WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid charge batteries

  1. Rapid hydrogen charging on metal hydride negative electrode of Fuel Cell/Battery (FCB) systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bokkyu; Lee, Sunmook; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Fushimi, Chihiro; Tsutsumi, Atsushi [Collaborative Research Center for Energy Engineering, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    The characteristics of rapid gaseous H{sub 2} charging/electrochemical discharging of the metal hydride negative electrode were investigated for the application in Fuel Cell/Battery (FCB) systems. They were evaluated with the H{sub 2} gas absorption, followed by the subsequent electrochemical discharging in the electrolyte solution (6M KOH). Then, the cyclability of charge-discharge was also examined. It was observed that more than 70% of the theoretical capacity was charged within 10 min with 0.3 MPa and 0.5 MPa of the initial H{sub 2} pressures. The electrochemical discharge curve showed that more than 86% of the absorbed H{sub 2} was discharged. Furthermore, the cycled charge-discharge process indicated that the H{sub 2} gas charge and electrochemical discharge process is an effective way to rapidly charge and activate the metal hydride without degeneration. (author)

  2. Quick charge battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  3. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  4. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...... in part being performed in response to a first information associated with a charging message received by the first communication unit...

  5. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  6. Rapid Estimation Method for State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Fractional Continual Variable Order Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the fractional order model has been employed to state of charge (SOC estimation. The non integer differentiation order being expressed as a function of recursive factors defining the fractality of charge distribution on porous electrodes. The battery SOC affects the fractal dimension of charge distribution, therefore the order of the fractional order model varies with the SOC at the same condition. This paper proposes a new method to estimate the SOC. A fractional continuous variable order model is used to characterize the fractal morphology of charge distribution. The order identification results showed that there is a stable monotonic relationship between the fractional order and the SOC after the battery inner electrochemical reaction reaches balanced. This feature makes the proposed model particularly suitable for SOC estimation when the battery is in the resting state. Moreover, a fast iterative method based on the proposed model is introduced for SOC estimation. The experimental results showed that the proposed iterative method can quickly estimate the SOC by several iterations while maintaining high estimation accuracy.

  7. Develop improved battery charger (Turbo-Z Battery Charging System). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The output of this project was a flexible control board. The control board can be used to control a variety of rapid battery chargers. The control module will reduce development cost of rapid battery charging hardware. In addition, PEPCO's proprietary battery charging software have been pre-programmed into the control microprocessor. This product is being applied to the proprietary capacitive charging system now under development.

  8. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system

  9. Alternator control for battery charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  10. An Improved Wireless Battery Charging System

    OpenAIRE

    Woo-Seok Lee; Jin-Hak Kim; Shin-Young Cho; Il-Oun Lee

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a direct wireless battery charging system. The output current of the series-series compensated wireless power transfer (SS-WPT) system is used as a current source, and the output voltage of AC-DC converter controls the current source. Therefore, the proposed wireless battery charging system needs no battery charging circuit to carry out charging profiles, and can solve space constraints and thermal problems in many battery applications. In addition, the proposed wireless b...

  11. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  12. Control Algorithms Charge Batteries Faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    On March 29, 2011, NASA s Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft beamed a milestone image to Earth: the first photo of Mercury taken from orbit around the solar system s innermost planet. (MESSENGER is also the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury.) Like most of NASA s deep space probes, MESSENGER is enabled by a complex power system that allows its science instruments and communications to function continuously as it travels millions of miles from Earth. "Typically, there isn't one particular power source that can support the entire mission," says Linda Taylor, electrical engineer in Glenn Research Center s Power Systems Analysis Branch. "If you have solar arrays and you are in orbit, at some point you re going to be in eclipse." Because of this, Taylor explains, spacecraft like MESSENGER feature hybrid power systems. MESSENGER is powered by a two-panel solar array coupled with a nickel hydrogen battery. The solar arrays provide energy to the probe and charge the battery; when the spacecraft s orbit carries it behind Mercury and out of the Sun s light, the spacecraft switches to battery power to continue operations. Typically, hybrid systems with multiple power inputs and a battery acting alternately as storage and a power source require multiple converters to handle the power flow between the devices, Taylor says. (Power converters change the qualities of electrical energy, such as from alternating current to direct current, or between different levels of voltage or frequency.) This contributes to a pair of major concerns for spacecraft design. "Weight and size are big drivers for any space application," Taylor says, noting that every pound added to a space vehicle incurs significant costs. For an innovative solution to managing power flows in a lightweight, cost-effective manner, NASA turned to a private industry partner.

  13. Enabling fast charging - Battery thermal considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Pesaran, Ahmad; Li, Qibo; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Dufek, Eric; Shirk, Matthew; Meintz, Andrew; Kreuzer, Cory; Michelbacher, Christopher; Burnham, Andrew; Stephens, Thomas; Francfort, James; Carlson, Barney; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Hardy, Keith; Dias, Fernando; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Scoffield, Don; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Markel, Anthony

    2017-11-01

    Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

  14. Battery Monitoring and Charging System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thivierge, Daniel P

    2007-01-01

    A battery monitoring device for a battery having cells grouped in modules. The device includes a monitoring circuit for each module which monitors the voltage in each cell and the overall module voltage...

  15. Accurate Online Full Charge Capacity Modeling of Smartphone Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Mohammad A.; Siekkinen, Matti; Koo, Jonghoe; Tarkoma, Sasu

    2016-01-01

    Full charge capacity (FCC) refers to the amount of energy a battery can hold. It is the fundamental property of smartphone batteries that diminishes as the battery ages and is charged/discharged. We investigate the behavior of smartphone batteries while charging and demonstrate that the battery voltage and charging rate information can together characterize the FCC of a battery. We propose a new method for accurately estimating FCC without exposing low-level system details or introducing new ...

  16. Photovoltaic battery charging experience in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, S.T. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    With the turn of the century, people in remote areas still live without electricity. Conventional electrification will hardly reach the remaining 50% of the population of the Philippines in remote areas. With photovoltaic technology, the delivery of electricity to remote areas can be sustainable. Malalison island was chosen as a project site for electrification using photovoltaic technology. With the fragile balance of ecology and seasonal income in this island, the PV electrification proved to be a better option than conventional fossil based electrification. The Solar Battery Charging Station (SBCS) was used to suit the economic and geographical condition of the island. Results showed that the system can charge as many as three batteries in a day for an average fee of $0.54 per battery. Charging is measured by an ampere-hour counter to determine the exact amount of charge the battery received. The system was highly accepted by the local residents and the demand easily outgrew the system within four months. A technical, economic and social evaluation was done. A recovery period of seven years and five months is expected when competed with the conventional battery charging in the mainland. The technical, economic, institutional and social risks faced by the project were analyzed. Statistics showed that there is a potential of 920,000 households that can benefit from PV electrification in the Philippines. The data and experiences gained in this study are valuable in designing SBCS for remote unelectrified communities in the Philippines and other developing countries.

  17. Enabling fast chargingBattery thermal considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyser, Matthew; Pesaran, Ahmad; Li, Qibo; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Smith, Kandler

    2017-01-01

    Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today’s market. Here, thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

  18. Fuzzy logic-based battery charge controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, A.; Midoun, A.

    2006-01-01

    Photovoltaic power system are generally classified according to their functional and operational requirements, their component configurations, and how the equipment is connected to other power sources and electrical loads, photovoltaic systems can be designed to provide DC and/or AC power service, can operate interconnected with or independent of the utility grid, and can be connected with other energy sources and energy storage systems. Batteries are often used in PV systems for the purpose of storing energy produced by the PV array during the day, and to supply it to electrical loads as needed (during the night and periods of cloudy weather). The lead acid battery, although know for more than one hundred years, has currently offered the best response in terms of price, energetic efficiency and lifetime. The main function of controller or regulator in PV system is too fully charge the battery without permitting overcharge while preventing reverse current flow at night. If a no-self-regulating solar array is connected to lead acid batteries with no overcharge protection, battery life will be compromised. Simple controllers contain a transistor that disconnects or reconnects the PV in the charging circuit once a pre-set voltage is reached. More sophisticated controllers utilize pulse with modulation (PWM) to assure the battery is being fully charged. The first 70% to 80% of battery capacity is easily replaced, but the last 20% to 30% requires more attention and therefore more complexity. This complexity is avoided by using a skilled operators experience in the form of the rules. Thus a fuzzy control system seeks to control the battery that cannot be controlled well by a conventional control such as PID, PD, PI etc., due to the unavailability of an accurate mathematical model of the battery. In this paper design of an intelligent battery charger, in which the control algorithm is implemented with fuzzy logic is discussed. The digital architecture is implemented with

  19. Rapid charging of nickel-cadmium accumulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, F

    1972-01-01

    Four types of charging of gas-tight Ni-Cd accumulators (a) normal; (b) accelerated; (c) rapid; and (d) ultra-rapid are described. For rapid charging, a built-in temperature sensor cuts off charging current at a prescribed point. In ultra-rapid charging, 50% charge can be attained in 3.5 min. and 25% charge within 50 sec. In the second phase of ultra-rapid charging, a surplus of oxygen is released at the positive electrode and a safety valve is provided for pressure reduction. Characteristic curves are given for various rates of charging and some data on discharge rates is also given.

  20. Battery Aging, Battery Charging and the Kinetic Battery Model : A First Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.; Bertrand, Nathalie; Bortolussi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are omnipresent and will be used more and more, for instance for wearables devices, electric vehicles or domestic energy storage. However, batteries can deliver power only for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to

  1. Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Dufek, Eric J.; Pesaran, Ahmad; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Hardy, Keith; Keyser, Matthew; Kreuzer, Cory; Markel, Anthony; Meintz, Andrew; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Nelson, Paul A.; Robertson, David C.; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Vijayagopal, Ram; Zhang, Jiucai

    2017-11-01

    The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable / validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

  2. Quantacell: powerful charging of quantum batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, Felix C; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Modi, Kavan; Goold, John

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of charging a quantum battery in finite time. We demonstrate an analytical optimal protocol for the case of a single qubit. Extending this analysis to an array of N qubits, we demonstrate that an N-fold advantage in power per qubit can be achieved when global operations are permitted. The exemplary analytic argument for this quantum advantage in the charging power is backed up by numerical analysis using optimal control techniques. It is demonstrated that the quantum advantage for power holds when, with cyclic operation in mind, initial and final states are required to be separable. (paper)

  3. 29 CFR 1917.157 - Battery charging and changing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... jumper battery is connected to a battery in a vehicle, the ground lead shall connect to ground away from...) Metallic objects shall not be placed on uncovered batteries. (m) When batteries are being charged, the vent caps shall be in place. (n) Chargers shall be turned off when leads are being connected or disconnected...

  4. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  5. A low cost, microprocessor-based battery charge controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulfrey, D L; Hacker, J [Pulfrey Solar Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the design, construction, testing, and evaluation of a microprocessor-based battery charge controller that uses charge integration as the method of battery state-of-charge estimation. The controller is intended for use in medium-size (100-1000W) photovoltaic systems that employ 12V lead-acid batteries for charge storage. The controller regulates the charge flow to the battery and operates in three, automatically-determined modes, namely: charge, equalize, and float. The prototype controller is modular in nature and can handle charge/discharge currents of magnitude up to 80A, depending on the number of circuit boards employed. Evaluation tests and field trials have shown the controller to be very accurate and reliable. Based on the cost of the prototype, it appears that an original equipment manufacturer's selling price of $400 for a 40A (500W) unit may be realistic. 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-05-03

    Utilization of public charging infrastructure is heavily dependent on user-specific travel behavior. The availability of fast chargers can positively affect the utility of battery electric vehicles, even given infrequent use. Estimated utilization rates do not appear frequent enough to significantly impact battery life. Battery thermal management systems are critical in mitigating dangerous thermal conditions on long distance tours with multiple fast charge events.

  7. Charging equipment for several batteries. Ladegeraet fuer mehrere Akkumulatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unruh, H

    1980-11-27

    The charging equipment for several batteries according to the invention, each of which is connected in series with a transistor controlling the charging current and where the battery voltage is divided by a voltage divider and taken to a controller, which controls the series transistor, is characterised by the fact that all the batteries are connected to a circuit to form the mean value of the battery voltages, which consists of a resistance star circuit, whose star point is connected to the voltage divider and whose end points are connected to the batteries, and that all the series transistors are connected to a common controller, which is controlled by the pick-off voltage of the voltage divider. In the charging equipment of the invention, the series transistors of all batteries are controlled synchronously by a single controller. If the batteries are in different states of charge, then the charging currents will be distributed differently according to their inside resistances, so that the battery with the lowest state of charge will receive the highest charging current.

  8. Battery-powered transport systems. Possible methods of automatically charging drive batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    In modern driverless transport systems, not only easy maintenance of the drive battery is important but also automatic charging during times of standstill. Some systems are presented; one system is pointed out in particular in which 100 batteries can be charged at the same time.

  9. Charging performance of automotive batteries-An underestimated factor influencing lifetime and reliable battery operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Karden, Eckhard; Fricke, Birger; Blanke, Holger; Thele, Marc; Bohlen, Oliver; Schiffer, Julia; Gerschler, Jochen Bernhard; Kaiser, Rudi

    Dynamic charge acceptance and charge acceptance under constant voltage charging conditions are for two reasons essential for lead-acid battery operation: energy efficiency in applications with limited charging time (e.g. PV systems or regenerative braking in vehicles) and avoidance of accelerated ageing due to sulphation. Laboratory tests often use charge regimes which are beneficial for the battery life, but which differ significantly from the operating conditions in the field. Lead-acid batteries in applications with limited charging time and partial-state-of-charge operation are rarely fully charged due to their limited charge acceptance. Therefore, they suffer from sulphation and early capacity loss. However, when appropriate charging strategies are applied most of the lost capacity and thus performance for the user may be recovered. The paper presents several aspects of charging regimes and charge acceptance. Theoretical and experimental investigations show that temperature is the most critical parameter. Full charging within short times can be achieved only at elevated temperatures. A strong dependency of the charge acceptance during charging pulses on the pre-treatment of the battery can be observed, which is not yet fully understood. But these effects have a significant impact on the fuel efficiency of micro-hybrid electric vehicles.

  10. Nickel-hydrogen battery state of charge during low rate trickle charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, J.; Jackson, L.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA AXAF-I program requires high battery state of charge at launch. Traditional approaches to providing high state of charge, during prelaunch operations, require significant battery cooling. The use of active cooling, in the AXAF-I prelaunch environment, was considered and proved to be difficult to implement and very expensive. Accordingly alternate approaches were considered. An approach utilizing adiabatic charging and low rate trickle charge, was investigated and proved successful.

  11. Nickel-hydrogen battery state of charge during low rate trickle charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurie, C.; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, J.; Jackson, L. [TRW Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The NASA AXAF-I program requires high battery state of charge at launch. Traditional approaches to providing high state of charge, during prelaunch operations, require significant battery cooling. The use of active cooling, in the AXAF-I prelaunch environment, was considered and proved to be difficult to implement and very expensive. Accordingly alternate approaches were considered. An approach utilizing adiabatic charging and low rate trickle charge, was investigated and proved successful.

  12. Results of cycling with battery charging management; Resultats de cyclage avec gestion de charge au niveau batterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verniolle, J.; Fernandez, C. [European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    In order to investigate the charging mode of an in-series assembly of lithium-carbon battery cells, a test has been performed on 5 commercial cells (18650) of 0.95 Ah nominal capacity. Results show that it is possible to cycle the cells at 80% of their output capacities during more than 2000 cycles. The management of the battery consists in maintaining a constant battery voltage as soon as a cell reaches its limit voltage during constant current charging. The initial dispersion of cells has been maintained practically constant during the cycling and the charge state of all cells has decreased progressively. (J.S.)

  13. Results of cycling with battery charging management; Resultats de cyclage avec gestion de charge au niveau batterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verniolle, J; Fernandez, C [European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    In order to investigate the charging mode of an in-series assembly of lithium-carbon battery cells, a test has been performed on 5 commercial cells (18650) of 0.95 Ah nominal capacity. Results show that it is possible to cycle the cells at 80% of their output capacities during more than 2000 cycles. The management of the battery consists in maintaining a constant battery voltage as soon as a cell reaches its limit voltage during constant current charging. The initial dispersion of cells has been maintained practically constant during the cycling and the charge state of all cells has decreased progressively. (J.S.)

  14. Wind driven mobile charging of automobile battery- A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V) automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of ...

  15. Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging strategies on charging and battery degradation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunz, Benedikt; Yan, Zexiong; Gerschler, Jochen Bernhard; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The profitability of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is significantly influenced by battery aging and electricity costs. Therefore a simulation model for PHEVs in the distribution grid is presented which allows to compare the influence of different charging strategies on these costs. The simulation is based on real-world driving behavior and European Energy Exchange (EEX) intraday prices for obtaining representative results. The analysis of comprehensive lithium-ion battery aging tests performed within this study shows that especially high battery states of charge (SOCs) decrease battery lifetime, whereas the cycling of batteries at medium SOCs only has a minor contribution to aging. Charging strategies that take into account the previously mentioned effects are introduced, and the SOC distributions and cycle loads of the vehicle battery are investigated. It can be shown that appropriate charging strategies significantly increase battery lifetime and reduce charging costs at the same time. Possible savings due to lifetime extension of the vehicle battery are approximately two times higher than revenues due to energy trading. The findings of this work indicate that car manufacturers and energy/mobility providers have to make efforts for developing intelligent charging strategies to reduce mobility costs and thus foster the introduction of electric mobility. - Highlights: ► Modeling of PHEVs based on real-world driving behavior and electricity prices. ► Consideration of battery degradation for the calculation of mobility costs. ► Smart charging decreases battery degradation and electricity costs simultaneously. ► Reduction of battery degradation costs is around two times higher than reduction of electricity costs.

  16. Effects of battery charge acceptance and battery aging in complete vehicle energy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalik, Z.; Romijn, T.C.J.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Weiland, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a solution to the complete vehicle energy management problem with battery charge acceptance limitations and battery aging limitations. The problem is solved using distributed optimization for a case study of a hybrid heavy-duty vehicle, equipped with a refrigerated

  17. A Battery Charger and State of Charge Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latos, T. S.

    1984-01-01

    A battery charger which has a full wave rectifier in series with a transformer isolated 20 kHz dc-dc converter with high frequency switches, which are programmed to actively shape the input dc line current to be a mirror image of the ac line voltage is discussed. The power circuit operates at 2 kW peak and 1 kW average power. The BC/SCI has two major subsystems: (1) the battery charger power electronics with its controls; and (2) a microcomputer subsystem which is used to acquire battery terminal data and exercise the state of charge software programs. The state of charge definition employed is the energy remaining in the battery when extracted at a 10 kW rate divided by the energy capacity of a fully charged new battery. The battery charger circuit is an isolated boost converter operating at an internal frequency of 20 kHz. The switches selected for the battery charger are the single most important item in determining its efficiency. The combination of voltage and current requirements dictate the use of high power NPN Darlington switching transistors. The power circuit topology is a three switch design which utilizes a power FET on the center tap of the isolation transformer and the power Darlingtons on each of the two ends. An analog control system is employed to accomplish active input current waveshaping as well as the necessary regulation.

  18. Charging system and method for multicell storage batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jay A.

    1978-01-01

    A battery-charging system includes a first charging circuit connected in series with a plurality of battery cells for controlled current charging. A second charging circuit applies a controlled voltage across each individual cell for equalization of the cells to the fully charged condition. This controlled voltage is determined at a level above the fully charged open-circuit voltage but at a sufficiently low level to prevent corrosion of cell components by electrochemical reaction. In this second circuit for cell equalization, a transformer primary receives closely regulated, square-wave voltage which is coupled to a plurality of equal secondary coil windings. Each secondary winding is connected in parallel to each cell of a series-connected pair of cells through half-wave rectifiers and a shared, intermediate conductor.

  19. An automatic device for charging a storage battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasyukov, A A

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to increase the service life of storage batteries (AB) through ensuring automatic protection of the device from overloads with short circuits (KZ) and from incorrect switching polarity of the storage batteries. The device contains a transformer, a rectifier, a smoothing capacitor, a trigger capacitor, a charge current control transistor, a controllable transistor, a shielding transistor, two resistors, a diode, a resistor and a voltage divider, another resistor, a reference voltage stabilitron, a resistor and another diode and the storage battery.

  20. Wireless power transmission for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Chris; Li, Siqi; Nguyen, Trong-Duy; Wang, Junhua; Li, Jiangui; Li, Weihan; Xu, Jun

    2016-11-15

    A wireless power transmission system is provided for high power applications. The power transmission system is comprised generally of a charging unit configured to generate an alternating electromagnetic field and a receive unit configured to receive the alternating electromagnetic field from the charging unit. The charging unit includes a power source; an input rectifier; an inverter; and a transmit coil. The transmit coil has a spirangle arrangement segmented into n coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments. The receive unit includes a receive coil and an output rectifier. The receive coil also has a spirangle arrangement segmented into m coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments.

  1. Charging a Li-O₂ battery using a redox mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhui; Freunberger, Stefan A; Peng, Zhangquan; Fontaine, Olivier; Bruce, Peter G

    2013-06-01

    The non-aqueous Li-air (O2) battery is receiving intense interest because its theoretical specific energy exceeds that of Li-ion batteries. Recharging the Li-O2 battery depends on oxidizing solid lithium peroxide (Li2O2), which is formed on discharge within the porous cathode. However, transporting charge between Li2O2 particles and the solid electrode surface is at best very difficult and leads to voltage polarization on charging, even at modest rates. This is a significant problem facing the non-aqueous Li-O2 battery. Here we show that incorporation of a redox mediator, tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), enables recharging at rates that are impossible for the cell in the absence of the mediator. On charging, TTF is oxidized to TTF(+) at the cathode surface; TTF(+) in turn oxidizes the solid Li2O2, which results in the regeneration of TTF. The mediator acts as an electron-hole transfer agent that permits efficient oxidation of solid Li2O2. The cell with the mediator demonstrated 100 charge/discharge cycles.

  2. Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, A.; Singh, N.; Rolland, J.; Melinte, S.; Ajayan, P. M.; Gohy, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    High energy and high power electrochemical energy storage devices rely on different fundamental working principles - bulk vs. surface ion diffusion and electron conduction. Meeting both characteristics within a single or a pair of materials has been under intense investigations yet, severely hindered by intrinsic materials limitations. Here, we provide a solution to this issue and present an approach to design high energy and high power battery electrodes by hybridizing a nitroxide-polymer redox supercapacitor (PTMA) with a Li-ion battery material (LiFePO4). The PTMA constituent dominates the hybrid battery charge process and postpones the LiFePO4 voltage rise by virtue of its ultra-fast electrochemical response and higher working potential. We detail on a unique sequential charging mechanism in the hybrid electrode: PTMA undergoes oxidation to form high-potential redox species, which subsequently relax and charge the LiFePO4 by an internal charge transfer process. A rate capability equivalent to full battery recharge in less than 5 minutes is demonstrated. As a result of hybrid's components synergy, enhanced power and energy density as well as superior cycling stability are obtained, otherwise difficult to achieve from separate constituents. PMID:24603843

  3. Supervised chaos genetic algorithm based state of charge determination for LiFePO4 batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanqing

    2018-04-01

    LiFePO4 battery is developed rapidly in electric vehicle, whose safety and functional capabilities are influenced greatly by the evaluation of available cell capacity. Added with adaptive switch mechanism, this paper advances a supervised chaos genetic algorithm based state of charge determination method, where a combined state space model is employed to simulate battery dynamics. The method is validated by the experiment data collected from battery test system. Results indicate that the supervised chaos genetic algorithm based state of charge determination method shows great performance with less computation complexity and is little influenced by the unknown initial cell state.

  4. ?Just-in-Time? Battery Charge Depletion Control for PHEVs and E-REVs for Maximum Battery Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Conventional methods of vehicle operation for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles first discharge the battery to a minimum State of Charge (SOC) before switching to charge sustaining operation. This is very demanding on the battery, maximizing the number of trips ending with a depleted battery and maximizing the distance driven on a depleted battery over the vehicle s life. Several methods have been proposed to reduce the number of trips ending with a deeply discharged battery and also eliminate the need for extended driving on a depleted battery. An optimum SOC can be maintained for long battery life before discharging the battery so that the vehicle reaches an electric plug-in destination just as the battery reaches the minimum operating SOC. These Just-in-Time methods provide maximum effective battery life while getting virtually the same electricity from the grid.

  5. Adiabatic and Nonadiabatic Charge Transport in Li-S Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Haesun; Kumar, Nitin; Melander, Marko

    2018-01-01

    The insulating nature of the redox end members in Li-S batteries, -S and Li2S, has the potential to limit the capacity and efficiency of this emerging energy storage system. Nevertheless, the mechanisms responsible for ionic and electronic transport in these materials remain a matter of debate...... studies, we conclude that low equilibrium carrier concentrations are responsible for sluggish charge transport in -S and Li2S. Thus, a potential strategy for improving the performance of Li-S batteries is to increase the concentrations of holes in these redox end members....

  6. Rapid detection of the positive side reactions in vanadium flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Le; Li, Zhaohua; Xi, Jingyu; Zhou, Haipeng; Wu, Zenghua; Qiu, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for rapid measurement of the positive side reactions in VFB is presented. • The SOC of positive electrolytes can be detected with resolution of 0.002%. • Side reaction ratios at different charge currents, flow rates are obtained. - Abstract: We present an optical detection method for rapid measurement of the positive side reactions in vanadium flow batteries (VFB). By measuring the transmittance of the positive electrolytes in VFB, the states of charge (SOC) of the positive electrolytes can be detected at very high resolution (better than 0.002% in the SOC range from 98% to 100%), due to the nonlinear transmittance spectra caused by the interactions between V(IV) and V(V) ions. The intensity of the positive side reactions of a VFB can be rapidly measured by a few steps, attributing to the fact that the positive side reactions occur only during the high voltage charging process. The ratios of the positive side reactions at different charge currents and different flow rates are obtained while causing no damage to the battery. This optical detection method can rapidly determine the optimal parameters of the VFB system, providing new means for studying the electrochemical reactions in the VFB system and rapid test in industrial production of VFBs.

  7. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forero Camacho, Oscar Mauricio; Mihet-Popa, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EV) technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents......, and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages...

  8. Microprocessor controlled pulse charge and testing of batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerezov, A.; Gishin, S.; Ivanov, Ratcho; Savov, S.

    2002-01-01

    The principle of the developed new method for pulse charge of batteries with microprocessor control of the electrochemical processes is the use of current pulses with microprocessor control of the period and the amplitude according to the dynamically changing state of the electrochemical system. In order to realize the method described above a programmable current source was developed. It is connected with a Personal Computer via RS232 standard serial interface in order to control the electrochemical processes. The parameters to be set, the graphical presentation of the pulse current and tension, the used quantity of electricity and electrical energy for every pulse and for the process as a hole are shown on the PC display. In order to test dry-charged and wet-charged batteries a specialized current generator was developed. It is connected also with a Personal Computer via R5232 standard serial interface in order to con-trol the testing of the starting capability of the batteries according to the requirements of the Bulgarian State Standard Ell 60095-1. (Author)

  9. Development of a Microcontroller-based Battery Charge Controller for an Off-grid Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rina, Z. S.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Majid, M. S. A.; Rojan, M. A.; Zaman, I.

    2017-08-01

    A development of a microcontroller-based charge controller for a 12V battery has been explained in this paper. The system is designed based on a novel algorithm to couple existing solar photovoltaic (PV) charging and main grid supply charging power source. One of the main purposes of the hybrid charge controller is to supply a continuous charging power source to the battery. Furthermore, the hybrid charge controller was developed to shorten the battery charging time taken. The algorithm is programmed in an Arduino Uno R3 microcontroller that monitors the battery voltage and generates appropriate commands for the charging power source selection. The solar energy is utilized whenever the solar irradiation is high. The main grid supply will be only consumed whenever the solar irradiation is low. This system ensures continuous charging power supply and faster charging of the battery.

  10. Battery state-of-charge estimation using approximate least squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrieder, C.; Zhang, C.; Lunglmayr, M.; Priewasser, R.; Marsili, S.; Huemer, M.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, much effort has been spent to extend the runtime of battery-powered electronic applications. In order to improve the utilization of the available cell capacity, high precision estimation approaches for battery-specific parameters are needed. In this work, an approximate least squares estimation scheme is proposed for the estimation of the battery state-of-charge (SoC). The SoC is determined based on the prediction of the battery's electromotive force. The proposed approach allows for an improved re-initialization of the Coulomb counting (CC) based SoC estimation method. Experimental results for an implementation of the estimation scheme on a fuel gauge system on chip are illustrated. Implementation details and design guidelines are presented. The performance of the presented concept is evaluated for realistic operating conditions (temperature effects, aging, standby current, etc.). For the considered test case of a GSM/UMTS load current pattern of a mobile phone, the proposed method is able to re-initialize the CC-method with a high accuracy, while state-of-the-art methods fail to perform a re-initialization.

  11. Features of the low-power charge controller of lead-acid current sources charged by solar batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukfatullin, O.F.; Yuldoshev, I.A.; Solieva, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influence of different factors on exploitations characteristics of solar photoelectric plant is investigated by field-performance data. A construction of charge controller of the lead-acid accumulator battery charging by means of solar battery is analyzed taking into account these factors. (authors)

  12. Electric vehicle battery charging algorithm using PMSM windings and an inverter as an active rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaja, Mario; Oprea, Matei-lon; Suárez, Carlos Gómez

    2014-01-01

    for battery charging. Alternatively, charging could be done using the motor windings as grid side inductors and controlling the inverter to operate as an active boost rectifier. The challenge in this approach is the unequal phase inductances which depend on the rotor position. Another problem appears when...... an integrated charger control algorithm to charge the battery through a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) windings....

  13. Performance of a rapidly-refuelable aluminum-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, D. J.; Hollandsworth, R. P.; Gonzales, E. M.; Littauer, E. L.

    The Al-air battery is being developed to provide an electric vehicle with conventional automobile performance. A rapidly-refuelable, 6-cell battery (200-sq cm electrodes) was evaluated. RX-808 aluminum anodes and air cathodes were used with a flowing alkaline electrolyte. Peak power was found to increase with temperature, decrease with aluminate concentration and be unaffected by electrolyte flow. The best performance was 5.28 kW/sq m peak power density, 2.08 kWh/kg Al energy density and 80 percent coulombic efficiency. Anode refueling is rapid and 100 percent utilization is achieved. Additional evaluation included cathode catalysts, a thermal balance and monitoring electrolyte composition.

  14. Solar photovoltaic charging of high voltage nickel metal hydride batteries using DC power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    There are an increasing number of vehicle choices available that utilize batteries and electric motors to reduce tailpipe emissions and increase fuel economy. The eventual production of electricity and hydrogen in a renewable fashion, such as using solar energy, can achieve the long-term vision of having no tailpipe environmental impact, as well as eliminating the dependence of the transportation sector on dwindling supplies of petroleum for its energy. In this report we will demonstrate the solar-powered charging of the high-voltage nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) battery used in the GM 2-mode hybrid system. In previous studies we have used low-voltage solar modules to produce hydrogen via the electrolysis of water and to directly charge lithium-ion battery modules. Our strategy in the present work was to boost low-voltage PV voltage to over 300 V using DC-DC converters in order to charge the high-voltage NiMH battery, and to regulate the battery charging using software to program the electronic control unit supplied with the battery pack. A protocol for high-voltage battery charging was developed, and the solar to battery charging efficiency was measured under a variety of conditions. We believe this is the first time such high-voltage batteries have been charged using solar energy in order to prove the concept of efficient, solar-powered charging for battery-electric vehicles.

  15. Effect of thermal contact resistances on fast charging of large format lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Yonghuang; Saw, Lip Huat; Shi, Yixiang; Somasundaram, Karthik; Tay, Andrew A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of thermal contact resistance on thermal performance of large format lithium ion batteries. • The effect of temperature gradient on electrochemical performance of large format batteries during fast charging. • The thermal performance of lithium ion battery utilizing pulse charging protocol. • Suggestions on battery geometry design optimization to improve thermal performance. - Abstract: A two dimensional electrochemical thermal model is developed on the cross-plane of a laminate stack plate pouch lithium ion battery to study the thermal performance of large format batteries. The effect of thermal contact resistance is taken into consideration, and is found to greatly increase the maximum temperature and temperature gradient of the battery. The resulting large temperature gradient would induce in-cell non-uniformity of charging-discharging current and state of health. Simply increasing the cooling intensity is inadequate to reduce the maximum temperature and narrow down the temperature difference due to the poor cross-plane thermal conductivity. Pulse charging protocol does not help to mitigate the temperature difference on the bias of same total charging time, because of larger time-averaged heat generation rate than constant current charging. Suggestions on battery geometry optimizations for both prismatic/pouch battery and cylindrical battery are proposed to reduce the maximum temperature and mitigate the temperature gradient within the lithium ion battery

  16. Rapid prototyping of energy management charging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciulavu, Oana [Hella Electronics Romania, Timisoara (Romania); Starkmuth, Timo; Jesolowitz, Reinhard [Hella KGaA Hueck und Co., Lippstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an approach to develop charging strategies to support a vehicle energy management aiming for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and decreased fuel consumption by using the Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) environment. (orig.)

  17. Influence of Battery Parametric Uncertainties on the State-of-Charge Estimation of Lithium Titanate Oxide-Based Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Meng, Jinhao; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan

    2018-01-01

    to describe the battery dynamics. The SOC estimation method proposed in this paper is based on an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and nonlinear battery model which was parameterized using extended laboratory tests performed on several 13 Ah lithium titanate oxide (LTO)-based lithium-ion batteries. The developed......State of charge (SOC) is one of the most important parameters in battery management systems, as it indicates the available battery capacity at every moment. There are numerous battery model-based methods used for SOC estimation, the accuracy of which depends on the accuracy of the model considered...... a sensitivity analysis it was showed that the SOC and voltage estimation error are only slightly dependent on the variation of the battery model parameters with the SOC....

  18. High rate partial-state-of-charge operation of VRLA batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    The world market for 12 V SLI batteries currently stands at around US$ 12 billion. The lack of a serious challenge from other battery types has allowed lead-acid products to serve this market exclusively, with minimal demand for product improvement through research and development, and a sharp competition has, over time, cut sales prices to commodity levels. The electrochemical storage of energy in automobiles now faces the possibility of a major change, in the form of the proposed 36/42 V electrical systems for vehicles that remain primarily powered by internal combustion engines, and of the hybrid electric vehicle. The duty cycle for these two applications sees the battery held at a partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) for most of its life and required to supply, and to accept, charge at unprecedented rates. The remarkable advances achieved with VRLA battery technology for electric vehicles during the past 8-10 years will be of only passing value in overcoming the challenges posed by high rate PSoC service in 36/42 V and HEV duty. This is because the failure modes seen in PSoC are quite different from those faced in EV (deep cycle) use. The replacement of the 12 V SLI will not take place rapidly. However, if the applications which take its place are to be satisfied by a lead-acid product (probably VRLA), rather than by a battery of a different chemistry, a program of development as successful as that mounted for deep cycle duty will be required. The present phase of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) R&D program has begun to shed light on those aspects of the function of a VRLA battery which currently limit its life in high rate PSoC duty. The program is also pursuing the several technologies which show promise of overcoming those limits, including multiple tab plate design, mass transport facilitation and minor component (both beneficial and detrimental impurity) management. This paper presents a brief review of the changes which are taking place in

  19. Characterization of 109 Ah Ni-MH batteries charging with hydrogen sensing termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, J. C.; González, M.; Liaw, B. Y.; Ferrero, F. J.; Álvarez, J. C.; Campo, J. C.; Blanco, C.

    The use of Ni-MH batteries for traction applications in electric and hybrid vehicles is increasingly attractive and reliable. Besides the energy and power handling, and the cost issues, high tolerance to abuse is an important aspect of the Ni-MH technology. Thus, the ability to reduce charging time and to absorb regenerative breaking is highly desirable in these traction applications. This requires an accurate control of the charge termination. To facilitate an easy and reliable charging control and to avoid battery premature failure or ageing it is very important to know the behavior of the battery under a range of charging conditions. In this paper, we described the performance of high capacity commercial Ni-MH traction batteries (12 V, 109 Ah modules) when subjected to different charging rates (0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 C) from 100% depth of discharge (DOD). Changes in battery voltage and temperature during charging were monitored, with a particular emphasis on the detection of the presence of hydrogen near the battery. This unique hydrogen detection outside the battery was used as the method for the end-of-charge termination to prevent overcharging of the battery. Relevant parameters, such as charge acceptance, energy efficiency, and charging time, were analyzed for comparison.

  20. Modeling charge polarization voltage for large lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Polarization voltage of the lithium-ion battery is an important parameter that has direct influence on battery performance. The paper aims to analyze the impedance characteristics of the lithium-ion battery based on EIS data. Design/methodology/approach: The effects of currents, initial SOC of the battery on charge polarization voltage are investigated, which is approximately linear function of charge current. The change of charge polarization voltage is also analyzed with the gradient analytical method in the SOC domain. The charge polarization model with two RC networks is presented, and parts of model parameters like Ohmic resistance and charge transfer impedance are estimated by both EIS method and battery constant current testing method. Findings: This paper reveals that the Ohmic resistance accounts for much contribution to battery total polarization compared to charge transfer impedance. Practical implications: Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the model with the proposed identification method, which provides the foundation for battery charging optimization. Originality/value: The paper analyzed the impedance characteristics of the lithium-ion battery based on EIS data, presented a charge polarization model with two RC networks, and estimated parameters like Ohmic resistance and charge transfer impedance.

  1. Incremental Capacity Analysis of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Different Charging Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Nyborg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    -depth investigation of two battery packs composed of 14 Lithium-ion cells each; for the purpose of evaluating the applicability and the challenges of the ICA on a battery pack level by means of different charging current rates. Also, at a certain charging current, the influence of the temperature on the ICA curves......Incremental Capacity Analysis (ICA) is a method used to investigate the capacity state of health of batteries by tracking the electrochemical properties of the cell. It is based on the differentiation of the battery capacity over the battery voltage, for a full or a partial cycle regarding...

  2. Life cycle assessment of five batteries for electric vehicles under different charging regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantik, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Transportation and Logistics

    1999-12-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used in this study to assess the environmental impact of five candidate batteries for electric vehicles under different conditions of charging. The entire lifetime of a passenger electric vehicle is considered as the basis for all batteries. Five different battery systems are considered. The four of them are electrically recharged - Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal hydride and Sodium-Nickel chloride whereas one system comprises batteries that are recharged mechanically (Zinc-Air). One specific battery from these five systems is selected. The results are representative of these particular batteries and not of the battery systems to which they belong. The study includes three scenarios, the basic scenario and two fast charging scenarios. The difference between the scenarios is in the phase of the battery's use and involves the charging regimes. Consequently, the other stages of the battery's life are identical in all three scenarios. The basic scenario implies normal overnight charging is used during the entire lifetime of an electric vehicle. In the first fast charging scenario, fast charging is combined with normal charging. The second fast charging scenario involves the exclusive use of fast charging. In both fast charging scenarios the user's behaviour is considered. In this study, it is believed that it is the violation of fast charging rules, set by the battery manufacturer rather than the fast charging technique, that will be critical for the cycle life of the battery. Due to low energy efficiency of the batteries and losses in the charging procedure, the use of energy for operating the electric vehicle seems to be a major contributor to the total environmental impact of the system. Significant resource constraints may prevent mass production of certain batteries or lead to increased prices of others. Use of fast charging increases the number of batteries used during the lifetime of the electric

  3. FY14 Milestone: Simulated Impacts of Life-Like Fast Charging on BEV Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Burton, Evan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Smith, Kandler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Pesaran, Ahmad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center

    2014-09-01

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that results could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported NREL's development of BLAST-V 'the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles' to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. The authors present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. The primary challenge for BEV batteries operated in the presence of fast charging is controlling maximum battery temperature, which can be achieved with active battery cooling systems.

  4. On-board adaptive model for state of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries based on Kalman filter with proportional integral-based error adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingwen; Dong, Guangzhong; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-10-01

    With the rapid development of battery-powered electric vehicles, the lithium-ion battery plays a critical role in the reliability of vehicle system. In order to provide timely management and protection for battery systems, it is necessary to develop a reliable battery model and accurate battery parameters estimation to describe battery dynamic behaviors. Therefore, this paper focuses on an on-board adaptive model for state-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, a first-order equivalent circuit battery model is employed to describe battery dynamic characteristics. Then, the recursive least square algorithm and the off-line identification method are used to provide good initial values of model parameters to ensure filter stability and reduce the convergence time. Thirdly, an extended-Kalman-filter (EKF) is applied to on-line estimate battery SOC and model parameters. Considering that the EKF is essentially a first-order Taylor approximation of battery model, which contains inevitable model errors, thus, a proportional integral-based error adjustment technique is employed to improve the performance of EKF method and correct model parameters. Finally, the experimental results on lithium-ion batteries indicate that the proposed EKF with proportional integral-based error adjustment method can provide robust and accurate battery model and on-line parameter estimation.

  5. Analytic Models for Sunlight Charging of a Rapidly Spinning Satellite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tautz, Maurice

    2003-01-01

    ... photoelectrons can be blocked by local potential barriers. In this report, we discuss two analytic models for sunlight charging of a rapidly spinning spherical satellite, both of which are based on blocked photoelectron currents...

  6. Rapid charge-discharge property of Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 nanosheet and nanotube composites as anode material for power lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ting-Feng; Fang, Zi-Kui; Xie, Ying; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Yang, Shuang-Yuan

    2014-11-26

    Well-defined Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 nanosheet and nanotube composites have been synthesized by a solvothermal process. The combination of in situ generated rutile-TiO2 in Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets or nanotubes is favorable for reducing the electrode polarization, and Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 nanocomposites show faster lithium insertion/extraction kinetics than that of pristine Li4Ti5O12 during cycling. Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 electrodes also display lower charge-transfer resistance and higher lithium diffusion coefficients than pristine Li4Ti5O12. Therefore, Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 electrodes display lower charge-transfer resistance and higher lithium diffusion coefficients. This reveals that the in situ TiO2 modification improves the electronic conductivity and electrochemical activity of the electrode in the local environment, resulting in its relatively higher capacity at high charge-discharge rate. Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 nanocomposite with a Li/Ti ratio of 3.8:5 exhibits the lowest charge-transfer resistance and the highest lithium diffusion coefficient among all samples, and it shows a much improved rate capability and specific capacity in comparison with pristine Li4Ti5O12 when charging and discharging at a 10 C rate. The improved high-rate capability, cycling stability, and fast charge-discharge performance of Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 nanocomposites can be ascribed to the improvement of electrochemical reversibility, lithium ion diffusion, and conductivity by in situ TiO2 modification.

  7. Adaptive Kalman filter based state of charge estimation algorithm for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hong; Liu Xu; Wei Min

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of the battery state of charge (SOC) estimation, in this paper we take a lithium-ion battery as an example to study the adaptive Kalman filter based SOC estimation algorithm. Firstly, the second-order battery system model is introduced. Meanwhile, the temperature and charge rate are introduced into the model. Then, the temperature and the charge rate are adopted to estimate the battery SOC, with the help of the parameters of an adaptive Kalman filter based estimation algorithm model. Afterwards, it is verified by the numerical simulation that in the ideal case, the accuracy of SOC estimation can be enhanced by adding two elements, namely, the temperature and charge rate. Finally, the actual road conditions are simulated with ADVISOR, and the simulation results show that the proposed method improves the accuracy of battery SOC estimation under actual road conditions. Thus, its application scope in engineering is greatly expanded. (paper)

  8. Lithium position and occupancy fluctuations in a cathode during charge/discharge cycling of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, N.; Yu, D.; Zhu, Y.; Wu, Y.; Peterson, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are undergoing rapid development to meet the energy demands of the transportation and renewable energy-generation sectors. The capacity of a lithium-ion battery is dependent on the amount of lithium that can be reversibly incorporated into the cathode. Neutron diffraction provides greater sensitivity towards lithium relative to other diffraction techniques. In conjunction with the penetration depth afforded by neutron diffraction, the information concerning lithium gained in a neutron diffraction study allows commercial lithium-ion batteries to be explored with respect to the lithium content in the whole cathode. Furthermore, neutron diffraction instruments featuring area detectors that allow relatively fast acquisitions enable perturbations of lithium location and occupancy in the cathode during charge/discharge cycling to be determined in real time. Here, we present the time, current, and temperature dependent lithium transfer occurring within a cathode functioning under conventional charge-discharge cycling. The lithium location and content, oxygen positional parameter, and lattice parameter of the Li 1+y Mn 2 0 4 cathode are measured and linked to the battery's charge/discharge characteristics (performance). We determine that the lithium-transfer mechanism involves two crystallographic sites, and that the mechanism differs between discharge and charge, explaining the relative ease of discharging (compared with charging) this material. Furthermore, we find that the rate of change of the lattice is faster on charging than discharging, and is dependent on the lithium insertion/ extraction processes (e.g. dependent on how the site occupancies evolve). Using in situ neutron diffraction data the atomic-scale understanding of cathode functionality is revealed, representing detailed information that can be used to direct improvements in battery performance at both the practical and fundamental level.

  9. Study of nickel hydrogen battery discharge performance after charge and stand at warm temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donley, S.W.; Verrier, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Spacecraft batteries are normally installed in the discharged condition. It may be necessary that they be charged and trickle-charged prior to launch in an environment different from that in which they are intended to operate. The purpose of the testing described in this paper was to determine the battery capacity achieved after treatment at prelaunch conditions as a function of charge rate, charge temperature, trickle charge temperature, and time. In this testing the discharge in every case was performed under simulated space thermal conditions

  10. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Charge efficiencies were determined by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state of charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  11. An advanced Lithium-ion battery optimal charging strategy based on a coupled thermoelectric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kailong; Li, Kang; Yang, Zhile; Zhang, Cheng; Deng, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely adopted as the power supplies for electric vehicles. A key but challenging issue is to achieve optimal battery charging, while taking into account of various constraints for safe, efficient and reliable operation. In this paper, a triple-objective function is first formulated for battery charging based on a coupled thermoelectric model. An advanced optimal charging strategy is then proposed to develop the optimal constant-current-constant-voltage (CCCV) charge current profile, which gives the best trade-off among three conflicting but important objectives for battery management. To be specific, a coupled thermoelectric battery model is first presented. Then, a specific triple-objective function consisting of three objectives, namely charging time, energy loss, and temperature rise (both the interior and surface), is proposed. Heuristic methods such as Teaching-learning-based-optimization (TLBO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are applied to optimize the triple-objective function, and their optimization performances are compared. The impacts of the weights for different terms in the objective function are then assessed. Experimental results show that the proposed optimal charging strategy is capable of offering desirable effective optimal charging current profiles and a proper trade-off among the conflicting objectives. Further, the proposed optimal charging strategy can be easily extended to other battery types.

  12. Off-grid photovoltaic vehicle charge using second life lithium batteries: An experimental and numerical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Shi Jie; Same, Adam; Kootstra, Mark A.; Park, Jae Wan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have examined the feasibility of a second life battery pack for an off-grid photovoltaic vehicle charging system. ► The second life battery successfully achieved the desired function using simple control methods. ► The system has been modeled using equivalent circuit techniques. ► The model can simulate the system’s performance under different application scenarios. - Abstract: Partially degraded lithium batteries from automotive applications, also known as second life batteries, are becoming more available for secondary applications due to the increasing market share of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles. This study examines the feasibility of installing a second life battery pack in an off-grid photovoltaic vehicle charging system. The system was constructed using a photovoltaic array to charge a battery pack via a maximum power point tracking controller and later charge a vehicle via an inverter. The battery pack was configured using 135 second life LiFePO 4 based battery cells, selected based on remaining capacity, connected to form a nine parallel by 15 serial battery pack with accessible storage capacity of 13.9 kW h. Experimental results show that the proposed second life battery system successfully achieves the desired function with a simple system structure and control methods. A numerical simulation was performed by constructing an equivalent system model, where the photovoltaic array and battery pack were modeled using equivalent circuit techniques. The model was parameterized and validated via testing of the system. Coupled with weather data, the model can simulate the system’s performance under different application scenarios. The numerical investigation reveals that the proposed system, using second life batteries, can achieve similar performance to systems using new lithium batteries, but at a reduced cost

  13. Study on the Optimal Charging Strategy for Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The charging method of lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles (EVs significantly affects its commercial application. This paper aims to make three contributions to the existing literature. (1 In order to achieve an efficient charging strategy for lithium-ion batteries with shorter charging time and lower charring loss, the trade-off problem between charging loss and charging time has been analyzed in details through the dynamic programing (DP optimization algorithm; (2 To reduce the computation time consumed during the optimization process, we have proposed a database based optimization approach. After off-line calculation, the simulation results can be applied to on-line charge; (3 The novel database-based DP method is proposed and the simulation results illustrate that this method can effectively find the suboptimal charging strategies under a certain balance between the charging loss and charging time.

