective communications; customers are becoming over-advertised and resistant to traditional advertising stimuli. Advertising, as one-way communica...

  7. Wireless multimedia communication systems design, analysis, and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, KR; Bakmaz, Bojan M

    2014-01-01

    Rapid progress in software, hardware, mobile networks, and the potential of interactive media poses many questions for researchers, manufacturers, and operators of wireless multimedia communication systems. Wireless Multimedia Communication Systems: Design, Analysis, and Implementation strives to answer those questions by not only covering the underlying concepts involved in the design, analysis, and implementation of wireless multimedia communication systems, but also by tackling advanced topics such as mobility management, security components, and smart grids.Offering an accessible treatment

  8. J. Genet. classic 235

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 235. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 236. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 237. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 238. Page 5 ...

  9. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  10. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  11. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  12. VLSI implementations for image communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pirsch, P

    1993-01-01

    The past few years have seen a rapid growth in image processing and image communication technologies. New video services and multimedia applications are continuously being designed. Essential for all these applications are image and video compression techniques. The purpose of this book is to report on recent advances in VLSI architectures and their implementation for video signal processing applications with emphasis on video coding for bit rate reduction. Efficient VLSI implementation for video signal processing spans a broad range of disciplines involving algorithms, architectures, circuits

  13. J. Genet. classic 9

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 88, No. 1, April 2009. 9. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 10. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 88, No. 1, April 2009. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 88, No. 1, April 2009. 11. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 12. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 88, No. 1, April 2009. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics ...

  14. Internet-Based Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    Google the question, "How is the Internet changing the way we communicate?," and you will find no shortage of opinions, or fears, about the Internet altering the way we communicate. Although the Internet is not necessarily making communication briefer (neither is the Internet making communication less formal), the Internet is manifesting…

  15. Implementation of Communicative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Shazi Shah

    2014-01-01

    In the contemporary age of high professional requirements such as excellent communicative skills, the need for successful learning of communicative skills of English language suggests communicative ability to be the goal of language teaching. In other words, to teach English language using communicative approach becomes essential. Studies to…

  16. Animal and Human Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Lynda

    Several misconceptions regarding the status of human communication systems relative to the systems of other animals are discussed in this paper. Arguments are offered supporting the expansion of the communication discipline to include the study of the communication systems of other species. The "communicative continuity" view which ranks…

  17. Genetic susceptibility to environmental toxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The toxicological challenges to the chemical industry have in recent years been greatly affected by the rapid innovation and development of analytical, molecular and genetic technologies. ECETOC recognises the importance of developing the technical and intellectual skill bases in academia...... and industrial based laboratories to meet the rapid development of the science base of toxicology. As the technology to determine genetic susceptibility develops, so scientist will be able to describe altered gene expression provoked by chemicals long before they are able to offer valid interpretations...... of their meaning. A potential for inadvertently raising concerns over the effect of chemicals in experimental animals or man, or even the intentional misrepresentation of results to suggest chemicals are “playing” with our genes is enormous. History has shown that some individuals and groups in society are willing...

  18. A BIOINFORMATIC STRATEGY TO RAPIDLY CHARACTERIZE CDNA LIBRARIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Bioinformatic Strategy to Rapidly Characterize cDNA LibrariesG. Charles Ostermeier1, David J. Dix2 and Stephen A. Krawetz1.1Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, & Institute for Scientific Computing, Wayne State Univer...

  19. Development and implementation of a rapid real-time polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assays which use real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology can be developed for the rapid identification of genetic sequences carried by waterborne pathogens. Rand Water has established facilities within which a selection of PCR assays will be developed. This paper reports on the optimisation and ...

  20. Rapid cycling genomic selection in a multiparental tropical maize population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic selection (GS) increases genetic gain by reducing the length of the selection cycle, as has been exemplified in maize using rapid cycling recombination of biparental populations. However, no results of GS applied to maize multi-parental populations have been reported so far. This study is th...