Sample records for rapid catchment appraisal

  1. An appraisal of precipitation distribution in the high-altitude catchments of the Indus basin. (United States)

    Dahri, Zakir Hussain; Ludwig, Fulco; Moors, Eddy; Ahmad, Bashir; Khan, Asif; Kabat, Pavel


    Scarcity of in-situ observations coupled with high orographic influences has prevented a comprehensive assessment of precipitation distribution in the high-altitude catchments of Indus basin. Available data are generally fragmented and scattered with different organizations and mostly cover the valleys. Here, we combine most of the available station data with the indirect precipitation estimates at the accumulation zones of major glaciers to analyse altitudinal dependency of precipitation in the high-altitude Indus basin. The available observations signified the importance of orography in each sub-hydrological basin but could not infer an accurate distribution of precipitation with altitude. We used Kriging with External Drift (KED) interpolation scheme with elevation as a predictor to appraise spatiotemporal distribution of mean monthly, seasonal and annual precipitation for the period of 1998-2012. The KED-based annual precipitation estimates are verified by the corresponding basin-wide observed specific runoffs, which show good agreement. In contrast to earlier studies, our estimates reveal substantially higher precipitation in most of the sub-basins indicating two distinct rainfall maxima; 1st along southern and lower most slopes of Chenab, Jhelum, Indus main and Swat basins, and 2nd around north-west corner of Shyok basin in the central Karakoram. The study demonstrated that the selected gridded precipitation products covering this region are prone to significant errors. In terms of quantitative estimates, ERA-Interim is relatively close to the observations followed by WFDEI and TRMM, while APHRODITE gives highly underestimated precipitation estimates in the study area. Basin-wide seasonal and annual correction factors introduced for each gridded dataset can be useful for lumped hydrological modelling studies, while the estimated precipitation distribution can serve as a basis for bias correction of any gridded precipitation products for the study area

  2. Rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA in sub-Saharan Africa

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    Akogbeto Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA methodology aims to provide a cost-effective tool to conduct rapid assessments of the malaria situation in urban sub-Saharan Africa and to improve the understanding of urban malaria epidemiology. Methods This work was done in Yopougon municipality (Abidjan, Cotonou, Dar es Salaam and Ouagadougou. The study design consists of six components: 1 a literature review, 2 the collection of available health statistics, 3 a risk mapping, 4 school parasitaemia surveys, 5 health facility-based surveys and 6 a brief description of the health care system. These formed the basis of a multi-country evaluation of RUMA's feasibility, consistency and usefulness. Results A substantial amount of literature (including unpublished theses and statistics was found at each site, providing a good overview of the malaria situation. School and health facility-based surveys provided an overview of local endemicity and the overall malaria burden in different city areas. This helped to identify important problems for in-depth assessment, especially the extent to which malaria is over-diagnosed in health facilities. Mapping health facilities and breeding sites allowed the visualization of the complex interplay between population characteristics, health services and malaria risk. However, the latter task was very time-consuming and required special expertise. RUMA is inexpensive, costing around 8,500–13,000 USD for a six to ten-week period. Conclusion RUMA was successfully implemented in four urban areas with different endemicity and proved to be a cost-effective first approach to study the features of urban malaria and provide an evidence basis for planning control measures.

  3. A comparative appraisal of hydrological behavior of SRTM DEM at catchment level (United States)

    Sharma, Arabinda; Tiwari, K. N.


    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data has emerged as a global elevation data in the past one decade because of its free availability, homogeneity and consistent accuracy compared to other global elevation dataset. The present study explores the consistency in hydrological behavior of the SRTM digital elevation model (DEM) with reference to easily available regional 20 m contour interpolated DEM (TOPO DEM). Analysis ranging from simple vertical accuracy assessment to hydrological simulation of the studied Maithon catchment, using empirical USLE model and semidistributed, physical SWAT model, were carried out. Moreover, terrain analysis involving hydrological indices was performed for comparative assessment of the SRTM DEM with respect to TOPO DEM. Results reveal that the vertical accuracy of SRTM DEM (±27.58 m) in the region is less than the specified standard (±16 m). Statistical analysis of hydrological indices such as topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), slope length factor (SLF) and geometry number (GN) shows a significant differences in hydrological properties of the two studied DEMs. Estimation of soil erosion potentials of the catchment and conservation priorities of microwatersheds of the catchment using SRTM DEM and TOPO DEM produce considerably different results. Prediction of soil erosion potential using SRTM DEM is far higher than that obtained using TOPO DEM. Similarly, conservation priorities determined using the two DEMs are found to be agreed for only 34% of microwatersheds of the catchment. ArcSWAT simulation reveals that runoff predictions are less sensitive to selection of the two DEMs as compared to sediment yield prediction. The results obtained in the present study are vital to hydrological analysis as it helps understanding the hydrological behavior of the DEM without being influenced by the model structural as well as parameter uncertainty. It also reemphasized that SRTM DEM can be a valuable dataset for

  4. Marketing of banana and banana products in Uganda: Results of a rapid rural appraisal


    Digges, Philip


    This report concerns a survey undertaken by NRI in Uganda during September and December 1993, which sought to characterise the banana and banana beer marketing systems. The study follows on from the recommendations of the Banana Based Cropping System Rapid Rural Appraisal (1991), and focuses upon the Kampala market.

  5. Socio-economic status by rapid appraisal is highly correlated with mortality risks in rural Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bodegom, D.; May, L.; Kuningas, M.; Kaptijn, R.; Thomese, G.C.F.; Meij, H.J.; Amankwa, J.; Westendorp, R.G.J.


    Socio-economic status is an important determinant of health and survival in rural Africa and necessitates a practical and valid instrument to implement in health studies. Our objective was to investigate the validity of the rapid appraisal method to assess socio-economic status and its ability to

  6. Agriculture and water in Shunyi District, Beijing; results of a rapid diagnostic appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, B.M.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Keulen, van H.; Cheng, X.; Lu, C.


    Land use and agriculture in Shunyi District were studied in a Rapid Diagnostic Appraisal (RDA) held November 2003 in the frame of the project `Resource Management Options in the Greater Beijing Area`. Officials of governmental institutions in Shunyi were interviewed and during three days, a team of

  7. Preferential Flow Paths In A Karstified Spring Catchment: A Study Of Fault Zones As Conduits To Rapid Groundwater Flow (United States)

    Kordilla, J.; Terrell, A. N.; Veltri, M.; Sauter, M.; Schmidt, S.


    In this study we model saturated and unsaturated flow in the karstified Weendespring catchment, located within the Leinetal graben in Goettingen, Germany. We employ the finite element COMSOL Multiphysics modeling software to model variably saturated flow using the Richards equation with a van Genuchten type parameterization. As part of the graben structure, the Weende spring catchment is intersected by seven fault zones along the main flow path of the 7400 m cross section of the catchment. As the Weende spring is part of the drinking water supply in Goettingen, it is particularly important to understand the vulnerability of the catchment and effect of fault zones on rapid transport of contaminants. Nitrate signals have been observed at the spring only a few days after the application of fertilizers within the catchment at a distance of approximately 2km. As the underlying layers are known to be highly impermeable, fault zones within the area are likely to create rapid flow paths to the water table and the spring. The model conceptualizes the catchment as containing three hydrogeological limestone units with varying degrees of karstification: the lower Muschelkalk limestone as a highly conductive layer, the middle Muschelkalk as an aquitard, and the upper Muschelkalk as another conductive layer. The fault zones are parameterized based on a combination of field data from quarries, remote sensing and literary data. The fault zone is modeled considering the fracture core as well as the surrounding damage zone with separate, specific hydraulic properties. The 2D conceptual model was implemented in COMSOL to study unsaturated flow at the catchment scale using van Genuchten parameters. The study demonstrates the importance of fault zones for preferential flow within the catchment and its effect on the spatial distribution of vulnerability.

  8. History of malaria control in Tajikistan and rapid malaria appraisal in an agro-ecological setting. (United States)

    Matthys, Barbara; Sherkanov, Tohir; Karimov, Saifudin S; Khabirov, Zamonidin; Mostowlansky, Till; Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar


    Reported malaria cases in rice growing areas in western Tajikistan were at the root of a rapid appraisal of the local malaria situation in a selected agro-ecological setting where only scarce information was available. The rapid appraisal was complemented by a review of the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan and Central Asia from 1920 until today. Following a resurgence in the 1990s, malaria transmission has been reduced considerably in Tajikistan as a result of concerted efforts by the government and international agencies. The goal for 2015 is transmission interruption, with control interventions and surveillance currently concentrated in the South, where foci of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum persist. The rapid malaria appraisal was carried out in six communities of irrigated rice cultivation during the peak of malaria transmission (August/September 2007) in western Tajikistan. In a cross-sectional survey, blood samples were taken from 363 schoolchildren and examined for Plasmodium under a light microscope. A total of 56 farmers were interviewed about agricultural activities and malaria. Potential Anopheles breeding sites were characterized using standardized procedures. A literature review on the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan was conducted. One case of P. vivax was detected among the 363 schoolchildren examined (0.28%). The interviewees reported to protect themselves against mosquito bites and used their own concepts on fever conditions, which do not distinguish between malaria and other diseases. Three potential malaria vectors were identified, i.e. Anopheles superpictus, Anopheles pulcherrimus and Anopheles hyrcanus in 58 of the 73 breeding sites examined (79.5%). Rice paddies, natural creeks and man-made ponds were the most important Anopheles habitats. The presence of malaria vectors and parasite reservoirs, low awareness of, and protection against malaria in the face of population movements and inadequate

  9. History of malaria control in Tajikistan and rapid malaria appraisal in an agro-ecological setting

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    Utzinger Jürg


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reported malaria cases in rice growing areas in western Tajikistan were at the root of a rapid appraisal of the local malaria situation in a selected agro-ecological setting where only scarce information was available. The rapid appraisal was complemented by a review of the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan and Central Asia from 1920 until today. Following a resurgence in the 1990s, malaria transmission has been reduced considerably in Tajikistan as a result of concerted efforts by the government and international agencies. The goal for 2015 is transmission interruption, with control interventions and surveillance currently concentrated in the South, where foci of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum persist. Methods The rapid malaria appraisal was carried out in six communities of irrigated rice cultivation during the peak of malaria transmission (August/September 2007 in western Tajikistan. In a cross-sectional survey, blood samples were taken from 363 schoolchildren and examined for Plasmodium under a light microscope. A total of 56 farmers were interviewed about agricultural activities and malaria. Potential Anopheles breeding sites were characterized using standardized procedures. A literature review on the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan was conducted. Results One case of P. vivax was detected among the 363 schoolchildren examined (0.28%. The interviewees reported to protect themselves against mosquito bites and used their own concepts on fever conditions, which do not distinguish between malaria and other diseases. Three potential malaria vectors were identified, i.e. Anopheles superpictus, Anopheles pulcherrimus and Anopheles hyrcanus in 58 of the 73 breeding sites examined (79.5%. Rice paddies, natural creeks and man-made ponds were the most important Anopheles habitats. Conclusion The presence of malaria vectors and parasite reservoirs, low awareness of, and protection against

  10. RAAIS: Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (Part II). Integrated analysis of parasitic weed problems in rice in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, M.; Rodenburg, J.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Kayeke, J.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.


    Parasitic weeds such as Striga spp and Rhamphicarpa fistulosa in smallholder rice production systems form an increasing problem for food and income security in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper we implement the Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (RAAIS) as a diagnostic tool to

  11. Identification of pollutant sources in a rapidly developing urban river catchment in China (United States)

    Huang, Jingshui; Yin, Hailong; Jomma, Seifeddine; Rode, Michael; Zhou, Qi


    Rapid economic development and urbanization worldwide cause serious ecological and environmental problems. A typical region that is in transition and requires systemic research for effective intervention is the rapidly developing city of Hefei in central P. R. China. In order to investigate the sources of pollutants over a one-year period in Nanfei River catchment that drains the city of Hefei, discharges were measured and water samples were taken and measured along the 14km river section at 10 sites for 4 times from 2013 to 2014. Overflow concentrations of combined sewer and separate storm drains were also measured by selecting 15 rain events in 4 typical drainage systems. Loads and budgets of water and different pollutant sources i.e., wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, urban drainage overflow, unknown wastewater were calculated. The water balance demonstrated that >70% of the discharge originated from WWTP effluent. Lack of clean upstream inflow thereby is threatening ecological safety and water quality. Furthermore, mass fluxes calculations revealed that >40% of the COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) loads were from urban drainage overflow because of a large amount of discharge of untreated wastewater in pumping stations during rain events. WWTP effluent was the predominant source of the total nitrogen loads (>60%) and ammonia loads (>45%). However, the total phosphorous loads from three different sources are similar (˜1/3). Thus, our research provided a basis for appropriate and prior mitigation strategies (state-of-art of WWTP upgrade, sewer systems modification, storm water regulation and storage capacity improvement, etc.) for different precedence-controlled pollutants with the limited infrastructure investments in these rapidly developing urban regions.

  12. Spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and their correlation with land-use in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China. (United States)

    Qin, Hua-Peng; Khu, Soon-Thiam; Yu, Xiang-Ying


    The composition of land use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as a study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the downstream of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measure rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events in 2007 and 2009. Due to relatively low frequency monitoring, the IHACRES and exponential pollutant wash-off simulation models are used to interpolate the measured data to compensate for data insufficiency. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants in each sub-catchment during the storm events, and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with not only the residential land use, but also agricultural and bare land use. And some pairs of pollutants (such as COD/BOD, NH(3)-N/TN) might have the similar source because they have strong or moderate positive spatial correlation. Moreover, the first flush intensity (FF50) varies with impervious land areas and different interception ratio of initial storm runoff volume should be adopted in different sub-catchments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid runoff via shallow throughflow and deeper preferential flow in a boreal catchment underlain by frozen silt (Alaska, USA) (United States)

    Koch, Joshua C.; Ewing, Stephanie A.; Striegl, Robert G.; McKnight, Diane M.


    In high-latitude catchments where permafrost is present, runoff dynamics are complicated by seasonal active-layer thaw, which may cause a change in the dominant flowpaths as water increasingly contacts mineral soils of low hydraulic conductivity. A 2-year study, conducted in an upland catchment in Alaska (USA) underlain by frozen, well-sorted eolian silt, examined changes in infiltration and runoff with thaw. It was hypothesized that rapid runoff would be maintained by flow through shallow soils during the early summer and deeper preferential flow later in the summer. Seasonal changes in soil moisture, infiltration, and runoff magnitude, location, and chemistry suggest that transport is rapid, even when soils are thawed to their maximum extent. Between June and September, a shift occurred in the location of runoff, consistent with subsurface preferential flow in steep and wet areas. Uranium isotopes suggest that late summer runoff erodes permafrost, indicating that substantial rapid flow may occur along the frozen boundary. Together, throughflow and deep preferential flow may limit upland boreal catchment water and solute storage, and subsequently biogeochemical cycling on seasonal to annual timescales. Deep preferential flow may be important for stream incision, network drainage development, and the release of ancient carbon to ecosystems

  14. Rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA I: Epidemiology of urban malaria in Ouagadougou

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    Convelbo Natalie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa has a major impact on malaria epidemiology. While much is known about malaria in rural areas in Burkina Faso, the urban situation is less well understood. Methods An assessment of urban malaria was carried out in Ouagadougou in November -December, 2002 during which a rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA was applied. Results The school parasitaemia prevalence was relatively high (48.3% at the cold and dry season 2002. Routine malaria statistics indicated that seasonality of malaria transmission was marked. In the health facilities, the number of clinical cases diminished quickly at the start of the cold and dry season and the prevalence of parasitaemia detected in febrile and non-febrile cases was 21.1% and 22.0%, respectively. The health facilities were likely to overestimate the malaria incidence and the age-specific fractions of malaria-attributable fevers were low (0–0.13. Peak prevalence tended to occur in older children (aged 6–15 years. Mapping of Anopheles sp. breeding sites indicated a gradient of endemicity between the urban centre and the periphery of Ouagadougou. A remarkable link was found between urban agriculture activities, seasonal availability of water supply and the occurrence of malaria infections in this semi-arid area. The study also demonstrated that the usage of insecticide-treated nets and the education level of family caretakers played a key role in reducing malaria infection rates. Conclusion These findings show that determining local endemicity and the rate of clinical malaria cases are urgently required in order to target control activities and avoid over-treatment with antimalarials. The case management needs to be tailored to the level of the prevailing endemicity.

  15. Capacity for conducting systematic reviews in low- and middle-income countries: a rapid appraisal. (United States)

    Oliver, Sandy; Bangpan, Mukdarut; Stansfield, Claire; Stewart, Ruth


    Systematic reviews of research are increasingly recognised as important for informing decisions across policy sectors and for setting priorities for research. Although reviews draw on international research, the host institutions and countries can focus attention on their own priorities. The uneven capacity for conducting research around the world raises questions about the capacity for conducting systematic reviews. A rapid appraisal was conducted of current capacity and capacity strengthening activities for conducting systematic reviews in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A systems approach to analysis considered the capacity of individuals nested within the larger units of research teams, institutions that fund, support, and/or conduct systematic reviews, and systems that support systematic reviewing internationally. International systematic review networks, and their support organisations, are dominated by members from high-income countries. The largest network comprising a skilled workforce and established centres is the Cochrane Collaboration. Other networks, although smaller, provide support for systematic reviews addressing questions beyond effective clinical practice which require a broader range of methods. Capacity constraints were apparent at the levels of individuals, review teams, organisations, and system wide. Constraints at each level limited the capacity at levels nested within them. Skills training for individuals had limited utility if not allied to opportunities for review teams to practice the skills. Skills development was further constrained by language barriers, lack of support from academic organisations, and the limitations of wider systems for communication and knowledge management. All networks hosted some activities for strengthening the capacities of individuals and teams, although these were usually independent of core academic programmes and traditional career progression. Even rarer were efforts to increase demand for

  16. Stormwater Runoff Pollutant Loading Distributions and Their Correlation with Rainfall and Catchment Characteristics in a Rapidly Industrialized City (United States)

    Li, Dongya; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Huang, Mingzhi; Chen, Yangmei


    Fast urbanization and industrialization in developing countries result in significant stormwater runoff pollution, due to drastic changes in land-use, from rural to urban. A three-year study on the stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions of industrial, parking lot and mixed commercial and residential catchments was conducted in the Tongsha reservoir watershed of Dongguan city, a typical, rapidly industrialized urban area in China. This study presents the changes in concentration during rainfall events, event mean concentrations (EMCs) and event pollution loads per unit area (EPLs). The first flush criterion, namely the mass first flush ratio (MFFn), was used to identify the first flush effects. The impacts of rainfall and catchment characterization on EMCs and pollutant loads percentage transported by the first 40% of runoff volume (FF40) were evaluated. The results indicated that the pollutant wash-off process of runoff during the rainfall events has significant temporal and spatial variations. The mean rainfall intensity (I), the impervious rate (IMR) and max 5-min intensity (Imax5) are the critical parameters of EMCs, while Imax5, antecedent dry days (ADD) and rainfall depth (RD) are the critical parameters of FF40. Intercepting the first 40% of runoff volume can remove 55% of TSS load, 53% of COD load, 58% of TN load, and 61% of TP load, respectively, according to all the storm events. These results may be helpful in mitigating stormwater runoff pollution for many other urban areas in developing countries. PMID:25774922

  17. Stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions and their correlation with rainfall and catchment characteristics in a rapidly industrialized city. (United States)

    Li, Dongya; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Huang, Mingzhi; Chen, Yangmei


    Fast urbanization and industrialization in developing countries result in significant stormwater runoff pollution, due to drastic changes in land-use, from rural to urban. A three-year study on the stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions of industrial, parking lot and mixed commercial and residential catchments was conducted in the Tongsha reservoir watershed of Dongguan city, a typical, rapidly industrialized urban area in China. This study presents the changes in concentration during rainfall events, event mean concentrations (EMCs) and event pollution loads per unit area (EPLs). The first flush criterion, namely the mass first flush ratio (MFFn), was used to identify the first flush effects. The impacts of rainfall and catchment characterization on EMCs and pollutant loads percentage transported by the first 40% of runoff volume (FF40) were evaluated. The results indicated that the pollutant wash-off process of runoff during the rainfall events has significant temporal and spatial variations. The mean rainfall intensity (I), the impervious rate (IMR) and max 5-min intensity (Imax5) are the critical parameters of EMCs, while Imax5, antecedent dry days (ADD) and rainfall depth (RD) are the critical parameters of FF40. Intercepting the first 40% of runoff volume can remove 55% of TSS load, 53% of COD load, 58% of TN load, and 61% of TP load, respectively, according to all the storm events. These results may be helpful in mitigating stormwater runoff pollution for many other urban areas in developing countries.

  18. Applicability of rapid and on-site measured enzyme activity for surface water quality monitoring in an agricultural catchment (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Sommer, Regina; Kumpan, Monika; Zessner, Matthias


    For the near real time and on-site detection of microbiological fecal pollution of water, the measurement of beta-D- Glucuronidase (GLUC) enzymatic activity has been suggested as a surrogate parameter and has been already successfully operated for water quality monitoring of ground water resources (Ryzinska-Paier et al. 2014). Due to possible short measure intervals of three hours, this method has high potential as a water quality monitoring tool. While cultivation based standard determination takes more than one working day (Cabral 2010) the potential advantage of detecting the GLUC activity is the high temporal measuring resolution. Yet, there is still a big gap of knowledge on the fecal indication capacity of GLUC (specificity, sensitivity, persistence, etc.) in relation to potential pollution sources and catchment conditions (Cabral 2010, Ryzinska-Paier et al. 2014). Furthermore surface waters are a big challenge for automated detection devices in a technical point of view due to the high sediment load during event conditions. This presentation shows results gained form two years of monitoring in an experimental catchment (HOAL) dominated by agricultural land use. Two enzymatic measurement devices are operated parallel at the catchment outlet to test the reproducibility and precision of the method. Data from continuous GLUC monitoring under both base flow and event conditions is compared with reference samples analyzed by standardized laboratory methods for fecal pollution detection (e.g. ISO 16649-1, Colilert18). It is shown that rapid enzymatic on-site GLUC determination can successfully be operated from a technical point of view for surface water quality monitoring under the observed catchment conditions. The comparison of enzyme activity with microbiological standard analytics reveals distinct differences in the dynamic of the signals during event conditions. Cabral J. P. S. (2010) "Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water" International Journal of

  19. Partnership in Knowledge Creation: Lessons Learned from a Researcher-Policy Actor Partnership to Co-Produce a Rapid Appraisal Case Study of South Australia's Social Inclusion Initiative (United States)

    Newman, Lareen; Biedrzycki, Kate; Patterson, Jan; Baum, Fran


    This paper describes a partnership between researchers and policy actors that was developed within a short timeframe to produce a rapid appraisal case study of a government policy initiative--South Australia's "Social Inclusion Initiative"--for the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network of the international Commission on Social Determinants…

  20. Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development

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    Hua-peng Qin


    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.

  1. A rapid appraisal of the status of mental health support in post-rape care services in the Western Cape

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    Naeemah Abrahams


    Full Text Available Background: Despite the well-known impact of rape on mental health and the widespread problem of rape in South Africa, mental health services for rape victims are scant and not a priority for acute-phase services. Survivors encounter multiple mental health struggles in this period including adherence to the post-exposure prophylaxis drugs to prevent HIV and finding support from important others. We have little information on what mental health is provided, by whom and how it is integrated into the post-rape package of care. Aim: The aim of the study was to do a rapid appraisal of mental health services for rape survivors to gain a better understanding of the current acute and long-term (secondary mental health services. Method: We conducted a qualitative study using a rapid assessment with a purposive sample of 14 rape survivors and 43 service providers recruited from post-rape sexual assault services in urban and rural Western Cape Province. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews and observations of survivor sessions with counsellors, nurses and doctors. The data were coded thematically for analysis. Results: Survivors of rape experienced a range of emotional difficulties and presented varying levels of distress and various levels of coping. Receiving support and care from others assisted them, but the poor integration of mental health within post-rape services meant few received formal mental health support or effective referrals. Multiple factors contributed to the poor integration: mental health was not given the same level of priority as other rape services (i.e. clinical care, including forensic management, the inadequate capacity of service providers to provide mental healthcare, including mental health illiteracy, the lack of continuity of care, the poor linkages to ongoing mental healthcare, and the mental health challenges caused by vicarious trauma and compassion fatigue. Conclusion: Providing effective

  2. The Effect of Masculinity/Femininity and Pupil Size on Rapid, Unconscious Appraisals of Male Facial Attractiveness


    Fitzgerald, Kate


    Olsen and Marshuetz (2005) claim that attractiveness is such an important attribute that it can be appraised within 13ms, at an unconscious level. The current study aimed to replicate Olsen and Marshuetz's (2005) findings whilst introducing two previously reported cues of attractiveness as variables; facial masculinity/femininity and pupil size. If Olsen and Marshuetz's (2005) claims were correct, what effect would a variation in the masculinity/femininity or pupil size of a ...

  3. A rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in Pakistan; Evaluacion rapida de una zona de riego tipica de Pakistan

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    Ruiz-Carmona, Victor Manuel; Ojeda-Bustamante, Waldo [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Contijoch, Manuel [Banco Mundial (Mexico)


    This paper presents the results obtained on the implementation of a rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in the province of Punjab in Pakistan. The purpose of the evaluation was to know the present irrigation service quality and to propose some alternative to improve it. The evaluation results were: the canal inflow is smaller than peak crop water requirement; net aquifer loss; crops are always under stress which is reflected on low crop yields, the secondary canal network has not control structures and was not designed for rotation, insufficient human-human communication between canal operators; the operators have no complementary training course to enhance their capacity; discrepancy between the service the canal is supposed to provide and the real service it offers. The suggested actions to improve the irrigation service were: the irrigation service must be client oriented; the irrigation users should participate to determine the irrigation service characteristics; the difference between actual and stage irrigation service must be eliminated; clear definition on water allocation; implement a modernization program to provide the irrigation service required. The evaluation methodology used can be applied in other countries like Mexico for the analysis of large irrigation systems making an optimal use of time and resources. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos al aplicar una metodologia de evaluacion rapida de sistemas de riego a una zona de la provincia del Punjab, Pakistan. El objetivo de la evaluacion fue conocer el estado actual del servicio de riego que ofrece la agencia responsable del manejo del riego en un distrito del Punjab y proponer alternativas para mejorarlo. Los principales resultados de esta evaluacion fueron los siguientes: la falta de capacidad de los canales, el abatimiento neto del acuifero; el estres hidrico continuo de los cultivos, que propicia un bajo rendimiento; la red secundaria de canales no

  4. Remote sensing appraisal of Lake Chad shrinkage connotes severe impacts on green economics and socio-economics of the catchment area. (United States)

    Onamuti, Olapeju Y; Okogbue, Emmanuel C; Orimoloye, Israel R


    Lake Chad commonly serves as a major hub of fertile economic activities for the border communities and contributes immensely to the national growth of all the countries that form its boundaries. However, incessant and multi-decadal drying via climate change pose greater threats to this transnational water resource, and adverse effects on ecological sustainability and socio-economic status of the catchment area. Therefore, this study assessed the extent of shrinkage of Lake Chad using remote sensing. Landsat imageries of the lake and its surroundings between 1987 and 2005 were retrieved from Global Land Cover Facility website and analysed using Integrated Land and Water Information System version 3.3 (ILWIS 3.3). Supervised classification of area around the lake was performed into various land use/land cover classes, and the shrunk part of its environs was assessed based on the land cover changes. The shrinkage trend within the study period was also analysed. The lake water size reduced from 1339.018 to 130.686 km 2 (4.08-3.39%) in 1987-2005. The supervised classification of the Landsat imageries revealed an increase in portion of the lake covered by bare ground and sandy soil within the reference years (13 490.8-17 503.10 km 2 ) with 4.98% total range of increase. The lake portion intersected with vegetated ground and soil also reduced within the period (11 046.44-10 078.82 km 2 ) with 5.40% (967.62 km 2 ) total decrease. The shrunk part of the lake covered singly with vegetation increased by 2.74% from 1987 to 2005. The shrunk part of the lake reduced to sand and turbid water showed 5.62% total decrease from 1987 to 2005 and a total decrease of 1805.942 km 2 in area. The study disclosed an appalling rate of shrinkage and damaging influences on the hydrologic potential, eco-sustainability and socio-economics of the drainage area as revealed using ILWIS 3.3.

  5. Can Social Inclusion Policies Reduce Health Inequalities in Sub-Saharan Africa?—A Rapid Policy Appraisal (United States)

    Palha de Sousa, César A.D; Molomo, Boitumelo G


    The global resurgence of interest in the social determinants of health provides an opportunity for determined action on unacceptable and unjust health inequalities that exist within and between countries. This paper reviews three categories of social inclusion policies: cash-transfers; free social services; and specific institutional arrangements for programme integration in six selected countries—Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. The policies were appraised as part of the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network (SEKN) set up under the auspices of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The paper highlights the development landscape in sub-Saharan Africa and presents available indicators of the scale of inequity in the six countries. A summary of the policies appraised is presented, including whether or what the impact of these policies has been on health inequalities. Cross-cutting benefits include poverty alleviation, notably among vulnerable children and youths, improved economic opportunities for disadvantaged households, reduction in access barriers to social services, and improved nutrition intake. The impact of these benefits, and hence the policies, on health status can only be inferred. Among the policies reviewed, weaknesses or constraints were in design and implementation. The policy design weaknesses include targeting criteria, their enforcement and latent costs, inadequate parti-cipation of the community and failure to take the cultural context into account. A major weakness of most policies was the lack of a monitoring and evaluation system, with clear indicators that incorporate system responsiveness. The policy implementation weaknesses include uneven regional implementation with rural areas worst affected; inadequate or poor administrative and implementation capacity; insufficient resources; problems of fraud and corruption; and lack of involvement of civil servants, exacerbating

  6. Can social inclusion policies reduce health inequalities in sub-Saharan Africa?--A rapid policy appraisal. (United States)

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Sousa, César A D Palha; Molomo, Boitumelo G


    The global resurgence of interest in the social determinants of health provides an opportunity for determined action on unacceptable and unjust health inequalities that exist within and between countries. This paper reviews three categories of social inclusion policies: cash-transfers; free social services; and specific institutional arrangements for programme integration in six selected countries--Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. The policies were appraised as part of the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network (SEKN) set up under the auspices of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The paper highlights the development landscape in sub-Saharan Africa and presents available indicators of the scale of inequity in the six countries. A summary of the policies appraised is presented, including whether or what the impact of these policies has been on health inequalities. Cross-cutting benefits include poverty alleviation, notably among vulnerable children and youths, improved economic opportunities for disadvantaged households, reduction in access barriers to social services, and improved nutrition intake. The impact of these benefits, and hence the policies, on health status can only be inferred. Among the policies reviewed, weaknesses or constraints were in design and implementation. The policy design weaknesses include targeting criteria, their enforcement and latent costs, inadequate participation of the community and failure to take the cultural context into account. A major weakness of most policies was the lack of a monitoring and evaluation system, with clear indicators that incorporate system responsiveness. The policy implementation weaknesses include uneven regional implementation with rural areas worst affected; inadequate or poor administrative and implementation capacity; insufficient resources; problems of fraud and corruption; and lack of involvement of civil servants, exacerbating

  7. Appraisal Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimann, Finn; Enemark, Ulrika; Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    Appraisal of continued support to Ghana's health sector for a third phase covering 2003 - 2007. Funding recommended with DKK 340 million over five years.......Appraisal of continued support to Ghana's health sector for a third phase covering 2003 - 2007. Funding recommended with DKK 340 million over five years....

  8. Participatory catchment management: an opportunity for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Versfeld, DB


    Full Text Available offer a new opportunity for communities living within these catchments to share their knowledge and to become involved in planning and implementing the management process. This paper discusses the use of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) in a catchment...

  9. Critical appraisal of RapidArc radiosurgery with flattening filter free photon beams for benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife: a treatment planning study. (United States)

    Abacioglu, Ufuk; Ozen, Zeynep; Yilmaz, Meltem; Arifoglu, Alptekin; Gunhan, Basri; Kayalilar, Namik; Peker, Selcuk; Sengoz, Meric; Gurdalli, Salih; Cozzi, Luca


    To evaluate the role of RapidArc (RA) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife (GK) based technique. Twelve patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS, n = 6) or cavernous sinus meningioma (CSM, n = 6) were planned for both SRS using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by RA. 104 MV flattening filter free photon beams with a maximum dose rate of 2400 MU/min were selected. Data were compared against plans optimised for GK. A single dose of 12.5 Gy was prescribed. The primary objective was to assess treatment plan quality. Secondary aim was to appraise treatment efficiency. For VS, comparing best GK vs. RA plans, homogeneity was 51.7 ± 3.5 vs. 6.4 ± 1.5%; Paddick conformity Index (PCI) resulted 0.81 ± 0.03 vs. 0.84 ± 0.04. Gradient index (PGI) was 2.7 ± 0.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.6. Mean target dose was 17.1 ± 0.9 vs. 12.9 ± 0.1 Gy. For the brain stem, D(1cm3) was 5.1 ± 2.0 Gy vs 4.8 ± 1.6 Gy. For the ipsilateral cochlea, D(0.1cm3) was 1.7 ± 1.0 Gy vs. 1.8 ± 0.5 Gy. For CSM, homogeneity was 52.3 ± 2.4 vs. 12.4 ± 0.6; PCI: 0.86 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.05; PGI: 2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 3.8 ± 0.5; D(1cm3) to brain stem was 5.4 ± 2.8 Gy vs. 5.2 ± 2.8 Gy; D(0.1cm3) to ipsi-lateral optic nerve was 4.2 ± 2.1 vs. 2.1 ± 1.5 Gy; D(0.1cm3) to optic chiasm was 5.9 ± 3.1 vs. 4.5 ± 2.1 Gy. Treatment time was 53.7 ± 5.8 (64.9 ± 24.3) minutes for GK and 4.8 ± 1.3 (5.0 ± 0.7) minutes for RA for schwannomas (meningiomas). SRS with RA and FFF beams revealed to be adequate and comparable to GK in terms of target coverage, homogeneity, organs at risk sparing with some gain in terms of treatment efficiency.

  10. Chalk Catchment Transit Time: Unresolved Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, W. G.; Gooddy, D. C. [British Geological Survey, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Barker, J. A. [School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Robinson, M. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)


    The mean transit time (MTT) of a catchment is the average residence time of water from rainfall to river outflow at the foot of the catchment. As such, MTT has important water quality as well as resource implications. Many catchments worldwide have been measured for MTT using environmental isotopes, yet the Chalk, an important aquifer in NW Europe, has received little attention in this regard. The catchment of the River Lambourn in southern England has been intermittently studied since the 1960s using isotopic methods. A tritium peak measured in the river during the 1970s indicates an apparent MTT of {approx}15 years, but the thick unsaturated zone (average {approx}50 m) of the catchment suggests that the MTT should be much greater because of the average downward movement through the Chalk of {approx}1 m/a consistently indicated by tritium and other tracers. Recent work in the catchment using SF{sub 6} as a residence time indicator has given groundwater ages in the narrow range 11-18 yrs, apparently supporting the river tritium data but in conflict with the unsaturated zone data even allowing for a moderate proportion of rapid bypass flow. The MTT of the catchment remains unresolved for the time being. (author)

  11. Estimation and Validation of RapidEye-Based Time-Series of Leaf Area Index for Winter Wheat in the Rur Catchment (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali


    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI is an important variable for numerous processes in various disciplines of bio- and geosciences. In situ measurements are the most accurate source of LAI among the LAI measuring methods, but the in situ measurements have the limitation of being labor intensive and site specific. For spatial-explicit applications (from regional to continental scales, satellite remote sensing is a promising source for obtaining LAI with different spatial resolutions. However, satellite-derived LAI measurements using empirical models require calibration and validation with the in situ measurements. In this study, we attempted to validate a direct LAI retrieval method from remotely sensed images (RapidEye with in situ LAI (LAIdestr. Remote sensing LAI (LAIrapideye were derived using different vegetation indices, namely SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Additionally, applicability of the newly available red-edge band (RE was also analyzed through Normalized Difference Red-Edge index (NDRE and Soil Adjusted Red-Edge index (SARE. The LAIrapideye obtained from vegetation indices with red-edge band showed better correlation with LAIdestr (r = 0.88 and Root Mean Square Devation, RMSD = 1.01 & 0.92. This study also investigated the need to apply radiometric/atmospheric correction methods to the time-series of RapidEye Level 3A data prior to LAI estimation. Analysis of the the RapidEye Level 3A data set showed that application of the radiometric/atmospheric correction did not improve correlation of the estimated LAI with in situ LAI.

  12. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  13. 12 CFR 564.5 - Appraiser independence. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 564.5 Section 564.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be...

  14. Conducting effective performance appraisals. (United States)


    According to experts, performance appraisals rate just below firing someone as the least favorite thing managers do. Many factors contribute to this view--one is that current systems do a poor job of evaluating performance and in fact often impede both evaluation and performance. When used as part of an ongoing supportive process of goal setting and feedback, performance appraisals can enhance performance and morale. One alternative to traditional employee evaluation methods is full-circle or 360-degree feedback. Contained in this issue are practical suggestions for preparing employees for performance appraisals which, when followed daily, encourage employees to put their best feet forward as part of their regular routine. Also included is a template specific to assessing the performance of clinical laboratory technologists . Additionally, numerous resources are provided to help you refine appraisal systems to fit your needs. Full-circle feedback is proving to be a boon to managers. It relieves them from being the exclusive "heavies" in evaluating performance, integrates appraisal input from several sources, and incorporates increasing employee skills, competencies, and satisfaction, thus improving productivity of people and processes. And aren't integration and continuous improvement what the laboratory is all about?

  15. Appraisal of Transport Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard

    and robustness measures have been elaborated, which examine the subjective part of the MCDA (in form of criteria weights) and its role in decision support making. For this purpose both deterministic and stochastic sensitivity analyses have been developed. In addition, the focus has been formulating a framework...... into account the interests and preferences of different stakeholders. These various interests and preferences have been revealed by the use of decision conferencing, which engage the stakeholders and provide a common platform for understanding the decision problem. Leading up to this framework, this thesis has......, as robustness of a recommended solution is major concern in the final steps of decision making. As mentioned, the appraisal of transport projects is a complex issues involving conflict of various interests and this calls for new approaches to the practice of appraisal. The presented appraisal framework...

  16. Reaction and relaxation in a coarse-grained fluvial system following catchment-wide disturbance (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Jon; Brierley, Gary; Fuller, Ian C.; Leenman, Anya; Marden, Mike; Peacock, Dave


    The Waiapu River catchment (drainage area of 1734-km2) is one of the most prolific conveyors of sediment in the world, annually delivering roughly 35 Mt of fine material to the ocean from eroding gullies, hillslopes, and reworked sediment on valley floors. Tectonic and geologic influences, in combination with a dynamic climate influenced by tropical cyclones and clearance of vegetation from steep hillslopes, predisposes this region to high rates of erosion. The bedload sediment regime of the river is strongly influenced by several exceptionally large gullies and gully complexes that produce a coarse-grained, poorly sorted sediment mixture. Rapid abrasion and breakdown leads to high rates of suspended sediment yield. A wave of bedload material, manifesting as elevated bed levels and significant widening of active alluvial fills, has been triggered by large inputs of hillslope material from a few key tributary catchments following Cyclone Bola in 1988. We review the evidence for the relaxation process of the sedimentary system in the subsequent 29 years, appraising some of the legacy effects that may endure, as associated with reworking of the considerable alluvial stores within the Waiapu system. We use Structure-from-Motion (SfM) techniques and archival aerial photos to quantify changes in sediment storage at the base of two major gully systems in recent decades. A record of over 850 cross section surveys at 62 sites on 10 rivers throughout the catchment (1958-2017) indicates recent transition from a trend of continuous accumulation to downcutting and remobilisation of valley-bottom deposits. The channel cross sections provide a minimum estimate of sediment flux from source areas to the lower reaches of the river, giving a rudimentary but spatially extensive picture of the wave of material cascading through the drainage network. The largest impacts occur in the upper steepland rivers, closest to the landslide-derived sediment supply. Transport rates here, as

  17. Catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex


    In the planning of public transport catchment areas of stops are often included to estimate potential number of travellers. There are different approaches to GIS-based catchment area analyses depending on the desired level of detail. The Circular Buffer approach is the fundamental, but also....../from stations. The article also shows how the refinement of the Service Area approach with additional time resistance results in smaller catchment areas when the feeder routes cross stairs. It is concluded that GIS-based catchment area analyses are a multiple decision support tool for planning of public...... transport where the level of detail can be suited to the purpose....

  18. Remote sensing of surface water quality in relation to catchment condition in Zimbabwe (United States)

    Masocha, Mhosisi; Murwira, Amon; Magadza, Christopher H. D.; Hirji, Rafik; Dube, Timothy


    The degradation of river catchments is one of the most important contemporary environmental problems affecting water quality in tropical countries. In this study, we used remotely sensed Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess how catchment condition varies within and across river catchments in Zimbabwe. We then used non-linear regression to test whether catchment condition assessed using the NDVI is significantly (α = 0.05) related with levels of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) measured at different sampling points in thirty-two sub-catchments in Zimbabwe. The results showed a consistent negative curvilinear relationship between Landsat 8 derived NDVI and TSS measured across the catchments under study. In the drier catchments of the country, 98% of the variation in TSS is explained by NDVI, while in wetter catchments, 64% of the variation in TSS is explained by NDVI. Our results suggest that NDVI derived from free and readily available multispectral Landsat series data (Landsat 8) is a potential valuable tool for the rapid assessment of physical water quality in data poor catchments. Overall, the finding of this study underscores the usefulness of readily available satellite data for near-real time monitoring of the physical water quality at river catchment scale, especially in resource-constrained areas, such as the sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Environmental care in agricultural catchments: Toward the communicative catchment (United States)

    Martin, Peter


    Substantial land degradation of agricultural catchments in Australia has resulted from the importation of European farming methods and the large-scale clearing of land. Rural communities are now being encouraged by government to take responsibility for environmental care. The importance of community involvement is supported by the view that environmental problems are a function of interactions between people and their environment. It is suggested that the commonly held view that community groups cannot care for their resources is due to inappropriate social institutions rather that any inherent disability in people. The communicative catchment is developed as a vision for environmental care into the future. This concept emerges from a critique of resource management through the catchment metaphors of the reduced, mechanical, and the complex, evolving catchment, which reflect the development of systemic and people-centered approaches to environmental care. The communicative catchment is one where both community and resource managers participate collaboratively in environmental care. A methodology based on action research and systemic thinking (systemic action research) is proposed as a way of moving towards the communicative catchment of the future. Action research is a way of taking action in organizations and communities that is participative and informed by theory, while systemic thinking takes into account the interconnections and relationships between social and natural worlds. The proposed vision, methodology, and practical operating principles stem from involvement in an action research project looking at extension strategies for the implementation of total catchment management in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales.

  20. 32 CFR 644.44 - Fee appraisals. (United States)


    ... HANDBOOK Appraisal § 644.44 Fee appraisals. (a) Definitions and procedures. (1) The complete and.... The keynote of this approach lies in the sound development of a proper rate. The appraiser must have a...

  1. An appraisal profile of nostalgia. (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Bruder, Martin; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Göritz, Anja S


    The authors aimed to (a) identify the cognitive appraisals underlying nostalgia and (b) compare nostalgia with other emotions in terms of its appraisal profile. In Study 1, participants (N = 1,125) generated narratives. Next, they reported the level of nostalgia and 31 other emotions that these narratives elicited. Subsequently, participants evaluated the narrative events on several cognitive appraisals. Events that elicited nostalgia were pleasant, involved an irretrievable loss, felt psychologically distant, and were unique-an appraisal profile that differed from all other emotions. In Study 2 (N = 1,261), the authors experimentally varied these appraisals in a vignette paradigm and measured anticipated nostalgia and 10 other emotions. Participants anticipated most nostalgia when events were pleasant, involved irretrievable loss, were distant, and were unique-a profile shared only with longing. In Study 3 (N = 994), the authors used a guided autobiographical recall procedure in which they manipulated appraisals and measured the resultant emotions. Corroborating Studies 1-2, nostalgia was most intense for events that were pleasant, irretrievably lost, temporally distant, and unique. This appraisal profile was not shared by other emotions. The findings delineate the distinguishing cognitive appraisal profile of nostalgia. Nostalgia occupies a special place in the pantheon of emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Current practices in economic appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossink, J.C.M.


    By means of economic appraisal, the costs and the benefits of health, environment and safety management can be made clear, both at the national level and at the company level. As such it is a tool in advocating good practices. This paper explores the possibilities of economic appraisal for policy

  3. The catchment based approach using catchment system engineering (United States)

    Jonczyk, Jennine; Quinn, Paul; Barber, Nicholas; Wilkinson, Mark


    The catchment based approach (CaBa) has been championed as a potential mechanism for delivery of environmental directives such as the Water Framework Directive in the UK. However, since its launch in 2013, there has been only limited progress towards achieving sustainable, holistic management, with only a few of examples of good practice ( e.g. from the Tyne Rivers trust). Common issues with developing catchment plans over a national scale include limited data and resources to identify issues and source of those issues, how to systematically identify suitable locations for measures or suites of measures that will have the biggest downstream impact and how to overcome barriers for implementing solutions. Catchment System Engineering (CSE) is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. A significant component of the runoff generation can be managed by targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, greatly reducing erosive soil losses. Coupled with management of farm nutrients at source, many runoff attenuation features or measures can be co-located to achieve benefits for water quality and biodiversity. A catchment, community-led mitigation measures plan using the CSE approach will be presented from a catchment in Northumberland, Northern England that demonstrate a generic framework for identification of multi-purpose features that slow, store and filter runoff at strategic locations in the landscape. Measures include within-field barriers, edge of field traps and within-ditch measures. Progress on the implementation of measures will be reported alongside potential impacts on the runoff regime at both local and catchment scale and costs.

  4. MAPS Appraisal Report Form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    As announced in Weekly Bulletin 48/2004, from now onwards, the paper MAPS appraisal report form has been replaced by an electronic form, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. Practical information will be available on the web page, and information meetings will be held on the following dates: 18 January 2005: MAIN AUDITORIUM (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB AUDITORIUM II (864-1-D02) from14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT AUDITORIUM (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  5. Appraising Adaptive Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai N. Lee


    Full Text Available Adaptive management is appraised as a policy implementation approach by examining its conceptual, technical, equity, and practical strengths and limitations. Three conclusions are drawn: (1 Adaptive management has been more influential, so far, as an idea than as a practical means of gaining insight into the behavior of ecosystems utilized and inhabited by humans. (2 Adaptive management should be used only after disputing parties have agreed to an agenda of questions to be answered using the adaptive approach; this is not how the approach has been used. (3 Efficient, effective social learning, of the kind facilitated by adaptive management, is likely to be of strategic importance in governing ecosystems as humanity searches for a sustainable economy.

  6. Development of rapid universal method for determination of Cs-137 in different environmental samples by means of inorganic ion exchangers. Part of a coordinated programme on radiological and environmental protection studies in the Danube river catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicheva, M.


    Using three synthetic inorganic ion exchangers of the same type - X 2 [YFe (CN) 6 ] (when X=alkali metal, Y=transition metal) one simple and universal rapid method for determination of Cs-137 in environmental samples was developed. The investigations carried out on synthesis, next preparation and practical use in routine analysis showed that K[CoFe(CN) 6 ] (abbr.KCFC-II) is the most suitable for analysis of low level activities of Cs-137 in different environmental samples. The optimum conditions for routine use of KCFC-II in different separation schemes were found. Repeated analysis of Cs-137 in different environmental samples as well as analysis of IAEA-Reference Materials using our rapid and one classical method showed good agreement of the results. The proposed rapid method can be used in emergency situations and in routine radiation control. (author)

  7. Uranium-mill appraisal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, R.J.; Cain, C.L.


    The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

  8. Aquifers Characterization and Productivity in Ellala Catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aquifers Characterization and Productivity in Ellala Catchment, Tigray, ... using geological and hydrogeological methods in Ellala catchment (296.5km. 2. ) ... Current estimates put the available groundwater ... Aquifer characterization takes into.

  9. Modeling and assessment of hydrological changes in a developing urban catchment


    Guan, M; Sillanpää, N; Koivusalo, H


    Urbanization strongly changes natural catchment by increasing impervious coverage and by creating a need for efficient drainage systems. Such land cover changes lead to more rapid hydrological response to storms and change distribution of peak and low flows. This study aims to explore and assess how gradual hydrological changes occur during urban development from rural area to a medium-density residential catchment. The Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) is utilized to simulate a series of sc...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Management is responsible for its own financial decisions. If we take into account, that fair value concept was shown in financial crisis as something that does not work anymore in this way; there is a big need to develop it for the future. Non-professional readers of financial statements believe, however, that company financials are the work of the public accounting firm that had signed the audit certificate. The main reason for bringing this point up is that when companies disclose Fair Value (FV information in their financial statements, they are taking responsibility for the values disclosed. Management may often be encouraged to utilize the services of an outside professional, but at the end of the day, the outside appraiser is a hired gun. Although the appraiser has to take responsibility for his own work, hiring the appraiser does not absolve management of its ultimate responsibility. The obverse of this is also true. Management does not have to hire the appraiser to develop any fair value disclosures made in the financial statements. Developing FV information is not recommended as a do-it yourself undertaking, there is nothing in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP or Securities Exchange Commission (SEC regulations, however, that requires an outside appraiser.

  11. Statistical analysis of the uncertainty related to flood hazard appraisal (United States)

    Notaro, Vincenza; Freni, Gabriele


    The estimation of flood hazard frequency statistics for an urban catchment is of great interest in practice. It provides the evaluation of potential flood risk and related damage and supports decision making for flood risk management. Flood risk is usually defined as function of the probability, that a system deficiency can cause flooding (hazard), and the expected damage, due to the flooding magnitude (damage), taking into account both the exposure and the vulnerability of the goods at risk. The expected flood damage can be evaluated by an a priori estimation of potential damage caused by flooding or by interpolating real damage data. With regard to flood hazard appraisal several procedures propose to identify some hazard indicator (HI) such as flood depth or the combination of flood depth and velocity and to assess the flood hazard corresponding to the analyzed area comparing the HI variables with user-defined threshold values or curves (penalty curves or matrixes). However, flooding data are usually unavailable or piecemeal allowing for carrying out a reliable flood hazard analysis, therefore hazard analysis is often performed by means of mathematical simulations aimed at evaluating water levels and flow velocities over catchment surface. As results a great part of the uncertainties intrinsic to flood risk appraisal can be related to the hazard evaluation due to the uncertainty inherent to modeling results and to the subjectivity of the user defined hazard thresholds applied to link flood depth to a hazard level. In the present work, a statistical methodology was proposed for evaluating and reducing the uncertainties connected with hazard level estimation. The methodology has been applied to a real urban watershed as case study.

  12. Artificial Neural Networks and the Mass Appraisal of Real Estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhou


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of computer, artificial intelligence and big data technology, artificial neural networks have become one of the most powerful machine learning algorithms. In the practice, most of the applications of artificial neural networks use back propagation neural network and its variation. Besides the back propagation neural network, various neural networks have been developing in order to improve the performance of standard models. Though neural networks are well known method in the research of real estate, there is enormous space for future research in order to enhance their function. Some scholars combine genetic algorithm, geospatial information, support vector machine model, particle swarm optimization with artificial neural networks to appraise the real estate, which is helpful for the existing appraisal technology. The mass appraisal of real estate in this paper includes the real estate valuation in the transaction and the tax base valuation in the real estate holding. In this study we focus on the theoretical development of artificial neural networks and mass appraisal of real estate, artificial neural networks model evolution and algorithm improvement, artificial neural networks practice and application, and review the existing literature about artificial neural networks and mass appraisal of real estate. Finally, we provide some suggestions for the mass appraisal of China's real estate.

  13. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals. (United States)


    ... part must be appraised at their fair market value by an appraiser selected by APHIS. APHIS may decline... veterinarian in charge may grant a reasonable time for the presentation of their registration papers. [67 FR...

  14. Using Expectancy Theory to Explain Performance Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 5, 2018 ... appraisal conducting style, the relation between the performance appraisal system and task ... the article first explains the theory model which is based expectancy theory. II. ... which in return lead to rewards. According to [12],.

  15. 12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. 564.3 Section 564.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...

  16. Catchment Morphing (CM): A Novel Approach for Runoff Modeling in Ungauged Catchments (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Han, Dawei


    Runoff prediction in ungauged catchments has been one of the major challenges in the past decades. However, due to the tremendous heterogeneity of the catchments, obstacles exist in deducing model parameters for ungauged catchments from gauged ones. We propose a novel approach to predict ungauged runoff with Catchment Morphing (CM) using a fully distributed model. CM is defined as by changing the catchment characteristics (area and slope here) from the baseline model built with a gauged catchment to model the ungauged ones. As a proof of concept, a case study on seven catchments in the UK has been used to demonstrate the proposed scheme. Comparing the predicted with measured runoff, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) varies from 0.03 to 0.69 in six catchments. Moreover, NSEs are significantly improved (up to 0.81) when considering the discrepancy of percentage runoff between the target and baseline catchments. A distinct advantage has been experienced by comparing the CM with a traditional method for ungauged catchments. The advantages are: (a) less demand of the similarity between the baseline catchment and the ungauged catchment, (b) less demand of available data, and (c) potentially widely applicable in varied catchments. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed scheme as a potentially powerful alternative to the conventional methods in runoff predictions of ungauged catchments. Clearly, more work beyond this pilot study is needed to explore and develop this new approach further to maturity by the hydrological community.