  14. Unbiased, complete solar charging of a neutral flow battery by a single Si photocathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedege, Kristina; Bae, Dowon; Dražević, Emil

    2018-01-01

    Solar redox flow batteries have attracted attention as a possible integrated technology for simultaneous conversion and storage of solar energy. In this work, we review current efforts to design aqueous solar flow batteries in terms of battery electrolyte capacity, solar conversion efficiency...... and depth of solar charge. From a materials cost and design perspective, a simple, cost-efficient, aqueous solar redox flow battery will most likely incorporate only one semiconductor, and we demonstrate here a system where a single photocathode is accurately matched to the redox couples to allow...... for a complete solar charge. The single TiO2 protected Si photocathode with a catalytic Pt layer can fully solar charge a neutral TEMPO-sulfate/ferricyanide battery with a cell voltage of 0.35 V. An unbiased solar conversion efficiency of 1.6% is obtained and this system represents a new strategy in solar RFBs...

  15. Charge retention test experiences on Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Dave E.; Driscoll, J. R.; Armantrout, J. D.; Baker, R. C.; Wajsgras, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nickel-hydrogen battery module was designed by Lockheed Missile & Space Co (LMSC) and manufactured by Eagle-Picher Ind. (EPI) for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) for the nickel-cadmium batteries originally selected for this low earth orbit mission. The design features of the HST nickel hydrogen battery are described and the results of an extended charge retention test are summarized.

  16. A Bi-Level Optimization Approach to Charging Load Regulation of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Based on a Battery Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Bao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast charging stations enable the high-powered rapid recharging of electric vehicles. However, these stations also face challenges due to power fluctuations, high peak loads, and low load factors, affecting the reliable and economic operation of charging stations and distribution networks. This paper introduces a battery energy storage system (BESS for charging load control, which is a more user-friendly approach and is more robust to perturbations. With the goals of peak-shaving, total electricity cost reduction, and minimization of variation in the state-of-charge (SOC range, a BESS-based bi-level optimization strategy for the charging load regulation of fast charging stations is proposed in this paper. At the first level, a day-ahead optimization strategy generates the optimal planned load curve and the deviation band to be used as a reference for ensuring multiple control objectives through linear programming, and even for avoiding control failure caused by insufficient BESS energy. Based on this day-ahead optimal plan, at a second level, real-time rolling optimization converts the control process to a multistage decision-making problem. The predictive control-based real-time rolling optimization strategy in the proposed model was used to achieve the above control objectives and maintain battery life. Finally, through a horizontal comparison of two control approaches in each case study, and a longitudinal comparison of the control robustness against different degrees of load disturbances in three cases, the results indicated that the proposed control strategy was able to significantly improve the charging load characteristics, even with large disturbances. Meanwhile, the proposed approach ensures the least amount of variation in the range of battery SOC and reduces the total electricity cost, which will be of a considerable benefit to station operators.

  17. Kalman-variant estimators for state of charge in lithium-sulfur batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Propp, Karsten; Auger, Daniel J.; Fotouhi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are now commercially available, offering high specific energy density, low production costs and high safety. However, there is no commercially-available battery management system for them, and there are no published methods for determining state of charge in situ...

  18. Supercapacitor performance evaluation in replacing battery based on charging and discharging current characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, A.; Siahaan, S.; Mubarakah, N.; Suherman

    2018-02-01

    Supercapacitor is a new device of energy storage, which has much difference between ordinary capacitors and batteries. Supercapacitor have higher capacitance and energy density than regular capacitors. The supercapacitor also has a fast charging time, as well as a long life. To be used as a battery replacement please note the internal parameters of the battery to be replaced. In this paper conducted a simulation study to utilize supercapacitor as a replacement battery. The internal parameters of the battery and the supercapacitor are obtained based on the characteristics of charging and discharging current using a predefined equivalent circuit model. The battery to be replaced is a 12-volt lead-acid type, 6.5 Ah which is used on motorcycles with 6A charging and discharging currents. Super capacitor replacement capacitor is a capacity of 1600F, 2.7V which is connected in series as many as 6 pieces with 16.2 volt terminal voltage and charging current 12A. To obtain the same supercapacitor characteristic as the battery characteristic to be replaced, modification of its internal parameters is made. The results show that the super-capacitor can replace the battery function for 1000 seconds.

  19. Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Novel DC Fast-Charging Station with a Local Battery Storage for EVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelaj, Marjan; Træholt, Chresten; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa

    2017-01-01

    and decrease the connection fees. Finally, an economic evaluation is done to evaluate the feasibility and the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of the DCFCSs. The proposed approach considers various technical and economic issues, such as cost of installation, connection fees and life cycle cost of the batteries....... The proposed cost-benefit analysis can be used to verify the effectiveness and applicability of DCFCS in large scale....... models by increasing the size of the batteries. To satisfy EV load demand of the new EV models in urban areas the public DC Fast-Charging Station (DCFCS) is indispensable to recharge EVs rapidly. The introduction of the Battery Energy Storage within the DCFCSs is considered in this paper an alternative...

  20. Nickel-hydrogen battery state of charge management in the absence of active cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurie, C.; Foroozan, S. [TRW, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Brewer, J.; Jackson, L.G. [NASA, Huntsville, AL (United States). Marshall Space Flight Center

    1995-12-31

    Battery management during prelaunch activities has always required special attention and careful planning. `ne transition from nickel-cadmium to nickel-hydrogen batteries, with their higher self discharge rate and lower charge efficiency, as well as longer prelaunch scenarios, have made this aspect of spacecraft management even more challenging. The NASA AXAF-I Program requires high battery state of charge at launch. The use of active cooling, to ensure adequate state of charge during prelaunch charge, trickle charge, and stand was considered and proved to be expensive and difficult to implement. Alternate approaches were considered. A procedure including optimized charging and low rate (charging, in the absence of active cooling, appeared promising and was investigated. The investigation includes three phases: (1) demonstration of the feasibility of the proposed procedure (2) development of a parametric data base (3) validation in an AXAF-I mission simulation test. Charging, trickle charging, and open circuit stand are considered in each phase. The major conclusion of this work is that nickel-hydrogen batteries can achieve and maintain high states of charge, in the absence of active cooling, using the approach described in this paper.

  1. Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2003-06-24

    A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

  2. A Hydrogen-Evolving Hybrid-Electrolyte Battery with Electrochemical/Photoelectrochemical Charging from Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhaoyu; Li, Panpan; Xiao, Dan

    2017-02-08

    Decoupled hydrogen and oxygen production were successfully embedded into an aqueous dual-electrolyte (acid-base) battery for simultaneous energy storage and conversion. A three-electrode configuration was adopted, involving an electrocatalytic hydrogen-evolving electrode as cathode, an alkaline battery-type or capacitor-type anode as shuttle, and a charging-assisting electrode for electro-/photoelectrochemically catalyzing water oxidation. The conceptual battery not only synergistically outputs electricity and chemical fuels with tremendous specific energy and power densities, but also supports various approaches to be charged by pure or solar-assisted electricity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Optimizing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator treatment of rapid ventricular tachycardia: antitachycardia pacing therapy during charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoels, Wolfgang; Steinhaus, David; Johnson, W Ben; O'hara, Gilles; Schwab, Joerg O; Jenniskens, Inge; Degroot, Paul J; Tang, Feng; Helmling, Erhard

    2007-07-01

    Previous studies in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients demonstrated the efficacy and safety of antitachycardia pacing (ATP) for rapid ventricular tachycardias (VT). To prevent shock delay in case of ATP failure, a new feature (ATP during charging) was developed to deliver ATP for rapid VT while charging for shock. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of this new feature. In a prospective, nonrandomized trial, patients with standard ICD indication received an EnTrust ICD. VT and ventricular fibrillation (VF) episodes were reviewed for appropriate detection, ATP success, rhythm acceleration, and related symptoms. In 421 implanted patients, 116 VF episodes occurred in 37 patients. Eighty-four (72%) episodes received ATP during or before charging. ATP prevented a shock in 58 (69%) of 84 episodes in 15 patients. ATP stopped significantly more monomorphic (77%) than polymorphic VTs (44%, P = .05). Five (6%) episodes accelerated after ATP but were terminated by the backup shock(s). No symptoms were related to ATP during charging. In four patients, 38 charges were saved by delivering ATP before charging. Of 98 induced VF episodes, 28% were successfully terminated by ATP versus 69% for spontaneous episodes (P <.01). Most VTs detected in the VF zone can be painlessly terminated by ATP delivered during charging, with a low risk of acceleration or symptoms. ATP before charging allows delivery of two ATP attempts before shock in the same time that would otherwise be required to deliver only one ATP plus a shock. It also offers potential battery energy savings.

  4. A Review on Battery Charging and Discharging Control Strategies: Application to Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Banguero

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage has become a fundamental component in renewable energy systems, especially those including batteries. However, in charging and discharging processes, some of the parameters are not controlled by the battery’s user. That uncontrolled working leads to aging of the batteries and a reduction of their life cycle. Therefore, it causes an early replacement. Development of control methods seeks battery protection and a longer life expectancy, thus the constant-current–constant-voltage method is mostly used. However, several studies show that charging time can be reduced by using fuzzy logic control or model predictive control. Another benefit is temperature control. This paper reviews the existing control methods used to control charging and discharging processes, focusing on their impacts on battery life. Classical and modern methods are studied together in order to find the best approach to real systems.

  5. Lithium-ion Battery Charge Methodologies Observed with Portable Electronic Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Commercial lithium-ion batteries in portable electronic equipment has been used by NASA for space applications since 1999. First battery that was certified for flight and flown for Shuttle use was the Canon BP 927 (2.7 Ah) battery pack. Since then, numerous portable equipment with li-ion batteries have been certified and flown and remain on-orbit for crew usage. Laptops (two generations with third one being worked on now) Camcorder Camera PDA 2 versions (second one being li-ion polymer cells) Satellite Phone Due to expense and time, certified batteries are used with different equipment with the help of adapters or by working with the manufacturer of the equipment to build the appropriate battery compartment and connector. Certified and dedicated chargers are available on Shuttle and on the ISS for safe charging.

  6. Solar battery charging; Sonne in den Akku laden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Martin

    2012-01-30

    Swiss battery producer Leclanche intends serial production of lithium ion cells for storage of renewable energy. A production facility at Kehl, Germany, is currently under construction. Schueco International KG is one of the first customers.

  7. Functional Two-Dimensional Coordination Polymeric Layer as a Charge Barrier in Li–S Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jing-Kai

    2018-01-04

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) polymeric layers are capable of separating gases and molecules based on the reported size exclusion mechanism. What is equally important but missing today is an exploration of the 2D layers with charge functionality, which enables applications using the charge exclusion principle. This work demonstrates a simple and scalable method of synthesizing a free-standing 2D coordination polymer Zn2(benzimidazolate)2(OH)2 at the air–water interface. The hydroxyl (−OH) groups are stoichiometrically coordinated and implement electrostatic charges in the 2D structures, providing powerful functionality as a charge barrier. Electrochemical performance of the Li–S battery shows that the Zn2(benzimidazolate)2(OH)2 coordination polymer layers efficiently mitigate the polysulfide shuttling effects and largely enhance the battery capacity and cycle performance. The synthesis of the proposed coordination polymeric layers is simple, scalable, cost saving, and promising for practical use in batteries.

  8. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-05-03

    Installation of fast charging infrastructure is considered by many as one of potential solutions to increase the utility and range of electric vehicles (EVs). This is expected to reduce the range anxiety of drivers of EVs and thus increase their market penetration. Level 1 and 2 charging in homes and workplaces is expected to contribute to the majority of miles driven by EVs. However, a small percentage of urban driving and most of inter-city driving could be only achieved by a fast-charging network. DC fast charging at 50 kW, 100 kW, 120 kW compared to level 1 (3.3 kW) and level 2 (6.6 kW) results in high-current charging that can adversely impact the life of the battery. In the last couple of years, we have investigated the impact of higher current rates in batteries and potential of higher temperatures and thus lower service life. Using mathematical models, we investigated the temperature increase of batteries due to higher heat generation during fast charge and have found that this could lead to higher temperatures. We compared our models with data from other national laboratories both for fine-tuning and calibration. We found that the incremental temperature rise of batteries during 1C to 3C fast charging may reduce the practical life of the batteries by less than 10% over 10 to 15 years of vehicle ownership. We also found that thermal management of batteries is needed for fast charging to prevent high temperature excursions leading to unsafe conditions.

  9. Method and apparatus for indicating electric charge remaining in batteries based on electrode weight and center of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, S.Z.

    1996-12-03

    In most electrochemical batteries which generate electricity through the reaction of a battery electrode with an electrolyte solution, the chemical composition, and thus the weight and density, of the electrode changes as the battery discharges. The invention measures a parameter of the battery which changes as the weight of the electrode changes as the battery discharges and relates that parameter to the value of the parameter when the battery is fully charged and when the battery is functionally discharged to determine the state-of-charge of the battery at the time the parameter is measured. In one embodiment, the weight of a battery electrode or electrode unit is measured to determine the state-of-charge. In other embodiments, where a battery electrode is located away from the geometrical center of the battery, the position of the center of gravity of the battery or shift in the position of the center of gravity of the battery is measured (the position of the center of gravity changes with the change in weight of the electrode) and indicates the state-of-charge of the battery. 35 figs.

  10. Improved rapidly-quenched hydrogen-absorbing alloys for development of improved-capacity nickel metal hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Tadashi; Hamamatsu, Takeo; Imoto, Teruhiko; Nogami, Mitsuzo; Nakahori, Shinsuke

    The effects of annealing a rapidly-quenched hydrogen-absorbing alloy with a stoichiometric ratio of 4.76 were investigated concerning its hydrogen-absorbing properties, crystal structure and electrochemical characteristics. Annealing at 1073 K homogenized the alloy microstructure and flattened its plateau slope in the P-C isotherms. However, annealing at 1273 K segregated a second phase rich in rare earth elements, increased the hydrogen-absorbing pressure and decreased the hydrogen-absorbing capacity. As the number of charge-discharge cycles increases, the particle size distribution of the rapidly-quenched alloy became broad due to partial pulverization. However, particle size distribution of the rapidly-quenched, annealed, alloy was sharp, since the annealing homogenized the microstructure, thereby improving the cycle characteristics. A high-capacity rectangular nickel metal hydride battery using a rapidly-quenched, annealed, surface-treated alloy for the negative electrode and an active material coated with cobalt compound containing sodium for the positive electrode was developed. The capacity of the resulting battery was 30% greater than that of a conventional battery.

  11. Hierarchical control of a photovoltaic/battery based DC microgrid including electric vehicle wireless charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Fan, Haodong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the hierarchical control strategy of a photovoltaic/battery based dc microgrid is presented for electric vehicle (EV) wireless charging. Considering irradiance variations, battery charging/discharging requirements, wireless power transmission characteristics, and onboard battery...... coils, receiving coils and compensation capacitors, the wireless power transmission system is designed to be resonant when it is operating at the rated power, with the aim to achieve the optimum transmission system efficiency. Simulation and experimental results of the hierarchical control...... charging power change and other factors, the possible operation states are obtained. A hierarchical control strategy is established, which includes central and local controllers. The central controller is responsible for the selection and transfer of operation states and the management of the local...

  12. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV.

  13. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anele, A O; Hamam, Y; Djouani, K; Chassagne, L; Alayli, Y; Linares, J

    2015-01-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV. (paper)

  14. Kalman filtering state of charge estimation for battery management system based on a stochastic fuzzy neural network battery model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Long; Wang Junping; Chen Quanshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel extended Kalman Filtering SOC estimation method based on a stochastic fuzzy neural network (SFNN) battery model is proposed. ► The SFNN which has filtering effect on noisy input can model the battery nonlinear dynamic with high accuracy. ► A robust parameter learning algorithm for SFNN is studied so that the parameters can converge to its true value with noisy data. ► The maximum SOC estimation error based on the proposed method is 0.6%. - Abstract: Extended Kalman filtering is an intelligent and optimal means for estimating the state of a dynamic system. In order to use extended Kalman filtering to estimate the state of charge (SOC), we require a mathematical model that can accurately capture the dynamics of battery pack. In this paper, we propose a stochastic fuzzy neural network (SFNN) instead of the traditional neural network that has filtering effect on noisy input to model the battery nonlinear dynamic. Then, the paper studies the extended Kalman filtering SOC estimation method based on a SFNN model. The modeling test is realized on an 80 Ah Ni/MH battery pack and the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle is used to verify the SOC estimation method. The maximum SOC estimation error is 0.6% compared with the real SOC obtained from the discharging test.

  15. Adaptive estimation of state of charge and capacity with online identified battery model for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Tseng, King Jet; Wai, Nyunt; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2016-11-01

    Reliable state estimate depends largely on an accurate battery model. However, the parameters of battery model are time varying with operating condition variation and battery aging. The existing co-estimation methods address the model uncertainty by integrating the online model identification with state estimate and have shown improved accuracy. However, the cross interference may arise from the integrated framework to compromise numerical stability and accuracy. Thus this paper proposes the decoupling of model identification and state estimate to eliminate the possibility of cross interference. The model parameters are online adapted with the recursive least squares (RLS) method, based on which a novel joint estimator based on extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is formulated to estimate the state of charge (SOC) and capacity concurrently. The proposed joint estimator effectively compresses the filter order which leads to substantial improvement in the computational efficiency and numerical stability. Lab scale experiment on vanadium redox flow battery shows that the proposed method is highly authentic with good robustness to varying operating conditions and battery aging. The proposed method is further compared with some existing methods and shown to be superior in terms of accuracy, convergence speed, and computational cost.

  16. Battery State-of-Charge and Parameter Estimation Algorithm Based on Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Sucic, Stjepan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical battery is the most widely used energy storage technology, finding its application in various devices ranging from low power consumer electronics to utility back-up power. All types of batteries show highly non-linear behaviour in terms of dependence of internal parameters...... on operating conditions, momentary replenishment and a number of past charge/discharge cycles. A good indicator for the quality of overall customer service in any battery based application is the availability and reliability of these informations, as they point out important runtime variables...

  17. On the optimal sizing of batteries for electric vehicles and the influence of fast charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugge, Mark W.; Wampler, Charles W.

    2018-04-01

    We provide a brief summary of advanced battery technologies and a framework (i.e., a simple model) for assessing electric-vehicle (EV) architectures and associated costs to the customer. The end result is a qualitative model that can be used to calculate the optimal EV range (which maps back to the battery size and performance), including the influence of fast charge. We are seeing two technological pathways emerging: fast-charge-capable batteries versus batteries with much higher energy densities (and specific energies) but without the capability to fast charge. How do we compare and contrast the two alternatives? This work seeks to shed light on the question. We consider costs associated with the cells, added mass due to the use of larger batteries, and charging, three factors common in such analyses. In addition, we consider a new cost input, namely, the cost of adaption, corresponding to the days a customer would need an alternative form of transportation, as the EV would not have sufficient range on those days.

  18. State of charge estimation for lithium-ion pouch batteries based on stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Haifeng; Yu, Chenchen; Wei, Xuezhe; Sun, Zechang

    2017-01-01

    State of charge (SOC) estimation is one of the important tasks of battery management system (BMS). Being different from other researches, a novel method of SOC estimation for pouch lithium-ion battery cells based on stress measurement is proposed. With a comprehensive experimental study, we find that, the stress of the battery during charge/discharge is composed of the static stress and the dynamic stress. The static stress, which is the measured stress in equilibrium state, corresponds to SOC, this phenomenon facilitates the design of our stress-based SOC estimation. The dynamic stress, on the other hand, is influenced by multiple factors including charge accumulation or depletion, current and historical operation, thus a multiple regression model of the dynamic stress is established. Based on the relationship between static stress and SOC, as well as the dynamic stress modeling, the SOC estimation method is founded. Experimental results show that the stress-based method performs well with a good accuracy, and this method offers a novel perspective for SOC estimation. - Highlights: • A State of Charge estimator based on stress measurement is proposed. • The stress during charge and discharge is investigated with comprehensive experiments. • Effects of SOC, current, and operation history on battery stress are well studied. • A multiple regression model of the dynamic stress is established.

  19. Adaptive State of Charge Estimation for Li-Ion Batteries Based on an Unscented Kalman Filter with an Enhanced Battery Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC of batteries is one of the key problems in a battery management system. This paper proposes an adaptive SOC estimation method based on unscented Kalman filter algorithms for lithium (Li-ion batteries. First, an enhanced battery model is proposed to include the impacts due to different discharge rates and temperatures. An adaptive joint estimation of the battery SOC and battery internal resistance is then presented to enhance system robustness with battery aging. The SOC estimation algorithm has been developed and verified through experiments on different types of Li-ion batteries. The results indicate that the proposed method provides an accurate SOC estimation and is computationally efficient, making it suitable for embedded system implementation.

  20. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pulse current charging for stable lithium-metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Shen; Li, Linlin; Lu, Yingying; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    High energy and safe electrochemical storage are critical components in multiple emerging fields of technologies. Rechargeable lithium-metal batteries are considered to be promising alternatives for current lithium-ion batteries, leading to as much as a 10-fold improvement in anode storage capacity (from 372 to 3860 mAh g−1). One of the major challenges for commercializing lithium-metal batteries is the reliability and safety issue, which is often associated with uneven lithium electrodeposition (lithium dendrites) during the charging stage of the battery cycling process. We report that stable lithium-metal batteries can be achieved by simply charging cells with square-wave pulse current. We investigated the effects of charging period and frequency as well as the mechanisms that govern this process at the molecular level. Molecular simulations were performed to study the diffusion and the solvation structure of lithium cations (Li+) in bulk electrolyte. The model predicts that loose association between cations and anions can enhance the transport of Li+ and eventually stabilize the lithium electrodeposition. We also performed galvanostatic measurements to evaluate the cycling behavior and cell lifetime under pulsed electric field and found that the cell lifetime can be more than doubled using certain pulse current waveforms. Both experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the effectiveness of pulse current charging on dendrite suppression can be optimized by choosing proper time- and frequency-dependent pulses. This work provides a molecular basis for understanding the mechanisms of pulse current charging to mitigating lithium dendrites and designing pulse current waveforms for stable lithium-metal batteries. PMID:28776039

  1. Charge-discharge characteristics of nickel/zinc battery with polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakura, Chiaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Nohara, Shinji; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    A new nickel/zinc (Ni/Zn) battery was assembled by using polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate) and KOH aqueous solution, and its charge-discharge characteristics were investigated. The experimental Ni/Zn cell with the polymer hydrogel electrolyte exhibited well-defined charge-discharge curves and remarkably improved charge-discharge cycle performance, compared to that with a KOH aqueous solution. Moreover, it was found that dendritic growth hardly occurred on the zinc electrode surface during charge-discharge cycles in the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. These results indicate that the polymer hydrogel electrolyte can successfully be used in Ni/Zn batteries as an electrolyte with excellent performance. (author)

  2. Charge-discharge characteristics of nickel/zinc battery with polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakura, Chiaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Nohara, Shinji; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    A new nickel/zinc (Ni/Zn) battery was assembled by using polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate) and KOH aqueous solution, and its charge-discharge characteristics were investigated. The experimental Ni/Zn cell with the polymer hydrogel electrolyte exhibited well-defined charge-discharge curves and remarkably improved charge-discharge cycle performance, compared to that with a KOH aqueous solution. Moreover, it was found that dendritic growth hardly occurred on the zinc electrode surface during charge-discharge cycles in the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. These results indicate that the polymer hydrogel electrolyte can successfully be used in Ni/Zn batteries as an electrolyte with excellent performance.

  3. Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.

  4. State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using an Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SOC estimation is of great significance for a lithium-ion battery to ensure its safe operation and to prevent it from over-charging or over-discharging. However, it is difficult to get an accurate value of SOC since it is an inner sate of a battery cell, which cannot be directly measured. This paper presents an Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter (ACKF-based SOC estimation algorithm for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Firstly, the lithium-ion battery is modeled using the second-order resistor-capacitor (RC equivalent circuit and parameters of the battery model are determined by the forgetting factor least-squares method. Then, the Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation is introduced and the estimated process is presented. Finally, two typical driving cycles, including the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC are applied to evaluate the performance of the proposed method by comparing with the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF and cubature Kalman filter (CKF algorithms. Experimental results show that the ACKF algorithm has better performance in terms of SOC estimation accuracy, convergence to different initial SOC errors and robustness against voltage measurement noise as compared with the traditional EKF and CKF algorithms.

  5. Human domination of the biosphere: Rapid discharge of the earth-space battery foretells the future of humankind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramski, John R; Gattie, David K; Brown, James H

    2015-08-04

    Earth is a chemical battery where, over evolutionary time with a trickle-charge of photosynthesis using solar energy, billions of tons of living biomass were stored in forests and other ecosystems and in vast reserves of fossil fuels. In just the last few hundred years, humans extracted exploitable energy from these living and fossilized biomass fuels to build the modern industrial-technological-informational economy, to grow our population to more than 7 billion, and to transform the biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity of the earth. This rapid discharge of the earth's store of organic energy fuels the human domination of the biosphere, including conversion of natural habitats to agricultural fields and the resulting loss of native species, emission of carbon dioxide and the resulting climate and sea level change, and use of supplemental nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar energy sources. The laws of thermodynamics governing the trickle-charge and rapid discharge of the earth's battery are universal and absolute; the earth is only temporarily poised a quantifiable distance from the thermodynamic equilibrium of outer space. Although this distance from equilibrium is comprised of all energy types, most critical for humans is the store of living biomass. With the rapid depletion of this chemical energy, the earth is shifting back toward the inhospitable equilibrium of outer space with fundamental ramifications for the biosphere and humanity. Because there is no substitute or replacement energy for living biomass, the remaining distance from equilibrium that will be required to support human life is unknown.

  6. State of Charge Estimation Using the Extended Kalman Filter for Battery Management Systems Based on the ARX Battery Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC is a critical factor to guarantee that a battery system is operating in a safe and reliable manner. Many uncertainties and noises, such as fluctuating current, sensor measurement accuracy and bias, temperature effects, calibration errors or even sensor failure, etc. pose a challenge to the accurate estimation of SOC in real applications. This paper adds two contributions to the existing literature. First, the auto regressive exogenous (ARX model is proposed here to simulate the battery nonlinear dynamics. Due to its discrete form and ease of implemention, this straightforward approach could be more suitable for real applications. Second, its order selection principle and parameter identification method is illustrated in detail in this paper. The hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC cycles are implemented on the 60AH LiFePO4 battery module for the model identification and validation. Based on the proposed ARX model, SOC estimation is pursued using the extended Kalman filter. Evaluation of the adaptability of the battery models and robustness of the SOC estimation algorithm are also verified. The results indicate that the SOC estimation method using the Kalman filter based on the ARX model shows great performance. It increases the model output voltage accuracy, thereby having the potential to be used in real applications, such as EVs and HEVs.

  7. Battery charging and discharging research based on the interactive technology of smart grid and electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingyang

    2018-06-01

    To further study the bidirectional flow problem of V2G (Vehicle to Grid) charge and discharge motor, the mathematical model of AC/DC converter and bi-directional DC/DC converter was established. Then, lithium battery was chosen as the battery of electric vehicle and its mathematical model was established. In order to improve the service life of lithium battery, bidirectional DC/DC converter adopted constant current and constant voltage control strategy. In the initial stage of charging, constant current charging was adopted with current single closed loop control. After reaching a certain value, voltage was switched to constant voltage charging controlled by voltage and current. Subsequently, the V2G system simulation model was built in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results verified the correctness of the control strategy and showed that when charging, constant current and constant voltage charging was achieved, the grid side voltage and current were in the same phase, and the power factor was about 1. When discharging, the constant current discharge was applied, and the grid voltage and current phase difference was r. To sum up, the simulation results are correct and helpful.

  8. Optimal control of photovoltaic systems by a new battery state-of-charge observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giglioli, R; Zini, G; Conte, M; Raugi, M

    1988-06-01

    In photovoltaic power plants, the ability to accurately determine battery state-of-charge at any given time can reduce the risk of curtailed energy and allow more precise and less costly battery sizing. In this paper, a new state-of-charge observer, based on an original equivalent electric network of the lead-acid battery, is shown and used to develop an optimal control of the system. Hence, a management plan for a complete photovoltaic system is studied. Finally, a comparison between a simulation of the proposed plan and experimental data from a monitored photovoltaic plant, with very simple management requirements, is made and discussed. The present work was carried out within the framework of the Italian Finalized Energy Project-2.

  9. Comparative study of a small size wind generation system efficiency for battery charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayouf Messaoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energetic comparison between two control strategies of a small size wind generation system for battery charging. The output voltage of the direct drive PMSG is connected to the battery through a switch mode rectifier. A DC-DC boost converter is used to regulate the battery bank current in order to achieve maximum power from the wind. A maximum powertracking algorithm calculates the current command that corresponds to maximum power output of the turbine. The DC-DC converter uses this current to calculate the duty cycle witch is necessary to control the pulse width modulated (PWM active switching device (IGPT. The system overview and modeling are presented including characteristics of wind turbine, generator, batteries, power converter, control system, and supervisory system. A simulation of the system is performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  10. Prediction Model of Battery State of Charge and Control Parameter Optimization for Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the construction of a battery state of charge (SOC prediction model and the optimization method of the said model to appropriately control the number of parameters in compliance with the SOC as the battery output objectives. Research Centre for Electrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences has tested its electric vehicle research prototype on the road, monitoring its voltage, current, temperature, time, vehicle velocity, motor speed, and SOC during the operation. Using this experimental data, the prediction model of battery SOC was built. Stepwise method considering multicollinearity was able to efficiently develops the battery prediction model that describes the multiple control parameters in relation to the characteristic values such as SOC. It was demonstrated that particle swarm optimization (PSO succesfully and efficiently calculated optimal control parameters to optimize evaluation item such as SOC based on the model.

  11. Battery pack state of charge balancing algorithm for cascaded H-Bridge multilevel converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Máthé, Lászlo; Burlacu, Paul Dan; Schaltz, Erik

    2016-01-01

    For most of the Multilevel Converter (MC) applications a commonly discussed issue is the maintenance of balance between the energy storage elements from the SubModules (SM). In applications where a battery pack is also part of the SM storage, such as STATCOMs or motor drives, the SM voltage...... is not in linear relation with the State Of Charge (SOC) of the entire battery; thus, the balancing becomes more cumbersome. A method to balance the SOC of the battery packs in a system using cascaded H-Bridge is proposed in this paper. The method uses nearest level control followed by sorting and selection based...... on the SOC of the battery packs. Based on the simulation results the number of switching is reduced considerably compared to the method where the phase shifted PWM is used. In addition, the time needed to achieve the balanced SOC is also reduced. The proposed method has been verified through experiments...

  12. Adaptive state-of-charge indication system for a Li-ion battery-powered devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Danilov, D.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate State-of-Charge (SoC) and remammg run-time indication for portable devices is important for the user convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. So far, no one succeeded in coming up with a SoC system that is accurate enough under all realistic user conditions. An algorithm that

  13. Method for measuring the charge of electric storage batteries. Verfahren zur Messung des Ladezustandes elektrischer Akkumulatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappus, W.

    1982-03-11

    With liquid-electrolyte storage batteries, charge can be deduced from density measurement which is feasible in a simple technical way by measuring hydrostatic pressure in the electrolyte fluid. Pressure difference is detected piezo-electrically and indicated externally by a voltmeter. Gas-filled or fluid-filled bellows serve as pressure sensors.

  14. Hybrid unscented particle filter based state-of-charge determination for lead-acid batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of cell SOC (state of charge) is important for the safety and functional capabilities of the battery energy storage application system. This paper presents a hybrid UPF (unscented particle filter) based SOC determination combined model for batteries. To simulate the entire dynamic electrical characteristics of batteries, a novel combined state space model, which takes current as a control input and let SOC and two constructed parameters as state variables, is advanced to represent cell behavior. Besides that, an improved UPF method is used to evaluate cell SOC. Taking lead-acid batteries for example, we apply the established model for test. Results show that the evolved combined state space cell model simulates battery dynamics robustly with high accuracy and the prediction value based on the improved UPF method converges to the real SOC very quickly within the error of±2%. - Highlights: • This paper introduces a hybrid UPF based SOC determination model for batteries. • The evolved model takes SOC and two constructed parameters as state variables. • The combined state space cell model simulates battery dynamics robustly. • NLMS based method is employed to lessen search space and fasten convergence process. • Novel model converges to the real SOC robustly and quickly with fewer particles

  15. Method of estimating the State-of-Charge and of the use time left of a rechageable battery, and apparatus for executing such a method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Hendrik Johannes; Pop, V.; Notten, Petrus Henricus Laurentius

    2006-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of estimating the state-of-charge of a rechargeable battery, taking into account the factors battery spread and ageing. The method comprises the steps of: determining the starting state-of-charge of the battery by measuring the voltage across the battery and converting this

  16. Polyoxometalate active charge-transfer material for mediated redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Travis Mark; Hudak, Nicholas; Staiger, Chad; Pratt, Harry

    2017-01-17

    Redox flow batteries including a half-cell electrode chamber coupled to a current collecting electrode are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, a separator is coupled to the half-cell electrode chamber. The half-cell electrode chamber comprises a first redox-active mediator and a second redox-active mediator. The first redox-active mediator and the second redox-active mediator are circulated through the half-cell electrode chamber into an external container. The container includes an active charge-transfer material. The active charge-transfer material has a redox potential between a redox potential of the first redox-active mediator and a redox potential of the second redox-active mediator. The active charge-transfer material is a polyoxometalate or derivative thereof. The redox flow battery may be particularly useful in energy storage solutions for renewable energy sources and for providing sustained power to an electrical grid.

  17. An improved charging/discharging strategy of lithium batteries considering depreciation cost in day-ahead microgrid scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Jianxue; Wang, Xiuli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A quantitative depreciation cost model is put forward for lithium batteries. • A practical charging/discharging strategy is applied to battery management. • The depth of discharge of the battery storage is scheduled more rationally. • The proposed strategy improves the cost efficiency of lithium batteries in MGs. - Abstract: An energy storage system is critical for the safe and stable operation of a microgrid (MG) and has a promising prospect in future power system. Economical and safe operation of storage system is of great significance to MGs. This paper presents an improved management strategy for lithium battery storage by establishing a battery depreciation cost model and employing a practical charging/discharging strategy. Firstly, experimental data of lithium battery cycle lives, which are functions of the depth of discharge, are investigated and synthesized. A quantitative depreciation cost model is put forward for lithium batteries from the perspective of cycle life. Secondly, a practical charging/discharging strategy is applied to the lithium battery management in MGs. Then, an optimal scheduling model is developed to minimize MG operational cost including battery depreciation cost. Finally, numerical tests are conducted on a typical grid-connected MG. Results show that the depth of discharge of storage is scheduled more rationally, and operational cost is simultaneously saved for MG under the proposed management strategy. This study helps to improve the cost efficiency and alleviate the aging process for lithium batteries.

  18. Non-destructive fast charging algorithm of lithium-ion batteries based on the control-oriented electrochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Zhengyu; Feng, Xuning; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Ouyang, Minggao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel non-destructive fast charging algorithm of lithium-ion batteries is proposed. •A close-loop observer of lithium deposition status is constructed based on the SP2D model. •The charging current is modified online using the feedback of the lithium deposition status. •The algorithm can shorten the charging time and can be used for charging from different initial SOCs. •The post-mortem observation and degradation tests show that no lithium deposition occurs during fast charging. -- Abstract: Fast charging is critical for the application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Conventional fast charging algorithms may shorten the cycle life of lithium-ion batteries and induce safety problems, such as internal short circuit caused by lithium deposition at the negative electrode. In this paper, a novel, non-destructive model-based fast charging algorithm is proposed. The fast charging algorithm is composed of two closed loops. The first loop includes an anode over-potential observer that can observe the status of lithium deposition online, whereas the second loop includes a feedback structure that can modify the current based on the observed status of lithium deposition. The charging algorithm enhances the charging current to maintain the observed anode over-potential near the preset threshold potential. Therefore, the fast charging algorithm can decrease the charging time while protecting the health of the battery. The fast charging algorithm is validated on a commercial large-format nickel cobalt manganese/graphite cell. The results showed that 96.8% of the battery capacity can be charged within 52 min. The post-mortem observation of the surface of the negative electrode and degradation tests revealed that the fast charging algorithm proposed here protected the battery from lithium deposition.

  19. Sunlight-charged electrochromic battery based on hybrid film of tungsten oxide and polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xueting; Hu, Ruirui; Sun, Shibin; Liu, Jingrong; Lei, Yanhua; Liu, Tao; Dong, Lihua; Yin, Yansheng

    2018-05-01

    Electrochromic (EC) energy storage devices that could realize the multifunctional integration of energy storage and electrochromism have gained much recent attention. Herein, an EC battery based on the hybrid film of W18O49 and polyaniline (PANI) is developed and assembled, which integrates energy storage and EC functions in one device. The W18O49/PANI-EC battery delivers a discharging capacity of 52.96 mA h g-1, which is about two times higher than that of the W18O49-EC battery. Sunlight irradiation could greatly promote the oxidation reactions of both W18O49 and PANI during the charging process of the W18O49/PANI-EC battery, thus effectively accelerating the charging rate. This work provides a green, convenient, environmentally friendly, and cost-free charging strategy for the EC energy systems and could further advance the development of the multifunctional EC devices based on the organic/inorganic composites.

  20. Process for charging batteries and circuit for carrying out the process. Verfahren zum Laden von Batterien und Schaltung zur Durchfuehrung des Verfahrens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauel, B

    1992-03-05

    The invention concerns a process for charging batteries and a circuit for carrying out the process. First, in a test routine, the battery temperature, the correct polarity of the battery and the actual state of battery charge are measured and the number of cells is determined from the battery no-load voltage. If this falls below the reference no-load voltage, the charging current is repeatedly switched on for a predetermined period of time, and the battery voltage is measured. If an equilibrium voltage predetermined by heating of the battery cells is determined, the battery is charged for a predetermined period of time, until the charged capacity has reached the nominal capacity. Then a maintenance charge to maintain the batter capacity is provided at a time space after the charge.

  1. Rapid charging of thermal energy storage materials through plasmonic heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tao, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hao; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Song, Chengyi; Chen, Zhaoping; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-09-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with volumetric ppm level of filler concentration demonstrated a faster heating rate, a higher heating temperature and a larger heating area than the conventional thermal diffusion based approach. With controlled dispersion, we further demonstrated that the light-to-heat conversion and thermal storage properties of the plasmonic nanocomposites can be fine-tuned by engineering the composition of the nanocomposites.

  2. Space-Charge Simulation of Integrable Rapid Cycling Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffery [Fermilab; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Integrable optics is an innovation in particle accelerator design that enables strong nonlinear focusing without generating parametric resonances. We use a Synergia space-charge simulation to investigate the application of integrable optics to a high-intensity hadron ring that could replace the Fermilab Booster. We find that incorporating integrability into the design suppresses the beam halo generated by a mismatched KV beam. Our integrable rapid cycling synchrotron (iRCS) design includes other features of modern ring design such as low momentum compaction factor and harmonically canceling sextupoles. Experimental tests of high-intensity beams in integrable lattices will take place over the next several years at the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) and the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER).

  3. Adaptive unscented Kalman filtering for state of charge estimation of a lithium-ion battery for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fengchun; Hu, Xiaosong; Zou, Yuan; Li, Siguang

    2011-01-01

    An accurate battery State of Charge estimation is of great significance for battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. This paper presents an adaptive unscented Kalman filtering method to estimate State of Charge of a lithium-ion battery for battery electric vehicles. The adaptive adjustment of the noise covariances in the State of Charge estimation process is implemented by an idea of covariance matching in the unscented Kalman filter context. Experimental results indicate that the adaptive unscented Kalman filter-based algorithm has a good performance in estimating the battery State of Charge. A comparison with the adaptive extended Kalman filter, extended Kalman filter, and unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms shows that the proposed State of Charge estimation method has a better accuracy. -- Highlights: → Adaptive unscented Kalman filtering is proposed to estimate State of Charge of a lithium-ion battery for electric vehicles. → The proposed method has a good performance in estimating the battery State of Charge. → A comparison with three other Kalman filtering algorithms shows that the proposed method has a better accuracy.

  4. Overview of Lithium-Ion Battery Modeling Methods for State-of-Charge Estimation in Electrical Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinhao, Meng; Guangzhao, Luo; Ricco, Mattia

    2018-01-01

    As a critical indictor in the Battery Management System (BMS), State of Charge (SOC) is closely related to the reliable and safe operation of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Model-based methods are an effective solution for accurate and robust SOC estimation, the performance of which heavily relies...... on the battery model. This paper mainly focuses on battery modeling methods, which have the potential to be used in a model-based SOC estimation structure. Battery modeling methods are classified into four categories on the basis of their theoretical foundations, and their expressions and features are detailed....... Furthermore, the four battery modeling methods are compared in terms of their pros and cons. Future research directions are also presented. In addition, after optimizing the parameters of the battery models by a Genetic Algorithm (GA), four typical battery models including a combined model, two RC Equivalent...

  5. Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Jiao, Shuhong; Polzin, Bryant J.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Batteries using lithium (Li) metal as anodes are considered promising energy storage systems because of their high energy densities. However, safety concerns associated with dendrite growth along with limited cycle life, especially at high charge current densities, hinder their practical uses. Here we report that an optimal amount (0.05 M) of LiPF6 as an additive in LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt/carbonate-solvent-based electrolytes significantly enhances the charging capability and cycling stability of Li metal batteries. In a Li metal battery using a 4-V Li-ion cathode at a moderately high loading of 1.75mAh cm(-2), a cyclability of 97.1% capacity retention after 500 cycles along with very limited increase in electrode overpotential is accomplished at a charge/discharge current density up to 1.75 mA cm(-2). The fast charging and stable cycling performances are ascribed to the generation of a robust and conductive solid electrolyte interphase at the Li metal surface and stabilization of the Al cathode current collector.

  6. Effect of extreme temperatures on battery charging and performance of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Juuso; Lund, Peter D.

    2016-10-01

    Extreme temperatures pose several limitations to electric vehicle (EV) performance and charging. To investigate these effects, we combine a hybrid artificial neural network-empirical Li-ion battery model with a lumped capacitance EV thermal model to study how temperature will affect the performance of an EV fleet. We find that at -10 °C, the self-weighted mean battery charging power (SWMCP) decreases by 15% compared to standard 20 °C temperature. Active battery thermal management (BTM) during parking can improve SWMCP for individual vehicles, especially if vehicles are charged both at home and at workplace; the median SWMCP is increased by over 30%. Efficiency (km/kWh) of the vehicle fleet is maximized when ambient temperature is close to 20 °C. At low (-10 °C) and high (+40 °C) ambient temperatures, cabin preconditioning and BTM during parking can improve the median efficiency by 8% and 9%, respectively. At -10 °C, preconditioning and BTM during parking can also improve the fleet SOC by 3-6%-units, but this also introduces a ;base; load of around 140 W per vehicle. Finally, we observe that the utility of the fleet can be increased by 5%-units by adding 3.6 kW chargers to workplaces, but further improved charging infrastructure would bring little additional benefit.

  7. System and Battery Charge Control for PV-Powered AC Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, G.

    1999-04-01

    This report reviews a number of issues specific to stand-alone AC lighting systems. A review of AC lighting technology is presented, which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various lamps. The best lamps for small lighting systems are compact fluorescent. The best lamps for intermediate-size systems are high- or low-pressure sodium. Specifications for battery charging and load control are provided with the goal of achieving lamp lifetimes on the order of 16,000 to 24,000 hours and battery lifetimes of 4 to 5 years. A rough estimate of the potential domestic and global markets for stand-alone AC lighting systems is presented. DC current injection tests were performed on high-pressure sodium lamps and the test results are presented. Finally, a prototype system was designed and a prototype system controller (with battery charger and DC/AC inverter) was developed and built.

  8. Ni-MH batteries state-of-charge prediction based on immune evolutionary network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Bo; Zhou Yanlu; Zhang Jiexin; Wang Junping; Cao Binggang

    2009-01-01

    Based on clonal selection theory, an improved immune evolutionary strategy is presented. Compared with conventional evolutionary strategy algorithm (CESA) and immune monoclonal strategy algorithm (IMSA), experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is of high efficiency and can effectively prevent premature convergence. A three-layer feed-forward neural network is presented to predict state-of-charge (SOC) of Ni-MH batteries. Initially, partial least square regression (PLSR) is used to select input variables. Then, five variables, battery terminal voltage, voltage derivative, voltage second derivative, discharge current and battery temperature, are selected as the inputs of NN. In order to overcome the weakness of BP algorithm, the new algorithm is adopted to train weights. Finally, under the state of dynamic power cycle, the predicted SOC and the actual SOC are compared to verify the proposed neural network with acceptable accuracy (5%).

  9. Heme biomolecule as redox mediator and oxygen shuttle for efficient charging of lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won-Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Thomsen, Julianne M.; Li, Jinyang; Schwab, Mark J.; Brudvig, Gary W.; Taylor, André D.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges with lithium-oxygen batteries involves identifying catalysts that facilitate the growth and evolution of cathode species on an oxygen electrode. Heterogeneous solid catalysts cannot adequately address the problematic overpotentials when the surfaces become passivated. However, there exists a class of biomolecules which have been designed by nature to guide complex solution-based oxygen chemistries. Here, we show that the heme molecule, a common porphyrin cofactor in blood, can function as a soluble redox catalyst and oxygen shuttle for efficient oxygen evolution in non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries. The heme's oxygen binding capability facilitates battery recharge by accepting and releasing dissociated oxygen species while benefiting charge transfer with the cathode. We reveal the chemical change of heme redox molecules where synergy exists with the electrolyte species. This study brings focus to the rational design of solution-based catalysts and suggests a sustainable cross-link between biomolecules and advanced energy storage. PMID:27759005

  10. State of charge monitoring of vanadium redox flow batteries using half cell potentials and electrolyte density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressel, Simon; Bill, Florian; Holtz, Lucas; Janshen, Niklas; Chica, Antonio; Flower, Thomas; Weidlich, Claudia; Struckmann, Thorsten

    2018-02-01

    The operation of vanadium redox flow batteries requires reliable in situ state of charge (SOC) monitoring. In this study, two SOC estimation approaches for the negative half cell are investigated. First, in situ open circuit potential measurements are combined with Coulomb counting in a one-step calibration of SOC and Nernst potential which doesn't need additional reference SOCs. In-sample and out-of-sample SOCs are estimated and analyzed, estimation errors ≤ 0.04 are obtained. In the second approach, temperature corrected in situ electrolyte density measurements are used for the first time in vanadium redox flow batteries for SOC estimation. In-sample and out-of-sample SOC estimation errors ≤ 0.04 demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Both methods allow recalibration during battery operation. The actual capacity obtained from SOC calibration can be used in a state of health model.

  11. Lithium-Ion Battery Online Rapid State-of-Power Estimation under Multiple Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to realize a rapid online estimation of the state-of-power (SOP with multiple constraints of a lithium-ion battery. Firstly, based on the improved first-order resistance-capacitance (RC model with one-state hysteresis, a linear state-space battery model is built; then, using the dual extended Kalman filtering (DEKF method, the battery parameters and states, including open-circuit voltage (OCV, are estimated. Secondly, by employing the estimated OCV as the observed value to build the second dual Kalman filters, the battery SOC is estimated. Thirdly, a novel rapid-calculating peak power/SOP method with multiple constraints is proposed in which, according to the bisection judgment method, the battery’s peak state is determined; then, one or two instantaneous peak powers are used to determine the peak power during T seconds. In addition, in the battery operating process, the actual constraint that the battery is under is analyzed specifically. Finally, three simplified versions of the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (SFUDS with inserted pulse experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed online SOP estimation method.

  12. Rapid restoration of electric vehicle battery performance while driving at cold temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Leng, Yongjun; Marple, Dan; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2017-12-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) driven in cold weather experience two major drawbacks of Li-ion batteries: drastic power loss (up to 10-fold at -30 °C) and restriction of regenerative braking at temperatures below 5-10 °C. Both factors greatly reduce cruise range, exacerbating drivers' range anxiety in winter. While preheating the battery before driving is a practice widely adopted to maintain battery power and EV drivability, it is time-consuming (on the order of 40 min) and prohibits instantaneous mobility. Here we reveal a control strategy that can rapidly restore EV battery power and permit full regeneration while driving at temperatures as low as -40 °C. The strategy involves heating the battery internally during regenerative braking and rest periods of driving. We show that this technique fully restores room-temperature battery power and regeneration in 13, 33, 46, 56 and 112 s into uninterrupted driving in 0, -10, -20, -30 and -40 °C environments, respectively. Correspondingly, the strategy significantly increases cruise range of a vehicle operated at cold temperatures, e.g. 49% at -40 °C in simulated US06 driving cycle tests. The present work suggests that smart batteries with embedded sensing/actuation can leapfrog in performance.

  13. Nonlinear Dynamics and Bifurcation Analysis of a Boost Converter for Battery Charging in Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hindawi, Mohammed M.; Abusorrah, Abdullah; Al-Turki, Yusuf; Giaouris, Damian; Mandal, Kuntal; Banerjee, Soumitro

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems with a battery back-up form an integral part of distributed generation systems and therefore have recently attracted a lot of interest. In this paper, we consider a system of charging a battery from a PV panel through a current mode controlled boost dc-dc converter. We analyze its complete nonlinear/nonsmooth dynamics, using a piecewise model of the converter and realistic nonlinear v-i characteristics of the PV panel. Through this study, it is revealed that system design without taking into account the nonsmooth dynamics of the converter combined with the nonlinear v-i characteristics of the PV panel can lead to unpredictable responses of the overall system with high current ripple and other undesirable phenomena. This analysis can lead to better designed converters that can operate under a wide variation of the solar irradiation and the battery's state of charge. We show that the v-i characteristics of the PV panel combined with the battery's output voltage variation can increase or decrease the converter's robustness, both under peak current mode control and average current mode control. We justify the observation in terms of the change in the discrete-time map caused by the nonlinear v-i characteristics of the PV panel. The theoretical results are validated experimentally.

  14. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m2. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Device and Method for Continuously Equalizing the Charge State of Lithium Ion Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Paul D. (Inventor); Martin, Mark N. (Inventor); Roufberg, Lewis M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of equalizing charge states of individual cells in a battery includes measuring a previous cell voltage for each cell, measuring a previous shunt current for each cell, calculating, based on the previous cell voltage and the previous shunt current, an adjusted cell voltage for each cell, determining a lowest adjusted cell voltage from among the calculated adjusted cell voltages, and calculating a new shunt current for each cell.

  16. Evaluation of Model Based State of Charge Estimation Methods for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyue Zou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four model-based State of Charge (SOC estimation methods for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are studied and evaluated in this paper. Different from existing literatures, this work evaluates different aspects of the SOC estimation, such as the estimation error distribution, the estimation rise time, the estimation time consumption, etc. The equivalent model of the battery is introduced and the state function of the model is deduced. The four model-based SOC estimation methods are analyzed first. Simulations and experiments are then established to evaluate the four methods. The urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS current profiles are applied to simulate the drive situations of an electrified vehicle, and a genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the model parameters to find the optimal parameters of the model of the Li-ion battery. The simulations with and without disturbance are carried out and the results are analyzed. A battery test workbench is established and a Li-ion battery is applied to test the hardware in a loop experiment. Experimental results are plotted and analyzed according to the four aspects to evaluate the four model-based SOC estimation methods.

  17. Inline state of health estimation of lithium-ion batteries using state of charge calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepasi, Saeed; Ghorbani, Reza; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2015-12-01

    The determination of state-of-health (SOH) and state-of-charge (SOC) is challenging and remains as an active research area in academia and industry due to its importance for Li-ion battery applications. The estimation process poses more challenges after substantial battery aging. This paper presents an inline SOH and SOC estimation method for Li-ion battery packs, specifically for those based on LiFePO4 chemistry. This new hybridized SOC and SOH estimator can be used for battery packs. Inline estimated model parameters were used in a compounded SOC + SOH estimator consisting of the SOC calculation based on coulomb counting method as an expedient approach and an SOH observer using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) technique for calibrating the estimates from the coulomb counting method. The algorithm's low SOC and SOH estimation error, fast response time, and less-demanding computational requirement make it practical for on-board estimations. The simulation and experimental results, along with the test bed structure, are presented to validate the proposed methodology on a single cell and a 3S1P LiFePO4 battery pack.

  18. Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Jiao, Shuhong; Polzin, Bryant J.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Lithium (Li) metal battery is an attractive energy storage system owing to the ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential of Li metal anode. However, safety concern associated with dendrite growth and limited cycle life especially at a high charge current density are two critical challenges hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we report for the first time that an optimal amount (0.05 M) of LiPF6 as additive in the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt/carbonate-based electrolyte can significantly enhance the charging capability and the long-term cycle life of Li metal batteries with a moderately high cathode loading of 1.75 mAh cm-2. Unprecedented stable-cycling (97.1% capacity retention after 500 cycles) along with very limited increase in electrode over-potential has been achieved at a high current density of 1.75 mA cm-2. This unparalleled fast charging and stable cycling performance is contributed from both the stabilized Al cathode current collector, and, more importantly, the robust and conductive SEI layer formed on Li metal anode in the presence of the LiPF6 additive.

  19. The influence of hydrogen intercalation on inner pressure of Ni/MH battery during fast charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianzhen; Wu, Feng; Hu, Daozhong; Chen, Shi; Mao, Licai; Wang, Guoqing

    Gaseous hydrogen is confirmed to be the main component and primarily responsible for the inner pressure rise inside the 8-Ah Ni/MH batteries during fast charge. Based on a temperature-dependent pressure model proposed in this work, the kinetic characteristics of the hydrogen evolution were investigated. The overpotential and exchange current density were obtained by fitting the presented equation to the experimental data. Moreover, the profiles of hydrogen concentration during fast charge was further modeled and calculated according to the proposed mathematical model of hydrogen intercalation. It is indicated that diffusion step controls the fast charge performances and the higher the charge rate is, the more quickly the negative electrode attains to the maximum surface intercalation fraction, and however, the calculated results also show that further charge can reduce the difference of charge efficiency among the various rate during fast charge. Numerical investigations also reveal that the increase of diffusion coefficient and decrease of the particle size can efficiently improve the characteristics of fast charge, respectively.

  20. The influence of hydrogen intercalation on inner pressure of Ni/MH battery during fast charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jianzhen; Wu, Feng; Hu, Daozhong; Chen, Shi; Mao, Licai; Wang, Guoqing [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2006-10-20

    Gaseous hydrogen is confirmed to be the main component and primarily responsible for the inner pressure rise inside the 8-Ah Ni/MH batteries during fast charge. Based on a temperature-dependent pressure model proposed in this work, the kinetic characteristics of the hydrogen evolution were investigated. The overpotential and exchange current density were obtained by fitting the presented equation to the experimental data. Moreover, the profiles of hydrogen concentration during fast charge was further modeled and calculated according to the proposed mathematical model of hydrogen intercalation. It is indicated that diffusion step controls the fast charge performances and the higher the charge rate is, the more quickly the negative electrode attains to the maximum surface intercalation fraction, and however, the calculated results also show that further charge can reduce the difference of charge efficiency among the various rate during fast charge. Numerical investigations also reveal that the increase of diffusion coefficient and decrease of the particle size can efficiently improve the characteristics of fast charge, respectively. (author)

  1. Accuracy analysis of the State-of-Charge and remaining run-time determination for lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the various error sources in a real-time State-of-Charge (SoC) evaluation system and their effects on the overall accuracy in the calculation of the remaining run-time of a battery-operated system. The SoC algorithm for Li-ion batteries studied in this paper combines direct

  2. Accuracy analysis of the state-of-charge and remaining run-time determination for lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the various error sources in a real-time State-of-Charge (SoC) evaluation system and their effects on the overall accuracy in the calculation of the remaining run-time of a battery-operated system. The SoC algorithm for Li-ion batteries studied in this paper combines direct

  3. Uncertainty analysis in a real-time state-of-charge evaluation system for lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Op het Veld, B.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) is the most commonly used battery chemistry in portable applications nowadays. Accurate State-of-Charge (SoC) and remaining run-time (t,) calculation for portable devices is important for the user convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. A new SoC algorithm for

  4. Numerical analyses on optimizing a heat pipe thermal management system for lithium-ion batteries during fast charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Yonghuang; Saw, Lip Huat; Shi, Yixiang; Tay, Andrew A.O.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal management is crucial for the operation of electric vehicles because lithium ion batteries are vulnerable to excessive heat generation during fast charging or other severe scenarios. In this work, an optimized heat pipe thermal management system (HPTMS) is proposed for fast charging lithium ion battery cell/pack. A numerical model is developed and comprehensively validated with experimental results. This model is then employed to investigate the thermal performance of the HPTMS under steady state and transient conditions. It is found that a cylinder vortex generator placed in front of the heat pipe condensers in the coolant stream improves the temperature uniformity. The uses of cooper heat spreaders and cooling fins greatly improve the performance of the thermal management system. Experiments and transient simulations of heat pipe thermal management system integrated with batteries prove that the improved HPTMS is capable for thermal management of batteries during fast charging. The air-cooled HPTMS is infeasible for thermal management of batteries during fast charging at the pack level due to the limitation of low specific heat capacity. - Highlights: • We develop a numerical model for optimizing a heat pipe thermal management system for fast charging batteries. • The numerical model is comprehensively validated with experimental data. • A cylinder vortex generator is placed at the inlet of the cooling stream to improve the temperature uniformity. • We validate the effectiveness of the optimized system with integration of prismatic batteries

  5. Enhanced coulomb counting method for estimating state-of-charge and state-of-health of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Kong Soon; Moo, Chin-Sien; Chen, Yi-Ping; Hsieh, Yao-Ching

    2009-01-01

    The coulomb counting method is expedient for state-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries with high charging and discharging efficiencies. The charging and discharging characteristics are investigated and reveal that the coulomb counting method is convenient and accurate for estimating the SOC of lithium-ion batteries. A smart estimation method based on coulomb counting is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy. The corrections are made by considering the charging and operating efficiencies. Furthermore, the state-of-health (SOH) is evaluated by the maximum releasable capacity. Through the experiments that emulate practical operations, the SOC estimation method is verified to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy.

  6. State-of-Charge Balancing Control of a Modular Multilevel Converter with an Integrated Battery Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of the electric vehicle industry, the reuse of second-life batteries in vehicles are becoming more attractive, however, both the state-of-charge (SOC inconsistency and the capacity inconsistency of second-life batteries have limits in their utilization. This paper focuses on the second-life batteries applied battery energy storage system (BESS based on modular multilevel converter (MMC. By analyzing the power flow characteristics among all sources within the MMC-BESS, a three-level SOC equilibrium control strategy aiming to battery capacity inconsistency is proposed to balance the energy of batteries, which includes SOC balance among three-phase legs, SOC balance between the upper and lower arms of each phase, and SOC balance of submodules within each arm. In battery charging and discharging control, by introducing power regulations based on battery capacity proportion of three-phase legs, capacity deviation between the upper and lower’s arm, and the capacity coefficient of the submodule into the SOC feedback control loop, SOC balance of all battery modules is accomplished, thus effectively improving the energy utilization of second-life battery energy storage system. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods are verified by results obtained from simulations and the experimental platform.

  7. Exchange of charges between fast ions and neutral atoms; Change de charges entre ions rapides et atomes neutres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    In this paper, we summarize the most significant theoretical and experimental results obtained so far on the exchange of charges between fast ions and neutral atoms. (author) [French] Dans l'expose qui suit, nous resumons les resultats theoriques et experimentaux interessants obtenus jusqu'a nos jours dans le domaine de l'echange de charges entre ions rapides et atomes neutres. (auteur)

  8. A salt water battery with high stability and charging rates made from solution processed conjugated polymers with polar side chains

    KAUST Repository

    Moia, Davide

    2017-11-28

    We report a neutral salt water based battery which uses p-type and n-type solution processed polymer films as the cathode and the anode of the cell. The specific capacity of the electrodes (approximately 30 mAh cm-3) is achieved via formation of bipolarons in both the p-type and n-type polymers. By engineering ethylene glycol and zwitterion based side chains attached to the polymer backbone we facilitate rapid ion transport through the non-porous polymer films. This, combined with efficient transport of electronic charge via the conjugated polymer backbones, allowed the films to maintain constant capacity at high charge and discharge rates (>1000 C-rate). The electrodes also show good stability during electrochemical cycling (less than 30% decrease in capacity over >1000 cycles) and an output voltage up to 1.4 V. The performance of these semiconducting polymers with polar side-chains demonstrates the potential of this material class for fast-charging, water based electrochemical energy storage devices.

  9. State of Charge Estimation Based on Microscopic Driving Parameters for Electric Vehicle's Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, battery-powered electric vehicle (EV has received wide attention due to less pollution during use, low noise, and high energy efficiency and is highly expected to improve urban air quality and then mitigate energy and environmental pressure. However, the widespread use of EV is still hindered by limited battery capacity and relatively short cruising range. This paper aims to propose a state of charge (SOC estimation method for EV’s battery necessary for route planning and dynamic route guidance, which can help EV drivers to search for the optimal energy-efficient routes and to reduce the risk of running out of electricity before arriving at the destination or charging station. Firstly, by analyzing the variation characteristics of power consumption rate with initial SOC and microscopic driving parameters (instantaneous speed and acceleration, a set of energy consumption rate models are established according to different operation modes. Then, the SOC estimation model is proposed based on the presented EV power consumption model. Finally, by comparing the estimated SOC with the measured SOC, the proposed SOC estimation method is proved to be highly accurate and effective, which can be well used in EV route planning and navigation systems.

  10. State of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries based on an improved parameter identification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Bizhong; Chen, Chaoren; Tian, Yong; Wang, Mingwang; Sun, Wei; Xu, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    The SOC (state of charge) is the most important index of the battery management systems. However, it cannot be measured directly with sensors and must be estimated with mathematical techniques. An accurate battery model is crucial to exactly estimate the SOC. In order to improve the model accuracy, this paper presents an improved parameter identification method. Firstly, the concept of polarization depth is proposed based on the analysis of polarization characteristics of the lithium-ion batteries. Then, the nonlinear least square technique is applied to determine the model parameters according to data collected from pulsed discharge experiments. The results show that the proposed method can reduce the model error as compared with the conventional approach. Furthermore, a nonlinear observer presented in the previous work is utilized to verify the validity of the proposed parameter identification method in SOC estimation. Finally, experiments with different levels of discharge current are carried out to investigate the influence of polarization depth on SOC estimation. Experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the SOC estimation accuracy as compared with the conventional approach, especially under the conditions of large discharge current. - Highlights: • The polarization characteristics of lithium-ion batteries are analyzed. • The concept of polarization depth is proposed to improve model accuracy. • A nonlinear least square technique is applied to determine the model parameters. • A nonlinear observer is used as the SOC estimation algorithm. • The validity of the proposed method is verified by experimental results.

  11. An adaptive state of charge estimation approach for lithium-ion series-connected battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Simin; Zhu, Xuelai; Xing, Yinjiao; Shi, Hongbing; Cai, Xu; Pecht, Michael

    2018-07-01

    Due to the incorrect or unknown noise statistics of a battery system and its cell-to-cell variations, state of charge (SOC) estimation of a lithium-ion series-connected battery system is usually inaccurate or even divergent using model-based methods, such as extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF). To resolve this problem, an adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF) based on a noise statistics estimator and a model parameter regulator is developed to accurately estimate the SOC of a series-connected battery system. An equivalent circuit model is first built based on the model parameter regulator that illustrates the influence of cell-to-cell variation on the battery system. A noise statistics estimator is then used to attain adaptively the estimated noise statistics for the AUKF when its prior noise statistics are not accurate or exactly Gaussian. The accuracy and effectiveness of the SOC estimation method is validated by comparing the developed AUKF and UKF when model and measurement statistics noises are inaccurate, respectively. Compared with the UKF and EKF, the developed method shows the highest SOC estimation accuracy.

  12. Grid tied PV/battery system architecture and power management for fast electric vehicle charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed O.

    The prospective spread of Electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) arises the need for fast charging rates. Higher charging rates requirements lead to high power demands, which cant be always supported by the grid. Thus, the use of on-site sources alongside the electrical grid for EVs charging is a rising area of interest. In this dissertation, a photovoltaic (PV) source is used to support the high power EVs charging. However, the PV output power has an intermittent nature that is dependable on the weather conditions. Thus, battery storage are combined with the PV in a grid tied system, providing a steady source for on-site EVs use in a renewable energy based fast charging station. Verily, renewable energy based fast charging stations should be cost effective, efficient, and reliable to increase the penetration of EVs in the automotive market. Thus, this Dissertation proposes a novel power flow management topology that aims on decreasing the running cost along with innovative hardware solutions and control structures for the developed architecture. The developed power flow management topology operates the hybrid system at the minimum operating cost while extending the battery lifetime. An optimization problem is formulated and two stages of optimization, i.e online and offline stages, are adopted to optimize the batteries state of charge (SOC) scheduling and continuously compensate for the forecasting errors. The proposed power flow management topology is validated and tested with two metering systems, i.e unified and dual metering systems. The results suggested that minimal power flow is anticipated from the battery storage to the grid in the dual metering system. Thus, the power electronic interfacing system is designed accordingly. Interconnecting bi-directional DC/DC converters are analyzed, and a cascaded buck boost (CBB) converter is chosen and tested under 80 kW power flow rates. The need to perform power factor correction (PFC) on

  13. Technical and legal considerations and solutions in the area of battery charging for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juda, Z.

    2016-09-01

    The issue of protecting health of residents of urbanized areas from the effect of excessive particulate matter and toxic components of car exhaust gases imposes the need of introduction of clean electric vehicles to the market. The increasing market availability of electric vehicles, especially in the segment of short-range (neighborhood) vehicles is followed by development of new and advanced infrastructure solutions. This also applies to the increasingly popular hybrid vehicles PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles). However, problems with the existing designs are primarily associated with limited driving range on a single battery charge, the density of charging stations in urban and suburban area, energy system efficiency due to increased electricity demand and the unification of solutions for charging stations, on-board chargers and the necessary accessories. Technical solutions are dependent on many factors, including the type and size of battery in the vehicle and access to power grid with increased load capacity. The article discusses the legal and technical actions outlined in the above directions. It shows the available and planned solutions in this area.

  14. Identifying Potential Markets for Behind-the-Meter Battery Energy Storage: A Survey of U.S. Demand Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mullendore, Seth [Clean Energy Group, Montpelier, Vermont

    2017-08-07

    This paper presents the first publicly available comprehensive survey of the magnitude of demand charges for commercial customers across the United States -- a key predictor of the financial performance of behind-the-meter battery storage systems. Notably, the analysis estimates that there are nearly 5 million commercial customers in the United States who can subscribe to retail electricity tariffs that have demand charges in excess of $15 per kilowatt (kW), over a quarter of the 18 million commercial customers in total in the United States. While the economic viability of installing battery energy storage must be determined on a case-by-case basis, high demand charges are often cited as a critical factor in battery project economics. Increasing use of demand charges in utility tariffs and anticipated future declines in storage costs will only serve to unlock additional markets and strengthen existing ones.

  15. A Real-Time Simulink Interfaced Fast-Charging Methodology of Lithium-Ion Batteries under Temperature Feedback with Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Ali

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The lithium-ion battery has high energy and power density, long life cycle, low toxicity, low discharge rate, more reliability, and better efficiency compared to other batteries. On the other hand, the issue of a reduction in charging time of the lithium-ion battery is still a bottleneck for the commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs. Therefore, an approach to charge lithium-ion batteries at a faster rate is needed. This paper proposes an efficient, real-time, fast-charging methodology of lithium-ion batteries. Fuzzy logic was adopted to drive the charging current trajectory. A temperature control unit was also implemented to evade the effects of fast charging on the aging mechanism. The proposed method of charging also protects the battery from overvoltage and overheating. Extensive testing and comprehensive analysis were conducted to examine the proposed charging technique. The results show that the proposed charging strategy favors a full battery recharging in 9.76% less time than the conventional constant-current–constant-voltage (CC/CV method. The strategy charges the battery at a 99.26% state of charge (SOC without significant degradation. The entire scheme was implemented in real time, using Arduino interfaced with MATLABTM Simulink. This decrease in charging time assists in the fast charging of cell phones and notebooks and in the large-scale deployment of EVs.

  16. Discrimination of Li-ion batteries based on Hamming network using discharging-charging voltage pattern recognition for improved state-of-charge estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongjun; Cho, B.H. [Power Electronics System Laboratory, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Differences in electrochemical characteristics among Li-ion batteries and factors such as temperature and ageing result in erroneous state-of-charge (SoC) estimation when using the existing extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm. This study presents an application of the Hamming neural network to the identification of suitable battery model parameters for improved SoC estimation. The discharging-charging voltage (DCV) patterns of ten fresh Li-ion batteries are measured, together with the battery parameters, as representative patterns. Through statistical analysis, the Hamming network is applied for identification of the representative DCV pattern that matches most closely of the pattern of the arbitrary battery to be measured. Model parameters of the representative battery are then applied to estimate the SoC of the arbitrary battery using the EKF. This avoids the need for repeated parameter measurement. Using model parameters selected by the proposed method, all SoC estimates (off-line and on-line) based on the EKF are within {+-}5% of the values estimated by ampere-hour counting. (author)

  17. Approximation to the Modelling of Charge and Discharge Processes in Electrochemical Batteries by Integral Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balenzategui, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    A new way for the modelling of the charge and discharge processes in electrochemical batteries based on the use of integral equations is presented. The proposed method models the charge curves by the so called fractional or cumulative integrals of a certain objective function f(t) that must be sought. The charge figures can be easily fitted by breaking down this objective function as the addition of two different Lorentz type functions: the first one is associated to the own charge process and the second one to the overcharge process. The method allows calculating the starting voltage for overcharge as the intersection between both functions. The curve fitting of this model to different experimental charge curves, by using the Marquart algorithm, has shown very accurate results. In the case of discharge curves, two possible methods for modelling purposes are suggested, well by using the same kind of integral equations, well by the simple subtraction of an objective function f(t) from a constant value V O D. Many other aspects for the study and analysis of this method in order to improve its results in further developments are also discussed. (Author) 10 refs

  18. An on-line estimation of battery pack parameters and state-of-charge using dual filters based on pack model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yujie; Yang, Duo; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of battery pack state-of-charge plays a very important role for electric vehicles, which directly reflects the behavior of battery pack usage. However, the inconsistency of battery makes the estimation of battery pack state-of-charge different from single cell. In this paper, to estimate the battery pack state-of-charge on-line, the definition of battery pack is proposed, and the relationship between the total available capacity of battery pack and single cell is put forward to analyze the energy efficiency influenced by battery inconsistency, then a lumped parameter battery model is built up to describe the dynamic behavior of battery pack. Furthermore, the extend Kalman filter-unscented Kalman filter algorithm is developed to identify the parameters of battery pack and forecast state-of-charge concurrently. The extend Kalman filter is applied to update the battery pack parameters by real-time measured data, while the unscented Kalman filter is employed to estimate the battery pack state-of-charge. Finally, the proposed approach is verified by experiments operated on the lithium-ion battery under constant current condition and the dynamic stress test profiles. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can estimate the battery pack state-of-charge with high accuracy. - Highlights: • A novel space state equation is built to describe the pack dynamic behavior. • The dual filters method is used to estimate the pack state-of-charge. • Battery inconsistency is considered to analyze the pack usage efficiency. • The accuracy of the proposed method is verified under different conditions.

  19. High-Power Collective Charging of a Solid-State Quantum Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Dario; Campisi, Michele; Andolina, Gian Marcello; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Polini, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Quantum information theorems state that it is possible to exploit collective quantum resources to greatly enhance the charging power of quantum batteries (QBs) made of many identical elementary units. We here present and solve a model of a QB that can be engineered in solid-state architectures. It consists of N two-level systems coupled to a single photonic mode in a cavity. We contrast this collective model ("Dicke QB"), whereby entanglement is genuinely created by the common photonic mode, to the one in which each two-level system is coupled to its own separate cavity mode ("Rabi QB"). By employing exact diagonalization, we demonstrate the emergence of a quantum advantage in the charging power of Dicke QBs, which scales like √{N } for N ≫1 .

  20. New battery model considering thermal transport and partial charge stationary effects in photovoltaic off-grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Gorrachategui, Iván; Bernal, Carlos; Oyarbide, Estanis; Garayalde, Erik; Aizpuru, Iosu; Canales, Jose María; Bono-Nuez, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    The optimization of the battery pack in an off-grid Photovoltaic application must consider the minimum sizing that assures the availability of the system under the worst environmental conditions. Thus, it is necessary to predict the evolution of the state of charge of the battery under incomplete daily charging and discharging processes and fluctuating temperatures over day-night cycles. Much of previous development work has been carried out in order to model the short term evolution of battery variables. Many works focus on the on-line parameter estimation of available charge, using standard or advanced estimators, but they are not focused on the development of a model with predictive capabilities. Moreover, normally stable environmental conditions and standard charge-discharge patterns are considered. As the actual cycle-patterns differ from the manufacturer's tests, batteries fail to perform as expected. This paper proposes a novel methodology to model these issues, with predictive capabilities to estimate the remaining charge in a battery after several solar cycles. A new non-linear state space model is proposed as a basis, and the methodology to feed and train the model is introduced. The new methodology is validated using experimental data, providing only 5% of error at higher temperatures than the nominal one.

  1. Rapid Thermal Annealing of Cathode-Garnet Interface toward High-Temperature Solid State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyang; Fu, Kun; Gong, Yunhui; Yang, Chunpeng; Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Yanbin; Wang, Chengwei; Kuang, Yudi; Pastel, Glenn; Xie, Hua; Wachsman, Eric D; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-08-09

    High-temperature batteries require the battery components to be thermally stable and function properly at high temperatures. Conventional batteries have high-temperature safety issues such as thermal runaway, which are mainly attributed to the properties of liquid organic electrolytes such as low boiling points and high flammability. In this work, we demonstrate a truly all-solid-state high-temperature battery using a thermally stable garnet solid-state electrolyte, a lithium metal anode, and a V 2 O 5 cathode, which can operate well at 100 °C. To address the high interfacial resistance between the solid electrolyte and cathode, a rapid thermal annealing method was developed to melt the cathode and form a continuous contact. The resulting interfacial resistance of the solid electrolyte and V 2 O 5 cathode was significantly decreased from 2.5 × 10 4 to 71 Ω·cm 2 at room temperature and from 170 to 31 Ω·cm 2 at 100 °C. Additionally, the diffusion resistance in the V 2 O 5 cathode significantly decreased as well. The demonstrated high-temperature solid-state full cell has an interfacial resistance of 45 Ω·cm 2 and 97% Coulombic efficiency cycling at 100 °C. This work provides a strategy to develop high-temperature all-solid-state batteries using garnet solid electrolytes and successfully addresses the high contact resistance between the V 2 O 5 cathode and garnet solid electrolyte without compromising battery safety or performance.

  2. State of Charge Estimation for Lithium-Ion Battery with a Temperature-Compensated Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC of batteries is crucial in a battery management system. Many studies on battery SOC estimation have been investigated recently. Temperature is an important factor that affects the SOC estimation accuracy while it is still not adequately addressed at present. This paper proposes a SOC estimator based on a new temperature-compensated model with extended Kalman Filter (EKF. The open circuit voltage (OCV, capacity, and resistance and capacitance (RC parameters in the estimator are temperature dependent so that the estimator can maintain high accuracy at various temperatures. The estimation accuracy decreases when applied in high current continuous discharge, because the equivalent polarization resistance decreases as the discharge current increases. Therefore, a polarization resistance correction coefficient is proposed to tackle this problem. The estimator also demonstrates a good performance in dynamic operating conditions. However, the equivalent circuit model shows huge uncertainty in the low SOC region, so measurement noise variation is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy there.

  3. Design and Experiment of Nonlinear Observer with Adaptive Gains for Battery State of Charge Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC is an important evaluation index for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs in electric vehicles (EVs. This paper proposes a nonlinear observer with a new adaptive gain structure for SOC estimation based on a second-order RC model. It is able to dynamically adjust the gains and obtain a better balance between convergence speed and estimation accuracy with less computational time. A sufficient condition is derived to guarantee the uniform asymptotic stability of the observer, and its robustness with respect to disturbances and uncertainties is analyzed with the help of input-to-state stability (ISS theory. A selection guide of the observer gains in practical application is presented. The estimation accuracy and convergence rate of the observer are evaluated and compared with those of extended Kalman filter (EKF based on multi-temperature datasets from two different types of LIB cells. The robustness against different disturbances and uncertainties that may appear in a real vehicle is validated and discussed in detail. The experimental results show that the proposed observer is capable of achieving better performance with less computational time in comparison to EKF for different types of LIB cells under various working conditions. The observer is also capable of estimating SOC accurately for real life conditions according to the validation results of datasets from a battery management system (BMS in an EV battery pack. Furthermore, the observer is simple enough, and is suitable for implementation on embedded hardware for LIB cells of EVs.

  4. Battery Charge Affects the Stability of Light Intensity from Light-emitting Diode Light-curing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtaksin, A; Leevailoj, C

    This study investigated the influence of battery charge levels on the stability of light-emitting diode (LED) curing-light intensity by measuring the intensity from fully charged through fully discharged batteries. The microhardness of resin composites polymerized by the light-curing units at various battery charge levels was measured. The light intensities of seven fully charged battery LED light-curing units-1) LY-A180, 2) Bluephase, 3) Woodpecker, 4) Demi Plus, 5) Saab II, 6) Elipar S10, and 7) MiniLED-were measured with a radiometer (Kerr) after every 10 uses (20 seconds per use) until the battery was discharged. Ten 2-mm-thick cylindrical specimens of A3 shade nanofilled resin composite (PREMISE, Kerr) were prepared per LED light-curing unit group. Each specimen was irradiated by the fully charged light-curing unit for 20 seconds. The LED light-curing units were then used until the battery charge fell to 50%. Specimens were prepared again as described above. This was repeated again when the light-curing units' battery charge fell to 25% and when the light intensity had decreased to 400 mW/cm 2 . The top/bottom surface Knoop hardness ratios of the specimens were determined. The microhardness data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with Tukey test at a significance level of 0.05. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine significant correlations between surface hardness and light intensity. We found that the light intensities of the Bluephase, Demi Plus, and Elipar S10 units were stable. The intensity of the MiniLED unit decreased slightly; however, it remained above 400 mW/cm 2 . In contrast, the intensities of the LY-A180, Woodpecker, and Saab II units decreased below 400 mW/cm 2 . There was also a significant decrease in the surface microhardnesses of the resin composite specimens treated with MiniLED, LY-A180, Woodpecker, and Saab II. In conclusion, the light intensity of several LED light-curing units decreased as the battery was

  5. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Quantifying TEMPO Redox Polymer Charge Transport toward the Organic Radical Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Christoffer; Suga, Takeo; Nishide, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-29

    To design new and better organic active battery materials in a rational fashion, fundamental parameters of the charge transport must be studied. Herein we report on the electronic conductivity by electron diffusion in a TEMPO-containing redox polymer, and the reorganization energy of the TEMPO self-exchange in an organic solvent is determined for the first time. The electronic conductivity was 8.5 μS/cm at E 0 and corresponded to a redox hopping mechanism. The apparent electron diffusion coefficient was 1.9 × 10 -9 cm 2 /s at room temperature, and at short times the ion diffusion was limiting with a diffusion coefficient of 6.5 × 10 -10 cm 2 /s. The reorganization energy was determined to be 1.01 eV, indicating a rather polar chemical environment for the TEMPO groups. The implications for the usage of this type of materials in organic energy storage are discussed. As conductivity through 10 μm was demonstrated, we show that, if sufficient swellability can be ensured, charge can be transported through several micrometer thick layers in a battery electrode without any conducting additive.

  7. Photovoltaic battery charging stations for sustainable off-grid rural electrification in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, C.M.; Acebedo, I.P.; Gudoy, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Mariano Marcos State University-Affiliated Non Conventional Energy Center (MMSU-ANEC) in partnership with the Energy Management Bureau-Renewable Energy Management Division, Department of Energy implemented the Barangay Electrification Program (BEP) of the government in the off-grid rural areas at the northern Philippines from 1995-2004 with a common vision of promoting the use of new and renewable energy systems for rural electrification in order to spur development in the far-flung, off-grid rural areas. Such activity of the MMSU-ANEC on BEP used modified and improved Photovoltaic battery charging stations (PVBCS) to energize households and augment their livelihood in collaboration with the local government units and the beneficiaries. Socioeconomic and environmental impacts using long-range energy alternative planning or LEAP software showed that PVBCS are indispensable, feasible, economical, environmental-friendly and sustainable renewable energy resources systems in off-grid areas. Improvement of a locally-made battery charging unit (patent applied at IPO, Manila) which is cheaper and comparable than the imported unit, enabling project implementation strategies in community organizing and lessons learned during the implementation of BEP are also presented. Such improvement of the PVBCS is considered an innovative advancement in renewable energy that can be commercialized towards a sustainable agro-industrial development in far-flung, off-grid rural areas, among other applications for rural electrification and power generation using clean and environment-friendly sustainable technologies. (author)

  8. Rapid self-heating and internal temperature sensing of lithium-ion batteries at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Xu, Terrence; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Tian, Hua; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-heating lithium-ion battery (SHLB) structure provided a practical solution to the poor performance at subzero temperatures. • We report an improved SHLB that heats from −20 °C to 0 °C in 12.5 seconds, or 56% more rapidly, while consuming 24% less energy than previously reported. • The nickel foil heating element embedded inside a SHLB cell plays a dominant role in rapid self-heating. • The embedded nickel foil can simultaneously perform as an internal temperature sensor (ITS). • 2-sheet design self-heats faster than 1-sheet design due to more uniform internal temperature distribution. - Abstract: The recently discovered self-heating lithium-ion battery structure provided a practical solution to the poor performance at subzero temperatures that has hampered battery technology for decades. Here we report an improved self-heating lithium-ion battery (SHLB) that heats from −20 °C to 0 °C in 12.5 seconds, or 56% more rapidly, while consuming 24% less energy than that reported previously. We reveal that a nickel foil heating element embedded inside a SHLB cell plays a dominant role in self-heating and we experimentally demonstrate that a 2-sheet design can achieve dramatically accelerated self-heating due to more uniform internal temperature distribution. We also report, for the first time, that this embedded nickel foil can simultaneously perform as an internal temperature sensor (ITS) due to the perfectly linear relationship between the foil’s electrical resistance and temperature.

  9. Active-charging based powertrain control in series hybrid electric vehicles for efficiency improvement and battery lifetime extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Mi, Chris Chunting; Yin, Chengliang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a powertrain control strategy for a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) based on the integrated design of an active charging scenario and fixed-boundary-layer sliding mode controllers (FBLSMCs). An optimized charging curve for the battery is predetermined rather than subject to engine output and vehicle power demand, which is a total inverse of normal SHEV powertrain control process. This is aimed to remove surge and high-frequency charge current, keep the battery staying in a high state-of-charge (SOC) region and avoid persistently-high charge power, which are positive factors to battery lifetime extension. Then two robust chattering-free FBLSMCs are designed to locate the engine operation in the optimal efficiency area. One is in charge of engine speed control, and the other is for engine/generator torque control. Consequently, not only fuel economy is improved but also battery life expectancy could be extended. Finally, simulation and experimental results confirm the validity and application feasibility of the proposed strategy.

  10. A Protocol for Electrochemical Evaluations and State of Charge Diagnostics of a Symmetric Organic Redox Flow Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wentao; Vemuri, Rama S.; Hu, Dehong; Yang, Zheng; Wei, Xiaoliang

    2017-01-01

    Redox flow batteries have been considered as one of the most promising stationary energy storage solutions for improving the reliability of the power grid and deployment of renewable energy technologies. Among the many flow battery chemistries, nonaqueous flow batteries have the potential to achieve high energy density because of the broad voltage windows of nonaqueous electrolytes. However, significant technical hurdles exist currently limiting nonaqueous flow batteries to demonstrate their full potential, such as low redox concentrations, low operating currents, under-explored battery status monitoring, etc. In an attempt to address these limitations, we report a nonaqueous flow battery based on a highly soluble, redox-active organic nitronyl nitroxide radical compound, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO). This redox materials exhibits an ambipolar electrochemical property with two reversible redox pairs that are moderately separated by a voltage gap of ~1.7 V. Therefore, PTIO can serve as both anolyte and catholyte redox materials to form a symmetric flow battery chemistry, which affords the advantages such as high effective redox concentrations and low irreversible redox material crossover. The PTIO flow battery shows decent electrochemical cyclability under cyclic voltammetry and flow cell conditions; an improved redox concentration of 0.5 M PTIO and operational current density of 20 mA cm-2 were achieved in flow cell tests. Moreover, we show that Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy could measure the PTIO concentrations during the PTIO flow battery cycling and offer reasonably accurate detection of the battery state of charge (SOC) as cross-validated by electron spin resonance measurements. This study suggests FTIR can be used as a reliable online SOC sensor to monitor flow battery status and ensure battery operations stringently in a safe SOC range.

  11. Organic hydrogen peroxide-driven low charge potentials for high-performance lithium-oxygen batteries with carbon cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shichao; Qiao, Yu; Yang, Sixie; Ishida, Masayoshi; He, Ping; Zhou, Haoshen

    2017-06-01

    Reducing the high charge potential is a crucial concern in advancing the performance of lithium-oxygen batteries. Here, for water-containing lithium-oxygen batteries with lithium hydroxide products, we find that a hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution added in the electrolyte can effectively promote the decomposition of lithium hydroxide compounds at the ultralow charge potential on a catalyst-free Ketjen Black-based cathode. Furthermore, for non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries with lithium peroxide products, we introduce a urea hydrogen peroxide, chelating hydrogen peroxide without any water in the organic, as an electrolyte additive in lithium-oxygen batteries with a lithium metal anode and succeed in the realization of the low charge potential of ~3.26 V, which is among the best levels reported. In addition, the undesired water generally accompanying hydrogen peroxide solutions is circumvented to protect the lithium metal anode and ensure good battery cycling stability. Our results should provide illuminating insights into approaches to enhancing lithium-oxygen batteries.

  12. Fabrication of solid-state secondary battery using semiconductors and evaluation of its charge/discharge characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Atsuya; Sasaki, Akito; Hirabayashi, Hideaki; Saito, Shuichi; Aoki, Katsuaki; Kataoka, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Koji; Yabuhara, Hidehiko; Ito, Takahiro; Takagi, Shigeyuki

    2018-04-01

    Li-ion batteries have attracted interest for use as storage batteries. However, the risk of fire has not yet been resolved. Although solid Li-ion batteries are possible alternatives, their performance characteristics are unsatisfactory. Recently, research on utilizing the accumulation of carriers at the trap levels of semiconductors has been performed. However, the detailed charge/discharge characteristics and principles have not been reported. In this report, we attempted to form new n-type oxide semiconductor/insulator/p-type oxide semiconductor structures. The battery characteristics of these structures were evaluated by charge/discharge measurements. The obtained results clearly indicated the characteristics of rechargeable batteries. Furthermore, the fabricated structure accumulated an approximately 5000 times larger number of carriers than a parallel plate capacitor. Additionally, by constructing circuit models based on the experimental results, the charge/discharge mechanisms were considered. This is the first detailed experimental report on a rechargeable battery that operates without the double injection of ions and electrons.

  13. Using Atmospheric Pressure Tendency to Optimise Battery Charging in Off-Grid Hybrid Wind-Diesel Systems for Telecoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Daniels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Off grid telecom base stations in developing nations are powered by diesel generators. They are typically oversized and run at a fraction of their rated load for most of their operating lifetime. Running generators at partial load is inefficient and, over time, physically damages the engine. A hybrid configuration uses a battery bank, which powers the telecoms’ load for a portion of the time. The generator only operates when the battery bank needs to be charged. Adding a wind turbine further reduces the generator run hours and saves fuel. The generator is oblivious to the current wind conditions, which leads to simultaneous generator-wind power production. As the batteries become charged by the generator, the wind turbine controller is forced to dump surplus power as heat through a resistive load. This paper details how the relationship between barometric pressure and wind speed can be used to add intelligence to the battery charger. A Simulink model of the system is developed to test the different battery charging configurations. This paper demonstrates that if the battery charger is aware of upcoming wind conditions, it will provide modest fuel savings and reduce generator run hours in small-scale hybrid energy systems.

  14. Estimation of State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in HEV Using Robust Extended Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman M. Sharkh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A robust extended Kalman filter (EKF is proposed as a method for estimation of the state of charge (SOC of lithium-ion batteries used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. An equivalent circuit model of the battery, including its electromotive force (EMF hysteresis characteristics and polarization characteristics is used. The effect of the robust EKF gain coefficient on SOC estimation is analyzed, and an optimized gain coefficient is determined to restrain battery terminal voltage from fluctuating. Experimental and simulation results are presented. SOC estimates using the standard EKF are compared with the proposed robust EKF algorithm to demonstrate the accuracy and precision of the latter for SOC estimation.

  15. Rapid Charged Geosynchronous Debris Perturbation Modeling of Electrodynamic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2018-04-01

    Charged space objects experience small perturbative torques and forces from their interaction with Earth's magnetic field. These small perturbations can change the orbits of lightweight, uncontrolled debris objects dramatically even over short periods. This paper investigates the effects of the isolated Lorentz force, the effects of including or neglecting this and other electromagnetic perturbations in a full propagation, and then analyzes for which objects electromagnetic effects have the most impact. It is found that electromagnetic forces have a negligible impact on their own. However, if the center of charge is not collocated with the center of mass, electromagnetic torques are produced which do impact the attitude, and thus the position by affecting the direction and magnitude of the solar radiation pressure force. The objects for which electrostatic torques have the most influence are charged above the kilovolt level, have a difference between their center of mass and center of charge, have highly attitude-dependent cross-sectional area, and are not spinning stably about an axis of maximum inertia. Fully coupled numerical simulation illustrate the impact of electromagnetic disturbances through the solar radiation pressure coupling.

  16. About the Territorial Potential of the Construction of Battery-Charging Stations for Autonomous Electric Motor Vehicles in the Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilova Lyubov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main current trends in the development of electric motor vehicles with "zero emission" as well as the battery-charging stations concerned. The study is based on a preliminary comparative analysis of the RF regions with respect to five indices (average per capita income, number of private cars in the region, air pollution level, provision of the region with power supply and the potential use of local renewable energy resources, and it gives some recommendations on the prospects of possible construction of battery-charging stations in the regions.

  17. A Sepic Type Switched Mode Power Supply System For Battery Charging In An Electric Tricycle Auto-Rickshaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kureve

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the plug-in electric tricycle Auto rickshaw battery charging system using a non-isolated DC-DC SEPIC converter which operates as a switched mode power supply SMPS. The control of dc voltage output is by varying the gating pulses duty cycle of the switch in the dc-dc converter using PID controller based PWM technique. The 60 V 30 A DC-DC SEPIC converter is designed to provide non-inverting voltage buck from the rectified AC mains for charging deep cycle battery bank in an electric auto rickshaw. The charger system is implemented using MATLABSimulink.

  18. A High-Gain Reflex-Based Bidirectional DC Charger with Efficient Energy Recycling for Low-Voltage Battery Charging-Discharging Power Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ming Lai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a high-gain reflex-charging-based bidirectional DC charger (RC-BDC to enhance the battery charging efficiency of light electric vehicles (LEV in a DC-microgrid. The proposed charger topology consists of an unregulated level converter (ULC and a two-phase interleaved buck-boost charge-pump converter (IBCPC, which together provide low ripple and high voltage conversion ratio. As the high-gain RC-BDC charges, the LEV’s battery with reflex charging currents, high battery charging efficiency, and prolonged battery life cycles are achieved. This is possible due to the recovering of negative pulse energy of reflex charging currents to reduce charge dissipations within LEV’s batteries. Derivations of the operating principles of the high-gain RC-BDC, analyses of its topology, and the closed-loop control designs were presented. Simulations and experiments were implemented with battery voltage of 48 V and DC-bus voltage of 400 V for a 500 W prototype. The results verify the feasibility of the proposed concept and were compared with the typical constant-current/constant-voltage (CC/CV charger. The comparison shows that the proposed high gain RC-BDC improves battery charging speed and reduces the battery thermal deterioration effect by about 12.7% and 25%, respectively.

  19. A multi-timescale estimator for battery state of charge and capacity dual estimation based on an online identified model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Zhao, Jiyun; Ji, Dongxu; Tseng, King Jet

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •SOC and capacity are dually estimated with online adapted battery model. •Model identification and state dual estimate are fully decoupled. •Multiple timescales are used to improve estimation accuracy and stability. •The proposed method is verified with lab-scale experiments. •The proposed method is applicable to different battery chemistries. -- Abstract: Reliable online estimation of state of charge (SOC) and capacity is critically important for the battery management system (BMS). This paper presents a multi-timescale method for dual estimation of SOC and capacity with an online identified battery model. The model parameter estimator and the dual estimator are fully decoupled and executed with different timescales to improve the model accuracy and stability. Specifically, the model parameters are online adapted with the vector-type recursive least squares (VRLS) to address the different variation rates of them. Based on the online adapted battery model, the Kalman filter (KF)-based SOC estimator and RLS-based capacity estimator are formulated and integrated in the form of dual estimation. Experimental results suggest that the proposed method estimates the model parameters, SOC, and capacity in real time with fast convergence and high accuracy. Experiments on both lithium-ion battery and vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) verify the generality of the proposed method on multiple battery chemistries. The proposed method is also compared with other existing methods on the computational cost to reveal its superiority for practical application.

  20. Online Reliable Peak Charge/Discharge Power Estimation of Series-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate peak power estimation of a battery pack is essential to the power-train control of electric vehicles (EVs. It helps to evaluate the maximum charge and discharge capability of the battery system, and thus to optimally control the power-train system to meet the requirement of acceleration, gradient climbing and regenerative braking while achieving a high energy efficiency. A novel online peak power estimation method for series-connected lithium-ion battery packs is proposed, which considers the influence of cell difference on the peak power of the battery packs. A new parameter identification algorithm based on adaptive ratio vectors is designed to online identify the parameters of each individual cell in a series-connected battery pack. The ratio vectors reflecting cell difference are deduced strictly based on the analysis of battery characteristics. Based on the online parameter identification, the peak power estimation considering cell difference is further developed. Some validation experiments in different battery aging conditions and with different current profiles have been implemented to verify the proposed method. The results indicate that the ratio vector-based identification algorithm can achieve the same accuracy as the repetitive RLS (recursive least squares based identification while evidently reducing the computation cost, and the proposed peak power estimation method is more effective and reliable for series-connected battery packs due to the consideration of cell difference.

  1. Estimation of State of Charge of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Electric Vehicles Using an Adaptive Luenberger Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to safely and efficiently use the power as well as to extend the lifetime of the traction battery pack, accurate estimation of State of Charge (SoC is very important and necessary. This paper presents an adaptive observer-based technique for estimating SoC of a lithium-ion battery pack used in an electric vehicle (EV. The RC equivalent circuit model in ADVISOR is applied to simulate the lithium-ion battery pack. The parameters of the battery model as a function of SoC, are identified and optimized using the numerically nonlinear least squares algorithm, based on an experimental data set. By means of the optimized model, an adaptive Luenberger observer is built to estimate online the SoC of the lithium-ion battery pack. The observer gain is adaptively adjusted using a stochastic gradient approach so as to reduce the error between the estimated battery output voltage and the filtered battery terminal voltage measurement. Validation results show that the proposed technique can accurately estimate SoC of the lithium-ion battery pack without a heavy computational load.

  2. A Protocol for Electrochemical Evaluations and State of Charge Diagnostics of a Symmetric Organic Redox Flow Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wentao; Vemuri, Rama S; Hu, Dehong; Yang, Zheng; Wei, Xiaoliang

    2017-02-13

    Redox flow batteries have been considered as one of the most promising stationary energy storage solutions for improving the reliability of the power grid and deployment of renewable energy technologies. Among the many flow battery chemistries, non-aqueous flow batteries have the potential to achieve high energy density because of the broad voltage windows of non-aqueous electrolytes. However, significant technical hurdles exist currently limiting non-aqueous flow batteries to demonstrate their full potential, such as low redox concentrations, low operating currents, under-explored battery status monitoring, etc. In an attempt to address these limitations, we recently reported a non-aqueous flow battery based on a highly soluble, redox-active organic nitronyl nitroxide radical compound, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO). This redox material exhibits an ambipolar electrochemical property, and therefore can serve as both anolyte and catholyte redox materials to form a symmetric flow battery chemistry. Moreover, we demonstrated that Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy could measure the PTIO concentrations during the PTIO flow battery cycling and offer reasonably accurate detection of the battery state of charge (SOC), as cross-validated by electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. Herein we present a video protocol for the electrochemical evaluation and SOC diagnosis of the PTIO symmetric flow battery. With a detailed description, we experimentally demonstrated the route to achieve such purposes. This protocol aims to spark more interests and insights on the safety and reliability in the field of non-aqueous redox flow batteries.