  17. Hydrological behaviour and water balance analysis for Xitiaoxi catchment of Taihu Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Lijuan


    Full Text Available With the rapid social and economic development of the Taihu region, Taihu Lake now faces an increasingly severe eutrophication problem. Pollution from surrounding catchments contributes greatly to the eutrophication of water bodies in the region. Investigation of surface flow and associated mass transport for the Xitiaoxi catchment is of a significant degree of importance as the Xitiaoxi catchment is one of the major catchments within the Taihu region. A SWAT-based distributed hydrological model was established for the Xitiaoxi catchment. The model was calibrated and verified using hydrometeorological data from 1988 to 2001. The results indicate that the modeled daily and annual stream flow match the observed data both in the calibration period and the verification period, with a linear regression coefficient R2 and a coefficient e for modeled daily stream flow greater than 0.8 at Hengtangcun and Fanjiacun gauge stations. The results show that the runoff process in the Xitiaoxi catchment is affected both by rainfall and human activities (e.g., reservoirs and polder areas. Moreover, the human activities weaken flood peaks more noticeably during rainstorms. The water balance analysis reveals the percentages of precipitation made up by surface flow, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge and the change of soil storage, all of which are considered useful to the further understanding of the hydrological processes in the Xitiaoxi catchment. This study provides a good base for further studies in mass transport modeling and comparison of modeling results from similar hydrological models.

  18. Appraisal of family doctors: an evaluation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, M.I.; Elwyn, G.; Wood, F.


    BACKGROUND: Appraisal has evolved to become a key component of workforce management. However, it is not clear from existing proposals for appraisal of doctors whether employers, health authorities or primary care organisations should take responsibility for appraisal processes. AIMS: To evaluate the

  19. 7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals. (United States)


    ... value of the collateral. All real property appraisals associated with Agency guaranteed loanmaking and... appraise the property in question. All appraisals will include consideration of the potential effects from... value of the collateral. For additional guidance and information concerning the completion of real...

  20. Appraisal Psychology, Neurobiology, and Language. (United States)

    Schumann, John H.


    Proposes that the confluence of stimulus appraisal and social cognition that is effected by the neural system in the brain has important implications for language and learning theories. Describes the anatomy and functions of this neural system and discusses how it may operate in motivation for second language acquisition and how in conjunction…

  1. Inter-comparison of hydro-climatic regimes across northern catchments: Synchronicity, resistance and resilience (United States)

    Carey, S.K.; Tetzlaff, D.; Seibert, J.; Soulsby, C.; Buttle, J.; Laudon, H.; McDonnell, J.; McGuire, K.; Caissie, D.; Shanley, J.; Kennedy, M.; Devito, K.; Pomeroy, J.W.


    The higher mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are particularly sensitive to climate change as small differences in temperature determine frozen ground status, precipitation phase, and the magnitude and timing of snow accumulation and melt. An international inter-catchment comparison program, North-Watch, seeks to improve our understanding of the sensitivity of northern catchments to climate change by examining their hydrological and biogeochemical responses. The catchments are located in Sweden (Krycklan), Scotland (Mharcaidh, Girnock and Strontian), the United States (Sleepers River, Hubbard Brook and HJ Andrews) and Canada (Catamaran, Dorset and Wolf Creek). This briefing presents the initial stage of the North-Watch program, which focuses on how these catchments collect, store and release water and identify 'types' of hydro-climatic catchment response. At most sites, a 10-year data of daily precipitation, discharge and temperature were compiled and evaporation and storage were calculated. Inter-annual and seasonal patterns of hydrological processes were assessed via normalized fluxes and standard flow metrics. At the annual-scale, relations between temperature, precipitation and discharge were compared, highlighting the role of seasonality, wetness and snow/frozen ground. The seasonal pattern and synchronicity of fluxes at the monthly scale provided insight into system memory and the role of storage. We identified types of catchments that rapidly translate precipitation into runoff and others that more readily store water for delayed release. Synchronicity and variance of rainfall-runoff patterns were characterized by the coefficient of variation (cv) of monthly fluxes and correlation coefficients. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed clustering among like catchments in terms of functioning, largely controlled by two components that (i) reflect temperature and precipitation gradients and the correlation of monthly precipitation and discharge and (ii

  2. Analysis of Appraising Agricultural Intangible Asset Value by Cost Method


    Li, Xiao-Juan


    On the basis of describing the connotation of agricultural intangible asset and cost method, the technical ideas of appraising by cost method are introduced. The article analyzes the advantages (simple appraisal principle and easy to understand and grasp; overall consideration of various factors related to appraisal result value) and disadvantages (high appraisal cost; difficult to appraise and grasp various appraisal factors) of appraising by cost method. The article also summarizes the prec...

  3. Evidence from epidemic appraisals in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoteyin O. Ezirim


    Full Text Available Although HIV prevalence has increased in most-at-risk populations (MARPs across Nigeria, effective programming was difficult because Nigeria lacked information for prevention programmes to target interventions that maximise coverage and cost effectiveness. Epidemic appraisals (EA were conducted in eight states to provide evidence for the planning, implementation and co-ordination of prevention interventions. Component 1: Mapping determined the size, typology and locations of MARPs. Component 2: Venue profiling identified and profiled venues where general populations engaged in high-risk behaviours. Component 3: Rural appraisals provided insights into risk behaviours and sexual networking in villages. States used mapping results to prioritise areas with a MARP coverage of 70% – 80% and then scale up interventions for non-brothel-based female sex workers (FSWs instead of focusing on brothel-based FSWs. The eight states prioritisedf unding for the high-coverage areas to ensure a minimum coverage level of 70% – 80% of MARPs was reached. The refocused resources led to cost efficiencies. Applying venue profiling results, six states implemented interventions at bars and night clubs – previously not covered. States also maximised intervention coverage for high-risk general populations; this led to the use of resources for general population interventions in a focused way rather than across an entire state. States focused on condom programmes in rural areas. EA results provided the evidence for focusing interventions for high MARP coverage as well as forhigh-risk general populations. The states applied the results and rapidly refocused their interventions, increasing the likelihood of having an impact on HIV transmission in those states. Nigeria is now implementing EAs in the remaining 29 states to effect national-level impact.

  4. Identifying the Dynamic Catchment Storage That Does Not Drive Runoff (United States)

    Dralle, D.; Hahm, W. J.; Rempe, D.; Karst, N.; Thompson, S. E.; Dietrich, W. E.


    The central importance of subsurface water storage in hydrology has resulted in numerous attempts to develop hydrograph and mass balance based techniques to quantify catchment storage state or capacity. In spite of these efforts, relatively few studies have linked catchment scale storage metrics to Critical Zone (CZ) structure and the status of water in hillslopes. Elucidating these relationships would increase the interpretability of catchment storage metrics, and aid the development of hydrologic models. Here, we propose that catchment storage consists of a dynamic component that varies on seasonal timescales, and a static component with negligible time variation. Discharge is assumed to be explicitly sensitive to changes in some fraction of the dynamic storage, while the remaining dynamic storage varies without directly influencing flow. We use a coupled mass balance and storage-discharge function approach to partition dynamic storage between these driving and non-driving storage pools, and compare inferences with direct observations of saturated and unsaturated dynamic water storages at two field sites in Northern California. We find that most dynamic catchment water storage does not drive streamflow in both sites, even during the wettest times of year. Moreover, the physical character of non-driving dynamic storage depends strongly on catchment CZ structure. At a site with a deep profile of weathered rock, the dynamic storage that drives streamflow occurs as a seasonally perched groundwater table atop fresh bedrock, and that which does not drive streamflow resides as seasonally dynamic unsaturated water in shallow soils and deep, weathered rock. At a second site with a relatively thin weathered zone, water tables rapidly rise to intersect the ground surface with the first rains of the wet season, yet only a small fraction of this dynamic saturated zone storage drives streamflow. Our findings emphasize how CZ structure governs the overlap in time and space of

  5. A novel approach for runoff modelling in ungauged catchments by Catchment Morphing (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Han, D.


    Runoff prediction in ungauged catchments has been one of the major challenges in the past decades. However, due to the tremendous heterogeneity of hydrological catchments, obstacles exist in deducing model parameters for ungauged catchments from gauged ones. We propose a novel approach to predict ungauged runoff with Catchment Morphing (CM) using a fully distributed model. CM is defined as by changing the catchment characteristics (area and slope here) from the baseline model built with a gauged catchment to model the ungauged ones. The advantages of CM are: (a) less demand of the similarity between the baseline catchment and the ungauged catchment, (b) less demand of available data, and (c) potentially applicable in varied catchments. A case study on seven catchments in the UK has been used to demonstrate the proposed scheme. To comprehensively examine the CM approach, distributed rainfall inputs are utilised in the model, and fractal landscapes are used to morph the land surface from the baseline model to the target model. The preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, which is promising in runoff simulation for ungauged catchments. Clearly, more work beyond this pilot study is needed to explore and develop this new approach further to maturity by the hydrological community.

  6. The Power of Developmental Performance Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Salim Alghanabousi


    Full Text Available Development of employee performance is a must that any organization should take into account to be a successful in achieving its goals. However, the tools of developing that performance are varying based on the type of the organization and the nature of the work performed. Performance appraisal is one of the effective tools that help the organization to measure the accomplishment of its goals, if implemented effectively. In education, it became evident that performance appraisal of educators is an essential element of the development of any educational institution. To make the performance appraisal fruitful, the development element should be dominant in the sense that other elements of the appraisal should serve the broad aim of the appraisal process. Therefore, a well-designed and comprehensive system is needed to cover all the aspects of appraisal process that include of the goals, criteria, instruments, and continuous support.

  7. Appraisal patterns of envy and related emotions


    van de Ven, Niels; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Pieters, Rik


    Envy is a frustrating emotion that arises from upward social comparison. Two studies investigated the appraisals that distinguish benign envy (aimed at improving one’s own situation) from malicious envy (aimed at pulling down the superior other). Study 1 found that appraisals of deservingness and control potential differentiated both types of envy. We manipulated these appraisals in Study 2 and found that while both did not influence the intensity of envy, they did determine the type of envy ...

  8. Suspended sediment apportionment in a South-Korean mountain catchment (United States)

    Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Park, Ji-Hyung; Alewell, Christine


    Due to the rapid agricultural expansion and intensification during the last decades in South-Korea, large areas of hill slope forests were transformed to paddies and vegetable fields. The intensive agriculture and the easily erodible soils in our catchment are a major reason for the increased erosion causing suspended sediments to infiltrate into the close drinking water reservoir. The drinking water reservoir Lake Soyang provides water supply for over ten million people in Seoul. Landscape managers need to know the exact origin of these sediments before they can create landscape amelioration schemes. We applied a compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) approach (Alewell et al., 2015) to apportion the sources of the suspended sediments between forest and agricultural soil contribution to the suspended sediments in a different catchment and applied the same approach to identify and quantify the different sources of the suspended sediments in the river(s) contributing to Lake Soyang. We sampled eight soil sites within the catchment considering the different landuse types forest, rice paddies, maize and vegetables. Suspended sediments were sampled at three outlets of the different sub-catchments. Soils and suspended sediments are analysed for bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, compound-specific carbon isotopes of plant-wax derived long-chain fatty acids and long-chain n-alkanes. Fatty acid and alkane isotopes are then used in mixing calculations and the mixing model software IsoSource to find out the contribution of the different source soils to the suspended sediments. We present first data of the source soils and the suspended sediments. C. Alewell, A. Birkholz, K. Meusburger, Y. Schindler-Wildhaber, L. Mabit, 2015. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA. Biogeosciences Discuss. 12: 14245-14269.

  9. Hydrological response of a small catchment burned by experimental fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Stoof


    Full Text Available Fire can considerably change hydrological processes, increasing the risk of extreme flooding and erosion events. Although hydrological processes are largely affected by scale, catchment-scale studies on the hydrological impact of fire in Europe are scarce, and nested approaches are rarely used. We performed a catchment-scale experimental fire to improve insight into the drivers of fire impact on hydrology. In north-central Portugal, rainfall, canopy interception, streamflow and soil moisture were monitored in small shrub-covered paired catchments pre- and post-fire. The shrub cover was medium dense to dense (44 to 84% and pre-fire canopy interception was on average 48.7% of total rainfall. Fire increased streamflow volumes 1.6 times more than predicted, resulting in increased runoff coefficients and changed rainfall-streamflow relationships – although the increase in streamflow per unit rainfall was only significant at the subcatchment-scale. Fire also fastened the response of topsoil moisture to rainfall from 2.7 to 2.1 h (p = 0.058, and caused more rapid drying of topsoils after rain events. Since soil physical changes due to fire were not apparent, we suggest that changes resulting from vegetation removal played an important role in increasing streamflow after fire. Results stress that fire impact on hydrology is largely affected by scale, highlight the hydrological impact of fire on small scales, and emphasize the risk of overestimating fire impact when upscaling plot-scale studies to the catchment-scale. Finally, they increase understanding of the processes contributing to post-fire flooding and erosion events.

  10. 76 FR 72306 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Appraiser Roster: Appraiser Qualifications for Placement on... (United States)


    ... disciplinary action in any state in which the appraiser is certified; * * * * * (c) * * * (1) Appraisers subject to state disciplinary action. An appraiser whose state certification in any state has been revoked, suspended, or surrendered as a result of a state disciplinary action is automatically suspended from the...

  11. Positive emotion, appraisal, and the role of appraisal overlap in positive emotion co-occurrence. (United States)

    Tong, Eddie M W; Jia, Lile


    Appraisal research has traditionally focused on negative emotions but has not addressed issues concerning the relationships between several positive emotions and appraisals in daily life and the extent to which co-occurrence of positive emotions can be explained by overlap in appraisals. Driven by a priori hypotheses on appraisal-emotion relationships, this study investigated 12 positive emotions and 13 appraisal dimensions using Ecological Momentary Assessment. The results provide strong evidence that positive emotions and appraisals correlate significantly in daily life. Importantly, we found that the positive emotions' overlap on theoretically relevant, as compared to irrelevant, appraisals was stronger and more predictive of their co-occurrence. Furthermore, appraisal overlap on theoretically relevant appraisals predicted the co-occurrence of positive emotions even when the appraisal of pleasantness was excluded, indicating that positive emotions do not co-occur just by virtue of their shared valence. Our findings affirmed and refined the appraisal profiles of positive emotions and underscore the importance of appraisals in accounting for the commonality and differences among positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Test Takers' Performance Appraisals, Appraisal Calibration, and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use (United States)

    Phakiti, Aek


    The current study explores the nature and relationships among test takers' performance appraisals, appraisal calibration, and reported cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in a language test situation. Performance appraisals are executive processes of strategic competence for judging test performance (e.g., evaluating the correctness or…

  13. Appraisal of Meconium at Delivery (United States)

    Paes, Bosco A.; Thompson, Penelope


    A critical appraisal of the scientific literature on managing mesconium in labor identified 15 studies which were used to evaluate intervention strategies. Only four were randomized trials: two on the use of amnioinfusion in labor, one on the technique of bulb versus DeLee catheter suction of the newborn, and one on the need for endotracheal intubation and suction in meconium-stained neonates. Current practice is dictated by the most favorable tradeoff between benefit and risk because of limited scientific evidence. PMID:21221284

  14. The McDonaldization of appraisal? Doctors' views of the early impacts of medical revalidation in the United Kingdom. (United States)

    Archer, Julian; Nunn, Suzanne; Regan de Bere, Sam


    Medical regulation is rapidly changing with claims that systems such as revalidation/relicensing will reassure the public. Yet the impact of such initiatives is unknown. Using the principles of efficiency, calculability, predictability and control through technology, identified by Ritzer, and exampled by the McDonalds business model, we analyzed interviews with doctors between May 2012-Dec 2013 which focused on doctor experiences of appraisal and revalidation in SW England. The research found significant changes in appraisals since the launch of revalidation in December 2012. Appraisal has been standardized with a list of supporting information that must be collected by doctors. The success of implementation is measured in the numbers of appraisals completed but less is known about the quality of the appraisal itself. Such efficiencies have been supported by IT systems that themselves might be at risk of driving the process. There are potential advantages to McDonaldization including appraisals available to all, not just for doctors working in the NHS, and a potentially more appetizing recipe for their completion. As yet a state of McAppraisal has not been reached; with a complete transfer of trust in the doctor to trust in the appraisal process within revalidation. However policymakers will need to continue to ensure that regulatory initiatives, such as revalidation, are not just a process for their own sake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Social appraisal influences recognition of emotions. (United States)

    Mumenthaler, Christian; Sander, David


    The notion of social appraisal emphasizes the importance of a social dimension in appraisal theories of emotion by proposing that the way an individual appraises an event is influenced by the way other individuals appraise and feel about the same event. This study directly tested this proposal by asking participants to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear, happiness, or anger in Experiment 1; fear, happiness, anger, or neutral in Experiment 2) in a target face presented at the center of a screen while a contextual face, which appeared simultaneously in the periphery of the screen, expressed an emotion (fear, happiness, anger) or not (neutral) and either looked at the target face or not. We manipulated gaze direction to be able to distinguish between a mere contextual effect (gaze away from both the target face and the participant) and a specific social appraisal effect (gaze toward the target face). Results of both experiments provided evidence for a social appraisal effect in emotion recognition, which differed from the mere effect of contextual information: Whereas facial expressions were identical in both conditions, the direction of the gaze of the contextual face influenced emotion recognition. Social appraisal facilitated the recognition of anger, happiness, and fear when the contextual face expressed the same emotion. This facilitation was stronger than the mere contextual effect. Social appraisal also allowed better recognition of fear when the contextual face expressed anger and better recognition of anger when the contextual face expressed fear. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  16. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 34.45 Section 34.45 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND... appraiser shall be engaged directly by the regulated institution or its agent, and have no direct or...

  17. 12 CFR 722.5 - Appraiser independence. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 722.5 Section 722.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS APPRAISALS... interest, financial or otherwise, in the property. If the only qualified persons available to perform an...

  18. Appraisal patterns of envy and related emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, N.; Zeelenberg, M.; Pieters, R.


    Envy is a frustrating emotion that arises from upward social comparison. Two studies investigated the appraisals that distinguish benign envy (aimed at improving one’s own situation) from malicious envy (aimed at pulling down the superior other). Study 1 found that appraisals of deservingness and

  19. Performance appraisal of coaches: Acomparative study | Surujlal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the sport environment, the performance appraisal of coaches continues to be an issue. The performance appraisal of coaches is critical to sport organizations since major decisions like rewarding or terminating coaches is based on it. The purpose of this study was to examine whether any differences exist with regard ...

  20. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures. (United States)


    ... the amount of partial loss, or damage to, or any reduction in the fair market value as a result..., any reduction in the fair market value of, the indemnified item(s). The appraisers' agreement with... appropriate, such reduction in the fair market value. Disputes between the appraisers with respect to partial...

  1. Appraisal patterns of envy and related emotions. (United States)

    van de Ven, Niels; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Pieters, Rik


    Envy is a frustrating emotion that arises from upward social comparison. Two studies investigated the appraisals that distinguish benign envy (aimed at improving one's own situation) from malicious envy (aimed at pulling down the superior other). Study 1 found that appraisals of deservingness and control potential differentiated both types of envy. We manipulated these appraisals in Study 2 and found that while both did not influence the intensity of envy, they did determine the type of envy that resulted. The more a situation was appraised as undeserved, the more participants experienced malicious envy. Benign envy was experienced more when the situation was not undeserved, and the most when the situation was appraised as both deserved and controllable. The current research also clarifies how the types of envy differ from the related emotions admiration and resentment.

  2. The appraisal of clinical guidelines in dentistry. (United States)

    Glenny, Anne-Marie; Worthington, Helen V; Clarkson, Jan E; Esposito, Marco


    To appraise the reported processes involved in the development of published dental guidelines. Electronic databases were searched to identify guidelines making recommendations for any health professional within dentistry. All included guidelines were appraised using the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument. A total of 105 guidelines met the inclusion criteria. The appraised guidelines showed lack of rigour in their development (median score 14.3%; range 0% to 100%). Only 10 (9.5%) were coded as 'strongly recommend' by at least two assessors. If recommendations within clinical guidelines are to be relied upon, the methods used in their development must be explicit and free from bias. When using the AGREE checklist to make decisions on whether or not to implement individual sets of guidelines, the findings of the present assessment reinforce the need for more than two assessors to be included in the appraisal of each set of guidelines.

  3. High-resolution monitoring of catchment nutrient response to the end of the 2011-2012 drought in England, captured by the demonstration test catchments (United States)

    Outram, F. N.; Lloyd, C.; Jonczyk, J.; Benskin, C. McW. H.; Grant, F.; Dorling, S. R.; Steele, C. J.; Collins, A. L.; Freer, J.; Haygarth, P. M.; Hiscock, K. M.; Johnes, P. J.; Lovett, A. L.


    The Demonstration Test Catchments (DTC) project is a UK Government funded initiative to test the effectiveness of on-farm mitigation measures designed to reduce agricultural pollution without compromising farm productivity. Three distinct catchments in England have been chosen to test the efficacy of mitigation measures on working farms in small tributary sub-catchments equipped with continuous water quality monitoring stations. The Hampshire Avon in the south is a mixed livestock and arable farming catchment, the River Wensum in the east is a lowland catchment with predominantly arable farming and land use in the River Eden catchment in the north-west is predominantly livestock farming. One of the many strengths of the DTC as a national research platform is that it provides the ability to investigate catchment hydrology and biogeochemical response across different landscapes and geoclimatic characteristics, with a range of differing flow behaviours, geochemistries and nutrient chemistries. Although numerous authors present studies of individual catchment responses to storms, no studies exist of multiple catchment responses to the same rainfall event captured with in situ high-resolution nutrient monitoring at a national scale. This paper brings together findings from all three DTC research groups to compare the response of the catchments to a major storm event in April 2012. This was one of the first weather fronts to track across the country following a prolonged drought period affecting much of the UK through 2011-2012, marking an unusual meteorological transition when a rapid shift from drought to flood risk occurred. The effects of the weather front on discharge and water chemistry parameters, including nitrogen species (NO3-N and NH4-N) and phosphorus fractions (total P (TP) and total reactive P (TRP)), measured at a half-hourly time step are examined. When considered in the context of one hydrological year, flow and concentration duration curves reveal that

  4. Aquifers Characterization and Productivity in Ellala Catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ... to weak degree of potentiality are found occupying flat to rugged topography of the catchment. ... government and non-governmental organizations. Among various .... Ellala River, forming something like graben structure. This is particularly ...

  5. Simulating high frequency water quality monitoring data using a catchment runoff attenuation flux tool (CRAFT). (United States)

    Adams, Russell; Quinn, Paul F; Perks, Matthew; Barber, Nicholas J; Jonczyk, Jennine; Owen, Gareth J


    High resolution water quality data has recently become widely available from numerous catchment based monitoring schemes. However, the models that can reproduce time series of concentrations or fluxes have not kept pace with the advances in monitoring data. Model performance at predicting phosphorus (P) and sediment concentrations has frequently been poor with models not fit for purpose except for predicting annual losses. Here, the data from the Eden Demonstration Test Catchments (DTC) project have been used to calibrate the Catchment Runoff Attenuation Flux Tool (CRAFT), a new, parsimonious model developed with the aim of modelling both the generation and attenuation of nutrients and sediments in small to medium sized catchments. The CRAFT has the ability to run on an hourly timestep and can calculate the mass of sediments and nutrients transported by three flow pathways representing rapid surface runoff, fast subsurface drainage and slow groundwater flow (baseflow). The attenuation feature of the model is introduced here; this enables surface runoff and contaminants transported via this pathway to be delayed in reaching the catchment outlet. It was used to investigate some hypotheses of nutrient and sediment transport in the Newby Beck Catchment (NBC) Model performance was assessed using a suite of metrics including visual best fit and the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. It was found that this approach for water quality models may be the best assessment method as opposed to using a single metric. Furthermore, it was found that, when the aim of the simulations was to reproduce the time series of total P (TP) or total reactive P (TRP) to get the best visual fit, that attenuation was required. The model will be used in the future to explore the impacts on water quality of different mitigation options in the catchment; these will include attenuation of surface runoff. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Critical appraisal of published literature (United States)

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Karippacheril, John George; Magazine, Rahul


    With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader's work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice. PMID:27729695

  7. Critical appraisal of published literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goneppanavar Umesh


    Full Text Available With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader′s work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice.

  8. Catchment Dispersion Mechanisms in an Urban Context (United States)

    Gironas, J. A.; Mejia, A.; Rossel, F.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez, F.


    Dispersion mechanisms have been examined in-depth in natural catchments in previous studies. However, these dispersion mechanisms have been studied little in urban catchments, where artificial transport elements and morphological arrangements are expected to modify travel times and mobilize excess rainfall from spatially distributed impervious sites. Thus, these features can modify the variance of the catchment's travel times and hence the total dispersion. This work quantifies the dispersion mechanisms in an urban catchment using the theory of transport by travel times as represented by the Urban Morpho-climatic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (U-McIUH) model. This model computes travel times based on kinematic wave theory and accounts explicitly for the path heterogeneities and altered connectivity patterns characteristic of an urban drainage network. The analysis is illustrated using the Aubinière urban catchment (France) as a case study. We found that kinematic dispersion is dominant for small rainfall intensities, whereas geomorphologic dispersion becomes more dominant for larger intensities. The total dispersion scales with the drainage area in a power law fashion. The kinematic dispersion is dominant across spatial scales up to a threshold of approximately 2-3 km2, after which the geomorphologic dispersion becomes more dominant. Overall, overland flow is responsible for most of the dispersion, while conduits tend to counteract the increase of the geomorphologic dispersion with a negative kinematic dispersion. Further studies with other catchments are needed to assess whether the latter is a general feature of urban drainage networks.

  9. Catchment Classification: Connecting Climate, Structure and Function (United States)

    Sawicz, K. A.; Wagener, T.; Sivapalan, M.; Troch, P. A.; Carrillo, G. A.


    Hydrology does not yet possess a generally accepted catchment classification framework. Such a classification framework needs to: [1] give names to things, i.e. the main classification step, [2] permit transfer of information, i.e. regionalization of information, [3] permit development of generalizations, i.e. to develop new theory, and [4] provide a first order environmental change impact assessment, i.e., the hydrologic implications of climate, land use and land cover change. One strategy is to create a catchment classification framework based on the notion of catchment functions (partitioning, storage, and release). Results of an empirical study presented here connects climate and structure to catchment function (in the form of select hydrologic signatures), based on analyzing over 300 US catchments. Initial results indicate a wide assortment of signature relationships with properties of climate, geology, and vegetation. The uncertainty in the different regionalized signatures varies widely, and therefore there is variability in the robustness of classifying ungauged basins. This research provides insight into the controls of hydrologic behavior of a catchment, and enables a classification framework applicable to gauged and ungauged across the study domain. This study sheds light on what we can expect to achieve in mapping climate, structure and function in a top-down manner. Results of this study complement work done using a bottom-up physically-based modeling framework to generalize this approach (Carrillo et al., this session).

  10. A new perspective on catchment storage gained from a nested catchment experiment in Luxembourg (Europe) (United States)

    Pfister, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; Hissler, Christophe; François Iffly, Jean; Gourdol, Laurent; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.


    Recent hydrological process research focussed on how much water a catchment can store and how these catchments store and release water. Storage can be a valuable metric for catchment description, inter-comparison, and classification. Further storage controls catchment mixing, non-linearities in rainfall-runoff transformation and eco-hydrological processes. Various methods exist to determine catchment storage (e.g. natural tracer, soil moisture and groundwater data, hydrological models). Today it remains unclear what parts of the catchment storage are measured with the different models. Here we present a new hydrometric approach to answer the question how much water a catchment can store. We tested our approach in a dense hydro-climatological monitoring network that encompasses 16 recording streamgauges and 21 pluviographs in the Alzette River basin in Luxembourg (Europe). Catchment scales are ranging from 0.47 to 285 km2 and they have clean- and mixed combinations of distinct geologies ranging from schists to marls, sandstone, dolomite and limestone. Previous investigations in the area of interest have shown that geology largely controls winter runoff coefficients. Here, we focus at how catchment geology is ultimately affecting catchment storage. We used the approach of Sayama et al. (2011) to compute catchment dynamic storage changes for each winter season over the period 2002-2012 (based on precipitation as input; discharge and evapotranspiration as output). We determined dynamic storage changes for each winter semester (October to March) in all 16 catchments over the period 2002-2012. At the beginning of each hydrological winter season, all catchments showed similar trends in storage change. A few weeks into the winter season, catchments with lowest permeability (e.g. marls) started to plateau. The highest storage values were reached several months later in the season in catchments dominated by permeable substrate (e.g. sandstone). For most catchments, we found

  11. The appraisal rationalisation of real estate expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ciuna


    Full Text Available The Italian appraisal practice is characterized by valuations developed in subjective opinions formulated by the valuers, according to the experience and the competence rather than on the survey of the market data of comparable properties. This practice makes up for the lack of information on the real estate market and to the consequent absence of systematic collections of market data. This tradition is in the cadastral appraisal for the rural (1886 and urban properties (1939. The assessed income is appraised for a representative property and wide to all the other properties with arbitrary scores (pure number. The assessed value is derived from the income with fixed multipliers. The reform of the cadastral appraisals (2013 provides the employment of predetermined statistic functions rather than the automated valuation models applied in the mass appraisal. There are therefore ample spaces to rationalize the Italian valuations. For the market appraisal the process of rationalization is based on the comparison between the expertise and the market comparison approach. For the cadastral appraisal the process of rationalization is based on the statistic application to the fixed functions with the survey of a sample of market prices and the ratios study according to the valuation standards.

  12. Spatial Analysis for Potential Water Catchment Areas using GIS: Weighted Overlay Technique (United States)

    Awanda, Disyacitta; Anugrah Nurul, H.; Musfiroh, Zahrotul; Dinda Dwi, N. P.


    The development of applied GIS is growing rapidly and has been widely applied in various fields. Preparation of a model to obtain information is one of the benefits of GIS. Obtaining information for water resources such as water catchment areas is one part of GIS modelling. Water catchment model can be utilized to see the distribution of potential and ability of a region in water absorbing. The use of overlay techniques with the weighting obtained from the literature from previous research is used to build the model. Model builder parameters are obtained through remote sensing interpretation techniques such as land use, landforms, and soil texture. Secondary data such as rock type maps are also used as water catchment model parameters. The location of this research is in the upstream part of the Opak river basin. The purpose of this research is to get information about potential distribution of water catchment area with overlay technique. The results of this study indicate the potential of water catchment areas with excellent category, good, medium, poor and very poor. These results may indicate that the Upper river basin is either good or in bad condition, so it can be used for better water resources management policy determination.

  13. 12 CFR 564.4 - Minimum appraisal standards. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 564.4 Section 564.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related transactions, all appraisals shall, at a minimum: (a...

  14. Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness (United States)

    Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.


    Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

  15. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine. (United States)


    ... an APHIS employee alone. (b) The appraisal of swine will be based on the fair market value as determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided that where appraisal is by the head, each animal in the group is the same value per head, and where appraisal...

  16. Using functional analysis in archival appraisal a practical and effective alternative to traditional appraisal methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Marcus C


    In an age of scarcity and the challenge of electronic records, can archivists and records managers continue to rely upon traditional methodology essentially unchanged since the early 1950s? Using Functional Analysis in Archival Appraisal: A Practical and Effective Alternative to Traditional Appraisal Methodologies shows how archivists in other countries are already using functional analysis, which offers a better, more effective, and imminently more practical alternative to traditional appraisal methodologies that rely upon an analysis of the records themselves.

  17. 32 CFR 644.42 - Appraisal report. (United States)


    ... appraisal report shall be divided into four parts as outlined below: PART I—INTRODUCTION 1. TITLE PAGE. This... photograph. The use of color film and photographs is encouraged, especially wherein development cost either...

  18. Theoretical foundations of shareholders' right to appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Mirko


    Full Text Available Shareholders' right to appraisal represents a controversial topic of corporation law, which is why a relatively small number of countries accept it. In this article, the authors analyze the goals that are supposed to be achieved with the introduction of shareholders' appraisal rights. In this respect, traditional and modern explanations for the introduction or maintaining of this right have been presented. In the second part of this article, shareholders' right to appraisal has been critically examined, mostly from corporations' perspective. Afterwards, several potential causes of inefficiency of using this right have been identified. Perceiving pros and cons of shareholders' right to appraisal is of particular importance for Serbia, in order to draw a conclusion about harmonization of our legislative solutions with the theoretical foundations of this right.

  19. Flash flood modelling for ungauged catchments (United States)

    Garambois, P.-A.; Roux, H.; Larnier, K.; Dartus, D.


    Flash flood is a very intense and quick hydrologic response of a catchment to rainfall. This phenomenon has a high spatial-temporal variability as its generating storm, often hitting small catchments (few km2). Data collected by (Gaume et al. 2009) about 500 flash floods over the last 50 years showed that they could occur everywhere in Europe and more often in the Mediterranean regions, Alpine regions and continental Europe. Given the small spatial-temporal scales and high variability of flash floods, their prediction remains a hard exercise as the necessary data are often scarce. Flash flood prediction on ungauged catchments is one of the challenges of hydrological modelling as defined by (Sivapalan et al. 2003). Several studies have been headed up with the MARINE model (Modélisation de l'Anticipation du Ruissellement et des Inondations pour des évèNements Extrêmes) for the Gard region (France), (Roux et al. 2011), (Castaings et al. 2009). This physically based spatially distributed rainfall runoff model is dedicated to flash flood prediction. The study aims at finding a methodology for flash flood prediction at ungauged locations in the Cévennes-Vivarais region in particular. The regionalization method is based on multiple calibrations on gauged catchments in order to extract model structures (model + parameter values) for each catchment. Several mathematical methods (multiple regressions, transfer functions, krigging…) will then be tested to calculate a regional parameter set. The study also investigates the usability of additional hydrologic indices at different time scales to constrain model predictions from parameters obtained using these indices, and this independently of the model considered. These hydrologic indices gather information on hydrograph shape or catchment dynamic for instance. Results explaining global catchments behaviour are expected that way. The spatial-temporal variability of storms is also described through indices and linked with


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Hidayati


    Full Text Available This study attempts to find out conveyed messages in the movie from the realization of the appraisal and narrative structure as well as to describe the use of the Appraisal System to express LaGravenese's (a Attitudes, (bEngagement & (c Graduation towards the main characters in Freedom Writers movie screenplay. Using both quantitative and qualitative descriptive approach for discourse appraisal system analysis, the result of this study reveals several messages of tolerance, earning respect and trust, honor diversity, and striving for success and trust from the realization of Appraisal and Narrative Structure either in the dialogues or monologues of Freedom Writers’ characters. The result from the Appraisal Devices realizing (a Attitudes reveals that LaGravenese likes to express characters’ negative emotion explicitly than implicitly. He likes to express characters’ negative capability than other kinds of Judgments. He appreciates the characters using more Negative Value which denotes that in his opinion, they see each other negatively. (bEngagement used in the screenplay describes that he emphasizes more on characters’ denial towards each other’s opinion and existence with the use of more Disclaim Heterogloss in the screenplay. (cGraduation used in the screenplay describes that the use of more Sharpening Focus indicates he emphasizes on characters’ category boundary more than scaling of intensity. Keywords: Appraisal Devices, Attitude, Engagement, and Graduation.

  1. Large catchment area recharges Titan's Ontario Lacus (United States)

    Dhingra, Rajani D.; Barnes, Jason W.; Yanites, Brian J.; Kirk, Randolph L.


    We seek to address the question of what processes are at work to fill Ontario Lacus while other, deeper south polar basins remain empty. Our hydrological analysis indicates that Ontario Lacus has a catchment area spanning 5.5% of Titan's surface and a large catchment area to lake surface area ratio. This large catchment area translates into large volumes of liquid making their way to Ontario Lacus after rainfall. The areal extent of the catchment extends to at least southern mid-latitudes (40°S). Mass conservation calculations indicate that runoff alone might completely fill Ontario Lacus within less than half a Titan year (1 Titan year = 29.5 Earth years) assuming no infiltration. Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) observations of clouds over the southern mid and high-latitudes are consistent with precipitation feeding Ontario's large catchment area. This far-flung rain may be keeping Ontario Lacus filled, making it a liquid hydrocarbon oasis in the relatively dry south polar region.

  2. Simulating Catchment Scale Afforestation for Mitigating Flooding (United States)

    Barnes, M. S.; Bathurst, J. C.; Quinn, P. F.; Birkinshaw, S.


    After the 2013-14, and the more recent 2015-16, winter floods in the UK there were calls to 'forest the uplands' as a solution to reducing flood risk across the nation. However, the role of forests as a natural flood management practice remains highly controversial, due to a distinct lack of robust evidence into its effectiveness in reducing flood risk during extreme events. This project aims to improve the understanding of the impacts of upland afforestation on flood risk at the sub-catchment and full catchment scales. This will be achieved through an integrated fieldwork and modelling approach, with the use of a series of process based hydrological models to scale up and examine the effects forestry can have on flooding. Furthermore, there is a need to analyse the extent to which land management practices, catchment system engineering and the installation of runoff attenuation features (RAFs), such as engineered log jams, in headwater catchments can attenuate flood-wave movement, and potentially reduce downstream flood risk. Additionally, the proportion of a catchment or riparian reach that would need to be forested in order to achieve a significant impact on reducing downstream flooding will be defined. The consequential impacts of a corresponding reduction in agriculturally productive farmland and the potential decline of water resource availability will also be considered in order to safeguard the UK's food security and satisfy the global demand on water resources.

  3. Etiopathogenesis of cataract: An appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun B Gupta


    Full Text Available Natural eye lens is a crystalline substance to produce a clear passage for light. Cataract is opacity within the clear lens of the eye and is the dominant cause of socio-medical problem i.e., blindness worldwide. The only available treatment of cataract is surgery. However, insufficient surgical facilities in poor and developing countries and post-operative complications inspire researchers to find out other modes of treatment for cataract. In this review, an attempt has been made to appraise various etiological factors of cataract to make their perception clear to build up counterpart treatment. Present study is an assortment of various available literatures and electronic information in view of cataract etiopathogenesis. Various risk factors have been identified in development of cataracts. They can be classified in to genetic factors, ageing (systemic diseases, nutritional and trace metals deficiencies, smoking, oxidative stress etc., traumatic, complicated (inflammatory and degenerative diseases of eye, metabolic (diabetes, galactosemia etc., toxic substances including drugs abuses, alcohol etc., radiation (ultraviolet, electromagnetic waves etc. are implicated as significant risk factors in the development of cataract.

  4. Analyzing catchment behavior through catchment modeling in the Gilgel Abay, Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Uhlenbrook


    Full Text Available Understanding catchment hydrological processes is essential for water resources management, in particular in data scarce regions. The Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile is undergoing intensive plans for water management, which is part of larger development plans in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. To obtain a better understanding of the water balance dynamics and runoff generation mechanisms and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeling has been conducted using the conceptual hydrological model HBV. Accordingly, the catchment of the Gilgel Abay has been divided into two gauged sub-catchments (Upper Gilgel Abay and Koga and the un-gauged part of the catchment. All available data sets were tested for stationarity, consistency and homogeneity and the data limitations (quality and quantity are discussed. Manual calibration of the daily models for three different catchment representations, i.e. (i lumped, (ii lumped with multiple vegetation zones, and (iii semi-distributed with multiple vegetation and elevation zones, showed good to satisfactory model performances with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies Reff > 0.75 and > 0.6 for the Upper Gilgel Abay and Koga sub-catchments, respectively. Better model results could not be obtained with manual calibration, very likely due to the limited data quality and model insufficiencies. Increasing the computation time step to 15 and 30 days improved the model performance in both sub-catchments to Reff > 0.8. Model parameter transferability tests have been conducted by interchanging parameters sets between the two gauged sub-catchments. Results showed poor performances for the daily models (0.30 < Reff < 0.67, but better performances for the 15 and 30 days models, Reff > 0.80. The transferability tests together with a sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations (more than 1 million

  5. Catchment scale multi-objective flood management (United States)

    Rose, Steve; Worrall, Peter; Rosolova, Zdenka; Hammond, Gene


    Rural land management is known to affect both the generation and propagation of flooding at the local scale, but there is still a general lack of good evidence that this impact is still significant at the larger catchment scale given the complexity of physical interactions and climatic variability taking place at this level. The National Trust, in partnership with the Environment Agency, are managing an innovative project on the Holnicote Estate in south west England to demonstrate the benefits of using good rural land management practices to reduce flood risk at the both the catchment and sub-catchment scales. The Holnicote Estate is owned by the National Trust and comprises about 5,000 hectares of land, from the uplands of Exmoor to the sea, incorporating most of the catchments of the river Horner and Aller Water. There are nearly 100 houses across three villages that are at risk from flooding which could potentially benefit from changes in land management practices in the surrounding catchment providing a more sustainable flood attenuation function. In addition to the contribution being made to flood risk management there are a range of other ecosystems services that will be enhanced through these targeted land management changes. Alterations in land management will create new opportunities for wildlife and habitats and help to improve the local surface water quality. Such improvements will not only create additional wildlife resources locally but also serve the landscape response to climate change effects by creating and enhancing wildlife networks within the region. Land management changes will also restore and sustain landscape heritage resources and provide opportunities for amenity, recreation and tourism. The project delivery team is working with the National Trust from source to sea across the entire Holnicote Estate, to identify and subsequently implement suitable land management techniques to manage local flood risk within the catchments. These

  6. How old is upland catchment water? (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe; Gilfedder, Benjamin


    Understanding the dynamics of water supply catchments is an essential part of water management. Upland catchments provide a continuous, reliable source of high quality water not only for some of the world's biggest cities, but also for agriculture and industry. Headwater streams control river flow in lowland agricultural basins as the majority of river discharge emerges from upland catchments. Many rivers are perennial and flow throughout the year, even during droughts. However, it is still unclear how reliable and continuous upland catchment water resources really are. Despite many efforts in upland catchment research, there is still little known about where the water is stored and how long it takes to travel through upper catchments. Resolving these questions is crucial to ensure that this resource is protected from changing land use and to estimate potential impacts from a changing climate. Previous research in this important area has been limited by existing measurement techniques. Knowledge to date has relied heavily on the use of variation in stable isotope signals to estimate the age and origin of water from upland catchments. The problem with relying on these measures is that as the water residence time increases, the variation in the stable isotope signal decreases. After a maximum period of four years, no variation can be detected This means that to date, the residence time in upland catchments is likely to have been vastly underestimated. Consequently, the proportion of water flow out of upland river catchments to the total river flow is also underestimated. Tritium (3H) combines directly with water molecules and enters the flow paths with the infiltrating water. Its half-life (12.32 years) makes it ideal to describe residence times in upper catchment reservoirs as it can theoretically measure water up to about 150 years old. The bomb pulse peak in the southern hemisphere was several orders of magnitude lower than in the northern hemisphere. Hence the

  7. Quality Appraisal of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: An Overview and Comparison of Different Appraisal Tools (United States)

    Wendt, Oliver; Miller, Bridget


    Critical appraisal of the research literature is an essential step in informing and implementing evidence-based practice. Quality appraisal tools that assess the methodological quality of experimental studies provide a means to identify the most rigorous research suitable for evidence-based decision-making. In single-subject experimental research,…

  8. The Vaal river catchment: Problems and research needs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Braune, E


    Full Text Available The vaal river catchments contains South African's economic heartland, the Pretoria -Witwatersrand-Vereeniging (PWV) complex. Although the catchments only produces eight per cent of the mean annual runoff of the country it has highest concentration...

  9. Vaal River catchment: problems and research needs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Braune, E


    Full Text Available , the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging (PWV) complex. Although the catchment only produces eight per cent of the mean annual runoff of the country it has the highest concentration of urban, industrial, mining and power generation development in South Africa... of the Vaal River. The purpose of the workshop and preceding symposium was to examine the ever increasing complexity of the Vaal River system, the much enlarged spectrum of user water quality needs and problems, and those activities in the catchment which...

  10. Picturing and modelling catchments by representative hillslopes (United States)

    Loritz, Ralf; Hassler, Sibylle; Jackisch, Conrad; Zehe, Erwin


    Hydrological modelling studies often start with a qualitative sketch of the hydrological processes of a catchment. These so-called perceptual models are often pictured as hillslopes and are generalizations displaying only the dominant and relevant processes of a catchment or hillslope. The problem with these models is that they are prone to become too much predetermined by the designer's background and experience. Moreover it is difficult to know if that picture is correct and contains enough complexity to represent the system under study. Nevertheless, because of their qualitative form, perceptual models are easy to understand and can be an excellent tool for multidisciplinary exchange between researchers with different backgrounds, helping to identify the dominant structures and processes in a catchment. In our study we explore whether a perceptual model built upon an intensive field campaign may serve as a blueprint for setting up representative hillslopes in a hydrological model to reproduce the functioning of two distinctly different catchments. We use a physically-based 2D hillslope model which has proven capable to be driven by measured soil-hydrological parameters. A key asset of our approach is that the model structure itself remains a picture of the perceptual model, which is benchmarked against a) geo-physical images of the subsurface and b) observed dynamics of discharge, distributed state variables and fluxes (soil moisture, matric potential and sap flow). Within this approach we are able to set up two behavioral model structures which allow the simulation of the most important hydrological fluxes and state variables in good accordance with available observations within the 19.4 km2 large Colpach catchment and the 4.5 km2 large Wollefsbach catchment in Luxembourg without the necessity of calibration. This corroborates, contrary to the widespread opinion, that a) lower mesoscale catchments may be modelled by representative hillslopes and b) physically

  11. Effects of land use and land cover changes on water quality in the uMngeni river catchment, South Africa (United States)

    Namugize, Jean Nepomuscene; Jewitt, Graham; Graham, Mark


    Land use and land cover change are major drivers of water quality deterioration in watercourses and impoundments. However, understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of land use change characteristics and their link to water quality parameters in catchments is limited. As a contribution to address this limitation, the objective of this study is to assess the linkages between biophysico-chemical water quality parameters and land use and land cover (LULC) classes in the upper reaches of the uMngeni Catchment, a rapidly developing catchment in South Africa. These were assessed using Geographic Information Systems tools and statistical analyses for the years 1994, 2000, 2008 and 2011 based on changes over time of eight LULC classes and available water quality information. Natural vegetation, forest plantations and cultivated areas occupy 85% of the catchment. Cultivated, urban/built-up and degraded areas increased by 6%, 4.5% and 3%, respectively coinciding with a decrease in natural vegetation by 17%. Variability in the concentration of water quality parameters from 1994 to 2011 and an overall decline in water quality were observed. Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels exceeding the recommended guidelines for recreation and public health protection was noted as a major issue at seven of the nine sampling points. Overall, water supply reservoirs in the catchment retained over 20% of nutrients and over 85% of E. coli entering them. A relationship between land use types and water quality variables was found. However, the degree and magnitude of the associations varies between sub-catchments and is difficult to quantify. This highlights the complexity and the site-specific nature of relationships between land use types and water quality parameters in the catchment. Thus, this study provides useful findings on the general relationship between land use and land cover and water quality degradation, but highlights the risks of applying simple relationships or adding

  12. Establishment of a hydrological monitoring network in a tropical African catchment: An integrated participatory approach (United States)

    Gomani, M. C.; Dietrich, O.; Lischeid, G.; Mahoo, H.; Mahay, F.; Mbilinyi, B.; Sarmett, J.

    , flow measurement sites and shallow groundwater wells. The network is now used to monitor hydro-meteorological parameters in collaboration with key stakeholders in the catchment. Preliminary results indicate that the network is working well. The benefits of this approach compared to conventional narrow scientific/technical approaches have been shown by gaining rapid insight into the hydrology of the catchment, identifying best sites for the instruments; and voluntary participation of stakeholders in installation, monitoring and safeguarding the installations. This approach has proved simple yet effective and yielded good results. Based on this experience gained in applying the approach in establishing the Ngerengere catchment monitoring network, we conclude that the integrated participatory approach helps to assimilate local and expert knowledge in catchments monitoring which consequently results in: (i) identifying best sites for the hydrologic monitoring; (ii) instilling the sense of ownership; (iii) providing security of the installed network; and (iv) minimizing costs for installation and monitoring.

  13. Diatoms as a fingerprint of sub-catchment contributions to meso-scale catchment runoff (United States)

    Klaus, Julian; Wetzel, Carlos E.; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; Ector, Luc; Pfister, Laurent


    In recent years, calls were made for new eco-hydrological approaches to improve understanding of hydrological processes. Recently diatoms, one of the most common and diverse algal groups that can be easily transported by flowing water due to their small size (~10-200 µm), were used to detect the onset and cessation of surface runoff to small headwater streams and constrain isotopic and hydro-chemical hydrograph separation methods. While the method showed its potential in the hillslope-riparian zone-stream continuum of headwater catchments, the behavior of diatoms and their use for hydrological process research in meso-scale catchments remains uncertain. Diatoms can be a valuable support for isotope and hydro-chemical tracer methods when these become ambiguous with increasing scale. Distribution and abundance of diatom species is controlled by various environmental factors (pH, soil type, moisture conditions, exposition to sunlight, etc.). We therefore hypothesize that species abundance and composition can be used as a proxy for source areas. This presentation evaluates the potential for diatoms to trace source-areas in the nested meso-scale Attert River basin (250 km2, Luxembourg, Europe). We sampled diatom populations in streamwater during one flood event in Fall 2011 in 6 sub-catchments and the basin outlet - 17 to 28 samples/catchment for the different sampling locations. Diatoms were classified and counted in every individual sample. In total more than 400 diatom species were detected. Ordination analysis revealed a clear distinction between communities sampled in different sub-catchments. The species composition at the catchment outlet reflects a mixing of the diatom composition originating from different sub-catchments. This data suggests that diatoms indeed can reflect the geographic origin of stream water at the catchment outlet. The centroids of the ordination analysis might be linked to the physiographic characteristics (geology and land use) of the

  14. Examination of catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær


    The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the Service Area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared to a more...

  15. Streamflow variation of forest covered catchments (United States)

    Gribovszki, Z.; Kalicz, P.; Kucsara, M.


    Rainfall concentration and runoff, otherwise rainfall-runoff processes, which cause river water discharge fluctuation, is one of the basic questions of hydrology. Several social-economy demands have a strong connection with small or bigger rivers from the point of view both quantity and quality of the water. Gratification or consideration of these demands is complicated substantially that we have still poor knowledge about our stream-flow regime. Water resources mainly stem from upper watersheds. These upper watersheds are the basis of the water concentration process; therefore we have to improve our knowledge about hydrological processes coming up in these territories. In this article we present runoff regime of two small catchments on the basis of one year data. Both catchments have a similar magnitude 0.6 and 0.9 km^2. We have been analyzed in detail some hydrological elements: features of rainfall, discharge, rainfall induced flooding waves and basic discharge in rainless periods. Variances of these parameters have been analyzed in relation to catchments surface, vegetation coverage and forest management. Result data set well enforce our knowledge about small catchments hydrological processes. On the basis of these fundamentals we can plan more established the management of these lands (forest practices, civil engineering works, and usage of natural water resources).

  16. Assessment of water availability in Chindwinn catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phyu Oo Khin; Ohn Gyaw


    A study of water balance over Chindwinn Catchment has been carried out by using three decades of available climatological and hydrological data (i.e. from 1967). The study was based on the monthly, annual and normal values. Actual evapotranspiration (AET) computed by as well as on the using Penman (1963) as well as Hargreaves (1985) methods. Some of the reliable data of evaporation at the stations were also used to estimate actual evaporation with the pancoefficient value 0.7. The values of actual evapotranspiration estimated by Hargreaves method was lower than the values estimated by Penman, but most followed the same significant trend. The soil moisture deficiency generally occurs during November and April. A few cases of soil moisture deficiency do occur in August, September and October. However, on the overall availability of water in the catchment is quite promising. The residual resulted from the water balance estimation may be assumed as soil moisture in the catchment by neglecting some losses from the catchment. (author)

  17. Understanding catchment behaviour through model concept improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenicia, F.


    This thesis describes an approach to model development based on the concept of iterative model improvement, which is a process where by trial and error different hypotheses of catchment behaviour are progressively tested, and the understanding of the system proceeds through a combined process of

  18. Urbanisation, coastal development and vulnerability, and catchments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntombela, Cebile


    Full Text Available The growth of urban areas that form coastal cities, especially in the WIO, places an increasing demand on natural coastal extractive and non-extractive resources. The use and conversion of coastal land and catchments is considered a permanent effect...

  19. Hydropedological insights when considering catchment classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.; Droogers, P.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Ritsema, C.J.; Hunink, J.E.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Kauffman, S.