  3. Improved approach for electric vehicle rapid charging station placement and sizing using Google maps and binary lightning search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah

    2017-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is considered a premium solution to global warming and various types of pollution. Nonetheless, a key concern is the recharging of EV batteries. Therefore, this study proposes a novel approach that considers the costs of transportation loss, buildup, and substation energy loss and that incorporates harmonic power loss into optimal rapid charging station (RCS) planning. A novel optimization technique, called binary lightning search algorithm (BLSA), is proposed to solve the optimization problem. BLSA is also applied to a conventional RCS planning method. A comprehensive analysis is conducted to assess the performance of the two RCS planning methods by using the IEEE 34-bus test system as the power grid. The comparative studies show that the proposed BLSA is better than other optimization techniques. The daily total cost in RCS planning of the proposed method, including harmonic power loss, decreases by 10% compared with that of the conventional method. PMID:29220396

  4. Improved approach for electric vehicle rapid charging station placement and sizing using Google maps and binary lightning search algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mainul Islam

    Full Text Available The electric vehicle (EV is considered a premium solution to global warming and various types of pollution. Nonetheless, a key concern is the recharging of EV batteries. Therefore, this study proposes a novel approach that considers the costs of transportation loss, buildup, and substation energy loss and that incorporates harmonic power loss into optimal rapid charging station (RCS planning. A novel optimization technique, called binary lightning search algorithm (BLSA, is proposed to solve the optimization problem. BLSA is also applied to a conventional RCS planning method. A comprehensive analysis is conducted to assess the performance of the two RCS planning methods by using the IEEE 34-bus test system as the power grid. The comparative studies show that the proposed BLSA is better than other optimization techniques. The daily total cost in RCS planning of the proposed method, including harmonic power loss, decreases by 10% compared with that of the conventional method.

  5. A Novel Active Online State of Charge Based Balancing Approach for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs during Fast Charging Process in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiudong Cui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Non-uniformity of Lithium-ion cells in a battery pack is inevitable and has become the bottleneck to the pack capacity, especially in the fast charging process. Therefore, a balancing approach is essentially required. This paper proposes an active online cell balancing approach in a fast charging process using the state of charge (SOC as balancing criterion. The goal of this approach is to complete pack balancing within the limited charging time. An adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF is applied to estimate the pack cell SOC during the charging process to obtain accurate results under modeling errors and measurement noises. To implement the proposed AEKF, only one additional current sensor is required to obtain the current of each cell required for the SOC estimation. An experimental platform is established to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results show that the proposed balancing approach with the SOC as a balancing criterion can overcome the challenges of non-uniformity and flat voltage plateau and charge more capacity into a LiFePO4 battery pack than those with the terminal voltage as a balancing criterion in the fast charging process.

  6. Estimation of State of Charge for Two Types of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Nonlinear Predictive Filter for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Hua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of state of charge (SOC is of great importance for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. This paper presents a state of charge estimation method using nonlinear predictive filter (NPF and evaluates the proposed method on the lithium-ion batteries with different chemistries. Contrary to most conventional filters which usually assume a zero mean white Gaussian process noise, the advantage of NPF is that the process noise in NPF is treated as an unknown model error and determined as a part of the solution without any prior assumption, and it can take any statistical distribution form, which improves the estimation accuracy. In consideration of the model accuracy and computational complexity, a first-order equivalent circuit model is applied to characterize the battery behavior. The experimental test is conducted on the LiCoO2 and LiFePO4 battery cells to validate the proposed method. The results show that the NPF method is able to accurately estimate the battery SOC and has good robust performance to the different initial states for both cells. Furthermore, the comparison study between NPF and well-established extended Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation indicates that the proposed NPF method has better estimation accuracy and converges faster.

  7. Determination of regression functions for the charging and discharging processes of valve regulated lead-acid batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a deep discharge of AGM SVT 300 valve-regulated lead-acid batteries using the ten-hour discharge current, the batteries were charged using variable current. In accordance with the obtained results, exponential and polynomial functions for the approximation of the specified processes were analyzed. The main evaluation instrument for the quality of the implemented approximations was the adjusted coefficient of determination R-2. It was perceived that the battery discharge process might be successfully approximated with both an exponential and the second order polynomial function. On all the occasions analyzed, values of the adjusted coefficient of determination were greater than 0.995. The charging process of the deeply discharged batteries was successfully approximated with the exponential function; the measured values of the adjusted coefficient of determination being nearly 0.95. Apart from the high measured values of the adjusted coefficient of determination, polynomial approximations of the second and third order did not provide satisfactory results regarding the interpolation of the battery charging characteristics. A possibility for a practical implementation of the procured regression functions in uninterruptible power supply systems was described.

  8. The lightest organic radical cation for charge storage in redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhua; Pan, Baofei; Duan, Wentao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Assary, Rajeev S; Su, Liang; Brushett, Fikile R; Cheng, Lei; Liao, Chen; Ferrandon, Magali S; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Burrell, Anthony K; Curtiss, Larry A; Shkrob, Ilya A; Moore, Jeffrey S; Zhang, Lu

    2016-08-25

    In advanced electrical grids of the future, electrochemically rechargeable fluids of high energy density will capture the power generated from intermittent sources like solar and wind. To meet this outstanding technological demand there is a need to understand the fundamental limits and interplay of electrochemical potential, stability, and solubility in low-weight redox-active molecules. By generating a combinatorial set of 1,4-dimethoxybenzene derivatives with different arrangements of substituents, we discovered a minimalistic structure that combines exceptional long-term stability in its oxidized form and a record-breaking intrinsic capacity of 161 mAh/g. The nonaqueous redox flow battery has been demonstrated that uses this molecule as a catholyte material and operated stably for 100 charge/discharge cycles. The observed stability trends are rationalized by mechanistic considerations of the reaction pathways.

  9. State-of-charge estimation in lithium-ion batteries: A particle filter approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsyan, Aditya; Tsai, Yiting; Gopaluni, R. Bhushan; Braatz, Richard D.

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of lithium-ion batteries are complex and are often approximated by models consisting of partial differential equations (PDEs) relating the internal ionic concentrations and potentials. The Pseudo two-dimensional model (P2D) is one model that performs sufficiently accurately under various operating conditions and battery chemistries. Despite its widespread use for prediction, this model is too complex for standard estimation and control applications. This article presents an original algorithm for state-of-charge estimation using the P2D model. Partial differential equations are discretized using implicit stable algorithms and reformulated into a nonlinear state-space model. This discrete, high-dimensional model (consisting of tens to hundreds of states) contains implicit, nonlinear algebraic equations. The uncertainty in the model is characterized by additive Gaussian noise. By exploiting the special structure of the pseudo two-dimensional model, a novel particle filter algorithm that sweeps in time and spatial coordinates independently is developed. This algorithm circumvents the degeneracy problems associated with high-dimensional state estimation and avoids the repetitive solution of implicit equations by defining a 'tether' particle. The approach is illustrated through extensive simulations.

  10. State of charge classification for lithium-ion batteries using impedance based features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Felder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the electrification of the drive train of passenger cars takes place, and the task of obtaining precise knowledge about the condition of the on board batteries gains importance. Due to a flat open circuit voltage (OCV to state of charge (SoC characteristic of lithium ion batteries, methods employed in applications with other cell chemistries cannot be adapted. Exploiting the higher significance of the impedance for state estimation for that chemistry, new impedance based features are proposed by this work. To evaluate the suitability of these features, simulations have been conducted using a simplified on-board power supply net as excitation source. The simulation outcome has been investigated regarding the cross correlation factor rxy and in a polynomial regression scenario. The results of the simulations show a best case error below 1 % SoC, which is 3 percentage points lower than using terminal voltage and impedance. When increasing the measurement uncertainty, the difference remains around 2 percent points.

  11. Hierarchically structured lithium titanate for ultrafast charging in long-life high capacity batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odziomek, Mateusz; Chaput, Frédéric; Rutkowska, Anna; Świerczek, Konrad; Olszewska, Danuta; Sitarz, Maciej; Lerouge, Frédéric; Parola, Stephane

    2017-05-01

    High-performance Li-ion batteries require materials with well-designed and controlled structures on nanometre and micrometre scales. Electrochemical properties can be enhanced by reducing crystallite size and by manipulating structure and morphology. Here we show a method for preparing hierarchically structured Li4Ti5O12 yielding nano- and microstructure well-suited for use in lithium-ion batteries. Scalable glycothermal synthesis yields well-crystallized primary 4-8 nm nanoparticles, assembled into porous secondary particles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals presence of Ti+4 only; combined with chemical analysis showing lithium deficiency, this suggests oxygen non-stoichiometry. Electron microscopy confirms hierarchical morphology of the obtained material. Extended cycling tests in half cells demonstrates capacity of 170 mAh g-1 and no sign of capacity fading after 1,000 cycles at 50C rate (charging completed in 72 s). The particular combination of nanostructure, microstructure and non-stoichiometry for the prepared lithium titanate is believed to underlie the observed electrochemical performance of material.

  12. Overview of the requirements and implementations of bidirectional isolated AC-DC converters for automotive battery charging applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sfakianakis, G.; Everts, J.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is divided into three main parts. In the first part, i.e. Section II, a general outline of the system level aspects regarding battery chargers (power converters) for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is given. Thereby, the different charging modes of the converters, the corresponding power

  13. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Hsu, P.C.; Wu, M.S.; Ho, P.Y.

    2010-01-01

    . This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first

  14. Integrating a redox-coupled dye-sensitized photoelectrode into a lithium-oxygen battery for photoassisted charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingzhe; Ren, Xiaodi; Ma, Lu; Wu, Yiying

    2014-10-03

    With a high theoretical specific energy, the non-aqueous rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery is a promising next-generation energy storage technique. However, the large charging overpotential remains a challenge due to the difficulty in electrochemically oxidizing the insulating lithium peroxide. Recently, a redox shuttle has been introduced into the electrolyte to chemically oxidize lithium peroxide. Here, we report the use of a triiodide/iodide redox shuttle to couple a built-in dye-sensitized titanium dioxide photoelectrode with the oxygen electrode for the photoassisted charging of a lithium-oxygen battery. On charging under illumination, triiodide ions are generated on the photoelectrode, and subsequently oxidize lithium peroxide. Due to the contribution of the photovoltage, the charging overpotential is greatly reduced. The use of a redox shuttle to couple a photoelectrode and an oxygen electrode offers a unique strategy to address the overpotential issue of non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries and also a distinct approach for integrating solar cells and batteries.

  15. Modeling the effect of shunt current on the charge transfer efficiency of an all-vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Song; Ho, Sze-Yuan; Chou, Han-Wen; Wei, Hwa-Jou

    2018-06-01

    In an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB), a shunt current is inevitable owing to the electrically conductive electrolyte that fills the flow channels and manifolds connecting cells. The shunt current decreases the performance of a VRFB stack as well as the energy conversion efficiency of a VRFB system. To understand the shunt-current loss in a VRFB stack with various designs and operating conditions, a mathematical model is developed to investigate the effects of the shunt current on battery performance. The model is calibrated with experimental data under the same operating conditions. The effects of the battery design, including the number of cells, state of charge (SOC), operating current, and equivalent resistance of the electrolytes in the flow channels and manifolds, on the shunt current are analyzed and discussed. The charge-transfer efficiency is calculated to investigate the effects of the battery design parameters on the shunt current. When the cell number is increased from 5 to 40, the charge transfer efficiency is decreased from 0.99 to a range between 0.76 and 0.88, depending on operating current density. The charge transfer efficiency can be maintained at higher than 0.9 by limiting the cell number to less than 20.

  16. Technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery as a substitute dry battery for motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniyati, Indah; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Zakaria, Roni; Kadir, Evizal Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Dry battery on a motorcycle has a rapid rate of voltage drop, life time is not too long, and a long charging time. These are problems for users of dry battery for motorcycle. When the rate in the voltage decreases, the energy storage in the battery is reduced, then at the age of one to two years of battery will be dead and cannot be used, it makes the user should replace the battery. New technology development of a motorcycle battery is lithium ion battery. Lithium ion battery has a specification that has been tested and possible to replace dry battery. Characteristics of lithium ion battery can answer the question on the dry battery service life, the rate of decrease in voltage and charging time. This paper discusses about the technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery for motorcycle battery. Our proposed methodology of technical feasibility by using a goldsmith commercialization model of the technical feasibility and reconfirm the technical standard using the national standard of motorcycle battery. The battery has been through all the stages of the technical feasibility of the goldsmith model. Based on the results of the study, lithium ion batteries have the minimum technical requirements to be commercialized and has been confirmed in accordance with the standard motorcycle battery. This paper results that the lithium ion battery is visible to commercialized by the technical aspect.

  17. Lightweight Battery Charge Regulator Used to Track Solar Array Peak Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James F.; Button, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    A battery charge regulator based on the series-connected boost regulator (SCBR) technology has been developed for high-voltage spacecraft applications. The SCBR regulates the solar array power during insolation to prevent battery overcharge or undercharge conditions. It can also be used to provide regulated battery output voltage to spacecraft loads if necessary. This technology uses industry-standard dc-dc converters and a unique interconnection to provide size, weight, efficiency, fault tolerance, and modularity benefits over existing systems. The high-voltage SCBR shown in the photograph has demonstrated power densities of over 1000 watts per kilogram (W/kg). Using four 150-W dc-dc converter modules, it can process 2500 W of power at 120 Vdc with a minimum input voltage of 90 Vdc. Efficiency of the SCBR was 94 to 98 percent over the entire operational range. Internally, the unit is made of two separate SCBR s, each with its own analog control circuitry, to demonstrate the modularity of the technology. The analog controllers regulate the output current and incorporate the output voltage limit with active current sharing between the two units. They also include voltage and current telemetry, on/off control, and baseplate temperature sensors. For peak power tracking, the SCBR was connected to a LabView-based data acquisition system for telemetry and control. A digital control algorithm for tracking the peak power point of a solar array was developed using the principle of matching the source impedance with the load impedance for maximum energy transfer. The algorithm was successfully demonstrated in a simulated spacecraft electrical system at the Boeing PhantomWorks High Voltage Test Facility in Seattle, Washington. The system consists of a 42-string, high-voltage solar array simulator, a 77-cell, 80-ampere-hour (A-hr) nickel-hydrogen battery, and a constant power-load module. The SCBR and the LabView control algorithm successfully tracked the solar array peak

  18. Charged-particle multiplicity at mid-rapidity in Au–Au collisions at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The particle density at mid-rapidity is an essential global variable for the characterization of nuclear collisions at ultra-relativistic energies. It provides information about the initial conditions and energy density reached in these collisions. The pseudorapidity densities of charged particles at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions at ...

  19. Fast charging technique for high power LiFePO4 batteries: A mechanistic analysis of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anseán, D.; Dubarry, M.; Devie, A.; Liaw, B. Y.; García, V. M.; Viera, J. C.; González, M.

    2016-07-01

    One of the major issues hampering the acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) is the anxiety associated with long charging time. Hence, the ability to fast charging lithium-ion battery (LIB) systems is gaining notable interest. However, fast charging is not tolerated by all LIB chemistries because it affects battery functionality and accelerates its aging processes. Here, we investigate the long-term effects of multistage fast charging on a commercial high power LiFePO4-based cell and compare it to another cell tested under standard charging. Coupling incremental capacity (IC) and IC peak area analysis together with mechanistic model simulations ('Alawa' toolbox with harvested half-cell data), we quantify the degradation modes that cause aging of the tested cells. The results show that the proposed fast charging technique caused similar aging effects as standard charging. The degradation is caused by a linear loss of lithium inventory, coupled with a less degree of linear loss of active material on the negative electrode. This study validates fast charging as a feasible mean of operation for this particular LIB chemistry and cell architecture. It also illustrates the benefits of a mechanistic approach to understand cell degradation on commercial cells.

  20. Predicting Charging Time of Battery Electric Vehicles Based on Regression and Time-Series Methods: A Case Study of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Bi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery electric vehicles (BEVs reduce energy consumption and air pollution as compared with conventional vehicles. However, the limited driving range and potential long charging time of BEVs create new problems. Accurate charging time prediction of BEVs helps drivers determine travel plans and alleviate their range anxiety during trips. This study proposed a combined model for charging time prediction based on regression and time-series methods according to the actual data from BEVs operating in Beijing, China. After data analysis, a regression model was established by considering the charged amount for charging time prediction. Furthermore, a time-series method was adopted to calibrate the regression model, which significantly improved the fitting accuracy of the model. The parameters of the model were determined by using the actual data. Verification results confirmed the accuracy of the model and showed that the model errors were small. The proposed model can accurately depict the charging time characteristics of BEVs in Beijing.

  1. Neutral Red and Ferroin as Reversible and Rapid Redox Materials for Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeehoon; Kim, Ketack

    2018-04-17

    Neutral red and ferroin are used as redox indicators (RINs) in potentiometric titrations. The rapid response and reversibility that are prerequisites for RINs are also desirable properties for the active materials in redox flow batteries (RFBs). This study describes the electrochemical properties of ferroin and neutral red as a redox pair. The rapid reaction rates of the RINs allow a cell to run at a rate of 4 C with 89 % capacity retention after the 100 th  cycle. The diffusion coefficients, electrode reaction rates, and solubilities of the RINs were determined. The electron-transfer rate constants of ferroin and neutral red are 0.11 and 0.027 cm s -1 , respectively, which are greater than those of the components of all-vanadium and Zn/Br 2 cells. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. UNIVERSAL AUTO-CALIBRATION FOR A RAPID BATTERY IMPEDANCE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENT DEVICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen; John L. Morrison; William H. Morrison

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been shown to be a valuable tool for diagnostics and prognostics of energy storage devices such as batteries and ultra-capacitors. Although measurements have been typically confined to laboratory environments, rapid impedance spectrum measurement techniques have been developed for on-line, embedded applications as well. The prototype hardware for the rapid technique has been validated using lithium-ion batteries, but issues with calibration had also been identified. A new, universal automatic calibration technique was developed to address the identified issues while also enabling a more simplified approach. A single, broad-frequency range is used to calibrate the system and then scaled to the actual range and conditions used when measuring a device under test. The range used for calibration must be broad relative to the expected measurement conditions for the scaling to be successful. Validation studies were performed by comparing the universal calibration approach with data acquired from targeted calibration ranges based on the expected range of performance for the device under test. First, a mid-level shunt range was used for calibration and used to measure devices with lower and higher impedance. Next, a high excitation current level was used for calibration, followed by measurements using lower currents. Finally, calibration was performed over a wide frequency range and used to measure test articles with a lower set of frequencies. In all cases, the universal calibration approach compared very well with results acquired following a targeted calibration. Additionally, the shunts used for the automated calibration technique were successfully characterized such that the rapid impedance measurements compare very well with laboratory-scale measurements. These data indicate that the universal approach can be successfully used for onboard rapid impedance spectra measurements for a broad set of test devices and range of

  3. A contact-less method to evaluate the state of charge of nickel batteries using Foucault's eddy currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancier, V.; Metrot, A.; Willmann, P.

    A nickel hydroxide electrode and a commercial battery have been studied by a new and contact-less impedance method, based on Foucault's eddy currents, with the aim of determining their state of charge. Four different current line distributions have been employed and the impedance versus time graphs obtained show a linear variation of this impedance during charge and discharge for all configurations. This new method allows the determination of the state of charge and, furthermore some "artifacts" obvious on these graphs may be useful to detect a deterioration of the studied material.

  4. Charge Equalization Controller Algorithm for Series-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Systems: Modeling and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammad A. Hannan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop an accurate model of a charge equalization controller (CEC that manages individual cell monitoring and equalizing by charging and discharging series-connected lithium-ion (Li-ion battery cells. In this concept, an intelligent control algorithm is developed to activate bidirectional cell switches and control direct current (DC–DC converter switches along with pulse width modulation (PWM generation. Individual models of an electric vehicle (EV-sustainable Li-ion battery, optimal power rating, a bidirectional flyback DC–DC converter, and charging and discharging controllers are integrated to develop a small-scale CEC model that can be implemented for 10 series-connected Li-ion battery cells. Results show that the charge equalization controller operates at 91% efficiency and performs well in equalizing both overdischarged and overcharged cells on time. Moreover, the outputs of the CEC model show that the desired balancing level occurs at 2% of state of charge difference and that all cells are operated within a normal range. The configuration, execution, control, power loss, cost, size, and efficiency of the developed CEC model are compared with those of existing controllers. The proposed model is proven suitable for high-tech storage systems toward the advancement of sustainable EV technologies and renewable source of applications.

  5. Développement d'un régulateur de charge / décharge de batterie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we present the development work of a 24 V or 12 V battery regulator in a low power wind system. This regulator allows battery protection from overcharging and deep discharging. In addition, it makes to protect the wind mill against the strong winds. It is controlled by microcontroller PIC 16F778A. This function ...

  6. A novel ultrasonic velocity sensing approach to monitoring state of charge of vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Yi-Sin; Hsu, Ning-Yih; Jeng, King-Tsai; Chen, Kuan-Hsiang; Yen, Shi-Chern

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first to apply ultrasonic sensing technique to monitor SOC of VRB. • Ultrasound velocity is affected by concentration and temperature of a solution. • The ultrasonic sensing is applicable to both positive and negative sides of VRB. • An empirical model equation fits the results of this two-component system well. • The SOC of a VRB can be properly measured using ultrasonic sensing. - Abstract: A novel ultrasonic velocity sensing approach is proposed and investigated to monitor the state of charge (SOC) of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRB, or VRFB). The positive electrode is designated as the energy storage capacity-limiting one so that the molar ratio of the V"5"+ ion in the positive electrolyte solution determines the SOC of a VRB. The tested single-cell VRB is connected to an ultrasonic sensor and charged/discharged almost to its two extremes at a constant current of 2 A under various operating temperatures. It is found that the ultrasound velocity exhibits distinct variations in accordance with changes of vanadium ion compositions in the positive electrolyte solution as the SOC of the VRB varies. The SOC obtained can be depicted in a 3D plot in terms of ultrasound velocity and operating temperature. An empirical model equation is proposed and found to fit the experimental results of both charging and discharging stages quite well. The advantages of this SOC sensing approach are that it is totally independent of VRB operations and can be readily applied to both sides of the electrodes. It is expected to develop into a dependable method for accurate and real-time monitoring of SOC for VRB.

  7. A New Battery Energy Storage Charging/Discharging Scheme for Wind Power Producers in Real-Time Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Y Nguyen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Under a deregulated environment, wind power producers are subject to many regulation costs due to the intermittence of natural resources and the accuracy limits of existing prediction tools. This paper addresses the operation (charging/discharging problem of battery energy storage installed in a wind generation system in order to improve the value of wind power in the real-time market. Depending on the prediction of market prices and the probabilistic information of wind generation, wind power producers can schedule the battery energy storage for the next day in order to maximize the profit. In addition, by taking into account the expenses of using batteries, the proposed charging/discharging scheme is able to avoid the detrimental operation of battery energy storage which can lead to a significant reduction of battery lifetime, i.e., uneconomical operation. The problem is formulated in a dynamic programming framework and solved by a dynamic programming backward algorithm. The proposed scheme is then applied to the study cases, and the results of simulation show its effectiveness.

  8. Estimating Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge and Parameters Using a Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Diab

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A real-time determination of battery parameters is challenging because batteries are non-linear, time-varying systems. The transient behaviour of lithium-ion batteries is modelled by a Thevenin-equivalent circuit with two time constants characterising activation and concentration polarization. An experimental approach is proposed for directly determining battery parameters as a function of physical quantities. The model’s parameters are a function of the state of charge and of the discharge rate. These can be expressed by regression equations in the model to derive a continuous-discrete extended Kalman estimator of the state of charge and of other parameters. This technique is based on numerical integration of the ordinary differential equations to predict the state of the stochastic dynamic system and the corresponding error covariance matrix. Then a standard correction step of the extended Kalman filter (EKF is applied to increase the accuracy of estimated parameters. Simulations resulting from this proposed estimator model were compared with experimental results under a variety of operating scenarios—analysis of the results demonstrate the accuracy of the estimator for correctly identifying battery parameters.

  9. Evolution of Surface Temperature of a 13 Amp Hour Nano Lithium-Titanate Battery Cell under Fast Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have already gained acceptability for Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) applications because of several reasons such as high theoretical capacity, their cycle-life, and high specific energy density. The intention of this experimental research...... is to study the surface temperature evolution of a 13 Ah Nano Lithium-Titanate battery cell for the usage of rechargeable energy storage system under fast charging conditions. The nominal voltage of the cell is 2.26V and the nominal capacity is 13.4 Ah. In this research, contact thermocouples were employed...

  10. State-of-Charge Estimation and Active Cell Pack Balancing Design of Lithium Battery Power System for Smart Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. C. Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated state-of-charge (SOC estimation model and active cell balancing of a 12-cell lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 battery power system. The strong tracking cubature extended Kalman filter (STCEKF gave an accurate SOC prediction compared to other Kalman-based filter algorithms. The proposed groupwise balancing of the multiple SOC exhibited a higher balancing speed and lower balancing loss than other cell balancing designs. The experimental results demonstrated the robustness and performance of the battery when subjected to current load profile of an electric vehicle under varying ambient temperature.

  11. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  12. Transportation Safety of Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries - A Feasibility Study of Storing at Very Low States of Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, Anup; Uddin, Kotub; Chevalier, Julie; Chouchelamane, Gael H; McGordon, Andrew; Low, John; Jennings, Paul

    2017-07-11

    In freight classification, lithium-ion batteries are classed as dangerous goods and are therefore subject to stringent regulations and guidelines for certification for safe transport. One such guideline is the requirement for batteries to be at a state of charge of 30%. Under such conditions, a significant amount of the battery's energy is stored; in the event of mismanagement, or indeed an airside incident, this energy can lead to ignition and a fire. In this work, we investigate the effect on the battery of removing 99.1% of the total stored energy. The performance of 8Ah C 6 /LiFePO 4 pouch cells were measured following periods of calendar ageing at low voltages, at and well below the manufacturer's recommended value. Battery degradation was monitored using impedance spectroscopy and capacity tests; the results show that the cells stored at 2.3 V exhibited no change in cell capacity after 90 days; resistance rise was negligible. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results indicate that there was no significant copper dissolution. To test the safety of the batteries at low voltages, external short-circuit tests were performed on the cells. While the cells discharged to 2.3 V only exhibited a surface temperature rise of 6 °C, cells at higher voltages exhibited sparks, fumes and fire.

  13. Local charge nonequilibrium and anomalous energy dependence of normalized moments in narrow rapidity windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanfang; Liu Lianshou

    1990-01-01

    From the study of even and odd multiplicity distributions for hadron-hadron collision in different rapidity windows, we propose a simple picture for charge correlation with nonzero correlation length and calculate the multiplicity distributions and the normalized moments in different rapidity windows at different energies. The results explain the experimentally observed coincidence and separation of even and odd distributions and also the anomalous energy dependence of normalized moments in narrow rapidity windows. The reason for the separation of even-odd distributions, appearing first at large multiplicities, is shown to be energy conservation. The special role of no-particle events in narrow rapidity windows is pointed out

  14. Rapidity dependence of thermal dileptons resulting from hadronizing quark-gluon matter with finite baryon charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempfer, B.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Pavlenko, O.P.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev; Gorenstein, M.I.; Peshier, A.; Soff, G.

    1994-07-01

    The influence of a non-vanishing baryon charge on the rapidity distribution of dileptons produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is studied. We employ a frozen motion model with scaling invariant expansion of the hadronizing quark-gluon plasma as well as a realistic rapidity distribution of secondary particles (i.e., pions and baryons) expected for RHIC energies. We find a considerable suppression of the dilepton production yield at large rapidities due to the finite baryon density. To discriminate the thermal dileptons from Drell-Yan background we propose to utilize the dilepton yield scaled suitably by the pion multiplicity as function of rapidity. (orig.)

  15. Dynamic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of a Three-Electrode Lithium-Ion Battery during Pulse Charge and Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jun; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic EIS is performed on a three-electrode pouch cell; • Charge transfer resistance during insertion is generally larger than that during deinsertion due to the surface concentration change; • An inductive behavior is revealed at low frequencies due to the violation of stationary condition in DEIS measurement; • Electrochemical models of a single active particle in both time and frequency domain are developed. • The model predicts a positive correlation between the lower frequency limit and the DC current. - Abstract: The dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS) of a three-electrode pouch type lithium-ion battery is measured using a series of sine wave perturbations super-imposed on pulse charge and discharge. The DEIS reveals noticeable differences between charge and discharge at frequencies corresponding to the charge transfer reaction. The charge transfer resistance during intercalation is generally found to be larger than that during deintercalation for the battery chemistry in this study. This result is mainly attributed to the decreased Li ion concentration in the electrolyte during intercalation. At low frequencies, an abnormal inductive behavior is also observed. Such abnormality is found to result from the violation of stationary condition, i.e. the state of the battery under pulse charge or discharge deviates significantly from its initial condition for the perturbation of low frequencies. To analytically define the stationary condition, we develop electrochemical models of a single active particle in both time and frequency domain, which describes the transport of lithium ions in both active particle and electrolyte phase and the interfacial charge transfer reactions at their interface. The lower frequency limit is a key parameter to ensure a quasistationary state during the DEIS measurement. An explicit formulation of the stationary condition predicts a positive correlation between the lower frequency limit and

  16. Impact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Samaras, Constantine; Hauffe, Richard; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology is receiving attention as an approach to reducing US dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. PHEVs require large batteries for energy storage, which affect vehicle cost, weight, and performance. We construct PHEV simulation models to account for the effects of additional batteries on fuel consumption, cost, and GHG emissions over a range of charging frequencies (distance traveled between charges). We find that when charged frequently, every 20 miles or less, using average US electricity, small-capacity PHEVs are less expensive and release fewer GHGs than hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) or conventional vehicles. For moderate charging intervals of 20-100 miles, PHEVs release fewer GHGs, but HEVs have lower lifetime costs. High fuel prices, low-cost batteries, or high carbon taxes combined with low-carbon electricity generation would make small-capacity PHEVs cost competitive for a wide range of drivers. In contrast, increased battery specific energy or carbon taxes without decarbonization of the electricity grid would have limited impact. Large-capacity PHEVs sized for 40 or more miles of electric-only travel do not offer the lowest lifetime cost in any scenario, although they could minimize GHG emissions for some drivers and provide potential to shift air pollutant emissions away from population centers. The tradeoffs identified in this analysis can provide a space for vehicle manufacturers, policymakers, and the public to identify optimal decisions for PHEV design, policy and use. Given the alignment of economic, environmental, and national security objectives, policies aimed at putting PHEVs on the road will likely be most effective if they focus on adoption of small-capacity PHEVs by urban drivers who can charge frequently.

  17. Peukert-Equation-Based State-of-Charge Estimation for LiFePO4 Batteries Considering the Battery Thermal Evolution Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiale Xie

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve accurate state-of-charge (SoC estimation for LiFePO4 (lithium iron phosphate batteries under harsh conditions, this paper resorts to the Peukert’s law to accommodate different temperatures and load excitations. By analyzing battery heat generation and dissipation, a thermal evolution model (TEM is elaborated and exploited for on-line parameter identification of the equivalent circuit model (ECM. Then, a SoC estimation framework is proposed based on the Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter (AEKF algorithm. Experimental results on a LiFePO4 pack subject to the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS profile under different temperatures and initial states suggest that the proposed SoC estimator provides good robustness and accuracy against changing temperature and highly dynamic loads.

  18. Electrical circuit for checking the state of charge of a vehicle battery. Elektrische Schaltung zur Kontrolle des Ladezustandes einer Batterie in Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamulescu, A

    1981-05-27

    The invention concerns an electrical circuit for checking the state of charge of a vehicle battery. The circuit consists of a transistor, whose collector is connected via a series resistance and a Zener diode to the positive pole of the battery. The breakdown voltage of the Zener diode is about 12 volts. The emitter of the transistor is connected via an LED to earth. A second LED is connected in parallel with the collector-emitter circuit of the transistor, which works via a voltage divider. This voltage divider reduces the voltage at the LED with the transistor which is conducting to about 0.7 volts. A second Zener diode connected via a series resistance to the positive pole is also provided. Its breakdown voltage is 15 volts.

  19. A New State of Charge Estimation Method for LiFePO4 Battery Packs Used in Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Pang Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The accurate state of charge (SOC estimation of the LiFePO4 battery packs used in robot applications is required for better battery life cycle, performance, reliability, and economic issues. In this paper, a new SOC estimation method, “Modified ECE + EKF”, is proposed. The method is the combination of the modified Equivalent Coulombic Efficiency (ECE method and the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF method. It is based on the zero-state hysteresis battery model, and adopts the EKF method to correct the initial value used in the Ah counting method. Experimental results show that the proposed technique is superior to the traditional techniques, such as ECE + EKF and ECE + Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF, and the accuracy of estimation is within 1%.

  20. A New State of Charge Estimation Method for LiFePO4 Battery Packs Used in Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The accurate state of charge (SOC) estimation of the LiFePO4 battery packs used in robot applications is required for better battery life cycle, performance, reliability, and economic issues. In this paper, a new SOC estimation method, ''Modified ECE + EKF'', is proposed. The method is the combination of the modified Equivalent Coulombic Efficiency (ECE) method and the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) method. It is based on the zero-state hysteresis battery model, and adopts the EKF method to correct the initial value used in the Ah counting method. Experimental results show that the proposed technique is superior to the traditional techniques, such as ECE + EKF and ECE + Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF), and the accuracy of estimation is within 1%.

  1. An evidence-based approach for investment in rapid-charging infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serradilla, Javier; Wardle, Josey; Blythe, Phil; Gibbon, Jane

    2017-01-01

    To date, real cost data for Electric Vehicle (EV) rapid charging infrastructure is largely missing in the literature, preventing development of economic models to encourage private investment and limiting policy decisions. A business model has been constructed using actual capital expenditure, operating costs and usage data from the Rapid Charge Network project (RCN) which can be used to assist future investment and policy decisions. The model is run under a wide spectrum of EV uptake scenarios to provide plausible answers to a variety of research, policy and investment questions, including minimum growth rates to break even under current policy. Using real-world data we have confirmed that a financial business opportunity does exist for investment in rapid chargers on main highways and have identified the operating area in which a profit can be made. However, since UK EV adoption is still at the Innovators stage in a niche market where innovations in technology, user practices, supporting infrastructure and functionality are still required to achieve wide user acceptance, the case is also made for continued fiscal incentives to encourage investment in rapid-charging infrastructure. - Highlights: • Uses actual cost and use data to propose credible business model for EV rapid charging. • Identifies a profit area for successful operation. • Applying 3.3 electricity mark-up over 10 year investment period gives financial return. • EV uptake and Drivers’ willingness to pay remain key constraints. • Fiscal incentives would encourage private investment where demand is uncertain.

  2. Flexible Hybrid Battery/Pseudocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Paley, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Batteries keep devices working by utilizing high energy density, however, they can run down and take tens of minutes to hours to recharge. For rapid power delivery and recharging, high-power density devices, i.e., supercapacitors, are used. The electrochemical processes which occur in batteries and supercapacitors give rise to different charge-storage properties. In lithium ion (Li+) batteries, the insertion of Li+, which enables redox reactions in bulk electrode materials, is diffusion controlled and can be slow. Supercapacitor devices, also known as electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) store charge by adsorption of electrolyte ions onto the surface of electrode materials. No redox reactions are necessary, so the response to changes in potential without diffusion limitations is rapid and leads to high power. However, the charge in EDLCs is confined to the surface, so the energy density is lower than that of batteries.

  3. Negative plates for dry-charged lead storage batteries. [higher charging capacity when impregnated with tannin solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, V; Malikova, V; Weber, H

    1970-09-15

    Impregnation of negative plates with acid solutions of sulfomethylated tannins was found to improve the charging properties at low temperatures. Methods for synthesizing tannins are described. Charging capacity at 0/sup 0/ was 7.3A. (RWR)

  4. Non-Destructive Monitoring of Charge-Discharge Cycles on Lithium Ion Batteries using 7Li Stray-Field Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Joel A.; Dugar, Sneha; Zhong, Guiming; Dalal, Naresh S.; Zheng, Jim P.; Yang, Yong; Fu, Riqiang

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging provides a noninvasive method for in situ monitoring of electrochemical processes involved in charge/discharge cycling of batteries. Determining how the electrochemical processes become irreversible, ultimately resulting in degraded battery performance, will aid in developing new battery materials and designing better batteries. Here we introduce the use of an alternative in situ diagnostic tool to monitor the electrochemical processes. Utilizing a very large field-gradient in the fringe field of a magnet, stray-field-imaging (STRAFI) technique significantly improves the image resolution. These STRAFI images enable the real time monitoring of the electrodes at a micron level. It is demonstrated by two prototype half-cells, graphite∥Li and LiFePO4∥Li, that the high-resolution 7Li STRAFI profiles allow one to visualize in situ Li-ions transfer between the electrodes during charge/discharge cyclings as well as the formation and changes of irreversible microstructures of the Li components, and particularly reveal a non-uniform Li-ion distribution in the graphite. PMID:24005580

  5. Polyoxovanadate-alkoxide clusters as multi-electron charge carriers for symmetric non-aqueous redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGelder, L E; Kosswattaarachchi, A M; Forrestel, P L; Cook, T R; Matson, E M

    2018-02-14

    Non-aqueous redox flow batteries have emerged as promising systems for large-capacity, reversible energy storage, capable of meeting the variable demands of the electrical grid. Here, we investigate the potential for a series of Lindqvist polyoxovanadate-alkoxide (POV-alkoxide) clusters, [V 6 O 7 (OR) 12 ] (R = CH 3 , C 2 H 5 ), to serve as the electroactive species for a symmetric, non-aqueous redox flow battery. We demonstrate that the physical and electrochemical properties of these POV-alkoxides make them suitable for applications in redox flow batteries, as well as the ability for ligand modification at the bridging alkoxide moieties to yield significant improvements in cluster stability during charge-discharge cycling. Indeed, the metal-oxide core remains intact upon deep charge-discharge cycling, enabling extremely high coulombic efficiencies (∼97%) with minimal overpotential losses (∼0.3 V). Furthermore, the bulky POV-alkoxide demonstrates significant resistance to deleterious crossover, which will lead to improved lifetime and efficiency in a redox flow battery.

  6. State-of-Charge Estimation and Active Cell Pack Balancing Design of Lithium Battery Power System for Smart Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Z. C.; Chin, C. S.; Toh, W. D.; Chiew, J.; Jia, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated state-of-charge (SOC) estimation model and active cell balancing of a 12-cell lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery power system. The strong tracking cubature extended Kalman filter (STCEKF) gave an accurate SOC prediction compared to other Kalman-based filter algorithms. The proposed groupwise balancing of the multiple SOC exhibited a higher balancing speed and lower balancing loss than other cell balancing designs. The experimental results demonstrated t...

  7. A PSO-Optimized Fuzzy Logic Control-Based Charging Method for Individual Household Battery Storage Systems within a Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-consumption of household photovoltaic (PV storage systems has become profitable for residential owners under the trends of limited feed-in power and decreasing PV feed-in tariffs. For individual PV-storage systems, the challenge mainly lies in managing surplus generation of battery and grid power flow, ideally without relying on error-prone forecasts for both generation and consumption. Considering the large variation in power profiles of different houses in a neighborhood, the strategy is also supposed to be beneficial and applicable for the entire community. In this study, an adaptable battery charging control strategy is designed in order to obtain minimum costs for houses without any meteorological or load forecasts. Based on fuzzy logic control (FLC, battery state-of-charge (SOC and the variation of SOC (∆SOC are taken as input variables to dynamically determine output charging power with minimum costs. The proposed FLC-based algorithm benefits from the charging battery as much as possible during the daytime, and meanwhile properly preserves the capacity at midday when there is high possibility of curtailment loss. In addition, due to distinct power profiles in each individual house, input membership functions of FLC are improved by particle swarm optimization (PSO to achieve better overall performance. A neighborhood with 74 houses in Germany is set up as a scenario for comparison to prior studies. Without forecasts of generation and consumption power, the proposed method leads to minimum costs in 98.6% of houses in the community, and attains the lowest average expenses for a single house each year.

  8. Charge mechanism analysis of lithium ion secondary battery. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubobuchi, Kei; Imai, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Redox reaction behaviors of a lithium ion secondary battery were investigated by K-edge in-situ XANES and L-edge XANES measurements combined with ab initio XANES simulation. During the charge process, the shape of K-edge XANES spectra was found to change, suggesting contribution of Mn 3d electron to charge and discharge. The detailed analysis based on first-principles electronic structure calculation and ab initio XANES simulation, however, indicated that valence change of Mn is little and rather O largely contribute to the reaction. (author)

  9. Robust Online State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery Pack Based on Error Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable state of charge (SOC estimation is a key enabling technique for large format lithium-ion battery pack due to its vital role in battery safety and effective management. This paper tries to make three contributions to existing literatures through robust algorithms. (1 Observer based SOC estimation error model is established, where the crucial parameters on SOC estimation accuracy are determined by quantitative analysis, being a basis for parameters update. (2 The estimation method for a battery pack in which the inconsistency of cells is taken into consideration is proposed, ensuring all batteries’ SOC ranging from 0 to 1, effectively avoiding the battery overcharged/overdischarged. Online estimation of the parameters is also presented in this paper. (3 The SOC estimation accuracy of the battery pack is verified using the hardware-in-loop simulation platform. The experimental results at various dynamic test conditions, temperatures, and initial SOC difference between two cells demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  10. A novel multi-model probability battery state of charge estimation approach for electric vehicles using H-infinity algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Cheng; Mu, Hao; Xiong, Rui; Shen, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel multi-model probability battery SOC fusion estimation approach was proposed. • The linear matrix inequality-based H∞ technique is employed to estimate the SOC. • The Bayes theorem has been employed to realize the optimal weight for the fusion. • The robustness of the proposed approach is verified by different batteries. • The results show that the proposed method can promote global estimation accuracy. - Abstract: Due to the strong nonlinearity and complex time-variant property of batteries, the existing state of charge (SOC) estimation approaches based on a single equivalent circuit model (ECM) cannot provide the accurate SOC for the entire discharging period. This paper aims to present a novel SOC estimation approach based on a multiple ECMs fusion method for improving the practical application performance. In the proposed approach, three battery ECMs, namely the Thevenin model, the double polarization model and the 3rd order RC model, are selected to describe the dynamic voltage of lithium-ion batteries and the genetic algorithm is then used to determine the model parameters. The linear matrix inequality-based H-infinity technique is employed to estimate the SOC from the three models and the Bayes theorem-based probability method is employed to determine the optimal weights for synthesizing the SOCs estimated from the three models. Two types of lithium-ion batteries are used to verify the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach. The results indicate that the proposed approach can improve the accuracy and reliability of the SOC estimation against uncertain battery materials and inaccurate initial states.

  11. Influence of different open circuit voltage tests on state of charge online estimation for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Fangdan; Xing, Yinjiao; Jiang, Jiuchun; Sun, Bingxiang; Kim, Jonghoon; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two common tests for observing battery open circuit voltage performance are compared. • The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated. • Two estimators are evaluated in terms of accuracy and robustness for estimating battery SOC. • The incremental OCV test is better to predetermine the OCV-SOCs for SOC online estimation. - Abstract: Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is a crucial function of battery management systems (BMSs), since accurate estimated SOC is critical to ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicles. A widely used technique for SOC estimation is based on online inference of battery open circuit voltage (OCV). Low-current OCV and incremental OCV tests are two common methods to observe the OCV-SOC relationship, which is an important element of the SOC estimation technique. In this paper, two OCV tests are run at three different temperatures and based on which, two SOC estimators are compared and evaluated in terms of tracking accuracy, convergence time, and robustness for online estimating battery SOC. The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated and its influence on SOC estimation results is discussed. In addition, four dynamic tests are presented, one for estimator parameter identification and the other three for estimator performance evaluation. The comparison results show that estimator 2 (based on the incremental OCV test) has higher tracking accuracy and is more robust against varied loading conditions and different initial values of SOC than estimator 1 (based on the low-current OCV test) with regard to ambient temperature. Therefore, the incremental OCV test is recommended for predetermining the OCV-SOCs for battery SOC online estimation in BMSs.

  12. State of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries using the open-circuit voltage at various ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Yinjiao; He, Wei; Pecht, Michael; Tsui, Kwok Leung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An offline OCV–SOC–temperature table was established to infer battery SOC. • A temperature-based model was developed to estimate SOC at different temperatures. • The algorithm for SOC estimation was verified by dynamic current load. • The robustness of the approach was validated by different initial SOC values. - Abstract: Ambient temperature is a significant factor that influences the accuracy of battery SOC estimation, which is critical for remaining driving range prediction of electric vehicles (EVs) and optimal charge/discharge control of batteries. A widely used method to estimate SOC is based on an online inference of open-circuit voltage (OCV). However, the fact that the OCV–SOC is dependent on ambient temperature can result in errors in battery SOC estimation. To address this problem, this paper presents an SOC estimation approach based on a temperature-based model incorporated with an OCV–SOC–temperature table. The unscented Kalman filtering (UKF) was applied to tune the model parameters at each sampling step to cope with various uncertainties arising from the operation environment, cell-to-cell variation, and modeling inaccuracy. Two dynamic tests, the dynamic stress test (DST) and the federal urban driving schedule (FUDS), were used to test batteries at different temperatures. Then, DST was used to identify the model parameters while FUDS was used to validate the performance of the SOC estimation. The estimation was made covering the major working range from 25% to 85% SOC. The results indicated that our method can provide accurate SOC estimation with smaller root mean squared errors than the method that does not take into account ambient temperature. Thus, our approach is effective and accurate when battery operates at different ambient temperatures. Since the developed method takes into account the temperature factor as well as the complexity of the model, it could be effectively applied in battery management systems for

  13. High-Capacity Sodium Peroxide Based NaO2 Batteries with Low Charge Overpotential via a Nanostructured Catalytic Cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Lu; Zhang, Dongzhou [Partnership; Lei, Yu [Department; Yuan, Yifei; Wu, Tianpin; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2018-01-05

    The superoxide based Na-O-2 battery has circumvented the issue of large charge overpotential in Li-O-2 batteries; however, the one-electron process leads to limited capacity. Herein, a sodium peroxide based low-overpotential (similar to 0.5 V) Na-O-2 battery with a capacity as high as 7.5 mAh/cm(2) is developed with Pd nanoparticles as catalysts on the cathode.

  14. Thermal Conductivity Changes Due to Degradation of Cathode Film Subjected to Charge-Discharge Cycles in a Li Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannadham, K.

    2018-05-01

    A battery device with graphene platelets as anode, lithium nickel manganese oxide as cathode, and solid-state electrolyte consisting of layers of lithium phosphorous oxynitride and lithium lanthanum titanate is assembled on the stainless steel substrate. The battery in a polymer enclosure is subjected to several electrical tests consisting of charge and discharge cycles at different current and voltage levels. Thermal conductivity of the cathode layer is determined at the end of charge-discharge cycles using transient thermoreflectance. The microstructure and composition of the cathode layer and the interface between the cathode, the anode, and the electrolyte are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and elemental mapping. The decrease in the thermal conductivity of the same cathode observed after each set of electrical test cycles is correlated with the volume changes and formation of low ionic and thermal conductivity lithium oxide and lithium oxychloride at the interface and along porous regions. The interface between the metal current collector and the cathode is also found to be responsible for the increase in thermal resistance. The results indicate that changes in the thermal conductivity of the electrodes provide a measure of the resistance to heat transfer and degradation of ionic transport in the cathode accompanying the charge-discharge cycles in the batteries.

  15. A combination Kalman filter approach for State of Charge estimation of lithium-ion battery considering model uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanwen; Wang, Chao; Gong, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    An accurate battery State of Charge estimation plays an important role in battery electric vehicles. This paper makes two contributions to the existing literature. (1) A recursive least squares method with fuzzy adaptive forgetting factor has been presented to update the model parameters close to the real value more quickly. (2) The statistical information of the innovation sequence obeying chi-square distribution has been introduced to identify model uncertainty, and a novel combination algorithm of strong tracking unscented Kalman filter and adaptive unscented Kalman filter has been developed to estimate SOC (State of Charge). Experimental results indicate that the novel algorithm has a good performance in estimating the battery SOC against initial SOC errors and voltage sensor drift. A comparison with the unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms and adaptive unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms shows that the proposed SOC estimation method has better accuracy, robustness and convergence behavior. - Highlights: • Recursive least squares method with fuzzy adaptive forgetting factor is presented. • The innovation obeying chi-square distribution is used to identify uncertainty. • A combination Karman filter approach for State of Charge estimation is presented. • The performance of the proposed method is verified by comparison results.

  16. State of Charge Balancing Control of a Multi-Functional Battery Energy Storage System Based on a 11-Level Cascaded Multilevel PWM Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Songcen; Teodorescu, Remus; Máthé, Lászlo

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on modeling and SOC (State of Charge) balancing control of lithium-ion battery energy storage system based on cascaded multilevel converter for both grid integration and electric vehicle propulsion applications. The equivalent electrical circuit model of lithium-ion battery...

  17. Measurements of the charged particle multiplicity distribution in restricted rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Meinhard, H; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stierlin, U; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Duarte, H; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Si Mohand, D; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1995-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicity distributions have been measured with the ALEPH detector in restricted rapidity intervals |Y| \\leq 0.5,1.0, 1.5,2.0\\/ along the thrust axis and also without restriction on rapidity. The distribution for the full range can be parametrized by a log-normal distribution. For smaller windows one finds a more complicated structure, which is understood to arise from perturbative effects. The negative-binomial distribution fails to describe the data both with and without the restriction on rapidity. The JETSET model is found to describe all aspects of the data while the width predicted by HERWIG is in significant disagreement.

  18. Thermal blurring effects on fluctuations of conserved charges in rapidity space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, M.; Kitazawa, M.; Onishi, Y.; Sakaida, M.

    2016-12-15

    We argue that the diffusion in the hadron phase and the thermal blurring at thermal freezeout affect observed conserved charge fluctuations considerably in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and show that their effects are of similar order at RHIC and LHC, and thus equally important in understanding experimental data. We also argue that, in order to disentangle them and obtain the initial state charge fluctuations, which we are interested in, it is crucial to measure their dependence on the rapidity window size. In the energy range of the beam energy scan program at RHIC, the diffusion effect would be less important because of the shorter duration of the hadron phase, but the importance of thermal blurring is not reduced. In addition, it is necessary to take account of the complex correspondence between the space-time rapidity and rapidity of observed particles, there.

  19. Multiple Electron Charge Transfer Chemistries for Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems: The Metal Boride and Metal Air Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jessica F.

    The primary focus of this work has been to develop high-energy capacity batteries capable of undergoing multiple electron charge transfer redox reactions to address the growing demand for improved electrical energy storage systems that can be applied to a range of applications. As the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) increase in the Earth's atmosphere, the effects on climate change become increasingly apparent. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the U.S. electric power sector is responsible for the release of 2,039 million metric tons of CO2 annually, equating to 39% of total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions. Both nationally and abroad, there are numerous issues associated with the generation and use of electricity aside from the overwhelming dependence on fossil fuels and the subsequent carbon emissions, including reliability of the grid and the utilization of renewable energies. Renewable energy makes up a relatively small portion of total energy contributions worldwide, accounting for only 13% of the 3,955 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity produced each year, as reported by the EIA. As the demand to reduce our dependence on fossils fuels and transition to renewable energy sources increases, cost effective large-scale electrical energy storage must be established for renewable energy to become a sustainable option for the future. A high capacity energy storage system capable of leveling the intermittent nature of energy sources such as solar, wind, and water into the electric grid and provide electricity at times of high demand will facilitate this transition. In 2008, the Licht Group presented the highest volumetric energy capacity battery, the vanadium diboride (VB2) air battery, exceedingly proficient in transferring eleven electrons per molecule. This body of work focuses on new developments to this early battery such as fundamentally understanding the net discharge mechanism of the system, evaluation of the properties and

  20. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A.O.; Hockgeiger, E. [BMW Group, Powertrain Development, Energy Storage, Hufelandstrasse 4, 80788 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-05-01

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 C and at 3 C battery temperature. (author)

  1. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  2. Development of compact rapid charging power supply for capacitive energy storage in pulsed power drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-02-01

    High energy capacitor bank is used for primary electrical energy storage in pulsed power drivers. The capacitors used in these pulsed power drivers have low inductance, low internal resistance, and less dc life, so it has to be charged rapidly and immediately discharged into the load. A series resonant converter based 45 kV compact power supply is designed and developed for rapid charging of the capacitor bank with constant charging current up to 150 mA. It is short circuit proof, and zero current switching technique is used to commute the semiconductor switch. A high frequency resonant inverter switching at 10 kHz makes the overall size small and reduces the switching losses. The output current of the power supply is limited by constant on-time and variable frequency switching control technique. The power supply is tested by charging the 45 kV/1.67 μF and 15 kV/356 μF capacitor banks. It has charged the capacitor bank up to rated voltage with maximum charging current of 150 mA and the average charging rate of 3.4 kJ/s. The output current of the power supply is limited by reducing the switching frequency at 5 kHz, 3.3 kHz, and 1.7 kHz and tested with 45 kV/1.67 μF capacitor bank. The protection circuit is included in the power supply for over current, under voltage, and over temperature. The design details and the experimental testing results of the power supply for resonant current, output current, and voltage traces of the power supply with capacitive, resistive, and short circuited load are presented and discussed.

  3. A model-based adaptive state of charge estimator for a lithium-ion battery using an improved adaptive particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Min; Guo, Hui; Cao, Binggang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose an improved adaptive particle swarm filter method. • The SoC estimation method for the battery based on the adaptive particle swarm filter is presented. • The algorithm is validated by the case study of different aged extent batteries. • The effectiveness and applicability of the algorithm are validated by the LiPB batteries. - Abstract: Obtaining accurate parameters, state of charge (SoC) and capacity of a lithium-ion battery is crucial for a battery management system, and establishing a battery model online is complex. In addition, the errors and perturbations of the battery model dramatically increase throughout the battery lifetime, making it more challenging to model the battery online. To overcome these difficulties, this paper provides three contributions: (1) To improve the robustness of the adaptive particle filter algorithm, an error analysis method is added to the traditional adaptive particle swarm algorithm. (2) An online adaptive SoC estimator based on the improved adaptive particle filter is presented; this estimator can eliminate the estimation error due to battery degradation and initial SoC errors. (3) The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified using various initial states of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) cells and lithium-ion polymer (LiPB) batteries. The experimental analysis shows that the maximum errors are less than 1% for both the voltage and SoC estimations and that the convergence time of the SoC estimation decreased to 120 s.

  4. Equivalent circuit model parameters of a high-power Li-ion battery: Thermal and state of charge effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jamie; Nelson, Ruben; Kalu, Egwu E.; Weatherspoon, Mark H.; Zheng, Jim P.

    2011-05-01

    Equivalent circuit model (EMC) of a high-power Li-ion battery that accounts for both temperature and state of charge (SOC) effects known to influence battery performance is presented. Electrochemical impedance measurements of a commercial high power Li-ion battery obtained in the temperature range 20 to 50 °C at various SOC values was used to develop a simple EMC which was used in combination with a non-linear least squares fitting procedure that used thirteen parameters for the analysis of the Li-ion cell. The experimental results show that the solution and charge transfer resistances decreased with increase in cell operating temperature and decreasing SOC. On the other hand, the Warburg admittance increased with increasing temperature and decreasing SOC. The developed model correlations that are capable of being used in process control algorithms are presented for the observed impedance behavior with respect to temperature and SOC effects. The predicted model parameters for the impedance elements Rs, Rct and Y013 show low variance of 5% when compared to the experimental data and therefore indicates a good statistical agreement of correlation model to the actual experimental values.

  5. A Novel Methodology for Estimating State-Of-Charge of Li-Ion Batteries Using Advanced Parameters Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Safwat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available State-of-charge (SOC estimations of Li-ion batteries have been the focus of many research studies in previous years. Many articles discussed the dynamic model’s parameters estimation of the Li-ion battery, where the fixed forgetting factor recursive least square estimation methodology is employed. However, the change rate of each parameter to reach the true value is not taken into consideration, which may tend to poor estimation. This article discusses this issue, and proposes two solutions to solve it. The first solution is the usage of a variable forgetting factor instead of a fixed one, while the second solution is defining a vector of forgetting factors, which means one factor for each parameter. After parameters estimation, a new idea is proposed to estimate state-of-charge (SOC of the Li-ion battery based on Newton’s method. Also, the error percentage and computational cost are discussed and compared with that of nonlinear Kalman filters. This methodology is applied on a 36 V 30 A Li-ion pack to validate this idea.

  6. A novel Gaussian process regression model for state-of-health estimation of lithium-ion battery using charging curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Duo; Zhang, Xu; Pan, Rui; Wang, Yujie; Chen, Zonghai

    2018-04-01

    The state-of-health (SOH) estimation is always a crucial issue for lithium-ion batteries. In order to provide an accurate and reliable SOH estimation, a novel Gaussian process regression (GPR) model based on charging curve is proposed in this paper. Different from other researches where SOH is commonly estimated by cycle life, in this work four specific parameters extracted from charging curves are used as inputs of the GPR model instead of cycle numbers. These parameters can reflect the battery aging phenomenon from different angles. The grey relational analysis method is applied to analyze the relational grade between selected features and SOH. On the other hand, some adjustments are made in the proposed GPR model. Covariance function design and the similarity measurement of input variables are modified so as to improve the SOH estimate accuracy and adapt to the case of multidimensional input. Several aging data from NASA data repository are used for demonstrating the estimation effect by the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method has high SOH estimation accuracy. Besides, a battery with dynamic discharging profile is used to verify the robustness and reliability of this method.

  7. Elucidating the Performance Limitations of Lithium-ion Batteries due to Species and Charge Transport through Five Characteristic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fangming; Peng, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Underutilization due to performance limitations imposed by species and charge transports is one of the key issues that persist with various lithium-ion batteries. To elucidate the relevant mechanisms, two groups of characteristic parameters were proposed. The first group contains three characteristic time parameters, namely: (1) te, which characterizes the Li-ion transport rate in the electrolyte phase, (2) ts, characterizing the lithium diffusion rate in the solid active materials, and (3) tc, describing the local Li-ion depletion rate in electrolyte phase at the electrolyte/electrode interface due to electrochemical reactions. The second group contains two electric resistance parameters: Re and Rs, which represent respectively, the equivalent ionic transport resistance and the effective electronic transport resistance in the electrode. Electrochemical modeling and simulations to the discharge process of LiCoO2 cells reveal that: (1) if te, ts and tc are on the same order of magnitude, the species transports may not cause any performance limitations to the battery; (2) the underlying mechanisms of performance limitations due to thick electrode, high-rate operation, and large-sized active material particles as well as effects of charge transports are revealed. The findings may be used as quantitative guidelines in the development and design of more advanced Li-ion batteries. PMID:27599870

  8. A New Method for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Strong Tracking Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of state of charge (SOC is a crucial evaluation index in a battery management system (BMS. The value of SOC indicates the remaining capacity of a battery, which provides a good guarantee of safety and reliability of battery operation. It is difficult to get an accurate value of the SOC, being one of the inner states. In this paper, a strong tracking cubature Kalman filter (STCKF based on the cubature Kalman filter is presented to perform accurate and reliable SOC estimation. The STCKF algorithm can adjust gain matrix online by introducing fading factor to the state estimation covariance matrix. The typical second-order resistor-capacitor model is used as the battery’s equivalent circuit model to dynamically simulate characteristics of the battery. The exponential-function fitting method accomplishes the task of relevant parameters identification. Then, the developed STCKF algorithm has been introduced in detail and verified under different operation current profiles such as Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. Making a comparison with extended Kalman filter (EKF and CKF algorithm, the experimental results show the merits of the STCKF algorithm in SOC estimation accuracy and robustness.

  9. A method for state-of-charge estimation of Li-ion batteries based on multi-model switching strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Build a multi-model switching SOC estimate method for Li-ion batteries. • Build an improved interpretative structural modeling method for model switching. • The feedback strategy of bus delay is applied to improve the real-time performance. • The EKF method is used for SOC estimation to improve the estimated accuracy. - Abstract: The accurate state-of-charge (SOC) estimation and real-time performance are critical evaluation indexes for Li-ion battery management systems (BMS). High accuracy algorithms often take long program execution time (PET) in the resource-constrained embedded application systems, which will undoubtedly lead to the decrease of the time slots of other processes, thereby reduce the overall performance of BMS. Considering the resource optimization and the computational load balance, this paper proposes a multi-model switching SOC estimation method for Li-ion batteries. Four typical battery models are employed to build a close-loop SOC estimation system. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) method is employed to eliminate the effect of the current noise and improve the accuracy of SOC. The experiments under dynamic current conditions are conducted to verify the accuracy and real-time performance of the proposed method. The experimental results indicate that accurate estimation results and reasonable PET can be obtained by the proposed method

  10. Air quality impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Texas: evaluating three battery charging scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Tammy M; King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E; Allen, David T

    2011-01-01

    The air quality impacts of replacing approximately 20% of the gasoline-powered light duty vehicle miles traveled (VMT) with electric VMT by the year 2018 were examined for four major cities in Texas: Dallas/Ft Worth, Houston, Austin, and San Antonio. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging was assumed to occur on the electric grid controlled by the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and three charging scenarios were examined: nighttime charging, charging to maximize battery life, and charging to maximize driver convenience. A subset of electricity generating units (EGUs) in Texas that were found to contribute the majority of the electricity generation needed to charge PHEVs at the times of day associated with each scenario was modeled using a regional photochemical model (CAMx). The net impacts of the PHEVs on the emissions of precursors to the formation of ozone included an increase in NO x emissions from EGUs during times of day when the vehicle is charging, and a decrease in NO x from mobile emissions. The changes in maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations and average exposure potential at twelve air quality monitors in Texas were predicted on the basis of these changes in NO x emissions. For all scenarios, at all monitors, the impact of changes in vehicular emissions, rather than EGU emissions, dominated the ozone impact. In general, PHEVs lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. A few monitors showed a larger increase in ozone for the convenience charging scenario versus the other two scenarios. Additionally, cumulative ozone exposure results indicate that nighttime charging is most likely to reduce a measure of ozone exposure potential versus the other two scenarios.

  11. Battery charging characteristics in small scaled photovoltaic system using resonant DC-DC converter with electric isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, H.; Kimura, G.; Shioya, M.

    1990-01-01

    The solar energy has been drawing attention of the whole world as a clean and infinite energy, since the globe resource, the globe ecology and so on came into question. The wide applications of the solar energy are being expected in a range from electric power plants to household systems. But the output power induced in the photovoltaic modules is influenced by an intensity of the solar radiation, a temperature of the solar cells and so on, so the various useful forms of the solar energy are being proposed for a purpose of stable power supply. a system described in this paper is a small scaled photovoltaic system with storage batteries. This paper describes the theoretical analyses of the photovoltaic system using a resonant DC-DC converter in order to clarify a desirable circuit condition, besides the experimental results of the battery charging characteristics are presented

  12. Direct Solar Charging of an Organic-Inorganic, Stable, and Aqueous Alkaline Redox Flow Battery with a Hematite Photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedege, Kristina; Azevedo, João; Khataee, Amirreza; Bentien, Anders; Mendes, Adélio

    2016-06-13

    The intermittent nature of the sunlight and its increasing contribution to electricity generation is fostering the energy storage research. Direct solar charging of an auspicious type of redox flow battery could make solar energy directly and efficiently dispatchable. The first solar aqueous alkaline redox flow battery using low cost and environmentally safe materials is demonstrated. The electrolytes consist of the redox couples ferrocyanide and anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate in sodium hydroxide solution, yielding a standard cell potential of 0.74 V. Photovoltage enhancement strategies are demonstrated for the ferrocyanide-hematite junction by employing an annealing treatment and growing a layer of a conductive polyaniline polymer on the electrode surface, which decreases electron-hole recombination. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Role of Li2O2@Li2CO3 Interfaces on Charge Transport in Nonaqueous Li−Air Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonnen, Yedilfana Setarge; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Hummelshøj, Jens S.

    2015-01-01

    The formation and oxidation of the main discharge product in nonaqueous secondary Li−O2 batteries, that is, Li2O2, has been studied intensively, but less attention has been given to the formation of cathode−electrolyte interfaces, which can significantly influence the performance of the Li−O2...... battery. Here we apply density functional theory with the Hubbard U correction (DFT+U) and nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) methods to investigate the role of Li2O2@Li2CO3 interface layers on the ionic and electronic transport properties at the oxygen electrode. We show that, for example, lithium...... vacancies accumulate at the peroxide part of the interface during charge, reducing the coherent electron transport by two to three orders of magnitude compared with pristine Li2O2. During discharge, Li2O2@Li2CO3 interfaces may, however, provide an alternative in-plane channel for fast electron polaron...

  14. A Novel Intelligent Method for the State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using a Discrete Wavelet Transform-Based Wavelet Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyu Cui

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC estimation is becoming increasingly important, along with electric vehicle (EV rapid development, while SOC is one of the most significant parameters for the battery management system, indicating remaining energy and ensuring the safety and reliability of EV. In this paper, a hybrid wavelet neural network (WNN model combining the discrete wavelet transform (DWT method and adaptive WNN is proposed to estimate the SOC of lithium-ion batteries. The WNN model is trained by Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M algorithm, whose inputs are processed by discrete wavelet decomposition and reconstitution. Compared with back-propagation neural network (BPNN, L-M based BPNN (LMBPNN, L-M based WNN (LMWNN, DWT with L-M based BPNN (DWTLMBPNN and extend Kalman filter (EKF, the proposed intelligent SOC estimation method is validated and proved to be effective. Under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC, the mean absolute error and maximum error can be reduced to 0.59% and 3.13%, respectively. The characteristics of high accuracy and strong robustness of the proposed method are verified by comparison study and robustness evaluation results (e.g., measurement noise test and untrained driving cycle test.

  15. Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  16. Charged particle multiplicity distributions in restricted rapidity intervals in Z0 hadronic decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, V.

    1991-01-01

    The multiplicity distributions of charged particles in restricted rapidity intervals in Z 0 hadronic decays measured by the DELPHI detector are presented. The data reveal a shoulder structure, best visible for intervals of intermediate size, i.e. for rapidity limits around ±1.5. The whole set of distributions including the shoulder structure is reproduced by the Lund Parton Shower model. The structure is found to be due to important contributions from 3- and 4-jet events with a hard gluon jet. A different model, based on the concept of independently produced groups of particles, 'clans', fluctuating both in number per event and particle content per clan, has also been used to analyse the present data. The results show that for each interval of rapidity the average number of clans per event is approximately the same as at lower energies. (author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  17. Comparative Study of Online Open Circuit Voltage Estimation Techniques for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Chaoui

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Online estimation techniques are extensively used to determine the parameters of various uncertain dynamic systems. In this paper, online estimation of the open-circuit voltage (OCV of lithium-ion batteries is proposed by two different adaptive filtering methods (i.e., recursive least square, RLS, and least mean square, LMS, along with an adaptive observer. The proposed techniques use the battery’s terminal voltage and current to estimate the OCV, which is correlated to the state of charge (SOC. Experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed methods in online estimation at different charge/discharge conditions and temperatures. The comparative study illustrates the advantages and limitations of each online estimation method.

  18. Modeling and state-of-charge prediction of lithium-ion battery and ultracapacitor hybrids with a co-estimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujie; Liu, Chang; Pan, Rui; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-01-01

    The modeling and state-of-charge estimation of the batteries and ultracapacitors are crucial to the battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system. In recent years, the model based state estimators are welcomed widely, since they can adjust the gain according to the error between the model predictions and measurements timely. In most of the existing algorithms, the model parameters are either configured by theoretical values or identified off-line without adaption. But in fact, the model parameters always change continuously with loading wave or self-aging, and the lack of adaption will reduce the estimation accuracy significantly. To overcome this drawback, a novel co-estimator is proposed to estimate the model parameters and state-of-charge simultaneously. The extended Kalman filter is employed for parameter updating. To reduce the convergence time, the recursive least square algorithm and the off-line identification method are used to provide initial values with small deviation. The unscented Kalman filter is employed for the state-of-charge estimation. Because the unscented Kalman filter takes not only the measurement uncertainties but also the process uncertainties into account, it is robust to the noise. Experiments are executed to explore the robustness, stability and precision of the proposed method. - Highlights: • A co-estimator is proposed to estimate the model parameters and state-of-charge. • The extended Kalman filter is used for model parameter adaption. • The unscented Kalman filter is designed for state estimation with strong robust. • The dynamic profiles are employed to verify the proposed co-estimator.

  19. An Adaptive Gain Nonlinear Observer for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of charge (SOC is important for the safety and reliability of battery operation since it indicates the remaining capacity of a battery. However, it is difficult to get an accurate value of SOC, because the SOC cannot be directly measured by a sensor. In this paper, an adaptive gain nonlinear observer (AGNO for SOC estimation of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs in electric vehicles (EVs is proposed. The second-order resistor–capacitor (2RC equivalent circuit model is used to simulate the dynamic behaviors of a LIB, based on which the state equations are derived to design the AGNO for SOC estimation. The model parameters are identified using the exponential-function fitting method. The sixth-order polynomial function is used to describe the highly nonlinear relationship between the open circuit voltage (OCV and the SOC. The convergence of the proposed AGNO is proved using the Lyapunov stability theory. Two typical driving cycles, including the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC and Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS are adopted to evaluate the performance of the AGNO by comparing with the unscented Kalman filter (UKF algorithm. The experimental results show that the AGNO has better performance than the UKF algorithm in terms of reducing the computation cost, improving the estimation accuracy and enhancing the convergence ability.

  20. A Combined State of Charge Estimation Method for Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in a Wide Ambient Temperature Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Feng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperature is a significant factor that influences the characteristics of lithium-ion batteries, which can produce adverse effects on state of charge (SOC estimation. In this paper, an integrated SOC algorithm that combines an advanced ampere-hour counting (Adv Ah method and multistate open-circuit voltage (multi OCV method, denoted as “Adv Ah + multi OCV”, is proposed. Ah counting is a simple and general method for estimating SOC. However, the available capacity and coulombic efficiency in this method are influenced by the operating states of batteries, such as temperature and current, thereby causing SOC estimation errors. To address this problem, an enhanced Ah counting method that can alter the available capacity and coulombic efficiency according to temperature is proposed during the SOC calculation. Moreover, the battery SOCs between different temperatures can be mutually converted in accordance with the capacity loss. To compensate for the accumulating errors in Ah counting caused by the low precision of current sensors and lack of accurate initial SOC, the OCV method is used for calibration and as a complement. Given the variation of available capacities at different temperatures, rated/non-rated OCV–SOCs are established to estimate the initial SOCs in accordance with the Ah counting SOCs. Two dynamic tests, namely, constant- and alternated-temperature tests, are employed to verify the combined method at different temperatures. The results indicate that our method can provide effective and accurate SOC estimation at different ambient temperatures.

  1. Enhanced online model identification and state of charge estimation for lithium-ion battery with a FBCRLS based observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Meng, Shujuan; Xiong, Binyu; Ji, Dongxu; Tseng, King Jet

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated online model identification and SOC estimate is explored. • Noise variances are online estimated in a data-driven way. • Identification bias caused by noise corruption is attenuated. • SOC is online estimated with high accuracy and fast convergence. • Algorithm comparison shows the superiority of proposed method. - Abstract: State of charge (SOC) estimators with online identified battery model have proven to have high accuracy and better robustness due to the timely adaption of time varying model parameters. In this paper, we show that the common methods for model identification are intrinsically biased if both the current and voltage sensors are corrupted with noises. The uncertainties in battery model further degrade the accuracy and robustness of SOC estimate. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel technique which integrates the Frisch scheme based bias compensating recursive least squares (FBCRLS) with a SOC observer for enhanced model identification and SOC estimate. The proposed method online estimates the noise statistics and compensates the noise effect so that the model parameters can be extracted without bias. The SOC is further estimated in real time with the online updated and unbiased battery model. Simulation and experimental studies show that the proposed FBCRLS based observer effectively attenuates the bias on model identification caused by noise contamination and as a consequence provides more reliable estimate on SOC. The proposed method is also compared with other existing methods to highlight its superiority in terms of accuracy and convergence speed.

  2. Nano-Engineered Materials for Rapid Rechargeable Space Rated Advanced Li-Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy, energy density...

  3. Nano-Engineered Materials for Rapid Rechargeable Space Rated Advanced Li-Ion Batteries, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy, energy density...

  4. Rapid preparative separation of monoclonal antibody charge variants using laterally-fed membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadavarte, Rahul; Madadkar, Pedram; Filipe, Carlos Dm; Ghosh, Raja

    2018-01-15

    Monoclonal antibodies undergo various forms of chemical transformation which have been shown to cause loss in efficacy and alteration in pharmacokinetic properties of these molecules. Such modified antibody molecules are known as variants. They also display physical properties such as charge that are different from intact antibody molecules. However, the difference in charge is very subtle and separation based on it is quite challenging. Charge variants are usually separated using ion-exchange column chromatography or isoelectric focusing. In this paper, we report a rapid and scalable method for fractionating monoclonal antibody charge variants, based on the use of cation exchange laterally-fed membrane chromatography (LFMC). Starting with a sample of monoclonal antibody hIgG1-CD4, three well-resolved fractions were obtained using either pH or salt gradient. These fractions were identified as acidic, neutral and basic variants. Each of these fractions contained intact heavy and light chains and so antibody fragmentation had no role in variant generation. The separation was comparable to that using column chromatography but was an order of magnitude faster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation during the First Charging Cycles of Silicon Microwire Array Anodes for High Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Föll

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon microwire arrays embedded in Cu present exceptional performance as anode material in Li ion batteries. The processes occurring during the first charging cycles of batteries with this anode are essential for good performance. This paper sheds light on the electrochemical and structural properties of the anodes during the first charging cycles. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractommetry, and fast Fourier transformation impedance spectroscopy are used for the characterization. It was found that crystalline phases with high Li content are obtained after the first lithiation cycle, while for the second lithiation just crystalline phases with less Li are observable, indicating that the lithiated wires become amorphous upon cycling. The formation of a solid electrolyte interface of around 250 nm during the first lithiation cycle is evidenced, and is considered a necessary component for the good cycling performance of the wires. Analog to voltammetric techniques, impedance spectroscopy is confirmed as a powerful tool to identify the formation of the different Si-Li phases.

  6. Research on ISFLA-Based Optimal Control Strategy for the Coordinated Charging of EV Battery Swap Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of the smart grid, electric vehicles (EVs could be a good measure against energy shortages and environmental pollution. A main way of energy supply to EVs is to swap battery from the swap station. Based on the characteristics of EV battery swap station, the coordinated charging optimal control strategy is investigated to smooth the load fluctuation. Shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA is an optimization method inspired by the memetic evolution of a group of frogs when seeking food. An improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA with the reflecting method to deal with the boundary constraint is proposed to obtain the solution of the optimal control strategy for coordinated charging. Based on the daily load of a certain area, the numerical simulations including the comparison of PSO and ISFLA are carried out and the results show that the presented ISFLA can effectively lower the peak-valley difference and smooth the load profile with the faster convergence rate and higher convergence precision.

  7. Adaptive estimation of the electromotive force of the lithium-ion battery after current interruption for an accurate state-of-charge and capacity determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waag, Wladislaw; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New adaptive approach for the EMF estimation. • The EMF is estimated by observing the voltage change after the current interruption. • The approach enables an accurate SoC and capacity determination. • Real-time capable algorithm. - Abstract: The online estimation of battery states and parameters is one of the challenging tasks when battery is used as a part of the pure electric or hybrid energy system. For the determination of the available energy stored in the battery, the knowledge of the present state-of-charge (SOC) and capacity of the battery is required. For SOC and capacity determination often the estimation of the battery electromotive force (EMF) is employed. The electromotive force can be measured as an open circuit voltage (OCV) of the battery when a significant time has elapsed since the current interruption. This time may take up to some hours for lithium-ion batteries and is needed to eliminate the influence of the diffusion overvoltages. This paper proposes a new approach to estimate the EMF by considering the OCV relaxation process within only some first minutes after the current interruption. The approach is based on an online fitting of an OCV relaxation model to the measured OCV relaxation curve. This model is based on an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source (represents the EMF) in series with the parallel connection of the resistance and a constant phase element (CPE). Based on this fitting the model parameters are determined and the EMF is estimated. The application of this method is exemplarily demonstrated for the state-of-charge and capacity estimation of the lithium-ion battery in an electrical vehicle. In the presented example the battery capacity is determined with the maximal inaccuracy of 2% using the EMF estimated at two different levels of state-of-charge. The real-time capability of the proposed algorithm is proven by its implementation on a low-cost 16-bit microcontroller (Infineon XC2287)

  8. State of Charge and State of Health Estimation of AGM VRLA Batteries by Employing a Dual Extended Kalman Filter and an ARX Model for Online Parameter Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Tham Tran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC and state of health (SOH are key issues for the application of batteries, especially the absorbent glass mat valve regulated lead-acid (AGM VRLA type batteries used in the idle stop start systems (ISSs that are popularly integrated into conventional engine-based vehicles. This is due to the fact that SOC and SOH estimation accuracy is crucial for optimizing battery energy utilization, ensuring safety and extending battery life cycles. The dual extended Kalman filter (DEKF, which provides an elegant and powerful solution, is widely applied in SOC and SOH estimation based on a battery parameter model. However, the battery parameters are strongly dependent on operation conditions such as the SOC, current rate and temperature. In addition, battery parameters change significantly over the life cycle of a battery. As a result, many experimental pretests investigating the effects of the internal and external conditions of a battery on its parameters are required, since the accuracy of state estimation depends on the quality of the information regarding battery parameter changes. In this paper, a novel method for SOC and SOH estimation that combines a DEKF algorithm, which considers hysteresis and diffusion effects, and an auto regressive exogenous (ARX model for online parameters estimation is proposed. The DEKF provides precise information concerning the battery open circuit voltage (OCV to the ARX model. Meanwhile, the ARX model continues monitoring parameter variations and supplies information on them to the DEKF. In this way, the estimation accuracy can be maintained despite the changing parameters of a battery. Moreover, online parameter estimation from the ARX model can save the time and effort used for parameter pretests. The validation of the proposed algorithm is given by simulation and experimental results.

  9. On-line parameter, state-of-charge and aging estimation of Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bergveld, H.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an on-line model identification method for Li-ion battery parameters that combines high accuracy and low computational complexity. Experimental results show that modeling errors are smaller than 1% throughout the feasible operating range. The identified model is used in a state

  10. A salt water battery with high stability and charging rates made from solution processed conjugated polymers with polar side chains

    OpenAIRE

    Moia, Davide; Giovannitti, Alexander; Szumska, Anna A.; Schnurr, Martin; Rezasoltani, Elham; Maria, Iuliana P.; Barnes, Piers R. F.; McCulloch, Iain; Nelson, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    We report a neutral salt water based battery which uses p-type and n-type solution processed polymer films as the cathode and the anode of the cell. The specific capacity of the electrodes (approximately 30 mAh cm-3) is achieved via formation of bipolarons in both the p-type and n-type polymers. By engineering ethylene glycol and zwitterion based side chains attached to the polymer backbone we facilitate rapid ion transport through the non-porous polymer films. This, combined with efficient t...

  11. Rapid battery depletion and loss of therapy due to a short circuit in bipolar DBS for essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, Niels; Barbe, Michael Thomas; Timmermann, Lars; Coenen, Volker Arnd

    2017-05-01

    Technical dysfunctions have been reported reducing efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Here, we report on an essential-tremor patient in whom a short circuit in bipolar DBS resulted not only in unilateral loss of therapy but also in high current flow and thereby rapid decline of the impulse-generator battery voltage from 2.83 V a week before the event to 2.54 V, indicating the need for an impulse-generator replacement. Immediate re-programming restored therapeutic efficacy. Moreover, the reduction in current flow allowed the battery voltage to recover without immediate surgical intervention to 2.81 V a week later.

  12. Estimation of the charge quantity from solar cell to battery; Taiyo denchi ni yoru chikudenchi eno juden yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, K; Nishitani, M [Daiichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In performing an experiment of running a small electric vehicle by installing solar cells in it and by charging the storage battery at a specific voltage, an estimation was made on the charge quantity to the battery for each solar altitude and inclination of a module at different hours. The solar altitude was determined at Daiichi University, College of Technology, according to the month and the time of day from a formula using day-declination and time equation of a chronological table of science. The quantity of global solar radiation was determined by resolving the solar radiation into its direct and diffuse components on the basis of the extra-terrestrial solar radiation quantity with the change in radius vector taken into consideration; and then, the global solar radiation on the inclined face was obtained from the angle of inclination and incidence. On the roof of a Daiichi University building, solar cell modules were installed facing north and south at 0{degree}, 30{degree}, 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 90{degree} each, so that a short-circuit current was measured for each differently inclined angle. As a result of the experiment, shown in an regression formula is a relation between the temperature conversion value of the maximum output of the solar cell at the standard temperature of 25{degree}C and the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface. Consequently, it enabled the prediction of a charging quantity, in the case of running a small vehicle with solar cells installed, from the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface in the clear weather. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Fault Clearing at Low State of Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.

    1997-01-01

    Fault clearing currents were achieved and maintained at discharge rates from C/2 to C/3 at high and low states of charge. The fault clearing plateau voltage is strong function of: discharge current, and voltage-prior-to-the-fault-clearing-event and a weak function of state of charge. Voltage performance, for the range of conditions reported, is summarized.

  14. A Real-Time Joint Estimator for Model Parameters and State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SoC estimation of batteries plays an important role in promoting the commercialization of electric vehicles. The main work to be done in accurately determining battery SoC can be summarized in three parts. (1 In view of the model-based SoC estimation flow diagram, the n-order resistance-capacitance (RC battery model is proposed and expected to accurately simulate the battery’s major time-variable, nonlinear characteristics. Then, the mathematical equations for model parameter identification and SoC estimation of this model are constructed. (2 The Akaike information criterion is used to determine an optimal tradeoff between battery model complexity and prediction precision for the n-order RC battery model. Results from a comparative analysis show that the first-order RC battery model is thought to be the best based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC values. (3 The real-time joint estimator for the model parameter and SoC is constructed, and the application based on two battery types indicates that the proposed SoC estimator is a closed-loop identification system where the model parameter identification and SoC estimation are corrected mutually, adaptively and simultaneously according to the observer values. The maximum SoC estimation error is less than 1% for both battery types, even against the inaccurate initial SoC.

  15. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  16. Battery Power Management in Heavy-duty HEVs based on the Estimated Critical Surface Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    energy flows through the system reach up to the marginal values during aggressive acceleration or braking . The underlying phenomenon determining the...the system reach up to the marginal values during aggressive acceleration or braking . The underlying phenomenon determining the limits is closely...where Pbatt.min is the minimum allowable battery power. When negative power demand is requested by the driver, regenerative braking mode is

  17. Performance Analysis of Machine-Learning Approaches for Modeling the Charging/Discharging Profiles of Stationary Battery Systems with Non-Uniform Cell Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandha Kumar Kandasamy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of Stationary Battery Systems (SBS connected to various power distribution networks across the world has increased drastically. The increase in the integration of renewable energy sources is one of the major contributors to the increase in the number of SBS. SBS are also used in other applications such as peak load management, load-shifting, voltage regulation and power quality improvement. Accurately modeling the charging/discharging characteristics of such SBS at various instances (charging/discharging profile is vital for many applications. Capacity loss due to the aging of the batteries is an important factor to be considered for estimating the charging/discharging profile of SBS more accurately. Empirical modeling is a common approach used in the literature for estimating capacity loss, which is further used for estimating the charging/discharging profiles of SBS. However, in the case of SBS used for renewable integration and other grid related applications, machine-learning (ML based models provide extreme flexibility and require minimal resources for implementation. The models can even leverage existing smart meter data to estimate the charging/discharging profile of SBS. In this paper, an analysis on the performance of different ML approaches that can be applied for lithium iron phosphate battery systems and vanadium redox flow battery systems used as SBS is presented for the scenarios where the aging of individual cells is non-uniform.

  18. 3-D pore-scale resolved model for coupled species/charge/fluid transport in a vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Gang; Joshi, Abhijit S.; Dennison, C.R.; Knehr, K.W.; Kumbur, E.C.; Sun Ying

    2012-01-01

    The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) has emerged as a viable grid-scale energy storage technology that offers cost-effective energy storage solutions for renewable energy applications. In this paper, a novel methodology is introduced for modeling of the transport mechanisms of electrolyte flow, species and charge in the VRFB at the pore scale of the electrodes; that is, at the level where individual carbon fiber geometry and electrolyte flow are directly resolved. The detailed geometry of the electrode is obtained using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and calibrated against experimentally determined pore-scale characteristics (e.g., pore and fiber diameter, porosity, and surface area). The processed XCT data is then used as geometry input for modeling of the electrochemical processes in the VRFB. The flow of electrolyte through the pore space is modeled using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) while the finite volume method (FVM) is used to solve the coupled species and charge transport and predict the performance of the VRFB under various conditions. An electrochemical model using the Butler–Volmer equations is used to provide species and charge coupling at the surfaces of the carbon fibers. Results are obtained for the cell potential distribution, as well as local concentration, overpotential and current density profiles under galvanostatic discharge conditions. The cell performance is investigated as a function of the electrolyte flow rate and external drawing current. The model developed here provides a useful tool for building the structure–property–performance relationship of VRFB electrodes.

  19. Stability Analysis for Li-Ion Battery Model Parameters and State of Charge Estimation by Measurement Uncertainty Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifei Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of model parameters and state of charge (SoC is crucial for the lithium-ion battery management system (BMS. In this paper, the stability of the model parameters and SoC estimation under measurement uncertainty is evaluated by three different factors: (i sampling periods of 1/0.5/0.1 s; (ii current sensor precisions of ±5/±50/±500 mA; and (iii voltage sensor precisions of ±1/±2.5/±5 mV. Firstly, the numerical model stability analysis and parametric sensitivity analysis for battery model parameters are conducted under sampling frequency of 1–50 Hz. The perturbation analysis is theoretically performed of current/voltage measurement uncertainty on model parameter variation. Secondly, the impact of three different factors on the model parameters and SoC estimation was evaluated with the federal urban driving sequence (FUDS profile. The bias correction recursive least square (CRLS and adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF algorithm were adopted to estimate the model parameters and SoC jointly. Finally, the simulation results were compared and some insightful findings were concluded. For the given battery model and parameter estimation algorithm, the sampling period, and current/voltage sampling accuracy presented a non-negligible effect on the estimation results of model parameters. This research revealed the influence of the measurement uncertainty on the model parameter estimation, which will provide the guidelines to select a reasonable sampling period and the current/voltage sensor sampling precisions in engineering applications.

  20. Evaluation of Lithium-Ion Battery Equivalent Circuit Models for State of Charge Estimation by an Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxin Fan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle (EV applications, evaluations and comparisons of different equivalent circuit models are presented in this paper. Based on an analysis of the traditional lithium-ion battery equivalent circuit models such as the Rint, RC, Thevenin and PNGV models, an improved Thevenin model, named dual polarization (DP model, is put forward by adding an extra RC to simulate the electrochemical polarization and concentration polarization separately. The model parameters are identified with a genetic algorithm, which is used to find the optimal time constant of the model, and the experimental data from a Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC test on a LiMn2O4 battery module. Evaluations on the five models are carried out from the point of view of the dynamic performance and the state of charge (SoC estimation. The dynamic performances of the five models are obtained by conducting the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and the accuracy of SoC estimation with the Robust Extended Kalman Filter (REKF approach is determined by performing a Federal Urban Driving Schedules (FUDS experiment. By comparison, the DP model has the best dynamic performance and provides the most accurate SoC estimation. Finally, sensitivity of the different SoC initial values is investigated based on the accuracy of SoC estimation with the REKF approach based on the DP model. It is clear that the errors resulting from the SoC initial value are significantly reduced and the true SoC is convergent within an acceptable error.

  1. Dealing with the Empty Vehicle Movements in Personal Rapid Transit System with Batteries Constraints in a Dynamic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzeddine Fatnassi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Personal Rapid Transit is a new emergent transportation tool. It relies on using a set of small driverless electric vehicles to transport people on demand. Because of the specific on-demand characteristic of the Personal Rapid Transit system, many Personal Rapid Transit vehicles would move empty which results in a high level of wasted transportation capacity. This is enhanced while using Personal Rapid Transit vehicles with limited electric battery capacity. This paper deals with this problem in a real time context while minimizing the set of empty vehicle movements. First, a mathematical formulation to benchmark waiting time of passengers in Personal Rapid Transit systems is proposed. Then, a simulation model that captures the main features of the Personal Rapid Transit system is developed. A decision support system which integrates several real time solution strategies as well as a simulation module is proposed. Our dispatching strategies are evaluated and compared based on our simulation model. The efficiency of our method is tested through extensive test studies.

  2. Thailand's solar white elephants: an analysis of 15 yr of solar battery charging programmes in northern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Donna

    2004-01-01

    The use of decentralised renewable energy technologies to provide rural electrification in developing countries has been a common topic of analysis and policy debate for more than two decades. Unfortunately, a lack of empirical evidence about the field performance of these technologies is a significant barrier to making sound policy decisions about them. Compounded by minimal information sharing between stakeholders, this situation has frequently allowed duplication of inefficient policies. This issue is addressed here by providing empirical evidence gathered from field visits and interviews about the largest government subsidised solar battery charging programme in the world. This analysis highlights the different policies of departments responsible and discusses them with specific attention to their technical, social and economic components. Field study results from over 50 villages in the north of Thailand suggest about 60 per cent of these systems are no longer operational. Many of the technical failures observed are attributed to social factors, as well as flawed implementation strategies

  3. A novel method for state of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries using a nonlinear observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bizhong; Chen, Chaoren; Tian, Yong; Sun, Wei; Xu, Zhihui; Zheng, Weiwei

    2014-12-01

    The state of charge (SOC) is important for the safety and reliability of battery operation since it indicates the remaining capacity of a battery. However, as the internal state of each cell cannot be directly measured, the value of the SOC has to be estimated. In this paper, a novel method for SOC estimation in electric vehicles (EVs) using a nonlinear observer (NLO) is presented. One advantage of this method is that it does not need complicated matrix operations, so the computation cost can be reduced. As a key step in design of the nonlinear observer, the state-space equations based on the equivalent circuit model are derived. The Lyapunov stability theory is employed to prove the convergence of the nonlinear observer. Four experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the presented method. The results show that the SOC estimation error converges to 3% within 130 s while the initial SOC error reaches 20%, and does not exceed 4.5% while the measurement suffers both 2.5% voltage noise and 5% current noise. Besides, the presented method has advantages over the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and sliding mode observer (SMO) algorithms in terms of computation cost, estimation accuracy and convergence rate.

  4. Investigating the error sources of the online state of charge estimation methods for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuejiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Han, Xuebing; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu

    2018-02-01

    Sate of charge (SOC) estimation is generally acknowledged as one of the most important functions in battery management system for lithium-ion batteries in new energy vehicles. Though every effort is made for various online SOC estimation methods to reliably increase the estimation accuracy as much as possible within the limited on-chip resources, little literature discusses the error sources for those SOC estimation methods. This paper firstly reviews the commonly studied SOC estimation methods from a conventional classification. A novel perspective focusing on the error analysis of the SOC estimation methods is proposed. SOC estimation methods are analyzed from the views of the measured values, models, algorithms and state parameters. Subsequently, the error flow charts are proposed to analyze the error sources from the signal measurement to the models and algorithms for the widely used online SOC estimation methods in new energy vehicles. Finally, with the consideration of the working conditions, choosing more reliable and applicable SOC estimation methods is discussed, and the future development of the promising online SOC estimation methods is suggested.

  5. Predicting state of charge of lead-acid batteries for hybrid electric vehicles by extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasebi, A.; Bathaee, S.M.T.; Partovibakhsh, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes and introduces a new nonlinear predictor and a novel battery model for estimating the state of charge (SoC) of lead-acid batteries for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Many problems occur for a traditional SoC indicator, such as offset, drift and long term state divergence, therefore this paper proposes a technique based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) in order to overcome these problems. The underlying dynamic behavior of each cell is modeled using two capacitors (bulk and surface) and three resistors (terminal, surface and end). The SoC is determined from the voltage present on the bulk capacitor. In this new model, the value of the surface capacitor is constant, whereas the value of the bulk capacitor is not. Although the structure of the model, with two constant capacitors, has been previously reported for lithium-ion cells, this model can also be valid and reliable for lead-acid cells when used in conjunction with an EKF to estimate SoC (with a little variation). Measurements using real-time road data are used to compare the performance of conventional internal resistance (R int ) based methods for estimating SoC with those predicted from the proposed state estimation schemes. The results show that the proposed method is superior to the more traditional techniques, with accuracy in estimating the SoC within 3%

  6. Assessment of the use of vanadium redox flow batteries for energy storage and fast charging of electric vehicles in gas stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Álvaro; Brito, F.P.; Martins, Jorge; Rodrigues, Nuno; Monteiro, Vitor; Afonso, João L.; Ferreira, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A network of conveniently located fast charging stations is one of the possibilities to facilitate the adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs). This paper assesses the use of fast charging stations for EVs in conjunction with VRFBs (Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries). These batteries are charged during low electricity demand periods and then supply electricity for the fast charging of EVs during day, thus implementing a power peak shaving process. Flow batteries have unique characteristics which make them especially attractive when compared with conventional batteries, such as their ability to decouple rated power from rated capacity, as well as their greater design flexibility and nearly unlimited life. Moreover, their liquid nature allows their installation inside deactivated underground gas tanks located at gas stations, enabling a smooth transition of gas stations' business model towards the emerging electric mobility paradigm. A project of a VRFB system to fast charge EVs taking advantage of existing gas stations infrastructures is presented. An energy and cost analysis of this concept is performed, which shows that, for the conditions tested, the project is technologically and economically viable, although being highly sensitive to the investment costs and to the electricity market conditions. - Highlights: • Assessment of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery use for EV fast charge in gas stations. • This novel system proposal allows power peak shaving and use of deactivated gas tanks. • Philosophy allows seamless business transition towards the Electric Mobility paradigm. • Project is technologically and economically viable, although with long payback times. • Future Cost cuts due to technology maturation will consolidate project attractiveness.

  7. A New Vehicle-to-Grid System for Battery Charging exploiting IoT protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fachechi, Alessio; Mainetti, Luca; Palano, Laura; Patrono, Luca; Stefanizzi, Luigi; Vergallo, Roberto; Chu, Peter; Gadh, Rajit

    2015-03-17

    The continuously rising demand for electricity has prompted governments and industries to research more effective energy management systems. The Internet of Things paradigm is a valuable add-on for controlling and managing the energy appliances such as Plug-in Electrical Vehicles (PEV) charging stations. In this paper, we present a Demand Response implementation for PEV charging stations able to use Wireless Sensor Network technologies based on the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). We developed a self-service kiosk system by which the user can autonomously swipe his/her credit card and choose the charging station to enable. When a user plugs his/her vehicle to the station, s/he subscribes his availability to share a portion of its energy. When the grid requests a contribution from the PEVs, the kiosk sends a CoAP message to the available stations and the energy flow is inverted (Vehicle-to-Grid). At the end of the charging process, the user's credit card gets charged with a discounted bill.

  8. Optimal placement, sizing, and daily charge/discharge of battery energy storage in low voltage distribution network with high photovoltaic penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jannesar, Mohammad Rasol; Sedighi, Alireza; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    when photovoltaic penetration is increased in low voltage distribution network. Local battery energy storage system can mitigate these disadvantages and as a result, improve the system operation. For this purpose, battery energy storage system is charged when production of photovoltaic is more than...... consumers’ demands and discharged when consumers’ demands are increased. Since the price of battery energy storage system is high, economic, environmental, and technical objectives should be considered together for its placement and sizing. In this paper, optimal placement, sizing, and daily (24 h) charge......Proper installation of rooftop photovoltaic generation in distribution networks can improve voltage profile, reduce energy losses, and enhance the reliability. But, on the other hand, some problems regarding harmonic distortion, voltage magnitude, reverse power flow, and energy losses can arise...