    Soil classification systems are analysed to explore the potential of developing classification systems for catchments. Soil classifications are useful to create systematic order in the overwhelming quantity of different soils in the world and to extrapolate data available for a given soil type to

  20. [Evaluation of Wits appraisal with superimposition method]. (United States)

    Xu, T; Ahn, J; Baumrind, S


    To compare the conventional Wits appraisal with superimposed Wits appraisal in evaluation of sagittal jaw relationship change between pre and post orthodontic treatment. The sample consists of 48-case pre and post treatment lateral head films. Computerized digitizing is used to get the cephalometric landmarks and measure conventional Wits value, superimposed Wits value and ANB angle. The correlation analysis among these three measures was done by SAS statistical package. The change of ANB angle has higher correlation with the change of superimposed Wits than that of the conventional Wits. The r-value is as high as 0.849 (P < 0.001). The superimposed Wits appraisal reflects the change of sagittal jaw relationship more objectively than the conventional one.

  1. Insights on the impact of systematic model errors on data assimilation performance in changing catchments (United States)

    Pathiraja, S.; Anghileri, D.; Burlando, P.; Sharma, A.; Marshall, L.; Moradkhani, H.


    The global prevalence of rapid and extensive land use change necessitates hydrologic modelling methodologies capable of handling non-stationarity. This is particularly true in the context of Hydrologic Forecasting using Data Assimilation. Data Assimilation has been shown to dramatically improve forecast skill in hydrologic and meteorological applications, although such improvements are conditional on using bias-free observations and model simulations. A hydrologic model calibrated to a particular set of land cover conditions has the potential to produce biased simulations when the catchment is disturbed. This paper sheds new light on the impacts of bias or systematic errors in hydrologic data assimilation, in the context of forecasting in catchments with changing land surface conditions and a model calibrated to pre-change conditions. We posit that in such cases, the impact of systematic model errors on assimilation or forecast quality is dependent on the inherent prediction uncertainty that persists even in pre-change conditions. Through experiments on a range of catchments, we develop a conceptual relationship between total prediction uncertainty and the impacts of land cover changes on the hydrologic regime to demonstrate how forecast quality is affected when using state estimation Data Assimilation with no modifications to account for land cover changes. This work shows that systematic model errors as a result of changing or changed catchment conditions do not always necessitate adjustments to the modelling or assimilation methodology, for instance through re-calibration of the hydrologic model, time varying model parameters or revised offline/online bias estimation.

  2. The role of bedrock groundwater in rainfall-runoff response at hillslope and catchment scales (United States)

    Gabrielli, C. P.; McDonnell, J. J.; Jarvis, W. T.


    SummaryBedrock groundwater dynamics in headwater catchments are poorly understood and poorly characterized. Direct hydrometric measurements have been limited due to the logistical challenges associated with drilling through hard rock in steep, remote and often roadless terrain. We used a new portable bedrock drilling system to explore bedrock groundwater dynamics aimed at quantifying bedrock groundwater contributions to hillslope flow and catchment runoff. We present results from the Maimai M8 research catchment in New Zealand and Watershed 10 (WS10) at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon, USA. Analysis of bedrock groundwater at Maimai, through a range of flow conditions, revealed that the bedrock water table remained below the soil-bedrock interface, indicating that the bedrock aquifer has minimal direct contributions to event-based hillslope runoff. However, the bedrock water table did respond significantly to storm events indicating that there is a direct connection between hillslope processes and the underlying bedrock aquifer. WS10 groundwater dynamics were dominated by fracture flow. A highly fractured and transmissive zone within the upper one meter of bedrock conducted rapid lateral subsurface stormflow and lateral discharge. The interaction of subsurface stormflow with bedrock storage directly influenced the measured hillslope response, solute transport and computed mean residence time. This research reveals bedrock groundwater to be an extremely dynamic component of the hillslope hydrological system and our comparative analysis illustrates the potential range of hydrological and geological controls on runoff generation in headwater catchments.

  3. Assessing catchment connectivity using hysteretic loops (United States)

    Davis, Jason; Masselink, Rens; Goni, Mikel; Gimenez, Rafael; Casali, Javier; Seeger, Manuel; Keesstra, Saskia


    Storm events mobilize large proportions of sediments in catchment systems. Therefore understanding catchment sediment dynamics throughout the continuity of storms and how initial catchment states act as controls on the transport of sediment to catchment outlets is important for effective catchment management. Sediment connectivity is a concept which can explain the origin, pathways and sinks of sediments within catchments (Baartman et al., 2013; Parsons et al., 2015; Masselink et al., 2016a,b; Mekonnen et al., 2016). However, sediment connectivity alone does not provide a practicable mechanism by which the catchment's initial state - and thus the location of entrained sediment in the sediment transport cascade - can be characterized. Studying the dynamic relationship between water discharge (Q) and suspended sediment (SS) at the catchment outlet can provide a valuable research tool to infer the likely source areas and flow pathways contributing to sediment transport because the relationship can be characterized by predictable hysteresis patterns. Hysteresis is observed when the sediment concentration associated with a certain flow rate is different depending on the direction in which the analysis is performed - towards the increase or towards the diminution of the flow. However, the complexity of the phenomena and factors which determine the hysteresis make its interpretation ambiguous. Previous work has described various types of hysteretic loops as well as the cause for the shape of the loop, mainly pointing to the origin of the sediments. The data set for this study comes from four experimental watersheds in Navarre (Spain), owned and maintained by the Government of Navarre. These experimental watersheds have been monitored and studied since 1996 (La Tejería and Latxaga) and 2001 (Oskotz principal and Oskotz woodland). La Tejería and Latxaga watersheds are similar to each other regarding size (approximately 200 ha), geology (marls and sandstones), soils (fine

  4. Performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    The 2007 performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 8 January 2007 to 16 April 2007. Interconnection with the 5-yearly review, a number of modifications to the procedures relating to the performance appraisal and merit recognition are currently under study. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Procedures governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from January onwards. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  5. Religion, Psychology and Globalisation Process: Attitudinal Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Orok Duke


    Full Text Available A key consequence of globalisation is the integrative approach to reality whereby emphasis is placed on interdependence. Religion being an expression of human culture is equally affected by this cultural revolution. The main objective of this paper is to examine how religious affiliation, among Christians, influences attitudes towards the application of psychological sciences to the assuagement of human suffering. The sociological theory of structural functionalism was deployed to explain attitudinal appraisal. Ethnographic methodology, through quantitative analysis of administered questionnaire, was also used. The study reveals that religious tenets largely shape attitudinal appraisal and redefine the borders of globalisation’s metanarratives.

  6. Typecasting catchments: Classification, directionality, and the pursuit of universality (United States)

    Smith, Tyler; Marshall, Lucy; McGlynn, Brian


    Catchment classification poses a significant challenge to hydrology and hydrologic modeling, restricting widespread transfer of knowledge from well-studied sites. The identification of important physical, climatological, or hydrologic attributes (to varying degrees depending on application/data availability) has traditionally been the focus for catchment classification. Classification approaches are regularly assessed with regard to their ability to provide suitable hydrologic predictions - commonly by transferring fitted hydrologic parameters at a data-rich catchment to a data-poor catchment deemed similar by the classification. While such approaches to hydrology's grand challenges are intuitive, they often ignore the most uncertain aspect of the process - the model itself. We explore catchment classification and parameter transferability and the concept of universal donor/acceptor catchments. We identify the implications of the assumption that the transfer of parameters between "similar" catchments is reciprocal (i.e., non-directional). These concepts are considered through three case studies situated across multiple gradients that include model complexity, process description, and site characteristics. Case study results highlight that some catchments are more successfully used as donor catchments and others are better suited as acceptor catchments. These results were observed for both black-box and process consistent hydrologic models, as well as for differing levels of catchment similarity. Therefore, we suggest that similarity does not adequately satisfy the underlying assumptions being made in parameter regionalization approaches regardless of model appropriateness. Furthermore, we suggest that the directionality of parameter transfer is an important factor in determining the success of parameter regionalization approaches.

  7. Catchment scale water resource constraints on UK policies for low-carbon energy system transition (United States)

    Konadu, D. D.; Fenner, R. A.


    Long-term low-carbon energy transition policy of the UK presents national scale propositions of different low-carbon energy system options that lead to meeting GHG emissions reduction target of 80% on 1990 levels by 2050. Whilst national-scale assessments suggests that water availability may not be a significant constrain on future thermal power generation systems in this pursuit, these analysis fail to capture the appropriate spatial scale where water resource decisions are made, i.e. at the catchment scale. Water is a local resource, which also has significant spatio-temporal regional and national variability, thus any policy-relevant water-energy nexus analysis must be reflective of these characteristics. This presents a critical challenge for policy relevant water-energy nexus analysis. This study seeks to overcome the above challenge by using a linear spatial-downscaling model to allocate nationally projected water-intensive energy system infrastructure/technologies to the catchment level, and estimating the water requirements for the deployment of these technologies. The model is applied to the UK Committee on Climate Change Carbon Budgets to 2030 as a case study. The paper concludes that whilst national-scale analyses show minimal long-term water related impacts, catchment level appraisal of water resource requirements reveal significant constraints in some locations. The approach and results presented in this study thus, highlights the importance of bringing together scientific understanding, data and analysis tools to provide better insights for water-energy nexus decisions at the appropriate spatial scale. This is particularly important for water stressed regions where the water-energy nexus must be analysed at appropriate spatial resolution to capture the full water resource impact of national energy policy.

  8. ORIGINAL Is the Role of Teacher Performance Appraisal in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aware of the purposes of the current teacher performance appraisal. However, the ... building, and expensive equipment (Daniel,. 2009). ... development of teachers, teachers' job ...... Appraisers' tend to rate high a person who is similar.

  9. The impact of the growth of new plantation forestry on evaporation and streamflow in the Llanbrynmair catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Hudson


    Full Text Available Annual water balances (1983-1995 for the Cwm and Delyn catchments at Llanbrynmair Moor in mid-Wales have been used to quantify the hydrological effects of the land use change in the Cwm from moorland to forestry. Initially, the actual evaporation (precipitation minus streamflow of the Cwm catchment declined rapidly relative to the Delyn, due to the disruption of the vegetation by ploughing the ground in preparation for planting the trees. It then increased, more quickly than expected, to greater levels than for the original moorland since in the early stages of forest growth a dense understorey of dwarf shrubs contributed to both interception and transpiration.

  10. The System of Employee Appraisal in a Company


    Vaverová, Lucie


    This bachelor study called "The System of Employee Appraisal in a Company" deals with a general subscription of a personal process "Employee appraisal". It describes the principles of the system of employee appraisal and also covers the conditions necessary for its efficiency and operation. The bachelor study is focused on the system of employee appraisal centrally implemented in company ČEZ, a. s. This system is analyzed and compared with generally stated theoretical principles. The study in...

  11. Can spatial statistical river temperature models be transferred between catchments? (United States)

    Jackson, Faye L.; Fryer, Robert J.; Hannah, David M.; Malcolm, Iain A.


    There has been increasing use of spatial statistical models to understand and predict river temperature (Tw) from landscape covariates. However, it is not financially or logistically feasible to monitor all rivers and the transferability of such models has not been explored. This paper uses Tw data from four river catchments collected in August 2015 to assess how well spatial regression models predict the maximum 7-day rolling mean of daily maximum Tw (Twmax) within and between catchments. Models were fitted for each catchment separately using (1) landscape covariates only (LS models) and (2) landscape covariates and an air temperature (Ta) metric (LS_Ta models). All the LS models included upstream catchment area and three included a river network smoother (RNS) that accounted for unexplained spatial structure. The LS models transferred reasonably to other catchments, at least when predicting relative levels of Twmax. However, the predictions were biased when mean Twmax differed between catchments. The RNS was needed to characterise and predict finer-scale spatially correlated variation. Because the RNS was unique to each catchment and thus non-transferable, predictions were better within catchments than between catchments. A single model fitted to all catchments found no interactions between the landscape covariates and catchment, suggesting that the landscape relationships were transferable. The LS_Ta models transferred less well, with particularly poor performance when the relationship with the Ta metric was physically implausible or required extrapolation outside the range of the data. A single model fitted to all catchments found catchment-specific relationships between Twmax and the Ta metric, indicating that the Ta metric was not transferable. These findings improve our understanding of the transferability of spatial statistical river temperature models and provide a foundation for developing new approaches for predicting Tw at unmonitored locations across

  12. 12 CFR 528.2a - Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting. 528.2a Section 528.2a Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NONDISCRIMINATION REQUIREMENTS § 528.2a Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting. (a) Appraisal. No savings...

  13. Problems of Clinical Nurse Performance Appraisal System: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Nikpeyma


    Conclusion: The findings of this study reveal that the nurse performance appraisal system confronts with various problems. Some of these problems are related to organizational context while the others concerned structure, process and results of the performance appraisal system. In order to achieve high quality of patient care as the final goal of performance appraisal, changing and revision of this system is necessary.

  14. Characteristics of Appraisal Systems That Promote Job Satisfaction of Teachers (United States)

    Deneire, Alexia; Vanhoof, Jan; Faddar, Jerich; Gijbels, David; Van Petegem, Peter


    This article examines if and how characteristics of appraisal systems used for secondary school teachers affect job satisfaction. Using multilevel analyses on data of 3 473 teachers in Flanders (Belgium), we found that appraisals with a developmental purpose and appraisals perceived as being a fair judgement, both have a positive impact on job…

  15. Handbook for Conducting Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) B and C Appraisals, Version 1.1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayes, Will; Miluk, Gene; Ming, Lisa; Glover, Margaret; Bisgrove, Jane; Cort, Corrine; Penn, Lynn; Jacobson, Nils; Beynon, Don; Allgood, Bruce


    The Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) provides a well-defined, publicly available set of methodologies for providing appraisals relative to Capability Maturity Model (trademark) Integration (CMMI) models...

  16. Development of catchment research, with particular attention to Plynlimon and its forerunner, the East African catchments (United States)

    Blackie, J. R.; Robinson, M.


    Dr J.S.G. McCulloch was deeply involved in the establishment of research catchments in East Africa and subsequently in the UK to investigate the hydrological consequences of changes in land use. Comparison of these studies provides an insight into how influential his inputs and direction have been in the progressive development of the philosophy, the instrumentation and the analytical techniques now employed in catchment research. There were great contrasts in the environments: tropical highland (high radiation, intense rainfall) vs. temperate maritime (low radiation and frontal storms), contrasting soils and vegetation types, as well as the differing social and economic pressures in developing and developed nations. Nevertheless, the underlying scientific philosophy was common to both, although techniques had to be modified according to local conditions. As specialised instrumentation and analytical techniques were developed for the UK catchments many were also integrated into the East African studies. Many lessons were learned in the course of these studies and from the experiences of other studies around the world. Overall, a rigorous scientific approach was developed with widespread applicability. Beyond the basics of catchment selection and the quantification of the main components of the catchment water balance, this involved initiating parallel process studies to provide information on specific aspects of catchment behaviour. This information could then form the basis for models capable of extrapolation from the observed time series to other periods/hydrological events and, ultimately, the capability of predicting the consequences of changes in catchment land management to other areas in a range of climates.

  17. Spatiotemporal dynamics of suspended sediment within an actively urbanizing peri-urban catchment in Portugal (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Ferreira, Carla; Ferreira, Antonio


    Suspended sediment levels tend to be enhanced in urban catchments, but vary considerably with (amongst many other factors) the degree of active urban development or redevelopment within the catchment and 'urbanization style'. Relatively little, however, is known about the relationship between suspended solids and urbanization style in peri-urban Mediterranean environments. This paper focuses on spatiotemporal suspended sediment dynamics within a typical Portuguese peri-urban catchment, Ribeira dos Covoes, that is undergoing rapid urbanization. The catchment currently has a 40% urban cover, with 17% impervious surfaces, dispersed between woodland (56%) and agricultural areas (4%). The study uses suspended sediment concentration measurements made at the catchment outlet (ESAC) and in three upstream tributaries: (i) Espírito Santo, with a largest urban area (49%); (ii) Porto Bordalo, 39% urbanized; and (iii) Quinta, 22% urbanized, most of which (18%) being an enterprise park under construction. Water sampling was carried out manually during 10 storm hydrographs between October 2011 and March 2013. Suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) were derived by laboratory analysis of the filtered samples using the gravimetric method. In addition total dissolved solids concentrations (TDS) were estimated using conductivity readings. Greatest SSCs were recorded in the Quinta sub-catchment and at the catchment outlet at ESAC (113-4320 mg L-1 and 200-1656 mg L-1, respectively) than in the Espírito Santo and Porto Bordalo sub-catchments (183-852 mg L-1 and 47-598 mg L-1 respectively, despite their greater impervious cover. The greatest SSCs for Quinta result from it containing the construction site, but it showed lower TDS (56-4010 mg L-1), perhaps due to the coarse sandy nature of the construction site. Higher TDS concentrations, however, were displayed in Porto Bordalo (27-5400 mg L-1), possibly due to the loamy soil. Espírito Santo, comprising sandy-loam soils, displayed 27

  18. Evaluating Housing Problems through Participatory Rural Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lokoja, a medium sized community in the Middle Belt of Nigeria experienced a massive influx of population in the last twelve years. This study examined housing problems that resulted thereafter. Through a participatory appraisal using group discussion and brainstorming, transect walk and matrix ranking, a sampled ...

  19. Evaluating Housing Problems through Participatory Rural Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Whether in research, development or policy analysis, in social, forestry, irrigation ... Action, Participatory Rural Appraisal involves interaction between the planners and the ..... Park, Obasanjo Layout, the Kogi People Consumer Shops as well as the confluence .... The institutional arrangements under which a person gains ...

  20. Energy considerations in real estate appraising

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Purposes of the seminar on the subject, the basis of this report, include the following: (1) to provide the appraiser an opportunity to learn how to identify and analyze the actual physical consumption of energy as well as the energy-saving improvements in properties under appraisal and in comparable sale and lease properties; (2) to help the appraiser in developing methods to keep meaningful records on the energy consumption of subject and comparable properties so as to observe in an orderly way the behavior of buyers, sellers, tenants, landlords, borrowers, and lenders with respect to energy efficiency; and (3) to assist the appraiser in learning to measure the relative sensitivities of the various segments of the market to energy considerations as indicated by differences in sale prices and rentals. To achieve these goals, the seminar employed two case studies, one for a angle-family residence and one for a multi-family building, both in Topeka, Kansas. The case studies are for illustrative purposes only; in applying the lessons of the seminar to their own daily work, students should be careful to develop information that is pertinent to their subject properties and subject areas and not rely on any of the particulars laid out in the cases.

  1. Implementing performance appraisal : Exploring the employee experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farndale, E.; Kelliher, C.


    Line managers play an important role as implementers of performance appraisal, enacting procedures designed by the HR function. However, the actual employee experience of these procedures (which may differ from how they were intended or enacted) in terms of perceptions of justice in the process is

  2. Embodied Appraisals and Non-emotional States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hvorecký, Juraj


    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2010), s. 215-223 ISSN 1210-3055 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB900090802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : embodied appraisal * non-emotional mental states * valence * emotion Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  3. Appraisal and financing of electric power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, R.H.


    This paper starts with the origin, nature and functions of the World Bank Group, reviews the past lending, describes the criteria used by the Bank in its power project appraisals, discusses the Bank's views on nuclear power, and concludes with a look at the probable future sources of financing of electrical expansion in the less developed countries. (orig./UA) [de

  4. 7 CFR 1955.128 - Appraisers. (United States)


    ... type of properties (such as large farms and business property) requiring valuation. For Farmer Programs... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property Use of Contractors to Dispose of Inventory Property § 1955.128 Appraisers. (a) Real property. The State Director may authorize the County...

  5. Intelligence Defined and Undefined: A Relativistic Appraisal (United States)

    Wechsler, David


    Major reasons for the continuing divergency of opinion as regards the nature and meaning of intelligence are examined. An appraisal of intelligence as a relative concept is proposed which advocates the necessity of specifying the reference systems to which a statement about intelligence refers. (EH)

  6. Evaluating Library Staff: A Performance Appraisal System. (United States)

    Belcastro, Patricia

    This manual provides librarians and library managers with a performance appraisal system that measures staff fairly and objectively and links performance to the goals of the library. The following topics are addressed: (1) identifying expectations for quality service or standards of performance; (2) the importance of a library's code of service,…

  7. Elective abdominal hysterectomy: Appraisal of indications and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of hysterectomy did not occur until the 19th century, earlier attempts are known. Some references to hysterectomy date back to 5th century BC, in the time of Hippocrates. In. 1600, Schenck of Grabenberg cataloged 26 cases of vaginal hysterectomy in Europe.[2]. Elective abdominal hysterectomy: Appraisal of indications and.

  8. Persistent Ratee Contaminants in Performance Appraisal. (United States)

    Van Fleet, David D.; Chamberlain, Howard

    The hypothesis that conventional approaches to evaluating contaminants in performance appraisal overlook important individual ratee effects was examined. A rating form was developed that consisted of the following dimensions and behaviors: warmth; guided discourse or indirect teaching methods; control of subject matter; enthusiasm and reinforcing;…

  9. Understanding cohort differences in appraisals of reconstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding cohort differences in appraisals of reconstruction priorities of mental health systems in postconflict Liberia. ... Conclusion: This study provides additional support for the premise that the utilization of ... of Liberians and that there are differences in preferences across groups. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. 78 FR 31924 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Policy Statements (United States)


    ... financial institutions regulatory agency engages in, contracts for, or regulates; and b) requires the... officer, director, employee or agent of a federally regulated financial institution would not be permitted... FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL [Docket No. AS13-13] Appraisal Subcommittee...

  11. United Nations and multilateralism: appraising USA's unilateralism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multilateralism as symbolized by the United Nations Organization, seems to have come under threat today, and nowhere is this more evident than in the United States-United Nations relations particularly in the area of military interventions around the world. The aim of this paper is to appraise the practice of the principle of ...

  12. 36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals. (United States)


    ....9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP... contributory value of any interest in land such as water rights, minerals, or timber, to the extent they are... the physical characteristics of the land being appraised; a statement of all encumbrances; title...

  13. Nested Tracer Studies In Catchment Hydrology: Towards A Multiscale Understanding of Runoff Generation and Catchment Funtioning (United States)

    Soulsby, C.; Rodgers, P.; Malcolm, I. A.; Dunn, S.

    Geochemical and isotopic tracers have been shown to have widespread utility in catch- ment hydrology in terms of identifying hydrological source areas and characterising residence time distributions. In many cases application of tracer techniques has pro- vided insights into catchment functioning that could not be obtained from hydromet- ric and/or modelling studies alone. This paper will show how the use of tracers has contributed to an evolving perceptual model of hydrological pathways and runoff gen- eration processes in catchments in the Scottish highlands. In particular the paper will focus on the different insights that are gained at three different scales of analysis; (a) nested sub-catchments within a mesoscale (ca. 200 square kilometers) experimen- tal catchment; (b) hillslope-riparian interactions and (c) stream bed fluxes. Nested hydrometric and hydrochemical monitoring within the mesoscale Feugh catchment identified three main hydrological response units: (i) plateau peatlands which gener- ated saturation overland flow in the catchment headwaters, (ii) steep valley hillslopes which drain from the plateaux into (iii) alluvial and drift aquifers in the valley bottoms. End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA) in 8 nested sub-catchments indicated that that stream water tracer concentrations can be modelled in terms of 2 dominant runoff pro- cesses; overland flow from the peat and groundwater from the drift aquifers. Ground- water contributions generally increased with catchment size, though this was moder- ated by the characteristics of individual sub-basins, with drift cover being particularly important. Hillslope riparian interactions were also examined using tracers, hydromet- ric data and a semi-distributed hydrological model. This revealed that in the glaciated, drift covered terrain of the Scottish highlands, extensive valley bottom aquifers effec- tively de-couple hillslope waters from the river channel. Thus, riparian groundwater appears to significantly

  14. Effects of runoff sensitivity and catchment characteristics on regional actual evapotranspiration trends in the conterminous US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Il Won; Chang, Heejun; Risley, John


    An understanding of the role of hydro-climatic and geographic regimes on regional actual evapotranspiration (AET) change is essential to improving our knowledge on predicting water availability in a changing climate. This study investigates the relationship between AET change for a 60 year period (1951–2010) and the runoff sensitivity in 255 undisturbed catchments over the US. The runoff sensitivity to climate change is simply defined as the relative magnitude between runoff and precipitation changes with time. Runoff sensitivity can readily explain the conflicting directions of AET changes under similar precipitation change. Under increasing precipitation, AET decreases when runoff is increasing more rapidly than precipitation based on the water balance. Conversely, AET increases when runoff is decreasing more rapidly than precipitation. This result indicates that runoff sensitivity to climate change is a key factor for understanding regional water availability change at the catchment scale. In addition, a stepwise multiple regression analysis and a geographically weighted regression analysis show that the portion of evergreen forest and the mean elevation of a catchment may play a secondary role in the spatial pattern of the AET change, and the relative importance of such explanatory variables may change over space. (letter)

  15. Water Travel Time Distributions in Permafrost-affected Catchments: Challenges, Progress and Implications (United States)

    Smith, A. A.; Piovano, T. I.; Tetzlaff, D.; Ala-aho, P. O. A.; Wookey, P. A.; Soulsby, C.


    Characterising the travel times of water has been a major research focus in catchment science over the past decade. Use of isotopes to quantify the temporal dynamics of the transformation of precipitation into runoff has revealed fundamental new insights into catchment flow paths and mixing processes that influence biogeochemical transport. However, permafrost-affected catchments have received little attention, despite their global importance in terms of rapid environmental change. Such places have limited access for data collection during critical periods (e.g. early phases of snowmelt), temporal and spatially variable freeze-thaw cycles, and the development of the active layer has a time variant influence on catchment hydrology. All of these characteristics make the application of traditional transit time estimation approaches challenging. This contribution describes an isotope-based study undertaken to provide a preliminary assessment of travel times at SikSik Creek in the Canadian Arctic. We adopted a model-data fusion approach to estimate the volumes and isotopic characteristics of snowpack and meltwater. Using sampling in the spring/summer we characterise the isotopic composition of summer rainfall, melt from residual snow, soil water and stream water. In addition, soil moisture dynamics and the temporal evolution of the active layer profile were also monitored. Transit times were estimated for soil and stream water compositions using lumped convolution integral models and temporally variable inputs including snowmelt, ice thaw, and summer rainfall. Comparing transit time estimates using a variety of inputs reveals transit time is best estimated using all available inflows (i.e. snowmelt, ice thaw, and rainfall). Early spring transit times are short, dominated by snowmelt and ice thaw and limited catchment storage when soils are predominantly frozen. However, significant and increasing mixing with water in the active layer during the summer results in more

  16. Transport of cyazofamid and kresoxim methyl in runoff at the plot and catchment scales (United States)

    Lefrancq, Marie; Joaquín García Verdú, Antonio; Maillard, Elodie; Imfeld, Gwenaël; Payraudeau, Sylvain


    Surface runoff and erosion during the course of rainfall events represent major processes of pesticides transport from agricultural land to aquatic ecosystem. In general, field and catchment studies on pesticide transfer are carried out separately. A study at both scales may enable to improve the understanding of scale effects on processes involved in pesticides transport and to give clues on the source areas within an agricultural catchment. In this study, the transport in runoff of two widely used fungicides, i.e. kresoxim methyl (KM) and cyazofamid (CY) was assessed in a 43 ha vineyard catchment and the relative contribution of the total fungicides export from one representative plot was evaluated. During an entire period of fungicide application, from May to August 2011, the discharge and loads of dissolved and particle-laden KM and CY were monitored at the plot and catchment scales. The results showed larger export coefficient of KM and CY from catchment (0.064 and 0.041‰ for KM and CY respectively) than from the studied plot (0.009 and 0.023 ‰ for KM and CY respectively). It suggests that the plot margins especially the road network contributed as well to the fungicide loads. This result underlines the impact of fungicide drift on non-target areas. Furthermore, a larger rainfall threshold is necessary at the plot scale to trigger runoff and mobilise pesticides than on the road network. At the plot scale, a rapid dissipation of the both fungicides in the top soil was observed. It highlights that the risky period encompasses the first rainfall events triggering runoff after the applications. At both scales, KM and CY were not detected in suspended solids (i.e. > 0.7 µm). However their partitioning in runoff water differed. 64.1 and 91.8% of the KM load was detected in the dissolved phase (i.e. particulate phase (i.e. between 0.22 and 0.7 µm) at the plot and catchment scales respectively. Although KM and CY have similar lab-defined properties, our results

  17. Modeling of facade leaching in urban catchments (United States)

    Coutu, S.; Del Giudice, D.; Rossi, L.; Barry, D. A.


    Building facades are protected from microbial attack by incorporation of biocides within them. Flow over facades leaches these biocides and transports them to the urban environment. A parsimonious water quantity/quality model applicable for engineered urban watersheds was developed to compute biocide release from facades and their transport at the urban basin scale. The model couples two lumped submodels applicable at the basin scale, and a local model of biocide leaching at the facade scale. For the facade leaching, an existing model applicable at the individual wall scale was utilized. The two lumped models describe urban hydrodynamics and leachate transport. The integrated model allows prediction of biocide concentrations in urban rivers. It was applied to a 15 km2urban hydrosystem in western Switzerland, the Vuachère river basin, to study three facade biocides (terbutryn, carbendazim, diuron). The water quality simulated by the model matched well most of the pollutographs at the outlet of the Vuachère watershed. The model was then used to estimate possible ecotoxicological impacts of facade leachates. To this end, exceedance probabilities and cumulative pollutant loads from the catchment were estimated. Results showed that the considered biocides rarely exceeded the relevant predicted no-effect concentrations for the riverine system. Despite the heterogeneities and complexity of (engineered) urban catchments, the model application demonstrated that a computationally "light" model can be employed to simulate the hydrograph and pollutograph response within them. It thus allows catchment-scale assessment of the potential ecotoxicological impact of biocides on receiving waters.

  18. How Should an Effective Performance Appraisal Be: EFL Teachers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holi Ibrahim Holi Ali


    Full Text Available This study is set to examine EFL teachers’ perceptions, views about what makes an effective performance appraisal system by adopting a quantitative survey design for data collection. A total number of 45 college instructors in the Sultanate of Oman responded to survey on: how is an effective performance appraisal perceived by EFL teachers? How do teachers perceive their participation in developing the appraisal system? And how might the present performance appraisal practices be improved? The result reveals that staff participation in developing performance appraisal system and goals, feedback confidentiality, quality appraiser, quality of place and time of appraisal, appraiser-appraisee relationships, and developmental nature of performance appraisal would help in making effective appraisal and the overall PA effectiveness depends mostly on these factors. The result has a significant implication for improving the process of teacher performance appraisal in Oman and enriches the body knowledge of PA in general. The study puts forwards suggestions and recommendations for improving PA practices and exercises in EFL contexts.

  19. Large Lakes Dominate CO2 Evasion From Lakes in an Arctic Catchment (United States)

    Rocher-Ros, Gerard; Giesler, Reiner; Lundin, Erik; Salimi, Shokoufeh; Jonsson, Anders; Karlsson, Jan


    CO2 evasion from freshwater lakes is an important component of the carbon cycle. However, the relative contribution from different lake sizes may vary, since several parameters underlying CO2 flux are size dependent. Here we estimated the annual lake CO2 evasion from a catchment in northern Sweden encompassing about 30,000 differently sized lakes. We show that areal CO2 fluxes decreased rapidly with lake size, but this was counteracted by the greater overall coverage of larger lakes. As a result, total efflux increased with lake size and the single largest lake in the catchment dominated the CO2 evasion (53% of all CO2 evaded). By contrast, the contribution from the smallest ponds (about 27,000) was minor (evasion at the landscape scale.

  20. Hydro-economic modelling in mining catchments (United States)

    Ossa Moreno, J. S.; McIntyre, N.; Rivera, D.; Smart, J. C. R.


    Hydro-economic models are gaining momentum because of their capacity to model both the physical processes related to water supply, and socio-economic factors determining water demand. This is particularly valuable in the midst of the large uncertainty upon future climate conditions and social trends. Agriculture, urban uses and environmental flows have received a lot of attention from researchers, as these tend to be the main consumers of water in most catchments. Mine water demand, although very important in several small and medium-sized catchments worldwide, has received less attention and only few models have attempted to reproduce its dynamics with other users. This paper describes an on-going project that addresses this gap, by developing a hydro-economic model in the upper Aconcagua River in Chile. This is a mountain catchment with large scale mining and hydro-power users at high altitudes, and irrigation areas in a downstream valley. Relevant obstacles to the model included the lack of input climate data, which is a common feature in several mining areas, the complex hydrological processes in the area and the difficulty of quantifying the value of water used by mines. A semi-distributed model developed within the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP), was calibrated to reproduce water supply, and this was complemented with an analysis of the value of water for mining based on two methods; water markets and an analysis of its production processes. Agriculture and other users were included through methods commonly used in similar models. The outputs help understanding the value of water in the catchment, and its sensitivity to changes in climate variables, market prices, environmental regulations and changes in the production of minerals, crops and energy. The results of the project highlight the importance of merging hydrology and socio-economic calculations in mining regions, in order to better understand trade-offs and cost of opportunity of using

  1. Hydrological effects of fire in South-African mountain catchments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, DF


    Full Text Available is entirely suppressed and a deep litter mat develops giving a continuous cover with good soil protection characteristics. The timber plantations are at risk of burning as they are surrounded by fire-maintained vegetation... in vegetation type and fire characteristics. Description of the research catchments and treatments The catchments studied are all small, mountainous and with a high rainfall, each forming part of long-term experimental catchment...

  2. Predicting Surface Runoff from Catchment to Large Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Li


    Full Text Available Predicting surface runoff from catchment to large region is a fundamental and challenging task in hydrology. This paper presents a comprehensive review for various studies conducted for improving runoff predictions from catchment to large region in the last several decades. This review summarizes the well-established methods and discusses some promising approaches from the following four research fields: (1 modeling catchment, regional and global runoff using lumped conceptual rainfall-runoff models, distributed hydrological models, and land surface models, (2 parameterizing hydrological models in ungauged catchments, (3 improving hydrological model structure, and (4 using new remote sensing precipitation data.

  3. Conditional flood frequency and catchment state: a simulation approach (United States)

    Brettschneider, Marco; Bourgin, François; Merz, Bruno; Andreassian, Vazken; Blaquiere, Simon


    Catchments have memory and the conditional flood frequency distribution for a time period ahead can be seen as non-stationary: it varies with the catchment state and climatic factors. From a risk management perspective, understanding the link of conditional flood frequency to catchment state is a key to anticipate potential periods of higher flood risk. Here, we adopt a simulation approach to explore the link between flood frequency obtained by continuous rainfall-runoff simulation and the initial state of the catchment. The simulation chain is based on i) a three state rainfall generator applied at the catchment scale, whose parameters are estimated for each month, and ii) the GR4J lumped rainfall-runoff model, whose parameters are calibrated with all available data. For each month, a large number of stochastic realizations of the continuous rainfall generator for the next 12 months are used as inputs for the GR4J model in order to obtain a large number of stochastic realizations for the next 12 months. This process is then repeated for 50 different initial states of the soil moisture reservoir of the GR4J model and for all the catchments. Thus, 50 different conditional flood frequency curves are obtained for the 50 different initial catchment states. We will present an analysis of the link between the catchment states, the period of the year and the strength of the conditioning of the flood frequency compared to the unconditional flood frequency. A large sample of diverse catchments in France will be used.

  4. Catchment-scale evaluation of pollution potential of urban snow at two residential catchments in southern Finland. (United States)

    Sillanpää, Nora; Koivusalo, Harri


    Despite the crucial role of snow in the hydrological cycle in cold climate conditions, monitoring studies of urban snow quality often lack discussions about the relevance of snow in the catchment-scale runoff management. In this study, measurements of snow quality were conducted at two residential catchments in Espoo, Finland, simultaneously with continuous runoff measurements. The results of the snow quality were used to produce catchment-scale estimates of areal snow mass loads (SML). Based on the results, urbanization reduced areal snow water equivalent but increased pollutant accumulation in snow: SMLs in a medium-density residential catchment were two- to four-fold higher in comparison with a low-density residential catchment. The main sources of pollutants were related to vehicular traffic and road maintenance, but also pet excrement increased concentrations to a high level. Ploughed snow can contain 50% of the areal pollutant mass stored in snow despite its small surface area within a catchment.

  5. Performance appraisal and advancement exercise 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department


    The 2006 performance appraisal and advancement exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 1 December 2005 to 31 March 2006. In this connection, a number of improvements to the procedures relating to the interviews and performance appraisal are currently under study. Administrative Circular No 26 (Procedures governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from December onwards. In the meantime supervisors can start the interview procedure. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. The 2005 MAPS report can be retrieved for consultation at any time via EDH. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  6. Performance appraisal and advancement exercise 2006 (Rev)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department


    The 2006 performance appraisal and advancement exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 1 December 2005 to 15 March 2006*. In this connection, a number of improvements to the procedures relating to the interviews and performance appraisals are currently under study. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Procedures Governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from December onwards. In the meantime supervisors can start the interview procedure. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. The 2005 MAPS report can be retrieved for consultation at any time via EDH. * Instead of 31 March, as indicated in the electronic Bulletin No. 47 of 21 November 2005 Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  7. Naturalizing language: human appraisal and (quasi) technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen


    Using contemporary science, the paper builds on Wittgenstein’s views of human language. Rather than ascribing reality to inscription-like entities, it links embodiment with distributed cognition. The verbal or (quasi) technological aspect of language is traced to not action, but human specific...... interactivity. This species-specific form of sense-making sustains, among other things, using texts, making/construing phonetic gestures and thinking. Human action is thus grounded in appraisals or sense-saturated coordination. To illustrate interactivity at work, the paper focuses on a case study. Over 11 s......, a crime scene investigator infers that she is probably dealing with an inside job: she uses not words, but intelligent gaze. This connects professional expertise to circumstances and the feeling of thinking. It is suggested that, as for other species, human appraisal is based in synergies. However, since...

  8. Not so critical appraisal of dapagliflozin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doggrell SA


    Full Text Available Sheila A Doggrell School of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, AustraliaA recent review by Salvo et al published in Patient Preference and Adherence concerned dapagliflozin, and was titled “Patient considerations in the management of type 2 diabetes – critical appraisal of dapagliflozin”.1 Having read the article, I do not consider it to be a critical appraisal of dapagliflozin. Thus, after comparing dapagliflozin with other oral antidiabetic medications, the authors concluded that “Dapagliflozin’s noted blood pressure reduction, weight loss, and low potential to cause hypoglycemia are advantageous, when compared with currently available oral medications”.1 This statement is not supported by the content of the review and/or the literature. Read the original article 

  9. Appraising and comparing pressure ulcer guidelines. (United States)

    Wimpenny, Peter; van Zelm, Ruben


    Whilst considerable activity has been related to guideline development for nurses regarding pressure ulcer prevention and management, no attempt has been made to comparatively evaluate these guidelines against some form of quality indicators. To compare and contrast four national pressure ulcer guidelines, and identify similarities and differences in their quality and content. An international comparative appraisal method, using the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation) instrument, was undertaken to appraise four published pressure ulcer guidelines. Two further domains were added to the AGREE instrument to assess comparability of the guidelines and their perceived contribution to practice. An international group undertook the comparative appraisal. The domain scores for each guideline show some but not total agreement among reviewers. One particular set of guidelines was identified as scoring highest in a majority of AGREE domains. Overall, evidence of variability exists between pressure ulcer guidelines and common areas of development to consider for all guidelines. The results raise many questions concerning the "best" pressure ulcer guideline to use, particularly related to the AGREE scoring. Some notable shortcomings exist in all the pressure ulcer guidelines reviewed and these shortcomings need to be addressed from a quality perspective. However, other issues such as style of reporting and potential contribution to practice might more fully affect choice by practitioners as opposed to guideline developers. Notable differences exist among the four guidelines that are possibly explained by different approaches to development and also because of different cultural factors and intentions for use. Whilst the AGREE tool identifies the quality of the guideline development process it still requires local engagement with practitioners to determine which guideline should be implemented.

  10. Appraisal of emotions in media use


    Bartsch, Anne; Vorderer, Peter; Mangold, Roland; Reinhold, Viehoff


    Over the past 20 years, research on meta-emotion and related concepts such as meta-mood and need for affect has become fruitful and prominent across a variety of disciplines, including media psychology. This paper reviews the literature on meta-emotion and considers problems regarding the definition and operationalization of this construct. We propose a process model of meta-emotion and emotion regulation to integrate and extend existing work. Drawing on appraisal theories of emotion, we unde...

  11. The problem of appraising qualitative research


    Dixon-Woods, M; Shaw, R; Agarwal, S; Smith, J



 Qualitative research can make a valuable contribution to the study of quality and safety in health care. Sound ways of appraising qualitative research are needed, but currently there are many different proposals with few signs of an emerging consensus. One problem has been the tendency to treat qualitative research as a unified field. We distinguish universal features of quality from those specific to methodology and offer a set of minimally prescriptive prompts to assist with the assessme...

  12. Bristol cylinder. Vol. 3A - technical appraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A consultants' report is presented on a UK funded wave energy device known as the Bristol Cylinder. A detailed engineering appraisal is given for each component and aspects of the device including installation, power generation and maintenance. Finally the discounted cost of energy from the device is assessed. For all topics the views of the consultants are compared with those of the team developing the Bristol Cylinder and where discrepancies occur, these are explained and discussed.

  13. Sustainability appraisal and flood risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Jeremy G.; White, Iain; Richards, Juliet


    This research establishes that sustainability appraisal (SA) has a role to play in strengthening spatial plans in the context of flooding issues. Indeed, evidence has been gathered to indicate that tentative steps are being taken in this direction during the SA of English regional spatial plans, which are used as an illustrative case study. In England as in many other countries, appraisal procedures including SA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are enshrined in planning law. An opportunity therefore exists to utilise existing and familiar planning tools to embed flooding considerations within spatial plans at an early stage in the planning process. SA (and similar appraisal tools such as SEA) can therefore usefully aid in the implementation of decision making principles and government policy relating to flooding. Moreover, with the threats associated with climate change becoming increasingly apparent, of which increased flood risk is a particular concern in many countries, there is a need develop appropriate adaptation responses. This article emphasizes the role that SA can play in managing future flood risk in this context

  14. Lithogenic and cosmogenic tracers in catchment hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimz, G.J.


    A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water, which is one of the primary concerns in hydrology. Many groundwater solutes are derived as a result of interaction between the water and the rock and/or soil within the system. These are termed open-quotes lithogenicclose quotes solutes. The isotopic compositions of these solutes provide information regarding rock-water interactions. Many other solutes have their isotopic compositions determined both internally and externally to the catchment system. Important members of this group include solutes that have isotopic compositions produced by atomic particle interactions with other nuclides. The source of the atomic particles can be cosmic radiation (producing open-quotes cosmogenicclose quotes nuclides in the atmosphere and land surface), anthropogenic nuclear reactions (producing open-quotes thermonuclearclose quotes nuclides), or radioactive and fission decay of naturally-occurring elements, such as U and Th (producing open-quotes in-situclose quotes lithogenic nuclides in the deep subsurface). Current language usage often combines all of the atomic particle-produced nuclides under the heading open-quotes cosmogenic nuclidesclose quotes, and for simplicity we will often follow that usage, although always clearly indicating which variety is being discussed. This paper addresses the processes that affect the lithogenic and cosmogenic solute compositions in groundwater, and how these compositions can therefore be used in integrative ways to understand the physical history of groundwater within a catchment system

  15. Lithogenic and cosmogenic tracers in catchment hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimz, G.J.


    A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water, which is one of the primary concerns in hydrology. Many groundwater solutes are derived as a result of interaction between the water and the rock and/or soil within the system. These are termed {open_quotes}lithogenic{close_quotes} solutes. The isotopic compositions of these solutes provide information regarding rock-water interactions. Many other solutes have their isotopic compositions determined both internally and externally to the catchment system. Important members of this group include solutes that have isotopic compositions produced by atomic particle interactions with other nuclides. The source of the atomic particles can be cosmic radiation (producing {open_quotes}cosmogenic{close_quotes} nuclides in the atmosphere and land surface), anthropogenic nuclear reactions (producing {open_quotes}thermonuclear{close_quotes} nuclides), or radioactive and fission decay of naturally-occurring elements, such as U and Th (producing {open_quotes}in-situ{close_quotes} lithogenic nuclides in the deep subsurface). Current language usage often combines all of the atomic particle-produced nuclides under the heading {open_quotes}cosmogenic nuclides{close_quotes}, and for simplicity we will often follow that usage, although always clearly indicating which variety is being discussed. This paper addresses the processes that affect the lithogenic and cosmogenic solute compositions in groundwater, and how these compositions can therefore be used in integrative ways to understand the physical history of groundwater within a catchment system.

  16. Runoff formation in a small mountainous catchment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Miroslav; Šír, Miloslav; Lichner, Ľ.


    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2003), s. 265-270 ISSN 1335-6291 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3060001; GA AV ČR IBS2060104; GA MŽP SE/610/3/00 Grant - others:Slovak Scientific Grant Agency(SK) 2/7065/20; 5th EC Framework Programme(XE) IST-2000-28084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : hydrology * rainfall-runoff relationship * small mountainous catchment Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Raising of problem. The government at the legislative level fixed the definition of market value for tax purposes as mandatory in the implementation of real estate transactions. In order to meet the requirements of objectivity, uniformity and consistency of the results obtained during the evaluation procedures, as well as minimize the influence of subjective factors, there is a need to develop a methodology for evaluating an automated procedure for determining the estimated value of the property based on its market value. To solve this problem, we use special techniques and methods of mass appraisal that incorporates computer-supported statistical analyses, such as multiple regression analysis and adaptive estimation procedure for use in the field of property valuation and property rights. Purpose. Realization of this goal involves the development of the concept of a computer-assisted mass appraisal. The basis of this concept is an adaptive hybrid models of market pricing in different market segments that incorporates software adaptive algorithms for determining the market value by the three evaluation approaches using the results of a multi-level real estate market analysis. It was proposed the utility automated valuation models which is intended for the implementation of a computerized real estate valuation based on the developed software adaptive algorithms. Con-clusion. To achieve this goal have been developed and used concepts underlying of computerized mass appraisal. The basis of this concept is adaptive hybrid pricing models in various segments of the real estate market of Ukraine. The problem is solved by the application of the developed software-based adaptive algorithms for determining the market value of three evaluation approaches using the results of a multi-level analysis of the real estate market. It was pro-posed the model of automated appraisal, according to it was implemented computerization of appraisal procedures on the

  18. Protecting the Green Behind the Gold: Catchment-Wide Restoration Efforts Necessary to Achieve Nutrient and Sediment Load Reduction Targets in Gold Coast City, Australia (United States)

    Waltham, Nathan J.; Barry, Michael; McAlister, Tony; Weber, Tony; Groth, Dominic


    The Gold Coast City is the tourist center of Australia and has undergone rapid and massive urban expansion over the past few decades. The Broadwater estuary, in the heart of the City, not only offers an array of ecosystems services for many important aquatic wildlife species, but also supports the livelihood and lifestyles of residents. Not surprisingly, there have been signs of imbalance between these two major services. This study combined a waterway hydraulic and pollutant transport model to simulate diffuse nutrient and sediment loads under past and future proposed land-use changes. A series of catchment restoration initiatives were modeled in an attempt to define optimal catchment scale restoration efforts necessary to protect and enhance the City's waterways. The modeling revealed that for future proposed development, a business as usual approach to catchment management will not reduce nutrient and sediment loading sufficiently to protect the community values. Considerable restoration of upper catchment tributaries is imperative, combined with treatment of stormwater flow from intensively developed sub-catchment areas. Collectively, initiatives undertaken by regulatory authorities to date have successfully reduced nutrient and sediment loading reaching adjoining waterways, although these programs have been ad hoc without strategic systematic planning and vision. Future conservation requires integration of multidisciplinary science and proactive management driven by the high ecological, economical, and community values placed on the City's waterways. Long-term catchment restoration and conservation planning requires an extensive budget (including political and societal support) to handle ongoing maintenance issues associated with scale of restoration determined here.

  19. Research report appraisal: how much understanding is enough? (United States)

    Lipscomb, Martin


    When appraising research papers, how much understanding is enough? More specifically, in deciding whether research results can inform practice, do appraisers need to substantively understand how findings are derived or is it sufficient simply to grasp that suitable analytic techniques were chosen and used by researchers? The degree or depth of understanding that research appraisers need to attain before findings can legitimately/sensibly inform practice is underexplored. In this paper it is argued that, where knowledge/justified beliefs derived from research evidence prompt actions that materially affect patient care, appraisers have an epistemic duty to demand high (maximal) rather than low (minimal) levels of understanding regards finding derivation (i.e. appraisers have a duty to seek a superior epistemic situation). If this argument holds assumptions about appraiser competence/ability and the feasibility of current UK conceptions of evidence based practice are destabilized. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Seasonal rainfall predictability over the Lake Kariba catchment area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muchuru, S


    Full Text Available The Lake Kariba catchment area in southern Africa has one of the most variable climates of any major river basin, with an extreme range of conditions across the catchment and through time. Marked seasonal and interannual fluctuations in rainfall...

  1. Framework for measuring sustainable development in catchment systems. (United States)

    Walmsley, Jay J


    Integrated catchment management represents an approach to managing the resources of a catchment by integrating environmental, economic, and social issues. It is aimed at deriving sustainable benefits for future generations, while protecting natural resources, particularly water, and minimizing possible adverse social, economic, and environmental consequences. Indicators of sustainable development, which summarize information for use in decision-making, are invaluable when trying to assess the diverse, interacting components of catchment processes and resource management actions. The Driving-Forces--Pressure--State--Impact--Response (DPSIR) indicator framework is useful for identifying and developing indicators of sustainable development for catchment management. Driving forces have been identified as the natural conditions occurring in a catchment and the level of development and economic activity. Pressures include the natural and anthropogenic supply of water, water demand, and water pollution. State indicators can be split into those of quantity and those of quality. Impacts include those that affect the ecosystems directly and those that impact the use value of the resource. It core indicators are identified within each of the categories given in the framework, most major catchment-based management issues can be evaluated. This framework is applied to identify key issues in catchment management in South Africa, and develop a set of indicators for evaluating catchments throughout the country.

  2. Measuring the size of an airport's catchment area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, R.


    Although much empirical research exists on the factors that drive passenger airport choice, not much is known about the related topic of airport catchment area size. This paper presents a novel methodology to assess the size of airport catchment areas and the airport’s market shares therein using a

  3. Scale dependence of the episodic hydrochemical response of nested catchments at Plynlimon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Foster


    Full Text Available Previous monitoring of the surface water chemistry of the forested catchments at Plynlimon has concentrated on weekly measurements. Hence, peak values and details of the rapid changes in chemistry occurring during events tend to be missed, particularly for smaller catchments. Knowledge of the detailed hydrochemical response is necessary to predict effects on stream ecology and to quantify processes occurring within the catchment. This information is vital if the likely impacts of changes in landuse and pollutant input on episodic hydrochemical variations are to be modelled. A summary of daily and three-hourly chemistry for the River Severn headwaters at Plynlimon, central Wales is presented. Data are from the summer and autumn of 1995 and the winter and summer of 1996. The effects of antecedent conditions, soiltype, landuse and groundwater and tributary inflow on stream episodic hydrochemical response are discussed for a range of spatial scales, including first, second and third order streams. Detailed information on the chemical changes due to a discrete groundwater inflow into the bed of one stream shows that, during episodes, its influence on stream chemistry is overridden by that of event water. A comparison of drainage ditch chemistry with main stream chemistry during storm events is used to consider the importance of tributary inflow at these times. The contrast in results between sites is assessed, to evaluate the effects of clearfelling and soil type on stream event chemistry.

  4. Catchments' hedging strategy on evapotranspiration for climatic variability (United States)

    Ding, W.; Zhang, C.; Li, Y.; Tang, Y.; Wang, D.; Xu, B.


    Hydrologic responses to climate variability and change are important for human society. Here we test the hypothesis that natural catchments utilize hedging strategies for evapotranspiration and water storage carryover with uncertain future precipitation. The hedging strategy for evapotranspiration in catchments under different levels of water availability is analytically derived from the economic perspective. It is found that there exists hedging between evapotranspiration for current and future only with a portion of water availability. Observation data sets of 160 catchments in the United States covering the period from 1983 to 2003 demonstrate the existence of hedging in catchment hydrology and validate the proposed hedging strategies. We also find that more water is allocated to carryover storage for hedging against the future evapotranspiration risk in the catchments with larger aridity indexes or with larger uncertainty in future precipitation, i.e., long-term climate and precipitation variability control the degree of hedging.

  5. Pesticide modelling for a small catchment using SWAT-2000. (United States)

    Kannan, Narayanan; White, Sue M; Worrall, Fred; Whelan, Mick J


    Pesticides in stream flow from the 142 ha Colworth catchment in Bedfordshire, UK were monitored from October 1999 to December 2000. About 47% of the catchment is tile-drained and different pesticides and cropping patterns have recently been evaluated in terms of their effect on nutrient and pesticide losses to the stream. The data from Colworth were used to test soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) 2000 predictions of pesticide concentrations at the catchment outlet. A sound model set-up to carry out pesticide modelling was created by means of hydrological modelling with proper simulation of crop growth and evapotranspiration. The pesticides terbuthylazine, terbutryn, cyanazine and bentazone were modelled. There was close agreement between SWAT-predicted pesticide concentration values and observations. Scenario trials were conducted to explore management options for reducing pesticide loads arriving at the catchment outlet. The results obtained indicate that SWAT can be used as a tool to understand pesticide behavior at the catchment scale.