  9. Assessing the stationary energy storage equivalency of vehicle-to-grid charging battery electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Wifvat, Van; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A study has been performed to understand the quantitative impact of key differences between vehicle-to-grid and stationary energy storage systems on renewable utilization, greenhouse gas emissions, and balancing fleet operation, using California as the example. To simulate the combined electricity and light-duty transportation system, a detailed electric grid dispatch model (including stationary energy storage systems) was combined with an electric vehicle charging dispatch model that incorporates conventional smart and vehicle-to-grid capabilities. By subjecting smaller amounts of renewable energy to round-trip efficiency losses and thereby increasing the efficiency of renewable utilization, it was found that vehicle-to-grid energy storage can achieve higher renewable utilization levels and reduced greenhouse gas emissions compared to stationary energy storage systems. Vehicle-to-grid energy storage, however, is not as capable of balancing the power plant fleet compared to stationary energy storage systems due to the constraints of consumer travel patterns. The potential benefits of vehicle-to-grid are strongly dependent on the availability of charging infrastructure at both home and workplaces, with potential benefits being compromised with residential charging availability only. Overall, vehicle-to-grid energy storage can provide benefits over stationary energy storage depending on the system attribute selected for improvement, a finding amenable to managing through policy. - Highlights: • Using vehicle-to-grid-based storage increases the efficiency of renewable energy utilization. • Vehicle-to-grid-based energy storage has less overall flexibility compared to stationary energy storage. • The discharge ability of vehicle-to-grid-based provides a significant benefit over one-way smart charging. • Both workplace and home charging are critical for providing vehicle-to-grid-related benefits. • Increasing charging intelligence reduces stationary energy

  10. Joint Estimation of the Electric Vehicle Power Battery State of Charge Based on the Least Squares Method and the Kalman Filter Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Guo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An estimation of the power battery state of charge (SOC is related to the energy management, the battery cycle life and the use cost of electric vehicles. When a lithium-ion power battery is used in an electric vehicle, the SOC displays a very strong time-dependent nonlinearity under the influence of random factors, such as the working conditions and the environment. Hence, research on estimating the SOC of a power battery for an electric vehicle is of great theoretical significance and application value. In this paper, according to the dynamic response of the power battery terminal voltage during a discharging process, the second-order RC circuit is first used as the equivalent model of the power battery. Subsequently, on the basis of this model, the least squares method (LS with a forgetting factor and the adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF algorithm are used jointly in the estimation of the power battery SOC. Simulation experiments show that the joint estimation algorithm proposed in this paper has higher precision and convergence of the initial value error than a single AUKF algorithm.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Scott B.; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Federal electric vehicle (EV) policies in the United States currently include vehicle purchase subsidies linked to EV battery capacity and subsidies for installing charging stations. We assess the cost-effectiveness of increased battery capacity vs. nondomestic charging infrastructure installation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as alternate methods to reduce gasoline consumption for cars, trucks, and SUVs in the US. We find across a wide range of scenarios that the least-cost solution is for more drivers to switch to low-capacity plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (short electric range with gasoline backup for long trips) or gasoline-powered hybrid electric vehicles. If more gasoline savings are needed per vehicle, nondomestic charging infrastructure installation is substantially more expensive than increased battery capacity per gallon saved, and both approaches have higher costs than US oil premium estimates. Cost effectiveness of all subsidies are lower under a binding fuel economy standard. Comparison of results to the structure of current federal subsidies shows that policy is not aligned with fuel savings potential, and we discuss issues and alternatives. - Highlights: ► We compare cost of PHEV batteries vs. charging infrastructure per gallon of gasoline saved. ► The lowest cost solution is to switch more drivers to low-capacity PHEVs and HEVs. ► If more gasoline savings is needed, batteries offer a better value than chargers. ► Extra batteries and chargers are both more costly per gal than oil premium estimates. ► Current subsidies are misaligned with fuel savings. We discuss alternatives.

  12. In situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy investigation of the state of charge of all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chuankun; Liu, Qi; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Yang, Fan; Ren, Yang; Heald, Steve M; Liu, Yadong; Li, Zhe-Fei; Lu, Wenquan; Xie, Jian

    2014-10-22

    Synchrotron-based in situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (XANES) has been used to study the valence state evolution of the vanadium ion for both the catholyte and anolyte in all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRB) under realistic cycling conditions. The results indicate that, when using the widely used charge-discharge profile during the first charge process (charging the VRB cell to 1.65 V under a constant current mode), the vanadium ion valence did not reach V(V) in the catholyte and did not reach V(II) in the anolyte. Consequently, the state of charge (SOC) for the VRB cell was only 82%, far below the desired 100% SOC. Thus, such incompletely charged mix electrolytes results in not only wasting the electrolytes but also decreasing the cell performance in the following cycles. On the basis of our study, we proposed a new charge-discharge profile (first charged at a constant current mode up to 1.65 V and then continuously charged at a constant voltage mode until the capacity was close to the theoretical value) for the first charge process that achieved 100% SOC after the initial charge process. Utilizing this new charge-discharge profile, the theoretical charge capacity and the full utilization of electrolytes has been achieved, thus having a significant impact on the cost reduction of the electrolytes in VRB.

  13. Modeling and analysis of LiFePO4/Carbon battery considering two-phase transition during galvanostatic charging/discharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xueyan; Xiao, Meng; Choe, Song-Yul; Joe, Won Tae

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduced order model for LiFePO 4 particles considering two-phase transition • Model validation with experimental results of current and voltage • Analysis of two-phase transition and path dependence - Abstract: Batteries with lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cathode and carbon anode have shown various advantages over those with other chemistries, but the plateau and path dependence caused by the two-phase transition taking place during charging and discharging make it difficult to estimate the states of battery. Thus, based on electrochemical principles we propose a new reduced order model that has been validated against experimental data obtained during galvanostatic charging/discharging. The mechanism of the two-phase transition during lithiation and delithiation in LFP particles is approximated using a shrinking corewith a moving interface between the two phases and is described by modified diffusion equations that take into account multiple layers formed within LFP particles. The shrinking core model is integrated into a cell model developed previously, which is used to analyze the path dependence at different load profiles. The results show that the model is capable of representing the characteristics of the plateau and path dependence. Particularly, the available charge at a certain State of Charge (SOC) varies dependent upon paths to reach the SOC. When an initial SOC is reached by discharging, the cell can accept more charges during charging, while when an initial SOC is reached by charging, more charge will be available during discharging

  14. Demand Profile Study of Battery Electric Vehicle under Different Charging Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guang Ya; Træholt, Chresten

    2012-01-01

    An increased research on electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) deals with their flexible use in electric power grids. Several research projects on smart grids and electric mobility are now looking into realistic models representing the behavior of an EV during charging...

  15. Functional Two-Dimensional Coordination Polymeric Layer as a Charge Barrier in Li–S Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jing-Kai; Li, Mengliu; Wan, Yi; Dey, Sukumar; Ostwal, Mayur; Zhang, Daliang; Yang, Chih-Wen; Su, Chun-Jen; Jeng, U-Ser; Ming, Jun; Amassian, Aram; Lai, Zhiping; Han, Yu; Li, Sean; Li, Lain-Jong

    2018-01-01

    , which enables applications using the charge exclusion principle. This work demonstrates a simple and scalable method of synthesizing a free-standing 2D coordination polymer Zn2(benzimidazolate)2(OH)2 at the air–water interface. The hydroxyl (−OH) groups

  16. A sensor data format incorporating battery charge information for smartphone-based mHealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rodrigo; Akopian, David; Boppana, Rajendra

    2015-03-01

    Remote health monitoring systems involve energy-constrained devices, such as sensors and mobile gateways. Current data formats for communication of health data, such as DICOM and HL7, were not designed for multi-sensor applications or to enable the management of power-constrained devices in health monitoring processes. In this paper, a data format suitable for collection of multiple sensor data, including readings and other operational parameters is presented. By using the data format, the system management can assess energy consumptions and plan realistic monitoring scenarios. The proposed data format not only outperforms other known data formats in terms of readability, flexibility, interoperability and validation of compliant documents, but also enables energy assessment capability for realistic data collection scenarios and maintains or even reduces the overhead introduced due to formatting. Additionally, we provide analytical methods to estimate incremental energy consumption by various sensors and experiments to measure the actual battery drain on smartphones.

  17. Wavelet Based Denoising for the Estimation of the State of Charge for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In practical electric vehicle applications, the noise of original discharging/charging voltage (DCV signals are inevitable, which comes from electromagnetic interference and the measurement noise of the sensors. To solve such problems, the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT based state of charge (SOC estimation method is proposed in this paper. Through a multi-resolution analysis, the original DCV signals with noise are decomposed into different frequency sub-bands. The desired de-noised DCV signals are then reconstructed by utilizing the inverse discrete wavelet transform, based on the sure rule. With the de-noised DCV signal, the SOC and the parameters are obtained using the adaptive extended Kalman Filter algorithm, and the adaptive forgetting factor recursive least square method. Simulation and experimental results show that the SOC estimation error is less than 1%, which indicates an effective improvement in SOC estimation accuracy.

  18. Estimating state of charge and health of lithium-ion batteries with guided waves using built-in piezoelectric sensors/actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladpli, Purim; Kopsaftopoulos, Fotis; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2018-04-01

    This work presents the feasibility of monitoring state of charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH) of lithium-ion pouch batteries with acousto-ultrasonic guided waves. The guided waves are propagated and sensed using low-profile, built-in piezoelectric disc transducers that can be retrofitted onto off-the-shelf batteries. Both experimental and analytical studies are performed to understand the relationship between guided waves generated in a pitch-catch mode and battery SoC/SoH. The preliminary experiments on representative pouch cells show that the changes in time of flight (ToF) and signal amplitude (SA) resulting from shifts in the guided wave signals correlate strongly with the electrochemical charge-discharge cycling and aging. An analytical acoustic model is developed to simulate the variations in electrode moduli and densities during cycling, which correctly validates the absolute values and range of experimental ToF. It is further illustrated via a statistical study that ToF and SA can be used in a prediction model to accurately estimate SoC/SoH. Additionally, by using multiple sensors in a network configuration on the same battery, a significantly more reliable and accurate SoC/SoH prediction is achieved. The indicative results from this study can be extended to develop a unified guided-wave-based framework for SoC/SoH monitoring of many lithium-ion battery applications.

  19. Online available capacity prediction and state of charge estimation based on advanced data-driven algorithms for lithium iron phosphate battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Zhongwei; Yang, Lin; Cai, Yishan; Deng, Hao; Sun, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The key technology of a battery management system is to online estimate the battery states accurately and robustly. For lithium iron phosphate battery, the relationship between state of charge and open circuit voltage has a plateau region which limits the estimation accuracy of voltage-based algorithms. The open circuit voltage hysteresis requires advanced online identification algorithms to cope with the strong nonlinear battery model. The available capacity, as a crucial parameter, contributes to the state of charge and state of health estimation of battery, but it is difficult to predict due to comprehensive influence by temperature, aging and current rates. Aim at above problems, the ampere-hour counting with current correction and the dual adaptive extended Kalman filter algorithms are combined to estimate model parameters and state of charge. This combination presents the advantages of less computation burden and more robustness. Considering the influence of temperature and degradation, the data-driven algorithm namely least squares support vector machine is implemented to predict the available capacity. The state estimation and capacity prediction methods are coupled to improve the estimation accuracy at different temperatures among the lifetime of battery. The experiment results verify the proposed methods have excellent state and available capacity estimation accuracy. - Highlights: • A dual adaptive extended Kalman filter is used to estimate parameters and states. • A correction term is introduced to consider the effect of current rates. • The least square support vector machine is used to predict the available capacity. • The experiment results verify the proposed state and capacity prediction methods.

  20. Analysis of the Deposit Layer from Electrolyte Side Reaction on the Anode of the Pouch Type Lithium Ion Polymer Batteries: The Effect of State of Charge and Charge Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agubra, Victor A.; Fergus, Jeffrey W.; Fu, Rujian; Choe, Song-yul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Raising the battery cycling potential increased the rate of side reaction. • Growth of deposit layer thickness at the electrode/electrolyte interface at high SOC. • A significant amount of lithium was consumed in forming the deposit layer. • Some of the lithium were “trapped” in the graphite after the discharge cycle. - Abstract: The formation of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the surface of the anode electrode of a lithium ion battery prevents further electrolyte decomposition reaction. However, at certain battery operating conditions, the SEI breakdown leading to more electrolyte decomposition reactions that form several species on the anode electrode surface. This paper focuses on the effect of battery potential and charge rate on the decomposition side reaction on the anode electrode of a lithium ion polymer battery, as a result of the breakdown of the SEI layer. The results from this study indicate that raising the state of charge (SOC) increases the rate of the electrolyte decomposition side reaction that resulted in formation of a thick deposit layer at the electrolyte/electrolyte interface. This deposit layer contains lithium that can no longer participate in the reversible electrochemical reaction. In addition, at high cycling potential and charge rates the amount of lithium in the graphite after complete cell discharge increased due to the entrapment of lithium in the graphite. The amount of irreversible capacity loss for the batteries cycled at high potential and current correlates with the amount of trapped lithium in the graphite and the growth of the deposit layer thickness at the electrode/electrolyte interface

  1. Monitoring and control system for the charging of batteries in photovoltaic applications; Sistema para monitorizar y controlar la carga de baterias en aplicaciones fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega S, Cesar A; Pacheco A, Maria Jojutla; Orozco V, Jaime A; Cristin V, Miguel A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The appropriate monitoring and control of the charging of lead-acid (LAB) batteries is an increasing necessity in an industry that demands systems with low maintenance costs and high availability. The problem of extending the batteries useful life becomes more complex when the batteries are charged through photovoltaic panels. The purpose of the present article is to offer the description of the system for monitoring and control for the charging of batteries developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). This system performs a continuous monitoring of the charging state of the battery and of the main operation parameters. With the extracted information of the data, the fine tuning algorithm control can be made. The data are acquired in a personal computer through a serial connection. Once stored, they are presented to the user in a graphical way so that they can be analyzed. [Spanish] El adecuado monitoreo y control de carga de baterias plomo-acido (BPA) es una necesidad creciente en una industria que demanda sistemas con bajos costos de mantenimiento y alta disponibilidad. El problema de extender la vida util de las baterias se vuelve mas complejo cuando las baterias son cargadas a traves de paneles fotovoltaicos. La intencion del presente articulo es ofrecer la descripcion del sistema para monitoreo y control de carga de baterias desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Este sistema realiza un monitoreo continuo del estado de carga de la bateria y de los principales parametros de operacion. Con la informacion extraida de los datos, se puede hacer la sintonizacion fina del algoritmo de control. Los datos se adquieren en una computadora personal a traves de un enlace serial. Una vez almacenados, se presentan al usuario de manera grafica para que puedan ser analizados.

  2. Comparison of Nonlinear Filtering Methods for Estimating the State of Charge of Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SoC estimation is of great significance for the lithium-ion battery to ensure its safety operation and to prevent it from overcharging or overdischarging. To achieve reliable SoC estimation for Li4Ti5O12 lithium-ion battery cell, three filtering methods have been compared and evaluated. A main contribution of this study is that a general three-step model-based battery SoC estimation scheme has been proposed. It includes the processes of battery data measurement, parametric modeling, and model-based SoC estimation. With the proposed general scheme, multiple types of model-based SoC estimators have been developed and evaluated for battery management system application. The detailed comparisons on three advanced adaptive filter techniques, which include extend Kalman filter, unscented Kalman filter, and adaptive extend Kalman filter (AEKF, have been implemented with a Li4Ti5O12 lithium-ion battery. The experimental results indicate that the proposed model-based SoC estimation approach with AEKF algorithm, which uses the covariance matching technique, performs well with good accuracy and robustness; the mean absolute error of the SoC estimation is within 1% especially with big SoC initial error.

  3. Co-estimation of state-of-charge, capacity and resistance for lithium-ion batteries based on a high-fidelity electrochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Linfeng; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Guoxiu; Jiang, Jiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The numerical solution for an electrochemical model is presented. • Trinal PI observers are used to concurrently estimate SOC, capacity and resistance. • An iteration-approaching method is incorporated to enhance estimation performance. • The robustness against aging and temperature variations is experimentally verified. - Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have been widely used as enabling energy storage in many industrial fields. Accurate modeling and state estimation play fundamental roles in ensuring safe, reliable and efficient operation of lithium-ion battery systems. A physics-based electrochemical model (EM) is highly desirable for its inherent ability to push batteries to operate at their physical limits. For state-of-charge (SOC) estimation, the continuous capacity fade and resistance deterioration are more prone to erroneous estimation results. In this paper, trinal proportional-integral (PI) observers with a reduced physics-based EM are proposed to simultaneously estimate SOC, capacity and resistance for lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, a numerical solution for the employed model is derived. PI observers are then developed to realize the co-estimation of battery SOC, capacity and resistance. The moving-window ampere-hour counting technique and the iteration-approaching method are also incorporated for the estimation accuracy improvement. The robustness of the proposed approach against erroneous initial values, different battery cell aging levels and ambient temperatures is systematically evaluated, and the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Influence of memory effect on the state-of-charge estimation of large-format Li-ion batteries based on LiFePO4 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Jiulin; Zheng, Jianming; Jiang, Jiuchun; Viswanathan, Vilayanur; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we systematically investigated the influence of the memory effect of LiFePO4 cathodes in large-format full batteries. The electrochemical performance of the electrodes used in these batteries was also investigated separately in half-cells to reveal their intrinsic properties. We noticed that the memory effect of LiFePO4/graphite cells depends not only on the maximum state of charge reached during the memory writing process, but is also affected by the depth of discharge reached during the memory writing process. In addition, the voltage deviation in a LiFePO4/graphite full battery is more complex than in a LiFePO4/Li half-cell, especially for a large-format battery, which exhibits a significant current variation in the region near its terminals. Therefore, the memory effect should be taken into account in advanced battery management systems to further extend the long-term cycling stabilities of Li-ion batteries using LiFePO4 cathodes.

  5. Assessment of the development of a battery charging infrastructure for a redox flow battery based electromobility concept; Bewertung des Aufbaus einer Ladeinfrastruktur fuer eine Redox-Flow-Batteriebasierte Elektromobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpad Funke, Simon; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energietechnologien und Energiesysteme

    2012-07-01

    Apart from the high acquisition cost, the major obstacles to widespread use of electric-powered vehicles today are long battery charging times and limited mileage. Rechargeable batteries might be a solution. The publication investigates a potential infrastructure for electric-powered vehicles based on so-called redox flow batteries. Redox flow batteries are characterized in that active materials are dissolved in liquid electrolyte and are stored outside the cell. Batteries are recharged by exchanging charged electrolyte for discharged electrolyte, which can be done in fuel stations. Redox flow batteries have the drawback of low energy and power density and were hardly ever considered for mobile applications so far. A technical analysis of RFB technology identified the vanadium oxygen redox flow fuel cell (VOFC) as a promising version. It provides higher energy density than conventional redox flow batteries, but development is still in an early stage. Assuming a 'best case' scenario, a refuelling infrastructure for VOFC vehicles was developed and compared with battery-powered vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell vehicles (FVEV). It was found that electromobility based on VOFC may be a promising alternative to current electromobility concepts. (orig./AKB) [German] Neben den Anschaffungsausgaben stehen lange Ladezeiten und eine beschraenkte Reichweite dem heutigen Einsatz von Elektrofahrzeugen oft entgegen. Eine moegliche Abhilfe koennten betankbare Batterien leisten. In der vorliegenden Arbeit soll ein moeglicher Infrastrukturaufbau fuer Elektrofahrzeuge mit sogenannten Redox-Flow-Batterien untersucht werden. Redox-Flow-Batterien besitzen die Eigenschaft, dass aktive Materialien geloest in Fluessigelektrolyten ausserhalb der Zelle gespeichert werden. Dieser Aufbau ermoeglicht das Aufladen der Batterie, indem der entladene Elektrolyt durch geladenen ausgetauscht wird. Dieser Tausch kann an einer Tankstelle durchgefuehrt werden. Ein wesentlicher Nachteil von Redox

  6. Selection of a Battery of Rapid Toxicity Sensors for Drinking Water Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van der Schalie, William H; James, Ryan R; Gargan, II., Thomas P

    2006-01-01

    .... Ten toxicity sensors utilizing enzymes, bacteria, or vertebrate cells were tested to determine the minimum number of sensors that could rapidly identify toxicity in water samples containing one of 12...

  7. Even-odd charged multiplicity distributions and energy dependence of normalized multiplicity moments in different rapidity windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanfang; Liu Lianshou

    1990-01-01

    The even and odd multiplicity distributions for hadron-hadron collision in different rapidity windows are calculated, starting from a simple picture for charge correlation with non-zero correlation length. The coincidence and separation of these distributions are explained. The calculated window-and energy-dependence of normalized moments recovered the behaviour found in experiments. A new definition for normalized moments is propossed, especially suitable for narrow rapidity windows

  8. Study of two step constant current charging method with EV`s valve-regulated lead acid batteries for nighttime load leveling; Yakan denryoku wo yuko katsuyo dekiru denki jidoshayo namari denchi no nidantei denryu judenho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeya, T.; Mita, Y.; Iwahori, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Iwasaki, M.; Takagi, S.; Sugii, Y.; Yada, M.; Sakabe, T.; Kosaka, E.; Tsuchiya, H.; Kanetsuki, M.; Nasu, H.; Ono, M.; Adachi, K.; Narisoko, H.; Nishiyama, K.

    1997-02-01

    In the constant-current/constant-voltage charging method that has been in application for EV (electric vehicle) lead-acid batteries, power load is generated only at the initial part of the charging process, and therefore the method cannot be said to be sufficiently contributory to the levelling of power loads. In this report, a proposed 2-step constant-current charging method is assessed for applicability, and another charging method is introduced, which extends battery life and utilizes low-cost night-time power more effectively. It is found that the proposed 2-step constant-current charging method (1st step: 12A, 2nd step: 3A) completes the charging process in eight hours, that it assumes a charging pattern more suitable for contributing to the effective use of night-time power than the conventional method, and that it extends the battery life of approximately 170 cycles to approximately 300 cycles. In a study seeking for a charging method capable of utilizing night-time power more efficiently, the 1st-step current of 12A is increased to 30A for shortening the charging time, and then it is found that this change extends the battery cycle life and improves on charging efficiency. The conclusion is that possibilities are high that an increase in the 1st-step current prolongs the battery life cycle and shortens the charting time. 16 refs., 28 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Charge Energy Transport in Hopping Systems with Rapidly Decreasing Density of States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendels, Dan; Organic Electronics Group Technion Team

    2014-03-01

    An accurate description of the carrier hopping topology in the energy domain of hopping systems incorporating a rapidly decreasing density of states and the subsequent energetic position of these systems' so called effective conduction band is crucial for rationalizing and quantifying these systems' thermo-electric properties, doping related phenomena and carrier gradient effects such as the emergence of the General Einstein Relation under degenerate conditions. Additionally, as will be shown, the 'mobile' carriers propagating through the system can have excess energies reaching 0.3eV above the system quasi-Fermi energy. Hence, since these mobile carriers are most prone to reach systems interfaces and interact with oppositely charged carriers, their excess energy should be considered in determining the efficiencies of energy dependent processes such as carrier recombination and exciton dissociation. In light of the stated motivations, a comprehensive numerical and analytical study of the topology of hopping in the energetic density of such systems (i.e. the statistics regarding which energy values carriers visit most and in what manner) was implemented and the main statistical features of the hopping process that determine the position in energy of the system's effective conduction band were distilled. The obtained results also help shed light on yet to be elucidated discrepancies between predictions given by the widely employed transport energy concept and Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. An electric vehicle propulsion system's impact on battery performance: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.; Smithrick, J. J.; Cataldo, R. C.; Ewashinka, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of two types of batteries, lead-acid and nickel-zinc, was measured as a function of the charging and discharging demands anticipated from electric vehicle propulsion systems. The benefits of rapid high current charging were mixed: although it allowed quick charges, the energy efficiency was reduced. For low power (overnight) charging the current wave shapes delivered by the charger to the battery tended to have no effect on the battery cycle life. The use of chopper speed controllers with series traction motors resulted in a significant reduction in the energy available from a battery whenever the motor operates at part load. The demand placed on a battery by an electric vehicle propulsion system containing electrical regenerative braking confirmed significant improvment in short term performance of the battery.

  11. Nondissipative optimum charge regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, R.; Vitebsky, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Optimum charge regulator provides constant level charge/discharge control of storage batteries. Basic power transfer and control is performed by solar panel coupled to battery through power switching circuit. Optimum controller senses battery current and modifies duty cycle of switching circuit to maximize current available to battery.

  12. Enhanced closed loop State of Charge estimator for lithium-ion batteries based on Extended Kalman Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Gustavo; Garmendia, Maitane; Reynaud, Jean François; Crego, Jon; Viscarret, Unai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Based on a general model valid in full range of SOC considering varied dynamics. • Integration of an accurate OCV model in EKF taking into account hysteresis effect. • Experimental validation with different current profiles: pulses, EV and lift. • Validated with specifically designed profile demanding accurate OCV modeling. - Abstract: The accurate State of Charge (SOC) estimation in a Li-ion battery requires a suitable model of the cell behavior. In this work an enhanced closed loop estimator based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is proposed, considering a precise model of the cell dynamics valid for different current profiles and SOCs, and a complete model of the Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) which takes into account the hysteresis influence. The employed model and proposed estimator are validated with experimental results obtained from the response of a 40 Ah NMC Li-ion cell to several current profiles. These tests include current pulses, FUDS driving cycles, residential lift profiles, and specially designed profiles which demand an accurate modeling of the transitions between OCV boundaries. In each case, it is demonstrated that the enhanced model can reduce the estimation error nearly by half compared to an estimator ignoring the hysteresis effect. Furthermore, the good performance of the cell dynamics model allows an accurate and stable estimation over different conditions

  13. Estimation method of state-of-charge for lithium-ion battery used in hybrid electric vehicles based on variable structure extended kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Ma, Zilin; Tang, Gongyou; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Nong

    2016-07-01

    Since the main power source of hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) is supplied by the power battery, the predicted performance of power battery, especially the state-of-charge(SOC) estimation has attracted great attention in the area of HEV. However, the value of SOC estimation could not be greatly precise so that the running performance of HEV is greatly affected. A variable structure extended kalman filter(VSEKF)-based estimation method, which could be used to analyze the SOC of lithium-ion battery in the fixed driving condition, is presented. First, the general lower-order battery equivalent circuit model(GLM), which includes column accumulation model, open circuit voltage model and the SOC output model, is established, and the off-line and online model parameters are calculated with hybrid pulse power characteristics(HPPC) test data. Next, a VSEKF estimation method of SOC, which integrates the ampere-hour(Ah) integration method and the extended Kalman filter(EKF) method, is executed with different adaptive weighting coefficients, which are determined according to the different values of open-circuit voltage obtained in the corresponding charging or discharging processes. According to the experimental analysis, the faster convergence speed and more accurate simulating results could be obtained using the VSEKF method in the running performance of HEV. The error rate of SOC estimation with the VSEKF method is focused in the range of 5% to 10% comparing with the range of 20% to 30% using the EKF method and the Ah integration method. In Summary, the accuracy of the SOC estimation in the lithium-ion battery cell and the pack of lithium-ion battery system, which is obtained utilizing the VSEKF method has been significantly improved comparing with the Ah integration method and the EKF method. The VSEKF method utilizing in the SOC estimation in the lithium-ion pack of HEV can be widely used in practical driving conditions.

  14. State-of-charge inconsistency estimation of lithium-ion battery pack using mean-difference model and extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuejiu; Gao, Wenkai; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Zhou, Long; Han, Xuebing

    2018-04-01

    State-of-charge (SOC) inconsistency impacts the power, durability and safety of the battery pack. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the SOC inconsistency of the battery pack with good accuracy. We explore a novel method for modeling and estimating the SOC inconsistency of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery pack with low computation effort. In this method, a second-order RC model is selected as the cell mean model (CMM) to represent the overall performance of the battery pack. A hypothetical Rint model is employed as the cell difference model (CDM) to evaluate the SOC difference. The parameters of mean-difference model (MDM) are identified with particle swarm optimization (PSO). Subsequently, the mean SOC and the cell SOC differences are estimated by using extended Kalman filter (EKF). Finally, we conduct an experiment on a small Li-ion battery pack with twelve cells connected in series. The results show that the evaluated SOC difference is capable of tracking the changing of actual value after a quick convergence.

  15. Online state of charge and model parameter co-estimation based on a novel multi-timescale estimator for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria; Wai, Nyunt; Tseng, King Jet

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Battery model parameters and SOC co-estimation is investigated. • The model parameters and OCV are decoupled and estimated independently. • Multiple timescales are adopted to improve precision and stability. • SOC is online estimated without using the open-circuit cell. • The method is robust to aging levels, flow rates, and battery chemistries. - Abstract: A key function of battery management system (BMS) is to provide accurate information of the state of charge (SOC) in real time, and this depends directly on the precise model parameterization. In this paper, a novel multi-timescale estimator is proposed to estimate the model parameters and SOC for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) in real time. The model parameters and OCV are decoupled and estimated independently, effectively avoiding the possibility of cross interference between them. The analysis of model sensitivity, stability, and precision suggests the necessity of adopting different timescales for each estimator independently. Experiments are conducted to assess the performance of the proposed method. Results reveal that the model parameters are online adapted accurately thus the periodical calibration on them can be avoided. The online estimated terminal voltage and SOC are both benchmarked with the reference values. The proposed multi-timescale estimator has the merits of fast convergence, high precision, and good robustness against the initialization uncertainty, aging states, flow rates, and also battery chemistries.

  16. A comparative study of three model-based algorithms for estimating state-of-charge of lithium-ion batteries under a new combined dynamic loading profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fangfang; Xing, Yinjiao; Wang, Dong; Tsui, Kwok-Leung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three different model-based filtering algorithms for SOC estimation are compared. • A combined dynamic loading profile is proposed to evaluate the three algorithms. • Robustness against uncertainty of initial states of SOC estimators are investigated. • Battery capacity degradation is considered in SOC estimation. - Abstract: Accurate state-of-charge (SOC) estimation is critical for the safety and reliability of battery management systems in electric vehicles. Because SOC cannot be directly measured and SOC estimation is affected by many factors, such as ambient temperature, battery aging, and current rate, a robust SOC estimation approach is necessary to be developed so as to deal with time-varying and nonlinear battery systems. In this paper, three popular model-based filtering algorithms, including extended Kalman filter, unscented Kalman filter, and particle filter, are respectively used to estimate SOC and their performances regarding to tracking accuracy, computation time, robustness against uncertainty of initial values of SOC, and battery degradation, are compared. To evaluate the performances of these algorithms, a new combined dynamic loading profile composed of the dynamic stress test, the federal urban driving schedule and the US06 is proposed. The comparison results showed that the unscented Kalman filter is the most robust to different initial values of SOC, while the particle filter owns the fastest convergence ability when an initial guess of SOC is far from a true initial SOC.

  17. Online Estimation of Model Parameters and State of Charge of LiFePO4 Batteries Using a Novel Open-Circuit Voltage at Various Ambient Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Feng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an online estimation of the model parameters and state of charge (SOC of lithium iron phosphate batteries in electric vehicles. A widely used SOC estimator is based on the dynamic battery model with predeterminate parameters. However, model parameter variances that follow with their varied operation temperatures can result in errors in estimating battery SOC. To address this problem, a battery online parameter estimator is presented based on an equivalent circuit model using an adaptive joint extended Kalman filter algorithm. Simulations based on actual data are established to verify accuracy and stability in the regression of model parameters. Experiments are also performed to prove that the proposed estimator exhibits good reliability and adaptability under different loading profiles with various temperatures. In addition, open-circuit voltage (OCV is used to estimate SOC in the proposed algorithm. However, the OCV based on the proposed online identification includes a part of concentration polarization and hysteresis, which is defined as parametric identification-based OCV (OCVPI. Considering the temperature factor, a novel OCV–SOC relationship map is established by using OCVPI under various temperatures. Finally, a validating experiment is conducted based on the consecutive loading profiles. Results indicate that our method is effective and adaptable when a battery operates at different ambient temperatures.

  18. Development, modeling and research of the system of automatic control and equalization of the charge state of a battery pack of a hybrid engine of a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmutov, S.; Sizov, Y.; Kim, M.

    2018-02-01

    The article is devoted to the topical problem of developing effective means of monitoring and leveling the charge state of batteries in a power unit of hybrid and electric cars. A system for automatic control and equalization of the charge state of a battery pack of a combined power plant, the originality of which is protected by the Russian Federation patent, is developed and described. A distinctive feature of the device is the possibility of using it both in conditions of charging (power consumption) and in operating conditions (energy recovery). The device is characterized by high reliability, simplicity of the circuit-making solution, low self-consumption and low cost. To test the efficiency of the proposed device, its computer simulation and experimental research were carried out. As a result of multi factorial experiment, a regression equation has been obtained which makes it possible to judge the high efficiency of detecting the degree of inhomogeneity of controlled batteries with respect to the parameters of an equivalent replacement circuit: voltage, internal resistance and capacitance in the magnitude of the obtained coefficients of influence of each of these factors, and also take into account the effects of their pair interactions.

  19. Electric charger for an accumulator or battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robers, E.W.J.; Molenaar, B.A.M.; Smit, W.; Bech, L.P.; Bouman, C.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to an electric charger for an accumulator or a battery or the like, which is adapted for rapid charging during an on-period and comprises for this purpose control means for starting and ending the on-period. The charger is provided with a circuit for converting a supply voltage

  20. High security ion-lithium batteries with rapid recharge for the terrestrial transport and energy storage; Batteries de type ion-lithium de haute securite a recharge rapide pour le transport terrestre et le stockage d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaghib, Karim; Dontigny, M.; Charest, P.; Guerfi, A.; Trotier, J.; Mathieu, M.C.; Zhu, W.; Petitclerc, M.; Veillette, R.; Serventi, A.; Hovington, P.; Lagace, M.; Trudeau, M.; Vijh, A.

    2010-09-15

    Electrical terrestrial transport is today a hub of innovation and growth for Hydro-Quebec. In the perspective of electrification of terrestrial transports, battery remains the critical factor of future success of rechargeable electrical vehicles. For nearly 20 years, Hydro-Quebec, via its research institute, has worked at developing battery material for the lithium-ion technology. Two types of Li-ion batteries have been developed: the energy battery and the power battery. [French] Le transport terrestre electrique est aujourd'hui un pole d'innovation et de croissance pour Hydro-Quebec. Dans la perspective de l'electrification des transports terrestres, la batterie demeure le facteur critique du succes futur des vehicules electriques rechargeables. Depuis pres de 20 ans, Hydro-Quebec, par le biais de son Institut de recherche, travaille au developpement de materiaux de batteries destinees a la technologie lithium-ion. Deux types de batteries Li-ion ont ete mises au point : la batterie d'energie et la batterie de puissance.

  1. Rapid synthesis of tin oxide decorated carbon nanotube nanocomposities as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jeng-Yu; Chou, Ming-Hung; Kuo, Yi-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SnO 2 –CNTs nanocomposite was synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal route. • Adding glucose assisted SnO 2 nanoclusters uniformly grow on the surfaces of CNTs. • SnO 2 –CNTs nanocomposite shows improved electrochemical properties. -- Abstract: In this study, the tin oxide decorated carbon nanotubes (SnO 2 –CNTs) nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized using an ultrafast and environmentally friendly microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. According to X-ray diffraction pattern, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, the SnO 2 nanoclusters can directly grow on the surfaces of CNTs with uniform coverage along the longitudinal axis by using glucose as a binding agent. The electrochemical properties of the SnO 2 –CNTs nanocomposite electrode have been further characterized by galvanostatic discharge/charge cycling tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results demonstrate that the SnO 2 –CNTs nanocomposite electrode exhibited a superior reversible discharge capacity, cycling stability and rate capability as an anode material for Li-ion batteries compared to the pristine SnO 2 electrode. Such synergic improvements can be attributed to combining the SnO 2 nanoclusters onto the conductive CNTs matrix by taking advantage of the relatively high specific capacity of SnO 2 nanoclusters and the excellent cycling capability of the CNTs

  2. Charge transfer and rapidity gap analysis in p(π+)n interactions at 195 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, Y.; Haber, B.; Hochmann, D.; Karshon, U.; Ronat, E.E.; Shapira, A.; Yekutieli, G.

    1980-01-01

    We present charge transfer probabilities between CM hemispheres in pn and π + n interactions at 195 GeV/c. The relative probabilities for charge exchanges ΔQ > 1 as a function of rapidity gap length, r, are given. Both results are compared with those of π - p interactions at 200 GeV/c. The average of r, viz. , is given as a function of the gap number and of ΔQ for various multiplicities, and the reduced average gap lengths /ysub(max) for pn interactions are compared with data at a lower energy. (orig.)

  3. A Consistent Derivation of the Impedance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode and its Dependency on the State-of-Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schönleber, M.; Uhlmann, C.; Braun, P.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A derivation of the impedance model of a Lithium-Ion battery electrode is given. •The dependency of all partial impedances on the State-of-Charge is revealed. •The lasting disagreement in how to model solid-state diffusion is settled. •A solid starting point to derive models of any complexity is provided. •The connection between differential capacity and solid-state diffusion is revealed. -- Abstract: A derivation of the fundamental impedance of a Lithium-Ion battery electrode is given, exemplarily conducted for a solid thin-film electrode. The focus of this derivation is not on developing a model which is able to reproduce the exact behaviour of a given electrode, but rather on deriving its fundamental characteristics from few and intuitive assumptions in a simple and transparent way. It is thus shown, that the fundamental impedance of a solid thin-film electrode consists of an RC-element for charge-transfer, a Finite-Length Warburg element for diffusion in the electrolyte and a Finite-Space Warburg element for diffusion in the solid-state. The use of a Finite-Length Warburg element with a serially connected capacitor for modelling diffusion in the solid-state is thus indicated to be physically questionable. In addition, the theoretically expected behaviour of charge-transfer and solid-state diffusion on the degree of lithiation (State-of-Charge) is derived and discussed.

  4. An overview of online implementable SOC estimation methods for Lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinhao, Meng; Ricco, Mattia; Guangzhao, Luo

    2017-01-01

    With the popularity of Electrical Vehicles (EVs), Lithium-ion battery industry is also developing rapidly. To ensure the battery safety usage and reduce the average lifecycle cost, accurate State Of Charge (SOC) tracking algorithms for real-time implementation are required in different applications...

  5. An Overview and Comparison of Online Implementable SOC Estimation Methods for Lithium-ion Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Jinhao; Ricco, Mattia; Luo, Guangzhao

    2018-01-01

    With the popularity of Electrical Vehicles (EVs), Lithium-ion battery industry is developing rapidly. To ensure the battery safe usage and to reduce its average lifecycle cost, an accurate State of Charge (SOC) tracking algorithms for real-time implementation are required for different applications...

  6. Constraints on rapidity-dependent initial conditions from charged-particle pseudorapidity densities and two-particle correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Weiyao; Moreland, J. Scott; Bernhard, Jonah E.; Bass, Steffen A.

    2017-10-01

    We study the initial three-dimensional spatial configuration of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions using centrality and pseudorapidity-dependent measurements of the medium's charged particle density and two-particle correlations. A cumulant-generating function is first used to parametrize the rapidity dependence of local entropy deposition and extend arbitrary boost-invariant initial conditions to nonzero beam rapidities. The model is then compared to p +Pb and Pb + Pb charged-particle pseudorapidity densities and two-particle pseudorapidity correlations and systematically optimized using Bayesian parameter estimation to extract high-probability initial condition parameters. The optimized initial conditions are then compared to a number of experimental observables including the pseudorapidity-dependent anisotropic flows, event-plane decorrelations, and flow correlations. We find that the form of the initial local longitudinal entropy profile is well constrained by these experimental measurements.

  7. Graphene Supercapacitors: Charging Up the Future

    OpenAIRE

    El-Kady, Maher

    2013-01-01

    Batteries run just about everything portable in our lives such as smartphones, tablets, computers, etc. While we have become accustomed to the rapid improvement of portable electronics, the slow development of batteries is holding back technological progress. Thus, it is imperative to develop a new energy storage technology providing devices that are compact, reliable, and energy dense, charge quickly, and possess both long cycle life and calendar life. Using a consumer grade LightScribe DVD ...

  8. Two-Stage Battery Energy Storage System (BESS in AC Microgrids with Balanced State-of-Charge and Guaranteed Small-Signal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a two-stage battery energy storage system (BESS is implemented to enhance the operation condition of conventional battery storage systems in a microgrid. Particularly, the designed BESS is composed of two stages, i.e., Stage I: integration of dispersed energy storage units (ESUs using parallel DC/DC converters, and Stage II: aggregated ESUs in grid-connected operation. Different from a conventional BESS consisting of a battery management system (BMS and power conditioning system (PCS, the developed two-stage architecture enables additional operation and control flexibility in balancing the state-of-charge (SoC of each ESU and ensures the guaranteed small-signal stability, especially in extremely weak grid conditions. The above benefits are achieved by separating the control functions between the two stages. In Stage I, a localized power sharing scheme based on the SoC of each particular ESU is developed to manage the SoC and avoid over-charge or over-discharge issues; on the other hand, in Stage II, an additional virtual impedance loop is implemented in the grid-interactive DC/AC inverters to enhance the stability margin with multiple parallel-connected inverters integrating at the point of common coupling (PCC simultaneously. A simulation model based on MATLAB/Simulink is established, and simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed BESS architecture and the corresponding control diagram.

  9. Online Identification with Reliability Criterion and State of Charge Estimation Based on a Fuzzy Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Deng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the field of state of charge (SOC estimation, the Kalman filter has been widely used for many years, although its performance strongly depends on the accuracy of the battery model as well as the noise covariance. The Kalman gain determines the confidence coefficient of the battery model by adjusting the weight of open circuit voltage (OCV correction, and has a strong correlation with the measurement noise covariance (R. In this paper, the online identification method is applied to acquire the real model parameters under different operation conditions. A criterion based on the OCV error is proposed to evaluate the reliability of online parameters. Besides, the equivalent circuit model produces an intrinsic model error which is dependent on the load current, and the property that a high battery current or a large current change induces a large model error can be observed. Based on the above prior knowledge, a fuzzy model is established to compensate the model error through updating R. Combining the positive strategy (i.e., online identification and negative strategy (i.e., fuzzy model, a more reliable and robust SOC estimation algorithm is proposed. The experiment results verify the proposed reliability criterion and SOC estimation method under various conditions for LiFePO4 batteries.

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Electrochemical Impedance of Lithium-ion Rechargeable Batteries with Measurement of Charge-discharge Curves by Wavelet Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Masayuki; Ueno, Masaki; Hoshi, Yoshinao; Shitanda, Isao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Wavelet transformation (WT) was used to obtain electrochemical impedance (EI) from time domain data. • Complex Morlet mother wavelet was employed to transform current and voltage time series from time domain to frequency domain. • An analytical method to determine EI of LIRB at arbitrary state of charge was proposed. • EI of LIRB was determined at arbitrary state of charge without stopping galvanostatic polarization for charge and discharge. - Abstract: A new analytical method was developed to determine the electrochemical impedance of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIRB) at an arbitrary state of charge (SOC). Wavelet transformation (WT) is one of the waveform analysis methods, which allows the determination of frequency domain data as a function of time. The frequency domain data are obtained by convolution integral of a mother wavelet and original time domain data via the WT. A complex Morlet mother wavelet is used to obtain the complex number data in the frequency domain. The time series data of input current and output voltage signals are recorded by superimposing the double pulse current as an input signal to constant charge current for the charge of LIRB without stopping galvanostatic polarization. The double pulse current is composed of symmetrical positive and negative square waves. In this case, the SOC of LIRB is not affected by the input signal because the total amount of charge calculated from double pulse current is 0C. The impedance spectrum of LIRB at SOC 25% is determined in the frequency range from 0.1 to 100 Hz during charge/discharge cycles without stopping galvanostatic polarization for the charge/discharge.

  11. Comparisons of Modeling and State of Charge Estimation for Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Fractional Order and Integral Order Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxin Xiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to properly manage lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles (EVs, it is essential to build the battery model and estimate the state of charge (SOC. In this paper, the fractional order forms of Thevenin and partnership for a new generation of vehicles (PNGV models are built, of which the model parameters including the fractional orders and the corresponding resistance and capacitance values are simultaneously identified based on genetic algorithm (GA. The relationships between different model parameters and SOC are established and analyzed. The calculation precisions of the fractional order model (FOM and integral order model (IOM are validated and compared under hybrid test cycles. Finally, extended Kalman filter (EKF is employed to estimate the SOC based on different models. The results prove that the FOMs can simulate the output voltage more accurately and the fractional order EKF (FOEKF can estimate the SOC more precisely under dynamic conditions.

  12. “Wine-Dark Sea” in an Organic Flow Battery: Storing Negative Charge in 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole Radicals Leads to Improved Cyclability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wentao [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Jinhua [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kowalski, Jeffrey A. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Shkrob, Ilya A. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vijayakumar, M. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pan, Baofei [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yang, Zheng [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Milshtein, Jarrod D. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Li, Bin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liao, Chen [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhang, Zhengcheng [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Jun [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moore, Jeffery S. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Brushett, Fikile R. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Zhang, Lu [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wei, Xiaoliang [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-24

    Redox-active organic materials (ROMs) have shown great promise for redox flow battery applications but generally encounter limited cycling efficiency and stability at relevant redox material concentrations in nonaqueous systems. Here we report a new heterocyclic organic anolyte molecule, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, that has high solubility, a low redox potential, and fast electrochemical kinetics. Coupling it with a benchmark catholyte ROM, the nonaqueous organic flow battery demonstrated significant improvement in cyclable redox material concentrations and cell efficiencies compared to the state-of-the-art nonaqueous systems. Especially, this system produced exceeding cyclability with relatively stable efficiencies and capacities at high ROM concentrations (>0.5 M), which is ascribed to the highly delocalized charge densities in the radical anions of 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, leading to good chemical stability. As a result, this material development represents significant progress toward promising next-generation energy storage.

  13. Online model-based estimation of state-of-charge and open-circuit voltage of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Hongwen; Zhang, Xiaowei; Xiong, Rui; Xu, Yongli; Guo, Hongqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the state-of-charge (SOC) of a lithium-ion battery, based on an online identification of its open-circuit voltage (OCV), according to the battery’s intrinsic relationship between the SOC and the OCV for application in electric vehicles. Firstly an equivalent circuit model with n RC networks is employed modeling the polarization characteristic and the dynamic behavior of the lithium-ion battery, the corresponding equations are built to describe its electric behavior and a recursive function is deduced for the online identification of the OCV, which is implemented by a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm with an optimal forgetting factor. The models with different RC networks are evaluated based on the terminal voltage comparisons between the model-based simulation and the experiment. Then the OCV-SOC lookup table is built based on the experimental data performed by a linear interpolation of the battery voltages at the same SOC during two consecutive discharge and charge cycles. Finally a verifying experiment is carried out based on nine Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedules. It indicates that the proposed method can ensure an acceptable accuracy of SOC estimation for online application with a maximum error being less than 5.0%. -- Highlights: ► An equivalent circuit model with n RC networks is built for lithium-ion batteries. ► A recursive function is deduced for the online estimation of the model parameters like OCV and R O . ► The relationship between SOC and OCV is built with a linear interpolation method by experiments. ► The experiments show the online model-based SOC estimation is reasonable with enough accuracy.

  14. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  15. A novel thermal management system for improving discharge/charge performance of Li-ion battery packs under abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shashank; Kapoor, Ajay; Shen, Weixiang

    2018-02-01

    Parasitic load, which describes electrical energy consumed by battery thermal management system (TMS), is an important design criterion for battery packs. Passive TMSs using phase change materials (PCMs) are thus generating much interest. However, PCMs suffer from low thermal conductivities. Most current thermal conductivity enhancement techniques involve addition of foreign particles to PCMs. Adding foreign particles increases effective thermal conductivity of PCM-systems but at expense of their latent heat capacity. This paper presents an alternate approach for improving thermal performance of PCM-based TMSs. The introduced technique involves placing battery cells in a vertically inverted position within the battery-pack. It is demonstrated through experiments that inverted cell-layout facilitates build-up of convection current in the pack, which in turn minimises thermal variations within the PCM matrix by enabling PCM mass transfer between the top and the bottom regions of the battery pack. The proposed system is found capable of maintaining tight control over battery cell temperature even during abusive usage, defined as high-rate repetitive cycling with minimal rest periods. In addition, this novel TMS can recover waste heat from PCM-matrix through thermoelectric devices, thereby resulting in a negative parasitic load for TMS.

  16. Colloid Titration--A Rapid Method for the Determination of Charged Colloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Keihei; Kina, Ken'yu

    1985-01-01

    "Colloid titration" is a volumetric method for determining charged polyelectrolytes in aqueous solutions. The principle of colloid titration, reagents used in the procedure, methods of endpoint detection, preparation of reagent solutions, general procedure used, results obtained, and pH profile of colloid titration are considered. (JN)

  17. A Thermal Runaway Simulation on a Lithium Titanate Battery and the Battery Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the electrochemical and thermal model, a coupled electro-thermal runaway model was developed and implemented using finite element methods. The thermal decomposition reactions when the battery temperature exceeds the material decomposition temperature were embedded into the model. The temperature variations of a lithium titanate battery during a series of charge-discharge cycles under different current rates were simulated. The results of temperature and heat generation rate demonstrate that the greater the current, the faster the battery temperature is rising. Furthermore, the thermal influence of the overheated cell on surrounding batteries in the module was simulated, and the variation of temperature and heat generation during thermal runaway was obtained. It was found that the overheated cell can induce thermal runaway in other adjacent cells within 3 mm distance in the battery module if the accumulated heat is not dissipated rapidly.

  18. Electrochemical properties of rapidly solidified Si-Ti-Ni(-Cu) base anode for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye Jin; Sohn, Keun Yong; Park, Won-Wook

    2013-11-01

    In this study, rapidly solidified Si-Ti-Ni-Cu alloys have been investigated as high capacity anodes for Li-ion secondary batteries. To obtain nano-sized Si particles dispersed in the inactive matrix, the alloy ribbons were fabricated using the melt spinning process. The thin ribbons were pulverized using ball-milling to make a fine powder of ˜ 4 µm average size. Coin-cell assembly was carried out under an argon gas in a glove box, in which pure lithium was used as a counter-electrode. The cells were cycled using the galvanostatic method in the potential range of 0.01 V and 1.5 V vs. Li/Li+. The microstructure and morphology were examined using an x-ray diffractometer, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Among the anode alloys, the Si70Ti15Ni15 electrodes had the highest discharge capacity (974.1 mAh/g) after the 50th cycle, and the Si60Ti16Ni16Cu8 electrode showed the best coulombic efficiency of ˜95.9% in cyclic behavior. It was revealed that the Si7Ni4Ti4 crystal phase coexisting with an amorphous phase, could more efficiently act as a buffer layer than the fully crystallized Si7Ni4Ti4 phase. Consequently, the electrochemical properties of the anode materials pronouncedly improved when the nano-sized primary Si particle was dispersed in the inactive Si7Ni4Ti4-based matrix mixed with an amorphous structure.

  19. Lithium-ion battery state of function estimation based on fuzzy logic algorithm with associated variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, L.; Yang, F.; Shi, Y. F.; He, H. L.

    2017-11-01

    Many occasions related to batteries demand to know how much continuous and instantaneous power can batteries provide such as the rapidly developing electric vehicles. As the large-scale applications of lithium-ion batteries, lithium-ion batteries are used to be our research object. Many experiments are designed to get the lithium-ion battery parameters to ensure the relevance and reliability of the estimation. To evaluate the continuous and instantaneous load capability of a battery called state-of-function (SOF), this paper proposes a fuzzy logic algorithm based on battery state-of-charge(SOC), state-of-health(SOH) and C-rate parameters. Simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed approach is suitable for battery SOF estimation.

  20. Optimal Conditions for Fast Charging and Long Cycling Stability of Silicon Microwire Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries, and Comparison with the Performance of Other Si Anode Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quiroga-González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cycling tests under various conditions have been performed for lithium ion battery anodes made from free-standing silicon microwires embedded at one end in a copper current collector. Optimum charging/discharging conditions have been found for which the anode shows negligible fading (< 0.001% over 80 cycles; an outstanding result for this kind of anodes. Several performance parameters of the anode have been compared to the ones of other Si anode concepts, showing that especially the capacity as well as the rates of charge flow per nominal area of anode are the highest for the present anode. With regard to applications, the specific parameters per area are more important than the specific gravimetric parameters like the gravimetric capacity, which is good for comparing the capacity between materials but not enough for comparing between anodes.

  1. Fading Kalman filter-based real-time state of charge estimation in LiFePO_4 battery-powered electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, KaiChin; Bastawrous, Hany Ayad; Duong, Van-Huan; See, Khay Wai; Zhang, Peng; Dou, Shi Xue

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Real-time battery model parameters and SoC estimation with novel method is proposed. • Cascading filtering stages are used for parameters identification and SoC estimation. • Optimized fading Kalman filter is implemented for SoC estimation. • Accurate SoC estimation is validated in UDDS load profile experiment. • This approach is suitable for BMS in EV applications due to its simplicity. - Abstract: A novel online estimation technique for estimating the state of charge (SoC) of a lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO_4) battery has been developed. Based on a simplified model, the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the battery is estimated through two cascaded linear filtering stages. A recursive least squares filter is employed in the first stage to dynamically estimate the battery model parameters in real-time, and then, a fading Kalman filter (FKF) is used to estimate the OCV from these parameters. FKF can avoid the possibility of large estimation errors, which may occur with a conventional Kalman filter, due to its capability to compensate any modeling error through a fading factor. By optimizing the value of the fading factor in the set of recursion equations of FKF with genetic algorithms, the errors in estimating the battery’s SoC in urban dynamometer driving schedules-based experiments and real vehicle driving cycle experiments were below 3% compared to more than 9% in the case of using an ordinary Kalman filter. The proposed method with its simplified model provides the simplicity and feasibility required for real-time application with highly accurate SoC estimation.

  2. Rapid Polyol-Assisted Microwave Synthesis of Nanocrystalline LiFePO4/C Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Baboo Joseph; Gim, Jihyeon; Baek, Sora; Kang, Jungwon; Song, Jinju; Kim, Sungjin; Kim, Jaekook

    2015-08-01

    Nanocrystalline LiFePO4/C has been synthesized under a very short period of time (90 sec) using a polyol-assisted microwave heating synthesis technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data indicates that the rapidly synthesized materials correspond to phase pure olivine. Post-annealing of the as-prepared sample at 600 °C in argon atmosphere yields highly crystalline LiFePO4/C. The morphology of the samples studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals the presence of secondary particles formed from aggregation of primary particles in the range of 30-50 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images reveal a thin carbon layer coating on the surface of the primary particle. The charge/discharge studies indicate that the as-prepared and annealed LiFePO4/C samples delivered initial discharge capacities of 126 and 160 mA h g-1, respectively, with good capacity retentions at 0.05 mA cm-2 current densities. The post-annealing process indeed improves the crystallinity of the LiFePO4 nanocrystals, which enhances the electrode performance of LiFePO4/C.

  3. The effects of design parameters on the charge-discharge performance of iron-chromium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Y.K.; Zhao, T.S.; Zhou, X.L.; Zeng, L.; Wei, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of design parameters on the ICRFB performance are investigated. • The energy efficiency of the present ICRFB reaches 80.5% at 480 mA cm"−"2. • The power density reaches 1077 and 694 mW cm"−"2 at 65 and 25 °C, respectively. • The dominant loss of ICRFBs operating at 25 and 65 °C is the ohmic loss. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to understand and identify key design parameters that influence the battery performance of iron-chromium redox flow batteries (ICRFBs). The investigated parameters include the membrane thickness, electrode compression ratio, electrode pretreatment and catalyst loading. Results show that: (i) with a thin NR-211 membrane and a high electrode compression ratio of 62.5%, the operating current density of the ICRFB can reach as high as 480 mA cm"−"2 at an energy efficiency of higher than 80%; (ii) the bismuth catalyst loading has insignificant effect on the battery performance in the range of 0.52–10.45 mg cm"−"2; (iii) the moderately oxidative thermal pretreatment of the electrode improves the energy efficiency compared to the as-received electrode while the electrode prepared with a harsh pretreatment deteriorates the battery performance; and (iv) for the present ICRFBs operating at both 25 °C and 65 °C, the dominant loss is identified to be ohmic loss rather than kinetics loss.

  4. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  5. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Anto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power on electric lamps for lightening culinary wagon or fisherman’s boat at night. Charge controller charges the battery with float charging which is implemented by maintaining 13.5 Volt between battery terminals and limiting the charging current to 1.5 Amperes. Charge controller circuit is based on adjustable linear voltage regulator LM338. The battery is of sealed lead acid type. This type of battery is maintenance free and more hygiene than other types of lead acid battery. The field experiment of charging the baterry of 50% residual capacity from 8 am to 4 pm under sunny weather shows that the solar module has charged the battery to its full capacity under battery safe charging conditions.Keywords: portable solar battery charger, float charging, LM338

  6. Studies of the pulse charge of lead-acid batteries for PV applications. Part I. Factors influencing the mechanism of the pulse charge of the positive plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchev, A.; Perrin, M.; Lemaire, E.; Karoui, F.; Mattera, F. [Commissariat de l' Energie Atomique, Institut National de l' Energie Solaire, INES-RDI, Parc Technologique de Savoie Technolac, 50 Avenue du Lac Leman, 73377 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France)

    2008-02-15

    The mechanism of the positive plate charge in pulse regime was studied in model lead-acid cells with one positive and two negative plates (8 Ah each) and Ag/Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 4} reference electrodes. The results showed that the evolution of the electrode potential is much slower on the positive plate than on the negative plate. Regardless of this fact, the calculated capacitive current of charge and self-discharge of the electrochemical double layer (EDL) during the 'ON' and 'OFF' half-periods of the pulse current square waves is comparable with the charge current amplitude. The result is due to the high values of the EDL on the surface of the lead dioxide active material. The influence of different factors like state of charge, state of health, pulse frequency, current amplitude and open circuit stay before the polarization was discussed. The previously determined optimal frequency of 1 Hz was associated with a maximum in the average double layer current on frequency dependence. The average double layer current is also maximal at SOC between 75 and 100%. The exchange of the constant current polarization with pulse polarization does not change substantially the mechanism and the overvoltage of the oxygen evolution reaction on the positive plate. The mechanism of the self-discharge of the EDL was also estimated analyzing long-time PPP transients (up to 2 h). It was found that when the PPP is lower than 1.2 V the preferred mechanism of EDL self-discharge is by coupling with the lead sulphate oxidation reaction. At higher values of PPP the EDL self-discharge happens via oxygen evolution. The high faradic efficiency of the pulse charge is due to the chemical oxidation of the Pb(II) ions by the O atoms and OH radicals formed at the oxygen evolution both during the 'ON' and 'OFF' periods. (author)

  7. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  8. A salt water battery with high stability and charging rates made from solution processed conjugated polymers with polar side chains

    KAUST Repository

    Moia, Davide; Giovannitti, Alexander; Szumska, Anna A.; Schnurr, Martin; Rezasoltani, Elham; Maria, Iuliana P.; Barnes, Piers R. F.; McCulloch, Iain; Nelson, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    conjugated polymer backbones, allowed the films to maintain constant capacity at high charge and discharge rates (>1000 C-rate). The electrodes also show good stability during electrochemical cycling (less than 30% decrease in capacity over >1000 cycles) and an output voltage up to 1.4 V. The performance of these semiconducting polymers with polar side-chains demonstrates the potential of this material class for fast-charging, water based electrochemical energy storage devices.

  9. Battery with a microcorrugated, microthin sheet of highly porous corroded metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFollette, Rodney M.

    2005-09-27

    Microthin sheet technology is disclosed by which superior batteries are constructed which, among other things, accommodate the requirements for high load rapid discharge and recharge, mandated by electric vehicle criteria. The microthin sheet technology has process and article overtones and can be used to form thin electrodes used in batteries of various kinds and types, such as spirally-wound batteries, bipolar batteries, lead acid batteries silver/zinc batteries, and others. Superior high performance battery features include: (a) minimal ionic resistance; (b) minimal electronic resistance; (c) minimal polarization resistance to both charging and discharging; (d) improved current accessibility to active material of the electrodes; (e) a high surface area to volume ratio; (f) high electrode porosity (microporosity); (g) longer life cycle; (h) superior discharge/recharge characteristics; (i) higher capacities (A.multidot.hr); and (j) high specific capacitance.

  10. A Novel Observer for Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation in Electric Vehicles Based on a Second-Order Equivalent Circuit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SOC estimation can prolong lithium-ion battery life and improve its performance in practice. This paper proposes a new method for SOC estimation. The second-order resistor-capacitor (2RC equivalent circuit model (ECM is applied to describe the dynamic behavior of lithium-ion battery on deriving state space equations. A novel method for SOC estimation is then presented. This method does not require any matrix calculation, so the computation cost can be very low, making it more suitable for hardware implementation. The Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS, The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC, and the West Virginia Suburban Driving Schedule (WVUSUB experiments are carried to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Experimental results show that the SOC estimation error can converge to 3% error boundary within 30 seconds when the initial SOC estimation error is 20%, and the proposed method can maintain an estimation error less than 3% with 1% voltage noise and 5% current noise. Further, the proposed method has excellent robustness against parameter disturbance. Also, it has higher estimation accuracy than the extended Kalman filter (EKF, but with decreased hardware requirements and faster convergence rate.

  11. Conceptual design of a device for charging PIG's batteries, using the hydraulic energy from the flow in pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ricardo E.; Dutra, Max S. [Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Graduate and Research Studies (COPPE-UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Program], e-mail: rramirez@ufrj.br, e-mail: max@mecanica.coppe.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    Some actual projects deal with development of PIGs with speed control for liquid pipelines, with the possibility of controlled displacement including counter flow locomotion, in order to inspect and service in 'unpiggable lines' and flexible lines. In this case, it is normal to carry energy consumption greater than the energy disposable in the batteries. This work proposes a device composed by a turbine and an electric generator; presents a preliminary mechanical design of the turbine for the specific requirements of the application like internal pressure inside the line, a range of relative velocities between the PIG and the pipeline and adequate material for the environmental conditions. One of the priority requirements is that the geometric form of the turbine and generator mate with a proposed form of the PIG minimizing the pressure drop in the line for the different work conditions. The electric design defines the magnets characteristics, geometric forms, dimensions and number of turns to obtain the required voltage and power for charging a nominal pack of batteries. (author)

  12. Cell design and image analysis for in situ Raman mapping of inhomogeneous state-of-charge profiles in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shuyu; Yan, Min; Hamers, Robert J.

    2017-06-01

    The study of inhomogeneous battery failure processes requires proper tools with high spatial resolving power. Here we describe a simple way to adapt industry-standard coin cells to enable in situ Raman mapping of lithium-ion battery materials. We describe the important cell design parameters and validate that the design achieves a uniform potential distribution within the region probed by Raman. We further validate that the cell yields electrical performance characteristics equivalent to a standard, non-modified coin cell. Using this cell, we probe the local charging profiles of LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 ("NMC") particles during cycling and demonstrate the ability to achieve spatial maps of the Raman spectra. In order to reduce the effects of local topography, we further analyze these data by numerically extracting the local frequency of the A1g vibrational mode, which is sensitive to the local extent of lithiation, and producing spatial maps of the local frequency of the A1g mode. This work demonstrates a way to collect and analyze high quality in situ spectra with an easy-to-implement cell design that can be applied to a wide range of electrode materials.

  13. Online Parameter Identification and State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Forgetting Factor Recursive Least Squares and Nonlinear Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC estimation is the core of any battery management system. Most closed-loop SOC estimation algorithms are based on the equivalent circuit model with fixed parameters. However, the parameters of the equivalent circuit model will change as temperature or SOC changes, resulting in reduced SOC estimation accuracy. In this paper, two SOC estimation algorithms with online parameter identification are proposed to solve this problem based on forgetting factor recursive least squares (FFRLS and nonlinear Kalman filter. The parameters of a Thevenin model are constantly updated by FFRLS. The nonlinear Kalman filter is used to perform the recursive operation to estimate SOC. Experiments in variable temperature environments verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. A combination of four driving cycles is loaded on lithium-ion batteries to test the adaptability of the approaches to different working conditions. Under certain conditions, the average error of the SOC estimation dropped from 5.6% to 1.1% after adding the online parameters identification, showing that the estimation accuracy of proposed algorithms is greatly improved. Besides, simulated measurement noise is added to the test data to prove the robustness of the algorithms.

  14. Modulating the Electrochemical Performances of Layered Cathode Materials for Sodium Ion Batteries through Tuning Coulombic Repulsion between Negatively Charged TMO2 Slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Yao; Wang, Huibo; Yang, Wenyun; Yang, Jinbo; Zheng, Lirong; Chen, Dongfeng; Sun, Kai; Han, Songbai; Liu, Xiangfeng

    2018-01-17

    Exploiting advanced layered transition metal oxide cathode materials is of great importance to rechargeable sodium batteries. Layered oxides are composed of negatively charged TMO 2 slabs (TM = transition metal) separated by Na + diffusion layers. Herein, we propose a novel insight, for the first time, to control the electrochemical properties by tuning Coulombic repulsion between negatively charged TMO 2 slabs. Coulombic repulsion can finely tailor the d-spacing of Na ion layers and material structural stability, which can be achieved by employing Na + cations to serve as effective shielding layers between TMO 2 layers. A series of O3-type Na x Mn 1/3 Fe 1/3 Cu 1/6 Mg 1/6 O 2 (x = 1.0, 0.9, 0.8, and 0.7) have been prepared, and Na 0.7 Mn 1/3 Fe 1/3 Cu 1/6 Mg 1/6 O 2 shows the largest Coulombic repulsion between TMO 2 layers, the largest space for Na ion diffusion, the best structural stability, and also the longest Na-O chemical bond with weaker Coulombic attraction, thus leading to the best electrochemical performance. Meanwhile, the thermal stability depends on the Na concentration in pristine materials. Ex situ X-ray absorption (XAS) analysis indicates that Mn, Fe, and Cu ions are all electrochemically active components during insertion and extraction of sodium ion. This study enables some new insights to promote the development of advanced layered Na x TMO 2 materials for rechargeable sodium batteries in the future.

  15. Discrete wavelet transform-based denoising technique for advanced state-of-charge estimator of a lithium-ion battery in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seongjun; Kim, Jonghoon

    2015-01-01

    Sophisticated data of the experimental DCV (discharging/charging voltage) of a lithium-ion battery is required for high-accuracy SOC (state-of-charge) estimation algorithms based on the state-space ECM (electrical circuit model) in BMSs (battery management systems). However, when sensing noisy DCV signals, erroneous SOC estimation (which results in low BMS performance) is inevitable. Therefore, this manuscript describes the design and implementation of a DWT (discrete wavelet transform)-based denoising technique for DCV signals. The steps for denoising a noisy DCV measurement in the proposed approach are as follows. First, using MRA (multi-resolution analysis), the noise-riding DCV signal is decomposed into different frequency sub-bands (low- and high-frequency components, A n and D n ). Specifically, signal processing of the high frequency component D n that focuses on a short-time interval is necessary to reduce noise in the DCV measurement. Second, a hard-thresholding-based denoising rule is applied to adjust the wavelet coefficients of the DWT to achieve a clear separation between the signal and the noise. Third, the desired de-noised DCV signal is reconstructed by taking the IDWT (inverse discrete wavelet transform) of the filtered detailed coefficients. Finally, this signal is sent to the ECM-based SOC estimation algorithm using an EKF (extended Kalman filter). Experimental results indicate the robustness of the proposed approach for reliable SOC estimation. - Highlights: • Sophisticated data of the experimental DCV is required for high-accuracy SOC. • DWT (discrete wavelet transform)-based denoising technique is newly investigated. • Three steps for denoising a noisy DCV measurement in this work are implemented. • Experimental results indicate the robustness of the proposed work for reliable SOC

  16. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  17. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  18. 75 FR 63 - Hazardous Materials: Revision to Requirements for the Transportation of Batteries and Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... contained in equipment, fuel cell systems must not charge batteries during transport; (3) For transportation... 2137-AE54 Hazardous Materials: Revision to Requirements for the Transportation of Batteries and Battery... batteries and battery-powered devices. This final rule corrects several errors in the January 14, 2009 final...

  19. A Comparative Study Based on the Least Square Parameter Identification Method for State of Charge Estimation of a LiFePO4 Battery Pack Using Three Model-Based Algorithms for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimoor Zahid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage management for electric vehicles (EV and hybrid EV is the most critical and enabling technology since the dawn of electric vehicle commercialization. A battery system is a complex electrochemical phenomenon whose performance degrades with age and the existence of varying material design. Moreover, it is very tedious and computationally very complex to monitor and control the internal state of a battery’s electrochemical systems. For Thevenin battery model we established a state-space model which had the advantage of simplicity and could be easily implemented and then applied the least square method to identify the battery model parameters. However, accurate state of charge (SoC estimation of a battery, which depends not only on the battery model but also on highly accurate and efficient algorithms, is considered one of the most vital and critical issue for the energy management and power distribution control of EV. In this paper three different estimation methods, i.e., extended Kalman filter (EKF, particle filter (PF and unscented Kalman Filter (UKF, are presented to estimate the SoC of LiFePO4 batteries for an electric vehicle. Battery’s experimental data, current and voltage, are analyzed to identify the Thevenin equivalent model parameters. Using different open circuit voltages the SoC is estimated and compared with respect to the estimation accuracy and initialization error recovery. The experimental results showed that these online SoC estimation methods in combination with different open circuit voltage-state of charge (OCV-SoC curves can effectively limit the error, thus guaranteeing the accuracy and robustness.

  20. Internal photoemission study on charge trapping behavior in rapid thermal oxides on strained-Si/SiGe heterolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, M.K.; Mahata, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Armstrong, B.M.; Gamble, H.S.; Maiti, C.K.

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study on the nature of defects and their relationship to charge trapping with enhanced photosensitivity has been investigated through magnetic resonance and internal photoemission (IPE) experiments for rapid thermal grown oxides (RTO) on strained-Si/Si 0.8 Ge 0.2 and on co-processed bulk-Si (1 0 0) substrates. Both the band and defect-related electronic states were characterized through EPR, IPE, C-V and I-V measurements under UV-illumination. Surface chemical characterization of as-grown ultrathin oxides (5-7 nm) has been performed using high-resolution XPS. Enhancement in Ge-segregation with increasing oxidation temperature is reported. Comparative studies on interface properties and leakage current behavior of rapid thermal oxides have also been studied through fabricating metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor structures. A degraded electrical property with increasing oxidation temperature is reported. Constant voltage stressing (CVS) in the range of 5.5-7 V was used to study the breakdown characteristics of different samples. We observe a distinguishably different time-to-breakdown (t bd ) phenomenon for bulk-Si and strained-Si/SiGe samples. Whereas the oxide on bulk-Si shows a typical breakdown behavior, the RTO grown oxide on strained-Si/SiGe samples showed a quasi-or soft-breakdown with lower t bd value. It may be pointed out that quasi-breakdown may be a stronger reliability limiting factor for strained-Si/SiGe devices in the oxide thickness range studied

  1. Dynamical observation of lithium insertion/extraction reaction during charge-discharge processes in Li-ion batteries by in situ spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyamada, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yoshida, Ryuji; Kato, Takehisa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Hirayama, Tsukasa

    2015-12-01

    All-solid-state Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with solid electrolytes are expected to be the next generation devices to overcome serious issues facing conventional LIBs with liquid electrolytes. However, the large Li-ion transfer resistance at the electrode/solid-electrolyte interfaces causes low power density and prevents practical use. In-situ-formed negative electrodes prepared by decomposing the solid electrolyte Li(1+x+3z)Alx(Ti,Ge)(2-x)Si(3z)P(3-z)O12 (LASGTP) with an excess Li-ion insertion reaction are effective electrodes providing low Li-ion transfer resistance at the interfaces. Prior to our work, however, it had still been unclear how the negative electrodes were formed in the parent solid electrolytes. Here, we succeeded in dynamically visualizing the formation by in situ spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope mode (SR-TEM-EELS). The Li-ions were gradually inserted into the solid electrolyte region around 400 nm from the negative current-collector/solid-electrolyte interface in the charge process. Some of the ions were then extracted in the discharge process, and the rest were diffused such that the distribution was almost flat, resulting in the negative electrodes. The redox reaction of Ti(4+)/Ti(3+) in the solid electrolyte was also observed in situ during the Li insertion/extraction processes. The in situ SR-TEM-EELS revealed the mechanism of the electrochemical reaction in solid-state batteries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Analysis of the internal temperature of the cells in a battery pack during SOC balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizanur, R.; Rashid, M. M.; Rahman, A.; Zahirul Alam, A. H. M.; Ihsan, S.; Mollik, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are more suitable for the application of electric vehicle due to high energy and power density compared to other rechargeable batteries. However, the battery pack temperature has a great impact on the overall performance, cycle life, normal charging-discharging behaviour and even safety. During rapid charge transferring process, the internal temperature may exceed its allowable limit (460C). In this paper, an analysis of internal temperature during charge balancing and discharging conditions is presented. Specific interest is paid to the effects of temperature on the different rate of ambient temperature and discharging current. Matlab/Simulink Li-ion battery model and quasi-resonant converter base balancing system are used to study the temperature effect. Rising internal temperature depends on the rate of balancing current and ambient temperature found in the simulation results.

  3. Constituent quarks and systematic errors in mid-rapidity charged multiplicity dNch/dη distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, M. J.

    2018-01-01

    Centrality definition in A + A collisions at colliders such as RHIC and LHC suffers from a correlated systematic uncertainty caused by the efficiency of detecting a p + p collision (50 ± 5% for PHENIX at RHIC). In A + A collisions where centrality is measured by the number of nucleon collisions, Ncoll, or the number of nucleon participants, Npart, or the number of constituent quark participants, Nqp, the error in the efficiency of the primary interaction trigger (Beam-Beam Counters) for a p + p collision leads to a correlated systematic uncertainty in Npart, Ncoll or Nqp which reduces binomially as the A + A collisions become more central. If this is not correctly accounted for in projections of A + A to p + p collisions, then mistaken conclusions can result. A recent example is presented in whether the mid-rapidity charged multiplicity per constituent quark participant (dNch/dη)/Nqp in Au + Au at RHIC was the same as the value in p + p collisions.

  4. Accelerating rate calorimetry studies of the reactions between ionic liquids and charged lithium ion battery electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yadong; Zaghib, K.; Guerfi, A.; Bazito, Fernanda F.C.; Torresi, Roberto M.; Dahn, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC), the reactivity between six ionic liquids (with and without added LiPF 6 ) and charged electrode materials is compared to the reactivity of standard carbonate-based solvents and electrolytes with the same electrode materials. The charged electrode materials used were Li 1 Si, Li 7 Ti 4 O 12 and Li 0.45 CoO 2 . The experiments showed that not all ionic liquids are safer than conventional electrolytes/solvents. Of the six ionic liquids tested, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (EMI-FSI) shows the worst safety properties, and is much worse than conventional electrolyte. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI) and 1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (Py13-FSI) show similar reactivity to carbonate-based electrolyte. The three ionic liquids 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (BMMI-TFSI), 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pp14-TFSI) and N-trimethyl-N-butylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TMBA-TFSI) show similar reactivity and are much safer than the conventional carbonate-based electrolyte. A comparison of the reactivity of ionic liquids with common anions and cations shows that ionic liquids with TFSI - are safer than those with FSI - , and liquids with EMI + are worse than those with BMMI + , Py13 + , Pp14 + and TMBA +

  5. Rapidity and energy dependence of the electric charge correlations in A+A collisions from 20A to 158A GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botje, M.A.J.; van Leeuwen, M.; Mischke, A.

    2007-01-01

    Results from electric charge correlations studied with the Balance Function (BF) method in A+A collisions from 20A to 158A GeV are presented in two different rapidity intervals: In the midrapidity region we observe a decrease of the width of the BF distribution with increasing centrality of the

  6. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 5. Following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  7. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 3. Following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  8. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 4. Following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  9. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 6. Following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  10. A Review of Approaches for the Design of Li-Ion BMS Estimation Functions Revue de différentes approches pour l’estimation de l’état de charge de batteries Li-ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Domenico D.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at comparing different approaches for the estimation of the state of charge of lithium-ion batteries. The main advantages as well as the critical points of the considered techniques are analyzed, highlighting the impact of the cell model precision and complexity on the estimator performance. Among others, the electrical equivalent circuit based technique is selected for further development. The results of a complete procedure from the cell characterization to the online estimation are illustrated. The experimental tests based on the data collected on batteries testing facilities of IFP Energies nouvelles show that the proposed strategy allows a satisfying state of charge real time estimation. Cet article vise à comparer différentes approches pour l’estimation de l’état de charge pour les batteries Li-ion. Les principaux avantages ainsi que les points critiques des différentes techniques sont analysés, en soulignant l’impact de la complexité et de la précision du modèle sur les performances de l’estimateur. La procédure complète, allant de la caractérisation de la cellule jusqu’à l’estimation en ligne de l’état de charge, est présentée pour la modélisation par circuit électrique équivalent. Les tests expérimentaux sur la base des données acquises au laboratoire batteries d’IFP Energies nouvelles montrent que cette stratégie permet d’obtenir un estimateur en temps réel de l’état de charge présentant de bonnes performances.

  11. Lithium-ion Battery Electrothermal Model, Parameter Estimation, and Simulation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Orcioni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The market for lithium-ion batteries is growing exponentially. The performance of battery cells is growing due to improving production technology, but market request is growing even more rapidly. Modeling and characterization of single cells and an efficient simulation environment is fundamental for the development of an efficient battery management system. The present work is devoted to defining a novel lumped electrothermal circuit of a single battery cell, the extraction procedure of the parameters of the single cell from experiments, and a simulation environment in SystemC-WMS for the simulation of a battery pack. The electrothermal model of the cell was validated against experimental measurements obtained in a climatic chamber. The model is then used to simulate a 48-cell battery, allowing statistical variations among parameters. The different behaviors of the cells in terms of state of charge, current, voltage, or heat flow rate can be observed in the results of the simulation environment.

  12. Charged-particle multiplicity density at mid-rapidity in central Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aamodt, K; Abrahantes Quintana, A; Adamova, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agocs, A G; Aguilar Salazar, S; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S U; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaraz Avina, E; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anson, C; Anticic, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshauser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Aysto, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badala, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Ban, J; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnafoldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdermann, E; Berdnikov, Y; Bergmann, C; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bilandzic, A; Biolcati, E; Blanc, A; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bock, N; Bogdanov, A; Boggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsar, L; Bombara, M; Bombonati, C; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bortolin, C; Bose, S; Bossu, F; Botje, M; Bottger, S; Boyer, B; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broz, M; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bugaiev, K; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carminati, F; Casanova Diaz, A; Caselle, M; Castillo Castellanos, J; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Coccetti, F; Coffin, J P; Coli, S; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa del Valle, Z; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortes Maldonado, I; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; D'Erasmo, G; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, K; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; De Azevedo Moregula, A; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Remigis, R; de Rooij, R; Debski, P R; Del Castillo Sanchez, E; Delagrange, H; Delgado Mercado, Y; Dellacasa, G; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; Denes, E; Deppman, A; Di Bari, D; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Dietel, T; Divia, R; Djuvsland, O; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Dominguez, I; Donigus, B; Dordic, O; Driga, O; Dubey, A K; Dubuisson, J; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Engel, H; Erdal, H A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evrard, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabjan, C W; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Fekete, V; Felea, D; Feofilov, G; Fernandez Tellez, A; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Fini, R; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Fragkiadakis, M; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furano, F; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhoje, J J; Gadrat, S; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Ganti, M S; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garishvili, I; Gemme, R; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Geuna, C; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Gianotti, P; Girard, M R; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glassel, P; Gomez, R; Ferreiro, E G; Gonzalez Santos, H; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerra Gutierrez, C; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, O; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heide, M; Heinz, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Hernandez, C; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hrivnacova, I; Huang, M; Huber, S; Humanic, T J; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, G M; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Jacholkowski, A; Jacobs, P M; Jancurova, L; Jangal, S; Janik, R; Jena, S; Jirden, L; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanovic, P; Jung, H; Jung, W; Jusko, A; Kalcher, S; Kalinak, P; Kalisky, M; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kamermans, R; Kanaki, K; Kang, E; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, D J; Kim, D S; Kim, D W; Kim, H N; Kim, J H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, S H; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bosing, C; Kliemant, M; Klovning, A; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Koch, K; Kohler, M; Kolevatov, R; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskih, A; Kornas, E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kozlov, K; Kral, J; Kralik, I; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Krawutschke, T; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krumbhorn, D; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Rocca, P; Ladron de Guevara, P; Lafage, V; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Larsen, D T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Bornec, Y; Lea, R; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Lefevre, F; Lehnert, J; Leistam, L; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; Leon Monzon, I; Leon Vargas, H; Levai, P; Li, X; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, L; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; Loizides, C; Loo, K K; Lopez, X; Lopez Noriega, M; Lopez Torres, E; Lovhoiden, G; Lu, X G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Luzzi, C; Ma, K; Ma, R; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Mal'Kevich, D; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Mares, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marin, A; Markert, C; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martinez, M I; Martinez Davalos, A; Martinez Garcia, G; Martynov, Y; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastromarco, M; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayani, D; Mayer, C; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mendez Lorenzo, P; Menis, I; Mercado Perez, J; Meres, M; Mereu, P; Miake, Y; Midori, J; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Miskowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, A K; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montano Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Morando, M; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Muller, H; Munhoz, M G; Munoz, J; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Navach, F; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nendaz, F; Newby, J; Nicassio, M; Nielsen, B S; Niida, T; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nystrand, J; Obayashi, H; Ochirov, A; Oeschler, H; Oh, S K; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Ortona, G; Oskarsson, A; Ostrowski, P; Otterlund, I; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Jayarathna, S P; Paic, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Peresunko, D; Perez Lara, C E; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Peters, A J; Petracek, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piuz, F; Piyarathna, D B; Platt, R; Ploskon, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polak, K; Polichtchouk, B; Pop, A; Porteboeuf, S; Pospisil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, V; Putis, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Rademakers, O; Radomski, S; Raiha, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramirez Reyes, A; Rammler, M; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Rasanen, S S; Read, K F; Real, J; Redlich, K; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J P; Reygers, K; Ricaud, H; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M; Rohr, D; Rohrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosinsky, P; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Rousseau, S; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Rivetti, A; Rusanov, I; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safarik, K; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Saiz, P; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Samanta, T; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sanchez Castro, X; Sandor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Saturnini, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, P A; Scott, R; Segato, G; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Sgura, I; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siemiarczuk, T; Silenzi, A; Silvermyr, D; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sogaard, C; Soloviev, A; Soltz, R; Son, H; Song, J; Song, M; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Stefanini, G; Steinbeck, T; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stocco, D; Stock, R; Stokkevag, C H; Stolpovskiy, M; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vasquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhorukov, M; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Swoboda, D; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szostak, A; Tagridis, C; Takahashi, J; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tauro, A; Tavlet, M; Tejeda Munoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thader, J; Thomas, D; Thomas, J H; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Toscano, L; Tosello, F; Traczyk, T; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Turvey, A J; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Urban, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vacchi, A; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; van der Kolk, N; van Leeuwen, M; Vande Vyvre, P; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernekohl, D C; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Ovrebekk, G; Vrlakova, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wan, R; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Yang, H; Yang, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I K; Yu, W; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zabrodin, E; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Zavada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zenin, A; Zgura, I; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zichichi, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M

    2010-01-01

    The first measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity density at mid-rapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair sqrt(sNN) = 2.76 TeV is presented. For an event sample corresponding to the most central 5% of the hadronic cross section the pseudo-rapidity density of primary charged particles at mid-rapidity is 1584 +- 4 (stat) +- 76 (sys.), which corresponds to 8.3 +- 0.4 (sys.) per participating nucleon pair. This represents an increase of about a factor 1.9 relative to pp collisions at similar collision energies, and about a factor 2.2 to central Au-Au collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 0.2 TeV. This measurement provides the first experimental constraint for models of nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC energies.

  13. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  14. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  15. Fuzzy Sliding Mode Observer with Grey Prediction for the Estimation of the State-of-Charge of a Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyun Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a state-of-charge (SOC estimation method for Li-ion batteries that combines a fuzzy sliding mode observer (FSMO with grey prediction. Unlike the existing methods based on a conventional first-order sliding mode observer (SMO and an adaptive gain SMO, the proposed method eliminates chattering in SOC estimation. In this method, which uses a fuzzy inference system, the gains of the SMO are adjusted according to the predicted future error and present estimation error of the terminal voltage. To forecast the future error value, a one-step-ahead terminal voltage prediction is obtained using a grey predictor. The proposed estimation method is validated through two types of discharge tests (a pulse discharge test and a random discharge test. The SOC estimation results are compared to the results of the conventional first-order SMO-based and the adaptive gain SMO-based methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method not only reduces chattering, but also improves estimation accuracy.

  16. 46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries. 169.668 Section 169.668 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 169.668 Batteries. (a) Each battery must be in a location that allows the gas generated in charging to... this section, a battery must not be located in the same compartment with a gasoline tank or gasoline...

  17. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  18. Probing the Complexities of Structural Changes in Layered Oxide Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries during Fast Charge-Discharge Cycling and Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Enyuan; Wang, Xuelong; Yu, Xiqian; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2018-02-20

    The rechargeable lithium-ion battery (LIB) is the most promising energy storage system to power electric vehicles with high energy density and long cycling life. However, in order to meet customers' demands for fast charging, the power performances of current LIBs need to be improved. From the cathode aspect, layer-structured cathode materials are widely used in today's market and will continue to play important roles in the near future. The high rate capability of layered cathode materials during charging and discharging is critical to the power performance of the whole cell and the thermal stability is closely related to the safety issues. Therefore, the in-depth understanding of structural changes of layered cathode materials during high rate charging/discharging and the thermal stability during heating are essential in developing new materials and improving current materials. Since structural changes take place from the atomic level to the whole electrode level, combination of characterization techniques covering multilength scales is quite important. In many cases, this means using comprehensive tools involving diffraction, spectroscopy, and imaging to differentiate the surface from the bulk and to obtain structural/chemical information with different levels of spatial resolution. For example, hard X-ray spectroscopy can yield the bulk information and soft X-ray spectroscopy can give the surface information; X-ray based imaging techniques can obtain spatial resolution of tens of nanometers, and electron-based microcopy can go to angstroms. In addition to challenges associated with different spatial resolution, the dynamic nature of structural changes during high rate cycling and heating requires characterization tools to have the capability of collecting high quality data in a time-resolved fashion. Thanks to the advancement in synchrotron based techniques and high-resolution electron microscopy, high temporal and spatial resolutions can now be achieved. In

  19. Rapid prototyping of solar-powered, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, sugar-cube size microplasma on hybrid, 3D chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Karanassios, V.

    2012-06-01

    A solar-powered, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, self-igniting microplasma the size of a sugar-cube developed on a hybrid, 3d-chip is described. Rapid prototyping of the 3d-chip; some fundamental aspects and a brief characterization of its background spectral emission using a portable, fiber-optic spectrometer are discussed.

  20. Fundamental studies of uranium and neptunium redox flow batteries (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiokawa, Y.; Yamamura, T.; Watanabe, N.

    2002-01-01

    The atomic power generation entails production of so-called minor actinides and accumulation of depleted uranium. The theoretical and experimental investigations are underway to transmute minor actinides for minimizing the long-term radiotoxicity and reducing the radioactive waste. The utilization, however, would be alternative means. The actinide redox couples, An(VI)/An(V) and An(IV)/An(III), have excellent properties as battery active materials. Here j the uranium and neptunium redox flow batteries for the electric power storage are discussed from the electrochemical properties of U, Np, Pu and Am [1,2]. One of the required properties for the batteries for electric power storage is high energy efficiency, which is defined by the ratio of the discharge energy to the charge energy. These energies are dependent on the rapidness of kinetics in the electrode reactions, namely the standard rate constants and also the internal resistance of the battery

  1. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  2. State of health assessment for lithium batteries based on voltage–time relaxation measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghdadi, Issam; Briat, Olivier; Gyan, Philippe; Vinassa, Jean Michel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Calendar aging under different storage conditions for three different battery technologies studied. • Two scenarios of aging under power cycling at two different temperatures investigated for one battery technology. • Relaxation profile of battery voltage just after full charge is highly correlated to aging. • Linear dependence between just after charge open circuit voltage and remaining capacity demonstrated. • No computational method and direct prediction of battery state of health or remaining capacity. - Abstract: The performance of lithium batteries degrades over time. The degradation rate strongly depends on stress conditions during use and even at rest. Thus, accurate and rapid diagnosis of battery state of health (SOH) is necessary for electric vehicle manufacturers to manage their vehicle fleets and warranties. This paper demonstrates a simple method for assessing SOH related to battery energy capability (SOH E ). The presented method is based on the monitoring of U relax over aging. U relax is the open-circuit voltage of the battery measured after full charging and 30 min of rest. A linear dependence between U relax and remaining capacity is noted. This correlation is demonstrated for three different commercial battery technologies (different chemistries) aged under different calendar and power cycling aging conditions. It was determined that the difference between two U relax voltages measured at two different aging states is proportional to SOH E decay. The mean error of the linear model is less than 2% for certain cases. This method could also be a highly useful and rapid tool for a complete battery pack diagnosis.

  3. Charged-to-neutral correlation at forward rapidity in Au + Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Event-by-event fluctuations of the multiplicities of inclusive charged particles and photons at forward rapidity in Au +Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV have been studied. The dominant contribution to such fluctuations is expected to come from correlated production of charged and neutral pions. We search for evidence of dynamical fluctuations of different physical origins. Observables constructed out of moments of multiplicities are used as measures of fluctuations. Mixed events and model calculations are used as base lines. Results are compared to the dynamical net-charge fluctuations measured in the same acceptance. A nonzero statistically significant signal of dynamical fluctuations is observed in excess to the model prediction when charged particles and photons are measured in the same acceptance. We find that, unlike dynamical net-charge fluctuation, charge-neutral fluctuation is not dominated by correlation owing to particle decay. Results are compared to the expectations based on the generic production mechanism of pions owing to isospin symmetry, for which no significant (<1 % ) deviation is observed.

  4. Battery model for electrical power system energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model to simulate nickel-cadmium battery performance and response in a spacecraft electrical power system energy balance calculation was developed. The voltage of the battery is given as a function of temperature, operating depth-of-charge (DOD), and battery state-of-charge. Also accounted for is charge inefficiency. A battery is modeled by analysis of the results of a multiparameter battery cycling test at various temperatures and DOD's.

  5. Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    M.Vasugi; Prof R.Jayaraman

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged o...

  6. Rapid synthesis of binary α-NiS–β-NiS by microwave autoclave for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, Nurul Hayati; Rahman, Md Mokhlesur; Chou, Shu-Lei; Wang Jiazhao; Wexler, David; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► NiS has been synthesized by a rapid, one-pot, hydrothermal microwave autoclave method. ► The α-NiS–β-NiS sample synthesized at 160 °C yielded good electrochemical performance in terms of high reversible capacity (320 mAh g −1 at 0.1C up to 100 cycles). ► At high rates, the sample operated at a good fraction of its capacity. - Abstract: To reduce the reaction time, electrical energy consumption, and cost, binary α-NiS–β-NiS has been synthesized by a rapid, one-pot, hydrothermal autoclave microwave method within 15 min at temperatures of 160–180 °C. The microstructure and morphology of the α-NiS–β-NiS products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At 140 °C, pure hexagonal NiAs-type α-NiS phase was identified from the XRD patterns. With increasing reaction temperature (160–180 °C), the XRD evidence indicates that an increasing fraction of rhombohedral millerite-like β-NiS is formed as a secondary phase. The α-NiS–β-NiS sample synthesized at 160 °C yielded good electrochemical performance in term of high reversible capacity (320 mAh g −1 at 0.1C up to 100 cycles). Even at high rates, the sample operated at a good fraction of its capacity. The likely contributing factor to the superior electrochemical performance of the α-NiS–β-NiS sample could be related to the improved morphology. TEM imaging confirmed that needle-like protrusions connect the clusters of α-NiS particles, and the individual protrusions indicated a very high surface area including folded sheet morphology, which helps to dissipate the surface accumulation of Li + ions and facilitate rapid mobility. These factors help to enhance the amount of lithium intercalated within the material.

  7. Charge-discharge mechanisms of Li3V2(PO4)3 cathode materials in Li-batteries - studied by operando PXD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Daniel Risskov; Mathiesen, Jette Katja; Henriksen, Christian

    Rechargeable Li-ion batteries are widely recognized as an enabling technology for electrochemical energy storage in applications ranging from small portable electronics over electric vehicles to grid-scale electricity storage1. However, Li-ion batteries still face challenges in terms...

  8. Simulation and Comparison of HEV Battery Control for Best Fuel Economy and Longer Battery Life

    OpenAIRE

    Adel, Boukehili; Youtong, Zhang; shuai, Sun

    2010-01-01

    Almost all HEV battery control strategies keep the battery state of charge (SOC) within a lower limit (SOCmin) (these strategies also called charge sustaining strategies). The goal from sustaining the SOC in this way is to prolong the battery life. But the question is

  9. In Situ Monitoring of Temperature inside Lithium-Ion Batteries by Flexible Micro Temperature Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA, notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS process for monitoring temperature in situ.

  10. Measurement of charm and beauty production at central rapidity versus charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sang Un; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Hartmann, Helvi; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hilden, Timo Eero; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Kamal; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobayashi, Taiyo; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kucheryaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pant, Divyash; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; 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Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Seeder, Karin Soraya; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Symons, Timothy; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; 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Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2015-09-22

    Prompt D meson and non-prompt J/$\\psi$ yields are studied as a function of the multiplicity of charged particles produced in inelastic proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV. The results are reported as a ratio between yields in a given multiplicity interval normalised to the multiplicity-integrated ones (relative yields). They are shown as a function of the multiplicity of charged particles normalised to the average value for inelastic collisions (relative charged-particle multiplicity). D$^0$, D$^+$ and D$^{*+}$ mesons are measured in five $p_{\\rm T}$ intervals from 1 to 20 GeV/$c$ and for $|y|1.3$ GeV/$c$ and $|y|0$. The fraction of non-prompt J/$\\psi$ in the inclusive J/$\\psi$ yields shows no dependence on the charged-particle multiplicity at central rapidity. Charm and beauty hadron relative yields exhibit a similar increase with increasing charged-particle multiplicity. The measurements are compared to PYTHIA 8, EPOS 3 and percolation calculations.

  11. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  12. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  13. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    OpenAIRE

    Anto, Budhi; Hamdani, Edy; Abdullah, Rizki

    2014-01-01

    A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power ...

  14. Characterization of rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on a hybrid chip for elemental analysis of microsamples by portable optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, Scott; Dulai, Gurjit; Li, Lu; Karanassios, Vassili

    2015-04-01

    A rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, self-igniting Ar-H2 microplasma was interfaced to a portable fiber-optic spectrometer. The microplasma-spectrometer combination was used to document the spectral lines emitted when μL of dilute solutions of single element standards of Ag, Ba, Ca, Eu, Pd, Rb and Sr were first dried and then vaporized into the microplasma. A small-size, electrothermal vaporization system was used for microsample introduction. Identification of the prominent spectral lines for these elements is reported. It was found that the most prominent spectral line for Ba, Ca and Sr was different than that emitted from an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In general, prominent spectral lines with low excitation energy were dominating, thus resulting in spectra simpler than those emitted from an ICP. Detection limits were between 45 and 180 pg (expressed in absolute amounts). When expressed in relative concentration units, they ranged between 15 and 60 μg/L (obtained using 3 μL diluted standards). Calibration curves were linear (on the average) for 1.5 orders-of-magnitude. Average precision was 15%. Analytical capability and utility was demonstrated using the determination of Ca and Mg in (medicinal) thermal spring water.

  15. Hydrogen-absorbing alloys for the nickel-metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingming Geng; Jianwen Han; Feng Feng [University of Windsor, Ontario (Canada). Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Northwood, D.O. [University of Windsor, Ontario (Canada). Mechanical and Materials Engineering]|[Ryerson Polytechnic University, Toronto (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    In recent years, owing to the rapid development of portable electronic and electrical appliances, the market for rechargeable batteries has increased at a high rate. The nickel-metal hydride battery (Ni/MH) is one of the more promising types, because of its high capacity, high-rate charge/discharge capability and non-polluting nature. This type of battery uses a hydrogen storage alloy as its negative electrode. The characteristics of the Ni/MH battery, including discharge voltage, high-rate discharge capability and charge/discharge cycle lifetime are mainly determined by the construction of the negative electrode and the composition of the hydrogen-absorbing alloy. The negative electrode of the Ni/MH battery described in this paper was made from a mixture of hydrogen-absorbing alloy, nickel powder and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). A multicomponent MmNi{sub 5}-based alloy (Mm{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}Ni{sub 3.85} Co{sub 0.45}Mn{sub 0.35}Al{sub 0.35}) was used as the hydrogen-absorbing alloy. The discharge characteristics of the negative electrode, including discharge capacity, cycle lifetime, and polarization overpotential, were studied by means of electrochemical experiments and analysis. The decay of the discharge capacity for the Ni/MH battery (AA size, 1 Ah) was about 1% after 100 charge/discharge cycles and 10% after 500 charge/discharge cycles. (author)

  16. An improved high-performance lithium-air battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hun-Gi; Hassoun, Jusef; Park, Jin-Bum; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno

    2012-06-10

    Although dominating the consumer electronics markets as the power source of choice for popular portable devices, the common lithium battery is not yet suited for use in sustainable electrified road transport. The development of advanced, higher-energy lithium batteries is essential in the rapid establishment of the electric car market. Owing to its exceptionally high energy potentiality, the lithium-air battery is a very appealing candidate for fulfilling this role. However, the performance of such batteries has been limited to only a few charge-discharge cycles with low rate capability. Here, by choosing a suitable stable electrolyte and appropriate cell design, we demonstrate a lithium-air battery capable of operating over many cycles with capacity and rate values as high as 5,000 mAh g(carbon)(-1) and 3 A g(carbon)(-1), respectively. For this battery we estimate an energy density value that is much higher than those offered by the currently available lithium-ion battery technology.

  17. Selection of the battery pack parameters for an electric vehicle based on performance requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniak, M.; Czerepicki, A.

    2017-06-01

    Each type of vehicle has specific power requirements. Some require a rapid charging, other make long distances between charges, but a common feature is the longest battery life time. Additionally, the battery is influenced by factors such as temperature, depth of discharge and the operation current. The article contain the parameters of chemical cells that should be taken into account during the design of the battery for a specific application. This is particularly important because the batteries are not properly matched and can wear prematurely and cause an additional costs. The method of selecting the correct cell type should take previously discussed features and operating characteristics of the vehicle into account. The authors present methods of obtaining such characteristics along with their assessment and examples. Also there has been described an example of the battery parameters selection based on design assumptions of the vehicle and the expected performance characteristics. Selecting proper battery operating parameters is important due to its impact on the economic result of investments in electric vehicles. For example, for some Li-Ion technologies, the earlier worn out of batteries in a fleet of cruise boats or buses having estimated lifetime of 10 years is not acceptable, because this will cause substantial financial losses for the owner of the rolling stock. The presented method of choosing the right cell technology in the selected application, can be the basis for making the decision on future battery technical parameters.