  6. Evidence appraisal: a scoping review, conceptual framework, and research agenda. (United States)

    Goldstein, Andrew; Venker, Eric; Weng, Chunhua


    Critical appraisal of clinical evidence promises to help prevent, detect, and address flaws related to study importance, ethics, validity, applicability, and reporting. These research issues are of growing concern. The purpose of this scoping review is to survey the current literature on evidence appraisal to develop a conceptual framework and an informatics research agenda. We conducted an iterative literature search of Medline for discussion or research on the critical appraisal of clinical evidence. After title and abstract review, 121 articles were included in the analysis. We performed qualitative thematic analysis to describe the evidence appraisal architecture and its issues and opportunities. From this analysis, we derived a conceptual framework and an informatics research agenda. We identified 68 themes in 10 categories. This analysis revealed that the practice of evidence appraisal is quite common but is rarely subjected to documentation, organization, validation, integration, or uptake. This is related to underdeveloped tools, scant incentives, and insufficient acquisition of appraisal data and transformation of the data into usable knowledge. The gaps in acquiring appraisal data, transforming the data into actionable information and knowledge, and ensuring its dissemination and adoption can be addressed with proven informatics approaches. Evidence appraisal faces several challenges, but implementing an informatics research agenda would likely help realize the potential of evidence appraisal for improving the rigor and value of clinical evidence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  7. Differences in N loading affect DOM dynamics during typhoon events in a forested mountainous catchment. (United States)

    Yeh, Tz-Ching; Liao, Chien-Sen; Chen, Ting-Chien; Shih, Yu-Ting; Huang, Jr-Chuan; Zehetner, Franz; Hein, Thomas


    The dissolved organic matter (DOM) and nutrient dynamics in small mountainous rivers (SMRs) strongly depend on hydrologic conditions, and especially on extreme events. Here, we investigated the quantity and quality of DOM and inorganic nutrients during base-flow and typhoon events, in a chronically N-saturated mainstream and low N-loaded tributaries of a forested small mountainous reservoir catchment in Taiwan. Our results suggest that divergent transport mechanisms were triggered in the mainstream vs. tributaries during typhoons. The mainstream DON increased from 3.4 to 34.7% of the TDN pool with a static DOC:NO 3 -N ratio and enhanced DOM freshness, signalling a N-enriched DOM transport. Conversely, DON decreased from 46 to 6% of the TDN pool in the tributaries and was coupled with a rapid increase of the DOC:NO 3 -N ratio and humified DOM signals, suggesting the DON and DOC were passively and simultaneously transported. This study confirmed hydrology and spatial dimensions being the main drivers shaping the composition and concentration of DOM and inorganic nutrients in small mountainous catchments subject to hydrologic extremes. We highlighted that the dominant flow paths largely controlled the N-saturation status and DOM composition within each sub-catchment, the effect of land-use could therefore be obscured. Furthermore, N-saturation status and DOM composition are not only a result of hydrologic dynamics, but potential agents modifying the transport mechanism of solutes export from fluvial systems. We emphasize the importance of viewing elemental dynamics from the perspective of a terrestrial-aquatic continuum; and of taking hydrologic phases and individual catchment characteristics into account in water quality management. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Vallerani Micro-Catchment Infiltration Dynamics and Erosion from Simulated Rainfall and Concentrated Flow (United States)

    Founds, M. J.; McGwire, K.; Weltz, M.


    Critical research gaps in rangeland hydrology still exist on the impact of conservation practices on erosion and subsequent mobilization of dissolved solids to streams. This study develops the scientific foundation necessary to better understand how a restoration strategy using a Vallerani Plow can be optimized to minimize erosion from rainfall impact and concentrated flow. Use of the Vallerani system has been proposed for use in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), where rapidly eroding rangelands contribute high salt loads to the Colorado River at a significant economic cost. The poster presentation will document the findings from a series of physical rainfall and concentrated flow simulations taking place at an experimental site northeast of Reno, NV in early August. A Walnut Gulch Rainfall simulator is used to apply variable intensity and duration rainfall events to micro-catchment structures created by the Vallerani Plow. The erosion and deposition caused by simulated rainfall will be captured from multi-angle photography using structure from motion (SFM) to create sub-centimeter 3-D models between each rainfall event. A rill-simulator also will be used to apply large volumes of concentrated flow to Vallerani micro-catchments, testing the point at which their infiltration capacity is exceeded and micro-catchments are overtopped. This information is important to adequately space structures on a given hillslope so that chances of failure are minimized. Measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity from a Guelph Permeameter will be compared to the experimental results in order to develop an efficient method for surveying new terrain for treatment with the Vallerani plow. The effect of micro-catchments on surface flow and erosion will eventually be incorporated into the process-based Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) to create a tool that provides decision makers with quantitative estimates of potential reductions in erosion when

  9. Rock magnetic properties of sediments from Lake Sanabria and its catchment (NW Spain): paleoenvironmental implications (United States)

    Larrasoaña, J. C.; Borruel, V.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Rico, M.; Valero-Garces, B.; Moreno-Caballud, A.; Soto, R.


    Lake Sanabria is located in the NW Spanish mountains at 1000 m a.s.l., and constitutes the largest lake of glacial origin in the Iberian Peninsula. Here we present an environmental magnetic study of a Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediment core from Lake Sanabria and from different lithologies that crop out in its catchment, which includes Paleozoic plutonic, metamorphic and vulcanosedimentary rocks, and Quaternary deposits of glacial origin. This study was designed to complement sedimentologic and geochemical studies aimed at unraveling the climatic evolution of the NW Iberian Peninsula during the last deglaciation. Our results indicate that magnetite and pyrrhotite dominate the magnetic assemblage of both the sediments from the lower half of the studied sequence (25.6 - 13 cal kyr BP) deposited in a proglacial environment, and the Paleozoic rocks that make up most of the catchment of the lake. The occurrence of these minerals both in the catchment rocks and in the lake sediments indicates that sedimentation was then driven by the erosion of a glacial flour, which suffered minimal chemical transformation in response to a rapid and short routing to the lake. Sediments from the upper half of the studied sequence, accumulated after 12.4 cal kyr BP in a fluviolacustrine environment, contain magnetite and greigite. This points to a prominent role of post-depositional reductive dissolution, driven by a sharp increase in the accumulation of organic matter into the lake and the creation of anoxic conditions in the sediments, in shaping the magnetic assemblage of Holocene sediments. Pyrrhotite is stable under reducing conditions as opposed to magnetite, which is unstable. We therefore interpret that previous pedogenic processes occurred in the then deglaciated catchment of the lake were responsible for the oxidation of pyrrhotite and authigenic formation of magnetite, which survived subsequent reductive diagenesis given its initial larger concentrations. This interpretation is

  10. Characterising groundwater-dominated lowland catchments: the UK Lowland Catchment Research Programme (LOCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available This paper reports on a major UK initiative to address deficiencies in understanding the hydro-ecological response of groundwater-dominated lowland catchments. The scope and objectives of this national programme are introduced and focus on one of three sets of research basins – the Pang/Lambourn Chalk catchments, tributaries of the river Thames in southern England. The motivation for the research is the need to support integrated management of river systems that have high ecological value and are subject to pressures that include groundwater abstraction for water supply, diffuse pollution, and land use and climate change. An overview of the research programme is provided together with highlights of some current research findings concerning the hydrological functioning of these catchments. Despite the importance of the Chalk as a major UK aquifer, knowledge of the subsurface movement of water and solutes is poor. Solute transport in the dual porosity unsaturated zone depends on fracture/matrix interactions that are difficult to observe; current experimental and modelling research supports the predominance of matrix flow and suggests that slow migration of a time-history of decades of nutrient loading is occurring. Groundwater flows are complex; catchments vary seasonally and are ill-defined and karst features are locally important. Groundwater flow pathways are being investigated using natural and artificial geochemical tracers based on experimental borehole arrays; stream-aquifer interaction research is using a combination of geophysics, borehole array geochemistry and longitudinal profiles of stream flow and solutes. A complex picture of localised subsurface inflows, linked to geological controls and karst features, and significant longitudinal groundwater flow below the river channel is emerging. Management implications are discussed. Strategies to control surface application of nutrients are expected to have little effect on groundwater

  11. GIS-Based KW-GIUH hydrological model of semiarid catchments: The case of Faria Catchment, Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadeed, S.; Shaheen, H.; Jayyousi, A.


    Among the most basic challenges of hydrology are the quantitative understanding of the processes of runoff generation and prediction of flow hydrographs. Traditional techniques have been widely applied for the estimation of runoff hydrographs of gauged catchments using historical rainfall-runoff data and unit hydrographs. Such procedures are questioned as to their reliability and their application to ungauged, arid and semiarid catchments. To overcome such difficulties, the use of physically based rainfall-runoff process of Faria Catchment using the lately developed KW-GIUH. Faria catchment, located in the northeastern part of the West Bank, Palestine, is characterized as a semiarid region with annual rainfall depths ranging on average from 150 to 640 mm at both ends of the catchment. The Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were used to shape the geomorphological features of the catchment. A GIS based KW-GIUH hydrological model was used to stimulate the rainfall-runoff process in the three sub-catchments of Faria, namely: Al-Badan, Al-Faria and Al-Malaqi. The simulated runoff hydrographs proved that the GIS-based KW-GIUH model is applicable to semiarid regions and can be used to estimate the unit hydrographs in the West Bank catchments. (author)

  12. Merging perspectives in the catchment sciences: the US-Japan Joint Seminar on catchment hydrology and forest biogeochemistry (United States)

    Kevin J. McGuire; Stephen D. Sebestyen; Nobuhito Ohte; Emily M. Elliott; Takashi Gomi; Mark B. Green; Brian L. McGlynn; Naoko. Tokuchi


    Japan has strong research programmes in the catchment sciences that overlap with interests in the US catchment science community, particularly in experimental and field-based research. Historically, however, there has been limited interaction between these two hydrologic science communities because of differences in language, culture, and research approaches. These...

  13. 76 FR 41441 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Appraiser Roster: Appraiser Qualifications for Placement on... (United States)


    ... verifiable education in the appraisal requirements established by FHA. Under amended section 202(g) of the... areas and hinder use of FHA single-family programs at a time when use of those programs has increased... higher education and experience standards that HERA sought to be used for FHA-insured transactions (all...

  14. Added value of online satellite data transmission for flood forecasting: warning systems in medium-size catchments. (United States)

    Ruch, C; Stadler, H


    The present paper deals with the implementation of online data transferred via LEO satellite communication in a flood forecasting system. Although the project is ongoing, it is already recognised that the information chain: "measurement-transmission-forecast-alert" can be shortened, i.e., the flood danger can be more rapidly communicated to the population at risk. This gain is particularly valuable for medium size catchments where the concentration time (basin time of response to rainfall) is short.

  15. The 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.


    Professional Paper 1824 comprises 30 chapters by various U.S. Geological Survey authors, including introduction and methodology chapters, which together provide documentation of the geological basis and methodology of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal, results of which were first released in August 2008.  Twenty-eight chapters summarize the petroleum geology and resource potential of individual, geologically defined provinces north of the Arctic Circle, including those of northern Alaska, northern Canada, east and west Greenland, and most of Arctic Russia, as well as certain offshore areas of the north Atlantic Basin and the Polar Sea. Appendixes tabulate the input and output information used during the assessment.

  16. Performance appraisal and advancement exercise 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department


    The 2005 performance appraisal and advancement exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. These interviews should be held in the period from 15 November 2004 to 15 February 2005 [see Administrative Circular No 26 (Rev. 5) Annex II, § 3. For this exercise, the paper MAPS form has been replaced by an electronic form in the EDH system, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  17. Patterns and processes of nutrient transfers from land to water: a catchment approach to evaluate Good Agricultural Practice in Ireland (United States)

    Mellander, P.-E.; Melland, A. R.; Shortle, G.; Wall, D.; Mechan, S.; Buckley, C.; Fealy, R.; Jordan, P.


    data are also highly conducive to constraining catchment scale, distributed models for predicting chemical transfers in runoff. As the Programme is aiming to integrate the often perceived contentious objectives of water quality management with those of sustainable agriculture, farm economics will also be monitored at the same time and an assessment made of farmer attitudes. An advisory programme is also a major component and dedicated farm advisors will ensure that farmers are fully appraised of obligations and opportunities in the National Action Programme.

  18. Riverine dissolved carbon concentration and yield in subtropical catchments, Taiwan (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Hao; Shih, Yu-ting; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.


    Dissolved carbon is not highly correlated to carbon cycle, but also a critical water quality indicator and affected by interaction of terrestrial and aquatic environment at catchment scale. However, the rates and extent of the dissolved carbon export are still poorly understood and scarcely quantified especially for typhoon events. In this study, regular and events' data of riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were monitored to estimate the export. Meanwhile, the hydrological model and mixing model were used for determination of DOC and DIC flow pathways at 3 sites of Tsengwen reservoir in southern Taiwan in 2014-2015. Results showed that the mean DOC concentration was 1.5 - 2.2 mg l-1 (flow weighted) without seasonal variation. The average DOC yield was 3.1 ton-C km-2 yr-1. On the other hand, DIC concentration ranged from 15 to 25.8 mg l-1, but DIC concentration in dry season was higher than wet season. Mean annual DIC yield was 51 ton-C km-2 yr-1. The export-ratio of DOC:DIC was 1:16.5, which was extremely lower than that of worldwide large rivers (DOC:DIC=1:4.5 in average) and other mountainous rivers (DOC:DIC=1:4.6 in average). Both DOC and DIC concentration showed the dramatically discrepant change in typhoon events. The DOC concentration increased to 4-8 folds rapidly before the flood peak. However, DIC concentration was diluted to one third with discharge simultaneously and returned slowly to base concentration in more than a week. According to the hydrological model, events contributed 14.6% of the annual discharge and 21.9% and 11.1% of DOC and DIC annual flux, respectively. Furthermore, 68.9% of events' discharge derived from surface runoff which carried out 91.3% of DOC flux and 51.1% of DIC flux. It implied that increases of surface runoff transported DOC form near soil surface, but diluted DIC concentration likely implied the contribution of groundwater. Our study characterized the specialty of dissolved carbon

  19. 76 FR 49787 - Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal...: Reclamation provides assistance for appraisal investigations and feasibility studies for rural water supply... the findings and conclusions of the appraisal investigations that identified the water supply problems...

  20. Participatory Rural Appraisal for Diagnostic Analysis of spate irrigation systems in Raya Valley, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Castelli


    Full Text Available Spate irrigation is a complex and unique form of water management, which represent the main source of irrigation water in semi-arid river catchments. Water is diverted from seasonal rivers by using diversion structures made by stones, earth and brushwood, located within the river bed. The modernisation of spate irrigation realised in Raya Valley (northern Ethiopia resulted in disappointing performances. One of the main reasons for this failure was the poor consideration of the characteristics of seasonal catchments and local communities’ needs and preferences. Local farmers, who showed a deep knowledge of the river system, were involved only at the level of consultation. The aim of this research was to develop a participatory Diagnostic Analysis (DA for a traditional non-modernised spate irrigation system in Raya Valley, in order to involve local farmers within the development process, and to build a solid knowledge basis for effective improvements. A Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA of the Harosha spate irrigation system was undertaken. PRA techniques focusing on spatial, temporal, socio-economical and spatiotemporal aspects of the system were performed with local farmers in order to identify and rank main problems and constraints to development. Farmers recognised the need of more resistant diversion structures and gabion walls for the stabilisation of the river bank. The involvement of farmers also helped to highlight that not only irrigation-related problems, but also flood-related problems threaten agricultural production and rural livelihoods. Rather than an irrigation system approach, an approach integrating irrigation development and flood risk mitigation is suggested for framing future development strategies.

  1. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Auken, Esben; Bamberg, Charlotte A.


    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface...... conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root...... the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface...

  2. Hydrological catchment modelling: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available This paper discusses basic issues in hydrological modelling and flood forecasting, ranging from the roles of physically-based and data-driven rainfall runoff models, to the concepts of predictive uncertainty and equifinality and their implications. The evolution of a wide range of hydrological catchment models employing the physically meaningful and data-driven approaches introduces the need for objective test beds or benchmarks to assess the merits of the different models in reconciling the alternative approaches. In addition, the paper analyses uncertainty in models and predictions by clarifying the meaning of uncertainty, by distinguishing between parameter and predictive uncertainty and by demonstrating how the concept of equifinality must be addressed by appropriate and robust inference approaches. Finally, the importance of predictive uncertainty in the decision making process is highlighted together with possible approaches aimed at overcoming the diffidence of end-users.

  3. How to appraise a diagnostic test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanitharan Manikandan


    Full Text Available Urologists frequently encounter problems in making a clinical diagnosis whose resolution requires the use of diagnostic tests. With an ever increasing choice of investigations being available, the urologist often has to decide which diagnostic test(s will best resolve the patient′s diagnostic problem. In this article, we aim to help the urologist understand how to critically appraise studies on diagnostic tests and make a rational choice. This article presents the guiding principles in scientifically assessing studies on diagnostic tests by proposing a clinical scenario. The authors describe a standardized protocol to assess the validity of the test and its relevance to the clinical problem that can help the urologist in decision making. The three important issues to be considered when evaluating the validity of the study are to identify how the study population was chosen, how the test was performed and whether there is a comparison to the gold standard test so as to confirm or refute the diagnosis. Then, the urologist would need to know the probability of the test in providing the correct diagnosis in an individual patient in order to decide about its utility in solving the diagnostic dilemma. By performing the steps described in this article, the urologist would be able to critically appraise diagnostic studies and draw meaningful conclusions about the investigations in terms of validity, results and its applicability to the patient′s problem. This would provide a scientific basis for using diagnostic tests for improving patient care.

  4. Teaching critical appraisal skills for nursing research. (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Crookes, Patrick A; Johnson, Keryn M


    Evidence-based practice is a major focus in nursing, yet the literature continues to document a research-practice gap. Reasons for this gap stem partly from a lack of skills to critique and synthesize the literature, a lack of search skills and difficulty in understanding research articles, and limited knowledge of research by nursing professionals. An innovative and quality driven subject to improve critical appraisal and critical thinking skills was developed for the School of Nursing, Midwifery and Indigenous Health at the University of Wollongong, based on formative research with postgraduate students and supervisors. Through face-to-face and online teaching modules students worked through a structured process of analysing the key aspects of published papers using structured analysis tools for each study design. Pre and post surveys of students found improvements in perceived knowledge of all key skills of critical appraisal. External independent evaluation determined that it was a high quality subject showing many hallmarks of good assessment practice and good practice in use of information and communication technology (ICT) in support of the learning outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of Useful Plants in the Catchment Area of the Proposed Ntabelanga Dam in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Maroyi


    Full Text Available Background. The developmental projects, particularly construction of dams, result in permanent changes of terrestrial ecosystems through inundation. Objective. The present study was undertaken aiming at documenting useful plant species in Ntabelanga dam catchment area that will be impacted by the construction of the proposed dam. Methods. A total of 55 randomly selected quadrats were used to assess plant species diversity and composition. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA methods were used to identify useful plant species growing in the catchment area through interviews with 108 randomly selected participants. Results. A total of 197 plant species were recorded with 95 species (48.2% utilized for various purposes. Use categories included ethnoveterinary and herbal medicines (46 species, food plants (37 species, construction timber and thatching (14 species, firewood (five species, browse, live fence, and ornamental (four species each, and brooms and crafts (two species. Conclusion. This study showed that plant species play an important role in the daily life and culture of local people. The construction of Ntabelanga dam is, therefore, associated with several positive and negative impacts on plant resources which are not fully integrated into current decision-making, largely because of lack of multistakeholder dialogue on the socioeconomic issues of such an important project.

  6. Nutrient fluxes from coastal California catchments with suburban development (United States)

    Melack, J. M.; Leydecker, A.; Beighley, E.; Robinson, T.; Coombs, S.


    Numerous streams originate in the mountains fringing California's coast and transport nutrients into coastal waters. In central California, these streams traverse catchments with land covers including chaparral, grazed grasslands, orchards, industrial agriculture and suburban and urban development. Fluvial nutrient concentrations and fluxes vary as a function of these land covers and as a function of considerable fluctuations in rainfall. As part of a long-term investigation of mobilization and fluvial transport of nutrients in catchments bordering the Santa Barbara Channel we have intensively sampled nutrient concentrations and measured discharge during storm and base flows in multiple catchments and subcatchments. Volume-weighted mean concentrations of nitrate generally ranged from 5 to 25 micromolar in undeveloped areas, increased to about 100 micromolar for suburban and most agricultural catchments, and were in excess of 1000 micromolar in catchments with greenhouse-based agriculture. Phosphate concentrations ranged from 2 to 20 micromolar among the catchments. These data are used to examine the premise that the suburbanized portion of the catchments is the primary source of nutrients to the streams.

  7. Spatial characterization of catchment dispersion mechanisms in an urban context (United States)

    Rossel, Florian; Gironás, Jorge; Mejía, Alfonso; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez, Fabrice


    Previous studies have examined in-depth the dispersion mechanisms in natural catchments. In contrast, these dispersion mechanisms have been studied little in urban catchments, where artificial transport elements and morphological arrangements are expected to modify travel times and mobilize excess rainfall from spatially distributed impervious sites. This has the ability to modify the variance of the catchment's travel times and hence the total dispersion. This work quantifies the dispersion mechanisms in an urban catchment using the theory of transport by travel times as represented by the Urban Morpho-climatic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (U-McIUH) model. The U-McIUH computes travel times based on kinematic wave theory and accounts explicitly for the path heterogeneities and altered connectivity patterns characteristic of an urban drainage network. The analysis is illustrated using the Aubinière urban catchment in France as a case study. We found that kinematic dispersion is dominant for small rainfall intensities, whereas geomorphologic dispersion becomes more dominant for larger intensities. The total dispersion scales with the drainage area in a power law fashion. The kinematic dispersion is dominant across spatial scales up to a threshold of approximately 2-3 km2, after which the geomorphologic dispersion becomes more dominant. Overall, overland flow is responsible for most of the dispersion in the catchment, while conduits tend to counteract the increase of the geomorphologic dispersion with a negative kinematic dispersion. Further study with other catchments is needed to asses if the latter is a general feature of urban drainage networks.

  8. 25 CFR 11.706 - Appointment and duties of appraiser. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appointment and duties of appraiser. 11.706 Section 11... OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.706 Appointment and duties of appraiser. (a) Upon ordering an estate to be probated, the court shall appoint a disinterested and competent person as an...

  9. 107 an appraisal of the scope of provisions under

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    EZE & EZE: An Appraisal of the Scope of Provisions Under The 1999 Nigerian Constitution for the Control of Pollution. Arising from the Oil and Gas Industry. AN APPRAISAL OF THE .... However, in a historic judgment, a Federal High Court sitting in Benin-City and presided over by Nwokorie J, held that continued gas flaring ...

  10. Employee performance appraisal and productivity levels in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this study was on performance appraisal of academic staff of Universities in Nigeria and their productivity levels. The prime problem that necessitated this study was to examine the effectiveness of the subjective methods used in appraising qualitative work attributes of the employees and to assess the extent to ...

  11. Appraisal patterns of emotions in human-product interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demir, E.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Hekkert, P.


    Emotional design, i.e., designing with an intention to evoke or to prevent a particular emotion, can be facilitated by understanding the processes underlying emotions. A promising approach to understanding these processes in the current psychological literature is appraisal theory. Appraisal theory

  12. 12 CFR 950.10 - Collateral valuation; appraisals. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral valuation; appraisals. 950.10...-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.10 Collateral valuation; appraisals. (a) Collateral valuation. Each Bank shall determine the value of collateral securing the Bank's advances in accordance with...

  13. Linking the Teacher Appraisal Process to the School Improvement Plan (United States)

    Reddekopp, Therese


    If a school improvement plan includes input from all stakeholders and focuses on data-driven processes that are linked to teacher appraisal, it can be powerful in leading the school toward the common mission of achieving student success. Linking the school improvement plan to the teacher appraisal process creates a system whereby all individuals…

  14. Evaluating School Health Appraisal scheme in Primary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study assessed school health appraisal implementation in primary schools within Abakaliki Metropolis. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional descriptive study of the forms of health appraisal in all 31 primary schools in Abakaliki metropolis. Relevant information was obtained from the head ...

  15. A Composite Model for Employees' Performance Appraisal and Improvement (United States)

    Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an innovative method of performance appraisal that will be useful for designing a structured training programme. Design/methodology/approach: Employees' performance appraisals are conducted using new approaches, namely data envelopment analysis and an integrated fuzzy model. Interpretive structural…

  16. The merits of measuring challenge and hindrance appraisals. (United States)

    Searle, Ben J; Auton, Jaime C


    The challenge-hindrance framework has shown that challenge stressors (work characteristics associated with potential personal gain) tend to have positive outcomes, whereas hindrance stressors (those which obstruct goals) have negative outcomes. However, typical research methods assume that stressors allocated to these categories are appraised consistently by different people and across different situations. We validate new measures of challenge and hindrance appraisals and demonstrate their utility in stress research. We used a cross-sectional survey of American employees (Study 1, n = 333), a diary survey of Australian employees (Study 2, n = 241), and a survey of Australian college students whose performance was evaluated independently (Study 3, n = 350). Even after accounting for the effects of stressors, challenge and hindrance appraisals consistently explained unique variance in affective states, with indications that stressors have indirect effects via appraisals. Such effects were seen within- as well as between-participants (Study 2). Appraisals also had expected associations with specific coping behaviors (Study 1), while challenge appraisal was associated with task performance (Study 3). The scales of challenge and hindrance appraisals were psychometrically sound across multiple contexts. RESULTS highlight the merit of considering appraisal in stress research.

  17. Student feedback on an adapted appraisal model in resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. An appraisal model, a type of formal mentorship programme for a cohort of student doctors, is used at the University of Leeds, UK. The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa implemented an adapted version of the appraisal process that uses fewer resources. Objective. To explore ...

  18. 50 CFR 34.6 - Schedule of appraisals. (United States)


    ... Secretary shall make fair market value appraisals of areas administered by the Service within five years... reappraised on a schedule of at least once every five years. Until areas are appraised, the fair market value... fee lands added to such areas after that date shall be on the basis of fair market value. ...

  19. Probability based hydrologic catchments of the Greenland Ice Sheet (United States)

    Hudson, B. D.


    Greenland Ice Sheet melt water impacts ice sheet flow dynamics, fjord and coastal circulation, and sediment and biogeochemical fluxes. Melt water exiting the ice sheet also is a key term in its mass balance. Because of this, knowledge of the area of the ice sheet that contributes melt water to a given outlet (its hydrologic catchment) is important to many ice sheet studies and is especially critical to methods using river runoff to assess ice sheet mass balance. Yet uncertainty in delineating ice sheet hydrologic catchments is a problem that is rarely acknowledged. Ice sheet catchments are delineated as a function of both basal and surface topography. While surface topography is well known, basal topography is less certain because it is dependent on radar surveys. Here, I a present a Monte Carlo based approach to delineating ice sheet catchments that quantifies the impact of uncertain basal topography. In this scheme, over many iterations I randomly vary the ice sheet bed elevation within published error bounds (using Morlighem et al., 2014 bed and bed error datasets). For each iteration of ice sheet bed elevation, I calculate the hydraulic potentiometric surface and route water over its path of 'steepest' descent to delineate the catchment. I then use all realizations of the catchment to arrive at a probability map of all major melt water outlets in Greenland. I often find that catchment size is uncertain, with small, random perturbations in basal topography leading to large variations in catchments size. While some catchments are well defined, others can double or halve in size within published basal topography error bars. While some uncertainty will likely always remain, this work points to locations where studies of ice sheet hydrology would be the most successful, allows reinterpretation of past results, and points to where future radar surveys would be most advantageous.

  20. Uncertainty in hydrological signatures for gauged and ungauged catchments (United States)

    Westerberg, Ida K.; Wagener, Thorsten; Coxon, Gemma; McMillan, Hilary K.; Castellarin, Attilio; Montanari, Alberto; Freer, Jim


    Reliable information about hydrological behavior is needed for water-resource management and scientific investigations. Hydrological signatures quantify catchment behavior as index values, and can be predicted for ungauged catchments using a regionalization procedure. The prediction reliability is affected by data uncertainties for the gauged catchments used in prediction and by uncertainties in the regionalization procedure. We quantified signature uncertainty stemming from discharge data uncertainty for 43 UK catchments and propagated these uncertainties in signature regionalization, while accounting for regionalization uncertainty with a weighted-pooling-group approach. Discharge uncertainty was estimated using Monte Carlo sampling of multiple feasible rating curves. For each sampled rating curve, a discharge time series was calculated and used in deriving the gauged signature uncertainty distribution. We found that the gauged uncertainty varied with signature type, local measurement conditions and catchment behavior, with the highest uncertainties (median relative uncertainty ±30-40% across all catchments) for signatures measuring high- and low-flow magnitude and dynamics. Our regionalization method allowed assessing the role and relative magnitudes of the gauged and regionalized uncertainty sources in shaping the signature uncertainty distributions predicted for catchments treated as ungauged. We found that (1) if the gauged uncertainties were neglected there was a clear risk of overconditioning the regionalization inference, e.g., by attributing catchment differences resulting from gauged uncertainty to differences in catchment behavior, and (2) uncertainty in the regionalization results was lower for signatures measuring flow distribution (e.g., mean flow) than flow dynamics (e.g., autocorrelation), and for average flows (and then high flows) compared to low flows.

  1. Assessment of Runoff Contributing Catchment Areas in Rainfall Runoff Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld


    to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literary values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literary values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchments. In addition, different catchment descriptions...

  2. Modelling catchment areas for secondary care providers: a case study. (United States)

    Jones, Simon; Wardlaw, Jessica; Crouch, Susan; Carolan, Michelle


    Hospitals need to understand patient flows in an increasingly competitive health economy. New initiatives like Patient Choice and the Darzi Review further increase this demand. Essential to understanding patient flows are demographic and geographic profiles of health care service providers, known as 'catchment areas' and 'catchment populations'. This information helps Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) to review how their populations are accessing services, measure inequalities and commission services; likewise it assists Secondary Care Providers (SCPs) to measure and assess potential gains in market share, redesign services, evaluate admission thresholds and plan financial budgets. Unlike PCTs, SCPs do not operate within fixed geographic boundaries. Traditionally, SCPs have used administrative boundaries or arbitrary drive times to model catchment areas. Neither approach satisfactorily represents current patient flows. Furthermore, these techniques are time-consuming and can be challenging for healthcare managers to exploit. This paper presents three different approaches to define catchment areas, each more detailed than the previous method. The first approach 'First Past the Post' defines catchment areas by allocating a dominant SCP to each Census Output Area (OA). The SCP with the highest proportion of activity within each OA is considered the dominant SCP. The second approach 'Proportional Flow' allocates activity proportionally to each OA. This approach allows for cross-boundary flows to be captured in a catchment area. The third and final approach uses a gravity model to define a catchment area, which incorporates drive or travel time into the analysis. Comparing approaches helps healthcare providers to understand whether using more traditional and simplistic approaches to define catchment areas and populations achieves the same or similar results as complex mathematical modelling. This paper has demonstrated, using a case study of Manchester, that when estimating

  3. Precompetitive achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping among athletes. (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Calmeiro, Luis


    Grounded in Lazarus's (1991, 1999, 2000) cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions, we tested a model of achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping. We predicted that precompetitive achievement goals would be associated with appraisals, appraisals with emotions, and emotions with coping in our model. The mediating effects of emotions among the overall sample of 827 athletes and two stratified random subsamples were also explored. The results of this study support our proposed model in the overall sample and the stratified subsamples. Further, emotion mediated the relationship between appraisal and coping. Mediation analyses revealed that there were indirect effects of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, which indicates the importance of examining multiple emotions to reveal a more accurate representation of the overall stress process. Our findings indicate that both appraisals and emotions are just as important in shaping coping.

  4. Response of floodplain sedimentation to catchment disturbances in different environments (United States)

    Notebaert, B.; Houbrechts, G.; Verstraeten, G.; Petit, F.


    Holocene floodplain sediments are an important environmental archive, that can be accesed for reconstructing the past landscape dynamics either qualitatively (e.g. palynology) and quantitatively (e.g. sediment budgeting). In this study Holocene alluvial sediment deposition in two contrasting Belgian catchments was quantified and dated: the Lienne (148 km2) in the Ardennes massif and the Dijle (750 km2) in the loess region. These catchments experienced a comparable Holocene climatic variation, but differ in topography and geology with highest relief energy in the Lienne catchment. Land use history also differs with high land use intensities in the Dijle catchment since Roman times, but at least since the Middle Ages there were also large deforestations in the Lienne catchment. Detailed cumulative Holocene sediment deposition was assessed for each catchment using more then 1000 hand augerings. Detailed radiocarbon dating of fluvial deposits was performed in the Dijle catchment, while iron slag was used as a tracer for sediments deposited after 1350 AD in the Lienne catchment. Results show that sediment deposition is much larger in the Dijle catchment (~4.5 Mg ha-1 catchment area) then in the Lienne catchment (~0.2 Mg ha-1 catchment area). Dating results from the Dijle catchment show an increase of sediment deposition in the late Holocene, first starting in the colluvial valleys and later on prograding towards the main valleys. Variations in sedimentation rates can clearly be related to anthropogenous land use pressure, and the majority of the sediments found in colluvial and alluvial valleys were deposited in the last 4000 years, and in many cases even in the last 1000 years. Variations in sediment deposition within the catchment can partially be explained by differences in river valley physical settings (mainly valley slope), while in other cases hill slope sediment delivery (upstream erosion, connectivity between hill slopes and the river system) is the explaining

  5. Dynamics of Phosphorus export from small forested catchments in low mountain ranges in Germany (United States)

    Julich, Stefan; Julich, Dorit; Benning, Raphael; Feger, Karl-Heinz


    Phosphorus (P) plays an important role in the nutrition of forest ecosystem. The transport of P in forest soils predominantly occurs along preferential water flow pathways bypassing large parts of the soil matrix. Therefore, rapid flow processes by preferential flow and/or during storm events may lead to significant P losses from forest soils. However only little knowledge about the dynamics, magnitude and driving processes of P exports into surface water exist. In this contribution, we present the results of two studies where two small forested catchments have been monitored for a period around 3 years. Both catchments are situated in low mountain ranges in Saxony (catchment size 21 ha) and Thuringia (catchment size 5 ha) representing medium P contents in the topsoil of 1142 mg kg-1 and 834 mg kg-1 respectively. During the regular sampling (monthly to weekly sampling frequency), the mean Total-P concentrations of 23 μg L-1(Thuringian Site) and 8 μg L-1(Saxonian Site) have been measured. However, during single storm events Total-P concentrations increased considerably with maximum concentrations of 134 μg L-1(Thuringian Site) and 203 μg L-1(Saxonian Site). Our findings indicate that during storm events, especially after longer dry periods, significant amounts of phosphorus can be exported from forest ecosystems. Comparison of discharge-concentration patterns of Total-P, Nitrogen and DOC, as well as dye tracer experiments, suggest that preferential flow along biopores and stone surfaces, and the interface between mineral soil and litter layer are main pathways of export from forests. For the site in Saxony we calculated mean annual export rates of 32.8 to 33.5 g ha-1 a-1 based on the weekly sampling with different load calculation methods (flow weighted methods up to linear regression models). If the events are included into the annual load calculation the mean annual export fluxes increase from 47.8 to 58.6 g ha-1 a-1 based on the different load calculation

  6. Challenges for implementing water quality monitoring and analysis on a small Costa Rican catchment (United States)

    Golcher, Christian; Cernesson, Flavie; Tournoud, Marie-George; Bonin, Muriel; Suarez, Andrea


    The Costa Rican water regulatory framework (WRF) (2007), expresses the national concern about the degradation of surface water quality observed in the country since several years. Given the urgency of preserving and restoring the surface water bodies, and facing the need of defining a monitoring tool to classify surface water pollution, the Costa-Rican WRF relies on two water quality indexes: the so-called "Dutch Index" (D.I) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted to Costa Rica (BMWP'CR), allowing an "easy" physicochemical and biological appraisal of the water quality and the ecological integrity of water bodies. Herein, we intend to evaluate whether the compound of water quality indexes imposed by Costa Rican legislation, is suitable to assess rivers local and global anthropogenic pressure and environmental conditions. We monitor water quality for 7 points of Liberia River (northern pacific region - Costa Rica) from March 2013 to July 2015. Anthropogenic pressures are characterized by catchment land use and riparian conditions. Environmental conditions are built from rainfall daily series. Our results show (i) the difficulties to monitor new sites following the recent implementation of the WRF; (ii) the statistical characteristics of each index; and (iii) a modelling tentative of relationships between water quality indexes and explanatory factors (land-use, riparian characteristics and climate conditions).

  7. Applications of the PyTOPKAPI model to ungauged catchments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in this work as an alternative model calibration procedure for streamflow simulation from .... catchment is divided into direct runoff and infiltration, which reflects the nonlinear relationship between the soil water storage and the saturated ...

  8. Land use change impacts on floods at the catchment scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogger, M.; Agnoletti, M.; Alaoui, A.; Bathurst, J.C.; Bodner, G.; Borga, M.; Chaplot, Vincent; Gallart, F.; Glatzel, G.; Hall, J.; Holden, J.; Holko, L.; Horn, R.; Kiss, A.; Kohnová, S.; Leitinger, G.; Lennartz, B.; Parajka, J.; Perdigão, R.; Peth, S.; Plavcová, L.; Quinton, John N.; Robinson, Matthew R.; Salinas, J.L.; Santoro, A.; Szolgay, J.; Tron, S.; Akker, van den J.J.H.; Viglione, A.; Blöschl, G.


    Research gaps in understanding flood changes at the catchment scale caused by changes in forest management, agricultural practices, artificial drainage, and terracing are identified. Potential strategies in addressing these gaps are proposed, such as complex systems approaches to link processes

  9. Impacts of afforestation on low flows: Paired catchment data revisited

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blight, JJ


    Full Text Available Disruption of the hydrological regime caused by afforestation is well documented. Several sets of experimental catchments were set up in South Africa between 1935 and 1980 specifically to quantify such impacts. Data emanating from these experimental...

  10. Analysis of catchments response to severe drought event for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The run sum analysis method was a sound method which indicates in ... intensity and duration of stream flow depletion between nearby catchments. ... threshold level analysis method, and allows drought events to be described in more.

  11. Extreme inflow events and synoptic forcing in Sydney catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepler, Acacia S; Rakich, Clinton S


    The Sydney catchment region encompasses over 16,000km 2 , supplying water to over 4 million inhabitants. However, few studies have investigated the synoptic and climatic influences on inflow in this region, which are crucial for understanding the vulnerability of water supply in a changing climate. This study identifies extremely high and low inflow events between 1960 and 2008 based on catchment averages. The focus of the study is an analysis of the synoptic cause/s of each extreme inflow event. The events are evaluated to identify any trends and also to determine the concurrent significant climatic influences on rainfall over the catchments. Relationships between catchment inflow, rainfall, tropical SST indices, and other influencing factors such as observed wind and temperatures are investigated. Our results show that East Coast Lows and anomalously easterly flow are the drivers of high inflow events, with low inflow events dominated by westerly wind patterns and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation.

  12. The effectiveness of health appraisal processes currently in addressing health and wellbeing during spatial plan appraisal: a systematic review. (United States)

    Gray, Selena; Carmichael, Laurence; Barton, Hugh; Mytton, Julie; Lease, Helen; Joynt, Jennifer


    Spatial planning affects the built environment, which in turn has the potential to have a significant impact on health, for good or ill. One way of ensuring that spatial plans take due account of health is through the inclusion of health considerations in the statutory and non statutory appraisal processes linked to plan-making processes. A systematic review to identify evaluation studies of appraisals or assessments of plans where health issues were considered from 1987 to 2010. A total of 6161 citations were identified: 6069 from electronic databases, 57 fromwebsite searches, with a further 35 citations from grey literature, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. These 20 citations reported on a total of 135 different case studies: 11 UK HIA; 11 non UK high income countries HIA, 5 UK SEA or other integrated appraisal; 108 non UK high income SEA or other integrated appraisal. All studies were in English. No relevant studies were identified reporting on low or middle income countries.The studies were limited by potential bias (no independent evaluation, with those undertaking the appraisal also responsible for reporting outcomes), lack of detail and a lack of triangulation of results. Health impact assessments generally covered the four specified health domains (physical activity, mental health and wellbeing, environmental health issues such as pollution and noise, injury) more comprehensively than SEA or other integrated appraisals, although mental health and wellbeing was an underdeveloped area. There was no evidence available on the incorporation of health in Sustainability Appraisal, limited evidence that the recommendations from any type of appraisal were implemented, and almost no evidence that the recommendations had led to the anticipated outcomes or improvements in health postulated. Research is needed to assess (i) the degree to which statutory plan appraisal processes (SA in the UK) incorporate health; (ii) whether recommendations arising from health

  13. The effectiveness of health appraisal processes currently in addressing health and wellbeing during spatial plan appraisal: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Selena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial planning affects the built environment, which in turn has the potential to have a significant impact on health, for good or ill. One way of ensuring that spatial plans take due account of health is through the inclusion of health considerations in the statutory and non statutory appraisal processes linked to plan-making processes. Methods A systematic review to identify evaluation studies of appraisals or assessments of plans where health issues were considered from 1987 to 2010. Results A total of 6161 citations were identified: 6069 from electronic databases, 57 fromwebsite searches, with a further 35 citations from grey literature, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. These 20 citations reported on a total of 135 different case studies: 11 UK HIA; 11 non UK high income countries HIA, 5 UK SEA or other integrated appraisal; 108 non UK high income SEA or other integrated appraisal. All studies were in English. No relevant studies were identified reporting on low or middle income countries. The studies were limited by potential bias (no independent evaluation, with those undertaking the appraisal also responsible for reporting outcomes, lack of detail and a lack of triangulation of results. Health impact assessments generally covered the four specified health domains (physical activity, mental health and wellbeing, environmental health issues such as pollution and noise, injury more comprehensively than SEA or other integrated appraisals, although mental health and wellbeing was an underdeveloped area. There was no evidence available on the incorporation of health in Sustainability Appraisal, limited evidence that the recommendations from any type of appraisal were implemented, and almost no evidence that the recommendations had led to the anticipated outcomes or improvements in health postulated. Conclusion Research is needed to assess (i the degree to which statutory plan appraisal processes (SA in the UK

  14. Effects of appraisal purpose and rating format on performance appraisal accuracy


    Carter, Marta L.


    The principle of encoding specificity states that effective information retrieval relies upon consistency of encoding and retrieval cues. The present study generalized this principle to a complex social interaction in order to investigate the relation between certain combinations of pre- and post-observational cues and their effects on information categorization, recognition accuracy, and judgment accuracy. It was hypothesized that two experimental factors, appraisal pur...

  15. Nailfold capillaroscopy microscopy - an interdisciplinary appraisal. (United States)

    Klein-Weigel, Peter Franz; Sunderkötter, Cord; Sander, Oliver


    Nailfold capillaroscopy is a method of great diagnostic value in the differential diagnosis of primary versus secondary Raynaud´s phenomenon, of systemic sclerosis versus other so called connective tissue diseases and of additional diagnostic value in other entities. Rheumatologists, dermatologists, and angiologists in Germany have convened in an interdisciplinary working group in which they synergistically combined their expertise to develop a common nomenclature and standards for the technical performance of nailfold capillary microscopy. The article gives an overview of historical and technical aspects of capillaroscopy, morphologic findings, and disease-specific patterns. It also provides a critical appraisal of its significance in the diagnosis and sequelae of these interdisciplinarily-managed diseases including its performance in children and gives an excursion in the potential perspectives of capillaroscopy in less common indications.

  16. Employees' perceptions of justice in performance appraisals. (United States)

    Vasset, Frøydis; Marnburg, Einar; Furunes, Trude


    Of all the tasks undertaken by human resource managers, performance appraisals (PAs) are one of the most unpopular among employees (Meyer 1991, Murphy and Cleveland 1995, Holbrook 2002, Jackman and Strober 2003). As PA guides and plans show (Fletcher 2004, CatalystOne 2010), PAs can be implemented in similar ways in organisations throughout Europe and developed countries elsewhere. But, if employees perceive PA processes as unfair, they may reject the usefulness and validity of the information they receive and so may not be motivated to change behaviour. This article concerns perceptions of organisational justice and explains the results of a study of perceived fairness in PAs among nurses and auxiliary nurses in Norway's municipal health service.

  17. Photographic appraisal of crystal lattice growth technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor D


    Full Text Available Concept of creating mechanical retention for bonding through crystal growth has been successfully achieved in the present study. By using polyacrylic acid, sulphated with sulphuric acid as etchant, abundant crystal growth was demonstrated. Keeping in view the obvious benefits of crystal growth technique, the present SEM study was aimed to observe and compare the changes brought about by different etching agents (phosphoric acid, polyacrylic acid and polyacrylic acid sulphated and to evaluate their advantages and disadvantages in an attempt to reduce iatrogenic trauma caused due to surface enamel alteration. Control and experimental groups were made of 24 and 30 premolars, respectively, for scanning electron microscopic appraisal of normal unetched and etched enamel surface and fracture site and finished surface evaluation. When compared with conventional phosphoric acid and weaker polyacrylic acid, investigations indicated that crystal growth treatment on enamel surface caused minimal iatrogenic trauma and surface alteration were restored to the original untreated condition to a large extent.

  18. Investment appraisal using quantitative risk analysis. (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik


    Investment appraisal concerned with investments in fire safety systems is discussed. Particular attention is directed at evaluating, in terms of the Bayesian decision theory, the risk reduction that investment in a fire safety system involves. It is shown how the monetary value of the change from a building design without any specific fire protection system to one including such a system can be estimated by use of quantitative risk analysis, the results of which are expressed in terms of a Risk-adjusted net present value. This represents the intrinsic monetary value of investing in the fire safety system. The method suggested is exemplified by a case study performed in an Avesta Sheffield factory.

  19. Estimating retention potential of headwater catchment using Tritium time series (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe


    Headwater catchments provide substantial streamflow to rivers even during long periods of drought. Documenting the mean transit times (MTT) of stream water in headwater catchments and therefore the retention capacities of these catchments is crucial for water management. This study uses time series of 3H activities in combination with major ion concentrations, stable isotope ratios and radon activities (222Rn) in the Lyrebird Creek catchment in Victoria, Australia to provide a unique insight into the mean transit time distributions and flow systems of this small temperate headwater catchment. At all streamflows, the stream has 3H activities (water in the stream is derived from stores with long transit times. If the water in the catchment can be represented by a single store with a continuum of ages, mean transit times of the stream water range from ∼6 up to 40 years, which indicates the large retention potential for this catchment. Alternatively, variations of 3H activities, stable isotopes and major ions can be explained by mixing between of young recent recharge and older water stored in the catchment. While surface runoff is negligible, the variation in stable isotope ratios, major ion concentrations and radon activities during most of the year is minimal (±12%) and only occurs during major storm events. This suggests that different subsurface water stores are activated during the storm events and that these cease to provide water to the stream within a few days or weeks after storm events. The stores comprise micro and macropore flow in the soils and saprolite as well as the boundary between the saprolite and the fractured bed rock. Hydrograph separations from three major storm events using Tritium, electrical conductivity and selected major ions as well a δ18O suggest a minimum of 50% baseflow at most flow conditions. We demonstrate that headwater catchments can have a significant storage capacity and that the relationship between long-water stores and

  20. Probabilistic risk assessment of diuron and prometryn in the Gwydir River catchment, Australia, with the input of a novel bioassay based on algal growth. (United States)

    Shi, Yajuan; Burns, Mitchell; Ritchie, Raymond J; Crossan, Angus; Kennedy, Ivan R


    A probabilistic risk assessment of the selected herbicides (diuron and prometryn) in the Gwydir River catchment was conducted, with the input of the EC₅₀ values derived from both literature and a novel bioassay. Laboratory test based on growth of algae exposed to herbicides assayed with a microplate reader was used to examine the toxicity of diuron and prometryn on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. Both herbicides showed concentration dependent toxicity in inhibiting the growth of Chlorella during the exposure period of 18-72 h. Diuron caused more toxicity as judged by growth rates than prometryn. Thalaba Creek at Merrywinebone was identified as the 'hotspot' for diuron and prometryn risk in the Gwydir catchment. The use of microplate assays coupled with probabilistic risk assessment is recommended for rapid assessment of ecotoxicity of indigenous species, allowing identification of locations in river catchments requiring environmental management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A psychometric appraisal of the DREEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammond Sean M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the Educational environment is a key determinant of a student centred curriculum. Evaluation of the educational environment is an important component of programme appraisal. In order to conduct such evaluation use of a comprehensive, valid and reliable instrument is essential. One of most widely used contemporary tools for evaluation of the learning environment is the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM. Apart from the initial psychometric evaluation of the DREEM, few published studies report its psychometric properties in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the DREEM measure in the context of medical education in Ireland and to explore the construct validity of the device. Methods 239 final year medical students were asked to complete the DREEM inventory. Anonymised responses were entered into a database. Data analysis was performed using PASW 18 and confirmatory factor analysis performed. Results Whilst the total DREEM score had an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha 0.89, subscale analysis shows that two subscales had sub-optimal internal consistency. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (using Fleming's indices shows an overall fit of 0.76, representing a weak but acceptable level of fit. 17 of the 50 items manifest fit indices less than 0.70. We sought the best fitting oblique solution to the 5-subscale structure, which showed large correlations, suggesting that the independence of the separate scales is open to question. Conclusions There has perhaps been an inadequate focus on establishing and maintaining the psychometric credentials of the DREEM. The present study highlights two concerns. Firstly, the internal consistency of the 5 scales is quite variable and, in our sample, appears rather low. Secondly, the construct validity is not well supported. We suggest that users of the DREEM will provide basic psychometric appraisal of the

  2. A psychometric appraisal of the DREEM

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hammond, Sean M


    Abstract Background The quality of the Educational environment is a key determinant of a student centred curriculum. Evaluation of the educational environment is an important component of programme appraisal. In order to conduct such evaluation use of a comprehensive, valid and reliable instrument is essential. One of most widely used contemporary tools for evaluation of the learning environment is the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM). Apart from the initial psychometric evaluation of the DREEM, few published studies report its psychometric properties in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the DREEM measure in the context of medical education in Ireland and to explore the construct validity of the device. Methods 239 final year medical students were asked to complete the DREEM inventory. Anonymised responses were entered into a database. Data analysis was performed using PASW 18 and confirmatory factor analysis performed. Results Whilst the total DREEM score had an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha 0.89), subscale analysis shows that two subscales had sub-optimal internal consistency. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (using Fleming\\'s indices) shows an overall fit of 0.76, representing a weak but acceptable level of fit. 17 of the 50 items manifest fit indices less than 0.70. We sought the best fitting oblique solution to the 5-subscale structure, which showed large correlations, suggesting that the independence of the separate scales is open to question. Conclusions There has perhaps been an inadequate focus on establishing and maintaining the psychometric credentials of the DREEM. The present study highlights two concerns. Firstly, the internal consistency of the 5 scales is quite variable and, in our sample, appears rather low. Secondly, the construct validity is not well supported. We suggest that users of the DREEM will provide basic psychometric appraisal of the device in future

  3. Use of a geomorphological transfer function to model design floods in small hillside catchments in semiarid Tunisia (United States)

    Nasri, S.; Cudennec, C.; Albergel, J.; Berndtsson, R.


    In the beginning of the 1990s, the Tunisian Ministry of Agriculture launched an ambitious program for constructing small hillside reservoirs in the northern and central region of the country. At present, more than 720 reservoirs have been created. They consist of small compacted earth dams supplied with a horizontal overflow weir. Due to lack of hydrological data and the area's extreme floods, however, it is very difficult to design the overflow weirs. Also, catchments are very sensitive to erosion and the reservoirs are rapidly silted up. Consequently, prediction of flood volumes for important rainfall events becomes crucial. Few hydrological observations, however, exist for the catchment areas. For this purpose a geomorphological model methodology is presented to predict shape and volume of hydrographs for important floods. This model is built around a production function that defines the net storm rainfall (portion of rainfall during a storm which reaches a stream channel as direct runoff) from the total rainfall (observed rainfall in the catchment) and a transfer function based on the most complete possible definition of the surface drainage system. Observed rainfall during 5-min time steps was used in the model. The model runoff generation is based on surface drainage characteristics which can be easily extracted from maps. The model was applied to two representative experimental catchments in central Tunisia. The conceptual rainfall-runoff model based on surface topography and drainage network was seen to reproduce observed runoff satisfactory. The calibrated model was used to estimate runoff from 5, 10, 20, and 50 year rainfall return periods regarding runoff volume, maximum runoff, as well as the general shape of the runoff hydrograph. Practical conclusions to design hill reservoirs and to extrapolate results using this model methodology for ungauged small catchments in semiarid Tunisia are made.

  4. Rainfall, runoff and sediment transport in a Mediterranean mountainous catchment. (United States)

    Tuset, J; Vericat, D; Batalla, R J


    The relation between rainfall, runoff, erosion and sediment transport is highly variable in Mediterranean catchments. Their relation can be modified by land use changes and climate oscillations that, ultimately, will control water and sediment yields. This paper analyses rainfall, runoff and sediment transport relations in a meso-scale Mediterranean mountain catchment, the Ribera Salada (NE Iberian Peninsula). A total of 73 floods recorded between November 2005 and November 2008 at the Inglabaga Sediment Transport Station (114.5 km(2)) have been analysed. Suspended sediment transport and flow discharge were measured continuously. Rainfall data was obtained by means of direct rain gauges and daily rainfall reconstructions from radar information. Results indicate that the annual sediment yield (2.3 t km(-1) y(-1) on average) and the flood-based runoff coefficients (4.1% on average) are low. The Ribera Salada presents a low geomorphological and hydrological activity compared with other Mediterranean mountain catchments. Pearson correlations between rainfall, runoff and sediment transport variables were obtained. The hydrological response of the catchment is controlled by the base flows. The magnitude of suspended sediment concentrations is largely correlated with flood magnitude, while sediment load is correlated with the amount of direct runoff. Multivariate analysis shows that total suspended load can be predicted by integrating rainfall and runoff variables. The total direct runoff is the variable with more weight in the equation. Finally, three main hydro-sedimentary phases within the hydrological year are defined in this catchment: (a) Winter, where the catchment produces only water and very little sediment; (b) Spring, where the majority of water and sediment is produced; and (c) Summer-Autumn, when little runoff is produced but significant amount of sediments is exported out of the catchment. Results show as land use and climate change may have an important

  5. Catchment Storage and Transport on Timescales from Minutes to Millennia (United States)

    Kirchner, J. W.


    Landscapes are characterized by preferential flow and pervasive heterogeneity on all scales. They therefore store and transmit water and solutes over a wide spectrum of time scales, with important implications for contaminant transport, weathering rates, and runoff chemistry. Theoretical analyses predict, and syntheses of age tracer data confirm, that waters in aquifers are older - often by orders of magnitude - than in the rivers that flow from them, and that this disconnect between water ages arises from aquifer heterogeneity. Recent theoretical studies also suggest that catchment transit time distributions are nonstationary, reflecting temporal variability in precipitation forcing, structural heterogeneity in catchments themselves, and the nonlinearity of the mechanisms controlling storage and transport in the subsurface. The challenge of empirically estimating these nonstationary transit time distributions in real-world catchments, however, has only begun to be explored. In recent years, long-term isotope time series have been collected in many research catchments, and new technologies have emerged that allow quasi-continuous measurements of isotopes in precipitation and streamflow. These new data streams create new opportunities to study how rainfall becomes streamflow following the onset of precipitation. Here I present novel methods for quantifying the fraction of current rainfall in streamflow across ensembles of precipitation events. Benchmark tests with nonstationary catchment models demonstrate that this approach quantitatively measures the short tail of the transit time distribution for a wide range of catchment response characteristics. In combination with reactive tracer time series, this approach can potentially be extended to measure short-term chemical reaction rates at the catchment scale. Applications using high-frequency tracer time series from several experimental catchments demonstrate the utility of the new approach outlined here.

  6. Prediction of Baseflow Index of Catchments using Machine Learning Algorithms (United States)

    Yadav, B.; Hatfield, K.


    We present the results of eight machine learning techniques for predicting the baseflow index (BFI) of ungauged basins using a surrogate of catchment scale climate and physiographic data. The tested algorithms include ordinary least squares, ridge regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso), elasticnet, support vector machine, gradient boosted regression trees, random forests, and extremely randomized trees. Our work seeks to identify the dominant controls of BFI that can be readily obtained from ancillary geospatial databases and remote sensing measurements, such that the developed techniques can be extended to ungauged catchments. More than 800 gauged catchments spanning the continental United States were selected to develop the general methodology. The BFI calculation was based on the baseflow separated from daily streamflow hydrograph using HYSEP filter. The surrogate catchment attributes were compiled from multiple sources including digital elevation model, soil, landuse, climate data, other publicly available ancillary and geospatial data. 80% catchments were used to train the ML algorithms, and the remaining 20% of the catchments were used as an independent test set to measure the generalization performance of fitted models. A k-fold cross-validation using exhaustive grid search was used to fit the hyperparameters of each model. Initial model development was based on 19 independent variables, but after variable selection and feature ranking, we generated revised sparse models of BFI prediction that are based on only six catchment attributes. These key predictive variables selected after the careful evaluation of bias-variance tradeoff include average catchment elevation, slope, fraction of sand, permeability, temperature, and precipitation. The most promising algorithms exceeding an accuracy score (r-square) of 0.7 on test data include support vector machine, gradient boosted regression trees, random forests, and extremely randomized

  7. Comparison of physically based catchment models for estimating Phosphorus losses


    Nasr, Ahmed Elssidig; Bruen, Michael


    As part of a large EPA-funded research project, coordinated by TEAGASC, the Centre for Water Resources Research at UCD reviewed the available distributed physically based catchment models with a potential for use in estimating phosphorous losses for use in implementing the Water Framework Directive. Three models, representative of different levels of approach and complexity, were chosen and were implemented for a number of Irish catchments. This paper reports on (i) the lessons and experience...

  8. The assessment of water resources in ungauged catchments in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Abimbola


    New hydrological insights for the region: Results of this study show that climate, physiography and land cover strongly influence the hydrology of catchments in Rwanda. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, the log-transformed models were found to predict the flow parameters more suitably. These models can be used for estimating the flow parameters in ungauged catchments in Rwanda and the methodology can be applied in any other region, as long as sufficient and good quality streamflow data is available.

  9. Streamflow response of a small forested catchment on different timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zabaleta


    Full Text Available The hydrological response of a catchment to rainfall on different timescales is result of a complex system involving a range of physical processes which may operate simultaneously and have different spatial and temporal influences. This paper presents the analysis of streamflow response of a small humid-temperate catchment (Aixola, 4.8 km2 in the Basque Country on different timescales and discusses the role of the controlling factors. Firstly, daily time series analysis was used to establish a hypothesis on the general functioning of the catchment through the relationship between precipitation and discharge on an annual and multiannual scale (2003–2008. Second, rainfall-runoff relationships and relationships among several hydrological variables, including catchment antecedent conditions, were explored at the event scale (222 events to check and improve the hypothesis. Finally, the evolution of electrical conductivity (EC during some of the monitored storm events (28 events was examined to identify the time origin of waters. Quick response of the catchment to almost all the rainfall events as well as a considerable regulation capacity was deduced from the correlation and spectral analyses. These results agree with runoff event scale data analysis; however, the event analysis revealed the non-linearity of the system, as antecedent conditions play a significant role in this catchment. Further, analysis at the event scale made possible to clarify factors controlling (precipitation, precipitation intensity and initial discharge the different aspects of the runoff response (runoff coefficient and discharge increase for this catchment. Finally, the evolution of EC of the waters enabled the time origin (event or pre-event waters of the quickflow to be established; specifically, the conductivity showed that pre-event waters usually represent a high percentage of the total discharge during runoff peaks. The importance of soil waters in the

  10. Negative Trauma Appraisals and PTSD Symptoms in Sri Lankan Adolescents. (United States)

    Ponnamperuma, Thyagi; Nicolson, Nancy A


    The cognitive model posits that negative appraisals play an important role in posttraumatic stress disorder, in children as well as in adults. This study examined correlates of negative appraisals in relation to trauma exposure and their relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in 414 Sri Lankan adolescents, aged 12 to 16, living in areas impacted in varying degrees by the 2004 tsunami. In 2008, participants completed measures of negative appraisals, lifetime traumatic events, posttraumatic stress symptoms, internalizing symptoms, ongoing adversity, and social support. The majority (70 %) of the participants reported multiple traumatic events; 25 % met DSM-IV criteria for full or partial PTSD. Adolescents who had experienced more severe events, abusive events, greater cumulative trauma, or greater current adversity reported more negative appraisals. In regression analyses controlling for known risk factors such as female gender, cumulative trauma, ongoing adversity, and low social support, negative appraisals were the best predictor of PTSS, explaining 22 % of the variance. This relationship appeared specific to PTSS, as negative appraisals did not predict internalizing symptoms. Findings confirm the link between negative cognitions concerning traumatic events and persistent PTSS in adolescents, but longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether appraisals contribute to symptom maintenance over time.

  11. Exams? Why worry? Interpreting anxiety as facilitative and stress appraisals. (United States)

    Strack, Juliane; Esteves, Francisco


    The present study examined why people differ in how they appraise the same stressful situation (an approaching exam). We explored whether interpreting anxiety as a facilitative emotion can affect the type of stress appraisal people make. One hundred and three undergraduate students took part in this study, which lasted for 10 days (leading up to an exam). The students completed a daily self-reported evaluation of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, and stress experienced. The findings suggest a process by which a stressful time can be experienced as motivating rather than threatening or emotionally exhausting. For example, interpreting anxiety as facilitative moderated the relationship between anxiety and stress appraisals. When interpreting their anxiety as facilitative, individuals showed a higher tendency to make challenge stress appraisals and a lower tendency to appraising the stressor as a threat. These differences were especially visible with high levels of anxiety. Furthermore, interpreting anxiety as facilitative was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion, but positively associated with the academic performance. These findings suggest an explanation why people differ in how they appraise the same stressor: how people interpret their anxiety may to a large part affect how they appraise difficult events and situations.

  12. Integrating Environmental and Socio-Economic Indicators of a Linked Catchment-Coastal System Using Variable Environmental Intensity (United States)

    Dymond, John R.; Davie, Tim J. A.; Fenemor, Andrew D.; Ekanayake, Jagath C.; Knight, Ben R.; Cole, Anthony O.; de Oca Munguia, Oscar Montes; Allen, Will J.; Young, Roger G.; Basher, Les R.; Dresser, Marc; Batstone, Chris J.


    Can we develop land use policy that balances the conflicting views of stakeholders in a catchment while moving toward long term sustainability? Adaptive management provides a strategy for this whereby measures of catchment performance are compared against performance goals in order to progressively improve policy. However, the feedback loop of adaptive management is often slow and irreversible impacts may result before policy has been adapted. In contrast, integrated modelling of future land use policy provides rapid feedback and potentially improves the chance of avoiding unwanted collapse events. Replacing measures of catchment performance with modelled catchment performance has usually required the dynamic linking of many models, both biophysical and socio-economic—and this requires much effort in software development. As an alternative, we propose the use of variable environmental intensity (defined as the ratio of environmental impact over economic output) in a loose coupling of models to provide a sufficient level of integration while avoiding significant effort required for software development. This model construct was applied to the Motueka Catchment of New Zealand where several biophysical (riverine water quantity, sediment, E. coli faecal bacteria, trout numbers, nitrogen transport, marine productivity) models, a socio-economic (gross output, gross margin, job numbers) model, and an agent-based model were linked. An extreme set of land use scenarios (historic, present, and intensive) were applied to this modelling framework. Results suggest that the catchment is presently in a near optimal land use configuration that is unlikely to benefit from further intensification. This would quickly put stress on water quantity (at low flow) and water quality ( E. coli). To date, this model evaluation is based on a theoretical test that explores the logical implications of intensification at an unlikely extreme in order to assess the implications of likely growth

  13. Use of 7Be as a sediment tracer: a scope for testing and refining key assumptions related to its adsorption on a catchment scale (United States)

    Ryken, Nick; Al-Barri, Bashar; Blake, Will; Taylor, Alex; Boeckx, Pascal; Verdoodt, Ann


    To date the use of Beryllium-7 (7Be) as a sediment tracer on catchment scale is largely understudied, although several studies applied the ratio 7Be/137Cs or 7Be/210Pbex for sediment source fingerprinting. Several key assumptions, (1) spatially uniform fallout, (2) immediate adsorption upon contact with the soil and (3) irreversible adsorption by the soil, must hold if 7Be is to be used as a sediment tracer. However, recent studies have raised questions about the validity of these assumptions in the changing environments on a catchment scale. In this study three representative soil types of the Mariaborrebeek catchment, a small watershed located in the Flemish Ardennes in Belgium, were collected to assess the adsorption rate of 7Be on the soil surface in this catchment. In a laboratory experiment, soil samples were equilibrated with a stable Be solution of 1 mg l-1 at a soil:solution ratio of 1:10 and the adsorption of Be was measured at different time intervals. Furthermore, different amendments were applied to assess the impact of soil pH, fertilizer and organic matter on the adsorption of Be. Preliminary results confirm a rapid and almost complete Be adsorption and a negative correlation between pH and Be adsorption. The results of this study might lead to the formulation of interpretation guidelines for the use of 7Be to assess short-term soil redistribution and sediment source fingerprinting on catchment scale.

  14. The politics of establishing catchment management agencies in South Africa: the case of the Breede-Overberg catchment management agency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard


    Full Text Available (BGCMA). We do so by applying the framework of adaptive comanagement and its institutional prescriptions: collaboration, experimentation, and a bioregional approach. We start by introducing the history of this catchment management agency (CMA...

  15. Hypothesis testing in the Maimai Catchments, Westland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.


    Seven experiments were carried out on the Maimai Catchments, Westland, to test assumptions about the nature of unsaturated zone waters flows in this humid environment. Hypotheses tested were: 1) that the deuterium (D) content of base flow water sources in small streams are constant at any given time, 2) that different soil moisture sampling methods give the same D contents, 3) that throughfall has the same D content as rainfall, 4) that saturation overland flow is mainly composed of current event rainfall, 5) that macropores are not connected into pipe networks, 6) that the underlying substrate (Old Man Gravel conglomerate) does not deliver water to the stream during rainfall events, and 7) that different near-stream water sources have the same D contents at a given time. Over 570 samples were collected of which 300 were analysed for deuterium in 1992-1993. This report gives the background, rationale, methods and brief results of the experiments. The results will be integrated with other measurements and written up in one or more papers for journal publication. (author). 18 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Mountaintop Removal Mining and Catchment Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Miller


    Full Text Available Mountaintop mining and valley fill (MTM/VF coal extraction, practiced in the Central Appalachian region, represents a dramatic landscape-scale disturbance. MTM operations remove as much as 300 m of rock, soil, and vegetation from ridge tops to access deep coal seams and much of this material is placed in adjacent headwater streams altering landcover, drainage network, and topography. In spite of its scale, extent, and potential for continued use, the effects MTM/VF on catchment hydrology is poorly understood. Previous reviews focus on water quality and ecosystem health impacts, but little is known about how MTM/VF affects hydrology, particularly the movement and storage of water, hence the hydrologic processes that ultimately control flood generation, water chemistry, and biology. This paper aggregates the existing knowledge about the hydrologic impacts of MTM/VF to identify areas where further scientific investigation is needed. While contemporary surface mining generally increases peak and total runoff, the limited MTM/VF studies reveal significant variability in hydrologic response. Significant knowledge gaps relate to limited understanding of hydrologic processes in these systems. Until the hydrologic impact of this practice is better understood, efforts to reduce water quantity and quality problems and ecosystem degradation will be difficult to achieve.

  17. Towards integrated catchment management, Whaingaroa, New Zealand. (United States)

    van Roon, M; Knight, S


    The paper examines progress towards integrated catchment management and sustainable agriculture at Whaingaroa (Raglan), New Zealand. Application of the Canadian "Atlantic Coastal Action Program" model (ACAP) has been only partially successful within New Zealand's bicultural setting. Even before the introduction of the ACAP process there existed strong motivation and leadership by various sectors of the community. A merging of resource management planning and implementation processes of the larger community and that of the Maori community has not occurred. Research carried out by Crown Research Institutes has clearly shown the actions required to make pastoral farming more sustainable. There are difficulties in the transference to, and uptake of, these techniques by farmers. An examination of the socio-economic context is required. There has been a requirement on local government bodies to tighten their focus as part of recent reform. This has occurred concurrently with a widening of vision towards integrated and sustainable forms of management. This (as well as a clear belief in empowerment of local communities) has lead to Council reliance on voluntary labour. There is a need to account for the dynamic interaction between social and political history and the geological and biophysical history of the area. As part of a re-examination of sustainable development, New Zealand needs to reconcile the earning of the bulk of its foreign income from primary production, with the accelerating ecological deficit that it creates. A sustainability strategy is required linking consumer demand, property rights and responsibilities.

  18. Preliminary ethical appraisal of a trial - what's it all about? (United States)

    Siipi, Helena

    Preliminary ethical appraisal of medical trials is often based on the following four principles: respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Preliminary ethical appraisal should, however, not be understood solely as application of these four principles to practice. Ethical committees will inevitably interpret the principles and make decisions about their reciprocal importance in connection with each trial. Reasoning does not always proceed from above towards practical recommendations of action, but can instead also be based on a moral rule or practice relating to a certain action. A good preliminary ethical appraisal will also take into account everyday standards of morality, law and shared moral values of the society.

  19. Ecohydrological modeling of a tropical tidal catchment exposed to anthropogenic pressure (United States)

    Lorenz, Malte; Zeunert, Stephanie; Meon, Günter


    The study area is the highly polluted estuary system of the Thi Vai river and its catchment, located in South Vietnam. It is part of Vietnam's core regions for the development of industrial and agricultural production. The middle and lower parts of the river form an estuary, which is strongly affected by the tide. As a result of untreated industrial waste water discharges, the Thi Vai river was considered as ecological dead from 1990 to 2008. Although the water quality of the Thi Vai has been improved due to waste water treatment and control, it must be still considered as polluted. These first successes could be rapidly negated by the ongoing development of industry, population and agriculture. Today the water quality management is solely focused on the industrial zones adjacent to the estuary. The contribution of the catchment to the water quality pollution is not considered yet. To quantify the pollution of the Thi Vai estuary and its catchment, a monitoring system for water quantity and quality was installed. The water quality of the Thi Vai estuary and its main tributaries is affected by elevated concentrations of NH4, NO2 and TSS and partly reduced DO concentrations. Within the German-Vietnamese BMBF research project EWATEC-COAST a model based management system was developed as an instrument for a sustainable improvement of the water quality of the Thi Vai estuary and the Thi Vai catchment. Among others, the system consists of the hydrodynamic water quality model DELFT 3D and the ecohydrological catchment model PANTA RHEI WQ. The ecohydrological model PANTA RHEI WQ was developed within the research project. The developed ecohydrological model allows a sub-daily time step and includes in-stream water quality procedures, accounting for the interaction of aquatic biomass, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, detritus and sediment. Therefore, the implemented water quality model overcomes deficits found in common ecohydrological models. Despite of the scarce data

  20. Demonstrating the viability and value of community-based monitoring schemes in catchment science (United States)

    Starkey, Eleanor; Parkin, Geoff; Quinn, Paul; Large, Andy


    Hydrological catchments are complex systems which need to be monitored over time in order to characterise their behaviour on a local level, model, implement mitigation measures and meet policy targets. Despite hydrometric monitoring techniques being well developed, data is often inadequate within rural areas. Local knowledge and experiences are also vital sources of information in this sector but they are not routinely harvested. Long-term evidence is required to provide stakeholders with confidence and innovation is required to fully engage with and inform the public. Citizen science and volunteered geographical information (VGI) projects are encouraging volunteers to participate in crowdsourcing activities and generate new knowledge, but they have not been fully investigated within catchment science. A citizen science approach has therefore been implemented within the 42km2 Haltwhistle Burn catchment (northern England) using effective engagement techniques. This catchment responds rapidly, experiences flash flood events, and like many, it does not benefit from any traditional monitoring equipment. Participation levels confirm that members of the public do want to monitor their local water environment, with flooding being a key driver. Regular 'River Watch' volunteers and passers-by are sharing their knowledge and monitoring rainfall, river levels, water quality parameters, sediment issues, flood events and performance of flood risk management features. This has enabled a variety of low-cost data collection and submission tools to be tested over a two year period. Training has encouraged good quality data to be collected and volunteers are ready to capture meaningful information during unexpected flood events. Although volunteers are capable of collecting quantitative information, photographs and videos are submitted more readily. Twitter has also been used to share real-time observations successfully. A traditional monitoring network has been running in parallel

  1. Catchment-scale groundwater recharge and vegetation water use efficiency (United States)

    Troch, P. A. A.; Dwivedi, R.; Liu, T.; Meira, A.; Roy, T.; Valdés-Pineda, R.; Durcik, M.; Arciniega, S.; Brena-Naranjo, J. A.


    Precipitation undergoes a two-step partitioning when it falls on the land surface. At the land surface and in the shallow subsurface, rainfall or snowmelt can either runoff as infiltration/saturation excess or quick subsurface flow. The rest will be stored temporarily in the root zone. From the root zone, water can leave the catchment as evapotranspiration or percolate further and recharge deep storage (e.g. fractured bedrock aquifer). Quantifying the average amount of water that recharges deep storage and sustains low flows is extremely challenging, as we lack reliable methods to quantify this flux at the catchment scale. It was recently shown, however, that for semi-arid catchments in Mexico, an index of vegetation water use efficiency, i.e. the Horton index (HI), could predict deep storage dynamics. Here we test this finding using 247 MOPEX catchments across the conterminous US, including energy-limited catchments. Our results show that the observed HI is indeed a reliable predictor of deep storage dynamics in space and time. We further investigate whether the HI can also predict average recharge rates across the conterminous US. We find that the HI can reliably predict the average recharge rate, estimated from the 50th percentile flow of the flow duration curve. Our results compare favorably with estimates of average recharge rates from the US Geological Survey. Previous research has shown that HI can be reliably estimated based on aridity index, mean slope and mean elevation of a catchment (Voepel et al., 2011). We recalibrated Voepel's model and used it to predict the HI for our 247 catchments. We then used these predicted values of the HI to estimate average recharge rates for our catchments, and compared them with those estimated from observed HI. We find that the accuracies of our predictions based on observed and predicted HI are similar. This provides an estimation method of catchment-scale average recharge rates based on easily derived catchment

  2. 7 CFR 1980.444 - Appraisal of property serving as collateral. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appraisal of property serving as collateral. 1980.444... Program § 1980.444 Appraisal of property serving as collateral. (a) Appraisal reports prepared by independent qualified fee appraisers will be required on all property that will serve as collateral. In the...

  3. 41 CFR 102-42.40 - When is an appraisal necessary? (United States)


    ... DISPOSAL OF FOREIGN GIFTS AND DECORATIONS General Provisions Appraisals § 102-42.40 When is an appraisal necessary? An appraisal is necessary when— (a) An employee indicates an interest in purchasing a gift or decoration. In this situation, the appraisal must be obtained before the gift or decoration is reported to...

  4. An Investigation into Appraisal Bias: The Role of Decision Support Tools in Debiasing Valuation Judgments (United States)

    Tidwell, Owen Alan


    Given the nature of the valuation task environment appraisers are often made aware of previous value opinions rendered by appraisers, commonly in the form of an historic appraisal. And, because an appraisal task involves the rendering of market value, a hypothetical, unobservable construct based on probabilities, direct feedback against this…

  5. Small Steps Forward Through Critical Appraisal (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis


    Full Text Available As a vocal proponent of evidence based information practice, I have actively encouraged my co‐workers and anyone else who might listen, to take small steps in order to move towards incorporating research evidence into their decision making. I prompt colleagues to search in databases for research articles that may be useful, gather these articles and incorporate research results as part of their decision making process. I am often told of the difficulties faced despite one’s best attempts to make their practice more evidence‐based. A major difficulty is access to the research itself since librarians and information professionals often lack access to databases and journals in our field, particularly those of us working outside of academic libraries. An even more daunting question is how to critically read the existing research to determine whether it is valuable in a specific situation. Not all research is good, and how do we sort out the good from the bad? This inaugural issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice brings us one small step closer to addressing some of these concerns by equipping practitioners with information to help in their decision making process. Every issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice will incorporate approximately 10 evidence summaries to help readers sort through recently published research and determine if that research was done well. Evidence summaries provide a critical appraisal synthesis for a specific research article, so that practitioners may more readily determine if the evidence in that research study is valid and reliable, and whether they can apply it to their own practice. Evidence summaries are indeed a small step, but an important one. Published in an open‐access forum, these summaries will address three barriers to evidence based practice that we have faced in the past. First of all, they will bring awareness of previously published research to readers who may

  6. Drought propagation and its relation with catchment biophysical characteristics (United States)

    Alvarez-Garreton, C. D.; Lara, A.; Garreaud, R. D.


    Droughts propagate in the hydrological cycle from meteorological to soil moisture to hydrological droughts. To understand the drivers of this process is of paramount importance since the economic and societal impacts in water resources are directly related with hydrological droughts (and not with meteorological droughts, which have been most studied). This research analyses drought characteristics over a large region and identify its main exogenous (climate forcing) and endogenous (biophysical characteristics such as land cover type and topography) explanatory factors. The study region is Chile, which covers seven major climatic subtypes according to Köppen system, it has unique geographic characteristics, very sharp topography and a wide range of landscapes and vegetation conditions. Meteorological and hydrological droughts (deficit in precipitation and streamflow, respectively) are characterized by their durations and standardized deficit volumes using a variable threshold method, over 300 representative catchments (located between 27°S and 50°S). To quantify the propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought, we propose a novel drought attenuation index (DAI), calculated as the ratio between the meteorological drought severity slope and the hydrological drought severity slope. DAI varies from zero (catchment that attenuates completely a meteorological drought) to one (the meteorological drought is fully propagated through the hydrological cycle). This novel index provides key (and comparable) information about drought propagation over a wide range of different catchments, which has been highlighted as a major research gap. Similar drought indicators across the wide range of catchments are then linked with catchment biophysical characteristics. A thorough compilation of land cover information (including the percentage of native forests, grass land, urban and industrial areas, glaciers, water bodies and no vegetated areas), catchment physical

  7. Understanding catchment dynamics through a Space-Society-Water trialectic (United States)

    Sutherland, Catherine; Jewitt, Graham; Risko, Susan; Hay, Ducan; Stuart-Hill, Sabine; Browne, Michelle


    Can healthy catchments be utilized to secure water for the benefit of society? This is a complex question as it requires an understanding of the connections and relations between biophysical, social, political, economic and governance dimensions over space and time in the catchment and must interrogate whether there is 'value' in investing in the catchment natural or ecological infrastructure (EI), how this should be done, where the most valuable EI is located, and whether an investment in EI will generate co-benefits socially, environmentally and economically. Here, we adopt a social ecological relations rather than systems approach to explore these interactions through development of a space-society-water trialectic. Trialectic thinking is challenging as it requires new epistemologies and it challenges conventional modes of thought. It is not ordered or fixed, but rather is constantly evolving, revealing the dynamic relations between the elements under exploration. The construction of knowledge, through detailed scientific research and social learning, which contributes to the understanding and achievement of sustainable water supply, water related resilient economic growth, greater social equity and justice in relation to water and the reduction of environmental risk is illustrated through research in the uMngeni Catchment, South Africa. Using four case studies as a basis, we construct the catchment level society-water-space trialectic as a way of connecting, assembling and comparing the understanding and knowledge that has been produced. The relations in the three elements of the trialectic are constructed through identifying, understanding and analysing the actors, discourses, knowledge, biophysical materialities, issues and spatial connections in the case studies. Together these relations, or multiple trajectories, are assembled to form the society-water-space trialectic, which illuminates the dominant relations in the catchment and hence reveal the leverage

  8. Facing the truth: An appraisal of the potential contributions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facing the truth: An appraisal of the potential contributions, paradoxes and challenges of implementing the United Nations conventions on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) in Nigeria.

  9. Managerial Competencies and the Managerial Performance Appraisal Process. (United States)

    Abraham, Steven E.; Karns, Lanny A.; Shaw, Kenneth; Mena, Manuel A.


    Human resource managers (n=277) identified six management competencies as critical: leadership, customer focus, results orientation, problem solving, communication skills, and teamwork. However, many companies do not assess these competencies in the management performance appraisal process. (Contains 22 references.) (SK)

  10. Enhancing Positive Reactions to Breast Cancer Risk Appraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochrane, Barbara


    .... Thus, this study seeks to: (1) assess the psychological distress of 350 women ages 50 to 85 who receive breast cancer risk appraisal and randomization to immediate or delayed group psychosocial counseling (2...

  11. Enhancing Positive Reactions to Breast Cancer Risk Appraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochrane, Barbara


    .... Thus, this study seeks to: (1) assess the psychological distress of 350 women ages 50 to 85 who receive breast cancer risk appraisal and randomization to immediate or delayed group psychosocial counseling; (2...

  12. 77 FR 40051 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Foundation March 2012 Grant Reimbursement Request. ASC Appraisal Foundation Grant Policy. How To Attend and... requests, the ASC may refuse attendance on that reasonable basis. The use of any video or audio tape...

  13. Appraisal of seven critical reading strategies employed by teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appraisal of seven critical reading strategies employed by teachers in Ogun State senior secondary schools to teach reading comprehension. ... as a result of the teachers' ability to engage the students in skilful and well- framed questions.

  14. 7 CFR 1781.14 - Planning, options, and appraisals. (United States)


    ... designated agent when a WS loan, WS advance or RCD loan is made. (d) Options and appraisals related to the purchase of real estate for which a WS loan, WS advance, or RCD loan is made must be developed in...

  15. "The nature of morality‟ in Gilbert Harman: As appraisal | Oyedola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "The nature of morality‟ in Gilbert Harman: As appraisal. ... characteristic of scientific beliefs, as espoused by Harman has not undermined the nature of ... Nevertheless, the study concedes that the fact that liar man's grounds are appealing, his ...

  16. An appraisal of the state fund and empowerment programme in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An appraisal of the state fund and empowerment programme in Nigeria. ... Distributive politics is one of the most important and controversial aspects of the policy ... all stakeholders in the federal polity should thread softly, be objective, rational, ...

  17. 38 CFR 36.4347 - Lender Appraisal Processing Program. (United States)


    ... appropriate corrective action(s) in the appraisal review process when discrepancies or problems are identified...) Fees. The Secretary may require mortgagees to pay an application fee and/or annual fees, including...

  18. 38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program. (United States)


    ... prescribe appropriate corrective action(s) in the appraisal review process when discrepancies or problems... of SAPP authority. (g) Fees. The Secretary will require servicers to pay a $100.00 application fee...

  19. Methodical features of appraisal of partial rights on land


    Makarova, V. V.; Semenenko, B. A.


    The theoretical and practical questions of appraisal of right for the permanent using lot lands, and rights for their lease, are examined. The methods of decision of the indicated tasks are offered in evaluation practice.

  20. 41 Appraisal of the Performance of Contingency Cost Provision for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology, 4, (1), December 2011. 41. Appraisal of the ... quantitative risks analysis in the determination of contingency fund. Therefore, to improve the ... the financial performance of constructed facilities ...

  1. 36 CFR 228.48 - Appraisal and measurement. (United States)


    ... based on knowledge of the extent of the deposit, quality of material, and economic value. A sale must not be made at less than the appraised value which may be expressed as either price per cubic yard or...

  2. Appraisal of biochemical and genetic diversity of mango cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appraisal of biochemical and genetic diversity of mango cultivars using molecular markers. ... Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the oldest fruit crops and is broadly cultivated worldwide. To determine the level of ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  3. An Appraisal Of The Operation And Management Of Unit Trust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Appraisal Of The Operation And Management Of Unit Trust Schemes In Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... instead of being invested in shares or in money market instruments as a result of widespread financial illiteracy.

  4. Naturalizing aesthetics: brain areas for aesthetic appraisal across sensory modalities. (United States)

    Brown, Steven; Gao, Xiaoqing; Tisdelle, Loren; Eickhoff, Simon B; Liotti, Mario


    We present here the most comprehensive analysis to date of neuroaesthetic processing by reporting the results of voxel-based meta-analyses of 93 neuroimaging studies of positive-valence aesthetic appraisal across four sensory modalities. The results demonstrate that the most concordant area of activation across all four modalities is the right anterior insula, an area typically associated with visceral perception, especially of negative valence (disgust, pain, etc.). We argue that aesthetic processing is, at its core, the appraisal of the valence of perceived objects. This appraisal is in no way limited to artworks but is instead applicable to all types of perceived objects. Therefore, one way to naturalize aesthetics is to argue that such a system evolved first for the appraisal of objects of survival advantage, such as food sources, and was later co-opted in humans for the experience of artworks for the satisfaction of social needs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An appraisal of construction management practice in Nigeria | Ugwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An appraisal of construction management practice in Nigeria. ... 108 questionnaires were distributed to the key construction actors as follows: 45 to ... conflicting design information, effective co-ordination of resources, critical path method, ...

  6. A scoping review of rapid review methods. (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Antony, Jesmin; Zarin, Wasifa; Strifler, Lisa; Ghassemi, Marco; Ivory, John; Perrier, Laure; Hutton, Brian; Moher, David; Straus, Sharon E


    Rapid reviews are a form of knowledge synthesis in which components of the systematic review process are simplified or omitted to produce information in a timely manner. Although numerous centers are conducting rapid reviews internationally, few studies have examined the methodological characteristics of rapid reviews. We aimed to examine articles, books, and reports that evaluated, compared, used or described rapid reviews or methods through a scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, internet websites of rapid review producers, and reference lists were searched to identify articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened literature search results and abstracted data from included studies. Descriptive analysis was conducted. We included 100 articles plus one companion report that were published between 1997 and 2013. The studies were categorized as 84 application papers, seven development papers, six impact papers, and four comparison papers (one was included in two categories). The rapid reviews were conducted between 1 and 12 months, predominantly in Europe (58 %) and North America (20 %). The included studies failed to report 6 % to 73 % of the specific systematic review steps examined. Fifty unique rapid review methods were identified; 16 methods occurred more than once. Streamlined methods that were used in the 82 rapid reviews included limiting the literature search to published literature (24 %) or one database (2 %), limiting inclusion criteria by date (68 %) or language (49 %), having one person screen and another verify or screen excluded studies (6 %), having one person abstract data and another verify (23 %), not conducting risk of bias/quality appraisal (7 %) or having only one reviewer conduct the quality appraisal (7 %), and presenting results as a narrative summary (78 %). Four case studies were identified that compared the results of rapid reviews to systematic reviews. Three studies found that the conclusions between

  7. Heavy rainfalls, floods and landslides in the small catchment of the Bend Carpathians and Subcarpathians (Romania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balteanu, Dan; Serban, Mihaela


    The small catchments of the Bend Carpathians and of the adjacent hilly region are affected by a great diversity of geomorphic processes differing in terms of geological structure, terrain configuration, seismic activity and human pressure. The region is developed on Paleogene flysch and Neogene molasse deposits and is characterised by an intense tectonic mobility (neotectonic uplift movements, strong earthquakes). We have chosen two catchments with a surface of 20-30 km 2 in which we tried to evaluate the sediments transfers during extreme events on the slope, from the slope downwards the channels and along the channels. The two catchments are characterised by some of the highest sediment yield in the region. Long-term measurements carried out in the region have revealed that landslides and mud flows are the most common processes of sediment transfer on the slopes. The reactivation of the mass movements is related to heavy rainfalls (over 100 mm in 24 hours) to long lasting rainy periods and to combined rainfalls and rapid snow melting. The denudation rates through mass movements were estimated in 6 experimental plots, indicating values between 1-10 mm in the years with high amount of,precipitations with a return period of 5-7 years and 40-70 mm in extreme conditions with a return period of 50 years. Sediment delivery ratios are controlled by rock erodibility and the runoff regime. A sediment yield multivariate statistical analysis of 27 third order drainage basins on flysch and molasse deposits indicates that total erosion is four times higher in the hilly region than in the flysch mountains (Ichim, Raldoane, 1987).(Author)

  8. Runoff of small rocky headwater catchments: Field observations and hydrological modeling (United States)

    Gregoretti, C.; Degetto, M.; Bernard, M.; Crucil, G.; Pimazzoni, A.; De Vido, G.; Berti, M.; Simoni, A.; Lanzoni, S.


    In dolomitic headwater catchments, intense rainstorms of short duration produce runoff discharges that often trigger debris flows on the scree slopes at the base of rock cliffs. In order to measure these discharges, we placed a measuring facility at the outlet (elevation 1770 m a.s.l.) of a small, rocky headwater catchment (area ˜0.032 km2, average slope ˜320%) located in the Venetian Dolomites (North Eastern Italian Alps). The facility consists of an approximately rectangular basin, ending with a sharp-crested weir. Six runoff events were recorded in the period 2011-2014, providing a unique opportunity for characterizing the hydrological response of the catchment. The measured hydrographs display impulsive shapes, with an abrupt raise up to the peak, followed by a rapidly decreasing tail, until a nearly constant plateau is eventually reached. This behavior can be simulated by means of a distributed hydrological model if the excess rainfall is determined accurately. We show that using the Soil Conservation Service Curve-Number (SCS-CN) method and assuming a constant routing velocity invariably results in an underestimated peak flow and a delayed peak time. A satisfactory prediction of the impulsive hydrograph shape, including peak value and timing, is obtained only by combining the SCS-CN procedure with a simplified version of the Horton equation, and simulating runoff routing along the channel network through a matched diffusivity kinematic wave model. The robustness of the proposed methodology is tested through a comparison between simulated and observed timings of runoff or debris flow occurrence in two neighboring alpine basins.

  9. Time-varying parameter models for catchments with land use change: the importance of model structure (United States)

    Pathiraja, Sahani; Anghileri, Daniela; Burlando, Paolo; Sharma, Ashish; Marshall, Lucy; Moradkhani, Hamid


    Rapid population and economic growth in Southeast Asia has been accompanied by extensive land use change with consequent impacts on catchment hydrology. Modeling methodologies capable of handling changing land use conditions are therefore becoming ever more important and are receiving increasing attention from hydrologists. A recently developed data-assimilation-based framework that allows model parameters to vary through time in response to signals of change in observations is considered for a medium-sized catchment (2880 km2) in northern Vietnam experiencing substantial but gradual land cover change. We investigate the efficacy of the method as well as the importance of the chosen model structure in ensuring the success of a time-varying parameter method. The method was used with two lumped daily conceptual models (HBV and HyMOD) that gave good-quality streamflow predictions during pre-change conditions. Although both time-varying parameter models gave improved streamflow predictions under changed conditions compared to the time-invariant parameter model, persistent biases for low flows were apparent in the HyMOD case. It was found that HyMOD was not suited to representing the modified baseflow conditions, resulting in extreme and unrealistic time-varying parameter estimates. This work shows that the chosen model can be critical for ensuring the time-varying parameter framework successfully models streamflow under changing land cover conditions. It can also be used to determine whether land cover changes (and not just meteorological factors) contribute to the observed hydrologic changes in retrospective studies where the lack of a paired control catchment precludes such an assessment.

  10. Time-varying parameter models for catchments with land use change: the importance of model structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pathiraja


    Full Text Available Rapid population and economic growth in Southeast Asia has been accompanied by extensive land use change with consequent impacts on catchment hydrology. Modeling methodologies capable of handling changing land use conditions are therefore becoming ever more important and are receiving increasing attention from hydrologists. A recently developed data-assimilation-based framework that allows model parameters to vary through time in response to signals of change in observations is considered for a medium-sized catchment (2880 km2 in northern Vietnam experiencing substantial but gradual land cover change. We investigate the efficacy of the method as well as the importance of the chosen model structure in ensuring the success of a time-varying parameter method. The method was used with two lumped daily conceptual models (HBV and HyMOD that gave good-quality streamflow predictions during pre-change conditions. Although both time-varying parameter models gave improved streamflow predictions under changed conditions compared to the time-invariant parameter model, persistent biases for low flows were apparent in the HyMOD case. It was found that HyMOD was not suited to representing the modified baseflow conditions, resulting in extreme and unrealistic time-varying parameter estimates. This work shows that the chosen model can be critical for ensuring the time-varying parameter framework successfully models streamflow under changing land cover conditions. It can also be used to determine whether land cover changes (and not just meteorological factors contribute to the observed hydrologic changes in retrospective studies where the lack of a paired control catchment precludes such an assessment.

  11. Intra-basin variability of snowmelt water balance calculations in a subarctic catchment (United States)

    McCartney, Stephen E.; Carey, Sean K.; Pomeroy, John W.


    The intra-basin variability of snowmelt and melt-water runoff hydrology in an 8 km2 subarctic alpine tundra catchment was examined for the 2003 melt period. The catchment, Granger Creek, is within the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon, which is typical of mountain subarctic landscapes in northwestern Canada. The study catchment was segmented into nine internally uniform zones termed hydrological response units (HRUs) based on their similar hydrological, physiographic, vegetation and soil properties. Snow accumulation exhibited significant variability among the HRUs, with greatest snow water equivalent in areas of tall shrub vegetation. Melt began first on southerly exposures and at lower elevations, yet average melt rates for the study period varied little among HRUs with the exception of those with steep aspects. In HRUs with capping organic soils, melt water first infiltrated this surface horizon, satisfying its storage capacity, and then percolated into the frozen mineral substrate. Infiltration and percolation into frozen mineral soils was restricted where melt occurred rapidly and organic soils were thin; in this case, melt-water delivery rates exceeded the frozen mineral soil infiltration rate, resulting in high runoff rates. In contrast, where there were slower melt rates and thick organic soils, infiltration was unlimited and runoff was suppressed. The snow water equivalent had a large impact on runoff volume, as soil storage capacity was quickly surpassed in areas of deep snow, diverting the bulk of melt water laterally to the drainage network. A spatially distributed water balance indicated that the snowmelt freshet was primarily controlled by areas with tall shrub vegetation that accumulate large quantities of snow and by alpine areas with no capping organic soils. The intra-basin water balance variability has important implications for modelling freshet in hydrological models.

  12. Appraisal tools for clinical practice guidelines: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Siering

    Full Text Available Clinical practice guidelines can improve healthcare processes and patient outcomes, but are often of low quality. Guideline appraisal tools aim to help potential guideline users in assessing guideline quality. We conducted a systematic review of publications describing guideline appraisal tools in order to identify and compare existing tools.Among others we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1995 to May 2011 for relevant primary and secondary publications. We also handsearched the reference lists of relevant publications. On the basis of the available literature we firstly generated 34 items to be used in the comparison of appraisal tools and grouped them into thirteen quality dimensions. We then extracted formal characteristics as well as questions and statements of the appraisal tools and assigned them to the items.We identified 40 different appraisal tools. They covered between three and thirteen of the thirteen possible quality dimensions and between three and 29 of the possible 34 items. The main focus of the appraisal tools were the quality dimensions "evaluation of evidence" (mentioned in 35 tools; 88%, "presentation of guideline content" (34 tools; 85%, "transferability" (33 tools; 83%, "independence" (32 tools; 80%, "scope" (30 tools; 75%, and "information retrieval" (29 tools; 73%. The quality dimensions "consideration of different perspectives" and "dissemination, implementation and evaluation of the guideline" were covered by only twenty (50% and eighteen tools (45% respectively.Most guideline appraisal tools assess whether the literature search and the evaluation, synthesis and presentation of the evidence in guidelines follow the principles of evidence-based medicine. Although conflicts of interest and norms and values of guideline developers, as well as patient involvement, affect the trustworthiness of guidelines, they are currently insufficiently considered. Greater focus should be

  13. SCAMPI Lead Appraiser (Service Mark) Body of Knowledge (SLA BOK) (United States)


    University. 34 | CMU/SEI-2007-TR-019 CC 3 Project Planning and Management Moeller, Robert R. COSO Enterprise Risk Management : Understanding the...appraisal participants) to specific amounts of time when the sponsor agrees to having the appraisal. CMP 3.1.2 Employing risk management techniques...contingency and management reserves appropriately • Ensuring the risk management strategy accounts for the OU’s process improvement history • Assessing

  14. The IAEA Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicke, G.J.


    Representatives of all Member States of the IAEA meet once a year in September at the General Conference in Vienna, Austria, to consider and approve the Agency's programme and budget and to address matters brought before it by the Board of Governors, the Director General, or Member States. In September 1998 the General Conference adopted resolution GC(42)/RES/13 on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Materials. In adopting that resolution the General Conference recognized that compliance with regulations that take account of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (the IAEA Transport Regulations) is providing a high level of safety during the transport of radioactive material. Good compliance requires that the regulations are implemented effectively. The General Conference therefore requested the IAEA Secretariat to provide a service for carrying out, at the request of any State, an appraisal of the implementation of the Transport Regulations by that State. In response to this request the Director General of the IAEA offered such an appraisal service to all States in letter J1.01.Circ, dated 10 December 1998. The first Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS) was undertaken and completed at the request of Slovenia in 1999. A report on the results of that appraisal was published and released for general distribution in the early fall of 1999. In each of the General Conferences since 1998, resolutions focused on transport safety have commended the Secretariat for establishing the TranSAS, commended those States that have requested the appraisal service and encouraged other States to avail themselves of this service see GC(43)/RES/11, GC(44)/RES/17, GC(45)/RES/10, GC(46)/RES/9 and GC(47)/RES/7. Six appraisals have been carried out to date as follows: Slovenia, Brazil, United Kingdom, Turkey, Panama and France. This presentation provides an overview of the Transport Safety Appraisal Service and summarizes the major findings from the

  15. The IAEA Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicke, G.J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)


    Representatives of all Member States of the IAEA meet once a year in September at the General Conference in Vienna, Austria, to consider and approve the Agency's programme and budget and to address matters brought before it by the Board of Governors, the Director General, or Member States. In September 1998 the General Conference adopted resolution GC(42)/RES/13 on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Materials. In adopting that resolution the General Conference recognized that compliance with regulations that take account of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (the IAEA Transport Regulations) is providing a high level of safety during the transport of radioactive material. Good compliance requires that the regulations are implemented effectively. The General Conference therefore requested the IAEA Secretariat to provide a service for carrying out, at the request of any State, an appraisal of the implementation of the Transport Regulations by that State. In response to this request the Director General of the IAEA offered such an appraisal service to all States in letter J1.01.Circ, dated 10 December 1998. The first Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS) was undertaken and completed at the request of Slovenia in 1999. A report on the results of that appraisal was published and released for general distribution in the early fall of 1999. In each of the General Conferences since 1998, resolutions focused on transport safety have commended the Secretariat for establishing the TranSAS, commended those States that have requested the appraisal service and encouraged other States to avail themselves of this service see GC(43)/RES/11, GC(44)/RES/17, GC(45)/RES/10, GC(46)/RES/9 and GC(47)/RES/7. Six appraisals have been carried out to date as follows: Slovenia, Brazil, United Kingdom, Turkey, Panama and France. This presentation provides an overview of the Transport Safety Appraisal Service and summarizes the major findings from

  16. Airport Catchment Area- Example Warsaw Modlin Airport (United States)

    Błachut, Jakub


    The form and functions of airports change over time, just like the form and function of cities. Historically, airports are understood as places of aircraft landing, control towers operation and location of other facilities used for communication and transport. This traditional model is giving way to the concept of so-called Airport Cities, based on the assumption that, in addition to its infrastructure and air services, also non-air services are performed, constituting a source of income. At the same time, their reach and impact on the economy of the areas around the airport are expanding. Idea City Airport appeared in the United States in the late twentieth century. The author is J. D. Kasarda, he believes that it is around these big air ports that airport cities develop. In the world, there are currently 45 areas which can be classified in this category, out of which 12 are located in Europe. Main air traffic hubs in Europe are not only the most important passenger traffic junctions, but also largest centres dispatching goods (cargo). It can be said that, among the 30 largest airports, 24 are the largest in terms of both passenger and freight traffic. These airports cover up to 89.9% of the total freight transport of all European airports. At the same time, they serve 56.9% of all passengers in Europe. Based on the concept of Airport City was developed document THE INTEGRATED REGIONAL POLYCENTRIC DEVELOPMENT PLANS FOR THE WARSAW MODLIN AIRPORT CATCHMENT AREA. The plan developed takes into account the findings of the Mazovian voivodeship spatial development plan, specifying the details of its provisions where possible. The development is the first step for the implementation of the concept of the Modlin Airport City. The accomplishment of this ambitious vision will only be possible with hard work of a number of entities, as well as taking into account the former Modlin Fortress, currently under revitalisation, in concepts and plans.

  17. Enhancing community role in catchment area of cascade-pond system at the campus of Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitri Caya


    Full Text Available The population in the catchment area of Universitas Indonesia (UI campus cascade-pond system is growing rapidly. The rapid growth of population increases the activities intensity in the catchment area, so that a better water resource management is urgently needed. The Dublin Principles in Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM among others says that water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, which involves users, planners and policymakers at all levels. The Watershed Stewardship Program is one of the Eight-Tool for Watershed Protection developed by Center for Watershed Protection. Community as the main role holder, besides as beneficiary, is also as planner and executor of the program. The study aims to facilitate community in designing the activities towards water-friendly neighborhood, in the framework of community-potential-based watershed management, to increase the health of UI aquatic system and its catchment area. A combination of Participatory Action Research and Appreciative Inquiry method is applied. The required data and information is collected through field survey and focus group discussion (FGD. Field survey is conducted by interviewing random population inside the catchment area to get the behavior pattern overview of the community. FGD aims to unite the stakeholder and discuss their knowledge and potencies.

  18. The effects of conscientiousness on the appraisals of daily stressors. (United States)

    Gartland, Nicola; O'Connor, Daryl B; Lawton, Rebecca


    Conscientiousness (C) is positively associated with health and longevity although the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not fully understood. Stress may play a role in explaining the C-longevity relationship. This study investigated whether C predicted the cognitive appraisals of daily stressors/hassles. Participants (N=102) completed measures of C and cognitive appraisal in relation to the most stressful hassle they had experienced in the last 7 days. Correlational analysis revealed that Total C, Order and Industriousness were positively correlated with primary appraisals, and Responsibility was positively correlated with secondary appraisals. The facets of C were then entered into hierarchical regression models, controlling for age and gender. This demonstrated that Order (β=0.27, paccounting for 15.8% of the variance. Responsibility significantly predicted secondary appraisals (β=0.44, paccounting for 16.3% of the variance. These findings indicate that higher Order and Industriousness are related to having a greater stake in daily stressors, whereas higher Responsibility is related to greater confidence in one's ability to deal with daily stressors. These results are the first demonstration that C is related to the appraisals of daily hassles and suggest that C may moderate the experience of stress in daily life. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Alienation appraisals distinguish adults diagnosed with DID from PTSD. (United States)

    DePrince, Anne P; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Dorahy, Martin J


    Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current study evaluated whether any of 6 trauma-related appraisals distinguished adults diagnosed with DID from those diagnosed with PTSD. To accomplish this, we first examined the basic psychometric properties of a Dutch-translated short-form of the Trauma Appraisals Questionnaire (TAQ) in healthy control (n = 57), PTSD (n = 27) and DID (n = 12) samples. The short-form Dutch translation of the TAQ showed good internal reliability and criterion-related validity for all 6 subscales (betrayal, self-blame, fear, alienation, shame, anger). Of the 6 subscales, the alienation appraisal subscale specifically differentiated DID from PTSD, with the former group reporting more alienation. Abuse-related appraisals that emphasize disconnection from self and others may contribute to reported problems of memory and identity common in DID. The current findings suggest that addressing experiences of alienation may be particularly important in treatment for clients diagnosed with DID. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Good Appraisal Toolkit for Primary Care Chambers Ruth et al The Good Appraisal Toolkit for Primary Care 189pp Radcliffe Publishing 9781857756029 1857756029. (United States)


    The principles and frameworks demonstrated in this book could be used in many other healthcare settings. The text is divided neatly into nine chapters and addresses practical issues such as being an effective appraiser, developing and demonstrating competence, linking appraisal with career development, and evaluation of the appraisal process. The comprehensive approach to all aspects of appraisal makes this a must-have book for all health professionals and managers undertaking appraisals. It should also appeal to clinical governance leads and individuals being appraised. There are excellent tips on how to prepare for appraisals and how to link this with reflection, lifelong learning, career direction, and so on. The book is well referenced and contains an appendix with useful examples for the appraiser.

  1. Technical Safety Appraisal of the Pinellas Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report presents the Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) of the Pinellas Plant in Pinellas County, Florida. The plant is owned and controlled by the US Department of Energy and operated by General Electric Neutron Devices (GEND). The TSA was performed during the period January 15--31, 1989, in support of a Tiger Team Assessment which occurred during the period January 15 to February 2, 1989. The TSA provided the Safety and Health Subteam input to the Tiger Team Assessment. The completion of the assessment process includes: (1) submission of the Team's preliminary findings and concerns, in a Draft Report, to the Manager, Albuquerque Operations Office and to the site contractors at the conclusion of the onsite assessment; (2) review of the Draft Report for technical and factual accuracy; incorporation of the appropriate review comments, suggested changes, and modifications, as well as input from all interested Program Secretarial Offices; preparation of a draft Action Plan by the Albuquerque Operations Office to address the Concerns, and submittal of that Action Plan through the Program Office to ES ampersand H for their review and comment. The Secretary approved the final Action Plan on December 16, 1990, and directed its implementation. The comments and suggestions of the Program Secretarial Offices, the Operations Office, and the site contractor have been incorporated, as appropriate, in this report prior to its publication

  2. Spent fuel storage options: a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Bale, M.G.


    The delayed decisions on nuclear fuel reprocessing strategies in the USA and other countries have forced the development of new long-term irradiated fuel storage techniques, to allow a larger volume of fuel to be held on the nuclear station site after removal from the reactor. The nuclear power industry has responded to the challenge by developing several viable options for long-term onsite storage, which can be employed individually or in tandem. They are: densification of storage in the existing spent fuel pool; building another fuel pool facility at the plant site; onsite cask park, and on site vault clusters. Desirable attributes of a storage option are: Safety: minimise the number of fuel handling steps; Economy: minimise total installed, and O and M cost; Security: protection from anti-nuclear protesters; Site adaptability: available site space, earthquake characteristics of the region and so on; Non-intrusiveness: minimise required modifications to existing plant systems; Modularisation: afford the option to adapt a modular approach for staged capital outlays; and Maturity: extent of industry experience with the technology. A critical appraisal is made of each of the four aforementioned storage options in the light of these criteria. (2 figures, 1 table, 4 references) (Author)

  3. An annual performance appraisal for CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    The March Council session is the occasion for CERN’s annual performance appraisal, but instead of the MARS form familiar to CERN staff, the lab’s working document is an Annual Progress Report, linked to the Medium-Term Plan, matching achievements to objectives. This year, I think it’s fair to say, we were firmly able to tick the ‘achieved’ box.   Top of the list of objectives was the LHC, which exceeded expectations in 2011 by delivering over five times the anticipated luminosity for protons while improving the lead-ion integrated luminosity by an order of magnitude compared to 2010.  As a result, the experiments published over 190 papers and made a staggering 1900 conference presentations. Underpinning this was the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, which routinely performs so well that we hardly notice it's there. Non-LHC physics also had its day in the sun in 2011, with experiments at the PS, SPS, AD, n_TOF and ISOLDE, as well ...

  4. How to transform economics? A philosophical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Kellecioglu


    Full Text Available Ten years after the global financial crisis there is hardly any evidence that the theories, teaching and policies of mainstream economics have changed. This paper is an attempt to contribute to the greater understanding of this persistence, but also to the discussion on what the requirements are to materialise a transformation in economics, given the dismal outcomes in the world economy. The analytical approach of the paper is to utilise relevant philosophical accounts that point out attributes of dominant discourses, and methodological requirements to supersede an already dominant discourse. The objective is to contribute to an improved understanding of factors that obstruct or construct transformations in a knowledge field such as economics; and thereby contribute to transformation efforts, preferably for a more pluralist and emancipatory economics. Given the complexities and the tensions between different philosophical positions, the conclusions of this appraisal are summarised into five criteria that appear essential to realise a successful transformation in economics: critical juncture; dissimilarity; scholar validation; sensibility; and external power. It is suggested to revise efforts to fulfil these criteria as much, and as soon as possible, given the importance and urgency of changing the trajectory of our economies and societies.

  5. CEO performance appraisal: review and recommendations. (United States)

    Newman, J F; Tyler, L; Dunbar, D M


    CEO performance appraisal (PA) is very valuable to an organization, but the chances of obtaining a PA of high quality decrease as executive responsibility increases. The realities of CEO PA are that it: (1) is inevitable; (2) is creative and complex; (3) involves politics; and (4) has a significant effect on the organization and the executive. PA is conducted for legal and social requirements, to enhance communication, to provide opportunities for improvement, and to relate performance to compensation. This article discusses several problems with chief executive officer (CEO) PA and the contemporary approaches that seek to improve it. Three fundamental areas for evaluation are identified: (1) organizational success; (2) areawide health status; and (3) professional role fulfillment. These provide an outline for successful healthcare PA. In addition to a discussion of the strategic considerations behind a successful CEO PA system, several recommendations are offered for the implementation of the annual evaluation process. The final goal of CEO PA is to link its results to CEO incentive compensation. It is strongly recommended that some portion of the CEO's salary directly hinge on his performance in two critical areas: organizational effectiveness and community health status.

  6. Nitrogen attenuation along delivery pathways in agricultural catchments (United States)

    McAleer, Eoin; Mellander, Per-Erik; Coxon, Catherine; Richards, Karl G.


    Hillslope hydrologic systems and in particular near-stream saturated zones are active sites of nitrogen (N) biogeochemical dynamics. The efficiency of N removal and the ratio of reaction products (nitrous oxide and dinitrogen) in groundwater is highly variable and depends upon aquifer hydrology, mineralogy, dissolved oxygen, energy sources and redox chemistry. There are large uncertainties in the closing of N budgets in agricultural catchments. Spatial and temporal variability in groundwater physico-chemistry, catchment hydrology and land-use gives rise to hotspots and hot moments of N attenuation. In addition the production, consumption and movement of denitrification products remains poorly understood. The focus of this study is to develop a holistic understanding of N dynamics in groundwater as it moves from the top of the hillslope to the stream. This includes saturated groundwater flow, exchange at the groundwater-surface water interface and hyporheic zone flow. This project is being undertaken in two ca. 10km2 Irish catchments, characterised by permeable soils. One catchment is dominated by arable land overlying slate bedrock and the other by grassland overlying sandstone. Multi-level monitoring wells have been installed at the upslope, midslope and bottom of each hillslope. The piezometers are screened to intercept the subsoil, weathered bedrock and competent bedrock zones. Groundwater samples for nitrate (NO3-N) nitrite (NO2-N), ammonium (NH4-N) and total nitrogen are collected on a monthly basis while dissolved gas concentrations are collected seasonally. Groundwater NO3-N profiles from monitoring data to date in both catchments differ markedly. Although the two catchments had similar 3 year mean concentrations of 6.89 mg/L (arable) and 6.24 mg/L (grassland), the grassland catchment had higher spatial and temporal variation. The arable catchment showed relatively homogenous NO3-N concentrations in all layers and zones (range: 1.2 - 12.13 mg/L, SD = 1.60 mg

  7. Carbon redistribution by erosion processes in an intensively disturbed catchment (United States)

    Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Martínez-Mena, María; Pérez Cutillas, Pedro; de Vente, Joris; Barberá, Gonzalo G.; Mosch, Wouter; Navarro Cano, Jose Antonio; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana


    Understanding how organic carbon moves with sediments along the fluvial system is crucial to close catchment scale carbon budgets. Especially challenging is the analysis of organic carbon dynamics during fluvial transport in heterogeneous, fragile and disturbed environments with ephemeral and intense hydrological pulses, typical of Mediterranean conditions. This paper explores the catchment scale organic carbon redistribution by lateral flows in extreme Mediterranean environmental conditions from a geomorphological perspective. The study area is a catchment (Cárcavo) in SE Spain with a semiarid climate, erodible lithologies, shallow soils, and highly disturbed by agricultural terraces, land levelling, reforestations and construction of check-dams. To increase understanding of erosion induced catchment scale organic carbon redistribution, we studied the subcatchments of 8 check-dams distributed along the catchment main channel in detail. We determined 137Cs, physicochemical characteristics and organic carbon pools of soils and sediments deposited behind each check-dam, performed spatial analysis of properties of the catchment and buffer areas around check-dams, and carried out geomorphological analysis of the slope-channel connections. Soils showed very low Total Organic Carbon (TOC) values oscillating between 15.2 and 4.4 g Kg-1 for forest and agricultural soils, respectively. Sediments mobilized by erosion were poor in TOC compared to the eroded (forest) soils (6.6±0.7 g Kg-1), and the redistribution of organic carbon through the catchment, especially of the Mineral Associated Organic Carbon (MAC) pool, showed the same pattern as clay particles and 137Cs. The TOC erosion rates (0.031±0.03 Mg ha-1 y-1) were comparable to others reported for subhumid Mediterranean catchments and to those modelled worldwide for pasture land. Those lateral fluxes were equivalent to 10.4 % of the TOC stock from the topsoil at the moment of the check-dam construction and

  8. The Influence of temporal sampling regime on the WFD classification of catchments within the Eden Demonstration Test Catchment Project (United States)

    Jonczyk, Jennine; Haygarth, Phil; Quinn, Paul; Reaney, Sim


    A high temporal resolution data set from the Eden Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) project is used to investigate the processes causing pollution and the influence of temporal sampling regime on the WFD classification of three catchments. This data highlights WFD standards may not be fit for purpose. The Eden DTC project is part of a UK government-funded project designed to provide robust evidence regarding how diffuse pollution can be cost-effectively controlled to improve and maintain water quality in rural river catchments. The impact of multiple water quality parameters on ecosystems and sustainable food production are being studied at the catchment scale. Three focus catchments approximately 10 km2 each, have been selected to represent the different farming practices and geophysical characteristics across the Eden catchment, Northern England. A field experimental programme has been designed to monitor the dynamics of agricultural diffuse pollution at multiple scales using state of the art sensors providing continuous real time data. The data set, which includes Total Phosphorus and Total Reactive Phosphorus, Nitrate, Ammonium, pH, Conductivity, Turbidity and Chlorophyll a reveals the frequency and duration of nutrient concentration target exceedance which arises from the prevalence of storm events of increasing magnitude. This data set is sub-sampled at different time intervals to explore how different sampling regimes affects our understanding of nutrient dynamics and the ramification of the different regimes to WFD chemical status. This presentation seeks to identify an optimum temporal resolution of data for effective catchment management and to question the usefulness of the WFD status metric for determining health of a system. Criteria based on high frequency short duration events needs to be accounted for.

  9. The ethics of socio-ecohydrological catchment management: towards hydrosolidarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falkenmark


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to clarify key biophysical issues and the problems involved in the ethics of socio-ecohydrological catchment management. The issue in managing complex systems is to live with unavoidable change while securing the capacity of the ecohydrological system of the catchment to sustain vital ecological goods and services, aquatic as well as terrestrial, on which humanity depends ultimately. Catchment management oriented to sustainability has to be based on ethical principles: human rights, international conventions, sustaining crucial ecological goods and services, and protecting ecosystem resilience, all of which have water linkages. Many weaknesses have to be identified, assessed and mitigated to improve the tools by which the ethical issues can be addressed and solved: a heritage of constraining tunnel vision in both science and management; inadequate shortcuts made in modern scientific system analyses (e.g. science addressing sustainability issues; simplistic technical-fix approaches to water and ecosystems in land/water/ecosystem management; conventional tools for evaluation of scientific quality with its focus on “doing the thing right” rather than “doing the right thing”. The new ethics have to incorporate principles that, on a catchment basis, allow for proper attention to the hungry and poor, upstream and downstream, to descendants, and to sites and habitats that need to be protected. Keywords: catchment, hydrosolidarity, ecosystem, water determinants, resilience, green water, blue water, sustainability science

  10. Catchment heterogeneity controls emergent archetype concentration-discharge relationships (United States)

    Musolff, A.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Rao, P. S.; Jawitz, J. W.


    Relationships between in-stream dissolved solute concentrations (C) and discharge (Q) are often-used indicators of catchment-scale processes and their interference with human activities. Here we analyze observational C-Q relationships from 61 catchments and 8 different solutes across a wide range of land-uses and discharge regimes. This analysis is combined with a parsimonious stochastic modeling approach to test how C-Q relationships arise from spatial heterogeneity in catchment solute sources coupled with different timescales of biogeochemical reactions. The observational data exhibit archetypical dilution, enrichment, and constant C-Q patterns. Moreover, with land-use intensification we find decreasing C variability relative to Q variability (chemostatic export regime). Our model indicates that the dominant driver of emergent C-Q patterns was structured heterogeneity of solute sources implemented as correlation of source concentration to travel time. Regardless of the C-Q pattern, with decreasing source heterogeneity we consistently find lower variability in C than in Q and a dominance of chemostatic export regimes. Here, the variance in exported loads is determined primarily by variance of Q. We conclude that efforts to improve stream water quality and ecological integrity in intensely managed catchments should lead away from landscape homogenization by introducing structured source heterogeneity. References: Musolff, A., J. H. Fleckenstein, P. S. C. Rao, and J. W. Jawitz (2017), Emergent archetype patterns of coupled hydrologic and biogeochemical responses in catchments, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(9), 4143-4151, doi: 10.1002/2017GL072630.

  11. A framework for assessing Health Economic Evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments. (United States)

    Langer, Astrid


    Health economic evaluations support the health care decision-making process by providing information on costs and consequences of health interventions. The quality of such studies is assessed by health economic evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments. At present, there is no instrument for measuring and improving the quality of such HEE quality appraisal instruments. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to establish a framework for assessing the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments to support and improve their quality, and to apply this framework to those HEE quality appraisal instruments which have been subject to more scrutiny than others, in order to test the framework and to demonstrate the shortcomings of existing HEE quality appraisal instruments. To develop the quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments, the experiences of using appraisal tools for clinical guidelines are used. Based on a deductive iterative process, clinical guideline appraisal instruments identified through literature search are reviewed, consolidated, and adapted to produce the final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments. The final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments consists of 36 items organized within 7 dimensions, each of which captures a specific domain of quality. Applying the quality assessment framework to four existing HEE quality appraisal instruments, it is found that these four quality appraisal instruments are of variable quality. The framework described in this study should be regarded as a starting point for appraising the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments. This framework can be used by HEE quality appraisal instrument producers to support and improve the quality and acceptance of existing and future HEE quality appraisal instruments. By applying this framework, users of HEE quality appraisal instruments can become aware of methodological deficiencies

  12. The Chicken Creek catchment as observatory for early-stage landscape development (United States)

    Schaaf, W.; Gerwin, W.; Pohle, I.; Maurer, T. J.


    Constructed in 2005, the Chicken Creek catchment offers unique opportunities to observe ecosystem and landscape development. The site was constructed within the post-mining landscape of a lignite mine in Germany (State of Brandenburg, 100 km southeast from Berlin). Using large mining machinery a clay layer was dumped as an aquiclude covered by a sandy layer as the aquifer of this 6 ha artificial watershed. After leveling the surface no further reclamation measures were applied and the site was left to a non-managed primary succession. A comprehensive monitoring program was established directly after the end of construction works including meteorological, hydrological, biogeochemical and biological parameters. Time series for these measured parameters are available for the last 12 years. Based on these data, the growing interactions between different compartments of the developing landscape give valuable insights into the functioning of ecosystems under transition. We will introduce the site as well as recent analyzes of hydrological data against the background of the ongoing development of the soil and the vegetation cover. The annual water balance was calculated based on known and modeled substrate volumes and water contents. The dynamics of the balance are clearly influenced by the development of the ecosystem, e.g. by the occurrence and rapid propagation of woody species. It was possible to define transitional states, which can be characterized by specific feedback processes between abiotic and biotic compartments. Our results indicate that for small catchments with a highly dynamic ecological development like the Chicken Creek, the knowledge about saturated and unsaturated storage volumes enables a good estimate and closure of the water balance using a rather simple approach. Uncertainties in storage changes partly compensate each other and the high variability of soil moisture in the unsaturated zone is of minor impact compared to the storage volume changes

  13. Assessment of runoff contributing catchment areas in rainfall runoff modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld


    In numerical modelling of rainfall caused runoff in urban sewer systems an essential parameter is the hydrological reduction factor which defines the percentage of the impervious area contributing to the surface flow towards the sewer. As the hydrological processes during a rainfall are difficult...... to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literature values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literature values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchment. In addition, different catchment descriptions...

  14. Quantifying sediment source contributions in coastal catchments impacted by the Fukushima nuclear accident with carbon and nitrogen elemental concentrations and stable isotope ratios (United States)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; Huon Huon, Sylvain; Onda, Yuichi; Evrard, Olivier


    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accidental release of radioactive contaminants resulted in the significant fallout of radiocesium over several coastal catchments in the Fukushima Prefecture. Radiocesium, considered to be the greatest risk to the short and long term health of the local community, is rapidly bound to fine soil particles and thus is mobilized and transported during soil erosion and runoff processes. As there has been a broad-scale decontamination of rice paddy fields and rural residential areas in the contaminated region, one important long term question is whether there is, or may be, a downstream transfer of radiocesium from forests that covered over 65% of the most contaminated region. Accordingly, carbon and nitrogen elemental concentrations and stable isotope ratios are used to determine the relative contributions of forests and rice paddies to transported sediment in three contaminated coastal catchments. Samples were taken from the three main identified sources: cultivated soils (rice paddies and fields, n=30), forest soils (n=45), and subsoils (channel bank and decontaminated soils, n = 25). Lag deposit sediment samples were obtained from five sampling campaigns that targeted the main hydrological events from October 2011 to October 2014. In total, 86 samples of deposited sediment were analyzed for particulate organic matter elemental concentrations and isotope ratios, 24 from the Mano catchment, 44 from the Niida catchment, and 18 from the Ota catchment. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to examine the source discrimination potential of this tracing suite and select the appropriate tracers for modelling. The discriminant tracers were modelled with a concentration-dependent distribution mixing model. Preliminary results indicate that cultivated sources (predominantly rice paddies) contribute disproportionately more sediment per unit area than forested regions in these contaminated catchments. Future research will examine if there are

  15. Susceptibility of Shallow Landslide in Fraser Hill Catchment, Pahang Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman


    Full Text Available In tropical areas especially during monsoon seasons intense precipitation is the main caused that trigger the natural shallow landslide phenomena. This phenomenon can be disastrous and widespread in occurrence even in undisturbed forested catchment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the susceptibility of natural hill slopes to failure for a popular hill resort area, the Fraser Hill Catchment under different rainfall regimes and soil thickness. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM was prepared for the 8.2 km2 catchment. A GIS based deterministic model was then applied to predict the spatial landslide occurrence within catchment. Model input parameters include bulk density, friction angle, cohesion and hydraulic conductivity were gathered through in situ and lab analysis as well as from previous soil analysis records. Landslides locations were recorded using GPS as well as previous air photos and satellite imagery to establish landslide source areas inventory. The landslide susceptibility map was produced under different precipitation event’s simulation to see the effects of precipitation to stability of the hill slopes of the catchment. The results were categorized into naturally unstable (Defended, Upper Threshold, Lower Threshold, marginal instability (Quasi Stable and stable area (Moderately Stable and Stable. Results of the simulation indicated notable change in precipitation effect on Defended area is between 10mm to 40mm range in a single storm event. However, when storm event is exceeded 120mm, the result on Defended area produced by the model tends to be constant further on. For area categorized as naturally unstable (Factor of Safety, SF<1, with 110 mm of precipitation in a single storm event and soil depth at 2 meters and 4 meters could affect 69.51% and 69.88% respectively of the catchment area fall under that class. In addition, the model was able to detect 4% more of the landslide inventory under shallower soil depth of

  16. Vulnerability of European freshwater catchments to climate change. (United States)

    Markovic, Danijela; Carrizo, Savrina F; Kärcher, Oskar; Walz, Ariane; David, Jonathan N W


    Climate change is expected to exacerbate the current threats to freshwater ecosystems, yet multifaceted studies on the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater biodiversity at scales that inform management planning are lacking. The aim of this study was to fill this void through the development of a novel framework for assessing climate change vulnerability tailored to freshwater ecosystems. The three dimensions of climate change vulnerability are as follows: (i) exposure to climate change, (ii) sensitivity to altered environmental conditions and (iii) resilience potential. Our vulnerability framework includes 1685 freshwater species of plants, fishes, molluscs, odonates, amphibians, crayfish and turtles alongside key features within and between catchments, such as topography and connectivity. Several methodologies were used to combine these dimensions across a variety of future climate change models and scenarios. The resulting indices were overlaid to assess the vulnerability of European freshwater ecosystems at the catchment scale (18 783 catchments). The Balkan Lakes Ohrid and Prespa and Mediterranean islands emerge as most vulnerable to climate change. For the 2030s, we showed a consensus among the applied methods whereby up to 573 lake and river catchments are highly vulnerable to climate change. The anthropogenic disruption of hydrological habitat connectivity by dams is the major factor reducing climate change resilience. A gap analysis demonstrated that the current European protected area network covers climate change. Priority should be placed on enhancing stakeholder cooperation at the major basin scale towards preventing further degradation of freshwater ecosystems and maintaining connectivity among catchments. The catchments identified as most vulnerable to climate change provide preliminary targets for development of climate change conservation management and mitigation strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Organic carbon efflux from a deciduous forest catchment in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Kim


    Full Text Available Soil infiltration and surface discharge of precipitation are critical processes that affect the efflux of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC and Particulate Organic Carbon (POC in forested catchments. Concentrations of DOC and POC can be very high in the soil surface in most forest ecosystems and their efflux may not be negligible particularly under the monsoon climate. In East Asia, however, there are little data available to evaluate the role of such processes in forest carbon budget. In this paper, we address two basic questions: (1 how does stream discharge respond to storm events in a forest catchment? and (2 how much DOC and POC are exported from the catchment particularly during the summer monsoon period? To answer these questions, we collected hydrological data (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, runoff discharge, groundwater level and conducted hydrochemical analyses (including DOC, POC, and six tracers in a deciduous forest catchment in Gwangneung National Arboretum in west-central Korea. Based on the end-member mixing analysis of the six storm events during the summer monsoon in 2005, the surface discharge was estimated as 30 to 80% of the total runoff discharge. The stream discharge responded to precipitation within 12 h during these storm events. The annual efflux of DOC and POC from the catchment was estimated as 0.04 and 0.05 t C ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Approximately 70% of the annual organic carbon efflux occurred during the summer monsoon period. Overall, the annual efflux of organic carbon was estimated to be about 10% of the Net Ecosystem carbon Exchange (NEE obtained by eddy covariance measurement at the same site. Considering the current trends of increasing intensity and amount of summer rainfall and the large interannual variability in NEE, ignoring the organic carbon efflux from forest catchments would result in an inaccurate estimation of the carbon sink strength of forest ecosystems in the monsoon

  18. Catchment2Coast: A systems approach to coupled river-coastal ecosystem science and management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monteiro, PMS


    Full Text Available Catchment2Coast was an interdisciplinary research and modelling project that aimed to improve understanding of the linkages between coastal ecosystems and the adjacent river catchments. The project involved nine partner organizations from three...

  19. Techniques for assessing the effects of afforestation on catchment hydrology: the South African experience

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, PJ


    Full Text Available research into the effects of forest plantations on catchment hydrology. This paper provides a brief overview of some of the techniques employed by South African hydrological researchers to understand the link between afforestation and catchment water yields....

  20. A Critical Appraisal of the "Day" Diagram (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew P.; Tauxe, Lisa; Heslop, David; Zhao, Xiang; Jiang, Zhaoxia


    The "Day" diagram (Day et al., 1977, is used widely to make inferences about the domain state of magnetic mineral assemblages. Based on theoretical and empirical arguments, the Day diagram is demarcated into stable "single domain" (SD), "pseudo single domain" ("PSD"), and "multidomain" (MD) zones. It is straightforward to make the necessary measurements for a sample and to plot results within the "domain state" framework based on the boundaries defined by Day et al. (1977, We discuss 10 issues that limit Day diagram interpretation, including (1) magnetic mineralogy, (2) the associated magnetocrystalline anisotropy type, (3) mineral stoichiometry, (4) stress state, (5) surface oxidation, (6) magnetostatic interactions, (7) particle shape, (8) thermal relaxation, (9) magnetic particle mixtures, and (10) definitional/measurement issues. In most studies, these variables are unknowns and cannot be controlled for, so that hysteresis parameters for single bulk samples are nonunique and any data point in a Day diagram could result from infinite combinations of relevant variables. From this critical appraisal, we argue that the Day diagram is fundamentally ambiguous for domain state diagnosis. Widespread use of the Day diagram has also contributed significantly to prevalent but questionable views, including underrecognition of the importance of stable SD particles in the geological record and reinforcement of the unhelpful PSD concept and of its geological importance. Adoption of approaches that enable correct domain state diagnosis should be an urgent priority for component-specific understanding of magnetic mineral assemblages and for quantitative rock magnetic interpretation.

  1. A simple distributed sediment delivery approach for rural catchments (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Scherer, Ulrike


    The transfer of sediments from source areas to surface waters is a complex process. In process based erosion models sediment input is thus quantified by representing all relevant sub processes such as detachment, transport and deposition of sediment particles along the flow path to the river. A successful application of these models requires, however, a large amount of spatially highly resolved data on physical catchment characteristics, which is only available for a few, well examined small catchments. For the lack of appropriate models, the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is widely applied to quantify the sediment production in meso to large scale basins. As the USLE provides long-term mean soil loss rates, it is often combined with spatially lumped models to estimate the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). In these models, the SDR is related to data on morphological characteristics of the catchment such as average local relief, drainage density, proportion of depressions or soil texture. Some approaches include the relative distance between sediment source areas and the river channels. However, several studies showed that spatially lumped parameters describing the morphological characteristics are only of limited value to represent the factors of influence on sediment transport at the catchment scale. Sediment delivery is controlled by the location of the sediment source areas in the catchment and the morphology along the flow path to the surface water bodies. This complex interaction of spatially varied physiographic characteristics cannot be adequately represented by lumped morphological parameters. The objective of this study is to develop a simple but spatially distributed approach to quantify the sediment delivery ratio by considering the characteristics of the flow paths in a catchment. We selected a small catchment located in in an intensively cultivated loess region in Southwest Germany as study area for the development of the SDR approach. The

  2. Isotope hydrology of catchment basins: lithogenic and cosmogenic isotopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimz, G. J., LLNL


    A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water. Many solutes in natural waters are derived from the interaction between the water and the rock and/or soil within the system - these are termed `lithogenic` solutes. The isotopic compositions of these solutes provide information regarding rock-water interactions. Many other solutes have their isotopic compositions determined both within and outside of the catchment - i.e., in addition to being derived from catchment rock and soil, they are solutes that are also transported into the catchment. Important members of this group include solutes that have isotopic compositions produced by atomic particle interactions with other nuclides. The source of the atomic particles can be cosmic radiation (producing `cosmogenic` nuclides in the atmosphere and land surface), anthropogenic nuclear reactions (producing `thermonuclear` nuclides), or radioactive and fission decay of naturally-occurring elements, principally {sup 238}U (producing `in-situ` lithogenic nuclides in the deep subsurface). Current language usage often combines all of the atomic particle-produced nuclides under the heading `cosmogenic nuclides`, and for simplicity we will often follow that usage here, although always indicating which variety is being discussed. This paper addresses the processes that affect the lithogenic and cosmogenic solute concentrations in catchment waters, and how the isotopic compositions of the solutes can be used in integrative ways to identify these processes, thereby revealing the physical history of the water within a catchment system. The concept of a `system` is important in catchment hydrology. A catchment is the smallest landscape unit that can both participate in all of the aspects of the hydrologic cycle and

  3. Dominant mechanisms for the delivery of fine sediment and phosphorus to fluvial networks draining grassland dominated headwater catchments. (United States)

    Perks, M T; Owen, G J; Benskin, C McW H; Jonczyk, J; Deasy, C; Burke, S; Reaney, S M; Haygarth, P M


    Recent advances in monitoring technology have enabled high frequency, in-situ measurements of total phosphorus and total reactive phosphorus to be undertaken with high precision, whilst turbidity can provide an excellent surrogate for suspended sediment. Despite these measurements being fundamental to understanding the mechanisms and flow paths that deliver these constituents to river networks, there is a paucity of such data for headwater agricultural catchments. The aim of this paper is to deduce the dominant mechanisms for the delivery of fine sediment and phosphorus to an upland river network in the UK through characterisation of the temporal variability of hydrological fluxes, and associated soluble and particulate concentrations for the period spanning March 2012-February 2013. An assessment of the factors producing constituent hysteresis is undertaken following factor analysis (FA) on a suite of measured environmental variables representing the fluvial and wider catchment conditions prior to, and during catchment-wide hydrological events. Analysis indicates that suspended sediment is delivered to the fluvial system predominantly via rapidly responding pathways driven by event hydrology. However, evidence of complex, figure-of-eight hysteresis is observed following periods of hydrological quiescence, highlighting the importance of preparatory processes. Sediment delivery via a slow moving, probably sub-surface pathway does occur, albeit infrequently and during low magnitude events at the catchment outlet. Phosphorus is revealed to have a distinct hysteretic response to that of suspended sediment, with sub-surface pathways dominating. However, high magnitude events were observed to exhibit threshold-like behaviour, whereby activation and connection of usually disconnected depositional zones to the fluvial networks results in the movement of vast phosphorus fluxes. Multiple pathways are observed for particulate and soluble constituents, highlighting the

  4. Variability of Snow Ablation: Consequences for Runoff Generation at the Process Scale and Lessons for Large Cold Regions Catchments (United States)

    Pomeroy, J. W.; Carey, S. K.; Granger, R. J.; Hedstrom, N. R.; Janowicz, R.; Pietroniro, A.; Quinton, W. L.


    The supply of water to large northern catchments such as the Mackenzie and Yukon Rivers is dominated by snowmelt runoff from first order mountain catchments. In order to understand the timing, peak and duration of the snowmelt freshet at larger scale it is important to appreciate the spatial and temporal variability of snowmelt and runoff processes at the source. For this reason a comprehensive hydrology study of a Yukon River headwaters catchment, Wolf Creek Research Basin, near Whitehorse, has focussed on the spatial variability of snow ablation and snowmelt runoff generation and the consequences for the water balance in a mountain tundra zone. In northern mountain tundra, surface energetics vary with receipt of solar radiation, shrub vegetation cover and initial snow accumulation. Therefore the timing of snowmelt is controlled by aspect, in that south facing slopes become snow-free 4-5 weeks before the north facing. Runoff generation differs widely between the slopes; there is normally no spring runoff generated from the south facing slope as all meltwater evaporates or infiltrates. On the north facing slope, snowmelt provides substantial runoff to hillside macropores which rapidly route water to the stream channel. Macropore distribution is associated with organic terrain and discontinuous permafrost, which in turn result from the summer surface energetics. Therefore the influence of small-scale snow redistribution and energetics as controlled by topography must be accounted for when calculating contributing areas to larger scale catchments, and estimating the effectiveness of snowfall in generating streamflow. This concept is quite distinct from the drainage controlled contributing area that has been found useful in temperate-zone hydrology.

  5. Downstream mixing of sediment and tracers in agricultural catchments: Evidence of changing sediment sources and fluvial processes? (United States)

    Ralph, Timothy; Wethered, Adam; Smith, Hugh; Heijnis, Henk


    Land clearance, soil tillage and grazing in agricultural catchments have liberated sediment and altered hydrological connectivity between hillslopes and channels, leading to increased sediment availability, mobilisation and delivery to rivers. The type and amount of sediment supplied to rivers is critical for fluvial geomorphology and aquatic ecosystem health. Contemporary sediment dynamics are routinely investigated using environmental radionuclides such as caesium-137 (Cs-137) and excess lead-210 (Pb-210ex), which can provide information regarding sediment source types and fluvial processes if sediment sources can be distinguished from one another and mixing models applied to representative samples. However, downstream transport, mixing and dilution of radionuclide-labelled sediment (especially from sources with low initial concentrations) can obliterate the tracer signal; sometimes before anything of geomorphological importance happens in the catchment. Can these findings be used as evidence of sediment source variations and fluvial processes when the limits of detection (of Cs-137 in particular) are being exceeded so rapidly downstream? Sediment sources and downstream sediment dynamics were investigated in Coolbaggie Creek, a major supplier of sediment to the Macquarie River in an agricultural catchment with temperate to semi-arid climate in Australia. Radionuclides were used to discriminate between the banks and gullies (Cs-137 1.45 +/- 0.47 Bq/kg; Pb-210ex 4.67 +/- 1.93 Bq/kg). Within the trunk stream, suspended sediment, organic matter and Cs-137 and Pb-210ex concentrations declined downstream. Results from a mixing model suggest that agricultural topsoils account for 95% of fine sediment entering the channel in the upper reach (200 m2) downstream, with channel expansion and gullies contributing fine sediment to the system. A lack of topsoil being supplied to the channel suggests minimal lateral connectivity between the catchment and the trunk stream in all

  6. Trends in stream nitrogen concentrations for forested reference catchments across the USA (United States)

    A. Argerich; S.L. Johnson; S.D. Sebestyen; C.C. Rhoades; E. Greathouse; J.D. Knoepp; M.B. Adams; G.E. Likens; J.L. Campbell; W.H. McDowell; F.N. Scatena; G.G. Ice


    To examine whether stream nitrogen concentrations in forested reference catchments have changed over time and if patterns were consistent across the USA, we synthesized up to 44 yr of data collected from 22 catchments at seven USDA Forest Service Experimental Forests. Trends in stream nitrogen presented high spatial variability both among catchments at a site and among...

  7. Does estuarine health relate to catchment land-cover in the East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Possible links between catchment and buffer zone land-cover class composition and the health of the East Kleinemonde Estuary were explored. There was a relationship between catchment land-cover and estuarine health within all assessed catchment delineations. Natural land-cover was determined to be the best ...

  8. A synoptic survey of ecosystem services from headwater catchments in the United States (United States)

    Brian H. Hill; Randall K. Kolka; Frank H. McCormick; Matthew A. Starry


    Ecosystem production functions for water supply, climate regulation, and water purification were estimated for 568 headwater streams and their catchments. Results are reported for nine USA ecoregions. Headwater streams represented 74-80% of total catchment stream length. Water supply per unit catchment area was highest in the Northern Appalachian Mountains ecoregion...


    We simulated how a landscape disturbance (e.g., fire or clear-cutting) alters hillslope and catchment hydrologic processes. Specifically, we simulated how the pattern and magnitude of tree removal in a catchment increases downslope transport of water and alters catchment soil moi...

  10. An appraisal of the quality of published qualitative dental research. (United States)

    Masood, Mohd; Thaliath, Ebin T; Bower, Elizabeth J; Newton, J Timothy


    To appraise the quality of published qualitative research in dentistry and identify aspects of quality, which require attention in future research. Qualitative research studies on dental topics were appraised using the critical appraisal skills programme (CASP) appraisal framework for qualitative research. The percentage of CASP criteria fully met during the assessment was used as an indication of the quality of each paper. Individual criteria were not weighted. Forty-three qualitative studies were identified for appraisal of which 48% had a dental public health focus. Deficiencies in detail of reporting, research design, methodological rigour, presentation of findings, reflexivity, credibility of findings and relevance of study were identified. Problems with quality were apparent irrespective of journal impact factor, although papers from low impact factor journals exhibited the most deficiencies. Journals with the highest impact factors published the least qualitative research. The quality of much of the qualitative research published on dental topics is mediocre. Qualitative methods are underutilized in oral health research. If quality guidelines such as the CASP framework are used in the context of a thorough understanding of qualitative research design and data analysis, they can promote good practice and the systematic assessment of qualitative research. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Sex differences in the appraisal of traumatic events and psychopathology. (United States)

    Kucharska, Justyna


    The current study is an investigation of the relationship between the appraisal of traumatic events and mental disorder symptoms: internalizing symptoms and externalizing/substance-abuse symptoms. Cumulative trauma over the lifetime was taken into account. Also, specific effects related to traumatic events of various types (i.e., betrayal trauma, accident involving a family member, physical violence, and natural disaster) were assessed. Participants, 190 young men and 277 young women, were asked to evaluate the strength with which the traumatic event impacted their lives. It was hypothesized that the relationship between traumatic experiences and mental disorder symptoms would be stronger in women than in men, and also that cognitive appraisal, in interaction with gender, would be related to the severity of the symptoms. Women showed higher levels of internalizing symptoms, but lower levels of externalizing/substance-abuse symptoms than men. Still, the correlation between cumulative trauma and both types of symptoms was stronger in women. For all types of trauma, women reported a stronger negative appraisal of the event than men. Interaction of sex and cognitive appraisal was demonstrated to be related to the severity of internalizing disorders. In the present study, women, as compared with men, evaluated traumatic events more negatively (for all types of trauma) and the relationship between trauma and mental disorder symptoms was also stronger in women. These results show the importance of the appraisal of trauma in the development of psychiatric symptoms in women and men following trauma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Technical Safety Appraisal of the Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Blake P.


    This report provides the results of a Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) conducted November 14 to 18 and November 28 to December 9, 1988. This appraisal covered the effectiveness and improvements in the RFP safety program across the site, evaluating progress to date against standards of accepted practice. The appraisal included coverage of the timeliness and effectiveness of actions taken in response to the recommendations/concerns in three previous Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) of RFP Bldg. 707 conducted in July 1986, Bldgs. 771/774 conducted in October/November 1986, and Bldgs. 776/777 conducted in January/February 1988. Results of this appraisal are given in Section IV for each of 14 technical safety areas at RFP. These results include a discussion, conclusions and any new safety concerns for each technical safety area. Appendix A contains a description of the system for categorizing concerns, and the concerns are tabulated in Appendix B. Appendix C reports on the evaluation of the contractor's actions and the current status of each of the 230 recommendations and concerns contained in the three previous TSA reports.

  13. Dancing in pain: pain appraisal and coping in dancers. (United States)

    Anderson, Ruth; Hanrahan, Stephanie J


    This study investigated the relationships between the type of pain experienced (performance pain and injury pain), the cognitive appraisal of pain and pain coping styles in dancers. Fifty-one professional ballet and contemporary dancers (17 males and 34 females), with the mean age of 25.9 years, completed a general pain questionnaire, the Pain Appraisal Inventory, the Survey of Pain Attitudes Control Subscale, and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that both the cognitive appraisal of the pain and pain coping styles did not differ according to the type of pain experienced or the pain severity. However, it was found that dancers with performance pain of either low or high severity were more likely to dance in pain than dancers experiencing injury pain. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the appraisal of pain as threatening was predictive of the use of avoidance and catastrophizing pain coping styles. Overall, results indicated that dancers may not differentiate between performance pain and injury pain, or modify their appraisal and coping strategies according to the characteristics of the pain experienced. The study highlighted an opportunity for increased education for dancers in recognizing the difference between pain considered to be a routine aspect of training and pain which is a signal of serious injury.

  14. Appraisal of tropospheric researches in Nigeria | Adenugba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... most times, unavailable, thus inhibiting comprehensive research works. Areas requiring urgent attention toward rapid national growth and healthy competition in the 21st century are addressed. Keywords: Rain intensity, attenuation, refractivity, conductivity, refractive index, Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol. 18 (1) 2006: pp.

  15. The politics of establishing catchment management agencies in South Africa: the case of the Breede-Overberg catchment management agency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard


    Full Text Available in South Africa. We then reflect in section 8.5 on what can be surmised about BOCMA’s democratic functioning and performance, to date before concluding the chapter (section 8.6). 8.2THE BREEDE−OVERBERG CATCHMENT MANAGEMENT AGENCY 8.2.1 Authority rules CMAs are statutory bodies established in terms of the National Water Act and are able to develop their catchment management strategy. Democratic control is also exercised through the governing...

  16. Ecosystem services in a peri-urban protected area in Cyprus: a rapid appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Manolaki


    Full Text Available Protected areas around the world are increasingly being recognized for their potential to protect various ecosystem services in addition to biodiversity. We carried out an ecosystem services (ES assessment at the Rizoelia National Forest Park, a biodiversity hotspot in Cyprus. For ES assessment we used TESSA v.1.1 and an ES matrix-approach to map the capacity of habitat types in the area. According to TESSA the most important ES provided by the study area are aesthetic benefits, recreation/ tourism, biodiversity, global climate regulation, and environmental education. Total Carbon stock was estimated to 14247.327 tonnes and the total number of annual visits was 14471. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of visits among visitation periods but there were statistically significant differences among National Holidays, Weekends and Weekdays. We identified that plantations had the highest capacity for most groups of services particularly where their understory comprises semi-natural habitat types rich in biodiversity. This is the first study in Cyprus which provides a preliminary quantification of ES in a protected area context using widely employed tools. The paper discusses how these findings can help decision-makers to plan direct future restoration and management actions to the benefit of a wide range of stakeholders.

  17. A rapid appraisal of traffic policemen about auditory effects of traffic noise pollution from Ambala city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh


    Full Text Available Context: Traffic policemen are at an increased risk of suffering from hazards of noise pollution because they are engaged in controlling traffic noise, particularly at heavy traffic junctions. The effect is more in this subgroup because they are continuously exposed to it. Aim: The present study was aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices of traffic policemen regarding auditory effects of traffic noise pollution in Ambala city. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional workplace survey. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was carried out in different traffic zones of Ambala city during April-June 2013. The study population consisted of 100 traffic policemen working in different traffic intersections of Ambala city. Statistical Analysis Used: Structured interview schedule was used to collect the data. SPSS version 17.0 was used for analysis. Interpretation of data was performed using percentages and proportions. Results: Majority (75% of the study subjects were exposed to traffic noise pollution for more than 5 years. Of the total subjects, 5% of respondents reported below-average hearing on self-assessment of hearing ability. Seventeen percent of the study population accepted that while hearing over phone they do miss some conversation. Most (98% of the traffic police did not use any personal protective equipment (PPEs like earplugs/earmuffs, and the non-availability of these PPEs (90% is the common reason for the hearing loss. Conclusions: The study concludes that traffic policemen are not much aware regarding impending auditory effects of traffic noise pollution. Duty rotation, duty scheduling and other forms of preventive modalities for exposure limitation are suggested.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Kaushal


    Full Text Available Background Immunization is a proven cost effective intervention to reduce the child mortality & morbidity. As per DLHS-3(2007-08 only 30.3% of children are fully immunized in Uttar Pradesh. A new district, Kanshi Ram Nagar was created on 15 April 2008 within Etah district. Objective To assess the primary immunization status & dropout rate. To find out reasons for immunization default. To study the difference, if any between high risk & low risk block. Material & methods A cross sectional, observational study was undertaken in two blocks (Patiyali and Amanpur of Kanshi Ram Nagar District by interviewing 210 respondent mothers in each block, by using ‘30’ cluster sampling technique with help of predesigned, pretested schedule. Result: The percentages of fully immunized children were 50% in Patiyali & 44.08% in Amanpur block. ANM & ASHA were observed as main informer to the community. Immunization status was poor in Muslims and in female children. The highest covered antigen found was BCG and lowest was DPT-3 in both the blocks. The overall dropout rate was 36.52% for Patiyali & 32.96 % for Amanpur block. The main reasons for dropout identified were, non-cooperation of health workers and community were not aware about the need of Immunization in both the blocks. However the differential findings in among the blocks were statistically not significant. Conclusion However lesser number of children were left untouched for immunization services but the percentage of incomplete immunization was found high due to poor cooperation of health worker and unawareness about need of immunization in community

  19. Rapid appraisal of human intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren in Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan. (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Usubalieva, Jumagul; Imanalieva, Cholpon; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Stefiuk, Kayte; Jeandron, Aurelie; Utzinger, Jürg


    A population-representative lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) survey was conducted in 2009 to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren across Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The diagnostic approach consisted of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from a single stool sample and an adhesive tape test. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors for infections. A total of 1262 schoolchildren aged 6-15 years were recruited; 41% of them harboured at least one of the eight identified helminth species. The two most prevalent helminths were Ascaris lumbricoides (23.1%) and Enterobius vermicularis (19.3%). Lower prevalences were found for Hymenolepis nana (4.4%), Fasciola hepatica (1.9%) and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (1.8%). Washing raw vegetables was a protective factor with regard to A. lumbricoides infection (odds ratio (OR)=0.69, p=0.022); tap water was borderline protective (OR=0.56, p=0.057). Children of the richest families were at a lower risk of E. vermicularis infection than the poorest ones (OR=0.41, p=0.011). Sharing the bed with more than one person was a risk factor for E. vermicularis infection (OR=2.0, p=0.002). The results call for targeted interventions against intestinal helminths in Osh oblast. In a first stage, annual deworming of schoolchildren and other high-risk groups with albendazole or mebendazole should be implemented, and reliable diagnosis and additional anthelminthic drugs should be made available. Subsequently, transmission control including locally-adapted health education, improved water supply and adequate sanitation should become the central features. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A rapid appraisal of the status of mental health support in post-rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews and observations of survivor sessions with counsellors, nurses and doctors. ... (i.e. clinical care, including forensic management), the inadequate capacity of service providers to provide mental healthcare, including mental health illiteracy, the lack of continuity of ...

  1. Green Jobs: Definition and Method of Appraisal of Chemical and Biological Risks. (United States)

    Cheneval, Erwan; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Ostiguy, Claude; Lavoie, Jacques; Bourbonnais, Robert; Labrèche, France; Bakhiyi, Bouchra; Zayed, Joseph


    In the wake of sustainable development, green jobs are developing rapidly, changing the work environment. However a green job is not automatically a safe job. The aim of the study was to define green jobs, and to establish a preliminary risk assessment of chemical substances and biological agents for workers in Quebec. An operational definition was developed, along with criteria and sustainable development principles to discriminate green jobs from regular jobs. The potential toxicity or hazard associated with their chemical and biological exposures was assessed, and the workers' exposure appraised using an expert assessment method. A control banding approach was then used to assess risks for workers in selected green jobs. A double entry model allowed us to set priorities in terms of chemical or biological risk. Among jobs that present the highest risk potential, several are related to waste management. The developed method is flexible and could be adapted to better appraise the risks that workers are facing or to propose control measures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  2. A Critical Appraisal of the `Day' Diagram (United States)

    Roberts, A. P.; Tauxe, L.; Heslop, D.


    The `Day' diagram [Day et al., 1977; doi:10.1016/0031-9201(77)90108-X] is used widely to infer the mean domain state of magnetic mineral assemblages. The Day plot coordinates are the ratios of the saturation remanent magnetization to saturation magnetization (Mrs/Ms) and the coercivity of remanence to coercivity (Bcr/Bc), as determined from a major hysteresis loop and a backfield demagnetization curve. Based on theoretical and empirical arguments, Day plots are typically demarcated into stable single domain (SD), `pseudosingle domain' (`PSD'), and multidomain (MD) zones. It is a simple task to determine Mrs/Ms and Bcr/Bc for a sample and to assign a mean domain state based on the boundaries defined by Day et al. [1977]. Many other parameters contribute to variability in a Day diagram, including surface oxidation, mineral stoichiometry, stress state, magnetostatic interactions, and mixtures of magnetic particles with different sizes and shapes. Bulk magnetic measurements usually lack detailed independent evidence to constrain each free parameter, which makes the Day diagram fundamentally ambiguous. This raises questions about its usefulness for diagnosing magnetic particle size variations. The Day diagram is also used to make inferences about binary mixing of magnetic particles, where, for example, mixtures of SD and MD particles give rise to a bulk `PSD' response even though the concentration of `PSD' grains could be zero. In our assessment of thousands of hysteresis measurements of geological samples, binary mixing occurs in a tiny number of cases. Ternary, quaternary, and higher order mixing are usually observed. Also, uniaxial SD and MD end-members are nearly always inappropriate for considering mixing because uniaxial SD particles are virtually non-existent in igneous rocks. Thus, use of mixing lines in Day diagrams routinely provides unsatisfactory representations of particle size variations. We critically appraise the Day diagram and argue that its many

  3. Examining the Potential Travellers in Catchment Areas for Public Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen


    The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the actual street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the service area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared...

  4. Morphometric Analysis of Didessa River Catchment in Blue Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric Analysis of Didessa River Catchment in Blue Nile Basin, Western Ethiopia. ... In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the morphometric characteristics of Didessa ... Stream networks and watersheds were delineated in ArcGIS 10.1 software environment by utilizing ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  5. Estimating runoff from ungauged catchments for reservoir water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lower Middle Zambezi Basin is sandwiched between three hydropower ... This study applied a rainfall-runoff model (HEC-HMS) and GIS techniques to ... Missing data were generated using the mean value infilling method. ... A hydrological model, HEC- HMS, was used to simulate runoff from the ungauged catchments.

  6. Seasonal snow accumulation in the mid-latitude forested catchment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šípek, Václav; Tesař, Miroslav


    Roč. 69, č. 11 (2014), s. 1562-1569 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02021451 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : snow depth * snow water equivalent * forested catchment Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  7. Geochemical and hydrodynamic phosphorus retention mechanisms in lowland catchments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Grift, B.


    The release of phosphorus (P) to surface water from heavily fertilised agricultural fields is of major importance for surface water quality. The research reported in this thesis examined the role of geochemical and hydrodynamic processes controlling P speciation and transport in lowland catchments

  8. Optimal catchment area and primary PCI centre volume revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Pedersen, Frants; Holmvang, Lene


    AIMS: The currently stated optimal catchment population for a pPCI centre is 300,000-1,100,000, resulting in 200-800 procedures/year. pPCI centres are increasing in number even within small geographic areas. We describe the organisation and quality of care after merging two high-volume centres...

  9. Monitoring of microcystin-LR in Luvuvhu River catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of microcystin-LR in Luvuvhu River catchment and to assess the physicochemical parameters that may promote the growth of cyanobacteria. The level of microcystin-LR in some of the sampling sites was <0.18 ìg/l except for one site (Luvuvhu River just before the confluence ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Those areas of upper catchment with higher altitude have received more rainfall and ... climate systems (Lambin and Geist, 2006; ... This impact is ... agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and water supply. (USEPA ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. ... greenhouse gases may be sought in historical.

  11. Mapping of hydropedologic spatial patterns in a steep headwater catchment (United States)

    Cody P. Gillin; Scott W. Bailey; Kevin J. McGuire; John P. Gannon


    A hydropedologic approach can be used to describe soil units affected by distinct hydrologic regimes. We used field observations of soil morphology and geospatial information technology to map the distribution of five hydropedologic soil units across a 42-ha forested headwater catchment. Soils were described and characterized at 172 locations within Watershed 3, the...

  12. Computer system for catchment management: background, concepts and development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C


    Full Text Available Managers of natural areas require a wide variety of up-to-date and accurate information and maps to manage their lands effectively. This paper reviews the objectives of conservation management, and the problems faced by mountain catchment managers...

  13. Hydrological response of a small catchment burned by experimental fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Vervoort, R.W.; Iwema, J.; Elsen, van den H.G.M.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.


    Fire can considerably change hydrological processes, increasing the risk of extreme flooding and erosion events. Although hydrological processes are largely affected by scale, catchment-scale studies on the hydrological impact of fire in Europe are scarce, and nested approaches are rarely used. We

  14. Applications of the PyTOPKAPI model to ungauged catchments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many catchments in developing countries are poorly gauged/totally ungauged which hinders water resource ... INTRODUCTION ... focusing on the output of model calibration and validation. The last .... The improved PyTOPKAPI model is coded in Python ...... computer program for estimating streamflow statistics for ungaged.

  15. First Flush Effects in an Urban Catchment Area in Aalborg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Brpch, Kirsten; Andersen, Margit Riis


    The paper describes the results of measurements from a 2 year period on a 95 hectare urban catchment in Aalborg, Denmark. The results of the rain/discharge measurements include 160 storm events corresponding to an accumulated rain depth of totally 753 mm. The water quality measurements include 15...

  16. The ethics of socio-ecohydrological catchment management: towards hydrosolidarity (United States)

    Falkenmark, M.; Folke, Carl

    This paper attempts to clarify key biophysical issues and the problems involved in the ethics of socio-ecohydrological catchment management. The issue in managing complex systems is to live with unavoidable change while securing the capacity of the ecohydrological system of the catchment to sustain vital ecological goods and services, aquatic as well as terrestrial, on which humanity depends ultimately. Catchment management oriented to sustainability has to be based on ethical principles: human rights, international conventions, sustaining crucial ecological goods and services, and protecting ecosystem resilience, all of which have water linkages. Many weaknesses have to be identified, assessed and mitigated to improve the tools by which the ethical issues can be addressed and solved: a heritage of constraining tunnel vision in both science and management; inadequate shortcuts made in modern scientific system analyses (e.g. science addressing sustainability issues); simplistic technical-fix approaches to water and ecosystems in land/water/ecosystem management; conventional tools for evaluation of scientific quality with its focus on "doing the thing right" rather than "doing the right thing". The new ethics have to incorporate principles that, on a catchment basis, allow for proper attention to the hungry and poor, upstream and downstream, to descendants, and to sites and habitats that need to be protected.

  17. Accounting for Ecohydrologic Separation Alters Interpreted Catchment Hydrology (United States)

    Cain, M. R.; Ward, A. S.; Hrachowitz, M.


    Recent studies have demonstrated that in in some catchments, compartmentalized pools of water supply either plant transpiration (poorly mobile water) or streamflow and groundwater (highly mobile water), a phenomenon referred to as ecohydrologic separation. Although the literature has acknowledged that omission of ecohydrologic separation in hydrological models may influence estimates of residence times of water and solutes, no study has investigated how and when this compartmentalization might alter interpretations of fluxes and storages within a catchment. In this study, we develop two hydrochemical lumped rainfall-runoff models, one which incorporates ecohydrologic separation and one which does not for a watershed at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (Oregon, USA), the study site where ecohydrologic separation was first observed. The models are calibrated against stream discharge, as well as stream chloride concentration. The objectives of this study are (1) to compare calibrated parameters and identifiability across models, (2) to determine how and when compartmentalization of water in the vadose zone might alter interpretations of fluxes and stores within the catchment, and (3) to identify how and when these changes alter residence times. Preliminary results suggest that compartmentalization of the vadose zone alters interpretations of fluxes and storages in the catchment and improves our ability to simulate solute transport.

  18. Flood routing in ungauged catchments using Muskingum methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flood-routing techniques are utilised to estimate the stages, or rates of flow, in order to predict flood wave propagation along river reaches. Models can be developed for gauged catchments and their parameters related to physical characteristics such as slope, reach width, reach length so that the approach can be applied ...

  19. Integrated catchment modelling in a Semi-arid area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH


    Full Text Available , will increasingly need water quality and quantity management tools to be able to make informed decisions. Integrated catchment modelling (ICM) is regarded as being a valuable tool for integrated water resource management. It enables officials and scientists to make...

  20. Air temperature variability in a high-elevation Himalayan catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heynen, Martin; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Buri, Pascal; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    Air temperature is a key control of processes affecting snow and glaciers in high-elevation catchments, including melt, snowfall and sublimation. It is therefore a key input variable to models of land-surface-atmosphere interaction. Despite this importance, its spatial variability is poorly

  1. Seasonal rainfall predictability over the Lake Kariba catchment area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retroactive forecasts are produced for lead times of up to 5 months and probabilistic forecast performances evaluated for extreme rainfall thresholds of the 25th and 75th percentile values of the climatological record. The verification of the retroactive forecasts shows that rainfall over the catchment is predictable at extended ...

  2. The influence of model parameters on catchment-response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.S.; Gabriel, H.F.; Khan, A.A.


    This paper deals with the study of influence of influence of conceptual rainfall-runoff model parameters on catchment response (runoff). A conceptual modified watershed yield model is employed to study the effects of model-parameters on catchment-response, i.e. runoff. The model is calibrated, using manual parameter-fitting approach, also known as trial and error parameter-fitting. In all, there are twenty one (21) parameters that control the functioning of the model. A lumped parametric approach is used. The detailed analysis was performed on Ling River near Kahuta, having catchment area of 56 sq. miles. The model includes physical parameters like GWSM, PETS, PGWRO, etc. fitting coefficients like CINF, CGWS, etc. and initial estimates of the surface-water and groundwater storages i.e. srosp and gwsp. Sensitivity analysis offers a good way, without repetititious computations, the proper weight and consideration that must be taken when each of the influencing factor is evaluated. Sensitivity-analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of model-parameters on runoff. The sensitivity and relative contributions of model parameters influencing catchment-response are studied. (author)

  3. Mathematical modeling of rainwater runoff over catchment surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subject of an article is the mathematical modeling of the rainwater runoff along the surface catchment taking account the transport of pollution which permeates into the water flow from a porous media of soil at the certain areas of this surface. The developed mathematical model consists of two types of equations: the ...

  4. Sediment yield and alternatives soil conservation practices of teak catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyas Mutiara Basuki


    Full Text Available Quantifying sediment is essential to determine its sources and reduce its negative impacts. A study was conducted to quantify suspended sediments of catchments covering by teak plantation and to provide alternatives soil conservation practices. Five catchments with old teak coverages of 82; 82; 74; 70; and 53 % were chosen. At the outlet of each catchment was installed tide gauge to monitor stream water level (SWL. Water samples for sediment analyses were taken for every increament of SWL. Sediment yield was calculated based on rating curves of sediment discharge. The results showed that the sources of sediment in the streams were dryland agricultural and streambank erosion. The mean annual sediment yield during the study were 9.3; 10; 15; 53.3; and 22.5 t/ha for catchments covered by old teak plantation of 82, 82, 74, 70, and 53 %, respectively. To reduce sediment yield some soil conservation practices must be applied. Conservation of soil organic matter is important in order to stabilize soil aggregate and prevent clay dispersion which causes erosion and sedimentation. Green firebreaks or making channels are needed to prevent fire during dry season and organic matter loss. Stabilization of streambank is neccesary, either using vegetative method or civil technics.

  5. Manganese Biogeochemistry in a Central Czech Republic Catchment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Shanley, J. B.; Krám, P.; Mihaljevič, M.; Drahota, Petr


    Roč. 186, 1-4 (2007), s. 149-165 ISSN 0049-6979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/0060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : manganese * catchment * weathering * biogeochemistry * biotite weathering * forest ecosystem * mass balance Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2007

  6. Hydrology and landscape structure control subalpine catchment carbon export (United States)

    Vincent Jerald Pacific


    Carbon export from high elevation ecosystems is a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Ecosystems in northern latitudes have become the focus of much research due to their potential as large sinks of carbon in the atmosphere. However, there exists limited understanding of the controls of carbon export from complex mountain catchments due to strong spatial and...

  7. The Efficacy of Performance Appraisal to Increase Employees’ Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iranita Hervi Mahardayani


    Full Text Available This research aims to find out the effectiveness of implementation performance appraisal toward job satisfaction of employees UMKM Bordir Dahlia in Kabupaten Kudus. Sampling was done by using population studies to 16 employees of UMKM embroidery Dahlia Kudus. The type of this research is quantitative with pra experiment approached by One group pre and posttest design method. Data analysis on this research using non parametric with different test techniques Wilcoxon t-tes. The analysis result of different test scale job satisfaction before and after handling obtained Z = - 1,268, with p = 0,205 (p>0,05, so that there is no differences on job satisfaction on employees of embroidery Dahlia before and after treatment by giving performance appraisal. It means treatment by giving performance appraisal unable to increase employees job satisfaction. Therefore, the hypothesis on this research is rejected.

  8. Why is discrimination stressful? The mediating role of cognitive appraisal. (United States)

    King, Kimberly R


    This study attempts to shed light on past findings that experiences of racial and gender discrimination are associated with poor psychological and physical health outcomes by investigating the role of cognitive appraisal as a mediator of the relationship between experiences of discrimination and affective stress reactions. African American female college students (N = 115) imagined themselves in an audiotaped scenario in which they overheard 2 European American male classmates make negative evaluations of them. Participants then completed measures of causal attributions, cognitive appraisal, and affective stress reactions. Multiple regression analyses supported the hypotheses that attributions to racism and to discrimination that combines racism and sexism were associated with increased stress reactions. This relationship was mediated by cognitive appraisals of centrality. (c) 2005 APA


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISMAIL Azman


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between communication openness in performance appraisal systems and job satisfaction. A survey method was employed to gather data from employees who have worked in a privatized postal company in Sarawak, Malaysia. SmartPLS version 2.0 was used to determine the validity and reliability of instrument and test the research hypotheses. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model showed that explanation and feedback were positively and significantly related to job satisfaction. This result confirms that the ability of appraisers to clearly explain the performance appraisal practices and adequately provide feedback in determining performance scores have been important predictors of appraises’ job satisfaction in the studied organization. Further, this study provides discussion, implications and conclusion.

  10. Estimation of the Relative Severity of Floods in Small Ungauged Catchments for Preliminary Observations on Flash Flood Preparedness: A Case Study in Korea (United States)

    Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il


    An increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration has caused significant danger and loss of life and property in Korea as well as many other parts of the World. Since such floods usually accompanied by rapid runoff and debris flow rise quite quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage, this study presents a new flash flood indexing methodology to promptly provide preliminary observations regarding emergency preparedness and response to flash flood disasters in small ungauged catchments. Flood runoff hydrographs are generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the annual maximum rainfall series of long-term observed data in the two selected small ungauged catchments. The relative flood severity factors quantifying characteristics of flood runoff hydrographs are standardized by the highest recorded maximum value, and then averaged to obtain the flash flood index only for flash flood events in each study catchment. It is expected that the regression equations between the proposed flash flood index and rainfall characteristics can provide the basis database of the preliminary information for forecasting the local flood severity in order to facilitate flash flood preparedness in small ungauged catchments. PMID:22690208

  11. High resolution isotope data and ensemble modelling reveal ecohydrological controls on catchment storage-discharge relationships and flux travel time distributions (United States)

    Soulsby, C.; Kuppel, S.; Smith, A.; Tetzlaff, D.


    The dynamics of water storage in a catchment provides a fundamental insight into the interlinkages between input and output fluxes, and how these are affected by environmental change. Such dynamics also mediate, and help us understand, the fundamental difference of the rapid celerity of the rainfall-runoff (minutes to hours) response of catchments and the much slower velocity of water particles (months to decades) as they are transported through catchment systems. In this contribution we report an intensive, long-term (>10year), multi-scale isotope study in the Scottish Highlands that has sought to better understand these issues. We have integrated empirical data collection with diverse modelling approaches to quantify the dynamics and residence times of storage in different compartments of the hydrological system (vegetation canopies, soils, ground waters etc.) and their relationship between the magnitude and travel time distributions of output fluxes (stream flow, transpiration and evaporation). Use of conceptual, physically-based and probabilistic modelling approaches give broadly consistent perspectives on the storage-discharge relationships and the preferential selection of younger waters in runoff, evaporation and transpiration; while older waters predominate in groundwater. The work also highlighted the importance role vegetation plays in regulating fluxes in evaporation and transpiration and how this contributes to the differential ageing of water in mobile and bulk waters in the soil compartment. A separate case study shows how land use change can affect storage distributions in a catchment and radically change travel time distributions in output fluxes.

  12. Scale and legacy controls on catchment nutrient export regimes (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T.; Worrall, F.


    Nutrient dynamics in river catchments are complex: water and chemical fluxes are highly variable in low-order streams, but this variability declines as fluxes move through higher-order reaches. This poses a major challenge for process understanding as much effort is focussed on long-term monitoring of the main river channel (a high-order reach), and therefore the data available to support process understanding are predominantly derived from sites where much of the transient response of nutrient export is masked by the effect of averaging over both space and time. This may be further exacerbated at all scales by the accumulation of legacy nutrient sources in soils, aquifers and pore waters, where historical activities have led to nutrient accumulation where the catchment system is transport limited. Therefore it is of particular interest to investigate how the variability of nutrient export changes both with catchment scale (from low to high-order catchment streams) and with the presence of legacy sources, such that the context of infrequent monitoring on high-order streams can be better understood. This is not only a question of characterising nutrient export regimes per se, but also developing a more thorough understanding of how the concepts of scale and legacy may modify the statistical characteristics of observed responses across scales in both space and time. In this paper, we use synthetic data series and develop a model approach to consider how space and timescales combine with impacts of legacy sources to influence observed variability in catchment export. We find that: increasing space and timescales tend to reduce the observed variance in nutrient exports, due to an increase in travel times and greater mixing, and therefore averaging, of sources; increasing the influence of legacy sources inflates the variance, with the level of inflation dictated by the residence time of the respective sources.

  13. Flash Flood Type Identification within Catchments in Beijing Mountainous Area (United States)

    Nan, W.


    Flash flood is a common type of disaster in mountainous area, Flash flood with the feature of large flow rate, strong flushing force, destructive power, has periodically caused loss to life and destruction to infrastructure in mountainous area. Beijing as China's political, economic and cultural center, the disaster prevention and control work in Beijing mountainous area has always been concerned widely. According to the transport mechanism, sediment concentration and density, the flash flood type identification within catchment can provide basis for making the hazards prevention and mitigation policy. Taking Beijing as the study area, this paper extracted parameters related to catchment morphological and topography features respectively. By using Bayes discriminant, Logistic regression and Random forest, the catchments in Beijing mountainous area were divided into water floods process, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flows process. The results found that Logistic regression analysis showed the highest accuracy, with the overall accuracy of 88.2%. Bayes discriminant and Random forest had poor prediction effects. This study confirmed the ability of morphological and topography features to identify flash flood process. The circularity ratio, elongation ratio and roughness index can be used to explain the flash flood types effectively, and the Melton ratio and elevation relief ratio also did a good job during the identification, whereas the drainage density seemed not to be an issue at this level of detail. Based on the analysis of spatial patterns of flash flood types, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flow process were the dominant hazards, while the pure water flood process was much less. The catchments dominated by fluvial sediment transport process were mainly distributed in the Yan Mountain region, where the fault belts were relatively dense. The debris flow process prone to occur in the Taihang Mountain region thanks to the abundant

  14. Procedures for the systematic appraisal of operational radiation protection programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of this document is to give guidance to management and regulators of organisations using ionizing radiations on a technique for systematically appraising their operational radiation protection programme in order that its adequacy and effectiveness can be objectively determined. The appraisal technique is based on analytical trees and can be used to examine either a whole programme, to determine its completion and adequacy or to examine one component of a programme in considerable detail. This document will not develop technical recommendations on particular radiation protection programmes. These will be found in the appropriate Safety Series document on operational radiation protection. 8 refs, figs

  15. FASP, an analytic resource appraisal program for petroleum play analysis (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.; Balay, R.H.


    An analytic probabilistic methodology for resource appraisal of undiscovered oil and gas resources in play analysis is presented in a FORTRAN program termed FASP. This play-analysis methodology is a geostochastic system for petroleum resource appraisal in explored as well as frontier areas. An established geologic model considers both the uncertainty of the presence of the assessed hydrocarbon and its amount if present. The program FASP produces resource estimates of crude oil, nonassociated gas, dissolved gas, and gas for a geologic play in terms of probability distributions. The analytic method is based upon conditional probability theory and many laws of expectation and variance. ?? 1986.

  16. Runoff Responses to Forest Thinning at Plot and Catchment Scales in a Headwater Catchment Draining Japanese Cypress Forest (United States)

    We examined the effect of forest thinning on runoff generation at plot and catchment scales in headwater basins draining a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) forest. We removed 58.3% of the stems (corresponding to 43.2% of the basal area) in the treated headwater basin (catc...

  17. Effects of wildfire on catchment runoff response: a modeling approach to detect changes in snow-dominated forested catchments (United States)

    Jan Seibert; Jeffrey J. McDonnell; Richard D. Woodsmith


    Wildfire is an important disturbance affecting hydrological processes through alteration of vegetation cover and soil characteristics. The effects of fire on hydrological systems at the catchment scale are not well known, largely because site specific data from both before and after wildfire are rare. In this study a modelling approach was employed for change detection...

  18. The politics of establishing catchment management agencies in South Africa: the case of the Breede-Overberg Catchment Management Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Meissner


    Full Text Available We reflect on the politics of establishing catchment management agencies in South Africa with a specific focus on the Breede-Overberg Catchment Management Agency (BOCMA, which was recently replaced by the Breede-Gouritz Catchment Management Agency (BGCMA. We do so by applying the framework of adaptive comanagement and its institutional prescriptions: collaboration, experimentation, and a bioregional approach. We start by introducing the history of this catchment management agency (CMA and then describe the establishment of CMAs in South Africa in general and that of BOCMA in particular. We follow the framework for rule types and types of river basin organizations set out by the editors of this special feature with reference to adaptive comanagement where applicable. We then discuss the politics and strategies involved in the introduction of the CMA concept to the National Water Act and the latest developments around these institutions in South Africa. This is followed by reflections on what can be surmised about BOCMA's democratic functioning and performance to date. We conclude by reflecting on the future of operations of the new BGCMA and CMAs in South Africa in general. While our research shows that BOCMA's establishment process has featured several elements of adaptive comanagement and its institutional prescriptions, it remains to be seen to what extent it is possible to continue implementing this concept when further developing and operationalizing the BGCMA and the country's other CMAs.

  19. DMPD: Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17959357 Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. Papadimitraki Show Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. PubmedID 17959357 Title Toll like receptors and auto

  20. Application in appraising inter-basin water transfer projects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 8, 2013 ... transfer projects (IBTs) with significant pumping costs overestimates ... Those findings are taken further and it is established that the URV, as currently applied, fails as a suit- .... of measures such as water demand management and catchment .... It is standard practice to also do a sensitivity analysis round.

  1. Peak Flow Responses and Recession Flow Characteristics After Thinning of Japanese Cypress Forest in a Headwater Catchment (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of forest thinning on peak flow and recession characteristics of storm runoff in headwater catchments at Mie Prefecture, Japan. In catchment M5, 58.3% of stems were removed, whereas catchment M4 remained untreated as a control catchment. Storm precipitati...

  2. Nonlinear Appraisal Modeling: An Application of Machine Learning to the Study of Emotion Production


    Meuleman, Ben; Scherer, Klaus R.


    Appraisal theory of emotion claims that emotions are not caused by "raw" stimuli, as such, but by the subjective evaluation (appraisal) of those stimuli. Studies that analyzed this relation have been dominated by linear models of analysis. These methods are not ideally suited to examine a basic assumption of many appraisal theories, which is that appraisal criteria interact to differentiate emotions, and hence show nonlinear effects. Studies that did model interactions were either l...

  3. The hydrolysis of geminal ethers: a kinetic appraisal of orthoesters and ketals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia L. Repetto


    Full Text Available A novel approach to protecting jet fuel against the effects of water contamination is predicated upon the coupling of the rapid hydrolysis reactions of lipophilic cyclic geminal ethers, with the concomitant production of a hydrophilic acyclic hydroxyester with de-icing properties (Fuel Dehydrating Icing Inhibitors - FDII. To this end, a kinetic appraisal of the hydrolysis reactions of representative geminal ethers was undertaken using a convenient surrogate for the fuel–water interface (D2O/CD3CN 1:4. We present here a library of acyclic and five/six-membered cyclic geminal ethers arranged according to their hydroxonium catalytic coefficients for hydrolysis, providing for the first time a framework for the development of FDII. A combination of 1H NMR, labelling and computational studies was used to assess the effects that may govern the observed relative rates of hydrolyses.

  4. Knickpoint Propagation and Hillslope Response in the Mangataikapua Catchment, Waipaoa River, New Zealand (United States)

    Cerovski-Darriau, C.; Roering, J. J.; Bilderback, E. L.


    Base level change can cause differential incision in fluvial networks, driving a transient hillslope response as slopes attempt to adjust to a new base level. Following a shift to a warmer, wetter climate after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (~17.5 ka), the Waipaoa River (NZ) rapidly incised ~120 m leaving perched relict hillslopes that are still adjusting to that base level fall. While previous studies of the Waipaoa basin have only focused on sediment contribution from channel incision or a few individual large earthflows, here we analyze an entire catchment that experiences widespread adjustment due to earthflow activity. In the Mangataikapua catchment—a tributary of the Waipaoa River principally comprised of weak mélange—we see wholesale relaxation of hillslopes due to pervasive post-LGM earthflows. Less than 6% of the mélange area retains relict terrain unaltered by earthflows, exemplifying the importance of including hillslope sediment contribution. Incision has propagated ~9 km upstream along the mainstem of the Mangataikapua (~86% of the channel length) and has created 80 m of relief at the junction with the Waipaoa. Continued adjustment along Mangataikapua tributaries and slopes is evident from knickpoints in the channels and changes in gradient, curvature, and degree of earthflow-altered terrain on the hillslopes. By identifying the location of this transition in channels and on the hillslopes, we can estimate the amount of post-LGM hillslope relaxation. We analyzed 10 major sub-catchments (drainage areas >35,000 m2) in the mélange on the southeastern side of the catchment. We used slope-area plots, in conjunction with normalized steepness index values (ksn) generated with the Stream Profiler (, to determine the degree to which the tributary channels have adjusted to incision along the mainstem. Preliminary results show an "upper zone" of relict channel morphology with an average curvature value of θ=-0.3 (±0.1 s.d.) and a

  5. Learning to Appraise the Quality of Qualitative Research Articles: A Contextualized Learning Object for Constructing Knowledge (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.


    Helping beginning qualitative researchers critically appraise qualitative research articles is a common learning objective for introductory methodology courses. To aid students in achieving competency in appraising the quality of qualitative research articles, a multi-part activity incorporating the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme's (CASP)…

  6. 12 CFR 564.8 - Appraisal policies and practices of savings associations and subsidiaries. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal policies and practices of savings associations and subsidiaries. 564.8 Section 564.8 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.8 Appraisal policies and practices of savings associations and...

  7. A Field Study of Discrete Emotions: Athletes' Cognitive Appraisals during Competition (United States)

    Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude


    Purpose: Cognitive-motivational-relational theory (CMRT) emphasizes that cognitive appraisal components and core relational themes (in which the 6 separate appraisal judgments are brought together as 1) are the proximal determinants of athletes' emotions. This study aimed to explore appraisals associated with discrete emotions experienced by…

  8. (Un)ethical behavior and performance appraisal: the role of affect, support, and organizational justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, G.; Belschak, F.D.; den Hartog, D.N.


    Performance appraisals are widely used as an HR instrument. This study among 332 police officers examines the effects of performance appraisals from a behavioral ethics perspective. A mediation model relating justice perceptions of police officers’ last performance appraisal to their work affect,

  9. 5 CFR 430.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems. (United States)


    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.405... appraisals of their relative performance against performance expectations in any given appraisal period..., requirements, or expectations for the employees they supervise to ensure that they clearly link to...

  10. Individual Differences in Children's Risk Perception and Appraisals in Outdoor Play Environments (United States)

    Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley


    Child characteristics including age, gender, risk-taking behaviour and sensation seeking are thought to influence children's ability to appraise risks. The present study investigated children's risk perceptions and appraisals in the context of common outdoor physical play activities. Risk perceptions and appraisal of four- and five-year olds were…

  11. Automatic Affective Appraisal of Sexual Penetration Stimuli in Women with Vaginismus or Dyspareunia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijding, Jorg; Borg, Charmaine; Weijmar-Schultz, Willibrord; de Jong, Peter J.

    Introduction. Current psychological views are that negative appraisals of sexual stimuli lie at the core of sexual dysfunctions. It is important to differentiate between deliberate appraisals and more automatic appraisals, as research has shown that the former are most relevant to controllable

  12. Water and salt balance modelling to predict the effects of land-use changes in forested catchments. 3. The large catchment model (United States)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Viney, Neil R.; Jeevaraj, Charles G.


    This paper presents an application of a long-term, large catchment-scale, water balance model developed to predict the effects of forest clearing in the south-west of Western Australia. The conceptual model simulates the basic daily water balance fluxes in forested catchments before and after clearing. The large catchment is divided into a number of sub-catchments (1-5 km2 in area), which are taken as the fundamental building blocks of the large catchment model. The responses of the individual subcatchments to rainfall and pan evaporation are conceptualized in terms of three inter-dependent subsurface stores A, B and F, which are considered to represent the moisture states of the subcatchments. Details of the subcatchment-scale water balance model have been presented earlier in Part 1 of this series of papers. The response of any subcatchment is a function of its local moisture state, as measured by the local values of the stores. The variations of the initial values of the stores among the subcatchments are described in the large catchment model through simple, linear equations involving a number of similarity indices representing topography, mean annual rainfall and level of forest clearing.The model is applied to the Conjurunup catchment, a medium-sized (39·6 km2) catchment in the south-west of Western Australia. The catchment has been heterogeneously (in space and time) cleared for bauxite mining and subsequently rehabilitated. For this application, the catchment is divided into 11 subcatchments. The model parameters are estimated by calibration, by comparing observed and predicted runoff values, over a 18 year period, for the large catchment and two of the subcatchments. Excellent fits are obtained.

  13. Water and salt balance modelling to predict the effects of land-use changes in forested catchments. 1. Small catchment water balance model (United States)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Ruprecht, John K.; Viney, Neil R.


    A long-term water balance model has been developed to predict the hydrological effects of land-use change (especially forest clearing) in small experimental catchments in the south-west of Western Australia. This small catchment model has been used as the building block for the development of a large catchment-scale model, and has also formed the basis for a coupled water and salt balance model, developed to predict the changes in stream salinity resulting from land-use and climate change. The application of the coupled salt and water balance model to predict stream salinities in two small experimental catchments, and the application of the large catchment-scale model to predict changes in water yield in a medium-sized catchment that is being mined for bauxite, are presented in Parts 2 and 3, respectively, of this series of papers.The small catchment model has been designed as a simple, robust, conceptually based model of the basic daily water balance fluxes in forested catchments. The responses of the catchment to rainfall and pan evaporation are conceptualized in terms of three interdependent subsurface stores A, B and F. Store A depicts a near-stream perched aquifer system; B represents a deeper, permanent groundwater system; and F is an intermediate, unsaturated infiltration store. The responses of these stores are characterized by a set of constitutive relations which involves a number of conceptual parameters. These parameters are estimated by calibration by comparing observed and predicted runoff. The model has performed very well in simulations carried out on Salmon and Wights, two small experimental catchments in the Collie River basin in south-west Western Australia. The results from the application of the model to these small catchments are presented in this paper.

  14. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Stutenbecker, Laura; Bakker, Maarten; Silva, Tiago A.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Lane, Stuart N.; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Girardclos, Stéphanie


    Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( > 1000 km2) over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation-deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc.), transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation). Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity), and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply) in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment concentration through

  15. Hydrological observation of the artificial catchment `Chicken Creek (United States)

    Mazur, K.; Biemelt, D.; Schoenheinz, D.; Grünewald, U.


    In Lusatia, eastern Germany, an artificial catchment called 'Chicken Creek' was developed. The catchment with an area of 6 ha was designed as hillside on the top of a refilled open mining pit. The bottom boundary was created by a 1 to 2 m thick clay layer acting as aquiclude. The catchment body consists of a 2 to 4 m mighty layer of sandy to loamy sediments acting as aquifer. The catchment 'Chicken Creek' is the central investigation site of the German-Swiss Collaborative Research Centre SFB/TRR 38. The aim of the research is to characterise various ecosystem development phases with respect to the occurring relevant structures and processes. Therefore, structures and processes as well as interactions being dominant within the initial ecosystem development phase are investigated and will be compared to those occurring in the later stages of ecosystem development. In this context, one important part of the investigations is the detailed observation of hydrological processes and the determination of the water balance components. To achieve these objectives, a comprehensive monitoring programme was planned considering the following questions: Which parameters/data are required? Which parameters/data can be measured? Which spatial and temporal resolution of observations is required? The catchment was accordingly equipped with weirs, flumes, observation wells, probes and meteorological observation stations. First results were obtained and will be presented. The gathered data provide parameters and boundary conditions for the ensuing hydro(geo)logical modeling. Conclusions e.g. from groundwater flow simulations shall allow to improve theses about the dynamic in the saturated zone and support the quantification of the groundwater discharge as component of the water balance. First research results show that precipitation related surface runoff proves to be much more dominant in the hydrological system than initially expected. Therefore, the monitoring concept had to be

  16. Safeguarding the provision of ecosystem services in catchment systems. (United States)

    Everard, Mark


    A narrow technocentric focus on a few favored ecosystem services (generally provisioning services) has led to ecosystem degradation globally, including catchment systems and their capacities to support human well-being. Increasing recognition of the multiple benefits provided by ecosystems is slowly being translated into policy and some areas of practice, although there remains a significant shortfall in the incorporation of a systemic perspective into operation management and decision-making tools. Nevertheless, a range of ecosystem-based solutions to issues as diverse as flooding and green space provision in the urban environment offers hope for improving habitat and optimization of beneficial services. The value of catchment ecosystem processes and their associated services is also being increasingly recognized and internalized by the water industry, improving water quality and quantity through catchment land management rather than at greater expense in the treatment costs of contaminated water abstracted lower in catchments. Parallel recognition of the value of working with natural processes, rather than "defending" built assets when catchment hydrology is adversely affected by unsympathetic upstream development, is being progressively incorporated into flood risk management policy. This focus on wider catchment processes also yields a range of cobenefits for fishery, wildlife, amenity, flood risk, and other interests, which may be optimized if multiple stakeholders and their diverse value systems are included in decision-making processes. Ecosystem services, particularly implemented as a central element of the ecosystem approach, provide an integrated framework for building in these different perspectives and values, many of them formerly excluded, into commercial and resource management decision-making processes, thereby making tractable the integrative aspirations of sustainable development. This can help redress deeply entrenched inherited assumptions

  17. Assessing water quality trends in catchments with contrasting hydrological regimes (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie C.; Shore, Mairead; Mellander, Per-Erik


    Environmental resources are under increasing pressure to simultaneously achieve social, economic and ecological aims. Increasing demand for food production, for example, has expanded and intensified agricultural systems globally. In turn, greater risks of diffuse pollutant delivery (suspended sediment (SS) and Phosphorus (P)) from land to water due to higher stocking densities, fertilisation rates and soil erodibility has been attributed to deterioration of chemical and ecological quality of aquatic ecosystems. Development of sustainable and resilient management strategies for agro-ecosystems must detect and consider the impact of land use disturbance on water quality over time. However, assessment of multiple monitoring sites over a region is challenged by hydro-climatic fluctuations and the propagation of events through catchments with contrasting hydrological regimes. Simple water quality metrics, for example, flow-weighted pollutant exports have potential to normalise the impact of catchment hydrology and better identify water quality fluctuations due to land use and short-term climate fluctuations. This paper assesses the utility of flow-weighted water quality metrics to evaluate periods and causes of critical pollutant transfer. Sub-hourly water quality (SS and P) and discharge data were collected from hydrometric monitoring stations at the outlets of five small (~10 km2) agricultural catchments in Ireland. Catchments possess contrasting land uses (predominantly grassland or arable) and soil drainage (poorly, moderately or well drained) characteristics. Flow-weighted water quality metrics were calculated and evaluated according to fluctuations in source pressure and rainfall. Flow-weighted water quality metrics successfully identified fluctuations in pollutant export which could be attributed to land use changes through the agricultural calendar, i.e., groundcover fluctuations. In particular, catchments with predominantly poor or moderate soil drainage

  18. World-System and Evolution: An Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Hall


    Full Text Available This paper makes six arguments. First, socio-cultural evolution must be studied from a "world-system" or intersocietal interaction perspective. A focus on change in individual "societies" or "groups" fails to attend adequately to the effects of intersocietal interaction on social and cultural change. Second, in order to be useful, theories of the modern world-system must be modified extensively to deal with non-capitalist settings. In particular, changes in system boundaries marked by exchange networks (for information, luxury or prestige goods, political/military interactions, and bulk goods seldom coincide,and follow different patterns of change. Third, all such systems tend to pulsate, that is, expand and contract, or at least expand rapidly and less rapidly. Fourth, once hierarchical forms of social organization develop such systems typically have cycles of rise and fall in the relative positions of constituent politics. Fifth, expansion of world-systems forms and transforms social relations in newly incorporated areas. While complex in the modern world-system, these changes are even more complex in precapitalist settings. Sixth, thesetwo cycles combine with demographic and epidemiological processes to shape long -term socio-cultural evolution.

  19. An Appraisal of the DEXA Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report has been requested by VækstFonden and aims at giving an overview of the experimental tests and a general appraisal of the DEXA wave energy converter (WEC). The reported results and findings were obtained during previously performed experimental tests by the Wave Energy Research Group...

  20. 9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal of animals or materials. 53.3 Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals or materials. (a) Animals affected by or exposed to disease, and materials required to be...

  1. An appraisal of undergraduate curriculum of technical education in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to appraise the curriculum of technical teacher education in terms of its compatibility to the goals of the programme. A sample of three Universities offering technical teacher programme was used for the study. Components of the technical teacher education curriculum in each institution were ...

  2. 49 CFR 24.103 - Criteria for appraisals. (United States)


    ...-year sales history of the property. (See appendix A, § 24.103(a)(1).) (ii) All relevant and reliable..., § 24.103(a).) (iii) A description of comparable sales, including a description of all relevant physical..., signature, and certification of the appraiser. (b) Influence of the project on just compensation. The...

  3. Quantum theories of the early universe - a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, B.L.


    A critical appraisal of certain general problems in the study of quantum processes in curved space as applied to the construction of theories of the early universe is presented. Outstanding issues in different cosmological models and the degree of success of different quantum processes in addressing these issues are summarized. (author)

  4. MAPS evaluation report and procedures governing interviews and performance appraisals

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    Following various improvements to the MAPS report and to the procedures governing interviews and performance appraisals (announced in the CERN Bulletin 48-49/2005), a third information session has been organized for all staff members on Tuesday, 31 January at 10 a.m.: AB Auditorium P (864-1-D02), Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  5. Dimensions in Appraising Fatigue in Relation to Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A. van; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Eling, P.A.T.M.


    Studies on the relation between fatigue and performance often fail to find a strong and direct link, implying that multiple factors may be involved. A literature search on the fatigue-performance relationship suggests that two different conceptual frameworks are employed concerning the appraisal of

  6. Performance appraisal: carrot or stick? | Quinn | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To be critically reflective, practitioners need to gather feedback about their performance so that they can reflect on it and develop themselves in those areas in which weaknesses are recognised. The Academic Development Centre staff agreed to participate in a departmental Performance Appraisal process in order to ...

  7. Investment Appraisal Process in the Banking & Finance Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu; J.R. Turner (Rodney)


    textabstractWe have studied how the banking and finance industry performs investment appraisal, measures subsequent follow-up and designates project success or failure. Furthermore, the authors looked into the extent of use of the new generation value management models. The result shows that firms

  8. An Appraisal of the Axiological Dimension of Sexual Relationships ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In other words, one could say that the attitudes of adolescents towards dating, masturbation or even sexual intercourse are rather negative. Significantly, however, the crux of this article is to establish and appraise the axiological dimension of the permissive sexual relationship with affection, thereafter, suggests ways of ...

  9. Internet Use for Prediagnosis Symptom Appraisal by Colorectal Cancer Patients (United States)

    Thomson, Maria D.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Longo, Daniel R.


    Background: This study explored the characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients who accessed Internet-based health information as part of their symptom appraisal process prior to consulting a health care provider. Method: Newly diagnosed CRC patients who experienced symptoms prior to diagnosis were interviewed. Brief COPE was used to…

  10. Taking a Second Look at Economic Stabilization Policy: Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking a Second Look at Economic Stabilization Policy: Appraisal and issues. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... It draws from a background of arguments of different schools of thought on which of the two approaches is better suited for controlling the economy of nations in order to achieve ...

  11. Appraisal and acquisition innovative practices for archives and special collections

    CERN Document Server

    Theimer, Kate


    Appraisal and Acquisition: Innovative Practices for Archives and Special Collections explores how archivists and special collections librarians in organizations of different sizes and types have approached the challenges of collection, as well as exploring opportunities to acquire new kinds of materials and conduct thoughtful reappraisal.

  12. Productivity Implications of Employee Performance Appraisal System : A Critical Survey.


    Dr. VSR Subramaniam


    The Productivity of any organisation is directly correlated to the Effectiveness of the Employee Performance Appraisal System, subject to the Effectiveness of the Support Systems, depending upon the type of organizational business. INFERENCE : Technology, Systems and Manpower are linked in an inter- related circle focusing towards Productivity =============================================================== DOCTORAL (Ph.D) RESEARCH WORK OF DR.VSR.SUBRAMANIAM IN JAMNALAL BAJAJ INSTITUTE OF MANA...

  13. An APPRAISAL analysis of the language of real estate advertisements

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the linguistic choices made by estate agencies in their advertisements of houses, and how these choices compare across two competing agencies in Grahamstown, South Africa – Remax Frontier and Pam Golding Properties. Using Martin and White's (2005) APPRAISAL system, it investigates the ...

  14. Level and Appraisal of Fatigue are Not Specific in Burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A. van; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Becker, E.S.


    Fatigue is a main feature of the burnout syndrome but also very common in other psychiatric disorders such as major depression and anxiety disorders. This raises the question of whether the level and appraisal of fatigue is experienced differently by individuals suffering from burnout than by those

  15. Appraisal of in-service trainee teachers' competency on applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most procedures used to obtain information about student learning are subsumed under assessment. This study appraised in-service trainee teachers' competency on applications of principles of test items writing. One Study Centre was purposively drawn from the National Teachers' Institute for the study. A sample of 33 ...

  16. 116 Appraisal as a Determinant for Adequate Compensation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 24, 2012 ... The fundamental question this work seeks to answer. Appraisal as a Determinant for ..... Organizations should invest richly on people and strive to ... Human Resource Management, New York, McGraw. Hill/Irwin. Drucker P. E. ...

  17. The early evolution of the Archegoniatae: a re-appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuse, A.D.J.


    After a re-appraisal of the alternative hypotheses concerning the origin and the early evolution of the archegoniate land plants, the postulation of a thalassiophytic group of precursors with free isomorphic alternating generations by Church, Zimmermann, and several others is rejected. Several

  18. An appraisal of information and communication technologies as new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An appraisal of information and communication technologies as new media tools for language teaching and learning in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. ... ICTs, the teacher-student interaction in the learning process is situated within a dynamic pedagogical context that could go beyond the four walls of a traditional classroom.

  19. Integrated performance appraisal of Daylight-Europe case study buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Clarke, J.A.; Hand, J.W.; Johnson, K.; Wittchen, K.; Madsen, C.; Compagnon, R.


    This paper describes the approach taken within the EC’s Daylight-Europe project to apply combined thermal/daylight simulations to existing building designs which are representative of European types and climate contexts. The outputs from the performance appraisals are then incorporated within design

  20. Caregiving Appraisal in Family Caregivers of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Farhadi


    Conclusion: Caregiving appraisal is a multidimensional concept, which has positive and negative aspects. By taking into account all aspects of this concept, one can better understand and ultimately has a more comprehensive assessment of the status of caregivers, and implement effective interventions towards improving the health of this group.

  1. Job Analysis, Job Descriptions, and Performance Appraisal Systems. (United States)

    Sims, Johnnie M.; Foxley, Cecelia H.


    Job analysis, job descriptions, and performance appraisal can benefit student services administration in many ways. Involving staff members in the development and implementation of these techniques can increase commitment to and understanding of the overall objectives of the office, as well as communication and cooperation among colleagues.…

  2. Technical safety appraisal of the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report presents the results of one in a series of Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) being conducted of DOE nuclear operations by the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health Office of Safety Appraisals TSAs are one of the ititiatives announced by the Secretary of Energy on September 18, 1985, to enhance the DOE environment, safety and health program. This report presents the results of a TSA of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The appraisal was conducted by a team of exerts assembled by the DOE Office of Safety Appraisal and was conducted during onsite visits of June 26-30 and July 10-21, 1989. West Valley, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, New York is the location of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility operated in the United States. Nuclear Fuels Services, Inc. (NFS) operated the plant from 1966 to 1972 and processed about 640 metric tons of spent reactor fuel. The reprocessing operation generated about 560,000 gallons of high-level radioactive waste, which was transferred into underground tanks for storage. In 1972 NFS closed the plant and subsequently decided not to reopen it

  3. The appraisal of mathematics teachers in Ghana | Fletcher | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the nature and existing methods of teacher appraisal in Ghana. 441 secondary mathematics teachers participated, of whom 193 teach the subject at the junior secondary level and 248 teach it at the senior secondary level. In addition, 44 Ghana Education Service Officials and 6 Heads of secondary ...

  4. Appraisal of the Performance of Contingency Cost Provision for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper appraised performance of contingency allowance in addressing projects' cost risk. To achieve this aim, impact of contingency provision in some selected building projects were evaluated. Data for the study was collected by means of checklist from 40 completed projects' files. Furthermore, 100 questionnaires on ...

  5. A Preliminary Appraisal Of The Composition And Industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary appraisal of the composition and geotechnical properties of clay deposits at Tumfure, Rukwu and Tashar Garba in Udubo area, northeastern Nigeria has been undertaken and results related to their industrial suitability. Mineralogical studies indicate that the clay is mainly kaolinitic while quartz and feldspar are ...

  6. 32 CFR 644.47 - Appraisal of other interests. (United States)


    ... improvements will include, in addition to complete coverage of all factors influencing the use of the property... construction. (ii) Complete cost data as to original purchase price and Government construction. (iii) Detailed... inspected, it will be so noted in the appraisal report. The decision concerning the necessity for a physical...

  7. Book appraisal: history of dentistry in Nigeria | Michael ... - Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The book appraised in this edition of Chronicles of Medical History, History of Dentistry in Nigeria, is a product of many years of painstaking research. The Author, Professor Eyitope Ogunbodede, has put together an excellent book that is a great work of art. Dentistry is one of the first specialties in medicine with a very long ...

  8. Admissibility of hearsay evidence in criminal trials: an appraisal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admissibility of hearsay evidence in criminal trials: an appraisal of the Ethiopian legal framework. ... Haramaya Law Review ... Despite Ethiopia following a common law approach regarding evidentiary principles, rules and procedural safeguards in criminal trials, the country does not have a codified and compiled evidence ...

  9. an appraisal of Yemoja among the Yoruba in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This work therefore aims at giving an appraisal of the influence of Yemoja on the socio- ... the advent of both Islam and Christianity in the land. .... a rattle will be sounded so as to attract the attention of the goddess. .... During the festival, prayers are offered for the increase of the farm products (both cash and food crops) that ...

  10. Investigating the appraisal patterns of regret and disappointment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, W.W.; Zeelenberg, M.


    Regret and disappointment are the two emotions that are most closely linked to decision making. This study compares the appraisal patterns of the two emotions. This is done in the context of the related negative emotions anger and sadness. The results show clear differences between regret and

  11. Evaluating the Capacity of Standard Investment Appraisal Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu


    textabstractThe survey findings indicate the existence of gap between theory and practice of capital budgeting. Standard appraisal methods have shown a wider project value discrepancy, which is beyond and above the contingency limit. In addition, the research has found the growing trend in the use

  12. Organizational Justice and Employee Satisfaction in Performance Appraisal (United States)

    Palaiologos, Anastasios; Papazekos, Panagiotis; Panayotopoulou, Leda


    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the performance appraisal (PA) aspects that are connected with organizational justice, and more specifically three kinds of justice, namely distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a sample of 170 respondents who answered a questionnaire giving…

  13. Appraisal of the European Commission's Energy Roadmap 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeus, L.


    What is the European energy strategy for 2050? How different is it from the 2020 energy strategy? What are the technology options? What are the policy options? The European Commission provided a first answer to these questions in its Energy Roadmap 2050. This article gives an appraisal of that answer based on the recommendations we made during the preparation of the roadmap.

  14. The effect of sound sources on soundscape appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Kirsten; Andringa, Tjeerd


    In this paper we explore how the perception of sound sources (like traffic, birds, and the presence of distant people) influences the appraisal of soundscapes (as calm, lively, chaotic, or boring). We have used 60 one-minute recordings, selected from 21 days (502 hours) in March and July 2010.

  15. Appraising coach performance: A qualitative analysis of coaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study examines the perceptions of sport coaches regarding their performance appraisal. A qualitative approach using in depth interviews was adopted for the study. The sample comprised eleven sport coaches who were selected through a purposive sampling technique. Five themes, namely criteria, feedback, ...

  16. 242-A Evaporator crystallizer facility integrated annual safety appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report provides the results of the Fiscal Year (FY) 1991 Annual Integrated Safety Appraisal of the 242-A Evaporator Crystallizer Facility in the Hanford 200 East Area. The appraisal was conducted in December 1990 and January 1991, by the Waste Tank Safety Assurance (WTSA) organizations in conjunction with Radiological Engineering, Criticality Safety, Packaging and Shipping Safety, Emergency Preparedness, Environmental Compliance, and Quality Assurance. Reports of these eight organizations are presented as Sections 2 through 7 of this report. The purpose of the appraisal was to verify that the 242-A Evaporator meets US Department of Energy (DOE) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) requirements and current industry standards of good practice for the areas being appraised. A further purpose was to identify areas in which program effectiveness could be improved. In accordance with the guidance of WHC Management Requirements and Procedures (MRP)5.6, previously identified deficiencies which are being resolved by line management were not repeated as Findings or Observations unless progress or intended disposition was considered to be unsatisfactory

  17. Performance Appraisal at Four and Five Star Hotels: Ankara Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Arslantürk


    Full Text Available Nowadays, tourism establishments developing human resources and motivating will make it easier to reach their goals and those who cannot mange to do this will be obsolete in the ever-changing nature of the tourism business. The most important feature of the tourism sector is that it is based on human element and it s labor-intensive. Hence, human element is of great importance. This being the case, the customer satisfaction in accommodation establishments will be greatly dependent on the success of the personnel. Performance appraisal in this regard is a tool used to measure the performance of the employees in establishing job satisfaction and enhancing success. Performance appraisal indicates the performance of the individuals and gives insights as to what should be done to improve the performance. As well as promoting the communication between the employees and the establishment. From the perspectives of the managers, it paves the way for an efficient information flow about the performance of the personnel and makes job planning more rationally. This study first examines performance and performance appraisal. Then, through a field study, deficiencies in the application of performance appraisal were determined in the four and five star hotel establishments. According to the results obtained, some suggestions were put forward.

  18. Asset Management Plans, Appraisal Guidance for 2003-04. (United States)

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    This document is one in a series which aims to assist Local Authorities in Britain with asset management planning (AMPs) for schools. AMPs set out the information needed, and the criteria used, to make decisions about spending on school premises. The document provides guidance on the appraisal of school AMPs in 2002 to inform 3-year formulaic…

  19. Decision-Making Styles and Problem-Solving Appraisal. (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; And Others


    Compared decision-making style and problem-solving appraisal in 243 undergraduates. Results suggested that individuals who employ rational decision-making strategies approach problematic situations, while individuals who endorse dependent decisional strategies approach problematic situations without confidence in their problem-solving abilities.…

  20. Adolescent sexuality education: An appraisal of some scalable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescent sexuality education: An appraisal of some scalable interventions for the Nigerian context. VC Pam. Abstract. Most issues around sexual intercourse are highly sensitive topics in Nigeria. Despite the disturbingly high adolescent HIV prevalence and teenage pregnancy rate in Nigeria, sexuality education is ...

  1. Appraisal Distortions and Intimate Partner Violence: Gender, Power, and Interaction (United States)

    Whiting, Jason B.; Oka, Megan; Fife, Stephen T.


    In relationships characterized by control, abuse, or violence, many appraisal distortions occur including denial and minimization. However, the nature of the distortion varies depending on the individual's role in the relationship (i.e., abuser or victim). Reducing these distortions is an important component in treatment success and involves…

  2. 75 FR 77449 - Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (United States)


    ... regulations \\1\\ implementing Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of... Guidelines) to provide further guidance to regulated financial institutions on prudent appraisal and... Proposal, changes in market conditions underscore the importance of institutions following sound collateral...

  3. A Critical Appraisal of Circumferential Resection Margins in Esophageal Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pultrum, Bareld B.; Honing, Judith; Smit, Justin K.; van Dullemen, Hendrik M.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Groen, Henk; Hollema, Harry; Plukker, John Th. M.

    In esophageal cancer, circumferential resection margins (CRMs) are considered to be of relevant prognostic value, but a reliable definition of tumor-free CRM is still unclear. The aim of this study was to appraise the clinical prognostic value of microscopic CRM involvement and to determine the

  4. 50 CFR 34.7 - Fair market value appraisals. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value appraisals. 34.7 Section... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.7 Fair market value... procedures in order to estimate the fair market value of each area as a whole. The evaluation will be...

  5. 7 CFR 3015.56 - Appraisal of real property. (United States)


    ... of real property. In some cases, it will be necessary to establish the market value of land or a building or the fair rental rate of land or of space in a building. In these cases, the awarding agency must require that the market value or fair rental rate be set by an independent appraiser (or by a...

  6. 78 FR 10367 - Appraisals for Higher-Priced Mortgage Loans (United States)


    ... the current sale. A creditor of a ``higher-risk mortgage'' must also: Provide the applicant, at the... addition, the final rule implements the Act's requirement that the creditor of a ``higher-risk mortgage... provision requiring appraisals for ``higher-risk mortgages'' that was added to TILA by the Dodd-Frank Wall...

  7. An investigation of self-appraised cognition versus measured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implications of this investigation are far-reaching in terms of the necessity to regard a student holistically, to realise the importance of how students appraise themselves cognitively, and the need to pay special attention to building a healthy self-concept. South African Journal of Higher Education Vol. 21 (4) 2007: pp.

  8. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.; Murphy, M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Shalloo, L.


    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated

  9. An Appraisal of Equal Educational Opportunities and its Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper appraised the concept of equal educational opportunities and its implications for peace and development in Nigeria. In the age of Plato, education was meant to make each person contribute his best in the stratum that he belonged. In consequence, all children were educated together at the nursery, kindergarten ...

  10. Appraisal of Student-Teacher's Attitude Toward Teaching Profession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disposition of teachers within and outside the school will in no little amount positively affect the academic achievement of students. Thus, this paper is a descriptive survey which sought to appraise the attitude of student-teacher's relationship across teacher training institutes in Lagos State, Nigeria. This study was ...

  11. Texas Teacher Evaluation & Support System (T-TESS) Appraiser Handbook (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, 2016


    The Texas Education Agency's (TEA) approved instrument for evaluating teachers, the Professional Development and Appraisal System (PDAS), was the primary instrument used by 86 percent of local education agencies (LEAs) in the state and has been in place since 1997. In acknowledging the vital roles teachers play in student achievement, and based on…

  12. 10Be systematics in the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra catchment: the cosmogenic nuclide legacy of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lupker


    Full Text Available The Tsangpo-Brahmaputra River drains the eastern part of the Himalayan range and flows from the Tibetan Plateau through the eastern Himalayan syntaxis downstream to the Indo-Gangetic floodplain and the Bay of Bengal. As such, it is a unique natural laboratory to study how denudation and sediment production processes are transferred to river detrital signals. In this study, we present a new 10Be data set to constrain denudation rates across the catchment and to quantify the impact of rapid erosion within the syntaxis region on cosmogenic nuclide budgets and signals. The measured 10Be denudation rates span around 2 orders of magnitude across individual catchments (ranging from 0.03 to > 4 mm yr−1 and sharply increase as the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra flows across the eastern Himalaya. The increase in denudation rates, however, occurs  ∼  150 km downstream of the Namche Barwa–Gyala Peri massif (NBGPm, an area which has been previously characterized by extremely high erosion and exhumation rates. We suggest that this downstream lag is mainly due to the physical abrasion of coarse-grained, low 10Be concentration, landslide material produced within the syntaxis that dilutes the upstream high-concentration 10Be flux from the Tibetan Plateau only after abrasion has transferred sediment to the studied sand fraction. A simple abrasion model produces typical lag distances of 50 to 150 km compatible with our observations. Abrasion effects reduce the spatial resolution over which denudation can be constrained in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. In addition, we also highlight that denudation rate estimates are dependent on the sediment connectivity, storage, and quartz content of the upstream Tibetan Plateau part of the catchment, which tends to lead to an overestimation of downstream denudation rates. While no direct 10Be denudation measurements were made in the syntaxis, the dilution of the upstream 10Be signal, measured in Tsangpo

  13. Health system guidance appraisal--concept evaluation and usability testing. (United States)

    Ako-Arrey, Denis E; Brouwers, Melissa C; Lavis, John N; Giacomini, Mita K


    Health system guidance (HSG) provides recommendations aimed to address health system challenges. However, there is a paucity of methods to direct, appraise, and report HSG. Earlier research identified 30 candidate criteria (concepts) that can be used to evaluate the quality of HSG and guide development and reporting requirements. The objective of this paper was to describe two studies aimed at evaluating the importance of these 30 criteria, design a draft HSG appraisal tool, and test its usability. This study involved a two-step survey process. In step 1, respondents rated the 30 concepts for appropriateness to, relevance to, and priority for health system decisions and HSG. This led to a draft tool. In step 2, respondents reviewed HSG documents, appraised them using the tool, and answered a series of questions. Descriptive analyses were computed. Fifty participants were invited in step 1, and we had a response rate of 82 %. The mean response rates for each concept within each survey question were universally favorable. There was also an overall agreement about the need for a high-quality tool to systematically direct the development, appraisal, and reporting of HSG. Qualitative feedback and a consensus process by the team led to refinements to some of the concepts and the creation of a beta (draft) version of the HSG tool. In step 2, 35 participants were invited and we had a response rate of 74 %. Exploratory analyses showed that the quality of the HSGs reviewed varied as a function of the HSG item and the specific document assessed. A favorable consensus was reached with participants agreeing that the HSG items were easy to understand and easy to apply. Moreover, the overall agreement was high for the usability of the tool to systematically direct the development (85 %), appraisal (92 %), and reporting (81 %) of HSG. From this process, version 1.0 of the HSG appraisal tool was generated complete with 32 items (and their descriptions) and 4 domains. The final

  14. B plant/WESF integrated annual safety appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.K.


    This report provides the results of the Fiscal Year 1990 Annual Integrated Safety Appraisal of the B Plant and Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The appraisal was conducted in August and September 1990, by the Defense Waste Disposal Safety group, in conjunction with Health Physics and Emergency Preparedness. Reports of these three organizations for their areas of responsibility are presented. The purpose of the appraisal was to determine if the areas being appraised meet US Department of Energy (DOE) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) requirements and current industry standards of good practice. A further purpose was to identify areas in which program effectiveness could be improved. In accordance with the guidance of WHC Management Requirements and Procedures 5.6, previously identified deficiencies which are being resolved by line management were not repeated as Findings or Observations unless progress or intended disposition was considered to be unsatisfactory. The overall assessment is that there are no major safety problems associated with current operations. Programs are in place to provide the necessary safety controls, evaluations, overviews, and support. In most respects these programs are being implemented effectively. However, there are a number of deficiencies in details of program design and implementation. The appraisal identified a total of 23 Findings and 27 Observations of deficiencies. All Observations are Seriousness Category 3. Fifteen Findings were Category 2 and 8 were Category 3. Most of the Category 2 Findings were so categorized on the basis of noncompliance with mandatory DOE Orders or WHC policies and procedures, rather than potential risk to personnel

  15. Automatic affective appraisal of sexual penetration stimuli in women with vaginismus or dyspareunia. (United States)

    Huijding, Jorg; Borg, Charmaine; Weijmar-Schultz, Willibrord; de Jong, Peter J


    Current psychological views are that negative appraisals of sexual stimuli lie at the core of sexual dysfunctions. It is important to differentiate between deliberate appraisals and more automatic appraisals, as research has shown that the former are most relevant to controllable behaviors, and the latter are most relevant to reflexive behaviors. Accordingly, it can be hypothesized that in women with vaginismus, the persistent difficulty to allow vaginal entry is due to global negative automatic affective appraisals that trigger reflexive pelvic floor muscle contraction at the prospect of penetration. To test whether sexual penetration pictures elicited global negative automatic affective appraisals in women with vaginismus or dyspareunia and to examine whether deliberate appraisals and automatic appraisals differed between the two patient groups. Women with persistent vaginismus (N = 24), dyspareunia (N = 23), or no sexual complaints (N = 30) completed a pictorial Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST), and then made a global affective assessment of the EAST stimuli using visual analogue scales (VAS). The EAST assessed global automatic affective appraisals of sexual penetration stimuli, while the VAS assessed global deliberate affective appraisals of these stimuli. Automatic affective appraisals of sexual penetration stimuli tended to be positive, independent of the presence of sexual complaints. Deliberate appraisals of the same stimuli were significantly more negative in the women with vaginismus than in the dyspareunia group and control group, while the latter two groups did not differ in their appraisals. Unexpectedly, deliberate appraisals seemed to be most important in vaginismus, whereas dyspareunia did not seem to implicate negative deliberate or automatic affective appraisals. These findings dispute the view that global automatic affect lies at the core of vaginismus and indicate that a useful element in therapeutic interventions may be the modification of

  16. Hydrological impacts of land use change in three diverse South African catchments (United States)

    Warburton, Michele L.; Schulze, Roland E.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.


    SummaryIn order to meet society's needs for water, food, fuel and fibre, the earth's natural land cover and land use have been significantly changed. These changes have impacted on the hydrological responses and thus available water resources, as the hydrological responses of a catchment are dependent upon, and sensitive to, changes in the land use. The degree of anthropogenic modification of the land cover, the intensity of the land use changes and location of land uses within a catchment determines the extent to which land uses influences hydrological response of a catchment. The objective of the study was to improve understanding of the complex interactions between hydrological response and land use to aid in water resources planning. To achieve this, a hydrological model, viz. the ACRU agrohydrological model, which adequately represents hydrological processes and is sensitive to land use changes, was used to generate hydrological responses from three diverse, complex and operational South African catchments under both current land use and a baseline land cover. The selected catchments vary with respect to both land use and climate. The semi-arid sub-tropical Luvuvhu catchment has a large proportion of subsistence agriculture and informal residential areas, whereas in the winter rainfall Upper Breede catchment the primary land uses are commercial orchards and vineyards. The sub-humid Mgeni catchment is dominated by commercial plantation forestry in the upper reaches, commercial sugarcane and urban areas in the middle reaches, with the lower reaches dominated by urban areas. The hydrological responses of the selected catchments to land use change were complex. Results showed that the contributions of different land uses to the streamflow generated from a catchment is not proportional to the relative area of that land use, and the relative contribution of the land use to the catchment streamflow varies with the mean annual rainfall of the catchment. Furthermore

  17. Rice agriculture impacts catchment hydrographic patterns and nitrogen export characteristics in subtropical central China: a paired-catchment study. (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Xinliang; Wang, Hua; Li, Yong; Li, Yuyuan; Liu, Feng; Xiao, Runlin; Shen, Jianlin; Wu, Jinshui


    Increased nitrogen (N) concentrations in water bodies have highlighted issues regarding nutrient pollution in agricultural catchments. In this study, the ammonium-N (NH 4 + -N), nitrate-N (NO 3 - -N), and total N (TN) concentrations were observed in the stream water and groundwater of two contrasting catchments (named Tuojia and Jianshan) in subtropical central China from 2010 to 2014, to determine the rice agriculture impacts on the hydrographic patterns, and N export characteristics of the catchments. The results suggested that greater amounts of stream flow (523.0 vs. 434.7 mm year -1 ) and base flow (237.6 vs. 142.8 mm year -1 ) were produced in Tuojia than in Jianshan, and a greater base flow contribution to stream flow and higher frequencies of high-base flow days were observed during the fallow season than during the rice-growing season, indicating that intensive rice agriculture strongly influences the catchment hydrographic pattern. Rice agriculture resulted in moderate N pollution in the stream water and groundwater, particularly in Tuojia. Primarily, rice agriculture increased the NH 4 + -N concentration in the stream water; however, it increased the NO 3 - -N concentrations in the groundwater, suggesting that the different N species in the paddy fields migrated out of the catchments through distinct hydrological pathways. The average TN loading via stream flow and base flow was greater in Tuojia than in Jianshan (1.72 and 0.58 vs. 0.72 and 0.15 kg N ha -1  month -1 , respectively). Greater TN loading via stream flow was observed during the fallow season in Tuojia and during the rice-growing season in Jianshan, and these different results were most likely a result of the higher base flow contribution to TN loading (33.5 vs. 21.3%) and greater base flow enrichment ratio (1.062 vs. 0.876) in Tuojia than in Jianshan. Therefore, the impact of rice agriculture on catchment eco-hydrological processes should be considered when performing water quality

  18. Assessment of surface water resources availability using catchment modeling and the results of tracer studies in the meso-scale Migina Catchment, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyaneza, O.; Mukubwa, A.; Maskey, S.; Wenninger, J.W.; Uhlenbrook, S.


    In the last couple of years, different hydrological research projects were undertaken in the Migina catchment (243.2 km2), a tributary of the Kagera river in Southern Rwanda. These projects were aimed to understand hydrological processes of the catchment using analytical and experimental approaches

  19. Hydrological response characteristics of Mediterranean catchments: a review


    Merheb , M.; Moussa , R.; Abdallah , C.; Colin , F.; Perrin , C.; Baghdadi , N.


    International audience; This work examines 140 hydrological studies conducted in the Mediterranean region. It identifies key characteristics of the hydrological responses of Mediterranean catchments at various time scales and compares different methods and modelling approaches used for individualcatchmentstudies. The study area is divided into the northwestern (NWM), eastern (EM) and southern (SM) Mediterranean. The analysis indicates regional discrepancies in which the NWM shows the most ext...

  20. Creating a catchment scale perspective for river restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Benda


    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in river restoration is to identify the natural fluvial landscape in catchments with a long history of river control. Intensive land use on valley floors often predates the earliest remote sensing: levees, dikes, dams, and other structures alter valley-floor morphology, river channels and flow regimes. Consequently, morphological patterns indicative of the fluvial landscape including multiple channels, extensive floodplains, wetlands, and fluvial-riparian and tributary-confluence dynamics can be obscured, and information to develop appropriate and cost effective river restoration strategies can be unavailable. This is the case in the Pas River catchment in northern Spain (650 km2, in which land use and development have obscured the natural fluvial landscape in many parts of the basin. To address this issue we used computer tools to examine the spatial patterns of fluvial landscapes that are associated with five domains of hydro-geomorphic processes and landforms. Using a 5-m digital elevation model, valley-floor surfaces were mapped according to elevation above the channel and proximity to key geomorphic processes. The predicted fluvial landscape is patchily distributed according to hillslope and valley topography, river network structure, and channel elevation profiles. The vast majority of the fluvial landscape in the main segments of the Pas River catchment is presently masked by human infrastructure, with only 15% not impacted by river control structures and development. The reconstructed fluvial landscape provides a catchment scale context to support restoration planning, in which areas of potential ecological productivity and diversity could be targeted for in-channel, floodplain and riparian restoration projects.

  1. Restoring Landform Geodiversity in Modified Rivers and Catchments (United States)

    Smith, Ben; Clifford, Nicholas


    Extensive human modification and exploitation has created degraded and simplified systems lacking many of the landforms which would characterise healthy, geodiverse rivers. As awareness of geodiversity grows we must look to ways not only to conserve geodiversity but to also restore or create landforms which contribute to geodiverse environments. River restoration, with lessons learned over the last 30 years and across multiple continents, has much to offer as an exemplar of how to understand, restore or create geodiversity. Although not mentioned explicitly, there is an implicit emphasis in the Water Framework Directive on the importance of landforms and geodiversity, with landform units and assemblages at the reach scale assumed to provide the physical template for a healthy aquatic ecosystem. The focus on hydromorphology has increased the importance of geomorphology within river restoration programmes. The dominant paradigm is to restore landforms in order to increase habitat heterogeneity and improve biodiversity within rivers. However, the process of landform restoration is also a goal in its own right in the context of geodiversity, and extensive compilations of restoration experiences allow an inventory and pattern of landform (re-) creation to be assembled, and an assessment of landform function as well as landform presence/absence to be made. Accordingly, this paper outlines three principal research questions: Which landforms are commonly reinstated in river restoration activities? How do these landforms function compared to natural equivalents and thus contribute to 'functional' geodiversity as compared to the 'aesthetic' geodiversity? How does landform diversity scale from reach to catchment and contribute to larger-scale geodiversity? Data from the UK National River Restoration Inventory and the RHS are combined to assess the frequency and spatial distribution of commonly created landforms in relation to catchment type and more local context. Analysis is

  2. Patients' appraisals of public and private healthcare: a qualitative study of physiotherapy and osteopathy. (United States)

    Bradbury, Katherine J; Bishop, Felicity L; Yardley, Lucy; Lewith, George


    Patients have previously reported differences in their experiences of treatments received in the public and private sectors; it remains unclear whether such perceived differences are particular to or shared across different interventions. This study explored whether patients' appraisals of public and private treatments are similar when appraising a complementary therapy (osteopathy) compared to a mainstream therapy (physiotherapy). Thirty-five qualitative interviews were analysed thematically. Patients' appraisals varied by health-care sector and therapy type: physiotherapy was appraised more negatively in the National Health Service than the private sector but osteopathy was appraised similarly within both health-care sectors. Potential reasons for this are discussed.

  3. Socio-hydrology of the Thippagondanahalli catchment in India - from common property to open-access. (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Thomas, B.; Lele, S.


    Developing countries face difficult challenge as they must adapt to an uncertain climate future even as land use, demography and the composition of their economies are rapidly changing. Achieving a secure water future requires making reliable predictions of water cycle dynamics in future years. This necessitates understanding societal feedbacks and predicting how these will change in the future. We explore this "Predictions Under Change" problem in the Thippagondanahalli (TG Halli) catchment of the Arkavathy Basin in South India. Here, river flows have declined sharply over the last thirty years. The TG Halli Reservoir that once supplied 148 MLD to Bangalore city only yields 30 MLD today. Our analyses suggest that these declines cannot be attributed to climatic factors; groundwater depletion is probably the major cause. We analysed the interlinked human and hydrologic factors and feedbacks between them that have resulted in the present situation using extensive primary data, including weather stations, stream gaging, soil moisture sensing, household surveys, oral histories, interviews, and secondary data including census data, crop reports, satellite imagery and historical hydro-climatic data. Our analysis suggests that several factors have contributed to a continuous shift from surface to groundwater in the TG Halli catchment. First, cheap borewell technology has made groundwater more accessible. Second, as demand for high-value produce from the city and wealth increased, farmers became increasingly willing to invest in risky borewell drilling. Third, differences in governance in groundwater (open access) versus surface water (community managed tanks) hastened the break-down of community managed water systems allowing unchecked exploitation of groundwater. Finally, the political economy of water spurred groundwater development through provision of free electricity and "watershed development" programmes.

  4. Preparatory investigations for a public dialogue on flash flood risk in the Mehlemer Bach catchment, Germany (United States)

    Seydel, Elena; Turley, Michael; Becht, Michael; Heckmann, Tobias


    On July 3rd, 2010, an extreme precipitation event occurred in the municipality of Wachtberg at the southern urban fringe of the Federal City of Bonn. The 30-min intensity of the torrential rain was estimated to represent a 1000 year event according to the KOSTRA dataset (German Meteorological Service, DWD). Rapid overland flow and the exceedance of the design values of the sewerage system caused a flash flood in the Mehlemer Bach catchment. Roughly 400 buildings were affected in its lower, urbanized part, and it took over two weeks to clear the damage. Similar flash flood events have been recorded in the same catchment regularly since the year 1693, three times in the last 80 years alone. The fact that, in case of the 2010 event, the official weather warning was released almost simultaneously to the beginning of the downpour highlights the urgent need for preparative action in the longer term. Flash flood risk mitigation relies, among others, on risk awareness and preparedness of residents. One aim of this study is to analyse the current risk communication in the drainage area of Mehlemer Bach through questionnaires and expert interviews, which will provide a good basis for an open dialogue between residents and the authorities. There is an urgent need for practical and accessible advice, and it must be ensured that the resources and capabilities of the individuals involved are taken into consideration. In addition, we compare a hazard map of the area to mental maps drawn by the local population in order to assess their risk perception.

  5. Paradigm Shift in Transboundary Water Management Policy: Linking Water Environment Energy and Food (weef) to Catchment Hydropolitics - Needs, Scope and Benefits (United States)

    RAI, S.; Wolf, A.; Sharma, N.; Tiwari, H.


    The incessant use of water due to rapid growth of population, enhanced agricultural and industrial activities, degraded environment and ecology will in the coming decades constrain the socioeconomic development of humans. To add on to the precarious situation, political boundaries rarely embrace hydrological boundaries of lakes, rivers, aquifers etc. Hydropolitics relate to the ability of geopolitical institutions to manage shared water resources in a politically sustainable manner, i.e., without tensions or conflict between political entities. Riparian hydropolitics caters to differing objectives, needs and requirements of states making it difficult to administer the catchment. The diverse riparian objectives can be merged to form a holistic catchment objective of sustainable water resources development and management. It can be proposed to make a paradigm shift in the present-day transboundary water policy from riparian hydropolitics (in which the focal point of water resources use is hinged on state's need) to catchment hydropolitics (in which the interest of the basin inhabitants are accorded primacy holistically over state interests) and specifically wherein the water, environment, energy and food (WEEF) demands of the catchment are a priority and not of the states in particular. The demands of the basin pertaining to water, food and energy have to be fulfilled, keeping the environment and ecology healthy in a cooperative political framework; the need for which is overwhelming. In the present scenario, the policy for water resources development of a basin is segmented into independent uncoordinated parts controlled by various riparians; whereas in catchment hydropolitics the whole basin should be considered as a unit. The riparians should compromise a part of national interest and work in collaboration on a joint objective which works on the principle of the whole as against the part. Catchment hydropolitics may find greater interest in the more than 250

  6. Influence of rainfall and catchment characteristics on urban stormwater quality. (United States)

    Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Guan, Yuntao; Goonetilleke, Ashantha


    The accuracy and reliability of urban stormwater quality modelling outcomes are important for stormwater management decision making. The commonly adopted approach where only a limited number of factors are used to predict urban stormwater quality may not adequately represent the complexity of the quality response to a rainfall event or site-to-site differences to support efficient treatment design. This paper discusses an investigation into the influence of rainfall and catchment characteristics on urban stormwater quality in order to investigate the potential areas for errors in current stormwater quality modelling practices. It was found that the influence of rainfall characteristics on pollutant wash-off is step-wise based on specific thresholds. This means that a modelling approach where the wash-off process is predicted as a continuous function of rainfall intensity and duration is not appropriate. Additionally, other than conventional catchment characteristics, namely, land use and impervious surface fraction, other catchment characteristics such as impervious area layout, urban form and site specific characteristics have an important influence on both, pollutant build-up and wash-off processes. Finally, the use of solids as a surrogate to estimate other pollutant species was found to be inappropriate. Individually considering build-up and wash-off processes for each pollutant species should be the preferred option. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrological impacts of urbanization at the catchment scale (United States)

    Oudin, Ludovic; Salavati, Bahar; Furusho-Percot, Carina; Ribstein, Pierre; Saadi, Mohamed


    The impacts of urbanization on floods, droughts and the overall river regime have been largely investigated in the past few decades, but the quantification and the prediction of such impacts still remain a challenge in hydrology. We gathered a sample of 142 catchments that have a documented increase in urban areas over the hydrometeorological record period in the United States. The changes in river flow regimes due to urban spread were differentiated from climate variability using the GR4J conceptual hydrological model. High, low and mean flows were impacted at a threshold of a 10% total impervious area. Moreover, the historical evolution of urban landscape spatial patterns was used to further detail the urbanization process in terms of extent and fragmentation of urban areas throughout the catchment and to help interpret the divergent impacts observed in streamflow behaviors. Regression analysis pointed out the importance of major wastewater treatment facilities that might overpass the effects of imperviousness, and therefore further research should either take them explicitly into account or select a wastewater facility-free catchment sample to clearly evaluate the impacts of urban landscape on low flows.

  8. The Idiosyncrasies of Storage and Implications for Catchment Runoff (Invited) (United States)

    Spence, C.


    Because water goes into storage when it rains, perhaps the entire concept of a direct rainfall-runoff process is erroneous and misleading. Perhaps the runoff generation process is merely the conversion of storage to runoff. Using this perspective as a foundation, it then becomes important to understand how catchments retain water, where this storage is distributed and what controls the distribution of this storage. There is a growing body of observational evidence that the idiosyncrasies of storage in the catchment are crucial for runoff generation. These idiosyncrasies are important enough that some hydrologists are questioning assumptions of steady state, linearity, and topographic control in existing theories and algorithms of runoff generation. For instance, thresholds that control the release of water have been identified at many scales and in many landscapes. Hysteresis in storage-runoff relationships at all scales manifest because of these thresholds. Because storage thresholds at a range of scales are now known to be important for runoff response, connectivity has become an important concept crucial to interpreting catchment runoff response. There appears to be growing acceptance of such ideas as thresholds, hysteresis and connectivity in the hydrological literature. Theoretical development and model parameterization have begun, but there remains much work to resolve these field observations. In particular, our community should strive to investigate the relevance of storage-runoff relationships partly through innovative measurement techniques and the development of model structures appropriate for the requisite testing of these theories in a diversity of landscapes.

  9. Sediment sources in the Upper Severn catchment: a fingerprinting approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Collins


    Full Text Available Suspended sediment sources in the Upper Severn catchment are quantified using a composite fingerprinting technique combining statistically-verified signatures with a multivariate mixing model. Composite fingerprints are developed from a suite of diagnostic properties comprising trace metal (Fe, Mn, AI, heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, base cation (Na, Mg, Ca, K, organic (C, N, radiometric (137Cs, 210Pb, and other (total P determinands. A numerical mixing model, to compare the fingerprints of contemporary catchment source materials with those of fluvial suspended sediment in transit and those of recent overbank floodplain deposits, provides a means of quantifying present and past sediment sources respectively. Sources are classified in terms of eroding surface soils under different land uses and channel banks. Eroding surface soils are the most important source of the contemporary suspended sediment loads sampled at the Institute of Hydrology flow gauging stations at Plynlimon and at Abermule. The erosion of forest soils, associated with the autumn and winter commercial activities of the Forestry Commission, is particularly evident. Reconstruction of sediment provenance over the recent past using a sediment core from the active river floodpiain at Abermule, in conjunction with a 137Cs chronology, demonstrates the significance of recent phases of afforestation and deforestation for accelerated catchment soil erosion.

  10. Potential possibilities of water retention in agricultural loess catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubala Tomasz


    Full Text Available The growing water deficit and the increased demand for water, as well as economic problems and inadequate spatial planning in many regions indicate a necessity of developing more effective rules of programming and realisation of works concerning the water management in small catchments. The paper presents a sample analysis of the possibilities of increasing water retention in the agricultural loess catchments with periodic streams. The scope of the study included the determination of physical parameters of selected sub-catchments (geometry, soil cover, land use, etc. and of the sources of threat to water resources, resulting from construction and geomorphological conditions. Pre-design assumptions of dammings were developed, taking into account anti-erosion protective measures, and treatments increasing the landscape retention of water were proposed. Creating surface retention objects should be an important source of water in simplified agroecosystems, especially in regions, where productivity to a great extent depends on natural weather conditions. Proper management of the fourth-order loess basin of the Ciemięga River (area of about 150 km2, the presence of 50 lateral valleys could give a temporary reservoir retention reaching 500 thousand m3. Farmers should be encouraged to seek “own water sources” (including the accumulation of water within wasteland, using appropriate economic instruments (tax reliefs for the documented volume of retained water, e.g. in small retention reservoirs.

  11. Effects of appraisal training on responses to a distressing autobiographical event. (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L; Zlomuzica, Armin; Cwik, Jan C; Margraf, Jürgen; Shkreli, Lorika; Blackwell, Simon E; Gladwin, Thomas E; Ehring, Thomas


    Dysfunctional appraisals are a key factor suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of PTSD. Research has shown that experimental induction of a positive or negative appraisal style following a laboratory stressor affects analogue posttraumatic stress symptoms. This supports a causal role of appraisal in the development of traumatic stress symptoms and the therapeutic promise of modifying appraisals to reduce PTSD symptoms. The present study aimed to extend previous findings by investigating the effects of experimentally induced appraisals on reactions to a naturally occurring analogue trauma and by examining effects on both explicit and implicit appraisals. Participants who had experienced a distressing life event were asked to imagine themselves in the most distressing moment of that event and then received either a positive or negative Cognitive Bias Modification training targeting appraisals (CBM-App). The CBM-App training induced training-congruent appraisals, but group differences in changes in appraisal over training were only seen for explicit and not implicit appraisals. However, participants trained positively reported less intrusion distress over the subsequent week than those trained negatively, and lower levels of overall posttraumatic stress symptoms. These data support the causal relationship between appraisals and trauma distress, and further illuminate the mechanisms linking the two. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling the effects of land use changes on the streamflow of a peri-urban catchment in central Portugal (United States)

    Hävermark, Saga; Santos Ferreira, Carla Sofia; Kalantari, Zahra; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano


    Many river basis around the world are rapidly changing together with societal development. Such developments may involve changes in land use, which in turn affect the surrounding environment in various ways. Since the start of industrialisation, the urban areas have extended worldwide. Urbanization can influence hydrological processes by decreasing evapotranspiration, infiltration and groundwater recharge as well as increasing runoff and overland flow. It is therefore of uttermost importance to understand the relationship between land use and hydrology. Although several studies have been investigating the impacts of urbanization on streamflow over the last decades, less is known on how urbanization affects hydrological processes in peri-urban areas, characterized by a complex mosaic of different land uses. This study aimed to model the impact of land use changes, specifically urbanization and commercial forest plantation, on the hydrological responses of the small Ribeira dos Covões peri-urban catchment (6,2 km2) located in central Portugal. The catchment has undergone rapid land use changes between 1958 and 2012 associated with the conversion of agricultural fields (cover area decreased from 48% to 4%) into woodland and urban areas, which increased from 44% to 56% and from 8% to 40%, respectively. For the study, the fully-distributed, physically-based modelling system MIKE SHE was used. The model was designed to examine both how past land use changes might have affected the streamflow and to investigate the impacts on hydrology of possible future scenarios, including a 50 %, 60 % and 70 % urban cover. To this end, a variety of data including daily rainfall since 1958 and forward, daily potential evapotranspiration from 2009 to 2013, monthly temperature averages from 1971 to 2013, land use for the years 1958, 1973, 1979, 1990, 1995, 2002, 2007 and 2012, streamflow from the hydrological years 2008 to 2013, catchment topography and soil types were used. The model

  13. An S-shaped relationship between changes in appraisals and changes in emotions. (United States)

    Tong, Eddie M W; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Bishop, George D


    Previous research on appraisal theories of emotion has shown that emotions and appraisals are related but has not specified the nature of the relationships. This research examined the functional forms of appraisal-emotion relationships and demonstrated that for all seven appraisals studied, appraisals relate to emotions in an S-shaped (ogival) fashion: Changes in appraisals at extreme levels are associated with only small changes in emotions, but changes at moderate levels are associated with substantial changes in emotions. With a few exceptions, ogival relationships were found for the relationships between seven appraisals (Goal Achievement Expectancy, Agency, Control, Certainty, Fairness, Pleasantness, and Motive Congruence) and numerous relevant emotions across different sample-types, cultures, and methods.

  14. Appraisal in a Team Context: Perceptions of Cohesion Predict Competition Importance and Prospects for Coping. (United States)

    Wolf, Svenja A; Eys, Mark A; Sadler, Pamela; Kleinert, Jens


    Athletes' precompetitive appraisal is important because it determines emotions, which may impact performance. When part of a team, athletes make their appraisal within a social context, and in this study we examined whether perceived team cohesion, as a characteristic of this context, related to appraisal. We asked 386 male and female intercollegiate team-sport athletes to respond to measures of cohesion and precompetitive appraisal before an in-season game. For males and females, across all teams, (a) an appraisal of increased competition importance was predicted by perceptions of higher task cohesion (individual level), better previous team performance, and a weaker opponent (team level) and (b) an appraisal of more positive prospects for coping with competitive demands was predicted by higher individual attractions to the group (individual level). Consequently, athletes who perceive their team as more cohesive likely appraise the pending competition as a challenge, which would benefit both emotions and performance.

  15. Assessment of surface water resources availability using catchment modelling and the results of tracer studies in the mesoscale Migina Catchment, Rwanda (United States)

    Munyaneza, O.; Mukubwa, A.; Maskey, S.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Wenninger, J.


    In the present study, we developed a catchment hydrological model which can be used to inform water resources planning and decision making for better management of the Migina Catchment (257.4 km2). The semi-distributed hydrological model HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Engineering Center - the Hydrologic Modelling System) (version 3.5) was used with its soil moisture accounting, unit hydrograph, liner reservoir (for baseflow) and Muskingum-Cunge (river routing) methods. We used rainfall data from 12 stations and streamflow data from 5 stations, which were collected as part of this study over a period of 2 years (May 2009 and June 2011). The catchment was divided into five sub-catchments. The model parameters were calibrated separately for each sub-catchment using the observed streamflow data. Calibration results obtained were found acceptable at four stations with a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency index (NS) of 0.65 on daily runoff at the catchment outlet. Due to the lack of sufficient and reliable data for longer periods, a model validation was not undertaken. However, we used results from tracer-based hydrograph separation from a previous study to compare our model results in terms of the runoff components. The model performed reasonably well in simulating the total flow volume, peak flow and timing as well as the portion of direct runoff and baseflow. We observed considerable disparities in the parameters (e.g. groundwater storage) and runoff components across the five sub-catchments, which provided insights into the different hydrological processes on a sub-catchment scale. We conclude that such disparities justify the need to consider catchment subdivisions if such parameters and components of the water cycle are to form the base for decision making in water resources planning in the catchment.

  16. Sediment source fingerprinting as an aid to catchment management: A review of the current state of knowledge and a methodological decision-tree for end-users (United States)

    Collins, A.L; Pulley, S.; Foster, I.D.L; Gellis, Allen; Porto, P.; Horowitz, A.J.


    The growing awareness of the environmental significance of fine-grained sediment fluxes through catchment systems continues to underscore the need for reliable information on the principal sources of this material. Source estimates are difficult to obtain using traditional monitoring techniques, but sediment source fingerprinting or tracing procedures, have emerged as a potentially valuable alternative. Despite the rapidly increasing numbers of studies reporting the use of sediment source fingerprinting, several key challenges and uncertainties continue to hamper consensus among the international scientific community on key components of the existing methodological procedures. Accordingly, this contribution reviews and presents recent developments for several key aspects of fingerprinting, namely: sediment source classification, catchment source and target sediment sampling, tracer selection, grain size issues, tracer conservatism, source apportionment modelling, and assessment of source predictions using artificial mixtures. Finally, a decision-tree representing the current state of knowledge is presented, to guide end-users in applying the fingerprinting approach.

  17. Rapid shallow breathing (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  18. Determining hillslope-channel connectivity in an agricultural catchment using rare-earth oxide tracers and random forests. (United States)

    Masselink, Rens; Temme, Arnaud; Giménez, Rafael; Casalí, Javier; Keesstra, Saskia


    Soil erosion from agricultural areas is a large problem, because of off-site effects like the rapid filling of reservoirs. To mitigate the problem of sediments from agricultural areas reaching the channel, reservoirs and other surface waters, it is important to understand hillslope-channel connectivity and catchment connectivity. To determine the functioning of hillslope-channel connectivity and the continuation of transport of these sediments in the channel, it is necessary to obtain data on sediment transport from the hillslopes to the channels. Simultaneously, the factors that influence sediment export out of the catchment need to be studied. For measuring hillslope-channel sediment connectivity, Rare-Earth Oxide (REO) tracers were applied to a hillslope in an agricultural catchment in Navarre, Spain, preceding the winter of 2014-2015. The results showed that during the winter there was no sediment transport from the hillslope to the channel. Analysis of precipitation data showed that total precipitation quantities did not differ much from the mean. However, precipitation intensities were low, causing little sediment mobilisation. To test the implication of the REO results at the catchment scale, two conceptual models for sediment connectivity were assessed using a Random Forest (RF) machine learning method. One model proposes that small events provide sediment for large events, while the other proposes that only large events cause sediment detachment and small events subsequently remove these sediments from near and in the channel. The RF method was applied to a daily dataset of sediment yield from the catchment (N=2451 days), and two subsets of the whole dataset: small events (N=2319) and large events (N=132). For sediment yield prediction of small events, variables related to large preceding events were the most important. The model for large events underperformed and, therefore, we could not draw any immediate conclusions whether small events influence the

  19. CAOS: the nested catchment soil-vegetation-atmosphere observation platform (United States)

    Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa


    Most catchment based observations linking hydrometeorology, ecohydrology, soil hydrology and hydrogeology are typically not integrated with each other and lack a consistent and appropriate spatial-temporal resolution. Within the research network CAOS (Catchments As Organized Systems), we have initiated and developed a novel and integrated observation platform in several catchments in Luxembourg. In 20 nested catchments covering three distinct geologies the subscale processes at the bedrock-soil-vegetation-atmosphere interface are being monitored at 46 sensor cluster locations. Each sensor cluster is designed to observe a variety of different fluxes and state variables above and below ground, in the saturated and unsaturated zone. The numbers of sensors are chosen to capture the spatial variability as well the average dynamics. At each of these sensor clusters three soil moisture profiles with sensors at different depths, four soil temperature profiles as well as matric potential, air temperature, relative humidity, global radiation, rainfall/throughfall, sapflow and shallow groundwater and stream water levels are measured continuously. In addition, most sensors also measure temperature (water, soil, atmosphere) and electrical conductivity. This setup allows us to determine the local water and energy balance at each of these sites. The discharge gauging sites in the nested catchments are also equipped with automatic water samplers to monitor water quality and water stable isotopes continuously. Furthermore, water temperature and electrical conductivity observations are extended to over 120 locations distributed across the entire stream network to capture the energy exchange between the groundwater, stream water and atmosphere. The measurements at the sensor clusters are complemented by hydrometeorological observations (rain radar, network of distrometers and dense network of precipitation gauges) and linked with high resolution meteorological models. In this

  20. Curve numbers for olive orchard catchments in Spain (United States)

    Taguas, Encarnación; Yuan, Yongping; Licciardello, Feliciana; Gómez, Jose


    The Curve Number (CN) method (Soil Conservation Service, 1972) is widely applied around the world to estimate direct runoff and the corresponding hydrograph of a rainfall event. Its efficient and simple computation, its complete parameterization for different soils, uses and managements and its good performance justify its application. Nevertheless, apart from Romero et al. (2007) who calculated CN-values at the plot scale, there is little information on the model performance in olive orchards at the catchment scale. In this work, the CN-model has been applied in three small catchments in Spain ranging between 6 and 8 ha with different soil types (regosol, luvisol and vertisol), topography (mean slopes between 9-15%) and management practices (non-tillage with a spontaneous grass cover, minimum tillage, conventional tillage). A rainfall-runoff dataset of 6 years have been used to test the usefulness of model as well as the accuracy of its reference parameterization (CNs and of initial substraction, Ia). CN-values were adjusted, optimized and compared with reference values for orchard crops while the sensitivity of the goodness of fit to Ia was described for each catchment. Classical equations based on the use of CN-percentiles 50, 10 and 90 for determining the antecedent moisture content (AMC) provided very good results with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of efficiency equal to 0.73 and 0.81 in two of the catchments with an annual rainfall higher than 600 mm. The third one -with an annual rainfall lower than 400 mm and spontaneous grass cover- showed a different pattern where a multiple linear regression dependant on precipitation and temperature features, represented notably better the rainfall-runoff relationships. Although fractions of Ia on the storage (S) equal to 0.15 and 0.25 allowed to optimize the adjustments of CN, the usual reference of 0.20 is quite appropriate. Finally, significant deviations were observed on reference-CNs for sandy soils that should be

  1. Microbial source tracking and transfer hydrodynamics in rural catchments. (United States)

    Murphy, Sinead; Bhreathnach, Niamh; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Jordan, Philip; Wuertz, Stefan


    In Ireland, bacterial pathogens from continual point source pollution and intermittent pollution from diffuse sources can impact both drinking water supplies and recreational waters. This poses a serious public health threat. Observing and establishing the source of faecal pollution is imperative for the protection of water quality and human health. Traditional culture methods to detect such pollution via faecal indicator bacteria have been widely utilised but do not decipher the source of pollution. To combat this, microbial source tracking, an important emerging molecular tool, is applied to detect host-specific markers in faecally contaminated waters. The aim of this study is to target ruminant and human-specific faecal Bacteroidales and Bacteroides 16S rRNA genes within rural river catchments in Ireland and investigate hydrological transfer dependencies. During storm events and non-storm periods, 1L untreated water samples, taken every 2 hours over a 48-hour time period at the spring (Cregduff) or outlet (Dunleer), and large (5-20L) untreated water samples were collected from two catchment sites. Cregduff is a spring emergence under a grassland karst landscape in Co. Mayo (west coast of Ireland) and Dunleer is a mixed landuse over till soils in Co. Louth (east coast). From a risk assessment point of view, the catchments are very different. Samples were filtered through 0.2µm nitrocellulose filters to concentrate bacterial cells which then underwent chemical extraction of total nucleic acids. Animal and human stool samples were also collected from the catchments to determine assay sensitivity and specificity following nucleic acid extraction. Aquifer response to seasonal events was assessed by monitoring coliforms and E. coli occurrence using the IDEXX Colisure® Quanti Tray®/2000 system in conjunction with chemical and hydrological parameters. Autoanalysers deployed at each catchment monitor multiple water parameters every 10 min such as phosphorus, nitrogen

  2. Health systems guidance appraisal--a critical interpretive synthesis. (United States)

    Ako-Arrey, Denis E; Brouwers, Melissa C; Lavis, John N; Giacomini, Mita K


    Health systems guidance (HSG) are systematically developed statements that assist with decisions about options for addressing health systems challenges, including related changes in health systems arrangements. However, the development, appraisal, and reporting of HSG poses unique conceptual and methodological challenges related to the varied types of evidence that are relevant, the complexity of health systems, and the pre-eminence of contextual factors. To address this gap, we are conducting a program of research that aims to create a tool to support the appraisal of HSG and further enhance HSG development and reporting. The focus of this paper was to conduct a knowledge synthesis of the published and grey literatures to determine quality criteria (concepts) relevant for this process. We applied a critical interpretive synthesis (CIS) approach to knowledge synthesis that enabled an iterative, flexible, and dynamic analysis of diverse bodies of literature in order to generate a candidate list of concepts that will constitute the foundational components of the HSG tool. Using our review questions as compasses, we were able to guide the search strategy to look for papers based on their potential relevance to HSG appraisal, development, and reporting. The search strategy included various electronic databases and sources, subject-specific journals, conference abstracts, research reports, book chapters, unpublished data, dissertations, and policy documents. Screening the papers and data extraction was completed independently and in duplicate, and a narrative approach to data synthesis was executed. We identified 43 papers that met eligibility criteria. No existing review was found on this topic, and no HSG appraisal tool was identified. Over one third of the authors implicitly or explicitly identified the need for a high-quality tool aimed to systematically evaluate HSG and contribute to its development/reporting. We identified 30 concepts that may be relevant to the

  3. Medical student appraisal: searching on smartphones. (United States)

    Khalifian, S; Markman, T; Sampognaro, P; Mitchell, S; Weeks, S; Dattilo, J


    The rapidly growing industry for mobile medical applications provides numerous smartphone resources designed for healthcare professionals. However, not all applications are equally useful in addressing the questions of early medical trainees. Three popular, free, mobile healthcare applications were evaluated along with a Google(TM) web search on both Apple(TM) and Android(TM) devices. Six medical students at a large academic hospital evaluated each application for a one-week period while on various clinical rotations. Google(TM) was the most frequently used search method and presented multimedia resources but was inefficient for obtaining clinical management information. Epocrates(TM) Pill ID feature was praised for its clinical utility. Medscape(TM) had the highest satisfaction of search and excelled through interactive educational features. Micromedex(TM) offered both FDA and off-label dosing for drugs. Google(TM) was the preferred search method for questions related to basic disease processes and multimedia resources, but was inadequate for clinical management. Caution should also be exercised when using Google(TM) in front of patients. Medscape(TM) was the most appealing application due to a broad scope of content and educational features relevant to medical trainees. Students should also be cognizant of how mobile technology may be perceived by their evaluators to avoid false impressions.

  4. Competing feedbacks drive state transitions during initial catchment evolution: Examples from post-mining landscape and ecosystems evolution (United States)

    Hinz, Christoph; Wolfgang, Schaaf; Werner, Gerwin


    initial phase of development the catchment changed very rapidly due to sediment transport, drainage network formation, and soil crusting very similar to geomorphic processes observed in arid and semi-arid landscapes void of dense vegetation. Hydraulic properties changed rapidly after few wet and dry cycles, indicative of particle mobilisation and trapping in the subsurface. Accordingly, the hydrological regime was controlled by rapid surface runoff enhanced through crust formation and at the same time a shallow ground water system developed. This surface runoff regime peeked about two years initialisation as shown by a maximum area of drainage channels. A major, fairly rapid transition occurred between three and five years after placement, in which the sediment transport ceased and vegetation coverage of the drainage channel exceeded 90%. The transition represents the onset of a transpiration dominated regime that is further enhanced by change of the plant composition of the vegetation with tree recruitment from the surrounding forming significant clusters in the catchment. This transition in the third year was also seen in a significant increase in soil fauna and plant diversity.

  5. Behavioral assessment of emotional and motivational appraisal during visual processing of emotional scenes depending on spatial frequencies. (United States)

    Fradcourt, B; Peyrin, C; Baciu, M; Campagne, A


    Previous studies performed on visual processing of emotional stimuli have revealed preference for a specific type of visual spatial frequencies (high spatial frequency, HSF; low spatial frequency, LSF) according to task demands. The majority of studies used a face and focused on the appraisal of the emotional state of others. The present behavioral study investigates the relative role of spatial frequencies on processing emotional natural scenes during two explicit cognitive appraisal tasks, one emotional, based on the self-emotional experience and one motivational, based on the tendency to action. Our results suggest that HSF information was the most relevant to rapidly identify the self-emotional experience (unpleasant, pleasant, and neutral) while LSF was required to rapidly identify the tendency to action (avoidance, approach, and no action). The tendency to action based on LSF analysis showed a priority for unpleasant stimuli whereas the identification of emotional experience based on HSF analysis showed a priority for pleasant stimuli. The present study confirms the interest of considering both emotional and motivational characteristics of visual stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Design for participation in ecologically sound management of South Africa's Mlazi River catchment


    Auerbach, R.


    Without local participation, integrated catchment management and Landcare will not become a general reality in South Africa. With support from the South African Water Research Commission, the University of Natal's Farmer Support Group set up the Ntshongweni Catchment Management Programme (NCMP) as a practical participatory action research investigation of ecological farming systems, integrated catchment management and Landcare. Local experience played a crucial role in helping to bui...

  7. Neuromyelitis Optica (Devic's Syndrome): an Appraisal. (United States)

    Crout, Teresa M; Parks, Laura P; Majithia, Vikas


    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), previously known as Devic's syndrome, are a group of inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by severe, immune-mediated demyelination and axonal damage, predominantly targeting optic nerves and the spinal cord typically associated with a disease-specific serum NMO-IgG antibody that selectively binds aquaporin-4 (AQP4). The classic and best-defined features of NMOSD include acute attacks of bilateral or rapidly sequential optic neuritis (leading to visual loss) or transverse myelitis (often causing limb weakness and bladder dysfunction) or both with a typically relapsing course. The diagnosis of NMO/NMOSD requires a consistent history and examination with typical clinical presentations, findings on spinal cord neuroimaging with MRI, cerebrospinal fluid analysis along with determination of AQP4-IgG serum autoantibody status, and exclusion of other disorders. Two major advances in this field has been the development of diagnostic criteria and treatment recommendations. Consensus diagnostic criteria have been established and were recently revised and published in 2015, enhancing the ability to make a diagnosis and appropriately evaluate these disorders. Expert recommendations and uncontrolled trials form the basis of treatment guidelines. All patients with suspected NMOSD should be treated for acute attacks as soon as possible with high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone -1 gram daily for three to five consecutive days and in some cases, plasma exchange should be used. It is recommended that every patient with NMOSD be started on an immunosuppressive agent, such as, azathioprine, methotrexate, or mycophenolate and in some cases, rituximab, soon after the acute attack and usually be treated for about 5 years after the attack. These advances have helped improve the prognosis and outcome in these disorders.

  8. Multiple-resolution Modeling of flood processes in urban catchments using WRF-Hydro: A Case Study in south Louisiana. (United States)

    Saad, H.; Habib, E. H.


    In August 2016, the city of Lafayette and many other urban centers in south Louisiana experienced catastrophic flooding resulting from prolonged rainfall. Statewide, this historic storm displaced more than 30,000 people from their homes, resulted in damages up to $8.7 billion, put rescue workers at risk, interrupted institutions of education and business, and worst of all, resulted in the loss of life of at least 13 Louisiana residents. With growing population and increasing signs of climate change, the frequency of major floods and severe storms is expected to increase, as will the impacts of these events on our communities. Local communities need improved capabilities for forecasting flood events, monitoring of flood impacts on roads and key infrastructure, and effectively communicating real-time flood dangers at scales that are useful to the public. The current study presents the application of the WRF-Hydro modeling system to represent integrated hydrologic, hydraulic and hydrometeorological processes that drive flooding in urban basins at temporal and spatial scales that can be useful to local communities. The study site is the 25- mile2 Coulee mine catchment in Lafayette, south Louisiana. The catchment includes two tributaries with natural streams located within mostly agricultural lands. The catchment crosses the I-10 highway and through the metropolitan area of the City of Lafayette into a man-made channel, which eventually drains into the Vermilion River and the Gulf of Mexico. Due to its hydrogeomorphic setting, local and rapid diversification of land uses, low elevation, and interdependent infrastructure, the integrated modeling of this coulee is considered a challenge. A nested multi-scale model is being built using the WRF-HYDRO, with 500m and 10m resolutions for the NOAH land-surface model and diffusive wave terrain routing grids, respectively.

  9. Use of catchment liming for the improvement of drainage water quality from smelter-impacted lands near Coniston, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, J.M.; Sein, R.; Keller, B. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada) Dept. of Biology


    A study was carried out to test whether INCO Ltd.'s aerial land liming program, designed solely for revegetation purposes, was improving water quality from the treated sites in an area affected by air pollution from acidic nickel and copper smelters. A wetland application mehod was tested as a potentially improved technique of drainage water treatment. A summary is included of the results of water quality assessment and bioassay toxicity testing for the experimental catchments during the study period 1991-1997. There were immediate spin-off benefits from the stream monitoring study that were rapidly applied to the larger land reclamation effort. The identified effectivess of the coarse limestone led to testing and adoption of new methods of aerial liming in which finer pelletized materials were used both reducing the application rate and the associated costs. The decline in Cu and Ni during 1991-1994 indicated that the metal contamination of the site was declining even before the first limestone treatment. The occurrence of a brief pulse in metal concentrations immediately after the wetland liming treatments is consistent with an earlier occurrence and supports the hypothesis that liming may temporarily increase metal concentrations in stream water through displacement of metal cations at the soil exchange sites by the added Ca. The presence of acidic groundwater proved to be a confounding factor that reduced the effectiveness of soil and wetland treatments at the site. In spite of surprises, the catchment treatments, particularly the wetland applications, proved to be very effective at improving water quality in much of the catchment stream. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Modelling mean transit time of stream base flow during tropical cyclone rainstorm in a steep relief forested catchment (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Yi; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.


    Mean transit time (MTT) is one of the of fundamental catchment descriptors to advance understanding on hydrological, ecological, and biogeochemical processes and improve water resources management. However, there were few documented the base flow partitioning (BFP) and mean transit time within a mountainous catchment in typhoon alley. We used a unique data set of 18O isotope and conductivity composition of rainfall (136 mm to 778 mm) and streamflow water samples collected for 14 tropical cyclone events (during 2011 to 2015) in a steep relief forested catchment (Pinglin, in northern Taiwan). A lumped hydrological model, HBV, considering dispersion model transit time distribution was used to estimate total flow, base flow, and MTT of stream base flow. Linear regression between MTT and hydrometric (precipitation intensity and antecedent precipitation index) variables were used to explore controls on MTT variation. Results revealed that both the simulation performance of total flow and base flow were satisfactory, and the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient of total flow and base flow was 0.848 and 0.732, respectively. The event magnitude increased with the decrease of estimated MTTs. Meanwhile, the estimated MTTs varied 4-21 days with the increase of BFP between 63-92%. The negative correlation between event magnitude and MTT and BFP showed the forcing controls the MTT and BFP. Besides, a negative relationship between MTT and the antecedent precipitation index was also found. In other words, wetter antecedent moisture content more rapidly active the fast flow paths. This approach is well suited for constraining process-based modeling in a range of high precipitation intensity and steep relief forested environments.

  11. Modelling the Impact of Land Use Change on Water Quality in Agricultural Catchments (United States)

    Johnes, P. J.; Heathwaite, A. L.


    Export coefficient modelling was used to model the impact of agriculture on nitrogen and phosphorus loading on the surface waters of two contrasting agricultural catchments. The model was originally developed for the Windrush catchment where the highly reactive Jurassic limestone aquifer underlying the catchment is well connected to the surface drainage network, allowing the system to be modelled using uniform export coefficients for each nutrient source in the catchment, regardless of proximity to the surface drainage network. In the Slapton catchment, the hydrological pathways are dominated by surface and lateral shallow subsurface flow, requiring modification of the export coefficient model to incorporate a distance-decay component in the export coefficients. The modified model was calibrated against observed total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads delivered to Slapton Ley from inflowing streams in its catchment. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to isolate the key controls on nutrient export in the modified model. The model was validated against long-term records of water quality, and was found to be accurate in its predictions and sensitive to both temporal and spatial changes in agricultural practice in the catchment. The model was then used to forecast the potential reduction in nutrient loading on Slapton Ley associated with a range of catchment management strategies. The best practicable environmental option (BPEO) was found to be spatial redistribution of high nutrient export risk sources to areas of the catchment with the greatest intrinsic nutrient retention capacity.

  12. Process-based interpretation of conceptual hydrological model performance using a multinational catchment set (United States)

    Poncelet, Carine; Merz, Ralf; Merz, Bruno; Parajka, Juraj; Oudin, Ludovic; Andréassian, Vazken; Perrin, Charles


    Most of previous assessments of hydrologic model performance are fragmented, based on small number of catchments, different methods or time periods and do not link the results to landscape or climate characteristics. This study uses large-sample hydrology to identify major catchment controls on daily runoff simulations. It is based on a conceptual lumped hydrological model (GR6J), a collection of 29 catchment characteristics, a multinational set of 1103 catchments located in Austria, France, and Germany and four runoff model efficiency criteria. Two analyses are conducted to assess how features and criteria are linked: (i) a one-dimensional analysis based on the Kruskal-Wallis test and (ii) a multidimensional analysis based on regression trees and investigating the interplay between features. The catchment features most affecting model performance are the flashiness of precipitation and streamflow (computed as the ratio of absolute day-to-day fluctuations by the total amount in a year), the seasonality of evaporation, the catchment area, and the catchment aridity. Nonflashy, nonseasonal, large, and nonarid catchments show the best performance for all the tested criteria. We argue that this higher performance is due to fewer nonlinear responses (higher correlation between precipitation and streamflow) and lower input and output variability for such catchments. Finally, we show that, compared to national sets, multinational sets increase results transferability because they explore a wider range of hydroclimatic conditions.

  13. Ecological studies in the Ratanica catchment (Carpathian foothills, southern Poland) - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinska, K.; Szarek, G.


    This paper includes an overview of ecological studies conducted since 1986 in the Ratanica pine-beech forested catchment located in the polluted, high populated southern part of Poland. General characteristics of the catchment (including soil and vegetation, air pollution, input/output of nutrients and pollutants, element budget data and forest health assessment) are presented. Based on biogeochemical and bioindication results, the Ratanica catchment has been classified as a moderately to heavily deteriorated area. Predictions for this forested catchment for various deposition of anthropogenic pollutants, are also discussed. 22 refs., 1 fig

  14. MAPS evaluation report and procedures governing interviews and performance appraisals

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    Following various improvements made to the MAPS report and to the procedures governing interviews and performance appraisals (announced in the CERN Weekly Bulletin 48-49/2005), three information sessions have been organized for all staff members: 24 January 10:00: AB Auditorium P (864-1-D02), 26 January 14:00: Main Amphitheatre, 31 January 10:00: AB Auditorium P (864-1-D02). Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  15. The Role of Performance Appraisals in Motivating Employees


    Jurjen J.A. Kamphorst; Otto H. Swank


    textabstractIn many organizations, reward decisions depend on subjective performance evaluations. However, evaluating an employee's performance is often difficult. In this paper, we develop a model in which the employee is uncertain about his own performance and about the manager's ability to assess him. The manager gives an employee a performance appraisal with a view of affecting the employee's self perception, and the employee's perception of the manager's ability to assess performance. We...

  16. Technical safety appraisal of the N-Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report presents the results of a Technical Safety Appraisal conducted at the Hanford N-Reactor. A team of specialists gathered information for about three weeks on all areas related to safety at the plant. Operational practices, maintenance practices, training drills, and hardware condition were observed. Several recommendations are made in order to correct incomplete rule implementation, to correct hazardous practices, and to promote improvement in satisfactory areas

  17. Health physics appraisal guidelines for fusion/confinement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeson, P.M.


    Several types of fusion/confinement devices have been developed for a variety of research applications. The health physics considerations for these devices can vary, depending on a number of parameters. This paper presents guidelines for health physics appraisal of such devices, which can be tailored to apply to specific systems. The guidelines can also be useful for establishing ongoing health physics programs for safe operation of the devices

  18. Family Typology and Appraisal of Preschoolers' Behavior by Female Caregivers. (United States)

    Coke, Sallie P; Moore, Leslie C


    Children with vulnerable caregivers may be at risk for being labeled as having behavior problems when typical behaviors are viewed by their caregivers as problematic, and therefore, research examining the accuracy of the caregivers' perceptions of children's behaviors is needed. The purpose of this study was to use the resiliency model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation as the theoretical foundation to explore family factors associated with the primary female caregiver's appraisal of her child's behavior, the extent to which the primary female caregiver's appraisal of her child's behavior may be distorted, and the child's level of risk of having a behavioral problem. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used. Data were collected from female caregivers of preschoolers (N = 117). Family factors, demographic characteristics, comfort in parenting, appraisal of behaviors, daily stress, parenting stress, depressive symptoms, social support, ratings of children's behaviors, and distortion in the ratings were measured. Associations were studied using ANOVA, ANCOVA, and chi-squared tests. Family typology was not associated with the female caregiver's appraisals of her child's behavior (p = .31). Distortion of the caregiver's rating of her child's behavior was not associated with family hardiness (high or low; p = .20.) but was associated with having a child with an elevated risk for behavioral problems (p < .01). Families classified as vulnerable were significantly more likely to have a child with elevated risks of having behavioral problems than families classified as secure or regenerative. Findings emphasized the association between family factors (hardiness and coherence) and young children's behaviors. Additional research is needed into how these factors affect the young child's behavior and what causes a caregiver to have a distorted view of her child's behavior.

  19. Real estate appraisal of land lots using GAMLSS models


    Florencio, Lutemberg; Cribari-Neto, Francisco; Ospina, Raydonal


    The valuation of real estates (e.g., house, land, among others) is of extreme importance for decision making. Their singular characteristics make valuation through hedonic pricing methods dificult since the theory does not specify the correct regression functional form nor which explanatory variables should be included in the hedonic equation. In this article we perform real estate appraisal using a class of regression models proposed by Rigby & Stasinopoulos (2005): generalized additive mode...

  20. Technical safety appraisal of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    On June 27, 1989, Secretary of Energy, Admiral James D. Watkins, US Navy (Retired), announced a 10-point initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs and waste management operations in the Department of Energy (DOE). One of the initiatives involved conducting independent Tiger Team Assessments (TTA) at DOE operating facilities. A TTA of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was performed during June and July 1991. Technical Safety Appraisals (TSA) were conducted in conjunction with the TTA as its Safety and Health portion. However, because of operational constraints the the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), operated for the DOE by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO), was not included in the Safety and Health Subteam assessment at that time. This TSA, conducted April 12 - May 8, 1992, was performed by the DOE Office of Performance Assessment to complete the normal scope of the Safety and Health portion of the Tiger Team Assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of TSAs is to evaluate and strengthen DOE operations by verifying contractor compliance with DOE Orders, to assure that lessons learned from commercial operations are incorporated into facility operations, and to stimulate and encourage pursuit of excellence; thus, the appraisal addresses more issues than would be addressed in a strictly compliance-oriented appraisal. A total of 139 Performance Objectives have been addressed by this appraisal in 19 subject areas. These 19 areas are: organization and administration, quality verification, operations, maintenance, training and certification, auxiliary systems, emergency preparedness, technical support, packaging and transportation, nuclear criticality safety, safety/security interface, experimental activities, site/facility safety review, radiological protection, worker safety and health compliance, personnel protection, fire protection, medical services and natural