  18. A Rechargeable Hydrogen Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christudas Dargily, Neethu; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Devendrachari, Mruthunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Gautam, Manu; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-04-27

    We utilize proton-coupled electron transfer in hydrogen storage molecules to unlock a rechargeable battery chemistry based on the cleanest chemical energy carrier molecule, hydrogen. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and spectroelectrochemical analyses evidence the participation of protons during charge-discharge chemistry and extended cycling. In an era of anthropogenic global climate change and paramount pollution, a battery concept based on a virtually nonpolluting energy carrier molecule demonstrates distinct progress in the sustainable energy landscape.

  19. Thermal management of batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbard, H. F.; Chen, C.-C.

    Control of the internal temperature during high rate discharge or charge can be a major design problem for large, high energy density battery systems. A systematic approach to the thermal management of such systems is described for different load profiles based on: thermodynamic calculations of internal heat generation; calorimetric measurements of heat flux; analytical and finite difference calculations of the internal temperature distribution; appropriate system designs for heat removal and temperature control. Examples are presented of thermal studies on large lead-acid batteries for electrical utility load levelling and nickel-zinc and lithium-iron sulphide batteries for electric vehicle propulsion.

  20. Death by a thousand charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuse, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Battery charging and discharging regimes mostly attempt to maximize potential profit by following price signals. Combining a technical understanding of batteries with financial theory, researchers now present a framework that allows optimization of economic benefits considering both potential revenues and battery degradation.

  1. Identification and modelling of Lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Sun, L.; Chan, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    A universal battery model for the charging process has been identified for Lithium ion battery working at constant temperature. Mathematical models are fitted to different collected charging profiles using the least squares algorithm. With the removal of the component which is related to the DC resistance of the battery, a universal model can be fitted to predict profiles of different charging rates after time scaling. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the goodness of fit of the model at different charging rates and for batteries of different capacities. Comparison with standard electrical-circuit model is also presented. With the proposed model, it is possible to derive more effective way to monitor the status of Lithium ion batteries, and to develop a universal quick charger for different capacities of batteries to result with a more effective usage of Lithium ion batteries.

  2. A Battery Power Bank with Series-Connected Buck–Boost-Type Battery Power Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsi Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The operation of a battery power bank with series-connected buck–boost-type battery power modules (BPMs was investigated in this study. Each BPM consisted of a battery pack with an associated buck–boost converter for individually controlling battery currents. With a proposed discharging scenario, load voltage regulation with charge equalization among batteries was performed by controlling the battery currents in accordance with their state-of-charges (SOCs estimated by real-time battery-loaded voltages detected under the same operating condition. In addition, the fault tolerance was executed to isolate exhausted or faulty batteries from the battery power bank without interrupting the system operation. Experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the discharging scenario for a laboratory battery power bank with four series buck–boost BPMs.

  3. Characterization of rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on a hybrid chip for elemental analysis of microsamples by portable optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weagant, Scott; Dulai, Gurjit; Li, Lu; Karanassios, Vassili, E-mail: vkaranassios@uwaterloo.ca

    2015-04-01

    A rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, self-igniting Ar-H{sub 2} microplasma was interfaced to a portable fiber-optic spectrometer. The microplasma-spectrometer combination was used to document the spectral lines emitted when μL of dilute solutions of single element standards of Ag, Ba, Ca, Eu, Pd, Rb and Sr were first dried and then vaporized into the microplasma. A small-size, electrothermal vaporization system was used for microsample introduction. Identification of the prominent spectral lines for these elements is reported. It was found that the most prominent spectral line for Ba, Ca and Sr was different than that emitted from an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In general, prominent spectral lines with low excitation energy were dominating, thus resulting in spectra simpler than those emitted from an ICP. Detection limits were between 45 and 180 pg (expressed in absolute amounts). When expressed in relative concentration units, they ranged between 15 and 60 μg/L (obtained using 3 μL diluted standards). Calibration curves were linear (on the average) for 1.5 orders-of-magnitude. Average precision was 15%. Analytical capability and utility was demonstrated using the determination of Ca and Mg in (medicinal) thermal spring water. - Highlights: • Microplasma emission spectra for Ag, Ba, Ca, Eu, Pd, Rb and Sr are reported. • Absolute amount detection limits ranged between 45 pg and 180 pg. • Relative unit detection limits ranged between 15 and 60 μg/L (using 3 μL). • The effect of vaporization temperature on analyte signals is reported. • Ca and Mg concentrations in (medicinal) thermal spring water were determined.

  4. Characterization of rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on a hybrid chip for elemental analysis of microsamples by portable optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weagant, Scott; Dulai, Gurjit; Li, Lu; Karanassios, Vassili

    2015-01-01

    A rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, self-igniting Ar-H 2 microplasma was interfaced to a portable fiber-optic spectrometer. The microplasma-spectrometer combination was used to document the spectral lines emitted when μL of dilute solutions of single element standards of Ag, Ba, Ca, Eu, Pd, Rb and Sr were first dried and then vaporized into the microplasma. A small-size, electrothermal vaporization system was used for microsample introduction. Identification of the prominent spectral lines for these elements is reported. It was found that the most prominent spectral line for Ba, Ca and Sr was different than that emitted from an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In general, prominent spectral lines with low excitation energy were dominating, thus resulting in spectra simpler than those emitted from an ICP. Detection limits were between 45 and 180 pg (expressed in absolute amounts). When expressed in relative concentration units, they ranged between 15 and 60 μg/L (obtained using 3 μL diluted standards). Calibration curves were linear (on the average) for 1.5 orders-of-magnitude. Average precision was 15%. Analytical capability and utility was demonstrated using the determination of Ca and Mg in (medicinal) thermal spring water. - Highlights: • Microplasma emission spectra for Ag, Ba, Ca, Eu, Pd, Rb and Sr are reported. • Absolute amount detection limits ranged between 45 pg and 180 pg. • Relative unit detection limits ranged between 15 and 60 μg/L (using 3 μL). • The effect of vaporization temperature on analyte signals is reported. • Ca and Mg concentrations in (medicinal) thermal spring water were determined

  5. Aproximation to the Modelling of Charge and Discharge Processes in Electrochemical Batteries by Integral Equation; Aproximacion al Modelo de los Procesos de Carga y Descarga en Baterias Electroquimicas mediante Ecuaciones Integrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balenzategui, J. L. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    A new way for the modelling of the charge and discharge processes in electrochemical batteries based on the use of integral equations is presented. The proposed method models the charge curves by by the so called fractional or cumulative integrals of a certain objective function f(t) that must be sought. The charge figures can be easily fitted by breaking down this objective function as the addition of two different Lorentz-type functions: the first one is associated to the own charge process and the second one to the overcharge process. The method allows calculating the starting voltage for overcharge as the intersection between both functions. The curve fitting of this model to different experimental charge curves, by using the Marquardt algorithm, has shown very accurate results. In the case of discharge curves, two possible methods for modelling purposes are suggested, well by using the same kind of integral equations, well by the simple subtraction of an objective function f(t) from a constant value V{sub o}D. Many other aspects for the study and analysis of this method in order to improve its results in further developments are also discussed. (Author) 10 refs.

  6. Effective Usage of Lithium Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    濱田, 耕治; ハマダ, コウジ; Koji, HAMADA

    2008-01-01

    Pure Electric Vehicles(PEV's) are promising when seen in relation to global environment. However, there is the need to solve a number of problems before PEV's become viable alternatives of transportation. For example, reduction of battery charge time, improvement of battery performance, and reduction in vehicle cost. A way to improve battery performance is to use lithium ion batteries. One problem with lithium ion batteries is with charging (recharging). It is difficult to provide a constant ...

  7. Investigation of the Li–S Battery Mechanism by Real-Time Monitoring of the Changes of Sulfur and Polysulfide Species during the Discharge and Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dong; Liu, Dan; Harris, Joshua B.; Ding, Tianyao; Si, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of the sulfur cathode in Li-S batteries has been proposed. It was revealed by the real-time quantitative determination of polysulfide species and elemental sulfur by means of the high performance liquid chromatography in the course of the discharge and recharge of a Li-S battery. A three-step reduction mechanism including two chemical equilibrium reactions was proposed for the sulfur cathode discharge. The typical two-plateau discharge curve for sulfur cathode can be explained. A two-step oxidation mechanism for the Li_2S and Li_2S_2 with a single chemical equilibrium among soluble polysulfide ions was proposed. In conclusion, the chemical equilibrium among S_5"2"-, S_6"2"-, S_7"2"- and S_8"2"- throughout the entire oxidation process resulted for the single flat recharge curve in Li-S batteries.

  8. Microcontroller Based Solar Charge Controller for Power Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Vikas Khare

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic cell converts solar energy directly into electricity. This paper describes a design of microcontroller based solar charge controller for power application.[2] The work of the Paper is to charge a 12 volt battery by using a 50 watt solar panel with maximum power. This circuit regulates the charging of battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reached a preset value.[1] The microprocessor based charge ...

  9. A Charge Controller Design For Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Nandar Oo; Kyaw Soe Lwin; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the solar charge controller circuit for controlling the overcharging and discharging from solar panel. This circuit regulates the charging of the battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reaches a preset voltage. This circuit is low voltages disconnect circuit. A charge controller circuit can increase battery life by preventing over-charging which can cause loss of electrolyte. The flow chart...

  10. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  11. Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high essentially any size and shape. Recently, Teledyne licensed this technology from ORNL to make batteries for

  12. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  13. Microfluidic redox battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-07

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  14. Effect of additives on the performance of negative lead-acid battery electrodes during formation and partial state of charge operation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivík, P.; Micka, Karel; Bača, P.; Tonar, K.; Tošer, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 209, JUL 1 2012 (2012), s. 15-19 ISSN 0378-7753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : load acid battery electrodes * Doping with carbon * PSoC cycling Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.675, year: 2012

  15. On the complex ageing characteristics of high-power LiFePO4/graphite battery cells cycled with high charge and discharge currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groot, Jens; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    Li-ion batteries are known to undergo complex ageing processes, where the operating conditions have a profound and non-linear effect on both calendar life and cycle life. This is especially a challenge for the automotive industry, where the requirements on product lifetime and reliability...

  16. Charge Localization in the Lithium Iron Phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3at High Voltages in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Loftager, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Possible changes in the oxidation state of the oxygen ion in the lithium iron phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3 at high voltages in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are studied using experimental and computational analysis. Results obtained from synchrotron-based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...

  17. "Wine-Dark Sea" in an Organic Flow Battery: Storing Negative Charge in 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole Radicals Leads to Improved Cyclability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wentao; Huang, Jinhua; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Vijayakumar, M.; Walter, Eric; Pan, Baofei; Yang, Zheng; Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Li, Bin; Liao, Chen; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Moore, Jeffery S.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Zhang, Lu; Wei, Xiaoliang

    2017-04-19

    A highly soluble, readily accessible, redox-active organic material, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, is demonstrated as a novel anolyte material to enable exceptional cyclability in a full-cell organic redox flow battery. This material discovery represents a significant progress toward promising next-generation energy storage.

  18. A VRLA battery simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoe, Phillip E.; Anbuky, Adnan H.

    2004-01-01

    A valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery simulation model is an invaluable tool for the standby power system engineer. The obvious use for such a model is to allow the assessment of battery performance. This may involve determining the influence of cells suffering from state of health (SOH) degradation on the performance of the entire string, or the running of test scenarios to ascertain the most suitable battery size for the application. In addition, it enables the engineer to assess the performance of the overall power system. This includes, for example, running test scenarios to determine the benefits of various load shedding schemes. It also allows the assessment of other power system components, either for determining their requirements and/or vulnerabilities. Finally, a VRLA battery simulation model is vital as a stand alone tool for educational purposes. Despite the fundamentals of the VRLA battery having been established for over 100 years, its operating behaviour is often poorly understood. An accurate simulation model enables the engineer to gain a better understanding of VRLA battery behaviour. A system level multipurpose VRLA battery simulation model is presented. It allows an arbitrary battery (capacity, SOH, number of cells and number of strings) to be simulated under arbitrary operating conditions (discharge rate, ambient temperature, end voltage, charge rate and initial state of charge). The model accurately reflects the VRLA battery discharge and recharge behaviour. This includes the complex start of discharge region known as the coup de fouet

  19. Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jinghua

    2006-01-01

    We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model

  20. Impact of anode substrates on electrodeposited zinc over cycling in zinc-anode rechargeable alkaline batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xia; Desai, Divyaraj; Yadav, Gautam G.; Turney, Damon E.; Couzis, Alexander; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of Ag, Bi, Cu, Fe, Ni and Sn substrates on zinc deposition was evaluated over battery cycling by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The effect of Bi, Cu, Ni, and Sn substrates on zinc electrodeposition during battery cycling was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behavior of each metal in 9 M KOH and the corrosion rates of zinc plated on each substrate were analyzed by Tafel extrapolation method from the potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Although the charge-transfer resistance (R_c_t) of zinc electrodeposition is lowest on Sn, Sn eventually corrodes on cycling in alkaline media. Use of Ni as a substrate causes zinc to deteriorate on account of rapid hydrogen evolution. Bi and Cu substrates are more suitable for use as current collectors in zinc-anode alkaline rechargeable batteries because of their low corrosion rate and compact zinc deposition over battery cycling.

  1. Control and operation of power sources in a medium-voltage direct-current microgrid for an electric vehicle fast charging station with a photovoltaic and a battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Triviño, Pablo; Torreglosa, Juan P.; Fernández-Ramírez, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Although electric vehicles (EVs) are experiencing a considerable upsurge, the technology associated with them is still under development. This study focused on the control and operation of a medium-voltage direct-current (MVDC) microgrid with an innovative decentralized control system, which was used as a fast charging station (FCS) for EVs. The FCS was composed of a photovoltaic (PV) system, a Li-ion battery energy storage system (BESS), two 48 kW fast charging units for EVs, and a connection to the local grid. With this configuration and thanks to its decentralized control, the FCS was able to work as a stand-alone system most of the time though with occasional grid support. This paper presents a new decentralized energy management system (EMS) with two options to control the power sources of the FCS. The choice of the power source depends on the MVDC bus voltage, the state-of-charge (SOC) of the BESS, and the control option of the EMS. This control was tested by simulating the FCS, when connected to several EVs and under different sun irradiance conditions. Simulation results showed that the FCS operated smoothly and effectively, which confirms the feasibility of using this technology in EVs. - Highlights: • This paper studies a MVDC microgrid for fast charging station of EV. • It is composed of a PV system, a BESS, two EV charging stations and a grid connection. • A decentralized control scheme is applied to control the power sources. • The MVDC bus voltage is the key parameter for controlling the system. • The results demonstrate the feasibility of the system and control under study.

  2. Batteries: Polymers switch for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-11

    Ensuring safety during operation is a major issue in the development of lithium-ion batteries. Coating the electrode current collector with thermoresponsive polymer composites is now shown to rapidly shut the battery down when it overheats, and to quickly resume its function when normal operating conditions return

  3. An improved PNGV modeling and SOC estimation for lithium iron phosphate batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Because lithium iron phosphate battery has many advantages, it has been used more and more widely in the field of electric vehicle. The lithium iron phosphate battery, presents the improved PNGV model, and the batteries charge discharge characteristics and pulse charge discharge experiments, identification of parameters of the battery model by interpolation and least square fitting method, to achieve a more accurate modeling of lithium iron phosphate battery, and the extended Calman filter algorithm (EKF) is completed state nuclear power battery (SOC) estimate.

  4. Rapid analysis of charge variants of monoclonal antibodies using non-linear salt gradient in cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Varsha; Kumar, Vijesh; Rathore, Anurag S

    2015-08-07

    A method is proposed for rapid development of a short, analytical cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography method for analysis of charge heterogeneity in monoclonal antibody products. The parameters investigated and optimized include pH, shape of elution gradient and length of the column. It is found that the most important parameter for development of a shorter method is the choice of the shape of elution gradient. In this paper, we propose a step by step approach to develop a non-linear sigmoidal shape gradient for analysis of charge heterogeneity for two different monoclonal antibody products. The use of this gradient not only decreases the run time of the method to 4min against the conventional method that takes more than 40min but also the resolution is retained. Superiority of the phosphate gradient over sodium chloride gradient for elution of mAbs is also observed. The method has been successfully evaluated for specificity, sensitivity, linearity, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. Application of this method as a potential at-line process analytical technology tool has been suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Current sensorless quick charger for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2011-01-01

    An efficient, simple and low cost quick charger based on the double-loop controller is proposed for the charging of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. With positive and negative feedback of the battery voltage, charging profile similar to the constant current and constant voltage (CC-CV) charging strategy can be performed without actually sensing the charging current. The charging time can easily be shortened by raising the level of saturation in the primary voltage control loop. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the battery charger. The charger could be a low cost and high performance replacement for existing Li-ion battery chargers.

  6. Slim Battery Modelling Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.

    2011-10-01

    Saft has developed a life prediction model for VES and MPS cells and batteries. The Saft Li-ion Model (SLIM) is a macroscopic electrochemical model based on energy (global at cell level). The main purpose is to predict the battery performances during the life for GEO, MEO and LEO missions. This model is based on electrochemical characteristics such as Energy, Capacity, EMF, Internal resistance, end of charge voltage. It uses fading and calendar law effects on energy and internal impedance vs. time, temperature, End of Charge voltage. Based on the mission profile, satellite power system characteristics, the model proposes the various battery configurations. For each configuration, the model gives the battery performances using mission figures and profiles: power, duration, DOD, end of charge voltages, temperatures during eclipses and solstices, thermal dissipations and cell failures. For the GEO/MEO missions, eclipse and solstice periods can include specific profile such as plasmic propulsion fires and specific balancing operations. For LEO missions, the model is able to simulate high power peaks to predict radar pulses. Saft's main customers have been using the SLIM model available in house for two years. The purpose is to have the satellite builder power engineers able to perform by themselves in the battery pre-dimensioning activities their own battery simulations. The simulations can be shared with Saft engineers to refine the power system designs. This model has been correlated with existing life and calendar tests performed on all the VES and MPS cells. In comparing with more than 10 year lasting life tests, the accuracy of the model from a voltage point of view is less than 10 mV at end Of Life. In addition, thethe comparison with in-orbit data has been also done. b This paper will present the main features of the SLIM software and outputs comparison with real life tests. b0

  7. Combination field chopper and battery charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwald, Robert L.; Crouch, Keith E.; Wilson, James W. A.

    1981-01-01

    A power transistor used in a chopper circuit to control field excitation of a vehicle motor when in a power mode is also used to control charging current from an a-c to d-c rectifier to the vehicle battery when in a battery charging mode. Two isolating diodes and a small high frequency filter inductor are the only elements required in the chopper circuit to reconfigure the circuit for power or charging modes of operation.

  8. Effect of rare earth oxide additives on the performance of NiMH batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshiki; Kuzuhara, Minoru; Watada, Masaharu; Oshitani, Masahiko

    2006-01-01

    To date, we have performed research on nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries used in many applications and have found that addition of rare earth oxides to the nickel electrode and the hydrogen-storage alloy (MH) electrode improves battery performance significantly. Because heavy rare earth oxides of such as Er, Tm, Yb and Lu have remarkable properties that shift the oxygen evolution overpotentials of nickel electrodes to more noble potentials, it is possible to improve high-temperature charge efficiency of nickel-metal hydride secondary batteries by adding them to nickel electrodes. Furthermore, addition of heavy rare earth oxides to MH electrodes depresses an acceleration of the alloy corrosion and improves service life of the battery at high temperatures. Accordingly, addition of heavy rare earth oxides is effective for NiMH batteries used in high-temperature applications such as electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid vehicles (HEVs) and rapid charge devices. In this study, we discussed how the addition of heavy rare earth oxides affects NiMH battery characteristics

  9. The effect of water-containing electrolyte on lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Heng-Liang; Haasch, Richard T.; Perdue, Brian R.; Apblett, Christopher A.; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2017-11-01

    Dissolved polysulfides, formed during Li-S battery operation, freely migrate and react with both the Li anode and the sulfur cathode. These soluble polysulfides shuttle between the anode and cathode - the so-called shuttle effect - resulting in an infinite recharge process and poor Columbic efficiency. In this study, water present as an additive in the Li-S battery electrolyte is found to reduce the shuttle effect in Li-S batteries. Batteries where water content was below 50 ppm exhibited a substantial shuttle effect and low charge capacity. Alternatively, addition of 250 ppm water led to stable charge/discharge behavior with high Coulombic efficiency. XPS results show that H2O addition results in the formation of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film with more LiOH on Li anode which protects the Li anode from the polysulfides. Batteries cycled without water result in a SEI film with more Li2CO3 likely formed by direct contact between the Li metal and the solvent. Intermediate quantities of H2O in the electrolyte result in high cycle efficiency for the first few cycles which then rapidly decays. This suggests that H2O is consumed during battery cycling, likely by interaction with freshly exposed Li metal formed during Li deposition.

  10. Further demonstration of the VRLA-type UltraBattery under medium-HEV duty and development of the flooded-type UltraBattery for micro-HEV applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, J.; Takada, T.; Monma, D. [The Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., R and D Division, 23-6 Kuidesaku, Shimofunao-machi, Joban, Iwaki-city, 972-8501 (Japan); Lam, L.T. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Bayview Avenue, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The UltraBattery has been invented by the CSIRO Energy Technology in Australia and has been developed and produced by the Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan. This battery is a hybrid energy storage device which combines a super capacitor and a lead-acid battery in single unit cells, taking the best from both technologies without the need of extra, expensive electronic controls. The capacitor enhances the power and lifespan of the lead-acid battery as it acts as a buffer during high-rate discharging and charging, thus enabling it to provide and absorb charge rapidly during vehicle acceleration and braking. The laboratory results of the prototype valve-regulated UltraBatteries show that the capacity, power, available energy, cold cranking and self-discharge of these batteries have met, or exceeded, all the respective performance targets set for both minimum and maximum power-assist HEVs. The cycling performance of the UltraBatteries under micro-, mild- and full-HEV duties is at least four times longer than that of the state-of-the-art lead-acid batteries. Importantly, the cycling performance of UltraBatteries is proven to be comparable or even better than that of the Ni-MH cells. On the other hand, the field trial of UltraBatteries in the Honda Insight HEV shows that the vehicle has surpassed 170,000 km and the batteries are still in a healthy condition. Furthermore, the UltraBatteries demonstrate very good acceptance of the charge from regenerative braking even at high state-of-charge, e.g., 70% during driving. Therefore, no equalization charge is required for the UltraBatteries during field trial. The HEV powered by UltraBatteries gives slightly higher fuel consumption (cf., 4.16 with 4.05 L/100 km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (cf., 98.8 with 96 g km{sup -1}) compared with that by Ni-MH cells. There are no differences in driving experience between the Honda Insight powered by UltraBatteries and by Ni-MH cells. Given such comparable performance, the UltraBattery pack

  11. Optimization studies of carbon additives to negative active material for the purpose of extending the life of VRLA batteries in high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, D.P.; Loosemore, D.V.; Spence, M.A.; Wojcinski, T.D. [Hammond Expanders Division, Hammond Group, Inc., 6544 Osborn Avenue, Hammond, IN 46320 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The negative plates of lead-acid batteries subjected to partial-state-of-charge (PSOC) operation fail because of the development of an electrically inert film of lead sulfate on their surfaces. It has been found that carbon additives to the negative active material can significantly increase their cycle life in this type of operation. In this paper we show that various types of carbon, including graphite, carbon black eliminate the surface development of lead sulfate and that, in their presence, the lead sulfate becomes homogeneously distributed throughout the active material. Examination of active material by energy dispersive spectroscopy after extensive cycling shows that lead formed during charge of lead sulfate preferentially deposits on the carbon particles that have been embedded in the active material. Electrochemical studies have been carried out on a number of types of carbon additives having a wide range of properties. These included flake, expanded and synthetic graphite, isotropically graphitized carbon, carbon black and activated carbon. We have investigated their effect on the resistivity and surface areas of the negative active material and also on such electrochemical properties as active material utilization and cycle life. Most of the carbon additives increase the utilization of the active material and impressive increases in cycle life have been obtained with over 6000 capacity turnovers having been achieved. However, at this time, we have not been able to correlate either the type or the properties of the carbon with capacity or cycle life. Further work is needed in this area. The increases that have been achieved in cycle life provide evidence that the lead-acid battery is a viable low cost option for hybrid-electric vehicle use. (author)

  12. Optimization of Charging Strategy by Prevention of Lithium Deposition on Anodes in high-energy Lithium-ion Batteries – Electrochemical Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, Thomas; Kasper, Michael; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates the capacity fade of commercial 3.25 Ah 18650-type cells with NCA cathodes and graphite anodes quantitatively for different temperatures and charging strategies. For standard constant current / constant voltage (CC-CV) charging, the aging rate for cells cycled at 0.5C is increased with decreasing temperature in the range of 25 °C to 0 °C. Interestingly, no accelerated aging is observed for CC-CV charging in the temperature range of 25 °C to 60 °C at 0.5C. The observed behavior indicates lithium deposition on anodes for temperatures up to ∼25 °C and is further investigated by reconstruction of anode and cathode from the commercial 18650-type cells into full cells with an additional lithium metal reference electrode. The reconstruction method is scrutinized regarding its validity. Measurements with the reconstructed cells at 25 °C reveal the quantitative dependency of the anode potential vs. Li/Li"+ from the charge C-rate and cell voltage. This allows deriving charging strategies involving strictly positive anode potentials to avoid lithium deposition and preventing the corresponding capacity fade.

  13. Redox-flow battery of actinide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Tomoo; Shiokawa, Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    Np battery and U battery were developed. We suggested that Np redox-flow battery should be (-)|Np 3+ ,Np 4+ ||NpO 2 + ,NpO 2 2+ |(+), and U battery (-)|[U III T 2 ] - ,[U IV T 2 ] 0 ||[U V O 2 T] - ,[U VI O 2 T] 0 |(+). The electromotive force at 50 % charge of Np and U battery is 1.10 V and 1.04 V, respectively. The energy efficiency of 70 mA/cm 2 of Np and U battery shows 99 % and 98 %, respectively. V redox-flow battery, electrode reactions of An battery, Np battery, U battery and future of U battery are described. The concept of V redox-flow battery, comparison of energy efficiency of Np, U and V battery, oxidation state and ionic species of 3d transition metals and main An, Purbe diagram of Np and U aqueous solution, shift of redox potential of β-diketones by pKa, and specifications of three redox-flow batteries are reported. (S.Y.)

  14. Will Your Battery Survive a World With Fast Chargers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.

    2015-05-04

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that result could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's development of BLAST-V-the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles-to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. We present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. We find that the impact of realistic fast charging on battery degradation is minimal for most drivers, due to the low frequency of use. However, in the absence of active battery cooling systems, a driver's desired utilization of a BEV and fast charging infrastructure can result in unsafe peak battery temperatures. We find that active battery cooling systems can control peak battery temperatures to safe limits while allowing the desired use of the vehicle.

  15. Traction batteries for industrial trucks. Technical aspects, selection criteria, operation. Antriebsbatterien fuer Flurfoerderzeuge. Technik, Auswahlkriterien und Betrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, W

    1987-01-01

    This lavishly illustrated booklet presents an introduction to the technology of the lead battery, which is commonly used as traction battery for industrial trucks. Technical specifications and standards, selection criteria for batteries and the novel CSM battery technology are mentioned. Most of the book deals with the practical aspects of batteries, e.g. installation, starting, maintenance, servicing, battery change, battery charging, monitoring, measurement, etc.). Battery recycling is briefly gone into.

  16. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  17. The Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, D. E.; Armantrout, J. D.; Standlee, D. J.; Baker, R. C.; Lanier, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Details are presented of the HST (Hubble Space Telescope) battery cell, battery package, and module mechanical and electrical designs. Also included are a summary of acceptance, qualification, and vibration tests and thermal vacuum testing. Unique details of battery cell charge retention performance characteristics associated with prelaunch hold conditions are discussed. Special charge control methods to minimize thermal dissipation during pad charging operations are summarized. This module design meets all NASA fracture control requirements for manned missions.

  18. Miniature fuel cells relieve gas pressure in sealed batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Miniature fuel cells within sealed silver zinc batteries consume evolved hydrogen and oxygen rapidly, preventing pressure rupturing. They do not significantly increase battery weight and they operate in all battery life phases. Complete gas pressure control requires two fuel cells during all phases of operation of silver zinc batteries.

  19. Lithium-ion battery diagnostic and prognostic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2009-11-03

    Embodiments provide a method and a system for determining cell imbalance condition of a multi-cell battery including a plurality of cell strings. To determine a cell imbalance condition, a charge current is applied to the battery and is monitored during charging. The charging time for each cell string is determined based on the monitor of the charge current. A charge time difference of any two cell strings in the battery is used to determine the cell imbalance condition by comparing with a predetermined acceptable charge time difference for the cell strings.

  20. Transverse momentum, rapidity, and centrality dependence of inclusive charged-particle production in sNN=5.02 TeV p+Pb collisions measured by the ATLAS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Aad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the per-event charged-particle yield as a function of the charged-particle transverse momentum and rapidity are performed using p+Pb collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of sNN=5.02TeV. Charged particles are reconstructed over pseudorapidity |η|<2.3 and transverse momentum between 0.1 GeV and 22 GeV in a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 μb−1. The results are presented in the form of charged-particle nuclear modification factors, where the p+Pb charged-particle multiplicities are compared between central and peripheral p+Pb collisions as well as to charged-particle cross sections measured in pp collisions. The p+Pb collision centrality is characterized by the total transverse energy measured in −4.9<η<−3.1, which is in the direction of the outgoing lead beam. Three different estimations of the number of nucleons participating in the p+Pb collision are carried out using the Glauber model and two Glauber–Gribov colour-fluctuation extensions to the Glauber model. The values of the nuclear modification factors are found to vary significantly as a function of rapidity and transverse momentum. A broad peak is observed for all centralities and rapidities in the nuclear modification factors for charged-particle transverse momentum values around 3 GeV. The magnitude of the peak increases for more central collisions as well as rapidity ranges closer to the direction of the outgoing lead nucleus.

  1. Integrated Inverter And Battery Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1988-01-01

    Circuit combines functions of dc-to-ac inversion (for driving ac motor in battery-powered vehicle) and ac-to-dc conversion (for charging battery from ac line when vehicle not in use). Automatically adapts to either mode. Design of integrated inverter/charger eliminates need for duplicate components, saves space, reduces weight and cost of vehicle. Advantages in other applications : load-leveling systems, standby ac power systems, and uninterruptible power supplies.

  2. Testing activities at the National Battery Test Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, F.; Deluca, W. H.; Mulcahey, T. P.

    The National Battery Test Laboratory (NBTL) is an Argonne National Laboratory facility for testing, evaluating, and studying advanced electric storage batteries. The facility tests batteries developed under Department of Energy programs and from private industry. These include batteries intended for future electric vehicle (EV) propulsion, electric utility load leveling (LL), and solar energy storage. Since becoming operational, the NBTL has evaluated well over 1400 cells (generally in the form of three- to six-cell modules, but up to 140-cell batteries) of various technologies. Performance characterization assessments are conducted under a series of charge/discharge cycles with constant current, constant power, peak power, and computer simulated dynamic load profile conditions. Flexible charging algorithms are provided to accommodate the specific needs of each battery under test. Special studies are conducted to explore and optimize charge procedures, to investigate the impact of unique load demands on battery performance, and to analyze the thermal management requirements of battery systems.

  3. Used batteries - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With colder weather drawing in, it is quite likely that older car batteries will fail. On this subject, the Safety Commission wishes to remind everyone that CERN is not responsible for the disposal of used batteries from private vehicles. So please refrain from abandoning them on pavements or around or inside buildings. Used batteries can be disposed of safely, free-of-charge and without any damage to the environment at waste disposal sites (déchetteries) close to CERN in both France (Ain and Haute-Savoie) and in the Canton of Geneva in Switzerland (Cheneviers). Since the average car battery lasts a number of years, this only represents a small effort on your part over the whole lifetime of your vehicle. Most people don't need reminding that car batteries contain concentrated sulphuric acid, which can cause severe burns. Despite this, we frequently find them casually dumped in scrap metal bins! For more information, please contact R. Magnier/SC-GS 160879 We all have a responsibility for safety and th...

  4. Rechargeable Battery Auto-Cycler Requiring Lower Power and Dissipating Reduced Waste Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Thomas David (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A battery charger system includes a power supply and a switch connected to the power supply wherein the switch has a first switch half and a second switch half. First and second batteries are selectively connected to the power supply via the switch. The first and second switch halves are moved between a plurality of operational positions to fully charge the first battery, discharge the first battery into the second battery, discharge the second battery into the first battery, and fully charge the second battery.

  5. Preparation of Layered-Spinel Microsphere/Reduced Graphene Oxide Cathode Materials for Ultrafast Charge-Discharge Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong; Fang, Shaohua; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-Ichi

    2017-12-22

    Although Li-rich layered oxides (LLOs) have the highest capacity of any cathodes used, the rate capability of LLOs falls short of meeting the requirements of electric vehicles and smart grids. Herein, a layered-spinel microsphere/reduced graphene oxide heterostructured cathode (LS@rGO) is prepared in situ. This cathode is composed of a spinel phase, two layered structures, and a small amount of reduced graphene oxide (1.08 wt % of carbon). The assembly delivers a considerable charge capacity (145 mA h g -1 ) at an ultrahigh charge- discharge rate of 60 C (12 A g -1 ). The rate capability of LS@rGO is influenced by the introduced spinel phase and rGO. X-ray absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate that Cr ions move from octahedral lattice sites to tetrahedral lattice sites, and that Mn ions do not participate in the oxidation reaction during the initial charge process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. High-throughput theoretical design of lithium battery materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Shi-Gang; Gao Jian; Xiao Rui-Juan; Chen Li-Quan

    2016-01-01

    The rapid evolution of high-throughput theoretical design schemes to discover new lithium battery materials is reviewed, including high-capacity cathodes, low-strain cathodes, anodes, solid state electrolytes, and electrolyte additives. With the development of efficient theoretical methods and inexpensive computers, high-throughput theoretical calculations have played an increasingly important role in the discovery of new materials. With the help of automatic simulation flow, many types of materials can be screened, optimized and designed from a structural database according to specific search criteria. In advanced cell technology, new materials for next generation lithium batteries are of great significance to achieve performance, and some representative criteria are: higher energy density, better safety, and faster charge/discharge speed. (topical review)

  7. Effects of compatibility of polymer binders with solvate ionic liquid electrolytes on discharge and charge reactions of lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toshitada; Ikoma, Ai; Kido, Ryosuke; Ueno, Kazuhide; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2016-03-01

    Electrochemical reactions in Li-S cells with a solvate ionic liquid (SIL) electrolyte composed of tetraglyme (G4) and Li[TFSA] (TFSA: bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide) are studied. The sulfur cathode (S cathode) comprises sulfur, carbon powder, and a polymer binder. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-x) with different degrees of saponification (x%) are used as binders to prepare the composite cathodes. For the Li-S cell containing PEO binder, lithium polysulfides (Li2Sm, 2 ≤ m ≤ 8), reaction intermediates of the S cathode, dissolve into the electrolyte, and Li2Sm acts as a redox shuttle in the Li-S cell. In contrast, in the Li-S cell with PVA-x binder, the dissolution of Li2Sm is suppressed, leading to high columbic efficiencies during charge-discharge cycles. The compatibility of the PVA-x binder with the SIL electrolyte changes depending on the degree of saponification. Decreasing the degree of saponification leads to increased electrolyte uptake by the PVA-x binder, increasing the charge and discharge capacities of Li-S cell. The rate capability of Li-S cell is also enhanced by the partial swelling of the PVA-x binder. The enhanced performance of Li-S cell containing PVA-x is attributed to the lowering of resistance of Li+ ion transport in the composite cathode.

  8. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Impedance spectroscopy; grid connection; battery converter; state of charge; health monitoring ... The converter is grid connected and controlled to operate at unity power factor. Additional ... Sadhana. Current Issue : Vol. 43, Issue 6.

  9. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: battery degradation, grid support, emissions, and battery size tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become a substantial part of the transportation fleet in a decade or two. This dissertation investigates battery degradation, and how introducing PHEVs may influence the electricity grid, emissions, and petroleum use in the US. It examines the effects of combined driving and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) usage on lifetime performance of commercial Li-ion cells. The testing shows promising capacity fade performance: more than 95% of the original cell capacity remains after thousands of driving days. Statistical analyses indicate that rapid vehicle motive cycling degraded the cells more than slower, V2G galvanostatic cycling. These data are used to examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. The maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ˜US140 to 250 in the three cities. If measured battery degradation is applied the maximum annual profit decreases to ˜10-120. The dissertation predicts the increase in electricity load and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generators, with a 50/tonne CO2 price, and with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO2 capture. It also models emissions using natural gas or wind+gas. We examined PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50%. Compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO2 emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO2 generation. NOX is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO2 emissions or allowance prices under a cap. Finally the dissertation compares increasing the all-electric range (AER) of PHEVs to installing charging infrastructure. Fuel use was modeled with National Household Travel Survey and Greenhouse Gasses, Regulated

  10. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Investigation of the Overpotentials in Li−O2 Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Jonathan; McCloskey, Bryan D.; Hjelm, Johan

    2015-01-01

    death”) is explained by an increase in the charge transport resistance. The findings confirm that our theory and conclusions in ref 1, based on experiments on smooth small-area glassy carbon cathodes, are equally valid in real Li−O2 batteries with porous cathodes. The parameter variations performed...... that the increase in charge potential is not caused by an increase in the internal resistance. It is proposed that the potential shift is instead dictated by a mixed potential of parasitic reactions and Li2O2 oxidation. The measurements also confirm that the rapid potential loss near the end of discharge (“sudden...

  11. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  12. Machine Learning Based Diagnosis of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe-Ekeocha, Chinemerem Christopher

    The depletion of the world's current petroleum reserve, coupled with the negative effects of carbon monoxide and other harmful petrochemical by-products on the environment, is the driving force behind the movement towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Furthermore, the growing transportation sector consumes a significant portion of the total energy used in the United States. A complete electrification of this sector would require a significant development in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), thus translating to a reduction in the carbon footprint. As the market for EVs and HEVs grows, their battery management systems (BMS) need to be improved accordingly. The BMS is not only responsible for optimally charging and discharging the battery, but also monitoring battery's state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH). SOC, similar to an energy gauge, is a representation of a battery's remaining charge level as a percentage of its total possible charge at full capacity. Similarly, SOH is a measure of deterioration of a battery; thus it is a representation of the battery's age. Both SOC and SOH are not measurable, so it is important that these quantities are estimated accurately. An inaccurate estimation could not only be inconvenient for EV consumers, but also potentially detrimental to battery's performance and life. Such estimations could be implemented either online, while battery is in use, or offline when battery is at rest. This thesis presents intelligent online SOC and SOH estimation methods using machine learning tools such as artificial neural network (ANN). ANNs are a powerful generalization tool if programmed and trained effectively. Unlike other estimation strategies, the techniques used require no battery modeling or knowledge of battery internal parameters but rather uses battery's voltage, charge/discharge current, and ambient temperature measurements to accurately estimate battery's SOC and SOH. The developed

  13. 46 CFR 129.350 - Batteries-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries-general. 129.350 Section 129.350 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.350 Batteries—general. (a) Wherever a battery is charged, there must be natural or induced ventilation to dissipate the gases generated. (b) Each battery...

  14. Towards a thermally regenerative all-copper redox flow battery

    OpenAIRE

    Peljo, Pekka; Lloyd, David; Nguyet, Doan; Majaneva, Marko; Kontturi, Kyosti

    2014-01-01

    An all-copper redox flow battery based on strong complexation of Cu+ with acetonitrile is demonstrated, exhibiting reasonable battery performance. More interestingly, the battery can be charged by heat sources of 100 degrees C, by distilling off the acetonitrile. This destabilizes the Cu+ complex, leading to recovery of the starting materials.

  15. Towards a thermally regenerative all-copper redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peljo, Pekka; Lloyd, David; Doan, Nguyet; Majaneva, Marko; Kontturi, Kyösti

    2014-02-21

    An all-copper redox flow battery based on strong complexation of Cu(+) with acetonitrile is demonstrated, exhibiting reasonable battery performance. More interestingly, the battery can be charged by heat sources of 100 °C, by distilling off the acetonitrile. This destabilizes the Cu(+) complex, leading to recovery of the starting materials.

  16. Te/C nanocomposites for Li-Te Secondary Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Uk; Seong, Gun-Kyu; Park, Cheol-Min

    2015-01-01

    New battery systems having high energy density are actively being researched in order to satisfy the rapidly developing market for longer-lasting mobile electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here, we report a new Li-Te secondary battery system with a redox potential of ~1.7 V (vs. Li+/Li) adapted on a Li metal anode and an advanced Te/C nanocomposite cathode. Using a simple concept of transforming TeO2 into nanocrystalline Te by mechanical reduction, we designed an advanced, mechanically reduced Te/C nanocomposite electrode material with high energy density (initial discharge/charge: 1088/740 mA h cm-3), excellent cyclability (ca. 705 mA h cm-3 over 100 cycles), and fast rate capability (ca. 550 mA h cm-3 at 5C rate). The mechanically reduced Te/C nanocomposite electrodes were found to be suitable for use as either the cathode in Li-Te secondary batteries or a high-potential anode in rechargeable Li-ion batteries. We firmly believe that the mechanically reduced Te/C nanocomposite constitutes a breakthrough for the realization and mass production of excellent energy storage systems.

  17. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  18. Centrality dependence of the charged-particle multiplicity density at mid-rapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aamodt, Kenneth; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Aguilar Salazar, Saul; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahn, Sang Un; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Arend, Andreas; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Asryan, Andzhey; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldit, Alain; Ban, Jaroslav; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdermann, Eleni; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biolcati, Emanuele; Blanc, Aurelien Joseph; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boccioli, Marco; Bock, Nicolas; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bombonati, Carlo; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Bortolin, Claudio; Bose, Suvendu Nath; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Bottger, Stefan; Boyer, Bruno Alexandre; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bravina, Larisa; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Caselle, Michele; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chiavassa, Emilio; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; 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Di Nezza, Pasquale; Dietel, Thomas; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Dominguez, Isabel; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dryha, Olha; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutta Majumdar, AK; Dutta Majumdar, Mihir Ranjan; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evrard, Sebastien; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabjan, Christian; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fearick, Roger Worsley; Fedunov, Anatoly; Fehlker, Dominik; Fekete, Vladimir; Felea, Daniel; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Ferretti, Roberta; Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Fragkiadakis, Michail; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furano, Fabrizio; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoje, Jens Joergen; Gadrat, Sebastien Gabriel; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago, Alberto; Gallio, Mauro; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos, Jose; Gemme, Roberto; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Geuna, Claudio; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Girard, Martin Robert; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez, Ramon; Gonzalez Santos, Humberto; Gonzalez-Trueba, Laura Helena; Gonzalez-Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoriev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grinyov, Boris; Grion, Nevio; Gros, Philippe; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerra Gutierrez, Cesar; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Gutbrod, Hans; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Hasch, Delia; Hasegan, Dumitru; Hatzifotiadou, Despoina; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Heinz, Mark Thomas; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Hernandez, C; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard; Hille, Per Thomas; Hippolyte, Boris; Horaguchi, Takuma; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Huber, Sebastian Bernd; Humanic, Thomas; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Innocenti, Pier Giorgio; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivan, Cristian George; Ivanov, Andrey; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jacobs, Peter; Jancurova, Lucia; Jangal, Swensy Gwladys; Janik, Rudolf; Jayarathna, S P; Jena, Satyajit; Jirden, Lennart; Jones, Goronwy Tudor; Jones, Peter Graham; Jovanovic, P.; Jung, Hyung Taik; Jung, Won Woong; Jusko, Anton; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalisky, Matus; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamermans, Rene; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Kang, Eunggil; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Khan, Mohisin Mohammed; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Hyang Nam; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Seon Hee; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Bosing, Christian; Kliemant, Michael; Klovning, Arne; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Koch, Kathrin; Kohler, Markus; Kolevatov, Rodion; Kolojvari, Anatoly; Kondratiev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskih, Artem; Kornas, Ewelina; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Kour, Ravjeet; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kozlov, Konstantin; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kraus, Ingrid Christine; Krawutschke, Tobias; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krumbhorn, Dirk Uwe Wilhelm; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucheriaev, Yury; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paul; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, AB; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasily; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron de Guevara, Pedro; Lafage, Vincent Claude; Lara, Camilo Ernesto; Larsen, Dag Toppe; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Bornec, Yves; Lea, Ramona; Lee, Ki Sang; Lee, Sung Chul; Lefevre, Frederic; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Leistam, Lars; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Levai, Peter; Li, Xiaomei; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Liu, Lijiao; Loggins, Vera; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohn, Stefan Bernhard; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, C; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Noriega, Mercedes; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Luquin, Lionel; Luzzi, Cinzia; Ma, Ke; Ma, Rongrong; Madagodahettige-Don, Dilan Minthaka; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Mangotra, Lalit Kumar; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Martashvili, Irakli; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez, Mario Ivan; Martinez Davalos, Arnulfo; Martinez Garcia, Gines; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastromarco, Mario; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matthews, Zoe Louise; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayani, Daniel; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mendez Lorenzo, Patricia; Mercado Perez, Jorge; Mereu, P; Miake, Yasuo; Midori, Jumpei; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Miskowiec, Dariusz; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Muller, Hans; Munhoz, Marcelo; Munoz, Jose Lorenzo; Musa, Luciano; Musso, Alfredo; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Navach, Franco; Navin, Sparsh; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nazarov, Gleb; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nendaz, Fabien; Newby, Jason Robert; Nicassio, Maria; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikolic, Vedran; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nooren, Gerardus; Novitzky, Norbert; Nyanin, Alexandre; Nyatha, Anitha; Nygaard, Casper; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Obayashi, Hideyuki; Ochirov, Alexander; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Sun Kun; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Ortona, Giacomo; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Ostrowski, Piotr Krystian; Otterlund, Ingvar; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozawa, Kyoichiro; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Padilla, Fatima; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares, Carlos; Pal, S; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woo Jin; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Pavlinov, Alexei; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Peresunko, Dmitri; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perini, Diego; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Peters, Andreas Joachim; Petracek, Vojtech; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; 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Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Yang, Hongyan; Yasnopolsky, Stanislav; Yi, JunGyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yuan, Xianbao; Yushmanov, Igor; Zabrodin, Evgeny; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zenin, Anton; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Daicui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo

    2011-01-01

    The centrality dependence of the charged-particle multiplicity density at mid-rapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV is presented. The charged-particle density normalized per participating nucleon pair increases by about a factor 2 from peripheral (70-80%) to central (0-5%) collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be similar to that observed at lower collision energies. The data are compared with models based on different mechanisms for particle production in nuclear collisions.

  19. USED BATTERIES-REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Note from the TIS Division: Although it is not an obligation for CERN to collect, store and dispose of used batteries from private vehicles, they are often found abandoned on the site and even in the scrap metal bins. As well as being very dangerous (they contain sulphuric acid which is highly corrosive), this practise costs CERN a non-negligible amount of money to dispose of them safely. The disposal of used batteries in the host state could not be simpler, there are 'déchetteries' in neighbouring France at Saint-Genis, Gaillard and Annemasse as well as in other communes. In Geneva Canton the centre de traitement des déchets spéciaux, at Cheneviers on the river Rhône a few kilometers from CERN, will dispose of your batterie free of charge. So we ask you to use a little common sense and to help protect the environnement from the lead and acid in these batteries and even more important, to avoid the possibility of a colleague being seriously injured. It doesn't take m...

  20. Design And Construction Of Microcontroller Based Solar Battery Charger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Ni Tun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes a microcontroller based battery charger by using solar energy. Solar-powered charging systems are already available in rural as well as urban areas. Solar energy is widely used around the worldwide. This system converts solar energy to electrical energy and stores it in a battery. Photovoltaic panel is used to convert solar energy to electrical energy and stored in a 12V battery. Battery is the main component in solar charging system to store the energy generated from sunlight for various application. This system requires sensor to sense whether the battery is fully charged or not. Microcontroller is the heart of the circuit. Lead-acid batteries are the most commonly used power source for many applications. This system consists of voltage sensing charging controlling and display unit.

  1. Transverse momentum, rapidity, and centrality dependence of inclusive charged-particle production in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$ TeV p+Pb collisions measured by the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; 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Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kentaro, Kawade; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; 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Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte A