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Sample records for rapid catch-up growth

  1. Nutritionally-induced catch-up growth.

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    Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Phillip, Moshe

    2015-01-14

    Malnutrition is considered a leading cause of growth attenuation in children. When food is replenished, spontaneous catch-up (CU) growth usually occurs, bringing the child back to its original growth trajectory. However, in some cases, the CU growth is not complete, leading to a permanent growth deficit. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the mechanism regulating nutrition and growth, including systemic factors, such as insulin, growth hormone, insulin- like growth factor-1, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-21, etc., and local mechanisms, including autophagy, as well as regulators of transcription, protein synthesis, miRNAs and epigenetics. Studying the molecular mechanisms regulating CU growth may lead to the establishment of better nutritional and therapeutic regimens for more effective CU growth in children with malnutrition and growth abnormalities. It will be fascinating to follow this research in the coming years and to translate the knowledge gained to clinical benefit.

  2. Low birthweight or rapid catch-up growth: which is more associated with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in later life? A systematic review and cryptanalysis.

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    Kelishadi, Roya; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Jamshidi, Fahimeh; Aliramezany, Maryam; Moosazadeh, Mahmood

    2015-05-01

    The effects of birthweight (the Barker hypothesis) and growth trajectory in early life on the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors in later life have been investigated in a number of studies. To undertake a systematic review and cryptanalysis of the association of low birthweight (LBW) and the postnatal growth trajectory with CVD and its risk factors. English-language publications in PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Scopus were searched. Initially, two independent reviewers identified relevant papers in several steps and the quality of papers was then determined by a validated quality-appraisal checklist. By applying maximum sensitivity, 7259 paper were identified, 382 of which were duplicates and 1273 were considered to be relevant to the topic. Then, after title and abstract review, 628 irrelevant papers were excluded; 26 papers were added after reference-checking. Then, 250 other papers were deleted after full text review. Finally, 39 relevant papers remained and were entered into the systematic review. Overall, 79·6% of all CVD risk factors reported in primary studies of the rapid catch-up growth hypothesis were statistically significant, whereas the corresponding figure was 58·5% for the effects of LBW (Barker hypothesis). This systematic review highlights the importance of low birthweight in increasing the risk of CVD and its risk factors in later life. The results support rapid postnatal catch-up growth of LBW neonates as a more important factor than LBW alone in CVD and its risk factors.

  3. QUESTIONS OF EVALUATION OF POSTNATAL GROWTH IN PRETERM CHILDREN PART 2. CATCH-UP GROWTH IN PRETERM INFANTS

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    A. F. Kiosov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The term catch-up growth is now widely used in neonatology and pediatrics to describe the growth of preterm infants. Catch-up growth — is a compensatory strengthening of the body's growth after a period of slow growth. The lower the gestational age of the premature baby, the more intense catch-up growth in the future.Catch-up growth is considered an important criterion for evaluating nursing preterm infants. Formation of catch-up growth is seen as a favorable outcome. Evaluation of catch-up growth is carried out with the use of percentiles and standard deviations (Z-score. Catch-up growth has a positive effect on neurological outcome. Catch-up growth achieved if the growth rates are between 5 and 10 percentile. The values of growth are satisfactory if they are located at the 10th percentile and above. Catch-up growth is achieved with a standard deviation greater than minus 2 (Z-score. The optimal parameters are considered indicators located within two standard deviations of the mean.Estimation of the growth should be carried out optimally weekly. Growth curves help to determine when the catch-up growth begins. After discharge from the hospital catch-up growth continues. Catch-up growth occurs within the first year of life. The critical period for catch-up growth are considered the first 6 months. Subsequently, the growth rate decreases. The growth is not sufficient, if the values are below the 3 percentile. About 50% of the causes impaired growth is due to the shortage of supply. Premature babies can have problems with food and after discharge from the hospital. The very rapid growth may lead to the development of metabolic syndrome in later life. Low birth weight is associated with increased risk of hypertension, stroke, and diabetes. Compensatory growth often occurs with excessive deposition of fat. In assessing the growth necessary to accommodate the growth of muscle mass and fat mass. Maintaining optimal growth rate is important for the

  4. Education, Catch-up and Growth in Spain

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    Fabio Manca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The debate over the impact of education on economic growth has recentlyled to disagreement when, at the empirical level, the effect of average humancapital on economic growth has been found to be weak. With this paper we revisitthese results by arguing how different educational attainment levels (rather than theaverage human capital stock impact heterogenously different regions’ economicperformance. We build and test a catch-up model where technology adoption takesplace as a function of each region’s human capital composition. We show for 50NUTS3 Spanish provinces in between 1965 and 1997, how convergence to thefrontier is driven by higher education and, to a lesser extent, by vocational training.Both theoretical and empirical results are alternative to the well known formalizationproposed by Vandenbussche, Aghion and Meghir (2006. Severe endogeneityissues, as well as small sample biases, are tackled by using system GMM estimatorsand the correction proposed by Windmeijer (2005.

  5. TEST OF THE CATCH-UP HYPOTHESIS IN AFRICAN AGRICULTURAL GROWTH RATES

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    Kalu Ukpai IFEGWU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper tested the catch-up hypothesis in agricultural growth rates of twenty-six African countries. Panel data used was drawn from the Food and Agricultural Organization Statistics (FAOSTAT of the United Nations. The Data Envelopment Analysis Method for measuring productivity was used to estimate productivity growth rates. The cross-section framework consisting of sigma-convergence and beta-convergence was employed to test the catching up process. Catching up is said to exist if the value of beta is negative and significant. Since catching up does not necessarily imply narrowing of national productivity inequalities, sigma-convergence which measures inequality, was estimated for the same variables. The results showed evidence of the catch-up process, but failed to find a narrowing of productivity inequalities among countries.

  6. Education, Catch-up and Growth in Spain

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    Fabio Manca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El debate sobre el impacto de la educación en el crecimiento económico ha recientemente evidenciado la escasa significatividad empírica del efecto del capital humano medio sobre el crecimiento económico. Con este trabajo nos proponemos revisar estos resultados con el objetivo de analizar cómo inciden los diferentes niveles educativos (más que el stock de capital humano promedio sobre el crecimiento económico de las regiones. Con este objetivo construimos y analizamos un modelo de technology catch-up en el que la adopción de tecnologíase lleva a cabo en función de la composición del capital humano de cada región. Nuestros resultados demuestran para 50 provincias españolas (NUTS3 cómo la convergencia hacia la frontera tecnológica se debe mayoritariamente a la educación superior y, en menor medida, a la formación profesional entre los años 1965 y 1997. Tanto los resultados teóricos como los empíricos son una alternativa a la formalización del modelo propuesto por Vandenbussche, Aghion y Meghir (2006. Los importantes problemas de endogeneidad, así como los sesgos debidos al uso de una muestra pequeña, se abordan mediante el uso de estimadores system GMM y de la corrección propuesta por Windmeijer (2005. Clasificación JEL, I25, 030, 040.

  7. Factors associated with height catch-up and catch-down growth among schoolchildren.

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    Batista, Rosângela F L; Silva, Antônio A M; Barbieri, Marco A; Simões, Vanda M F; Bettiol, Heloisa

    2012-01-01

    In developed countries, children with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or born preterm (PT) tend to achieve catch-up growth. There is little information about height catch-up in developing countries and about height catch-down in both developed and developing countries. We studied the effect of IUGR and PT birth on height catch-up and catch-down growth of children from two cohorts of liveborn singletons. Data from 1,463 children was collected at birth and at school age in Ribeirão Preto (RP), a more developed city, and in São Luís (SL), a less developed city. A change in z-score between schoolchild height z-score and birth length z-score ≥ 0.67 was considered catch-up; a change in z-score ≤ -0.67 indicated catch-down growth. The explanatory variables were: appropriate weight for gestational age/PT birth in four categories: term children without IUGR (normal), IUGR only (term with IUGR), PT only (preterm without IUGR) and preterm with IUGR; infant's sex; maternal parity, age, schooling and marital status; occupation of family head; family income and neonatal ponderal index (PI). The risk ratio for catch-up and catch-down was estimated by multinomial logistic regression for each city. In RP, preterms without IUGR (RR = 4.13) and thin children (PIchildren born to primiparous mothers (RR = 1.83). In SL, catch-down was higher among preterms without IUGR (RR = 5.19), girls (RR = 1.52) and children from low-income families (RR = 2.74); the lowest risk of catch-down (RR = 0.27) and the highest risk of catch-up (RR = 3.77) were observed among terms with IUGR. In both cities, terms with IUGR presented height catch-up growth whereas preterms with IUGR only had height catch-up growth in the more affluent setting. Preterms without IUGR presented height catch-down growth, suggesting that a better socioeconomic situation facilitates height catch-up and prevents height catch-down growth.

  8. Pathological examination of the placenta in small for gestational age (SGA) children with or without postnatal catch-up growth.

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    Tachibana, Makiko; Nakayama, Masahiro; Ida, Shinobu; Kitajima, Hiroyuki; Mitsuda, Nobuaki; Ozono, Keiichi; Miyoshi, Yoko

    2016-03-01

    Approximately 10% of small for gestational age (SGA) infants fail to catch up. The relationship between postnatal growth and placental pathology in SGA infants remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the involvement of placental pathology in postnatal growth of SGA infants. We retrospectively evaluated placental pathology and postnatal growth in single-pregnancy infants born after 37 gestational weeks in our institution, with both birth weight and length below -2 standard deviation scores (SDS) of the normal weight and length. "Catch-up" was defined as height reaching -2 SDS before the second birthday. Pathology of the placenta was classified into: abnormality due to maternal factors or fatal factors, villitis of unknown etiology (VUE), other abnormalities and no abnormality. Of the 33 084 infants, 142 met our criteria and 49 of them had analyzable data. The overall catch-up rate was 84%. Catch-up growth took place in all infants with no placental abnormality and only 57% of infants with abnormality due to fatal factors. There was no significant relationship between catch-up rate and other factors. Placental pathology is associated with postnatal growth in SGA children born at term. Placental abnormality due to fetal factors is related to poor catch-up rate.

  9. Influence of catch up growth on spatial learning and memory in a mouse model of intrauterine growth restriction.

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    Cristina Duran Fernandez-Feijoo

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and rapid postnatal weight gain or catch up growth (CUG increase the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome during adult life. Longitudinal studies have also revealed a high incidence of learning difficulties in children with IUGR. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nutrition and CUG on learning memory in an IUGR animal model. We hypothesized that synaptic protein expression and transcription, an essential mechanism for memory consolidation, might be affected by intrauterine undernutrition.IUGR was induced by 50% maternal caloric undernutrition throughout late gestation. During the suckling period, dams were either fed ad libitum or food restricted. The pups were divided into: Normal prenatal diet-Normal postnatal diet (NN, Restricted prenatal diet- Normal postnatal diet + catch up growth (RN+, Normal prenatal diet-Restricted postnatal diet (NR and Restricted prenatal diet-Restricted postnatal diet (RR. At 4 weeks of age, memory was assessed via a water maze test. To evaluate synaptic function, 2 specific synaptic proteins (postsynaptic density-95 [PSD95], synaptophysin as well as insulin receptors (IR were tested by Western Blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and serum insulin levels were also studied.The RN+ group presented a learning curve similar to the NN animals. The RR animals without CUG showed learning disabilities. PSD95 was lower in the RR group than in the NN and RN+ mice. In contrast, synaptophysin was similar in all groups. IR showed an inverse expression pattern to that of the PSD95. In conclusion, perinatal nutrition plays an important role in learning. CUG after a period of prenatal malnutrition seems to improve learning skills. The functional alterations observed might be related to lower PSD95 activity and a possible dysfunction in the hormone regulation of synaptic plasticity.

  10. Determinants of Catch-Up Growth in International Adoptees from Eastern Europe

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    Iverson SandraL

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Children raised in orphanages frequently experience growth suppression due to multiple risk factors. Placing such children in more nurturing environments through adoption leads to significant catch-up growth (CUG, the determinants of which are not entirely understood. The goal of this study was to perform an auxological evaluation and examine the degree and correlates of CUG in international adoptees. Children adopted from Eastern Europe, (, 71 males, 7 to 59 months of age, were recruited within 3 weeks of their arrival to the US. At baseline, mean height SDS was and 22% were +0.5 in height SDS, was seen in 62% of adoptees at 6 months after adoption; 7% of children remained

  11. Beta Palmitate Improves Bone Length and Quality during Catch-Up Growth in Young Rats

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    Meytal Bar-Maisels

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in human milk, where it is heavily concentrated in the sn-2-position (termed beta palmitate, BPA and as such is conserved in all women, regardless of their diet or ethnicity, indicating its physiological and metabolic importance. We hypothesized that BPA improves the efficiency of nutrition-induced catch up growth as compared to sn-1,3 PA, which is present in vegetable oil. Pre-pubertal male rats were subjected to a 17 days food restriction followed by re-feeding for nine days with 1,3 PA or BPA-containing diets. We measured bone length, epiphyseal growth plate height (EGP, histology, bone quality (micro-CT and 3-point bending assay, and gene expression (Affymetrix. The BPA-containing diet improved most growth parameters: humeri length and EGP height were greater in the BPA-fed animals. Further analysis of the EGP revealed that the hypertrophic zone was significantly higher in the BPA group. In addition, Affymetrix analysis revealed that the diet affected the expression of several genes in the liver and EGP. Despite the very subtle difference between the diets and the short re-feeding period, we found a small but significant improvement in most growth parameters in the BPA-fed rats. This pre-clinical study may have important implications, especially for children with growth disorders and children with special nutritional needs.

  12. Excessive credit growth or the catching up process: The case of central, eastern, and southeastern European countries

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    Stojanović Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most CESEE countries had an impressive credit growth prior to the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2008. Nevertheless, that experience has taught us that the strong expansion of private sector credit must not be ignored. In an attempt to investigate whether the rapid credit growth was a result of the catching-up process or was a risky process with well-known consequences, we performed empirical analysis by applying statistical (HP filter and econometric (pooled OLS, fixed effect OLS, and PMG approaches. The empirical results of both out-of-sample and in-sample approaches suggest that in the pre-crisis period excessive credit growth in terms of higher actual than estimated credit growth was recorded for the majority of the countries observed. Compared to the out of-sample approach, in-sample estimates, which turned out to be more reliable, indicate that the pre-crisis growth was less pronounced and that over the post-crisis period actual credit growth fluctuated around the estimated growth, pointing to the fact that the former was in line with movements in its fitted values.

  13. Catch-up growth does not associate with cognitive development in Indian school-age children.

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    Sokolovic, N; Selvam, S; Srinivasan, K; Thankachan, P; Kurpad, A V; Thomas, T

    2014-01-01

    Stunting is significantly associated with lifetime morbidity and poorer cognitive outcomes in children. Although several studies have examined the relationship between stunting, catch-up growth and cognitive performance in young populations, this relationship has not yet been explored in school-aged children. In this study, we used data from three different nutritional intervention studies conducted over a 4-year period on school-age children in Bangalore, India to assess these relationships. A battery of cognitive tests was conducted before each intervention to determine whether stunting status at baseline was related to cognitive performance across four separate domains, and repeated after a 6-month period to assess whether changes to stunting status is related to cognitive advancement. Results of independent t-tests showed that while stunted children had significantly poorer performance on short-term memory, retrieval ability and visuospatial ability tests (P=0.023, 0.026 and 0.028, respectively), there was no significant difference in the change in cognitive scores following nutritional interventions over a 6-month period between those who remained stunted and those who were no longer stunted (P>0.10). Evidently, stunting remains associated with cognitive ability in school-age children; however, the reversal of these effects in this age group may be quite difficult.

  14. Urinary osteocalcin and serum pro-C-type natriuretic peptide predict linear catch-up growth in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpeläinen, Leena; Ivaska, Kaisa K; Kuiri-Hänninen, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Preterm (PT) infants are at risk of growth failure despite advanced early care and nutrition. In addition to poor weight gain, slow postnatal linear growth also is associated with adverse neurological outcome. Markers distinguishing infants at risk for impaired catch-up growth are needed. The aim......-MidOC levels, but not U-α-CTX-I and U-β-CTX-I levels, correlated positively with prospective growth velocity from M3 to M14 (ρ = 0.460, p

  15. Higher Alu methylation levels in catch-up growth in twenty-year-old offsprings.

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    Kittipan Rerkasem

    Full Text Available Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother's weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001. The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood.

  16. Fitness implications of sex-specific catch-up growth inNephila senegalensis, a spider with extreme reversed SSD.

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    Neumann, Rainer; Ruppel, Nicole; Schneider, Jutta M

    2017-01-01

    Animal growth is often constrained by unfavourable conditions and divergences from optimal body size can be detrimental to an individual's fitness, particularly in species with determinate growth and a narrow time-frame for life-time reproduction. Growth restriction in early juvenile stages can later be compensated by means of plastic developmental responses, such as adaptive catch-up growth (the compensation of growth deficits through delayed development). Although sex differences regarding the mode and degree of growth compensation have been coherently predicted from sex-specific fitness payoffs, inconsistent results imply a need for further research. We used the African Nephila senegalensis , representing an extreme case of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD), to study fitness implications of sex-specific growth compensation. We predicted effective catch-up growth in early food-restricted females to result in full compensation of growth deficits and a life-time fecundity (LTF) equivalent to unrestricted females. Based on a stronger trade-off between size-related benefits and costs of a delayed maturation, we expected less effective catch-up growth in males. We tracked the development of over one thousand spiders in different feeding treatments, e.g., comprising a fixed period of early low feeding conditions followed by unrestricted feeding conditions, permanent unrestricted feeding conditions, or permanent low feeding conditions as a control. In a second experimental section, we assessed female fitness by measuring LTF in a subset of females. In addition, we tested whether compensatory development affected the reproductive lifespan in both sexes and analysed genotype-by-treatment interactions as a potential cause of variation in life-history traits. Both sexes delayed maturation to counteract early growth restriction, but only females achieved full compensation of adult body size. Female catch-up growth resulted in equivalent LTF compared to unrestricted

  17. No Weight Catch-Up Growth of SGA Infants Is Associated with Impaired Insulin Sensitivity during the Early Postnatal Period

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    Tong-yan Han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between weight catch-up growth and insulin sensitivity in small for gestational age (SGA infants. Methods. Forty-four singleton SGA subjects met the inclusion criteria and finished-3-month followup. Body weight, length, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin (FI levels were measured at 3 days and 3 months. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by FI and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Results. According to the change of weight Z-score, forty-four subjects were divided into two groups: noncatch-up growth (NCUG and catch-up growth (CUG. By 3 months of age, the body weight, body length and BMI of NCUG group were significantly lower than those of CUG group. The FI and HOMA were significantly higher in NCUG group. The change of weight Z-score during 3 months was inversely related to the HOMA at 3 months. Conclusion. Our data exemplified that no weight catch-up growth during the first 3 months was associated with impaired insulin sensitivity in SGA infants.

  18. Catch-up Growth Followed by Stagnation: Mexico 1950–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Kehoe; Felipe Meza

    2011-01-01

    In 1950 Mexico entered an economic takeoff and grew rapidly for more than 30 years. Growth stopped during the crises of 1982-1995, despite major reforms, including liberalization of foreign trade and investment. Since then growth has been modest. We analyze the economic history of Mexico 1877-2010. We conclude that the growth 1950-1981 was driven by urbanization, industrialization, and education and that Mexico would have grown even more rapidly if trade and investment had been liberalized so...

  19. Catch-up growth followed by stagnation: Mexico, 1950–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Kehoe; Felipe Meza

    2011-01-01

    In 1950 Mexico entered an economic takeoff and grew rapidly for more than 30 years. Growth stopped during the crises of 1982-1995, despite major reforms, including liberalization of foreign trade and investment. Since then growth has been modest. We analyze the economic history of Mexico 1877-2010. We conclude that the growth 1950-1981 was driven by urbanization, industrialization, and education and that Mexico would have grown even more rapidly if trade and investment had been liberalized so...

  20. Fitness implications of sex-specific catch-up growth in Nephila senegalensis, a spider with extreme reversed SSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jutta M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Animal growth is often constrained by unfavourable conditions and divergences from optimal body size can be detrimental to an individual’s fitness, particularly in species with determinate growth and a narrow time-frame for life-time reproduction. Growth restriction in early juvenile stages can later be compensated by means of plastic developmental responses, such as adaptive catch-up growth (the compensation of growth deficits through delayed development). Although sex differences regarding the mode and degree of growth compensation have been coherently predicted from sex-specific fitness payoffs, inconsistent results imply a need for further research. We used the African Nephila senegalensis, representing an extreme case of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD), to study fitness implications of sex-specific growth compensation. We predicted effective catch-up growth in early food-restricted females to result in full compensation of growth deficits and a life-time fecundity (LTF) equivalent to unrestricted females. Based on a stronger trade-off between size-related benefits and costs of a delayed maturation, we expected less effective catch-up growth in males. Methods We tracked the development of over one thousand spiders in different feeding treatments, e.g., comprising a fixed period of early low feeding conditions followed by unrestricted feeding conditions, permanent unrestricted feeding conditions, or permanent low feeding conditions as a control. In a second experimental section, we assessed female fitness by measuring LTF in a subset of females. In addition, we tested whether compensatory development affected the reproductive lifespan in both sexes and analysed genotype-by-treatment interactions as a potential cause of variation in life-history traits. Results Both sexes delayed maturation to counteract early growth restriction, but only females achieved full compensation of adult body size. Female catch-up growth resulted in equivalent

  1. Fitness implications of sex-specific catch-up growth in Nephila senegalensis, a spider with extreme reversed SSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Neumann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Animal growth is often constrained by unfavourable conditions and divergences from optimal body size can be detrimental to an individual’s fitness, particularly in species with determinate growth and a narrow time-frame for life-time reproduction. Growth restriction in early juvenile stages can later be compensated by means of plastic developmental responses, such as adaptive catch-up growth (the compensation of growth deficits through delayed development. Although sex differences regarding the mode and degree of growth compensation have been coherently predicted from sex-specific fitness payoffs, inconsistent results imply a need for further research. We used the African Nephila senegalensis, representing an extreme case of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD, to study fitness implications of sex-specific growth compensation. We predicted effective catch-up growth in early food-restricted females to result in full compensation of growth deficits and a life-time fecundity (LTF equivalent to unrestricted females. Based on a stronger trade-off between size-related benefits and costs of a delayed maturation, we expected less effective catch-up growth in males. Methods We tracked the development of over one thousand spiders in different feeding treatments, e.g., comprising a fixed period of early low feeding conditions followed by unrestricted feeding conditions, permanent unrestricted feeding conditions, or permanent low feeding conditions as a control. In a second experimental section, we assessed female fitness by measuring LTF in a subset of females. In addition, we tested whether compensatory development affected the reproductive lifespan in both sexes and analysed genotype-by-treatment interactions as a potential cause of variation in life-history traits. Results Both sexes delayed maturation to counteract early growth restriction, but only females achieved full compensation of adult body size. Female catch-up growth

  2. The validity of testicular catch-up growth and serum FSH levels in the long-term postoperative assessment of laparoscopic varicocele correction in adolescents

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    Aniruddh Deshpande

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Testicular catch-up growth may not be a reliable postoperative assessment criterion by itself. Serum FSH levels may be of value in detecting suboptimal outcomes of varicocele surgery in adolescents.

  3. Catch-up growth of head circumference of very low birth weight, small for gestational age preterm infants and mental development to adulthood.

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    Brandt, Ingeborg; Sticker, Elisabeth J; Lentze, Michael J

    2003-05-01

    To examine the influence of postnatal energy quotient (EQ, energy intake/kg body weight per day) on head circumference (HC) growth and mental development of very low birth weight (VLBW), small for gestational age (SGA, EQs from day 2 to 10 than the group of 19 infants without HC catch-up (EQ, 95 vs 78). Mean EQs correlated significantly with developmental and intelligence quotients (DQ/IQ) from 18 months to 6 years. As adults, the HC of the HC catch-up group was not significantly different from that of the AGA preterm infants, the term infants, and their parents. The group without HC catch-up had smaller HC as adults. Our data suggest that early postnatal high-energy nutrient intake for SGA preterm infants is needed to promote HC catch-up growth and to prevent negative consequences of undernutrition.

  4. Growth, IGF system, and cortisol in children with intrauterine growth retardation: is catch-up growth affected by reprogramming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis?

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    Cianfarani, Stefano; Geremia, Caterina; Scott, Carolyn D; Germani, Daniela

    2002-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is one of the major causes of short stature in childhood. Although postnatal catch-up growth occurs in the majority of IUGR children, approximately 20% of them remain permanently short. The mechanisms that allow catch-up growth or, on the contrary, prevent IUGR children from achieving a normal height are still unknown. Our aim was to investigate whether intrauterine reprogramming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may be involved in postnatal growth retardation of IUGR children through a modulation of the function of the IGF system. Anthropometry, IGF system assessment, cortisol measurement, and lipid profile evaluation were performed in 49 IUGR children. Children were subdivided into two groups according to their actual height corrected for midparental height: CG (catch-up growth) group, 19 children with corrected height >or=0 z-score; and NCG (noncatch-up growth) group, 30 subjects with corrected height weight (p cortisol (p cortisol levels resulted inversely to birth weigh (r = -0.34, p 3.4 mM (130 mg/dL). LDL cholesterol was inversely related to birth weight (r = -0.31, p cortisol levels and first trimester length gain (r = -0.54, p cortisol (r = -0.67, p stress: children with increased cortisol secretion may be at higher risk of growth failure. During the neonatal period cortisol might act by limiting IGFBP-3 proteolysis and, therefore, reducing IGF bioavailability.

  5. Catch-Up Growth and Neurobehavioral Development among Full-Term, Small-for-Gestational-Age Children: A Nationwide Japanese Population-Based Study.

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    Takeuchi, Akihito; Yorifuji, Takashi; Nakamura, Kazue; Tamai, Kei; Mori, Shigehiro; Nakamura, Makoto; Kageyama, Misao; Kubo, Toshihide; Ogino, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    To examine the relationship between catch-up growth of full-term, small for gestational age (SGA) children and their neurobehavioral development. Data were obtained from a population-based nationwide Japanese longitudinal survey that started in 2001. Study participants were full-term children with information on height at 2 years of age (n = 32 533). Catch-up growth for SGA infants was defined as achieving a height at 2 years of age of more than -2.0 standard deviations for chronological age. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs for the associations of SGA and catch-up growth status with neurobehavioral development at 2.5 and 8 years of age, adjusting for potential infant- and parent-related confounding factors. Fifteen percent of term SGA infants failed to catch up in height. At 2.5 years of age, SGA children without catch-up growth were more likely to be unable to climb stairs (OR, 10.42; 95% CI, 5.55-19.56) and unable to compose a 2-word sentence (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.81-7.08) compared with children with normal growth at birth. Furthermore, SGA children without catch-up growth were at increased risk for aggressive behaviors (OR, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.19-12.47) at 8 years of age. Continuous follow-up for full-term SGA infants with failure of catch-up growth or poor postnatal growth may be beneficial for early detection and intervention for behavioral problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A role for adipose tissue de novo lipogenesis in glucose homeostasis during catch-up growth: a Randle cycle favoring fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, Helena; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Summermatter, Serge; Sarafian, Delphine; Miles-Chan, Jennifer; Arsenijevic, Denis; Zani, Fabio; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Seydoux, Josiane; Solinas, Giovanni; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Dulloo, Abdul G

    2013-02-01

    Catch-up growth, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, is characterized by hyperinsulinemia and accelerated body fat recovery. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding that exhibits catch-up fat, we previously reported that during refeeding on a low-fat diet, glucose tolerance is normal but insulin-dependent glucose utilization is decreased in skeletal muscle and increased in adipose tissue, where de novo lipogenic capacity is concomitantly enhanced. Here we report that isocaloric refeeding on a high-fat (HF) diet blunts the enhanced in vivo insulin-dependent glucose utilization for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in adipose tissue. These are shown to be early events of catch-up growth that are independent of hyperphagia and precede the development of overt adipocyte hypertrophy, adipose tissue inflammation, or defective insulin signaling. These results suggest a role for enhanced DNL as a glucose sink in regulating glycemia during catch-up growth, which is blunted by exposure to an HF diet, thereby contributing, together with skeletal muscle insulin resistance, to the development of glucose intolerance. Our findings are presented as an extension of the Randle cycle hypothesis, whereby the suppression of DNL constitutes a mechanism by which dietary lipids antagonize glucose utilization for storage as triglycerides in adipose tissue, thereby impairing glucose homeostasis during catch-up growth.

  7. Preschool stunting, adolescent migration, catch-up growth, and adult height in young senegalese men and women of rural origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coly, Aminata Ndiaye; Milet, Jacqueline; Diallo, Aldiouma; Ndiaye, Tofène; Bénéfice, Eric; Simondon, François; Wade, Salimata; Simondon, Kirsten B

    2006-09-01

    Available data on the long-term consequences of preschool stunting are scarce and conflicting. The objective of this study was to assess the amount of catch-up growth from preschool stunting and the effect of migration (change in environment) during adolescence. A cohort study from preschool age (1-5 y) to adulthood (18-23 y) was conducted among 2874 subjects born in a rural area of Senegal. The subjects were divided into 3 groups of preschool stunting: none, mild, and marked, with height-for-age Z-scores of >-1, -2 to -1, and /=20 y). Stunted subjects remained smaller than the others: the age-adjusted height deficit between the 2 extreme categories was 6.6 and 9.0 cm in girls and boys, respectively. However, their height increment from early childhood to adulthood differed (69.3, 70.5, and 72.0 cm, P = 0.0001, and 78.9, 80.0, and 80.3 cm, P < 0.01, for nonstunted, mildly stunted, and markedly stunted girls and boys, respectively). The duration of labor migration to the city was associated with height increment in girls only in a nonlinear relation (adjusted means: 67.2, 69.3, 67.4, and 67.7 cm for 4 groups of increasing duration, P < 0.01). In conclusion, Senegalese children caught up in height prior to adulthood, with the adult means approximately 2 cm below the WHO/NCHS reference. However, this global catch up did not reduce height differences between formerly stunted and nonstunted children to any greater extent and it was not enhanced by labor migration.

  8. Influence of catch-up growth on IGFBP-2 levels and association between IGFBP-2 and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean children born SGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jung Min; Park, Hong Kyu; Yang, Seung; Hwang, Il Tae

    2012-01-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) at birth and postnatal growth pattern may have an impact on insulin resistance and body composition in their later life. Emerging evidence has indicated that insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) may be related to insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate insulin resistance and IGFBP-2 levels in SGA children, and to identify the effect of catch-up growth on IGFBP-2 concentration. Serum IGFBP-2 levels were measured in 103 Korean SGA children including 49 prepubertal and 54 pubertal subjects. Anthropometric values, fasting serum levels of metabolic parameters and insulin sensitivity indices were determined. Each prepubertal or pubertal group was subgrouped based on height or weight catch-up growth. The subgroups with weight catch-up showed higher values of BMI, body fat mass, percent body fat, and total cholesterol. Particularly in pubertal children, IGFBP-2 concentration was lower in the subgroup with weight catch-up. Catch-up growth in height did not affect insulin resistance and metabolic parameters. IGFBP-2 levels were inversely correlated with BMI, body fat mass, percent body fat, insulin and leptin levels in both prepubertal and pubertal groups. Additionally in the pubertal group, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol levels were related to IGFBP-2. A strong relationship between IGFBP-2, the insulin sensitivity index, and some cardiovascular risk factors was observed in children born SGA, suggesting that IGFBP-2 might be a promising marker for early recognition of insulin resistance, particularly in children with weight catch-up.

  9. CATCH-UP GROWTH IN 60 CHILDREN WITH CELIAC-DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAMEN, GM; WIT, JM; HEYMANS, HSA

    1994-01-01

    The growth pattern of 28 girls and 32 boys with celiac disease was analyzed up to the ages of 10 and 12 years, respectively. Fifty-four patients (90%) were diagnosed before 4 years of age and six patients (10%) between 5 and 9 years of age. At diagnosis, 18 of 60 patients (30%) had a height SD score

  10. SGA children with moderate catch-up growth are showing the impaired insulin secretion at the age of 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Ivana; Njuieyon, Falucar; Deghmoun, Samia; Chevenne, Didier; Levy-Marchal, Claire; Beltrand, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is a risk factor for later development of type 2 diabetes. The development of glucose tolerance disorders in adults involves insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. To evaluate insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in a 4-yr old cohort of SGA. 85 children were prospectively followed from mid-gestation to 4 years of age. Fetal growth velocity (FGV) was measured using ultrasound measurements. Body composition and hormonal profile were measured at birth, 1 and 4 years. 23 SGA babies had lower birth weight compared to 62 AGA (-1.9±0.3 vs. -0.6±0.8 z-score; pSGA infants experienced an early catch-up growth in weight (mean gain of 1.1±0.6 SD) during the first year of life. At 4 years, SGA children remain lighter than AGA, but with weight z-score in the normal range (-0.1±1.3 vs. 0.5±1.3 z-score; p = 0.05). No excess of fat mass was observed (19±4.8 vs. 19.7±4.1%; p = 0.45). 120-min plasma glucose was significantly higher (6.2±1.1 vs. 5.6±0.9 mmol/l; p = 0.006) and insulinogenic index was significantly lower (0.28±0.15 vs. 0.40±2.4; p = 0.02) in the SGA group at 4-yrs of life contrasting with a preserved insulin sensitivity (QUICKI 0.47±0.09 vs. 0.43±0.05; p = 0.06). SGA children with compensatory catch-up growth in first year of life show mild disturbances of glucose tolerance associated to a lower insulinogenic index at 4-yrs of age suggesting impairment of β-cell function.

  11. Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPARγ) in Metabolic Disorders in SGA with Catch-Up Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Qiong-Xia; Deng, Hong-Zhu; Chen, Kai-Yun; Deng, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal fat metabolism is a major disorder in adults who were small for gestational age (SGA). Peroxisome prolferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) participates in adipocyte differentiation and the regulation of lipid metabolism. This study explored the role of PPARγ in the regulation of fat catch-up growth (CUG) and the lipid metabolism of SGA individuals. The CUG-SGA rats were treated with pioglitazone. The weight of the visceral adipose tissue, serum lipid levels, and PPARγ expression in the visceral adipose tissue were detected at 4, 8, and 12 weeks of age. The PPARγ expression in the visceral adipose tissue in the CUG-SGA group was lower than that in the appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group at 4, 8, and 12 weeks (P SGA group were elevated compared with that in the AGA group at 4 and 12 weeks (P = 0.005; P = 0.037); however, they were significantly decreased after 8 weeks of pioglitazone intervention (P = 0.001). PPARγ expression in the visceral adipose tissue was lower in SGA rats and may be related to the regulation of adipocyte differentiation. The early increased PPARγ expression by pioglitazone might reduce serum triglycerides and decrease the CUG of the visceral adipose tissue in SGA. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  12. [Relationship between energy intake and catch-up growth in full-term small-for-gestational-age infants under 6 months of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Cheng, Qian; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-12-01

    To explore the relationship between nutrition and catch-up growth in full-term small-for-gestational-age infants under 6 months of age. A prospective cohort study was conducted to collect clinical data of full-term small for gestational-age infants (SGA) and full-term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants (AGA) from the Department of Health Care of the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. According to inclusion criteria, between February 2014 and April 2015, the infants were divided into three groups: AGA, SGA with catch-up growth (ΔSDS of weight≥0.67), and SGA with no catch-up growth (ΔSDS growth and no catch-up growth groups. Analysis of variance was used to compare differences between the three groups in daily energy intake and protein to energy ratios. Totally 180 SGA infants within 6 months of age were enrolled, among whom 63 were male, 117 were female; and 48 AGA infants were enrolled, among whom 19 were male, 29 were female. There were no significant differences in the feeding patterns (breast feeding, partial breast feeding or full formula feeding) of SGA catch-up and SGA no catch-up groups at 1, 3 or 6 months during the first year (43 (75.4%) vs. 75 (61.0%), 7 (12.3%) vs. 25 (20.3%), 7 (12.3%) vs. 23 (18.7%) at 1 month, 70 (66.7%) vs. 39 (53.4%), 13 (12.4%) vs. 12 (16.4%), 22 (21.0%) vs. 22 (30.1%) at 3 months, 30 (31.6%) vs. 16 (23.5%), 14 (14.7%) vs. 12 (17.6%), 51 (53.7%) vs. 40 (58.8%) at 6 months, χ(2)=3.263, 3.207, 1.308 respectively, all P>0.05). The total daily energy intake (kJ/d) of the SGA no catch-up group was significantly lower than that of the AGA group at 1, 3 and 6 months of age (1 668±350 vs. 1 841±426, 1 889±276 vs. 2 330±379, 2 175±349 vs. 2 556±354, respectively, all Penergy intake of the SGA catch-up group was significantly lower than that of the AGA group at 3 and 6 months (2 118±361 vs. 2 330±379, 2 336±374 vs. 2 556±354, respectively, all Penergy intake (kJ/(kg·d)) of the SGA no catch-up group was

  13. Catch-up growth during tocilizumab therapy for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: results from a phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Brunner, Hermine; Ruperto, Nicolino; Schneider, Rayfel; Xavier, Ricardo; Allen, Roger; Brown, Diane E; Chaitow, Jeffrey; Pardeo, Manuela; Espada, Graciela; Gerloni, Valeria; Myones, Barry L; Frane, James W; Wang, Jianmei; Lipman, Terri H; Bharucha, Kamal N; Martini, Alberto; Lovell, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the impact of tocilizumab treatment on growth and growth-related laboratory parameters in patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) enrolled in a phase III clinical trial. Patients with systemic JIA ages 2-17 years (n = 112) received tocilizumab in a 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled period and a long-term open-label extension. Height velocity and standard deviation (SD) score; levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), osteocalcin (OC), and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I); and Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score in 71 joints (JADAS-71) were measured in a post hoc analysis of 83 patients who never received growth hormone and did not reach Tanner stage 5 by the end of the first year of treatment. Patients had stunted growth at baseline (mean height SD score -2.2). During tocilizumab treatment, males (73%) and females (83%) experienced above-normal mean height velocities of 6.6 cm/year (P < 0.0001 versus World Health Organization norms). Mean height SD score increases during year 1 (0.29) and year 2 (0.31) were significant (both P < 0.0001). The mean SD score for IGF-1 levels increased significantly (-0.2 for year 1 and -0.1 for year 2 versus -1.0 at baseline; both P < 0.0001). Mean OC and CTX-I levels (both P < 0.0001) and the OC:CTX-I ratio (P = 0.014) significantly increased from baseline to year 2. In multiple regression analysis, first-year height velocity had a significant inverse relationship to JADAS-71 at year 1, age, mean glucocorticoid dosage during the year, and height SD score at baseline. Our findings indicate that during treatment with tocilizumab, patients with systemic JIA experience significant catch-up growth, normalization of IGF-1 levels, and bone balance improvement favoring bone formation. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  14. IS CATCHING UP POSSIBLE IN EUROPE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Daianu

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current debate on the European Union enlargement there is an apparent mythical belief that, if the set of preconditions set by Brussels are fulfilled, rapid and sustained economic growth would ensue, which would allow the newly admitted countries to catch up economically with the better off European countries. An encapsulation of this thesis is the expression: A well functioning competitive market economy, which would be able to withstand competitive pressures inside the EU. Those who accept this thesis are ready to point out to the experiences of Ireland and Spain in Europe, in particular. But the evidence in this regard is not so conclusive. In addition, there is glaring evidence worldwide as to the rarity of catching up. Thence, taking for granted the above hypothesis can be misleading unless the possible sources of growth are examined in a thorough and open-minded way. This paper aims at raising awareness on an issue, which is more complicated to deal with than is conventionally assumed.

  15. The "Hidden" Side of the "Flying-Geese" Model of Catch-Up Growth: Japan's Dirigiste Institutional Setup and a Deepening Financial Morass

    OpenAIRE

    Terutomo Ozawa

    2001-01-01

    Japan is in the eleventh year of stagnation with a prolonged financial malaise. Just a little over a decade ago, Japan's Phenomenal growth was admired and even feared as a juggernaut. Japanese scholars and policymakers came to often describe Japan's industrial advance in terms of the so-called "flying-geese" model of catch-up growth, a sanguine expression that has also been played up in the media. Japan once did play the role of Asia's lead goose before the burst of the 1987-1990 asset bubble...

  16. Catch-up growth up to ten years of age in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wit Jan-Maarten

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved survival due to advances in neonatal care has brought issues such as postnatal growth and development more to the focus of our attention. Most studies report stunting in children born very preterm and/or small for gestational age. In this article we study the growth pattern of these children and aim to identify factors associated with postnatal catch-up growth. Methods 1338 children born with a gestational age Results At 10 years the AGA children had attained normal height, whereas the SGA group demonstrated stunting, even after correction for target height (AGA: 0.0 SDS; SGA Conclusion At 10 years of age, children born very preterm AGA show no stunting. However, many children born SGA, especially the very preterm, show persistent stunting. Early weight gain seems an important prognostic factor in predicting childhood growth.

  17. Intrauterine growth-restricted Yucatan miniature pigs experience early catch-up growth, leading to greater adiposity and impaired lipid metabolism as young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrie, Semone B; McKnight, Leslie L; King, J Christopher; McGuire, John J; Van Vliet, Bruce N; Cheema, Sukhinder K; Bertolo, Robert F

    2017-08-16

    Early nutrition has critical influences on cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. The study objectives were to evaluate the impact of low birth weight on fasting and postprandial lipid metabolism and endothelium function in Yucatan miniature pigs. Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) piglets (n = 6; 3 days old, 0.73 ± 0.04 kg) were paired with normal-weight (NW) same-sex littermates (n = 6; 1.11 ± 0.05 kg) and fed milk replacer ad libitum for 4 weeks. Thereafter, all pigs were fed a standard diet ad libitum for 5 h/day with growth, intakes, and blood samples collected for 8 months. At 9 months old, pigs were surgically fitted with venous catheters and an oral fat tolerance test was performed. At 10 months old, pigs were killed and endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilations of isolated coronary arteries were measured using wire-myographs. IUGR pigs demonstrated catch-up growth (P Yucatan miniature swine.

  18. Catching up with the Keynesians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ljungqvist, L.; Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the role for tax policies in productivity-shock driven economies with \\catching-up-with-the-Joneses" utility functions.The optimal tax policy is shown to a ect the economy countercyclically via procyclical taxes, i.e., \\cooling down" the economy with higher taxes when it is

  19. Low-birth-weight, but not catch-up growth, correlates with insulin resistance and resistin level in SGA infants at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giapros, Vasileios; Vavva, Efthymia; Siomou, Ekaterini; Kolios, Georgios; Tsabouri, Sofia; Cholevas, Vasileios; Bairaktari, Eleni; Tzoufi, Meropi; Challa, Anna

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the insulin resistance status in SGA infants at 12 months and its relationship with auxological and metabolic parameters. One group of 45 SGA and one of 50 appropriate for gestational age infants were followed from birth to the end of the first year of life. At 12 months, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and blood levels of glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, retinol-binding protein 4, IGFs, lipids profile were determined, and the HOMA-IR index was calculated. The SGAs had increased insulin (5.2 ± 2.7 versus 2.9 ± 2.4 μIU/ml, p = 0.012) and HOMA-IR (1.09 ± 0.9 versus 0.59 ± 0.55, p = 0.016). In multiple regression, insulin resistance indices were independently correlated with low-birth-weight (β = -2.92, p = 0.015 for insulin, β = -2.98, p = 0.011 for HOMA-IR) but not with catch-up growth in either height or weight or any other metabolic parameter. Resistin was higher in the SGAs (5.1 ± 2.1 versus 3.9 ± 2.1 ng/ml, p = 0.03) and independently correlated with low-birth-weight but not insulin resistance. Resistin was negatively correlated with total cholesterol (R = -0.33, p = 0.007) and positively with lipoprotein(a) (R = 0.49, p = 0.001). Low-birth-weight, but not catch-up growth or adiposity tissue hormones, was correlated with insulin resistance at 12 months in non-obese SGA infants. The higher resistin in SGA infants and its correlation with total cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) need further clarification.

  20. Association between height and weight catch-up growth with insulin resistance in pre-pubertal Chinese children born small for gestational age at two different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong-Zhu; Li, Yan-Hong; Su, Zhe; Ma, Hua-Mei; Huang, Yue-Fang; Chen, Hong-Shan; Du, Min-Lian

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to test whether children born small for gestational age (SGA) with catch-up growth (CUG) could be associated with the early development of insulin resistance and the β-cell dysfunction and to explore the impacts of height CUG and weight CUG on the insulin resistance in a Chinese population. A total of 30 children born SGA with CUG, 37 non-CUG (NCUG), and 42 born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) with normal height were recruited. Their fasting serum insulin, fasting glucose, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations, and the homeostasis assessment model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA%) were evaluated. The values of HOMA-IR in CUG SGA were significantly higher than that in NCUG SGA (P = 0.002) and AGA children (P = 0.036), respectively. Correlation analysis revealed that the concentrations of fasting serum insulin were positively correlated with IGF-1 (r = 0.443, P = 0.001) and Δheight standard deviation score (SDS; r = 0.500, P = 0.002) in ≤ 6-year-old SGA children, but only with Δweight SDS (r = 0.496, P = 0.030) in >6-year-old children. In conclusion, SGA children with CUG in height and a higher body mass index are prone to the development of insulin resistance. Higher levels of insulin were closely correlated with the postnatal height CUG in young SGA children and with the weight CUG in old children.

  1. Using height-for-age differences (HAD) instead of height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) for the meaningful measurement of population-level catch-up in linear growth in children less than 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Jef L; Ruel, Marie; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-10-06

    Evidence from studies conducted in nutritionally deprived children in low- and middle-income countries (LIMC) in past decades showed little or no population-level catch-up in linear growth (mostly defined as reductions in the absolute height deficit) after 2 years of age. Recent studies, however, have reported population-level catch-up growth in children, defined as positive changes in mean height-for-age z-scores (HAZ). The aim of this paper was to assess whether population-level catch-up in linear growth is found when height-for-age difference (HAD: child's height compared to standard, expressed in centimeters) is used instead of HAZ. Our premise is that HAZ is inappropriate to measure changes in linear growth over time because they are constructed using standard deviations from cross-sectional data. We compare changes in growth in populations of children between 2 and 5 years using HAD vs. HAZ using cross-sectional data from 6 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and longitudinal data from the Young Lives and the Consortium on Health-Orientated Research in Transitional Societies (COHORTS) studies. Using HAD, we find not only an absence of population-level catch-up in linear growth, but a continued deterioration reflected in a decrease in mean HAD between 2 and 5 years; by contrast, HAZ shows either no change (DHS surveys) or an improvement in mean HAZ (some of the longitudinal data). Population-level growth velocity was also lower than expected (based on standards) in all four Young Lives data sets, confirming the absence of catch-up growth in height. We show no evidence of population-level catch-up in linear growth in children between 2 to 5 years of age when using HAD (a measure more appropriate than HAZ to document changes as populations of children age), but a continued deterioration reflected in a decrease in mean HAD. The continued widening of the absolute height deficit after 2 years of age does not challenge the critical importance of investing in

  2. Effect of Age at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation on Catch-up Growth Within the First 24 Months Among HIV-infected Children in the IeDEA West African Pediatric Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesson, Julie; Koumakpaï, Sikiratou; Diagne, Ndeye R

    2015-01-01

    was defined at ART initiation (baseline) by a Z score underweight, height-for-age (HAZ) for stunting and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age (WHZ/BAZ) for wasting. Kaplan-Meier estimates for catch-up growth (Z score ≥-2...... 2001 and 2012, 2004 HIV-infected children underweight, 48% were stunted and 33% were wasted. The 24-month adjusted estimates for catch-up growth were 69% [95% confidence interval (CI): 57-80], 61% (95% CI: 47-70) and 90% (95% CI: 76...... managed. Despite a significant growth improvement after 24 months on ART, especially in children Nutritional care should be part of the global healthcare of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa....

  3. China-United States Productivity Catch-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    China’s gap in industrial labor productivity with the United States has been steadily shrinking over recent decades. In this paper we examine the main sources of gap reduction and the potential for further catch-up. Using Chinese above-scale firm-level data during 1998-2007 period and BEA industry...... -level data in the US, we first document the respective rates of growth of labor productivity, gap reduction, and contributions to overall catch-up of China’s manufacturing sector during 1998-2007. We then aggregate the firm-level data to the 3-digit industry level to estimate a productivity gap...... reduction function and find that the key drivers for the productivity convergence are the initial technology gap, increased R&D spending, firm’s ownership restructuring, and industry level entry-exit ratio, a measure of competitive dynamism. A key finding is that the catch-up dynamic entails the break out...

  4. Catching up with the Future of Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    With most of the high-energy physics world on tenterhooks waiting for the startup of the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland later this year, it's a good time to catch up (if you haven't already) on what all the excitement is about.

  5. Catch-up growth in Malawian babies, a longitudinal study of normal and low birthweight babies born in a malarious endemic area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalanda, B.F.; Buuren, S. van; Verhoeff, F.H.; Brabin, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Infant growth has not been studied in developing countries in relation to maternal factors related to malaria in pregnancy and maternal illiteracy. Objective: To describe growth patterns in infants with low and normal birthweight and determine maternal risk factors for infant

  6. Catch-up growth up to ten years of age in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, N.B.B.; Sneeuw, K.C.A.; Brand, R.; Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Wit, J.M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Improved survival due to advances in neonatal care has brought issues such as postnatal growth and development more to the focus of our attention. Most studies report stunting in children born very preterm and/or small for gestational age. In this article we study the growth pattern of

  7. Catch-up growth in the first two years of life in Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants is associated with lower body fat in young adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, A. (Anke); Jacobs, L. (Lotte); M. Rayyan (M.); Van Tienoven, T.P. (Theun Pieter); Ortibus, E. (Els); E.N. Levtchenko (Elena); Staessen, J.A. (Jan A.); K. Allegaert (Karel)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAim To investigate growth patterns and anthropometrics in former extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) children and link these outcomes to neurocognition and body composition in childhood. Methods ELBW children were examined at birth (n = 140), at 9 and 24 months (n≥96) and at

  8. Clusters, Connectivity and Catch-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Mudambi, Ram

    2013-01-01

    by decentralized pipelines have potential for in-depth catch-up, focused in industry and technology scope. In contrast, clusters linked through decentralized personal relationships have potential for in-breadth catch-up over a range of related industries and technologies. We illustrate our theoretical propositions......In this article, we make two important contributions to the literature on clusters. First, we provide a broader theory of cluster connectivity that has hitherto focused on organization-based pipelines and MNE subsidiaries, by including linkages in the form of personal relationships. Second, we use...... the lens of social network theory to derive a number of testable propositions. We propose that global linkages with decentralized network structures have the highest potential for local spillovers. In the emerging economy context, our theory implies that clusters linked to the global economy...

  9. When do short children realize they are short? Prepubertal short children's perception of height during 24 months of catch-up growth hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, John E; Kriström, Berit; Jonsson, Björn; Halldin Stenlid, Maria; Aronson, A Stefan; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    To examine perceived height during the first 24 months of growth hormone (GH) treatment in short prepubertal children. Ninety-nine 3- to 11-year-old short prepubertal children with either isolated GH deficiency (n = 32) or idiopathic short stature (n = 67) participated in a 24-month randomized trial of individualized or fixed-dose GH treatment. Children's and parents' responses to three perceived height measures: relative height (Silhouette Apperception Test), sense of height (VAS short/tall), and judgment of appropriate height (yes/no) were compared to measured height. Children and parents overestimated height at start (72%, 54%) and at 24 months (52%, 30%). Short children described themselves as tall until 8.2 years (girls) and 9 years (boys). Prior to treatment, 38% of children described their height as appropriate and at 3 months, 63%. Mother's height, parental sense of the child's tallness and age explained more variance in children's sense of tallness (34%) than measured height (0%). Short children and parents overestimate height; a pivotal age exists for comparative height judgments. Even a small gain in height may be enough for the child to feel an appropriate age-related height has been reached and to no longer feel short. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Dinamica del prodotto, eterogeneità e integrazione regionale: crescita e recupero nei settori dell'economia italiana,1981-1994 (Output dynamics, heterogeneity and regional integration: growth and catching-up across the Italian economic sectors, 1981-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CARUSO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available  The empirical tests of the convergence hypothesis conducted in the is pater evaluate the sector-specific differences in the speed of reduction of the productivity gaps across the Italian regions. Convergence of output per worker across industries and regions in 1981-94 in confirmed by means of cross section results, by panel unit root tests which detect the presence of a mean reverting component in output growth rates for the entire economy and its industrial sector, and by significant catching-up between the most productive area, Lombardia, and the other Italian regions. However, for most of the service sectors it is not possible to reject the presence of a unit root in output and the higher persistence of their output dynamics is generally associated to a velocity of reduction of the initial productivity gaps slower than the average. Regarding the industrial activities, the prevalence of a transitory component on output dynamics coexists with regional convergence in most cases, however, some manufacturing sectors evidence important permanent impulses and convergence does not hold. JEL: O47, O52

  11. Globalization, nation-state and catching up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and nation-states are not in contradiction, since globalization is the present stage of capitalist development, and the nation-state is the territorial political unit that organizes the space and population in the capitalist system. Since the 1980s, Global Capitalism constitutes the economic system characterized by the opening of all national markets and a fierce competition between nation-states. Developing countries tend to catch up, while rich countries try to neutralize such competitive effort, using globalism as an ideology, and conventional orthodoxy as a strategy. Middle-income countries that are catching up in the realm of globalization are the ones that count with a national development strategy. This is broadly the case of the dynamic Asian countries. In contrast, Latin American countries have no longer their own strategy, and grow less. To add data to the argument, the author conducts an econometric test comparing these two groups of countries, and three variables: the rate of investment, the current account deficit or surplus that would indicate or not a competitive exchange rate, and public deficit.

  12. Time to Catch Up on Reading, Writing and Routine Shots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167436.html Time to Catch Up on Reading, Writing … and Routine Shots Before kids head back ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on Childhood Immunization School Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus ...

  13. EMNE Catch-up Strategies in the Wind Turbine Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awate, Snehal; Larsen, Marcus M.; Mudambi, Ram

    2012-01-01

    Emerging economy multinationals (EMNEs) are catching up with advanced economy MNEs (AMNEs) even in emerging, high technology industries, where their knowledge-based disadvantages are most severe. We explain this phenomenon by distinguishing between output and innovation capabilities. Successful...... EMNEs' focus on output capabilities need not facilitate innovation catch-up. We compare the knowledge bases of an industry-leading AMNE and a fast-follower EMNE using patent data, buttressed by qualitative information. The AMNE's knowledge base is deeper and composed of more distinct technology groups...

  14. Institutions of Catching-up Development (On the Project of a New Model for Economic Development of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Meerovich Polterovich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that institutional trajectories of catching-up development in successful countries including similar interim institutions; this similarity is explained by common technological, institutional and cultural limitations which need to be taken into account and overcome. Corporatism, indicative planning, the availability of the “general” development agency with broad mandate, undervalued exchange rate – these and some other mechanisms provide the countries of the “economic miracle” with an opportunity to initiate and maintain rapid economic growth despite the low level of human capital, underdeveloped civic culture and market failures. Institutions of catching-up development contributed to the formation of collaborative relations between the government, business and society. They eased the limitations and were gradually modified, providing a transition to modern democracies with efficient market economy. The conducted analysis helps outline a plan for an institutional reform taking into account Russia’s institutional features. The principles of administrative reform are considered. The author also sets the objective of forming a “hybrid” system of national planning which includes indicative planning and program budgeting. A combination of public-private partnership and program financing is proposed for the financing of the planned projects. The author proposes to use Japanese experience of promoting temporary association of companies for the development of modernization projects. The principles of reforming the systems of state property and science management are discussed

  15. Structural change, catching up and falling behind in the BRICS: A comparative analysis based on trade pattern and Thirlwall’s Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Nassif

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa have gradually become more than an acronym as their governments have been engaging in international and political negotiations as if they were a regional economic group. The main goal of this paper is to compare the structural change of the BRICS using econometric evidence based on estimates of Thirlwall’s law for the period 1995-2013. Thirlwall’s equations have become powerful indicators to evaluate whether a country is in a catching-up or falling-behind long-term path. Our basic assumption is that the way in which each country engages in international trade and global capital flows affects, positively or negatively, structural change and the catch-up trajectory. Though our results cannot confirm Russia’s long-term growth trajectory, they do confirm that over the period analysed China and India have shown a rapid catching up path, while Brazil and South Africa have entered into a falling behind path. JEL: 011; 014; 019; 047; P52

  16. Catch-up operation on old pesticides: an integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton JH; Linders JBHJ; Luttik R; Mensink BJWG; Panman E; van de Plassche EJ; Sparenburg PM; Tuinstra J

    1991-01-01

    The "catch-up operation on old pesticides" project has resulted in a summary and RIVM conclusion of the environmental aspects of 152 pesticides which were already marketed in the Netherlands before 1975. The RIVM conclusion was subsequently rewritten to form an environmental synopsis.

  17. Catch-up operation on old pesticides: an integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton JH; Linders JBHJ; Luttik R; Mensink BJWG; Panman E; Plassche EJ van de; Sparenburg PM; Tuinstra J

    1991-01-01

    The "catch-up operation on old pesticides" project has resulted in a summary and RIVM conclusion of the environmental aspects of 152 pesticides which were already marketed in the Netherlands before 1975. The RIVM conclusion was subsequently rewritten to form an environmental synopsis. The

  18. ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF SOUTHEAST EUROPE: CATCHING-UP CONTINUES, BUT ACCESSION PROSPECTS UNCERTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hunya

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Southeastern Europe has only a modest deceleration of economic growth in 2005. Thus its catching-up process continues. A deterioration of the already high current account deficit is a major concern. Monetary policy is usually insufficient to deal with the problem and the exchange rate regimes are set mainly to combat inflation. Fiscal tightening is the usual policy response even if the budget deficit is low.

  19. Evidence for catch-up in cognition and receptive vocabulary among adolescents born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Thuy Mai; Vohr, Betty R; Allan, Walter; Schneider, Karen C; Ment, Laura R

    2011-08-01

    Very preterm adolescents display persistent deficits in neuropsychological functions. To compare cognitive and language outcomes at 16 years and cognitive and receptive vocabulary trajectories throughout school years between very preterm and term children and to determine child and family factors associated with better developmental trajectories. At 8, 12, and 16 years, 322 very preterm children with birth weights of 1250 g or less and 41 term children had cognitive and language testing. Hierarchical growth-curve modeling was used to delineate the differences in cognitive and receptive vocabulary development between participants. Cluster analyses allowed for the characterization of very preterm children with different patterns of cognitive and receptive vocabulary development. At 16 years, very preterm adolescents had deficits in general cognition and higher-order language skills (phonological awareness and phonemic decoding) compared with term peers. Although the between-group difference in cognitive scores remained stable from 8 to 16 years, very preterm children demonstrated catch-up gains in receptive vocabulary during the same period. Moreover, subgroups of very preterm children displayed developmental trajectories in cognition similar to term children (55% on the vocabulary and 46% on the block-design subtests). These children had lower rates of neurosensory impairment and mothers with higher education and were from an ethnic nonminority. Significant catch-up in receptive vocabulary is observed by the age of 16 years among very preterm children compared to term peers. The absence of neurosensory impairment and residing in a favorable socioeconomic milieu are associated with the most optimal developmental trajectories.

  20. A technological capabilities perspective on catching up : the case of the Chinese information and communications technology industry

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation provides a capability creation perspective on the story of China’s technological catching up, or resurgence, if viewed from a broader historical perspective. Since the first Asian tigers caught up to modern technological standards (e.g., South Korea, Singapore), two schools of thought have dominated causal explanations (Nelson and Pack, 1999). The first perspective is the conventional accumulation approach, which attributes the major share of growth to the accumulation of ph...

  1. Vision: are models of object recognition catching up with the brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Tomaso; Ullman, Shimon

    2013-12-01

    Object recognition has been a central yet elusive goal of computational vision. For many years, computer performance seemed highly deficient and unable to emulate the basic capabilities of the human recognition system. Over the past decade or so, computer scientists and neuroscientists have developed algorithms and systems-and models of visual cortex-that have come much closer to human performance in visual identification and categorization. In this personal perspective, we discuss the ongoing struggle of visual models to catch up with the visual cortex, identify key reasons for the relatively rapid improvement of artificial systems and models, and identify open problems for computational vision in this domain. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Community implementation outcomes of Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, E B; Weston-Lee, Patria; Haggerty, Danielle; Dozier, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Bringing evidence-based treatments to community practice is a critical challenge for the field. When implemented in the community, evidence-based treatments often fail to provide the benefits shown in laboratory settings. Therefore, when evidence-based treatments are transported to the community, it is essential to investigate implementation process and outcomes. The present study assessed whether Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), an intervention for high-risk parents that has been shown to be efficacious in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), changed parent behavior in a community-based setting. This study examined data collected from 78 cases by 9 parent coaches in a diverse community setting in Hawaii, and compared data to benchmarks from RCTs. Parent coach fidelity was coded from intervention session video clips, and was also compared with benchmarks. Caregivers participating in ABC were primarily birth parents, and most were referred through Child Protective Services involvement or for reasons of harsh parenting or neglect. Parental behavior was assessed before and after intervention using a semi-structured play task. Increases in parental following the lead and delight, and decreases in parental intrusiveness, were observed; these changes were comparable to effect sizes observed in RCTs. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using behavioral data from videotaped sessions, and suggested that ABC also improved following the lead in parents who subsequently dropped out of treatment. These results support the viability of ABC for enhancing parenting behavior among parents at high risk for maltreatment, and demonstrate that parent coaches in community agencies can successfully implement ABC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Community Implementation Outcomes of Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, EB; Weston-Lee, Patria; Haggerty, Danielle; Dozier, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Bringing evidence-based treatments to community practice is a critical challenge for the field. When implemented in the community, evidence-based treatments often fail to provide the benefits shown in laboratory settings. Therefore, when evidence-based treatments are transported to the community, it is essential to investigate implementation process and outcomes. The present study assessed whether Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), an intervention for high-risk parents that has been shown to be efficacious in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), changed parent behavior in a community-based setting. This study examined data collected from 78 cases by 9 parent coaches in a diverse community setting in Hawaii, and compared data to benchmarks from RCTs. Parent coach fidelity was coded from intervention session video clips, and was also compared with benchmarks. Caregivers participating in ABC were primarily birth parents, and most were referred through Child Protective Services involvement or for reasons of harsh parenting or neglect. Parental behavior was assessed before and after intervention using a semi-structured play task. Increases in parental following the lead and delight, and decreases in parental intrusiveness, were observed; these changes were comparable to effect sizes observed in RCTs. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using behavioral data from videotaped sessions, and suggested that ABC also improved following the lead in parents who subsequently dropped out of treatment. These results support the viability of ABC for enhancing parenting behavior among parents at high risk for maltreatment, and demonstrate that parent coaches in community agencies can successfully implement ABC. PMID:26746112

  4. ROMANIAN COMPETITIVENESS – A ROUGH RIDE TO CATCH UP WITH THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea VASS

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our efforts of adjusting the political, economic, social and legislative systems emerged into a buoyant and dynamic economic environment after 2000. Still, with very few exceptions, the international classifications of the prosperity driving forces’ performance push Romania to the European periphery. Escaping it is the roughest ride to catch up with the EU. We start with a short debate on what makes nations competitive and an overview of Romania’s growth and productivity facts that make us lag behind the EU countries. We focus further on the key domestic policy challenges that Romania must address and on the competitiveness benchmarking worldwide. Finally, we provide specific recommendations for the economic competitiveness policy-making and institutional capacity in Romania, as well as for the efficient allocation of European funds oriented towards competitiveness.

  5. The Effect of Intellectual Property Standards on the Catch-Up Process Of Emerging Market Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darendeli, Izzet; Brandl, Kristin Martina; Hamilton, III, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The catch-up process of emerging market economies is dependent on multiple factors, such as local governmental regulations but also global industry developments. We investigate how intellectual property (IP) protection standards affect this catch-up process. The alignment of these standards...

  6. The Effect of Intellectual Property Standards on the Catch-Up Process Of Emerging Market Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darendeli, Izzet Sidki; Brandl, Kristin; Mudambi, Ram

    The catch-up process of emerging market economies is dependent on multiple factors, such as local governmental regulations but also global industry developments. We investigate how intellectual property (IP) protection standards affect this catch-up process. The alignment of these standards...

  7. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  8. Technology transfer and catch-up; Lessons from the commercial aircraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the technology development and technology transfer strategies in the aircraft manufacturing industry for four industrially developing countries. It is concluded from four case studies that technology catch-up is extremely difficult due to aircraft technology characteristics.

  9. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of catch-up 'MenB' (Bexsero) vaccination in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Hannah; Trotter, Caroline L

    2017-01-05

    We assessed the cost-effectiveness of offering catch-up vaccination with Bexsero against meningococcal disease to children too old to receive the vaccine under the recently introduced infant programme. Offering catch-up vaccination to increasingly older children is less economically attractive because of declining disease burden. We estimate catch-up vaccination of 1year old children could be cost-effective, incremental on the infant programme with a vaccine price of ⩽£8 per dose. Extending vaccination to 2year olds could only be cost-effective (incremental on infant and 1year old catch-up) with a vaccine price of ⩽£3 per dose and was not cost-effective in sensitivity analyses with more conservative vaccine assumptions. Extending catch-up further to 3-4year olds was not cost-effective. Employing the current criteria for assessing vaccines, our models suggest that even with low vaccine prices only catch-up vaccination in 1year old children could be cost-effective, when considered incrementally on the infant programme. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Generation Y Interactions : Making the Office Catch Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, W.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of information technology in the past decade has enabled the introduction of a number of new communication tools and platforms in everyday life, such as instant messaging, podcasting, blogging and social networking. These tools offer people new ways of interacting, enabling

  11. Toward Technology-Sensitive Catching-Up Policies: Insights from Renewable Energy in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binz, Christian; Gosens, Jorrit; Hansen, Teis

    2017-01-01

    restrictions, and local content requirements. In contrast, recent contributions from the technology lifecycle literature have argued that policies should be tailored to differing technological characteristics in industries for mass-produced standardized goods, complex engineered products, and-as we argue......-complex product systems (CoPS). In this paper, we extend this argument by introducing a set of separate policy mixes for each industry type, which appears most capable of providing the key resources required for catching-up: knowledge, market access, financial investment and technology legitimacy. This framework...... is used to analyze catching-up patterns in China's wind, solar PV, and biomass power plant industries, drawing mainly on policy documents and 106 interviews with key industry actors.We find that traditional top-down catching-up policies played a decisive role in the development of China's wind industry...

  12. Downstream collecting in ciliary suspension feeders: the catch-up principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Nielsen, Claus; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2000-01-01

    Based on observations of feeding structures and currents in the polychaete Spirorbis tridentatus, the entoproct Loxosoma pectinaricola and the cycliophore Symbion pandora, which all possess compound cilia, it is hypothesized that their capture mechanism is based on the catch-up principle. According...... to this principle, the compound cilia constitute the pump which generates a flow with suspended particles that enters the ciliary region. In this region the same cilia, during their power stroke, catch up with suspended particles and transfer the particles to a food groove, or a mouth cavity. In the particle...... bands of some rotifers and of the various types of trochophora larvae of annelids, molluscs and entoprocts, it is hypothesized that the feeding mechanisms of these organisms are based on the catch-up principle....

  13. China urges rapid growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, S.

    1993-02-03

    This time last year China's paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, launched the country on another bout of fast-paced economic growth and restructuring. After three years of riding out political and economic clampdown, foreign chemical companies were jerked awake by major changes in China's chemical industry. As the state becomes less involved with managing the economy, unleashing 12% gross national product growth, closer involvement with domestic factories has become attractive and essential. MCI officials say government funds will now be channeled toward clearing energy and transport bottlenecks, and chemical enterprises will be given more chance to turn a profit. They will be allowed to issue shares, seek foreign investment partners themselves, and bypass trading companies like China National Import-Export Corp. (Sinochem), the former state monopoly. Foreign analysts question whether China's finances and oil resources can support expansion. Even if they can, Cai estimates that ethylene imports will remain around the present level of 1 million tons. To further guarantee chemical supplies, China has invested in urea and polypropylene plants in the US and polystyrene plant in Hong Kong.

  14. Catching-up and integration in new and future EU member states ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The round of new membership had strong impact on the functioning of the European economy, both in terms of regulation, distribution of resources, and place of economic and regional developpment, catching up policies (converging policies). This goes along with an important flow of foreign capital pouring in the region ...

  15. Brasil (1955-2005: 25 anos de catching up, 25 anos de falling behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Arend

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil (1955-2005: 25 years of catching-up, 25 years of falling behind. The present paper discusses the Brazilian industrial development under a neo-schumpeterian perspective in the period after 1955. The hypothesis is that, in the last 50 years, Brazil spent the first 25 years catching up and, next, the following 25 years falling behind. The 1955-1980 period, by means of international funding, allowed catching up with the paradigm in maturation within the fourth technological revolution. However, in this period, it was determined the main debilitating elements for the country's entrance in the new techno-economical paradigm of the fifth technological revolution which emerged in the middle of the 70s. It is in the strategy to internationalize the economy, granting the mutinational companies the key-sectors of the national economy dynamics during the catching up period, the main element of dependence in the journey that conditions the current performance, responsible for technology subordination and keeps the Brazilian economy with low dynamism.

  16. Relationship between weekend catch-up sleep and poor performance on attention tasks in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Yu Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Cho, In-Hee; Lim, Weonjeong; Lim, Wonshin

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between insufficient sleep and poor attention in Korean adolescents, adjusting for potential confounding factors of depressed mood and habitual snoring. School-based cross-sectional study. Eight high schools in 3 cities in the Republic of Korea. A sample of 2638 urban high school students (42.2% male and 57.8% female; mean [SD] age, 17.3 [0.6] years [age range, 14-19 years]) completed questionnaires and computerized attention tasks during the school term. Weekend catch-up sleep. Self-reported sleep schedules and habits, including sleep duration, bedtime, wake-up time, depressed mood, and habitual snoring. Also measured were numbers of omission and commission errors on computerized attention tasks. The mean (SD) sleep duration on weekdays was 5 hours 42 minutes (1 hour 0 minutes) per day and on weekends was 8 hours 24 minutes (1 hour 36 minutes) per day. The mean (SD) weekend catch-up sleep was 2 hours 42 minutes (1 hour 42 minutes) per day. After adjusting for age, sex, depressed mood (Beck Depression Inventory score, ≥10), habitual snoring, and weekday sleep duration, increased weekend catch-up sleep was significantly associated with more omission and commission errors on sustained attention tasks (P sleep as an indicator of insufficient weekday sleep is associated with poor performance on objective attention tasks. Assessment of catch-up sleep and sleep duration may be useful for physicians to evaluate sleep insufficiency and its adverse effects on attention in adolescents.

  17. Gradual catch up and enduring leadership in the global wine industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, A.; Rabellotti, Roberta

    The wine industry is an extremely interesting sector from a catch -up point of view because the latecomers in the international market have changed how wine is produced, sold and consumed and, in doing so, they have challenged the positions of incumbents. Until the end of the 1980s, the European

  18. 26 CFR 1.414(v)-1 - Catch-up contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(v)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(v)-1 Catch-up contributions... applicable employer plan to comply with the universal availability requirement of section 414(v)(4). The...

  19. Employment assimilation of immigrants in the Netherlands: Catching up and the irrelevance of education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.; Hartog, J.

    2008-01-01

    Using two Dutch labour force surveys, employment assimilation of immigrants is examined. We observe marked differences between immigrants by source country. Non-western immigrants never reach parity with native Dutch. Even second generation immigrants never fully catch up. Caribbean immigrants, who

  20. Employment assimilation of immigrants in the Netherlands: catching up and the irrelevance of education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.; Hartog, J.

    2008-01-01

    Using two Dutch labour force surveys, employment assimilation of immigrants is examined. We observe marked differences between immigrants by source country. Non-western immigrants never reach parity with native Dutch. Even second generation immigrants never fully catch up. Caribbean immigrants, who

  1. THE CATCHING-UP DEVELOPMENT: THE ASEAN EXPERIENCE AND IMPORT SUBSTITUTION POLICY OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т Ю Шалденкова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The experience of catching-up development of ASEAN countries becomes valuable in the conditions of the Russian of import substitution policy and “turn to the East” in geopolitics. The objective of the paper is revealing the prospects of native catching-up development based on the analysis of theoretical aspects of the model of “flying geese” and their practical application in the ASEAN countries and Russia. The paper presents the theoretical foundations of catching-up development in the framework of the Flying Geese paradigm in the works of K. Akamatsu, R. Vernon, K. Kojima and indicates its main stages. The author reviews the measures of industrial, trade and investment policy of the ASEAN countries on the initial stages of the model and the modern aspects of their economic development. The materials of statistical reports of IMF, UNCTAD, ASEAN, the statistical data of Federal state statistics department of Russia, Federal customs department of Russia, the programs of the Russian Government in the field of import substitution are studied. The achievements and problems of implementing the programs of import substitution in agriculture, industry, IT-technologies in Russia were analyzed. The study showed the factors, hindering the domestic development in the framework of the Flying Geese paradigm. The recommendations for solving existing problems include the stimulation of aggregate demand and the development of high-tech exports. Special attention was drawn to the possibilities of applying selected elements of the model in terms of territorial heterogeneity of Russia.

  2. Are there global shifts in the world science base? Analysing the catching up and falling behind of world regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosevic, Slavo; Yoruk, Esin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the changing role of world regions (North America, EU15, South EU, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), Former-USSR, Latin America, Asia Pacific and the Middle East) in science from 1981 to 2011. We use bibliometric data extracted from Thomson Reuter's National Science Indicators (2011) for 21 broad disciplines, and aggregated the data into the four major science areas: life, fundamental, applied and social sciences. Comparing three sub-periods (1981-1989, 1990-2000 and 2001-2011), we investigate (i) over time changes in descriptive indicators such as publications, citations, and relative impact; (ii) static specialization measured by revealed comparative advantage (RCA) in citations and papers; and (iii) dynamic specialization measured by absolute growth in papers. Descriptive results show a global shift in science largely in quantity (papers) and much less in impact (citations). We argue this should be interpreted as a shift in science's absorptive capacity but not necessarily a shift of knowledge generation at the world science frontier, which reflects the nature of science systems operating with high inertia and path dependency in areas of their historically inherited advantages and disadvantages. In view of their common historical legacy in science we are particularly interested in the process of convergence/divergence of the catching-up/transition regions with the world frontier regions. We implement an interpretative framework to compare regions in terms of their static and dynamic specialization from 1981-1989 to 2001-2011. Again, our analysis shows that while science systems are mostly characterised by strong inertia and historically inherited (dis)advantages, Asia Pacific, Latin America and CEE show strong catching-up characteristics but largely in the absorptive capacity of science.

  3. Modeling the impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotype catch-up program using United States claims data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strutton David R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of US claims data from April 2010 to June 2011 estimated that 39% of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 catch-up eligible cohort would ever receive the catch-up vaccination; a previous analysis assumed 87%. Methods This updated figure was applied to a previously published 10-year Markov model while holding all other inputs constant. Results Our model estimated that the catch-up program as currently implemented is estimated to prevent an additional 1.7 million cases of disease in children aged ≤59 months over a 10-year period, compared with routine PCV13 vaccination with no catch-up program. Conclusions Because 39% catch-up uptake is less than the level of completion of the 4-dose primary PCV13 series, vaccine-preventable cases of pneumococcal disease and related deaths could be decreased further with additional uptake of catch-up vaccination in the catch-up eligible cohort.

  4. Effects of size at birth, childhood growth patterns and growth hormone treatment on leukocyte telomere length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C.J. Smeets (Lin); V. Codd (Veryan); M. Denniff (Matthew); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background__ Small size at birth and rapid growth in early life are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with growth hormone (GH), inducing catch-up in length. Leukocyte telomere

  5. Professor Gerschenkron goes to Brussels. Russian Catch-up Economics and the Common European Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hedlund

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing discussions between Russia and the EU on the formation of a Common European Economic Space bring back to mind Alexander Gerschenkron's classic essay on economic backwardness in historical perspective. This paper argues that the institutions that once produced a specific kind of catch-up economics in Czarist Russia still remain largely the same. Unless negotiations between Moscow and Brussels take into consideration such fundamental institutional incompatibility, attempts at harmonization, expressed by Brussels as an attempt tp spread Western values, will be doomed to fail. A cynical conlusion views potential convergence as adaptation by Brussels to traditional Russian institutional patterns of rule evasion, rather than a Westernization of Russia

  6. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat after caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Prisco, Marina; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2010-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether changes in liver mitochondrial energetics could underlie the enhanced energetic efficiency that drives accelerated body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. Rats were subjected to caloric restriction (50% of ad libitum intake) for 15 days and then refed for 1 or 2 weeks on an amount of chow equal to that of controls matched for weight at the onset of refeeding. Whole-body metabolism was characterized by energy balance and body composition determinations as well as by indirect calorimetric measurements of 24-hour energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, and whole-body de novo lipogenesis estimated from nonprotein respiratory quotient. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak (both basal and fatty acid stimulated), whereas hepatic oxidative status was assessed from measurements of hepatic mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, aconitase, and superoxide dismutase activity. Furthermore, hepatic lipogenic capacity was determined from assays of fatty acid synthase activity. Compared with controls, isocalorically refed rats showed an elevated energetic efficiency and body fat gain over both week 1 and week 2 of refeeding, as well as a lower 24-hour energy expenditure and higher rates of whole-body de novo lipogenesis at the end of both week 1 and week 2 of refeeding. Analysis of the liver revealed that after 1 week (but not after 2 weeks) of refeeding, the mitochondrial mass (but not mitochondrial density) was lower in refed rats than in controls, associated with higher state 3 mitochondrial respiratory capacity, increased superoxide dismutase activity, as well as higher fatty acid synthase activity. These results suggest that, although at the whole-body level elevations in energy efficiency and de novo lipogenesis are coordinated toward catch-up fat, the overall hepatic mitochondrial energetic

  7. Adaptation of catch-up saccades during the initiation of smooth pursuit eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Alexander C; Souto, David

    2011-04-01

    Reduction of retinal speed and alignment of the line of sight are believed to be the respective primary functions of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements. As the eye muscles strength can change in the short-term, continuous adjustments of motor signals are required to achieve constant accuracy. While adaptation of saccade amplitude to systematic position errors has been extensively studied, we know less about the adaptive response to position errors during smooth pursuit initiation, when target motion has to be taken into account to program saccades, and when position errors at the saccade endpoint could also be corrected by increasing pursuit velocity. To study short-term adaptation (250 adaptation trials) of tracking eye movements, we introduced a position error during the first catch-up saccade made during the initiation of smooth pursuit-in a ramp-step-ramp paradigm. The target position was either shifted in the direction of the horizontally moving target (forward step), against it (backward step) or orthogonally to it (vertical step). Results indicate adaptation of catch-up saccade amplitude to back and forward steps. With vertical steps, saccades became oblique, by an inflexion of the early or late saccade trajectory. With a similar time course, post-saccadic pursuit velocity was increased in the step direction, adding further evidence that under some conditions pursuit and saccades can act synergistically to reduce position errors.

  8. TRAJECTORIES OF CHANGE IN ATTACHMENT AND BIOBEHAVIORAL CATCH-UP AMONG HIGH-RISK MOTHERS: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarger, Heather A; Hoye, Julie R; Dozier, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Using an intensive short-term longitudinal design, this study first examined whether there were significant differences in maternal sensitivity and intrusiveness after completion of Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC; Dozier & the Infant-Caregiver Project Lab, 2013) when compared to a control condition. The second aim was to explore the rate and shape of change in parenting behaviors. Participants were 24 mothers and their biological children, who were randomly assigned to ABC (n = 13) or a control condition (n = 11). A structured play assessment with each mother and her child was video-recorded prior to randomization into the study, before each intervention session, and at a follow-up visit. A total of 270 videos were coded for sensitivity and intrusiveness. Hierarchical linear growth models were used to estimate the total change in parenting qualities across the 10 intervention sessions when comparing ABC to a control condition. Piecewise hierarchical linear growth models were used to investigate patterns of change across the intervention for mothers within ABC. Mothers in the ABC condition showed greater increases in sensitivity and decreases in intrusiveness than mothers in the control condition. There was evidence for nonlinear patterns of change in sensitivity and intrusiveness among mothers in ABC. These results support the effectiveness of ABC in changing sensitivity quickly. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination of Boys and Extended Catch-up Vaccination: Effects on the Resilience of Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfström, K Miriam; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Franceschi, Silvia; Dillner, Joakim; Baussano, Iacopo

    2016-01-15

    Decreasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine prices makes scaling up of vaccination programs attractive for countries that initially targeted 1 or a few birth cohorts of girls and/or achieved low coverage. This article aims to compare the impact of alternative HPV vaccination strategies, using data from Sweden, a high-income country that has experienced vaccine price changes. Using an HPV transmission model, we compared the existing vaccination program to alternatives, accounting for a 1-time catch-up vaccination of 22-26-year-old women, with or without routine vaccination of school-age boys, and for a 1-time catch-up vaccination of males aged 13-26 years. We also assessed the resilience of vaccination alternatives to coverage reduction. On the basis of an HPV16/18 prevalence of 12% before the HPV vaccine era, extended catch-up vaccination for females and males yielded relative reductions in the HPV prevalence of 49.4% and 55.6%, respectively, during the first 10 years after the start of each vaccination strategy, whereas the existing program yielded a relative reduction of 38.6% during the same period. The increased prevalence reduction due to catch-up vaccination continued for about 30 years. As compared to female-only routine and extended catch-up vaccination, routine vaccination of males with or without catch-up was, respectively, 12.6-fold and 7.2-fold more resilient to coverage reduction. Vaccination strategies based on catch-up vaccination of females and males are effective for accelerating HPV prevalence reduction. Inclusion of routine male vaccination improves the resilience of vaccination programs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Innovation systems in small catching-up economies new perspectives on practice and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Varblane, Urmas; Roolaht, Tõnu

    2012-01-01

    In several parts of the world, countries are undergoing economic, social, and political transitions, enhanced and accelerated by the forces of globalization. These transition economies can serve as laboratories for understanding the innovation process. This volume features original theoretical and empirical research. It offers the first comprehensive view of innovation system development in the context of small catching-up economies. Smallness, path dependency, and latecomer status of such economies create some inherent limitations for their innovation systems, but these special characteristics can offer advantages as well. For example, smallness is often related with increased flexibility and shorter reaction times, while latecomers can benefit from earlier experiences of their more advanced neighbors. Path-dependency highlights the fact that the innovation system development processes are considerably influenced by the past experience of a particular country or region. By incorporating these features into a...

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of catch-up hepatitis A vaccination among unvaccinated/partially-vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin-Wei, Abigail; Rein, David B; Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso; Kennedy, Mallory J; Bulkow, Lisa; Rosenberg, Eli; Trigg, Monica; Nelson, Noele P

    2016-07-29

    Since 2006, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination routinely for children aged 12-23months to prevent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. However, a substantial proportion of US children are unvaccinated and susceptible to infection. We present results of economic modeling to assess whether a one-time catch-up HepA vaccination recommendation would be cost-effective. We developed a Markov model of HAV infection that followed a single cohort from birth through death (birth to age 95years). The model compared the health and economic outcomes from catch-up vaccination interventions for children at target ages from two through 17years vs. outcomes resulting from maintaining the current recommendation of routine vaccination at age one year with no catch-up intervention. Over the lifetime of the cohort, catch-up vaccination would reduce the total number of infections relative to the baseline by 741 while increasing doses of vaccine by 556,989. Catch-up vaccination would increase net costs by $10.2million, or $2.38 per person. The incremental cost of HepA vaccine catch-up intervention at age 10years, the midpoint of the ages modeled, was $452,239 per QALY gained. Across age-cohorts, the cost-effectiveness of catch-up vaccination is most favorable at age 12years, resulting in an Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio of $189,000 per QALY gained. Given the low baseline of HAV disease incidence achieved by current vaccination recommendations, our economic model suggests that a catch-up vaccination recommendation would be less cost-effective than many other vaccine interventions, and that HepA catch-up vaccination would become cost effective at a threshold of $50,000 per QALY only when incidence of HAV rises about 5.0 cases per 100,000 population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Management practices utilization in organizations – A comparison between catching-up and well-developed economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Potočan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to examine the utilization of management practices in catching-up and well-developed economies. Within that framework, the paper examines the utilization of management practices in Slovenian and Croatian organizations, as both are considered the representatives of catching-up economies from Central and East Europe (CEE, while also comparing the utilization of management practices in the two selected economies to the global use of management practices. Evidences about management practices utilization reveal that in well-developed economies in the forefront are management practices aiming to support customer relationship management, strength customer relations and customer satisfaction, while in Slovenia and Croatia prevail practices that are oriented toward optimization of the business and its processes. Based on the research results and the situation in organizations, a possible future pattern of management practice utilization in organizations operating in catching up economies is outlined, with the aim to reduce the developmental lag and increase competitiveness of those organizations. The paper also provides several practical implications for future utilization of management practices in catching-up economies. The sample of catching up-countries includes 155 responses from employees in Slovenian organizations and 185 from Croatian ones. Data for samples from well-developed economies are obtained from a global survey of management practices.

  13. Scientific Infrastructure and Catching-Up Process: Notes about a Relationship Illustrated by Science and Technology Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the catching-up process has a precondition: a certain level of internal scientific development. This paper's hypothesis suggests that, given the scarce resources for scientific activities, these countries might concentrate their scientific development in key disciplines, specially those that are sources for their industrial development. This paper surveys the literature and presents data about the role of science during the catching-up process. The literature's findings and conjectures are evaluated in the light of patent and scientific publication statistics.Este artigo discute a contribuição da infra-estrutura científica para processos de catching-up. A hipótese do artigo sugere que os países que realizam processos de catching-up devem simultaneamente ampliar a sua infra-estrutura científica e concentrar seu desenvolvimento científico em disciplinas chaves, especialmente naquelas que são fontes de desenvolvimento industrial. O artigo resenha a literatura e apresenta dados sobre o papel da ciência durante o processo de catching-up, tomando como referência os casos da Coréia e Taiwan.

  14. Feasibility of a Catch-Up HPV Vaccination Program among College Students Attending a Large Rural University in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Alice R.; Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa J.; Allsbrook, Ashley R.

    2012-01-01

    Our study explored the eligibility and willingness of students to participate in a university-wide catch-up Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program. A total of 1804 electronic surveys (82% response) assessing demographics, HPV knowledge, eligibility, and willingness were gathered. HPV knowledge was moderate, with just over a quarter (26%)…

  15. Catching up with society - what, how, and why: the regulation of the UN Security Council's targeted sanctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanetake, M.

    2014-01-01

    Professor Ryuichi Ida’s contributions in the study of international law have been guided by his underlying conviction that law, or more precisely, law-makers, will be catching up to a social change. For Professor Ida, the identity of "law" is the "substantive binding force". The substantive

  16. In Vivo Feedback Predicts Parent Behavior Change in the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, E B; Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary

    2016-04-04

    Understanding mechanisms and active ingredients of intervention is critical to training clinicians, particularly when interventions are transported from laboratories to communities. One promising active ingredient of parenting programs is clinicians' in vivo feedback regarding parent-child interactions. The present study examined whether a form of in vivo feedback, in the moment commenting, predicted treatment retention and parent behavior change when the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) intervention was implemented in a community setting. Observational data were collected from 78 parent-child dyads (96% mothers; M age = 29 years; 81% minority; infants' M age = 12 months; 90% minority) across 640 sessions conducted by 9 clinicians (100% female, M age = 39; 67% minority) in Hawaii. Parental behavior was assessed with a semistructured play task before and after intervention. Clinicians' in-the-moment feedback to parents was assessed from intervention session videos. Clinicians' frequency and quality of in-the-moment feedback predicted change in parental intrusiveness and sensitivity at posttreatment. Frequency of in-the-moment feedback also predicted likelihood of retention. Hierarchical linear modeling demonstrated strong support for these associations at the between-clinician level, and limited additional support at the within-clinician (i.e., between-case) level. Thus, a hypothesized active ingredient of treatment, in-the-moment feedback, predicted community-based ABC outcomes. The results complement lab-based evidence to suggest that in vivo feedback may be a mechanism of change in parenting interventions. Helping clinicians to provide frequent, high-quality in vivo feedback may improve parenting program outcomes in community settings.

  17. Association Between Weekend Catch-up Sleep and Lower Body Mass: Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hee-Jin; Baek, Shin-Hye; Chu, Min Kyung; Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Won-Joo; Park, Seong-Ho; Thomas, Robert J; Yun, Chang-Ho

    2017-07-01

    To determine if weekend catch-up sleep (CUS) impacts body mass index (BMI) in the general population. A stratified random sample (2156 subjects; age 19-82 years old, 43.0 ± 14.5; 1183 male) from the general population was evaluated, in 2010, using face-to-face interviews about sociodemographic characteristics, height, weight, habitual sleep duration, and time-in-bed at night on weekdays and weekend, sleep-related profiles, mood and anxiety scales, and comorbid-medical conditions. Weekend CUS was identified when nocturnal sleep extension occurred over the weekend, and this was quantified. Average sleep duration, BMI, and chronotype were determined. The association of BMI with the presence and the amount of weekend CUS was analyzed, independent of average sleep duration, chronotype, and sociodemographic factors. BMI and average sleep duration was 23.0 ± 3.0 kg/m2 and 7.3 ± 1.2 hours, respectively. The weekend CUS group consisted of 932 subjects (43.1%) who slept longer on weekend than weekdays by 1.8 ± 1.1 hours. Weekend CUS subjects had a significantly lower BMI (22.8 ± 0.19 kg/m2) than the non-CUS (23.1 ± 0.19 kg/m2) group, after adjustment for age, sex, average sleep duration, chronotype, other sociodemographic factors, and anxiety/mood status (p = .01) The relationship between weekend CUS and BMI was dose-dependent (p = 0.02): Every additional hour of weekend CUS was associated with a decrease of 0.12 kg/m2 in BMI (95% confidence interval, -0.23 to -0.02). Weekend sleep extension may have biological protective effects in preventing sleep-restriction induced or related obesity. The results suggest a simple population-level strategy to minimize effects of sleep loss.

  18. Metabolic syndrome and endothelial dysfunction in a population born small for gestational age relationship to growth and Gh therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arriba, Antonio; Domínguez, Mercedes; Labarta, José I; Domínguez, Manuel; Puga, Beatriz; Mayayo, Esteban; Longás, Angel Ferrández

    2013-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) and a rapid increase in weight during early childhood and infancy have been strongly linked to metabolic syndrome. A transversal study was conducted on 167 pre-pubertal and 102 pubertal subjects; auxological parameters, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, laboratory data, and carotid-wall thickness (CA-IMT) were measured. Patients born SGA with spontaneous catch-up growth have higher values of BMI, blood pressure, HOMA index, and CA-IMT than those treated with GH and the appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) group. In conclusion, subjects born SGA are at high risk of developing chronic diseases, including obesity, hypertension, insulin resistant, and endothelial dysfunction, at an early age, mainly those with good catch-up growth compared with the receiving GH because of negative catch-up growth. Our data is compared with published results.

  19. A crescente importância das universidades e institutos públicos de pesquisa no processo de catching-up tecnológico The increasing importance of universities and public research institutions in the catching-up process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Martins Costa Póvoa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar como as universidades e os institutos públicos de pesquisa podem contribuir para o avanço tecnológico de países em de-senvolvimento e apresentar argumentos que sugerem que a importância desses agentes tem aumentado com os recentes paradigmas tecnológicos e o fortalecimento da proteção à propriedade intelectual no cenário internacional. Para tanto, são discutidas as relações entre ciência e tecnologia e as características presentes nas experiências de catching-up de sucesso.The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of universities and public research institutions in the process of technical catch-up and to discuss how their importance have increased along the last century due to the new technological para-digms and international intellectual property rights rules. The relationship between science and technology is investigated as well as the common characteristics in the success experiences of catching-up.

  20. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.

  1. Metabolic and hormonal effects of 'catch-up' sleep in men with chronic, repetitive, lifestyle-driven sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killick, Roo; Hoyos, Camilla M; Melehan, Kerri L; Dungan, George C; Poh, Jonathon; Liu, Peter Y

    2015-10-01

    Acutely restricting sleep worsens insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals whose usual sleep is normal in duration and pattern. The effect of recovery or weekend 'catch-up' sleep on insulin sensitivity and metabolically active hormones in individuals with chronic sleep restriction who regularly 'catch-up' on sleep at weekends is as yet unstudied. 19 men (mean ± SEM age 28·6 ± 2·0 years, BMI 26·0 ± 0·8 kg/m(2) ) with at least 6 months' history (5·1 ± 0·9 years) of lifestyle-driven, restricted sleep during the working week (373 ± 6·6 min/night) with regular weekend 'catch-up' sleep (weekend sleep extension 37·4 ± 2·3%) completed an in-laboratory, randomized, crossover study comprising two of three conditions, stratified by age. Conditions were 3 weekend nights of 10 hours, 6 hours or 10 hours time-in-bed with slow wave sleep (SWS) suppression using targeted acoustic stimuli. Insulin sensitivity was measured in the morning following the 3rd intervention night by minimal modelling of 19 samples collected during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Glucose, insulin, c-peptide, leptin, peptide YY (PYY), ghrelin, cortisol, testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured from daily fasting blood samples; HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and QUICKI were calculated. Insulin sensitivity was higher following three nights of sleep extension compared to sustained sleep restriction. Fasting insulin, c-peptide, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, leptin and PYY decreased with 'catch-up' sleep, QUICKI and testosterone increased, while morning cortisol and LH did not change. Targeted acoustic stimuli reduced SWS by 23%, but did not alter insulin sensitivity. Three nights of 'catch-up' sleep improved insulin sensitivity in men with chronic, repetitive sleep restriction. Methods to improve metabolic health by optimizing sleep are plausible. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Endocrinology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Crescenzo, R.; Bianco, F.; Falcone, I.; Tsalouhidou, S.; Yepuri, G.; Mougios, V.; Dulloo, A.; Liverini, G.; Iossa, S.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body c...

  4. Attitudinal and demographic predictors of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR uptake during the UK catch-up campaign 2008-09: cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Brown

    Full Text Available Continued suboptimal measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine uptake has re-established measles epidemic risk, prompting a UK catch-up campaign in 2008-09 for children who missed MMR doses at scheduled age. Predictors of vaccine uptake during catch-ups are poorly understood, however evidence from routine schedule uptake suggests demographics and attitudes may be central. This work explored this hypothesis using a robust evidence-based measure.Cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire with objective behavioural outcome.365 UK parents, whose children were aged 5-18 years and had received <2 MMR doses before the 2008-09 UK catch-up started.Parents' attitudes and demographics, parent-reported receipt of invitation to receive catch-up MMR dose(s, and catch-up MMR uptake according to child's medical record (receipt of MMR doses during year 1 of the catch-up.Perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09-2.87 and younger child age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.89 were the only independent predictors of catch-up MMR uptake in the sample overall. Uptake predictors differed by whether the child had received 0 MMR doses or 1 MMR dose before the catch-up. Receipt of catch-up invitation predicted uptake only in the 0 dose group (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.18-10.05, whilst perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake predicted uptake only in the 1 dose group (OR = 9.61, 95% CI = 2.57-35.97. Attitudes and demographics explained only 28% of MMR uptake in the 0 dose group compared with 61% in the 1 dose group.Catch-up MMR invitations may effectively move children from 0 to 1 MMR doses (unimmunised to partially immunised, whilst attitudinal interventions highlighting social benefits of MMR may effectively move children from 1 to 2 MMR doses (partially to fully immunised. Older children may be best targeted through school-based programmes. A formal evaluation element should be incorporated into future

  5. IV. Growth Failure in Institutionalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dana E; Gunnar, Megan R

    2011-12-01

    Children within institutional care settings experience significant global growth suppression, which is more profound in children with a higher baseline risk of growth impairment (e.g., low birth weight [LBW] infants and children exposed to alcohol in utero). Nutritional insufficiencies as well as suppression of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis (GH-IGF-1) caused by social deprivation likely both contribute to the etiology of psychosocial growth failure within these settings. Their relative importance and the consequent clinical presentations probably relate to the age of the child. While catch-up growth in height and weight are rapid when children are placed in a more nurturing environment, many factors, particularly early progression through puberty, compromise final height. Potential for growth recovery is greatest in younger children and within more nurturing environments where catch-up in height and weight is positively correlated with caregiver sensitivity and positive regard. Growth recovery has wider implications for child well-being than size alone, because catch-up in height is a positive predictor of cognitive recovery as well. Even with growth recovery, persistent abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system or the exacerbation of micronutrient deficiencies associated with robust catch-up growth during critical periods of development could potentially influence or be responsible for the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional sequelae of early childhood deprivation. Findings in growth-restricted infants and those children with psychosocial growth are similar, suggesting that children experiencing growth restriction within institutional settings may also share the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome in adulthood (obesity, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease). Psychosocial deprivation within any care-giving environment during early life must be viewed with as much concern as any severely debilitating

  6. Catching-up: Children with developmental coordination disorder compared to healthy children before and after sensorimotor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Mats; Norlander, Torsten; Niklasson, Irene; Rasmussen, Peder

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to (a) compare healthy children in terms of sensorimotor maturity to untreated children diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and (b) compare healthy children to diagnosed children following completed treatment with sensorimotor therapy. Participants were 298 children, 196 boys and 102 girls, distributed into a Norm group of healthy children (n = 99) and a group of children diagnosed with DCD (n = 199) with a total mean age of 8.77 years (SD = 2.88). Participants in both groups were assessed on instruments aimed to detect sensorimotor deviations. The children in the DCD group completed, during on average 36 months, sensorimotor therapy which comprised stereotypical fetal- and infant movements, vestibular stimulation, tactile stimulation, auditory stimulation, complementary play exercises, gross motor milestones, and sports-related gross motor skills. At the final visit a full assessment was once more performed. Results showed that the Norm group performed better on all sensorimotor tests as compared to the untreated children from the DCD group, with the exception of an audiometric test where both groups performed at the same level. Girls performed better on tests assessing proprioceptive and balance abilities. Results also showed, after controls for natural maturing effects, that the children from the DCD group after sensorimotor therapy did catch up with the healthy children. The concept of "catching-up" is used within developmental medicine but has not earlier been documented with regard to children and youth in connection with DCD.

  7. Catching-up: Children with developmental coordination disorder compared to healthy children before and after sensorimotor therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Niklasson

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to (a compare healthy children in terms of sensorimotor maturity to untreated children diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD and (b compare healthy children to diagnosed children following completed treatment with sensorimotor therapy. Participants were 298 children, 196 boys and 102 girls, distributed into a Norm group of healthy children (n = 99 and a group of children diagnosed with DCD (n = 199 with a total mean age of 8.77 years (SD = 2.88. Participants in both groups were assessed on instruments aimed to detect sensorimotor deviations. The children in the DCD group completed, during on average 36 months, sensorimotor therapy which comprised stereotypical fetal- and infant movements, vestibular stimulation, tactile stimulation, auditory stimulation, complementary play exercises, gross motor milestones, and sports-related gross motor skills. At the final visit a full assessment was once more performed. Results showed that the Norm group performed better on all sensorimotor tests as compared to the untreated children from the DCD group, with the exception of an audiometric test where both groups performed at the same level. Girls performed better on tests assessing proprioceptive and balance abilities. Results also showed, after controls for natural maturing effects, that the children from the DCD group after sensorimotor therapy did catch up with the healthy children. The concept of "catching-up" is used within developmental medicine but has not earlier been documented with regard to children and youth in connection with DCD.

  8. Catch-up HPV vaccination status of adolescents in relation to socioeconomic factors, individual beliefs and sexual behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grandahl

    Full Text Available In 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination was introduced free of charge in the Swedish national school-based vaccination programme for 10-12-year-old girls, and as catch-up vaccination for young women. In Sweden, there is an ongoing discussion about including boys in the national vaccination programme. Few studies are undertaken about adolescents' knowledge, beliefs and HPV vaccination status in relation to socioeconomic status and sexual experience. Thus, the aim was to examine HPV catch-up vaccination status in adolescents in relation to 1 socioeconomic factors, 2 beliefs and knowledge about HPV prevention, and 3 sexual behaviour. The Health Belief Model was used as a theoretical framework. Upper secondary school students (n = 832 aged 16, randomly chosen from a larger sample, were invited to participate in conjunction with the general health interview with the school nurse. A total of 751/832 (90.3%, girls (n = 391, 52% and boys (n = 360, 48% completed the questionnaire. HPV vaccination was associated with ethnicity and the mothers' education level; i.e. girls with a non-European background and girls with a less educated mother were less likely to have received the vaccine (p<0.01 and p = 0.04 respectively. Vaccinated girls perceived HPV infection as more severe (p = 0.01, had more insight into women's susceptibility to the infection (p = 0.02, perceived more benefits of the vaccine as protection against cervical cancer (p<0.01 and had a higher intention to engage in HPV-preventive behaviour (p = 0.01. Furthermore, boys and girls were almost equally sexually experienced, although fewer girls had used condom during first intercourse with their latest partner (p = 0.03. Finally, HPV vaccinated girls were less likely to have unprotected sex (p<0.01. In summary, catch-up HPV vaccination among young girls was associated with a European background and high maternal education level, as well as more favourable beliefs towards HPV prevention and

  9. Self-Access Language Learning Programme: The Case of the English Language Voluntary Intensive Independent Catch-up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomi Papadima-Sophocleous

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether and to what extent an English Language Voluntary Intensive Independent Catch-up Study (ELVIICS, a Self-Access Language Learning (SALL programme, was effective in helping first-year Greek-Cypriot students fill in the gaps in their English language learning and come closer to the required language competence level of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR B1 level. It also examined students’ perceptions of such learning. The students followed the ELVIICS at their own pace, time and space until they felt they had reached the aimed level. Analysis of the achievement test results revealed that students’ language competence improved and reached the required level. Additional quantitative data also revealed that students felt ELVIICS also helped them improve their self-confidence, computer skills and autonomous learning. Moreover, students claimed that ELVIICS assisted them in getting through and successfully completing their compulsory course.

  10. Weekend catch-up sleep is independently associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Gul; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Seog Ju; Lim, Weonjeong; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Park, Young-Min; Cho, In Hee; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-02-01

    The current study aims to determine the associations of insufficient sleep with suicide attempts and self-injury in a large, school-based Korean adolescent sample. A sample of 4553 middle- and high-school students (grades 7-10) was recruited in this study. Finally, 4145 students completed self-report questionnaires including items on sleep duration (weekday/weekend), self-injury, suicide attempts during the past year, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A multiple linear regression model showed that higher SIQ scores were associated with longer weekend catch-up sleep duration (p=0.009), higher BDI score (psleep duration (p=0.011), higher BDI score (psleep duration--which is an indicator of insufficient weekday sleep--might be associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents. © 2014.

  11. Medium-term consequences of low birth weight on health and behavioral deficits - is there a catch-up effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight.  Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long-run.  While some studies find effects of the same size at both school age and young adulthood......, others find a diminishing negative effect over time due to a catching-up process.  The purpose of this paper is to try to resolve this puzzle by analyzing the medium term consequences of low birth weight measured as various child outcomes at ages 6 months, 3, 7 and 11, using data from the Danish...... Longitudinal Survey of Children. Observing the same children at different points in time allows us to chart the evolution of health and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helps inform the nature and timing of interventions....

  12. Multiple gingival pregnancy tumors with rapid growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lian Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy gingivitis is an acute form of gingivitis that affects pregnant women, with a prevalence of 30%, possibly ranging up to 100%. Sometimes, pregnancy gingivitis shows a tendency toward a localized hyperplasia called gingival pyogenic granuloma. Pregnancy tumor is a benign gingival hyperplasia with the gingiva as the most commonly involved site, but rarely it involves almost the entire gingiva. A 22-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of gingival swelling that had lasted for 2 days. The lesions progressed rapidly and extensively, and almost all the gingiva was involved a week later. Generalized erythema, edema, hyperplasia, a hemorrhagic tendency, and several typical hemangiomatous masses were noted. Pregnancy was denied by the patient at the first and second visits, but was confirmed 2 weeks after the primary visit. The patient was given oral hygiene instructions. She recovered well, and the mass gradually regressed and had disappeared completely at the end of 12 weeks of pregnancy, without recurrence. The gingival lesions were finally diagnosed as multiple gingival pregnancy tumors. The patient delivered a healthy infant. An extensive and rapid growth of gingival pregnancy tumors during the early first month of pregnancy is a rare occurrence that is not familiar to dentists, gynecologists, and obstetricians. Those practitioners engaged in oral medicine and periodontology, primary care obstetrics, and gynecology should be aware of such gingival lesions to avoid misdiagnosis and overtreatment.

  13. Necrotizing pneumonia and acute purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A in a healthy 4-year-old girl after one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shay; Tsai, Jeng-Dau; Tsao, Ten-Fu; Liao, Pei-Fen; Sheu, Ji-Nan

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of infectious diseases in children that may lead to life-threatening complications. Acute purulent pericarditis is an uncommon complication of S. pneumoniae in the antibiotic era. A healthy 4-year-old girl was admitted with pneumonia and pleural effusion. She had received one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2 years of age. She rapidly developed necrotizing pneumonia, complicated by bronchopleural fistula presenting as subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax and acute purulent pericarditis. S. pneumoniae serotype 19A was subsequently identified from blood, empyema and pericardial fluid cultures. After appropriate antibiotic therapy and a right lower lobectomy, her condition stabilized and she promptly recovered. This case highlights two rare potential clinical complications of pneumococcal disease in a child: necrotizing pneumonia and acute purulent pericarditis. This is the first report of a child who received just one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2 years of age, as per the United States' Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice's recommendations, but who still developed severe invasive pneumococcal disease with life-threatening complications caused by S. pneumoniae serotype 19A.

  14. Highest Vaccine Uptake after School-Based Delivery - A County-Level Evaluation of the Implementation Strategies for HPV Catch-Up Vaccination in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Moa; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon; Wallensten, Anders; Sparén, Pär; Netterlid, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The Swedish school-based vaccination programme offers HPV vaccine to girls born ≥1999 in 5-6th grade. In 2012, all counties introduced free-of-charge catch-up vaccination campaigns targeting girls born 1993-1998. Varying vaccine uptake in the catch-up group by December 2012 suggested that some implementation strategies were more successful than others. In order to inform future vaccination campaigns, we assessed the impact of different implementation strategies on the county-level catch-up vaccine uptake. We conducted an ecological study including all Swedish counties (n = 21), asking regional health offices about the information channels they used and where vaccination of the catch-up target group took place in their counties. The uptake of ≥1 dose by 30 September 2014 was estimated using data from the voluntary national vaccination register. We investigated associations between counties' catch-up vaccine uptake, information channels and vaccination settings by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using negative binomial regression models. County level catch-up vaccine uptake varied between 49-84%. All counties offered vaccination through primary health care settings. Apart from this eight (34%) also offered the vaccine in some of their schools, four (19%) in all their schools, and two (10%) in other health care centres. The information channels most frequently used were: information at the national on-line health care consulting web-page (100%), letter/invitations (90%), and advertisement (81%). Counties offering vaccination to girls in all schools and counties offering vaccination in some of their schools, reached higher vaccine uptake compared to counties not offering vaccination in any of their schools (all schools adjusted IRR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, some schools adjusted IRR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3). Counties offering HPV vaccination to catch-up groups in schools reached the highest vaccine uptake. No information

  15. Highest Vaccine Uptake after School-Based Delivery - A County-Level Evaluation of the Implementation Strategies for HPV Catch-Up Vaccination in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moa Rehn

    Full Text Available The Swedish school-based vaccination programme offers HPV vaccine to girls born ≥1999 in 5-6th grade. In 2012, all counties introduced free-of-charge catch-up vaccination campaigns targeting girls born 1993-1998. Varying vaccine uptake in the catch-up group by December 2012 suggested that some implementation strategies were more successful than others. In order to inform future vaccination campaigns, we assessed the impact of different implementation strategies on the county-level catch-up vaccine uptake.We conducted an ecological study including all Swedish counties (n = 21, asking regional health offices about the information channels they used and where vaccination of the catch-up target group took place in their counties. The uptake of ≥1 dose by 30 September 2014 was estimated using data from the voluntary national vaccination register. We investigated associations between counties' catch-up vaccine uptake, information channels and vaccination settings by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using negative binomial regression models.County level catch-up vaccine uptake varied between 49-84%. All counties offered vaccination through primary health care settings. Apart from this eight (34% also offered the vaccine in some of their schools, four (19% in all their schools, and two (10% in other health care centres. The information channels most frequently used were: information at the national on-line health care consulting web-page (100%, letter/invitations (90%, and advertisement (81%. Counties offering vaccination to girls in all schools and counties offering vaccination in some of their schools, reached higher vaccine uptake compared to counties not offering vaccination in any of their schools (all schools adjusted IRR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, some schools adjusted IRR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3.Counties offering HPV vaccination to catch-up groups in schools reached the highest vaccine uptake. No information

  16. Catching up; Vorsprung eingeholt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieg, Mirco

    2012-11-01

    Many big producers of thin film solar cells vanished from the market during the past year, and the survivors have difficulties keeping up as the cost advantage of the thin film technology over the crystalline technology is getting ever smaller.

  17. Do Infants Born Very Premature and Who Have Very Low Birth Weight Catch up with Their Full Term Peers in Their Language Abilities by Early School Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the extent to which children born preterm (< 37 weeks) and/or who have low birth weight (< 2,500 g) catch up with their full term peers in terms of their language abilities at early school age (= 5 to < 9 years). Method: A systematic literature search identified empirical studies that fit the inclusion…

  18. Comparatively low attendance during Human Papillomavirus catch-up vaccination among teenage girls in the Netherlands : Insights from a behavioral survey among parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Smit, Marieke; Nijman, Hans W; Tami, Adriana; Drijfhout, Ingrid H; Pascal, Astrid; Postma, Maarten J; Wolters, Bert A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Wilschut, Jan C; Hak, Eelko

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Dutch Human Papillomavirus (HPV) catch-up vaccination program in 2009 appeared less successful than expected. We aimed to identify the most important determinants of refusing the vaccination. METHODS: Two thousand parents of girls born in 1996 targeted for HPV vaccination received an

  19. Cortisol-cortisone ratios in small for gestational age (SGA) children without postnatal catch-up growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Christian; Meissner, Udo; Rauh, Manfred; Wollmann, Hartmut; Dörr, Helmuth-Günther; Rascher, Wolfgang; Dötsch, Jörg

    2007-08-01

    Low birthweight is a risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in later adult life. Changes in the activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) and the consequent disequilibrium between cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) are thought to be a key mechanism for these effects. We investigated whether prenatal programming leads to alterations in F/E ratios on a systemic level. In a cross-sectional, retrospective study we analysed sera of 132 children born small for gestational age (SGA) (aged 2-13 years) with persistent short stature [SGA and 44% of the AGA children were born preterm. Serum E and F concentrations were measured using tandem mass spectrometry. To exclude species-specific effects, we studied the 11beta-HSD system by measuring the ratio of corticosterone (B) to dehydrocorticosterone (11OH-B) in rats that were born SGA after protein restriction of the female dams during pregnancy. F, E and the F/E ratio in serum did not differ in these children when comparing SGA to children who were born AGA and had normal height. The concentrations were independent of weight and length SDS at birth as well as gestational age. In rats born SGA, the B/11OH-B ratio was not different to that in normal control animals at 6, 11 and 15 weeks of life. We found no alterations in systemic cortisol-cortisone conversion either in short children born SGA or in SGA rats. However, local modifications of the 11beta-HSD system may be possible.

  20. Effects of size at birth, childhood growth patterns and growth hormone treatment on leukocyte telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C J Smeets

    Full Text Available Small size at birth and rapid growth in early life are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA are treated with growth hormone (GH, inducing catch-up in length. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL is a marker of biological age and shorter LTL is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.To investigate whether LTL is influenced by birth size, childhood growth and long-term GH treatment.We analyzed LTL in 545 young adults with differences in birth size and childhood growth patterns. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA (SGA-GH were compared to untreated short SGA (SGA-S, SGA with spontaneous catch-up to a normal body size (SGA-CU, and appropriate for gestational age with a normal body size (AGA-NS. LTL was measured using a quantitative PCR assay.We found a positive association between birth length and LTL (p = 0.04, and a trend towards a positive association between birth weight and LTL (p = 0.08, after adjustments for gender, age, gestational age and adult body size. Weight gain during infancy and childhood and fat mass percentage were not associated with LTL. Female gender and gestational age were positively associated with LTL, and smoking negatively. After adjustments for gender, age and gestational age, SGA-GH had a similar LTL as SGA-S (p = 0.11, SGA-CU (p = 0.80, and AGA-NS (p = 0.30.Larger size at birth is positively associated with LTL in young adulthood. Growth patterns during infancy and childhood are not associated with LTL. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA have similar LTL as untreated short SGA, SGA with spontaneous catch-up and AGA born controls, indicating no adverse effects of GH-induced catch-up in height on LTL.

  1. Efecto de la hormona de crecimiento (GH en el catch-up de ratas con retardo prenatal de crecimiento (RPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintero, Fabián

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza los cambios morfométricos en el crecimiento postnatal de ratas RPC tratadas con GH. Ratas Wistar se dividieron en: Control (C, Sham-operado (Sh, RPC y RPC+GH. El RPC fue inducido por ligamiento de las arterias uterinas a los 14 días de gestación. La GH fue administrada desde los 21 hasta los 60 días de edad (Genotropin® 3.0 mg/kg/día. A los animales Sh se les inyectó sólo el diluyente. Los animales se radiografiaron a los 84 días de edad y se relevaron longitudes, anchos y alturas neurocraneana y esplacnocraneana y longitudes y anchos femoral, humeral y tibial, longitud de la columna y anchos pélvico inferior, medio y superior. Los datos fueron procesados mediante análisis de componentes principales (ACP y discriminante (AD. El primer componente del ACP mostró efecto tamaño y el segundo forma, separando los sexos y los tratamientos. Los valores de F del AD fueron altamente significativos. La primera función quedó definida por los anchos pélvico medio y superior y la longitud tibial, explicando el 66% de la varianza. La segunda por el ancho pélvico superior y longitud tibial, explicando un 18% más de la variación total. La longitud tibial discriminó entre sexos y el ancho pélvico superior entre tratamientos. El análisis separó a los RPC de los RPC+GH y agrupó a éstos últimos con los Sh. Se concluye que el tratamiento con GH en animales RPC permite el catch up en tamaño y forma corporal, siendo más efectivo en las hembras.

  2. Postnatal growth after intrauterine growth restriction alters central leptin signal and energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupé, Bérengère; Grit, Isabelle; Hulin, Philippe; Randuineau, Gwenaëlle; Parnet, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is closely linked with metabolic diseases, appetite disorders and obesity at adulthood. Leptin, a major adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, circulates in direct proportion to body fat stores, enters the brain and regulates food intake and energy expenditure. Deficient leptin neuronal signalling favours weight gain by affecting central homeostatic circuitry. The aim of this study was to determine if leptin resistance was programmed by perinatal nutritional environment and to decipher potential cellular mechanisms underneath.We clearly demonstrated that 5 months old IUGR rats develop a decrease of leptin sentivity, characterized by no significant reduction of food intake following an intraperitoneal injection of leptin. Apart from the resistance to leptin injection, results obtained from IUGR rats submitted to rapid catch-up growth differed from those of IUGR rats with no catch-up since we observed, for the first group only, fat accumulation, increased appetite for food rich in fat and increased leptin synthesis. Centrally, the leptin resistant state of both groups was associated with a complex and not always similar changes in leptin receptor signalling steps. Leptin resistance in IUGR rats submitted to rapid catch-up was associated with alteration in AKT and mTOR pathways. Alternatively, in IUGR rats with no catch-up, leptin resistance was associated with low hypothalamic expression of LepRa and LepRb. This study reveals leptin resistance as an early marker of metabolic disorders that appears before any evidence of body weight increase in IUGR rats but whose mechanisms could depend of nutritional environment of the perinatal period.

  3. Factors related to vaccine uptake by young adult women in the catch-up phase of the National HPV Vaccination Program in Australia: Results from an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfell, Karen; Egger, Sam; Velentzis, Louiza S; Brown, Jessica Darlington; O'Connell, Dianne L; Banks, Emily; Sitas, Freddy

    2015-05-11

    Australia commenced a publically-funded, National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program in 2007 with a two year catch-up phase for females aged 12-26 years. To identify the factors associated with the uptake of the HPV vaccine (which has a recommended 3-dose schedule in Australia) by young adult women vaccinated by general practitioners and community-based programs within the catch-up phase. 1139 women who were eligible to receive the free HPV vaccine during the catch-up period were recruited in 2008-2009 (age 20-29 years at recruitment), in New South Wales, after having a normal (negative) cervical smear result recorded on the NSW Pap Test Register. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire providing information on vaccination status, and sociodemographic and other factors. Overall, 880 (77%) women reported receiving ≥ 1 dose of the vaccine and 777 women (68%) reported receiving ≥ 2 doses. In multivariable analysis (adjusting for the period for which each woman was eligible for free HPV vaccination), uptake of ≥ 1 dose of the vaccine was significantly associated with being born in Australia (p vaccinated women were more likely to have fewer sexual partners than unvaccinated women (p-trend = 0.02), they were also more likely to report a prior sexually transmitted infection (STI) (p = 0.03). Similar factors were associated with receiving ≥ 2 doses. In this group, women living in higher socioeconomic status areas were more likely to be vaccinated against HPV in the catch-up phase of the national program. Although vaccinated women tended to have fewer sexual partners, they also reported prior STIs, which may be a marker of increased risk of prior exposure to HPV. The findings of this study reinforce the continuing need to prioritise equitable delivery of vaccination to various population subgroups. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. How Structural Deficiencies Hamper Estonia’s Catching-up Process. Strukturschwächen als Hemmnis für Estlands Aufholprozess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Schrader

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Estonia is widely regarded as a paramount example for a successful transformation of a socialist economic system to a functioning market economy. Against the backdrop of this positive image which contrasts strongly with the crisis scenarios in Southern Europe the remaining problems of Estonia are often ignored. Estonia has hardly succeeded in catching-up economically with the richer countries of the EU. In this paper the authors raise the question why the catching-up process of Estonia is not as successful as it could have been expected from the policy performance during the last decades. It turns out that Estonia faces a serious productivity problem, particularly in the manufacturing sector producing tradable goods which is normally the driving engine behind economic and technological catching-up. The Estonian economy has failed to undergo the necessary structural change towards technologically more advanced employment structures and export patterns. Accordingly, Estonian economic policy needs to create a suitable business environment to support this kind of structural change.

  5. Caloric restriction induces energy-sparing alterations in skeletal muscle contraction, fiber composition and local thyroid hormone metabolism that persist during catch-up fat upon refeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bresciani M. De Andrade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3 which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3, and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2, (ii slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development.We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. Energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and likely contribute to catch-up fat.

  6. Rapid Alterations in Perirenal Adipose Tissue Transcriptomic Networks with Cessation of Voluntary Running

    OpenAIRE

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N.; Company, Joseph M.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Roberts, Christian K.; Roberts, Michael D.; Booth, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    In maturing rats, the growth of abdominal fat is attenuated by voluntary wheel running. After the cessation of running by wheel locking, a rapid increase in adipose tissue growth to a size that is similar to rats that have never run (i.e. catch-up growth) has been previously reported by our lab. In contrast, diet-induced increases in adiposity have a slower onset with relatively delayed transcriptomic responses. The purpose of the present study was to identify molecular pathways associated wi...

  7. Organisational Factors of Rapid Growth of Slovenian Dynamic Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pšeničny Viljem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors provide key findings on the internal and external environmental factors of growth that affect the rapid growth of dynamic enterprises in relation to individual key organisational factors or functions. The key organisational relationships in a growing enterprise are upgraded with previous research findings and identified key factors of rapid growth through qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the analysis of 4,511 dynamic Slovenian enterprises exhibiting growth potential. More than 250 descriptive attributes of a sample of firms from 2011 were also used for further qualitative analysis and verification of key growth factors. On the basis of the sample (the study was conducted with 131 Slovenian dynamic enterprises, the authors verify whether these factors are the same as the factors that were studied in previous researches. They also provide empirical findings on rapid growth factors in relation to individual organisational functions: administration - management - implementation (entrepreneur - manager - employees. Through factor analysis they look for the correlation strength between individual variables (attributes that best describe each factor of rapid growth and that relate to the aforementioned organisational functions in dynamic enterprises. The research findings on rapid growth factors offer companies the opportunity to consider these factors during the planning and implementation phases of their business, to choose appropriate instruments for the transition from a small fast growing firm to a professionally managed growing company, to stimulate growth and to choose an appropriate growth strategy and organisational factors in order to remain, or become, dynamic enterprises that can further contribute to the preservation, growth and development of the Slovenian economy

  8. "My mom said it wasn't important": A case for catch-up human papillomavirus vaccination among young adult women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Erika L; Best, Alicia L; Vamos, Cheryl A; Daley, Ellen M

    2017-12-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine prevents HPV-related diseases, including anogenital cancers and genital warts. In the United States, while it is recommended to adolescents ages 11 to 12, catch-up vaccination is available for those previously unvaccinated until age 26. Parental decisions or lack of provider recommendation during adolescence are barriers to on-time vaccination. Young adult women, ages 18 to 26, are a key catch-up vaccination population as this is a period for autonomous decision-making, high healthcare utilization, and other recommended prevention behaviors. Additional intervention research is required to promote HPV vaccine uptake among young adult women. Evidence-based and theory-informed interventions need to be developed and evaluated to reach a large number of women. In order to improve HPV vaccination among young adult women, future research should integrate the themes of health literacy, alternative healthcare settings, and OB/GYN providers to facilitate improved access and shared decision-making for the vaccine. This last chance for HPV-related cancer prevention should not be forgotten in public health efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. On the Nonequilibrium Interface Kinetics of Rapid Coupled Eutectic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, H.; Chen, Y. Z.; Shan, G. B.; Zhang, Z. R.; Liu, F.

    2017-08-01

    Nonequilibrium interface kinetics (NEIK) is expected to play an important role in coupled growth of eutectic alloys, when solidification velocity is high and intermetallic compound or topologically complex phases form in the crystallized product. In order to quantitatively evaluate the effect of NEIK on the rapid coupled eutectic growth, in this work, two nonequilibrium interface kinetic effects, i.e., atom attachment and solute trapping at the solid-liquid interface, were incorporated into the analyses of the coupled eutectic growth under the rapid solidification condition. First, a coupled growth model incorporating the preceding two nonequilibrium kinetic effects was derived. On this basis, an expression of kinetic undercooling (∆ T k), which is used to characterize the NEIK, was defined. The calculations based on the as-derived couple growth model show good agreement with the reported experimental results achieved in rapidly solidified eutectic Al-Sm alloys consisting of a solid solution phase ( α-Al) and an intermetallic compound phase (Al11Sm3). In terms of the definition of ∆ T k defined in this work, the role of NEIK in the coupled growth of the Al-Sm eutectic system was analyzed. The results show that with increasing the coupled growth velocity, ∆ T k increases continuously, and its ratio to the total undercooling reaches 0.32 at the maximum growth velocity for coupled eutectic growth. Parametric analyses on two key alloy parameters that influence ∆ T k, i.e., interface kinetic parameter ( μ i ) and solute distribution coefficient ( k e ), indicate that both μ i and k e influence the NEIK significantly and the decrease of either these two parameters enhances the NEIK effect.

  10. Rapid Population Growth and its Implication for Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide concern has recently focused on the negative aspects of rapid population growth for the' future as regards natural and non-renewable re- sources, energy and the environment. A United. Nations sponsored international conference on. "Environment and Development" was held in Brazil. inJune 1992 to focus ...

  11. Economic Growth of a Rapidly Developing Economy: Theoretical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the description of economic growth. Modern economy is characterized by a high rate of changes. These changes are the limiting parameters of modern development, which requires a modification of the basic models of growth, the substantiation of the expediency and necessity of a rapid development strategy. In a simple mathematical form, the statement of the problem of economic growth in the “green economy” is examined, in which the costs of environmental measures are not considered a priori as hampering economic development (as it is common for a number of modern neoclassical and neo-Keynesian growth models. The methodological basis of the article are the econometric approach and modelling method. The article has a theoretical character. The main hypothesis supposes that the rapid development strategy cannot make an adequate development strategy under certain conditions, but may be acceptable in other its specific conditions. In this sense, the important growth conditions are the availability of resources, the effectiveness of institutions and the current economic structure, the technological effectiveness of economy, as well as the conditions of technological development (“green economy” and the path of such development. In the article, on the theoretical level of analysis, the substantiation of the adequacy of the rapid development strategy for an economic system is given, whose goal is to achieve the standard of living of the countryleader. Based on the assumptions introduced, the period for which the rapid development strategy might be implemented and the economic lag of the country might be reduced from the country-leader is determined. The conditions that ensure the impact of innovations on the rate of economic development are summarized. The introduced range of dependencies and relations can be useful for the elaboration of the theory of innovation development and for the formation of a new

  12. Population priorities: the challenge of continued rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Adair

    2009-10-27

    Rapid population growth continues in the least developed countries. The revisionist case that rapid population could be overcome by technology, that population density was advantageous, that capital shallowing is not a vital concern and that empirical investigations had not proved a correlation between high population growth and low per capita income was both empirically and theoretically flawed. In the modern world, population density does not play the role it did in nineteenth-century Europe and rates of growth in some of today's least developed nations are four times than those in nineteenth-century Europe, and without major accumulation of capital per capita, no major economy has or is likely to make the low- to middle-income transition. Though not sufficient, capital accumulation for growth is absolutely essential to economic growth. While there are good reasons for objecting to the enforced nature of the Chinese one-child policy, we should not underestimate the positive impact which that policy has almost certainly had and will have over the next several decades on Chinese economic performance. And a valid reticence about telling developing countries that they must contain fertility should not lead us to underestimate the severely adverse impact of high fertility rates on the economic performance and prospects of many countries in Africa and the Middle East.

  13. The Impact of Human Papillomavirus Catch-Up Vaccination in Australia: Implications for Introduction of Multiple Age Cohort Vaccination and Postvaccination Data Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Mélanie; Laprise, Jean-François; Brotherton, Julia M L; Donovan, Basil; Fairley, Christopher K; Ali, Hammad; Bénard, Élodie; Martin, Dave; Brisson, Marc

    2017-12-05

    We used transmission-dynamic modeling to estimate the added effectiveness of vaccinating multiple cohorts of females (12-26 years) in Australia compared with the theoretical introduction of routine-only (12-13 years) vaccination. Our results suggest that vaccinating multiple cohorts produced markedly faster direct/herd effects, and it added benefits that last for 20-70 years. Furthermore, the number needed to vaccinate to prevent 1 anogential warts (AGW) case or cervical cancer (CC) was similar for routine + catch-up (AGW = 9.9, CC = 678) and routine-only vaccination (AGW = 9.9, CC = 677), thus providing similar levels of efficiency per person vaccinated. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Measles prevention in adolescents: lessons learnt from implementing a high school catch-up vaccination programme in New South Wales, Australia, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Sonya; Seale, Holly; Sheppeard, Vicky; Campbell-Lloyd, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In response to a significant increase of measles cases and a high percentage of unvaccinated adolescents in New South Wales, Australia, a measles high school catch-up vaccination programme was implemented between August and December 2014. This study aimed to explore the factors affecting school-based supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) and to inform future SIA and routine school-based vaccination programme implementation and service provision. Focus group analysis was conducted among public health unit (PHU) staff responsible for implementing the SIA catch-up programme. Key areas discussed were pre-programme planning, implementation, resources, consent materials, media activity and future directions for school vaccination programme delivery. Sessions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and reviewed. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify the major themes. Two independent focus groups with 32 participants were conducted in January 2015. Barriers to the SIA implementation included lead time, consent processes, interagency collaboration, access to the targeted cohort and the impact of introducing a SIA to an already demanding curriculum and school programme immunization schedule. A positive PHU school coordinator rapport and experience of PHU staff facilitated the implementation. Consideration of different approaches for pre-clinic vaccination status checks, student involvement in the vaccination decision, online consent, workforce sharing between health districts and effective programme planning time were identified for improving future SIA implementation. Although many barriers to school programme implementation have been identified in this study, with adequate resourcing and lead time, SIAs implemented via a routine school vaccination programme are an appropriate model to target adolescents.

  15. Measles prevention in adolescents: lessons learnt from implementing a high school catch-up vaccination programme in New South Wales, Australia, 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Nicholl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In response to a significant increase of measles cases and a high percentage of unvaccinated adolescents in New South Wales, Australia, a measles high school catch-up vaccination programme was implemented between August and December 2014. This study aimed to explore the factors affecting school-based supplementary immunization activities (SIAs and to inform future SIA and routine school-based vaccination programme implementation and service provision. Methods: Focus group analysis was conducted among public health unit (PHU staff responsible for implementing the SIA catch-up programme. Key areas discussed were pre-programme planning, implementation, resources, consent materials, media activity and future directions for school vaccination programme delivery. Sessions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and reviewed. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify the major themes. Results: Two independent focus groups with 32 participants were conducted in January 2015. Barriers to the SIA implementation included lead time, consent processes, interagency collaboration, access to the targeted cohort and the impact of introducing a SIA to an already demanding curriculum and school programme immunization schedule. A positive PHU school coordinator rapport and experience of PHU staff facilitated the implementation. Consideration of different approaches for pre-clinic vaccination status checks, student involvement in the vaccination decision, online consent, workforce sharing between health districts and effective programme planning time were identified for improving future SIA implementation. Conclusion: Although many barriers to school programme implementation have been identified in this study, with adequate resourcing and lead time, SIAs implemented via a routine school vaccination programme are an appropriate model to target adolescents.

  16. Regional Rapid Growth in Cities and Urbanization in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanadorn Phuttharak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the driving forces affecting regional rapid growth in Thailand, along with its impact, to understand the dynamics of urbanization and how it affects cities. The study selected UdonThani Province, Thailand, as a case study. This study collected data from academic and semi-academic documents, semi-structured interviews, participatory and non-participatory observations, and group discussion. The informants were residents within municipalities, government, and private officers related to city development, and NGOs. The results found that the driving forces affecting regional rapid growth in UdonThani province include: 1 historic events from World War II to the Cold War; 2 events during the Vietnam War; 3 Capitalist policies; and 4 the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. The study also found impacts of regional rapid growth in UdonThani province including 1 land use change; 2 economic and societal change; 3 road and traffic problems; and 4 waste disposal problems.

  17. Boys Might Catch Up, Family Influences Continue: Influences on Behavioral Self-Regulation in Children from an Affluent Region in Germany before School Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzenhauser, Catherine; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Behavioral self-regulation is crucial for school success. Although behavioral self-regulation typically grows rapidly during the preschool period, children in this age group vary widely in their behavioral self-regulation capacities. The present study investigated 3 potential determinants of growth rates in behavioral…

  18. Early growth patterns are associated with intelligence quotient scores in children born small-for-gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Marcia H; Moss, William J

    2015-08-01

    To assess whether patterns of growth trajectory during infancy are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 4 years of age in children born small-for-gestational age (SGA). Children in the Collaborative Perinatal Project born SGA were eligible for analysis. The primary outcome was the Stanford-Binet IQ score at 4 years of age. Growth patterns were defined based on changes in weight-for-age z-scores from birth to 4 months and 4 to 12 months of age and consisted of steady, early catch-up, late catch-up, constant catch-up, early catch-down, late catch-down, constant catch-down, early catch-up & late catch-down, and early catch-down & late catch-up. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess associations between patterns of growth and IQ. We evaluated patterns of growth and IQ in 5640 children. Compared with children with steady growth, IQ scores were 2.9 [standard deviation (SD)=0.54], 1.5 (SD=0.63), and 2.2 (SD=0.9) higher in children with early catch-up, early catch-up and later catch-down, and constant catch-up growth patterns, respectively, and 4.4 (SD=1.4) and 3.9 (SD=1.5) lower in children with early catch-down & late catch-up, and early catch-down growth patterns, respectively. Patterns in weight gain before 4 months of age were associated with differences in IQ scores at 4 years of age, with children with early catch-up having slightly higher IQ scores than children with steady growth and children with early catch-down having slightly lower IQ scores. These findings have implications for early infant nutrition in children born SGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Positive impact of a video and TV documentary on attendance of women to catch-up collective vaccinations and reasons for non-attendance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painvin, C; Schlumberger, M; Chhem, Dy Bun; Savannarom, Dim; Phong, Phing; Gilberg, S

    2011-02-01

    The impact of medical documentaries on attendance to immunization sessions is not documented in developing countries. The impact of a video and TV medical documentary on women's vaccination during a catch-up tetanus collective immunization was studied in Cambodia (2002-2004). A medical video documentary produced locally was publicly shown in 10 villages chosen at random among 63 villages to be covered by collective tetanus immunization. In each village where the video was shown, 33 women, older than age 11, were selected at random and questioned about their tetanus vaccination records, to assess if they attended the video and to evaluate their knowledge about tetanus. A second interview was conducted after the first collective vaccination to check their attendance and to record reasons for non-attendance. The same interview was conducted 10 months later, after the documentary was shown on a local TV channel and a second collective tetanus vaccination conducted. Data were collected from 323 (98%) women. Seventy-eight (24%) women saw the video documentary and only eight (2.4%) saw it on TV. Compared to farmers, shopkeepers saw significantly less the documentary (χ² of Yates: 5.77,P = 0.016; 95% CI: 0.10 Women of childbearing age with no school education were significantly more attracted by the video documentary (χ² of Yates: 5.99,P = 0.01; 95% CI: 1.10 women, although their final immunization coverage was not better. The documentary did not increase the knowledge that contamination for tetanus may come from earth and tools, but not from air and water, and that all ages are at-risk for tetanus, but it increased significantly the knowledge that vaccination can prevent the disease (χ² of Yates: 13.98;P = 0.0001; 95% CI: 1.28 Women who saw the video documentary attended the first collective session more often than those who did not (χ² of Yates: 11.00; P = 0.0006; 95% CI: 1.23 women more than 45 years of age. Women who saw the documentary either on video or on TV

  20. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  1. Immunogenicity and safety of two doses of catch-up immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in Indian children living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Bikas K; Bhattacharya, Sangeeta Das; Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Saha, Malay K; Bhattacharyya, Subhasish; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Moss, William J; Panda, Samiran; Das, Ranjan Saurav; Mallick, Mausom; Mandal, Sutapa

    2016-04-27

    Children living with HIV are at increased risk of disease from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Data are limited on the immunogenicity of a two-dose, catch-up schedule for Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) among HIV-infected children accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) late. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate baseline immunity to Hib and the immunogenicity and safety of two doses of HibCV among HIV-infected Indian children; and (2) document the threshold antibody level required to prevent Hib colonization among HIV-infected children following immunization. We conducted a prospective cohort study among HIV-infected children 2-15 years of age and HIV-uninfected children 2-5 years of age. HIV-infected children received two doses of HibCV and uninfected children received one. Serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibodies were measured at baseline and two months after immunization in the HIV-infected children. Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected at baseline and follow-up. 125 HIV-infected and 44 uninfected children participated. 40% of HIV-infected children were receiving ART and 26% had a viral load >100,000 copies/mL. The geometric mean concentration of serum anti-Hib PRP antibody increased from 0.25 μg/mL at baseline to 2.65 μg/mL after two doses of HibCV, representing a 10.6-fold increase (pchildren mounted an immune response. Moderate or severe immune suppression, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis, and lower baseline antibody levels were associated with lower post-vaccine serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibodies. A serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibody level ≥ 3.3 μg/mL was protective against Hib NP colonization. There were no differences in adverse events between HIV-infected and uninfected children. Including a catch-up immunization schedule for older HIV infected children in countries introducing Hib vaccines is important. Older HIV-infected children with delayed access to ART and without suppressed viral loads mounted an adequate immune response

  2. FIRST-GENERATION LATINA MOTHERS' EXPERIENCES OF SUPPLEMENTING HOME-BASED EARLY HEAD START WITH THE ATTACHMENT AND BIOBEHAVIORAL CATCH-UP PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Elizabeth M; Denmark, Nicole; Berlin, Lisa J; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    This qualitative pilot study examined first-generation Latina mothers' experiences of supplementing home-based Early Head Start (EHS) services with the evidence-based Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC; M. Dozier, O. Lindheim, & J. Ackerman, 2005) program. Ten low-income, first-generation Latina mothers with infants and toddlers enrolled in home-based EHS were provided 10 ABC home visits by a supplemental parent coach. Following delivery of ABC, mothers participated in in-depth, semistructured, qualitative interviews about their experiences. Interview themes included positive experiences of both EHS and the ABC, a high value placed on receiving both programs, and cultural relevance of the ABC program for Latino families. Participants offered several suggestions for improved program delivery. Study findings suggest that a model of EHS supplemented by ABC delivered to the Latino community is feasible, valuable to participants, and culturally relevant. Considerations for sustainability of this supplemental model are discussed. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  3. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, K R; Fischer, A; Zöller, N N; Laubach, V; Bernd, A; Jacobs, A; van Rompay, A; Liebsch, M; Pirow, R; Petersohn, D

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a new in vitro skin irritation test based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) with openly accessible protocols for tissue production and test performance. Due to structural, mechanistic and procedural similarity, a blinded catch-up validation study for skin irritation according to OECD Performance Standards (PS) was conducted in three laboratories to promote regulatory acceptance, with OS-REp models produced at a single production site only. While overall sensitivity and predictive capacity met the PS requirements, overall specificity was only 57%. A thorough analysis of the test results led to the assumption that some of the false-positive classifications could have been evoked by volatile skin-irritating chemicals tested in the same culture plate as the non-irritants falsely predicted as irritants. With GC/MS and biological approaches the cross-contamination effect was confirmed and the experimental set-up adapted accordingly. Retesting of the affected chemicals with the improved experimental set-up and otherwise identical protocol resulted in correct classifications as non-irritants. Taking these re-test results into account, 93% overall sensitivity, 70% specificity and 82% accuracy was achieved, which is in accordance with the OECD PS. A sufficient reliability of the method was indicated by a within-laboratory-reproducibility of 85-95% and a between-laboratory-reproducibility of 90%. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeber, F; Schober, L; Schmid, F F; Traube, A; Kolbus-Hernandez, S; Daton, K; Hoffmann, S; Petersohn, D; Schäfer-Korting, M; Walles, H; Mewes, K R

    2016-10-01

    To replace the Draize skin irritation assay (OECD guideline 404) several test methods based on reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) have been developed and were adopted in the OECD test guideline 439. However, all validated test methods in the guideline are linked to RHE provided by only three companies. Thus, the availability of these test models is dependent on the commercial interest of the producer. To overcome this limitation and thus to increase the accessibility of in vitro skin irritation testing, an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) was introduced. To demonstrate the capacity of the OS-REp in regulatory risk assessment, a catch-up validation study was performed. The participating laboratories used in-house generated OS-REp to assess the set of 20 reference substances according to the performance standards amending the OECD test guideline 439. Testing was performed under blinded conditions. The within-laboratory reproducibility of 87% and the inter-laboratory reproducibility of 85% prove a high reliability of irritancy testing using the OS-REp protocol. In addition, the prediction capacity was with an accuracy of 80% comparable to previous published RHE based test protocols. Taken together the results indicate that the OS-REp test method can be used as a standalone alternative skin irritation test replacing the OECD test guideline 404. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Catch-up saccades in head-unrestrained conditions reveal that saccade amplitude is corrected using an internal model of target movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daye, Pierre M.; Blohm, Gunnar; Lefèvre, Phillippe

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes how human participants combine saccadic and pursuit gaze movements when they track an oscillating target moving along a randomly oriented straight line with the head free to move. We found that to track the moving target appropriately, participants triggered more saccades with increasing target oscillation frequency to compensate for imperfect tracking gains. Our sinusoidal paradigm allowed us to show that saccade amplitude was better correlated with internal estimates of position and velocity error at saccade onset than with those parameters 100 ms before saccade onset as head-restrained studies have shown. An analysis of saccadic onset time revealed that most of the saccades were triggered when the target was accelerating. Finally, we found that most saccades were triggered when small position errors were combined with large velocity errors at saccade onset. This could explain why saccade amplitude was better correlated with velocity error than with position error. Therefore, our results indicate that the triggering mechanism of head-unrestrained catch-up saccades combines position and velocity error at saccade onset to program and correct saccade amplitude rather than using sensory information 100 ms before saccade onset. PMID:24424378

  6. Catch-up saccades in head-unrestrained conditions reveal that saccade amplitude is corrected using an internal model of target movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daye, Pierre M; Blohm, Gunnar; Lefèvre, Phillippe

    2014-01-14

    This study analyzes how human participants combine saccadic and pursuit gaze movements when they track an oscillating target moving along a randomly oriented straight line with the head free to move. We found that to track the moving target appropriately, participants triggered more saccades with increasing target oscillation frequency to compensate for imperfect tracking gains. Our sinusoidal paradigm allowed us to show that saccade amplitude was better correlated with internal estimates of position and velocity error at saccade onset than with those parameters 100 ms before saccade onset as head-restrained studies have shown. An analysis of saccadic onset time revealed that most of the saccades were triggered when the target was accelerating. Finally, we found that most saccades were triggered when small position errors were combined with large velocity errors at saccade onset. This could explain why saccade amplitude was better correlated with velocity error than with position error. Therefore, our results indicate that the triggering mechanism of head-unrestrained catch-up saccades combines position and velocity error at saccade onset to program and correct saccade amplitude rather than using sensory information 100 ms before saccade onset.

  7. Computer simulation of rapid crystal growth under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisada, Yasuhiro; Saito, Osami; Mitachi, Koshi; Nishinaga, Tatau

    We are planning to grow a Ge single crystal under microgravity by the TR-IA rocket in 1992. The furnace temperature should be controlled so as to finish the crystal growth in a quite short time interval (about 6 min). This study deals with the computer simulation of rapid crystal growth in space to find the proper conditions for the experiment. The crystal growth process is influenced by various physical phenomena such as heat conduction, natural and Marangoni convections, phase change, and radiation from the furnace. In this study, a 2D simulation with axial symmetry is carried out, taking into account the radiation field with a specific temperature distribution of the furnace wall. The simulation program consists of four modules. The first module is applied for the calculation of the parabolic partial differential equation by using the control volume method. The second one evaluates implicitly the phase change by the enthalpy method. The third one is for computing the heat flux from surface by radiation. The last one is for calculating with the Monte Carlo method the view factors which are necessary to obtain the heat flux.

  8. Rapid black hole growth under anisotropic radiation feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yajima, Hidenobu; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    Discovery of high-redshift (z > 6) supermassive black holes (BHs) may indicate that the rapid (or super-Eddington) gas accretion has aided their quick growth. Here, we study such rapid accretion of the primordial gas on to intermediate-mass (102-105 M⊙) BHs under anisotropic radiation feedback. We perform two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations that solve the flow structure across the Bondi radius, from far outside of the Bondi radius down to a central part that is larger than a circum-BH accretion disc. The radiation from the unresolved circum-BH disc is analytically modelled considering self-shadowing effect. We show that the flow settles into a steady state, where the flow structure consists of two distinct parts: (1) bipolar ionized outflowing regions, where the gas is pushed outward by thermal gas pressure and super-Eddington radiation pressure, and (2) an equatorial neutral inflowing region, where the gas falls towards the central BH without affected by radiation feedback. The resulting accretion rate is much higher than that in the case of isotropic radiation, far exceeding the Eddington-limited rate to reach a value slightly lower than the Bondi one. The opening angle of the equatorial inflowing region is determined by the luminosity and directional dependence of the central radiation. We find that photoevaporation from its surfaces set the critical opening angle of about 10° below which the accretion to the BH is quenched. We suggest that the shadowing effect allows even stellar-remnant BHs to grow rapidly enough to become high-redshift supermassive BHs.

  9. Rapid growth of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Parvaneh; Taghavinia, Nima; Rouhani, Shohre

    2010-06-01

    A rapid, environmental friendly and low-cost method to prepare hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is proposed. In this method, hydroxyapatite is produced in a sonicated pseudo-body solution. The sonication time was found effective in the formation of the crystalline phase of nanoparticles. In our experimental condition, 15 min sonication resulted in the most pure hydroxyapatite phase. Also it was shown that growth temperature is a crucial factor and hydroxyapatite crystallizes only at 37 degrees C. The particles formed by sonication were generally smaller and more spherical than those obtained without sonication. Sonication increased the hydroxyapatite crystal growth rate up to 5.5 times compared to non-sonication condition. The comparison between the specific surface area of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles obtained by sonication and without sonication demonstrated that sonication increased the specific surface area from 63 m(2)/g to 107 m(2)/g and decreased the size of nanoparticles from 30 nm to 18 nm. Analysis on the pore structure demonstrated that the fractal structures obtained with and without sonication were considerably different. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Missed opportunities for catch-up human papillomavirus vaccination among university undergraduates: Identifying health decision-making behaviors and uptake barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Kathleen R; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Butler, Scott M; Omer, Saad B

    2017-07-26

    Suboptimal adolescent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates in the US highlight the need for catch-up vaccination. When teenagers enter college, there may be a shift in healthcare decision-making from parents and guardians to the students themselves. Little is known about factors influencing college students' healthcare decision-making processes. We evaluated HPV vaccine decision-making among 18-to-26-year-old college students through a self-administered, anonymous, cross-sectional survey. This survey was distributed to a sample of men and women in classroom settings at two universities. Categorical data comparisons were conducted using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to model initiation of HPV vaccine and compute prevalence ratios while controlling for key influential covariates at the 0.05 alpha level. A total of 527 students participated (response proportion=93.1%). Overall, 55.8% of participants received the HPV vaccine. Encouraging conversations with doctors and/or parents/guardians were identified as one of the most influential factors to increase vaccine uptake. Among students who received encouragement from both a doctor and parent, 95.8% received the vaccine. Campaigns about cancer prevention were viewed as more influential than those that focus on preventing genital warts. Approximately one-third of students indicated they didn't know where to get the HPV vaccine. Women were more likely to report that their parents would not let them get the HPV vaccine compared to men (26.7% vs. 2.3%). The majority of students (77.3%) indicated their parents were sometimes, equally, or mostly involved in making decisions about receiving vaccines (other than flu). Students' decision-making is greatly influenced by their parents; therefore, interventions for this population should work to increase students' control over decision-making while also addressing parental concerns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  11. Tannerella forsythia and coating color on the tongue dorsum, and fatty food liking associate with fat accumulation and insulin resistance in adult catch-up fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; Zhang, Q; Zhang, M; Yang, X; Zeng, T-S; Zhang, J-Y; Zheng, J; Kong, W; Min, J; Tian, S-H; Zhu, R; Yuan, Z; Wu, C; Chen, L-L

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to determine the alteration of Tannerella forsythia and coating color on the dorsal tongue, and fatty food liking in catch-up fat in adult (CUFA), as well as the probable associations between fat accumulation, insulin resistance (IR) and these changes. T. forsythia on the tongue dorsum, fatty food liking, fat accumulation and insulin sensitivity were investigated in CUFA humans and rats, and tongue-coating color was observed in CUFA individuals. We further determined the changes of fatty food liking, fat accumulation and IR in T. forsythia-infected rodents by oral lavage. Increases in fat accumulation, IR, percentage of subjects with yellow tongue coating and that with T. forsythia detected were observed in CUFA individuals. Additionally, the fat ranking scores were significantly lower and the hedonic ratings of low-fat options of sampled food were lower, while the ratings of high-fat options were remarkably higher in CUFA subjects. Additionally, T. forsythia level elevated in CUFA rats, and fatty food liking, fat accumulation and IR increased in CUFA and T. forsythia-infected animals, with the increases in T. forsythia infection and fatty food liking preceding the occurrence of fat accumulation and IR. T. forsythia and yellow coating on the dorsal tongue and fatty food liking associate fat accumulation and IR in CUFA. Moreover, we tentatively put forward that T. forsythia, which is very important in yellow tongue-coating microbiota, and its consequent increases in fatty food liking, might be crucial in the development of fat accumulation and IR in CUFA.

  12. The impact of human papillomavirus type on colposcopy performance in women offered HPV immunisation in a catch-up vaccine programme: a two-centre observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, A; Gillespie, C; Cotton, S; Busby-Earle, C; Kavanagh, K; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Smart, L; Pollock, K; Moore, C; Palmer, T; Cruickshank, M E

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation has affected the prevalence of HPV genotypes and colposcopic features of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in young women referred for colposcopy. A two-centre observational study including vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Colposcopy clinics serving two health regions in Scotland, UK. A total of 361 women aged 20-25 years attending colposcopy following an abnormal cervical cytology result at routine cervical screening. Cervical samples were obtained from women for HPV DNA genotyping and mRNA E6/E7 expression of HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45. Demographic data, cytology, and histology results and colposcopic features were recorded. Chi-square analysis was conducted to identify associations between vaccine status, HPV genotypes, and colposcopic features. Colposcopic features, HPV genotypes, mRNA expression, and cervical histology. The prevalence of HPV 16 was significantly lower in the vaccinated group (8.6%) compared with the unvaccinated group (46.7%) (P = 0.001). The number of cases of CIN2+ was significantly lower in women who had been vaccinated (P = 0.006). The HPV vaccine did not have a statistically significant effect on commonly recognised colposcopic features, but there was a slight reduction in the positive predictive value (PPV) of colposcopy for CIN2+, from 74% (unvaccinated) to 66.7% (vaccinated). In this group of young women with abnormal cytology referred to colposcopy, HPV vaccination via a catch-up programme reduced the prevalence of CIN2+ and HPV 16 infection. The reduced PPV of colposcopy for the detection of CIN2+ in women who have been vaccinated is at the lower acceptable level of the UK national cervical screening programme guidelines. Reduction of hrHPV positivity and CIN in immunised women consistent with lower PPV of colposcopy for CIN2+. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Bilingual children's long-term outcomes in English as a second language: language environment factors shape individual differences in catching up with monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Jia, Ruiting

    2017-01-01

    Bilingual children experience more variation in their language environment than monolingual children and this impacts their rate of language development with respect to monolinguals. How long it takes for bilingual children learning English as a second language (L2) to display similar abilities to monolingual age-peers has been estimated to be 4-6 years, but conflicting findings suggest that even 6 years in school is not enough. Most studies on long-term L2 development have focused on just one linguistic sub-domain, vocabulary, and have not included multiple individual difference factors. For the present study, Chinese first language-English L2 children were given standardized measures of vocabulary, grammar and global comprehension every year from 4 ½ to 6 ½ years of English in school (ages 8½ to 10½); language environment factors were obtained through an extensive parent questionnaire. Children converged on monolingual norms differentially according to the test, with the majority of children reaching monolingual levels of performance on the majority of tests by 5 ½ years of English exposure. Individual differences in outcomes were predicted by length of English exposure, mother's education, mother's English fluency, child's use of English in the home, richness/quality of the English input outside school and age of arrival in Canada. In sum, the timeframe for bilinguals to catch up to monolinguals depends on linguistic sub-domain, task difficulty and on individual children's language environment, making 4-6 years an approximate estimate only. This study also shows that language environment factors shape not only early-stage but also late-stage bilingual development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Juvenile compensatory growth has negative consequences for reproduction in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K; Arendt, Jeffrey D; Chandramouli, Radhika; Reznick, David N

    2010-08-01

    Compensatory or 'catch-up' growth may be an adaptive mechanism that buffers the growth trajectory of young organisms from deviations caused by reduced food availability. Theory generally assumes that rapid juvenile compensatory growth impacts reproduction only through its positive effects on age and size at maturation, but potential reproductive costs to juvenile compensatory growth remain virtually unexplored. We used a food manipulation experiment to examine the reproductive consequences of compensatory growth in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Compensatory growth did not affect adult growth rates, litter production rates or investment in offspring size. However, compensatory growth had negative effects on litter size, independent of the effects of female body length, resulting in a 20% decline in offspring production. We discuss potential mechanisms behind this observed cost to reproduction.

  15. An extensively hydrolysed casein-based formula for infants with cows' milk protein allergy : tolerance/hypo-allergenicity and growth catch-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupont, Christophe; Hol, Jeroen; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Children with cows' milk protein allergy (CMPA) are at risk of insufficient length and weight gain, and the nutritional efficacy of hypo-allergenic formulas should be carefully assessed. In 2008, a trial assessed the impact of probiotic supplementation of an extensively hydrolysed casein-based

  16. Capital formation and productivity growth in South Korea and Taiwan : realising the catch-up potential in a world diminishing returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel; Ark, Bart van

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we reconstruct the non-residential capital stock of South Korea and Taiwan based on long-term series of investment in non-residential buildings and machinery and equipment. Secondly, we looked at the impact of capital input measures, using a stock as a well a flow measure of capital,

  17. Fetal growth and risk of childhood asthma and allergic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedner, S G; Örtqvist, A K; Almqvist, C

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Early genetic and environmental factors have been discussed as potential causes for the high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease in the western world, and knowledge on fetal growth and its consequence on future health and disease development is emerging. Objective This review article is an attempt to summarize research on fetal growth and risk of asthma and allergic disease. Current knowledge and novel findings will be reviewed and open research questions identified, to give basic scientists, immunologists and clinicians an overview of an emerging research field. Methods PubMed-search on pre-defined terms and cross-references. Results Several studies have shown a correlation between low birth weight and/or gestational age and asthma and high birth weight and/or gestational age and atopy. The exact mechanism is not yet clear but both environmental and genetic factors seem to contribute to fetal growth. Some of these factors are confounders that can be adjusted for, and twin studies have been very helpful in this context. Suggested mechanisms behind fetal growth are often linked to the feto-maternal circulation, including the development of placenta and umbilical cord. However, the causal link between fetal growth restriction and subsequent asthma and allergic disease remains unexplained. New research regarding the catch-up growth following growth restriction has posited an alternative theory that diseases later on in life result from rapid catch-up growth rather than intrauterine growth restriction per se. Several studies have found a correlation between a rapid weight gain after birth and development of asthma or wheezing in childhood. Conclusion and clinical relevance Asthma and allergic disease are multifactorial. Several mechanisms seem to influence their development. Additional studies are needed before we fully understand the causal links between fetal growth and development of asthma and allergic diseases. PMID:22994341

  18. Development of Minimum State Requirements for Local Growth Policies : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    In Louisiana, growth in and : around many urban areas is : neither planned nor : managed. State and local : government agencies : simply react to what has occurred and attempt to catch up with the necessary : infrastructure. In other words, governmen...

  19. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Turner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  20. Perinatal programming of childhood asthma: early fetal size, growth trajectory during infancy, and childhood asthma outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The "fetal origins hypothesis" or concept of "developmental programming" suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  1. Reduced schedules of 4CMenB vaccine in infants and catch-up series in children: Immunogenicity and safety results from a randomised open-label phase 3b trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, Federico; Safadi, Marco Aurelio P; Martinez, Alfonso Carmona; Marquez, Pilar Infante; Torres, Juan Carlos Tejedor; Weckx, Lily Yin; Moreira, Edson Duarte; Mensi, Ilhem; Calabresi, Marco; Toneatto, Daniela

    2017-06-16

    This study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a licensed meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) administered alone according to reduced schedules in infants or catch-up series in children. In this open-label, multicentre, phase 3b study (NCT01339923), infants randomised 1:1:1 received 4CMenB: 2+1 doses at 3½-5-11months or 6-8-11months of age, 3+1 doses at ages 2½-3½-5-11months. Children aged 2-10years received 2 catch-up doses administered 2months apart. Immune responses were measured by hSBA assays against 4 strains specific for vaccine components fHbp, NadA, PorA and NHBA. Sufficiency of immune responses was defined in groups with 2+1 doses schedules as a lower limit ≥70% for the 97.5% confidence interval of the percentage of infants with hSBA titres ≥4, 1month post-dose 2 for fHbp, NadA, PorA. Adverse events were collected for 7days post-vaccination; serious adverse events (SAEs) throughout the study. 754 infants and 404 children were enrolled. Post-primary vaccination, 98-100% of infants across all groups developed hSBA titres ≥4 for fHbp, NadA, PorA, and 48-77% for NHBA. Sufficiency of immune responses in infants receiving 2+1 schedules was demonstrated for fHbp, NadA, PorA after 2 doses of 4CMenB, as pre-specified criteria were met. Following receipt of 2 catch-up doses, 95-99% of children developed hSBA titres ≥4 for 4CMenB components. Similar safety profiles were observed across groups. A total of 45 SAEs were reported, 3 of which were related to vaccination. Reduced infant schedules and catch-up series in children were immunogenic and safe, having the potential to widen 4CMenB vaccine coverage. GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Communication and The Challenges of Rapid Population Growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These factors include religious beliefs, customs and traditions, among others. The discourse also examined the various communication types in Africa and their appropriateness in educating Africans and their governments on the need to control high rate of population growth. Ironically, medical facilities available in African ...

  3. A rare large right atrial myxoma with rapid growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Shawn C; Steffen, Kelly; Stys, Adam T

    2014-10-01

    Atrial myxomas are the most common benign intracavitary cardiac neoplasms. They most frequently occur in the left atrium. Right atrial tumors are rare, comprising 20 percent of myxomas achieving an incidence of 0.02 percent. Due to their rarity, right atrial tumor development and associated clinical symptoms has not been well described. The classical clinical triad for the presentation of left atrial myxomas--heart failure, embolic events, and constitutional symptoms--may not be applicable to right sided tumors. Also, natural development of myxoma is not well described, as surgical resection is the common practice. Previously ascribed growth rates of myxomas refer mostly to left atrial ones, as right atrial tumors are rare. We present a case of right atrial myxoma with growth rates exceeding those previously described.

  4. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  5. Developing Collective Learning Extension for Rapidly Evolving Information System Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Ahmed, Faysal

    2017-01-01

    Due to rapidly evolving Information System (IS) technologies, instructors find themselves stuck in the constant game of catching up. On the same hand students find their skills obsolete almost as soon as they graduate. As part of IS curriculum and education, we need to emphasize more on teaching the students "how to learn" while keeping…

  6. Rapid growth of left atrial myxoma after radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Alvarez, José; Martinez de Alegria, Anxo; Sierra Quiroga, Juan; Adrio Nazar, Belen; Rubio Taboada, Carola; Martinez Comendador, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Atrial myxoma is the most common benign tumor of the heart, but its appearance after radiofrequency ablation is very rare. We report a case in which an asymptomatic, rapidly growing cardiac myxoma arose in the left atrium after radiofrequency ablation. Two months after the procedure, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, performed to evaluate the right ventricular anatomy, revealed a 10 × 10-mm mass (assumed to be a thrombus) attached to the patient's left atrial septum. Three months later, transthoracic echocardiography revealed a larger mass, and the patient was diagnosed with myxoma. Two days later, a 20 × 20-mm myxoma weighing 37 g was excised. To our knowledge, the appearance of an atrial myxoma after radiofrequency ablation has been reported only once before. Whether tumor development is related to such ablation or is merely a coincidence is uncertain, but myxomas have developed after other instances of cardiac trauma.

  7. Surfaces Self-Assembly and Rapid Growth of Amyloid Fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yichih; Petersson, E. James; Fakhraai, Zahra

    2014-03-01

    The mechanism of surface-mediated fibrillization has been considered as a key issue in understanding the origins of the neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In vitro, amyloid proteins fold through nucleation-elongation process. There is a critical concentration for early nucleating stage. However, some studies indicate that surfaces can modulate the fibril's formation under physiological conditions, even when the concentration is much lower than the critical concentration. Here, we use a label-free procedure to monitor the growth of fibrils across many length scales. We show that near a surface, the fibrillization process appears to bypass the nucleation step and fibrils grow through a self-assembly mechanism instead. We control and measure the pre-fibrillar morphology at different stages of this process on various surfaces. The interplay between the surface concentration and diffusion constant can help identify the detailed mechanisms of surface-mediated fibril growth, which remains largely unexplored. Our works provide a new insight in designing new probes and therapies. Supported by the National Institute On Aging of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number P30AG010124.

  8. Hydrothermal vents in Lake Tanganyika harbor spore-forming thermophiles with extremely rapid growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Prieur, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    and peptone. The optimum temperature for growth was 60 °C, while minimum and maximum temperatures were 40 and 75 °C. The pH response was alkalitolerant with optimum pH at 7.4 and 8.5 depending on the growth medium. The distinct feature of rapid proliferation and endospore formation may allow the novel...

  9. Rapid growth reduces cold resistance: evidence from latitudinal variation in growth rate, cold resistance and stress proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoks, Robby; De Block, Marjan

    2011-02-24

    Physiological costs of rapid growth may contribute to the observation that organisms typically grow at submaximal rates. Although, it has been hypothesized that faster growing individuals would do worse in dealing with suboptimal temperatures, this type of cost has never been explored empirically. Furthermore, the mechanistic basis of the physiological costs of rapid growth is largely unexplored. Larvae of the damselfly Ischnura elegans from two univoltine northern and two multivoltine southern populations were reared at three temperatures and after emergence given a cold shock. Cold resistance, measured by chill coma recovery times in the adult stage, was lower in the southern populations. The faster larval growth rates in the southern populations contributed to this latitudinal pattern in cold resistance. In accordance with their assumed role in cold resistance, Hsp70 levels were lower in the southern populations, and faster growing larvae had lower Hsp70 levels. Yet, individual variation in Hsp70 levels did not explain variation in cold resistance. WE PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR A NOVEL COST OF RAPID GROWTH: reduced cold resistance. Our results indicate that the reduced cold resistance in southern populations of animals that change voltinism along the latitudinal gradient may not entirely be explained by thermal selection per se but also by the costs of time constraint-induced higher growth rates. This also illustrates that stressors imposed in the larval stage may carry over and shape fitness in the adult stage and highlights the importance of physiological costs in the evolution of life-histories at macro-scales.

  10. Characteristic growth pattern in male X-linked phosphorylase-b kinase deficiency (GSD IX)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, HM; Smit, GPA; Rake, JP; Visser, G

    Growth retardation is one of the clinical characteristics of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type IX. Initial growth retardation has been described in a few case reports, followed by a complete catch-up in growth. This study aimed to determine the growth pattern of patients with GSD IX. Growth charts

  11. GROWTH AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN FETUSES OF WOMEN WITH TYPE-1 DIABETES .1. EARLY GROWTH-PATTERNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, EJH; VISSER, GHA

    Early embryonic and fetal growth were followed longitudinally in 23 women with type-1 diabetes to investigate whether there was any evidence of early growth delay and, if so, when it originated and when catch-up growth occurred. Weekly crown-rump length (CRL) measurements were taken between 7 and 14

  12. The rapid analysis of fungal growth in the presence of inhibitory effects

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Tyson

    2011-01-01

    For fungal contamination of foodstuffs, there are no fast, reliable, automated techniques to examine growth, nor have any predictive models been developed to describe the growth in the same way as for bacteria. Traditional plating methods can take 3 to 7 days to get adequate results depending on the fungal species utilised and well over a month for challenge testing, an unacceptable delay especially for the food industry. In this study two rapid analysis techniques were investi...

  13. Demonstrated rapid growth of a corpus callosum cavernous angioma within a short period of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, E; Yücesoy, K; Kalemci, O

    2005-12-01

    Cavernous angiomas are uncommon central nervous system vascular malformations. They occur in the corpus callosum very rarely. In this study we report a case of corpus callosum cavernous angioma which demonstrated rapid growth within a short period of time. Corpus callosum cavernous angiomas have distinct features regarding growth and should be treated more carefully by giving more importance to surgical removal rather than a conservative approach.

  14. Low-Temperature and Rapid Growth of Large Single-Crystalline Graphene with Ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Lin, Li; Sun, Luzhao; Zhang, Jincan; Rui, Dingran; Li, Jiayu; Wang, Mingzhan; Tan, Congwei; Kang, Ning; Wei, Di; Xu, H Q; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2017-11-10

    Future applications of graphene rely highly on the production of large-area high-quality graphene, especially large single-crystalline graphene, due to the reduction of defects caused by grain boundaries. However, current large single-crystalline graphene growing methodologies are suffering from low growth rate and as a result, industrial graphene production is always confronted by high energy consumption, which is primarily caused by high growth temperature and long growth time. Herein, a new growth condition achieved via ethane being the carbon feedstock to achieve low-temperature yet rapid growth of large single-crystalline graphene is reported. Ethane condition gives a growth rate about four times faster than methane, achieving about 420 µm min(-1) for the growth of sub-centimeter graphene single crystals at temperature about 1000 °C. In addition, the temperature threshold to obtain graphene using ethane can be reduced to 750 °C, lower than the general growth temperature threshold (about 1000 °C) with methane on copper foil. Meanwhile ethane always keeps higher graphene growth rate than methane under the same growth temperature. This study demonstrates that ethane is indeed a potential carbon source for efficient growth of large single-crystalline graphene, thus paves the way for graphene in high-end electronical and optoelectronical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Governing Rapid Growth in Asia: State-led Development in Historical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T-W. Ngo (Tak-Wing)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRapid growth in Asia has often been explained in terms of effective policies pursued by a “developmental state”. In particular, countries in East Asia are said to be characterized by the presence of a strong state with technocratic capacity and social embeddedness. This inaugural address

  16. Nitric Acid and Benomyl Stimulate Rapid Height Growth of Longleaf Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.G. Kais; R.C. Hare; J.P. Barnett

    1984-01-01

    Rapid height growth of longleaf pine seedlings, important to production of uniform, even-aged stands, can be promoted by controlling brown-spot needle blight and weed competition, and by increasing soil fertility. Root systems of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings were dip-treated in either benomyl/clay mix (10 percent a.i. benomyl) or clay control and planted...

  17. A comparison of test statistics for the recovery of rapid growth-based enumeration tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.

    This paper considers five test statistics for comparing the recovery of a rapid growth-based enumeration test with respect to the compendial microbiological method using a specific nonserial dilution experiment. The finite sample distributions of these test statistics are unknown, because they are

  18. Social Disruption and Rapid Community Growth: An Explication of the "Boom-Town" Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James G.; And Others

    Recent case studies of social effects of rapid community growth associated with energy development in the western states have relied primarily on qualitative data with limited use of agency records, population surveys, and other secondary sources. While providing the first essential step in the orderly development of a scientific approach to…

  19. Rapid growth reduces cold resistance: evidence from latitudinal variation in growth rate, cold resistance and stress proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Stoks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physiological costs of rapid growth may contribute to the observation that organisms typically grow at submaximal rates. Although, it has been hypothesized that faster growing individuals would do worse in dealing with suboptimal temperatures, this type of cost has never been explored empirically. Furthermore, the mechanistic basis of the physiological costs of rapid growth is largely unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Larvae of the damselfly Ischnura elegans from two univoltine northern and two multivoltine southern populations were reared at three temperatures and after emergence given a cold shock. Cold resistance, measured by chill coma recovery times in the adult stage, was lower in the southern populations. The faster larval growth rates in the southern populations contributed to this latitudinal pattern in cold resistance. In accordance with their assumed role in cold resistance, Hsp70 levels were lower in the southern populations, and faster growing larvae had lower Hsp70 levels. Yet, individual variation in Hsp70 levels did not explain variation in cold resistance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: WE PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR A NOVEL COST OF RAPID GROWTH: reduced cold resistance. Our results indicate that the reduced cold resistance in southern populations of animals that change voltinism along the latitudinal gradient may not entirely be explained by thermal selection per se but also by the costs of time constraint-induced higher growth rates. This also illustrates that stressors imposed in the larval stage may carry over and shape fitness in the adult stage and highlights the importance of physiological costs in the evolution of life-histories at macro-scales.

  20. Growth and later health: a general perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Whilst growth and its derangement in disease have been a long-standing focus in pediatrics, increasing evidence points to a further, fundamental role of early growth in the programming of later health. In studies on animals and humans, rapid early growth is associated with higher risk of obesity and cardiovascular disease, and in animals, senescence and life span - a concept encapsulated in the postnatal growth acceleration hypothesis. This hypothesis explains the benefits of breastfeeding to infants for reduced cardiovascular disease risk in terms of their slower early growth and the fetal origins hypothesis in terms of the adverse postnatal catch-up growth in infants born small. Early growth, notably prior to full term, also influences brain development and cognition - and emerging evidence suggests diverse, broader effects, for instance cancer and the onset of puberty. Understanding the mechanisms, triggers and windows for such effects is important, given the major public health implications, including potential new opportunities for primary prevention of adult disease. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Measurements of crystal growth kinetics at extreme deviations from equilibrium. [Rapid solidification processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, M.J.

    1993-05-07

    We have measured solute trapping of Sn in Al over a wide enough range of velocities to make a quantitative test of theory. The Continuous Growth Model of Aziz is the only one-parameter model that fits the data. We have also measured the diffusive speed - the growth rate at which interfacial partitioning is in mid-transition between equilibrium partitioning and complete solute trapping - for several solutes in A1. We have found an inverse correlation between the equilibrium partition coefficient and the diffusive speed. Taken together, these results give us heretofore unprecedented predictive capability in modeling rapid solidification processing. We have also examined theoretically short-range diffusion-limited growth, characteristic of incomplete solute trapping, and interface-limited growth, characteristic of complete solute trapping, in alloy solidification and have shown that the two regimes fall naturally out of a single unified theory of solidification.

  2. It's Catch-up Time for Aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, John

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to refocus aesthetic education for art teachers and argues the need to see aesthetics in society. Discusses the ideas of T. Irene Sanders, Bernd Schmitt, and Alex Simonson to demonstrate real-world support for aesthetic education. Uses two examples: eye glasses and bathrooms. (CMK)

  3. Self-Assembled Biosensors on a Solid Interface for Rapid Detection and Growth Monitoring of Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Kinnunen, Paivo; Craig, Elizabeth; Brahmasandra, Sundu; McNaughton, Brandon H

    2012-01-01

    Developing rapid methods for pathogen detection and growth monitoring at low cell and analyte concentrations is an important goal, which numerous technologies are working towards solving. Rapid biosensors have already made a dramatic impact on improving patient outcomes and with continued development, these technologies may also help limit the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and reduce the ever expanding risk of foodborne illnesses. One technology that is being developed with these goals in mind is asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR) biosensors. Self-assembled AMBR biosensors have been demonstrated at water/air and water/oil interfaces, and here, for the first time, we report on self-assembled AMBR biosensors used at a solid interface. The solid interface configuration was used to measure the growth of Escherichia coli with two distinct phenomena at low cell concentrations: firstly, the AMBR rotational period decreased and secondly, the rotational period increased after several division times. Ta...

  4. Chd1 is essential for the high transcriptional output and rapid growth of the mouse epiblast

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman-Ayala, Marcela; Sachs, Michael; Koh, Fong Ming; Onodera, Courtney; Bulut-Karslioglu, Aydan; Lin, Chih-Jen; Wong, Priscilla; Nitta, Rachel; Song, Jun S.; Ramalho-Santos, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The pluripotent mammalian epiblast undergoes unusually fast cell proliferation. This rapid growth is expected to generate a high transcriptional demand, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We show here that the chromatin remodeler Chd1 is required for transcriptional output and development of the mouse epiblast. Chd1−/− embryos exhibit proliferation defects and increased apoptosis, are smaller than controls by E5.5 and fail to grow, to become patterned or to gastrulate. Removal of p...

  5. Rapid growth and childhood obesity are strongly associated with lysoPC(14:0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzehak, Peter; Hellmuth, Christian; Uhl, Olaf; Kirchberg, Franca F; Peissner, Wolfgang; Harder, Ulrike; Grote, Veit; Weber, Martina; Xhonneux, Annick; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Ferre, Natalia; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Verduci, Elvira; Riva, Enrica; Socha, Piotr; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Koletzko, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the early-origins-of-later-disease hypothesis, little is known about the metabolic underpinnings linking infant weight gain and childhood obesity. To discover biomarkers reflective of weight change in the first 6 months and overweight/obesity at age 6 years via a targeted metabolomics approach. This analysis comprised 726 infants from a European multicenter randomized trial (Childhood Obesity Programme, CHOP) for whom plasma blood samples at age 6 months and anthropometric data up to the age of 6 years were available. 'Rapid growth' was defined as a positive difference in weight within the first 6 months of life standardized to WHO growth standards. Weight change was regressed on each of 168 metabolites (acylcarnitines, lysophosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and amino acids). Metabolites significant after Bonferroni's correction were tested as predictors of later overweight/obesity. Among the overall 19 significant metabolites, 4 were associated with rapid growth and 15 were associated with a less-than-ideal weight change. After adjusting for feeding group, only the lysophosphatidylcholine LPCaC14:0 remained significantly associated with rapid weight gain (β = 0.18). Only LPCaC14:0 at age 6 months was predictive of overweight/obesity at age 6 years (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04-1.69). LPCa14:0 is strongly related to rapid growth in infancy and childhood overweight/obesity. This suggests that LPCaC14:0 levels may represent a metabolically programmed effect of infant weight gain on the later obesity risk. However, these results require confirmation by independent cohorts. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Efficacy and safety of growth hormone treatment for children born small for gestational age

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Il Tae

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant growth hormone (GH) is an effective treatment for short children who are born small for gestational age (SGA). Short children born SGA who fail to demonstrate catch-up growth by 2-4 years of age are candidates for GH treatment initiated to achieve catch-up growth to a normal height in early childhood, maintain a normal height gain throughout childhood, and achieve an adult height within the normal target range. GH treatment at a dose of 35-70 µg/kg/day should be considered for tho...

  7. Growth of Ni2Si by rapid thermal annealing: Kinetics and moving species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, E.; Lim, B. S.; Nicolet, M.-A.; Natan, M.

    1987-10-01

    The growth kinetics is characterized and the moving species is identified for the formation of Ni2Si by Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) of sequentially deposited Si and Ni films on a Si substrate. The interfacial Ni2Si layer grows as the square root of time, indicating that the suicide growth process is diffusion-limited. The activation energy is 1.25±0.2 eV in the RTA temperature range of 350 450° C. The results extend those of conventional steady-state furnace annealing quite fittingly, and a common activation energy of 1.3±0.2 eV is deduced from 225° to 450° C. The marker experiment shows that Ni is the dominant moving species during Ni2Si formation by RTA, as is the case for furnace annealing. It is concluded that the two annealing techniques induce the same growth mechanisms in Ni2Si formation.

  8. Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition growth of nanometer-thin SiC on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steckl, A.J.; Li, J.P. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1992-08-28

    Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition growth of [beta]-SiC ultrathin films on Si (100) was achieved using the carbonization reaction of the silicon substrate with C[sub 3]H[sub 8] gas. Growth rates of 0.5-2 nm s[sup -1] have been achieved at 1100-1300degC using C[sub 3]H[sub 8] flow rates of 7-9 standard cm[sup 3] min[sup -1]. X-ray and electron diffraction indicate single-crystal growth. Therefore nanometer-scale SiC films can be grown by controlling the reaction time to a few seconds. The activation energy at atmospheric pressure is 3.12 eV. The growth rate was found to decrease significantly at higher C[sub 3]H[sub 8] flow rates, leading to films of constant thickness beyond a certain critical reaction time. Using this regime of self-limiting growth, SiC films of 3-5 nm have been grown with relatively little sensitivity to the growth time. (orig.).

  9. New insights from coral growth band studies in an era of rapid environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Janice M.; Cooper, Timothy F.

    2011-10-01

    The rapid formation of calcium carbonate coral skeletons (calcification) fuelled by the coral-algal symbiosis is the backbone of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, the efficacy of calcification is measurably influenced by the sea's physico-chemical environment, which is changing rapidly. Warming oceans have already led to increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching, and ocean acidification has a demonstrable potential to cause reduced rates of calcification. There is now general agreement that ocean warming and acidification are attributable to human activities increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, and the large part of the extra carbon dioxide (the main greenhouse gas) that is absorbed by oceans. Certain massive corals provide historical perspectives on calcification through the presence of dateable annual density banding patterns. Each band is a page in an environmental archive that reveals past responses of growth (linear extension, skeletal density and calcification rate) and provides a basis for prediction of future of coral growth. A second major line of research focuses on the measurement of various geochemical tracers incorporated into the growth bands, allowing the reconstruction of past marine climate conditions (i.e. palaeoclimatology). Here, we focus on the structural properties of the annual density bands themselves (viz. density; linear extension), exploring their utility in providing both perspectives on the past and pointers to the future of calcification on coral reefs. We conclude that these types of coral growth records, though relatively neglected in recent years compared to the geochemical studies, remain immensely valuable aids to unravelling the consequences of anthropogenic climate change on coral reefs. Moreover, an understanding of coral growth processes is an essential pre-requisite for proper interpretation of studies of geochemical tracers in corals.

  10. Large plasma-membrane depolarization precedes rapid blue-light-induced growth inhibition in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, E. P.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Blue-light (BL)-induced suppression of elongation of etiolated Cucumis sativus L. hypocotyls began after a 30-s lag time, which was halved by increasing the fluence rate from 10 to 100 micromoles m-2 s-1. Prior to the growth suppression, the plasma-membrane of the irradiated cells depolarized by as much as 100 mV, then returned within 2-3 min to near its initial value. The potential difference measured with surface electrodes changed with an identical time course but opposite polarity. The lag time for the change in surface potential showed an inverse dependence on fluence rate, similar to the lag for the growth inhibition. Green light and red light caused neither the electrical response nor the rapid inhibition of growth. The depolarization by BL did not propagate to nonirradiated regions and exhibited a refractory period of about 10 min following a BL pulse. Fluence-response relationships for the electrical and growth responses provide correlational evidence that the plasma-membrane depolarization reflects an event in the transduction chain of this light-growth response.

  11. Transient growth from the continuous spectrum of a high-speed rapidly-swirling jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Arnab; Muthiah, Gopalsamy

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the possibility for short-time transient growths involving the helical modes of a rapidly-swirling, high-speed jet that has undergone a sub-critical transition via an axisymmetric vortex breakdown. The base flow is extracted from the time-averaged measurements, consisting of the recirculation bubble and its wake. A pseudospectrum analysis complements a local normal-mode based stability analysis in identifying the continuous spectrum, which is further split into a potential and freestream spectrum, where the non-orthogonality between the former type and the existing discrete stable modes is shown to be the main origin of strong transient growths in such flows. As the swirling flow develops post the bubble collapse, this potential mode spectrum widens, increasing the importance of transient growth inside the wake region. The local transient gains calculated at the wake confirms this, where strong growths far outstrips the exponential modal growth at shorter times, especially at the higher helical orders and smaller streamwise wavenumbers. These short-time transients are likely to be a necessary first-step toward the formation of a wavemaker region at the wake of such flows, leading to their eventual spiral breakdown.

  12. Is rapid growth in Internet usage environmentally sustainable for Australia? An empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Mohammad; Alam, Khorshed; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-03-01

    This study estimates the short- and long-run effects of Internet usage and economic growth on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using annual time series macro data for Australia for the period 1985-2012. Autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) bounds and Gregory-Hansen structural break cointegration tests are applied. ARDL estimates indicate no significant long-run relationship between Internet usage and CO2 emissions, which implies that the rapid growth in Internet usage is still not an environmental threat for Australia. The study further indicates that higher level of economic growth is associated with lower level of CO2 emissions; however, Internet usage and economic growth have no significant short-run relationship with CO2 emissions. Financial development has both short-run and long-run significant positive association with CO2 emissions. The findings offer support in favor of energy efficiency gains and a reduction in energy intensity in Australia. However, impulse response and variance decomposition analysis suggest that Internet usage, economic growth and financial development will continue to impact CO2 emissions in the future, and as such, this study recommends that in addition to the existing measures to combat CO2 emissions, Australia needs to exploit the potential of the Internet not only to reduce its own carbon footprint but also to utilize information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled emissions abatement potential to reduce emissions in various other sectors across the economy, such as, power, renewable energy especially in solar and wind energy, agriculture, transport and service.

  13. Prenatal exposure to traffic pollution: associations with reduced fetal growth and rapid infant weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel D; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent A; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gillman, Matthew W; Gold, Diane R; Oken, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal air pollution exposure inhibits fetal growth, but implications for postnatal growth are unknown. We assessed weights and lengths of US infants in the Project Viva cohort at birth and 6 months. We estimated 3rd-trimester residential air pollution exposures using spatiotemporal models. We estimated neighborhood traffic density and roadway proximity at birth address using geographic information systems. We performed linear and logistic regression adjusted for sociodemographic variables, fetal growth, and gestational age at birth. Mean birth weight-for-gestational age z-score (fetal growth) was 0.17 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.97; n = 2,114), 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain was 0.23 z-units (SD = 1.11; n = 689), and 17% had weight-for-length ≥95th percentile at 6 months of age. Infants exposed to the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of neighborhood traffic density had lower fetal growth (-0.13 units [95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.25 to -0.01]), more rapid 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain (0.25 units [95% CI = 0.01 to 0.49]), and higher odds of weight-for-length ≥95th percentile at 6 months (1.84 [95% CI = 1.11 to 3.05]). Neighborhood traffic density was additionally associated with an infant being in both the lowest quartile of fetal growth and the highest quartile of 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain (Q4 vs. Q1, odds ratio = 3.01 [95% CI = 1.08 to 8.44]). Roadway proximity and 3rd-trimester black carbon exposure were similarly associated with growth outcomes. For 3rd-trimester particulate matter (PM2.5), effect estimates were in the same direction, but smaller and imprecise. Infants exposed to higher traffic-related pollution in early life may exhibit more rapid postnatal weight gain in addition to reduced fetal growth.

  14. Rapid Growth of Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans Associated with Bilateral Adrenalectomy for Cushing’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanori Furudate

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 50-year-old Japanese patient with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP rapidly growing after bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing’s syndrome that reduced the serum level of cortisol from 17.1 to 0.8 mg/dl. It is known that glucocorticoids decrease the transcriptions of the COL1A1 gene and the PDGFB gene, which is under the direct control of the COL1A1 gene in most DFSP. Therefore, the hypersecretion of glucocorticoids in Cushing’s syndrome might suppress the development of DFSP. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of rapid growth of DFSP that may be associated with bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing’s syndrome.

  15. The impact of rapid economic growth and globalization on zinc nutrition in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, In-Sook; Do, Mi-Sook; Chung, Hae-Rang; Kim, Yang Ha; Beattie, John H

    2009-08-01

    Zn deficiency may be widespread in Asian countries such as South Korea. However, dietary habits have changed in response to rapid economic growth and globalization. Zn nutrition in South Koreans has therefore been assessed during a period (1969-1998) of unprecedented economic growth. Cross-sectional food consumption data from the Korean National Nutrition Survey Reports (KNNSR) of South Korea at four separate time points (1969, 1978, 1988 and 1998) were used to calculate Zn, Ca and phytate intakes using various food composition tables, databases and literature values. Nutrient values in local foods were cited from their analysed values. Average Zn intake was 5.8, 4.8 and 5.3 mg/d for 1969, 1978 and 1988 respectively, increasing to 7.3 mg/d in 1998 (73 % of the Korean Dietary Reference Intake). The phytate:Zn molar ratio decreased from 21 to 8 during the study period. Dietary Zn depletion due to marked decreases in cereal consumption, particularly barley which has a low Zn bioavailability, was counterbalanced by marked increases in the consumption of meat and fish, which are also Zn-rich foods. Reduced phytate consumption coincident with increased Zn intake suggests that Zn bioavailability also improved, particularly by 1998. Although total Zn intake was not greatly affected over the initial period of economic growth in South Korea (1969-1988), Zn contributions from different food sources changed markedly and both Zn intake and potential bioavailability were improved by 1998. The study may have implications for Zn nutrition in other Asian countries currently experiencing rapid economic growth.

  16. Blocking rapid ice crystal growth through nonbasal plane adsorption of antifreeze proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijve, Luuk L C; Meister, Konrad; DeVries, Arthur L; Duman, John G; Guo, Shuaiqi; Bakker, Huib J; Voets, Ilja K

    2016-04-05

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of proteins that bind to growing ice crystal surfaces and arrest further ice growth. AFPs have gained a large interest for their use in antifreeze formulations for water-based materials, such as foods, waterborne paints, and organ transplants. Instead of commonly used colligative antifreezes such as salts and alcohols, the advantage of using AFPs as an additive is that they do not alter the physicochemical properties of the water-based material. Here, we report the first comprehensive evaluation of thermal hysteresis (TH) and ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity of all major classes of AFPs using cryoscopy, sonocrystallization, and recrystallization assays. The results show that TH activities determined by cryoscopy and sonocrystallization differ markedly, and that TH and IRI activities are not correlated. The absence of a distinct correlation in antifreeze activity points to a mechanistic difference in ice growth inhibition by the different classes of AFPs: blocking fast ice growth requires rapid nonbasal plane adsorption, whereas basal plane adsorption is only relevant at long annealing times and at small undercooling. These findings clearly demonstrate that biomimetic analogs of antifreeze (glyco)proteins should be tailored to the specific requirements of the targeted application.

  17. Rapid regulation of leaf photosynthesis, carbohydrate status and leaf area expansion to maintain growth in irregular light environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig

    2012-01-01

    to maintain carbohydrate status and growth in unpredictable light environments. Our recent results show rapid regulation of photosynthesis and leaf carbohydrate status to maintain growth and light interception in dynamic light environments when campanula, rose and chrysanthemum were grown in a cost...

  18. Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Western China has experienced rapid industrialization and urbanization since the implementation of the National Western Development Strategies (the "Go West" movement in 1999. This transition has affected the spatial and temporal characteristics of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pollution. In this study, we analyze the trends and variability of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs from 2005 to 2013 over Western China, based on a wavelet analysis on monthly mean NO2 data derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI measurements. We focus on the anthropogenic NO2 by subtracting region-specific "background" values dominated by natural sources. After removing the background influences, we find significant anthropogenic NO2 growth over Western China between 2005 and 2013 (8.6 ± 0.9 % yr−1 on average, relative to 2005, with the largest increments (15 % yr−1 or more over parts of several city clusters. The NO2 pollution in most provincial-level regions rose rapidly from 2005 to 2011 but stabilized or declined afterwards. The NO2 trends were driven mainly by changes in anthropogenic emissions, as confirmed by a nested GEOS-Chem model simulation and a comparison with Chinese official emission statistics. The rate of NO2 growth during 2005–2013 reaches 11.3 ± 1.0 % yr−1 over Northwestern China, exceeding the rates over Southwestern China (5.9 ± 0.6 % yr−1 and the three well-known polluted regions in the east (5.3 ± 0.8 % yr−1 over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, 4.0 ± 0.6 % yr−1 over the Yangtze River Delta, and −3.3 ± 0.3 % yr−1 over the Pearl River Delta. Subsequent socioeconomic analyses suggest that the rapid NO2 growth over Northwestern China is likely related to the fast developing resource- and pollution-intensive industries along with the "Go West" movement as well as relatively weak emission controls. Further efforts should be made to alleviate NOx pollution to achieve

  19. A decade of rapid change: Biocultural influences on child growth in highland Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oths, Kathryn S; Smith, Hannah N; Stein, Max J; Lazo Landivar, Rodrigo J

    2017-10-30

    In the past decade many areas of Peru have been undergoing extreme environmental, economic, and cultural change. In the highland hamlet of Chugurpampa, La Libertad, climate change has ruined harvests and led to frequent periods of migration to the coast in search of livelihood. This biocultural research examines how the changes could be affecting the growth of children who maintain residence in the highlands. Clinical records from the early 2000s were compared to those from the early 2010s. Charts were randomly selected to record anthropometric data, netting a sample of 75 children ages 0-60 months of age. Analysis of covariance was run to compare mean stature, weight, and BMI between cohorts. Percentage of children who fall below the -2 threshold for z-scores for height and weight were compared by age and cohort. A significant secular trend in growth was found, with children born more recently larger than those born a decade before. The effect is most notable in the first year of life, with the growth advantage attenuated by the age of 3 for height and age 4 for weight. While children were unlikely to be stunted from 0 to 3 years of age, 44% of the later cohort were stunted and 11% were underweight from 4 to 5 years of age. Three possible explanations for the rapid shift are entertained: more time spent on the coast during gestation and early childhood, which may attenuate the effect of hypoxia on child growth; dietary change; and increased use of biomedicine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Early and rapid globalization as part of innovation and growth strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijdemans, Erik; Azimi, Zohreh; Tanev, Stoyan

    of technology start-ups as a specific growth strategy (Zijdemans & Tanev, 2014). Our research adopts a dynamic resource perspective according to which the distinction between ex-ante and ex-post value of resources (Schmidt & Keil, 2012) complements the effectual entrepreneurial approach, which is typical...... for start-ups that globalize rapidly in an environment with a high degree of uncertainty (Sarasvathy, Kumar, York, & Bhagavatula, 2014). The ex-ante valuation of resources (Schmidt & Keil, 2012) is related to the ex-post characteristics of BG firms (Tanev, 2012) resulting in a Global Value Generator (GVG......) – a framework linking the ex-ante value drivers and ex-post characteristics of BG firms. Our aim is to use the GVG to help innovative start-ups in making strategic ex-ante decisions contributing to the development of competitive global business models, complementary global resources and differentiated value...

  1. After Nearly A Decade Of Rapid Growth, Use And Complexity Of Imaging Declined, 2008-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, David C; Parker, Laurence; Palit, Charles D; Rao, Vijay M

    2017-04-01

    Imaging is an important cost driver in health care, and its use grew rapidly in the early 2000s. Several studies toward the end of the decade suggested that a leveling off was beginning to occur. In this study we examined more recent data to determine whether the slowdown had continued. Our data sources were the nationwide Medicare Part B databases for the period 2001-14. We calculated utilization rates per 1,000 enrollees for all advanced imaging modalities. We also calculated professional component relative value unit (RVU) rates per 1,000 beneficiaries for all imaging modalities, as RVU values provide a measure of complexity of imaging services and may in some ways be a better reflection of the amount of work involved in imaging. We found that utilization rates and RVU rates grew substantially until 2008 and 2009, respectively, and then began to drop. The downward trend in both rates persisted through 2014. Federal policies appear to have achieved the desired effect of ending the rapid growth of imaging that had been seen in earlier years. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Growth patterns in children with intrauterine growth retardation and their correlation to neurocognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Toledano-Alhadef, Hagit; Leitner, Yael; Geva, Ronny; Eshel, Rina; Harel, Shaul

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between somatic growth and neurocognitive outcome was studied in a cohort of 136 children with intrauterine growth retardation. The children were followed up from birth to 9 to 10 years of age by annual measurements of growth parameters, neurodevelopmental evaluations, and IQ. The rate of catch-up for height between 1 and 2 years of age was significantly higher than the catch-up for weight (P cognitive outcome at 9 to 10 years correlated with head circumference at all ages. The neurodevelopmental outcome at 9 to 10 years correlated with weight at all ages. Correlation with head circumference was more significant with IQ, while with weight it was stronger with the neurodevelopmental score. Height at 1 year was a significant predictor for IQ and neurodevelopmental outcome at 9 to 10 years. These findings are of distinct importance for prediction of subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome in children with intrauterine growth retardation.

  3. Rapid microwave-assisted growth of silver nanoparticles on 3D graphene networks for supercapacitor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamlich, S; Khamliche, T; Dhlamini, M S; Khenfouch, M; Mothudi, B M; Maaza, M

    2017-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) grown on a three dimensional (3d) graphene networks (GNs) has been successfully prepared by an efficient and rapid microwave-assisted growth process to form GNs/AgNPs nanocomposite electrode materials for supercapacitor application. The 3d nature of the used GNs offers a unique architecture, which creates an efficient conduction networks and maximum utilization of space and interface, and acts as a conductive layer for the deposited AgNPs. The electrochemical performances of the fabricated electrode were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. Specifically, the optimal GNs/AgNPs nanocomposite exhibits remarkable performances with a high specific capacitance of 528Fg-1 at a current density of 1Ag-1 and excellent capacitance retention of ∼93% after 3000cycles. Moreover, this microwave-assisted growth strategy of AgNPs is simple and effective, which could be extended to the construction of other three dimensional graphene based metallic composites for energy storage and conversion applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial competition in porous environments can select against rapid biofilm growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyte, Katharine Z; Tabuteau, Hervé; Gaffney, Eamonn A; Foster, Kevin R; Durham, William M

    2017-01-10

    Microbes often live in dense communities called biofilms, where competition between strains and species is fundamental to both evolution and community function. Although biofilms are commonly found in soil-like porous environments, the study of microbial interactions has largely focused on biofilms growing on flat, planar surfaces. Here, we use microfluidic experiments, mechanistic models, and game theory to study how porous media hydrodynamics can mediate competition between bacterial genotypes. Our experiments reveal a fundamental challenge faced by microbial strains that live in porous environments: cells that rapidly form biofilms tend to block their access to fluid flow and redirect resources to competitors. To understand how these dynamics influence the evolution of bacterial growth rates, we couple a model of flow-biofilm interaction with a game theory analysis. This investigation revealed that hydrodynamic interactions between competing genotypes give rise to an evolutionarily stable growth rate that stands in stark contrast with that observed in typical laboratory experiments: cells within a biofilm can outcompete other genotypes by growing more slowly. Our work reveals that hydrodynamics can profoundly affect how bacteria compete and evolve in porous environments, the habitat where most bacteria live.

  5. MOSFIRE ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY OF z > 2 QUIESCENT GALAXIES: PROBING A PERIOD OF RAPID SIZE GROWTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, Sirio; Ellis, Richard S.; Konidaris, Nick P. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Newman, Andrew B. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Using the MOSFIRE near-infrared multi-slit spectrograph on the Keck 1 Telescope, we have secured high signal-to-noise ratio absorption line spectra for six massive galaxies with redshift 2 < z < 2.5. Five of these galaxies lie on the red sequence and show signatures of passive stellar populations in their rest-frame optical spectra. By fitting broadened spectral templates we have determined stellar velocity dispersions and, with broad-band Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer photometry and imaging, stellar masses and effective radii. Using this enlarged sample of galaxies, we confirm earlier suggestions that quiescent galaxies at z > 2 have small sizes and large velocity dispersions compared to local galaxies of similar stellar mass. The dynamical masses are in very good agreement with stellar masses (log M {sub *}/M {sub dyn} = –0.02 ± 0.03), although the average stellar-to-dynamical mass ratio is larger than that found at lower redshift (–0.23 ± 0.05). By assuming evolution at fixed velocity dispersion, not only do we confirm a surprisingly rapid rate of size growth but we also consider the necessary evolutionary track on the mass-size plane and find a slope α = dlog R{sub e} /dlog M {sub *} ≳ 2 inconsistent with most numerical simulations of minor mergers. Both results suggest an additional mechanism may be required to explain the size growth of early galaxies.

  6. Rapid release of growth factors regenerates force output in volumetric muscle loss injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasman, Jonathan M.; Do, Duc M.; Page, Raymond L.; Pins, George D.

    2015-01-01

    A significant challenge in the design and development of biomaterial scaffolds is to incorporate mechanical and biochemical cues to direct organized tissue growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) loaded, crosslinked fibrin (EDCn-HGF) microthread scaffolds on skeletal muscle regeneration in a mouse model of volumetric muscle loss (VML). The rapid, sustained release of HGF significantly enhanced the force production of muscle tissue 60 days after injury, recovering more than 200% of the force output relative to measurements recorded immediately after injury. HGF delivery increased the number of differentiating myoblasts 14 days after injury, and supported an enhanced angiogenic response. The architectural morphology of microthread scaffolds supported the ingrowth of nascent myofibers into the wound site, in contrast to fibrin gel implants which did not support functional regeneration. Together, these data suggest that EDCn-HGF microthreads recapitulate several of the regenerative cues lost in VML injuries, promote remodeling of functional muscle tissue, and enhance the functional regeneration of skeletal muscle. Further, by strategically incorporating specific biochemical factors and precisely tuning the structural and mechanical properties of fibrin microthreads, we have developed a powerful platform technology that may enhance regeneration in other axially aligned tissues. PMID:26344363

  7. Postnatal Growth in a Cohort of Sardinian Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR undergo catch-up growth during infancy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the postnatal growth in a cohort of IUGR infants born in a tertiary-level Obstetric University Hospital of Northern Sardinia. An observational retrospective study was conducted on 12 IUGR (group A and 12 control infants (group B by measuring the anthropometric parameters of weight (W, length (L and head circumference (HC from birth to the 3rd postnatal year. At birth, significant differences were found between group A and group B with regard to all the auxological parameters (W, mean 1846.6 versus 3170.8 g, p < 0.0001; HC, 30.1 versus 34.4 cm, p < 0.0001; L, mean 43.4 versus 49.4 cm, p < 0.0001. During the 1st year, 8 of 12 (70% IUGR infants exhibited a significant catch-up growth in the 3 anthropometric parameters and a regular growth until the 3rd year of follow-up. The majority but not all infants born with IUGR in our series showed significant postnatal catch-up growth essentially during the first 12 months of life. An improved knowledge of the causes of IUGR will help to develop measures for its prevention and individualized treatment.

  8. Rapid stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis by insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and epidermal growth factor in KB cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Y; Hoshi, M; Koyasu, S; Kadowaki, T; Kasuga, M; Yahara, I; Nishida, E; Sakai, H

    1988-09-01

    Effects of growth factors on fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis in human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells were examined by measuring horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a marker. Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) promoted HRP accumulation. They also stimulated the efflux of the preloaded HRP from the cells. From these results it follows that these growth factors stimulate the influx as well as the efflux of HRP, because the accumulation rate is the sum of the influx rate and the efflux rate. The stimulation of both HRP accumulation and HRP efflux was rapidly induced within 2-4 min of the addition of growth factors and persisted for at least 60 min. The concentrations eliciting half-maximal stimulatory effects of insulin, IGF-I, and EGF were about 5 X 10(-7), 1 X 10(-9), and 5 X 10(-10) M, respectively. aIR-3 (anti-type I IGF receptor antibody) completely blocked the stimulation of HRP accumulation by IGF-I but very slightly inhibited the stimulation by insulin. The 528 IgG (anti-EGF receptor antibody) inhibited the stimulation of HRP accumulation by EGF. These results indicated that each of these growth factors stimulates the HRP accumulation mediated by the corresponding (homologous) growth factor receptors. The rapid stimulation of fluid-phase influx and efflux may constitute one of the common early cellular responses to growth factors.

  9. Describing the growth and rapid weight gain of urban Australian Aboriginal infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Vana; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Knight, Jennifer; Comino, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this paper are to describe the growth of urban Australian Aboriginal infants from birth to 24 months of age and to identify the proportion of these infants experiencing rapid weight gain (RWG) and overweight/obesity. The Gudaga Study is a longitudinal birth cohort of 159 Australian Aboriginal children born on the urban fringe of Sydney. Birthweight and length were extracted from hospital data. Children with a birthweight >1500 grams were included in the analysis (n = 157). Weight, length and head circumference were measured at 2-3 weeks and then six-monthly until 24 months of age. Age- and gender-specific Z-scores were determined from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) 2000 growth charts for weight, length, head circumference and body mass index (BMI). The proportion of children experiencing RWG (an increase in weight-for-age Z-scores ≥0.67 between birth and 12 months) was calculated. The association between RWG and ≥85th CDC percentile for BMI at 24 months was tested using Pearson's χ². The mean weight of Gudaga infants was less than the CDC mean length-for-age at birth and 2-3 weeks of age but greater than CDC mean length-for-age and weight-for-age at 18 and 24 months of age. Overall, 42 infants (34.4%) experienced RWG, and 45 infants (36.9%) were overweight/obese at 24 months of age. A greater proportion of those who experienced RWG (61.9%) were overweight/obese at 24 months than those who did not experience RWG (23.8%). Our study suggests a concerning proportion of urban Indigenous infants experience RWG and overweight/obesity in early childhood.

  10. Gas dwell time control for rapid and long lifetime growth of single-walled carbon nanotube forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Futaba, Don N; Yamada, Takeo; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji

    2011-09-14

    The heat history (i.e., "dwell time") of the carbon source gas was demonstrated as a vital parameter for very rapid single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) forest growth with long lifetime. When the dwell time was raised to 7 s from the 4 s used for standard growth, the growth rate increased to 620 μm/min: a benchmark for SWNT forest growth on substrates. Importantly, the increase in growth rate was achieved without decreasing either the growth lifetime or the quality of the SWNTs. We interpret that the conversion rate of the carbon feedstock into CNTs was selectively increased (versus catalyst deactivation) by delivering a thermally decomposed carbon source with the optimum thermal history to the catalyst site.

  11. Are 20th-century recommendations for growth and height correct? A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adulthood. Mangel and Munch23 also reported that catch-up growth is related to increased mortality and reduced longevity. These negative trends have been ..... ageing mechanism. This law says that the disorder of a spontaneous system is a function of its mass and energy. More mass and energy mean more possible ...

  12. Growth Patterns of HIV Infected Indian Children in Response to ART: A Clinic Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchure, Ritu S; Kulkarni, Vinay V; Darak, Trupti S; Mhaskar, Rahul; Miladinovic, Branko; Emmanuel, Patricia J

    2015-06-01

    To describe catch-up growth after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among children living with human immunodeficiency virus (CLHIV), attending a private clinic in India. This is a retrospective analysis of data of CLHIV attending Prayas clinic, Pune, India. Height and weight z scores (HAZ, WAZ) were calculated using WHO growth charts. Catch-up growth post-ART was assessed using a mixed method model in cases where baseline and at least one subsequent follow-up HAZ/WAZ were available. STATA 12 was used for statistical analysis. During 1998 to 2011, 466 children were enrolled (201 girls and 265 boys; median age = 7 y). A total of 302 children were ever started on ART; of which 73 and 76 children were included for analysis for catch up growth in WAZ and HAZ respectively. Median WAZ and HAZ increased from -2.14 to -1.34 (p = 0.007) and -2.42 to -1.94 (p = 0.34), respectively, 3 y post ART. Multivariable analysis using mixed model (adjusted for gender, guardianship, baseline age, baseline WAZ/HAZ, baseline and time varying WHO clinical stage) showed gains in WAZ (coef = 0.2, 95 % CI: -0.06 to 0.46) and HAZ (coef = 0.49, 95 % CI: 0.21 to 0.77) with time on ART. Lower baseline WAZ/HAZ and older age were associated with impaired catch-up growth. Children staying in institutions and with baseline advanced clinical stage showed higher gain in WAZ. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was high at ART initiation. Sustained catch-up growth was seen with ART. The study highlights the benefit of early ART in achieving normal growth in CLHIV.

  13. Rapid Formation of Black Holes in Galaxies: A Self-limiting Growth Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Sellwood, J. A.; Shen, Juntai

    2017-11-01

    We present high-quality fluid dynamical simulations of isothermal gas flows in a rotating barred potential. We show that a large quantity of gas is driven right into the nucleus of a galaxy when the model lacks a central mass concentration, but the inflow stalls at a nuclear ring in comparison simulations that include a central massive object. The radius of the nuclear gas ring increases linearly with the mass of the central object. We argue that bars drive gas right into the nucleus in the early stages of disk galaxy formation, where a nuclear star cluster and perhaps a massive black hole could be created. The process is self-limiting, however, because inflow stalls at a nuclear ring once the mass of gas and stars in the nucleus exceeds ˜1% of the disk mass, which shuts off rapid growth of the black hole. We briefly discuss the relevance of these results to the seeding of massive black holes in galaxies, the merger model for quasar evolution, and the existence of massive black holes in disk galaxies that lack a significant classical bulge.

  14. Rapid Startup and Loading of an Attached Growth, Simultaneous Nitrification/Denitrification Membrane Aerated Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caitlin; Vega, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    The Membrane Aerated Bioreactor (MABR) is an attached-growth biological system for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. This design is an innovative approach to common terrestrial wastewater treatments for nitrogen and carbon removal. Implementing a biologically-based water treatment system for long-duration human exploration is an attractive, low energy alternative to physiochemical processes. Two obstacles to implementing such a system are (1) the "start-up" duration from inoculation to steady-state operations and (2) the amount of surface area needed for the biological activity to occur. The Advanced Water Recovery Systems (AWRS) team at JSC explored these two issues through two tests; a rapid inoculation study and a wastewater loading study. Results from these tests demonstrate that the duration from inoculation to steady state can be reduced to two weeks and that the surface area to volume ratio baseline used in the Alternative Water Processor (AWP) test was higher than what was needed to remove the organic carbon and ammonium from the system.

  15. The Seneca effect why growth is slow but collapse is rapid

    CERN Document Server

    Bardi, Ugo

    2017-01-01

    The essence of this book can be found in a line written by the ancient Roman Stoic Philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca: "Fortune is of sluggish growth, but ruin is rapid". This sentence summarizes the features of the phenomenon that we call "collapse," which is typically sudden and often unexpected, like the proverbial "house of cards." But why are such collapses so common, and what generates them? Several books have been published on the subject, including the well-known "Collapse" by Jared Diamond (2005), "The collapse of complex societies" by Joseph Tainter (1998) and "The Tipping Point," by Malcom Gladwell (2000). Why The Seneca Effect? This book is an ambitious attempt to pull these various strands together by describing collapse from a multi-disciplinary viewpoint. The reader will discover how collapse is a collective phenomenon that occurs in what we call today "complex systems," with a special emphasis on system dynamics and t he concept of "feedback." From this foundation, Bardi applies the...

  16. Genetic and Environmental Factors in Pre- and Postnatal Growth Disorders: Studies in children born small for gestational age (SGA), with and without postnatal short stature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Ester (Wietske)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTh is thesis describes genetic and environmental factors which are important in pre- and postnatal growth disorders and specifi cally focuses on children born small for gestational age (SGA) with or without postnatal catch-up growth. It also presents a subclassifi cation of short SGA

  17. Birth weight, infant growth and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ken K; Dunger, David B

    2004-11-01

    Size at birth and early postnatal growth rates are important determinants of human perinatal survival; they also predict the tempo of growth, adult height and long-term risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC) show that fetal growth is influenced by both fetal genes and maternal-uterine-placental factors. Important maternal-placental factors include parity, smoking and weight gain, but also maternal genetic factors in the mother or fetal placenta, including the mitochondrial DNA 16189 variant and H19. These maternal genetic factors particularly influence smaller, growth-restrained infants, as in first pregnancies. Fetal genes include the insulin gene (INS) VNTR (variable number of tandem repeat), which we recently confirmed to be associated with birth size and cord blood IGF-II levels; these fetal gene effects are more evident in the absence of maternal-uterine growth restraint. During postnatal life, the INS VNTR III/III genotype remains associated with body size, including body mass index and waist circumference, and also lower insulin sensitivity among girls. However, as at birth, significant gene-environment interactions are seen. Rapid 'catch-up' early postnatal weight gain follows maternal-uterine restraint, and strongly predicts later childhood obesity and insulin resistance; among these children, those with INS VNTR class I alleles are more obese. Genetic factors that influence early growth may have conferred some early survival advantage in human history during times of undernutrition. With abundant nutrition and rising obesity rates, these genetic factors and their interactions with maternal and childhood environmental factors that influence childhood growth may now contribute to the early development of adult disease risk. Their recognition may help the development of targeted early interventions to prevent the progression towards adult disease.

  18. Plant Growth and Development: An Outline for a Unit Structured Around the Life Cycle of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Wayne M.

    This outline is intended for use in a unit of 10-12 lectures on plant growth and development at the introductory undergraduate level as part of a course on organismal biology. The series of lecture outlines is structured around the life cycle of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr). The unit begins with three introductory lectures on general plant…

  19. Early rapid growth : no association with later cognitive functions in children born not small for gestational age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Ness, Andrew R.; Streuling, Ina; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; von Kries, Ruediger

    Background: There is an association between rapid growth in early life and overweight in childhood. This adverse association needs to be balanced against potential beneficial effects on cognitive functioning observed in children who are born small for gestational age (SGA). Objective: We examined

  20. First solar system solids to proto-planets: A Rapid growth in a few million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Jitendranath

    2016-07-01

    First solar system solids to proto-planets: A Rapid growth in a few million years J. N. Goswami Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad-380009, India Collapse of a dense molecular cloud led to the formation of the proto-Sun surrounded by a high temperature gaseous nebula. The nebula settled down to the mid-plane and formation of the first solar system solids, refractory oxides and silicates, such as Corundum, Perovskite, Melilite took place, that was followed by formation of more common silicate minerals. Laboratory studies of primitive meteorites support this scenario and also provide evidence for correlated presence of several now-extinct short-lived nuclides (e.g. 41Ca, 26Al, 60Fe) at the time of formation of the first solar system solids. Presence of 60Fe in early solar system solids suggests injection of freshly synthesized nuclides from a stellar source (a supernova) into the proto-solar cloud that also triggered its collapse and led to formation of our solar system. Presence of 41Ca (half-life: 0.1Ma) in early solar system solids suggest a time scale of less than a million years for the collapse of the proto-solar cloud and formation of proto-Sun and the first solar system solids. The gradual evolution of larger solar system objects, up to planetesimals (represented by the asteroids), took place at a rapid pace within a time scale of a few million years. Some of the asteroids retain their pristine nature (e.g. parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrite), while others, underwent melting and differentiation due to internal heating. Harold Urey proposed radioactive 26Al as a possible heat source that was confirmed by experiment only in 1999. Irons and stony iron meteorites are fragments from core regions of differentiated asteroids. Extensive computer simulation studies suggest that an explosive stellar event (e.g. supernova) can indeed trigger the collapse of the proto-solar cloud and also inject freshly synthesized short-lived nuclides into it within a relatively

  1. Rapid, bilateral changes in growth rate and curvature during gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: implications for mechanism of growth control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The growth response of etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls to gravitropic stimulation was examined by means of time-lapse photography and high-resolution analysis of surface expansion and curvature. In comparison with video analysis, the technique described here has five- to 20-fold better resolution; moreover, the mathematical fitting method (cubic splines) allows direct estimation of local and integrated curvature. After switching seedlings from a vertical to horizontal position, both upper and lower surfaces of the stem reacted after a lag of about 11 min with a two- to three-fold increase in surface expansion rate on the lower side and a cessation of expansion, or slight compression, on the upper surface. This growth asymmetry was initiated simultaneously along the length of the hypocotyl, on both upper and lower surfaces, and did not migrate basipetally from the apex. Later stages in the gravitropic response involved a complex reversal of the growth asymmetry, with the net result being a basipetal migration of the curved region. This secondary growth reversal may reflect oscillatory and/or self-regulatory behaviour of growing cells. With some qualifications, the kinetics and pattern of growth response are consistent with a mechanism involving hormone redistribution, although they do not prove such a mechanism. The growth kinetics require a growth mechanism which can be stimulated by two- to three-fold or completely inhibited within a few minutes.

  2. SGA and Turner Syndrome: the impact of growth hormone treatment on physical and mental well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.N. Bannink (Ellen)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBy definition, 2.3% of the children is born Small for Gestational Age (SGA), which is a length and/or height < -2 standard deviation (SD). Most children born SGA show catch-up growth during the first years of life. Approximately 10% of them remain short with a height below the normal

  3. Economic Growth Models Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The transitional recession in countries of Eastern Europe has been much longer than expected. The legacy and recent policy mistakes have both contributed to the slow progress. As structural reforms and gradual institution building have taken hold, the post-socialist economics have started to recover, with some leading countries building momentum toward faster growth. There is a possibility that in wider context of globalization several of these emerging market economies will be able to catch up with the more advanced industrial economies in a matter of one or two generations. Over the past few years, most candidate countries have made progress in the transition to a competitive market economy, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. However their income levels have remained far below those in the Member States. Measured by per capita income in purchasing power standards, there has been a very limited amount of catching up over the past fourteen years. Prior, the distinctions between Solow-Swan model and endogenous growth model. The interdependence between transition and integration are stated in this study. Finally, some measures of macroeconomic policy for sustainable growth are proposed in correlation with real macroeconomic situation of the Romanian economy. Our study would be considered the real convergence for the Romanian economy and the recommendations for the adequate policies to achieve a fast real convergence and sustainable growth.

  4. Rapid growth of phosphorus-rich olivine in mantle xenolith from Middle Atlas Mountains (Morocco, Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziotis, Ioannis; Mavrogonatos, Konstantinos; Flemetakis, Stamatios; Papoutsa, Angeliki; Klemme, Stephan; Berndt, Jasper; Asimow, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus(P)-rich zones in olivine may reflect incorporation of P in excess of equilibrium partitioning during rapid growth (e.g. Milman-Barris et al. 2008). We investigated a mantle xenolith from Middle Atlas Mountains (Morocco) by optical microscopy and electron microprobe. It contains spinel-bearing lherzolite and orthopyroxenite layers, cross-cut by veins dominated by glass and secondary phases including P-rich olivines. The host lava, presumed to be alkali basalt (El Messbahi et al. 2015), is present on the margins of the hand sample but not included in our thin section. The studied melt veins (MV) generally contain Ol+Gl+Cpx+Pl+Spl±Ap. Olivines in the MV have (Fo72.1-83.4) with 0.02-0.3 wt.% P2O5; olivines with P2O5 >0.1 wt.% are Fo75.3 -82.8. Some olivine grains are inclusion-free; others contain rounded glass inclusions or subhedral spinel or ilmenite inclusions. Olivines is generally found in contact with plagioclase and glass. Glass (5-15 vol%) has variable composition with P2O5 up to 1.52 wt.%, K2O 1.65-2.37 wt%, CaO 6.39-9.55 wt%, Na2O 0.78-6.70 wt% and SiO2 45.2-49.6 wt%. Where glass is in contact with matrix olivine, Fe-rich outer rims on olivine indicate mineral-melt reaction. In MgO variation diagrams, glass compositions display a coherent single trend for all oxides, with the exception of a discrete low-Na group. Clinopyroxene is present both as isolated subhedral to euhedral crystals within the MV and as replacive rims on matrix minerals. Very fine-grained dendritic clinopyroxene quench crystals up to 10 μm long are also present. Plagioclase occurs as prismatic, flow-oriented crystals parallel or sub-parallel to the layering. Spinel shows anhedral and euhedral shapes and occurs both as inclusions in olivine and as discrete grains associated with plagioclase and glass. Spinel in contact with glass shows a spongy outer rim and normal zonation towards Fe-rich rim compositions. Apatite is found mostly as very small crystals embedded in glass. High

  5. Effect of convective flow on stable dendritic growth in rapid solidification of a binary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galenko, P. K.; Danilov, D. A.; Reuther, K.; Alexandrov, D. V.; Rettenmayr, M.; Herlach, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    A model for anisotropic growth of a dendritic crystal in a binary mixture under non-isothermal conditions is presented. A criterion for a stable growth mode is given for the dendrite tip as a function of the thermal Péclet number and the ratio between the velocities of dendrite growth and solute diffusion in the liquid bulk. Limiting cases of known criteria for anisotropic dendrite growth at low and high growth Péclet numbers are provided. The inclusion of forced convective flow extends the range of theoretical predictions, especially to low growth velocities, thus eliminating systematic discrepancies between earlier models and observed experimental data, as shown by a comparison of model predictions with measured growth velocities in Ti-55 at% Al alloys solidified under electromagnetic levitation.

  6. Rapid increase in fibroblast growth factor 21 in protein malnutrition and its impact on growth and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Yori; Saito, Kenji; Nakazawa, Kyoko; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Hisanori; Takenaka, Asako

    2015-11-14

    Protein malnutrition promotes hepatic steatosis, decreases insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I production and retards growth. To identify new molecules involved in such changes, we conducted DNA microarray analysis on liver samples from rats fed an isoenergetic low-protein diet for 8 h. We identified the fibroblast growth factor 21 gene (Fgf21) as one of the most strongly up-regulated genes under conditions of acute protein malnutrition (P<0·05, false-discovery rate<0·001). In addition, amino acid deprivation increased Fgf21 mRNA levels in rat liver-derived RL-34 cells (P<0·01). These results suggested that amino acid limitation directly increases Fgf21 expression. FGF21 is a polypeptide hormone that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. FGF21 also promotes a growth hormone-resistance state and suppresses IGF-I in transgenic mice. Therefore, to determine further whether Fgf21 up-regulation causes hepatic steatosis and growth retardation after IGF-I decrease in protein malnutrition, we fed an isoenergetic low-protein diet to Fgf21-knockout (KO) mice. Fgf21-KO did not rescue growth retardation and reduced plasma IGF-I concentration in these mice. Fgf21-KO mice showed greater epididymal white adipose tissue weight and increased hepatic TAG and cholesterol levels under protein malnutrition conditions (P<0·05). Overall, the results showed that protein deprivation directly increased Fgf21 expression. However, growth retardation and decreased IGF-I were not mediated by increased FGF21 expression in protein malnutrition. Furthermore, FGF21 up-regulation rather appears to have a protective effect against obesity and hepatic steatosis in protein-malnourished animals.

  7. Maternal low protein diets decrease skeletal muscle growth, PGC-1alpha mRNA expression and mitochondrial oxidative respiration and increase obesity and insulin resistance in obesity prone Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malnutrition during the fetal growth period followed by postnatal catch-up growth results in obesity and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). To determine whether a prenatal low protein diet followed by postnatal high fat diet increases propensity for obesity and T2D in offspring, obese-prone f...

  8. Cage Culture Turbidostat: a Device for Rapid Determination of Algal Growth Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Skipnes, Olav; Eide, Ingvar; Jensen, Arne

    1980-01-01

    The present cage culture turbidostat consists of a growth chamber and a control unit. The microorganisms (photoautotrophic algae) are kept in the growth chamber by porous membranes (pore size 1 to 3 μm) which retain the algae but allow efficient exchange of the growth medium. Flow rate and composition of the medium can therefore be varied independently of algal population density. A reciprocating pumping mode of the medium is introduced to obtain more gentle clearance of membranes than that p...

  9. Open Door Policy and China's Rapid Growth: Evidence from City-level Data

    OpenAIRE

    Shang-Jin Wei

    1993-01-01

    There is clear evidence that during 1980-90 more exports are positively associated with higher growth rates across Chinese cities. In comparison, in the late 1980s, the contribution to growth comes mainly from foreign investment. The contribution of foreign investment comes in the form of technological and managerial spillover across firms as opposed to an infusion of new capital. Finally, there is nothing magical about the high growth rates of Chinese coastal areas other than their effective...

  10. Enhanced nutrition improves growth and increases blood adiponectin concentrations in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin W. Blakstad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. Objective: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. Design: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply. Thirty-seven infants were evaluated with growth measurements until 2 years corrected age (CA. Metabolic markers were measured at birth and 5 months CA. Results: Weight gain and head growth were different in the two groups from birth to 2 years CA (weight gain: pinteraction=0.006; head growth: pinteraction=0.002. The intervention group improved their growth z-scores after birth, whereas the control group had a pronounced decline, followed by an increase and caught up with the intervention group after discharge. At 5 months CA, adiponectin concentrations were higher in the intervention group and correlated with weight gain before term (r=0.35 and nutrient supply (0.35≤r≤0.45. Leptin concentrations correlated with weight gain after term and IGF-1 concentrations with length growth before and after term and head growth after term (0.36≤r≤0.53. Conclusion: Enhanced nutrient supply improved early postnatal growth and may have prevented rapid catch-up growth later in infancy. Adiponectin concentration at 5 months CA was higher in the intervention group and correlated positively with early weight gain and nutrient supply. Early nutrition and growth may affect metabolic markers in infancy.Clinical Trial Registration (ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT01103219

  11. Colorimetry provides a rapid objective measurement of de novo hair growth rate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzung, Tien-Yi; Yang, Chia-Yi; Huang, Yung-Chang; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2009-11-01

    Depilated mice have been used as a test platform for hair growth-regulating agents. However, currently available assessment tools for hair growth in mice are less than ideal. Tristimulus colorimetry of the fur color of depilated agouti, albino, and black mice with L*, a*, and b* values were performed daily until the full growth of pelage. Using light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation (650 and 890 nm) with a daily dose of 3.5 J/cm(2) as hair growth regulators, the hair growth rates observed by the global assessment were compared with those derived from colorimetry. In contrast to a* and b* values, L* values changed more drastically over time in the anagen phase regardless of fur color. Unlike the inhibitory effect of 650 nm irradiation, LED of 890 nm promoted de novo hair regrowth in mice. The difference in hair growth rates detected by colorimetry paralleled the observation made by the global assessment. The L* value of fur color obtained by tristimulus colorimetry was a sensitive yet quantitative indicator of de novo hair growth, and could be used to project the hair growth rate in mice.

  12. Incubation behavior of silicon nanowire growth investigated by laser-assisted rapid heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Sang-gil; Kim, Eunpa; Grigoropoulos, Costas P., E-mail: cgrigoro@berkeley.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States); Allen, Frances I.; Minor, Andrew M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Hwang, David J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    We investigate the early stage of silicon nanowire growth by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism using laser-localized heating combined with ex-situ chemical mapping analysis by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy. By achieving fast heating and cooling times, we can precisely determine the nucleation times for nanowire growth. We find that the silicon nanowire nucleation process occurs on a time scale of ∼10 ms, i.e., orders of magnitude faster than the times reported in investigations using furnace processes. The rate-limiting step for silicon nanowire growth at temperatures in the vicinity of the eutectic temperature is found to be the gas reaction and/or the silicon crystal growth process, whereas at higher temperatures it is the rate of silicon diffusion through the molten catalyst that dictates the nucleation kinetics.

  13. Rapid Growth of Psychology Programs in Turkey: Undergraduate Curriculum and Structural Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümer, Nebi

    2016-01-01

    Similar to the other developing countries, undergraduate psychology programs in Turkish universities have rapidly grown in the last two decades. Although this sharp increment signifies the need for psychologists, it has also caused a number of challenges for effective teaching of psychology. The department chairs (N = 42) were interviewed with an…

  14. Undergraduate Chemistry Education in Chinese Universities: Addressing the Challenges of Rapid Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Xiaojun; Cao, Haishi

    2010-01-01

    In the past 30 years, university-level chemistry education in China has been experiencing significant changes because of the rapid expansion of its university education system. These changes are reflected in improvements to the existing education goals, classroom teaching methods, textbooks, teaching facilities, teacher profiles, lab activities,…

  15. Recovering from a bad start: rapid adaptation and tradeoffs to growth below a threshold density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Christopher J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial growth in well-mixed culture is often assumed to be an autonomous process only depending upon the external conditions under control of the investigator. However, increasingly there is awareness that interactions between cells in culture can lead to surprising phenomena such as density-dependence in the initiation of growth. Results Here I report the unexpected discovery of a density threshold for growth of a strain of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 used to inoculate eight replicate populations that were evolved in methanol. Six of these populations failed to grow to the expected full density during the first couple transfers. Remarkably, the final cell number of six populations crashed to levels 60- to 400-fold smaller than their cohorts. Five of these populations recovered to full density soon after, but one population remained an order of magnitude smaller for over one hundred generations. These variable dynamics appeared to be due to a density threshold for growth that was specific to both this particular ancestral strain and to growth on methanol. When tested at full density, this population had become less fit than its ancestor. Simply increasing the initial dilution 16-fold reversed this result, revealing that this population had more than a 3-fold advantage when tested at this lower density. As this population evolved and ultimately recovered to the same final density range as the other populations this low-density advantage waned. Conclusions These results demonstrate surprisingly strong tradeoffs during adaptation to growth at low absolute densities that manifest over just a 16-fold change in density. Capturing laboratory examples of transitions to and from growth at low density may help us understand the physiological and evolutionary forces that have led to the unusual properties of natural bacteria that have specialized to low-density environments such as the open ocean.

  16. Rapid Alterations in Perirenal Adipose Tissue Transcriptomic Networks with Cessation of Voluntary Running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N Ruegsegger

    Full Text Available In maturing rats, the growth of abdominal fat is attenuated by voluntary wheel running. After the cessation of running by wheel locking, a rapid increase in adipose tissue growth to a size that is similar to rats that have never run (i.e. catch-up growth has been previously reported by our lab. In contrast, diet-induced increases in adiposity have a slower onset with relatively delayed transcriptomic responses. The purpose of the present study was to identify molecular pathways associated with the rapid increase in adipose tissue after ending 6 wks of voluntary running at the time of puberty. Age-matched, male Wistar rats were given access to running wheels from 4 to 10 weeks of age. From the 10th to 11th week of age, one group of rats had continued wheel access, while the other group had one week of wheel locking. Perirenal adipose tissue was extracted, RNA sequencing was performed, and bioinformatics analyses were executed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA. IPA was chosen to assist in the understanding of complex 'omics data by integrating data into networks and pathways. Wheel locked rats gained significantly more fat mass and significantly increased body fat percentage between weeks 10-11 despite having decreased food intake, as compared to rats with continued wheel access. IPA identified 646 known transcripts differentially expressed (p < 0.05 between continued wheel access and wheel locking. In wheel locked rats, IPA revealed enrichment of transcripts for the following functions: extracellular matrix, macrophage infiltration, immunity, and pro-inflammatory. These findings suggest that increases in visceral adipose tissue that accompanies the cessation of pubertal physical activity are associated with the alteration of multiple pathways, some of which may potentiate the development of pubertal obesity and obesity-associated systemic low-grade inflammation that occurs later in life.

  17. Rapid Alterations in Perirenal Adipose Tissue Transcriptomic Networks with Cessation of Voluntary Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Company, Joseph M; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Roberts, Christian K; Roberts, Michael D; Booth, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    In maturing rats, the growth of abdominal fat is attenuated by voluntary wheel running. After the cessation of running by wheel locking, a rapid increase in adipose tissue growth to a size that is similar to rats that have never run (i.e. catch-up growth) has been previously reported by our lab. In contrast, diet-induced increases in adiposity have a slower onset with relatively delayed transcriptomic responses. The purpose of the present study was to identify molecular pathways associated with the rapid increase in adipose tissue after ending 6 wks of voluntary running at the time of puberty. Age-matched, male Wistar rats were given access to running wheels from 4 to 10 weeks of age. From the 10th to 11th week of age, one group of rats had continued wheel access, while the other group had one week of wheel locking. Perirenal adipose tissue was extracted, RNA sequencing was performed, and bioinformatics analyses were executed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). IPA was chosen to assist in the understanding of complex 'omics data by integrating data into networks and pathways. Wheel locked rats gained significantly more fat mass and significantly increased body fat percentage between weeks 10-11 despite having decreased food intake, as compared to rats with continued wheel access. IPA identified 646 known transcripts differentially expressed (p rats, IPA revealed enrichment of transcripts for the following functions: extracellular matrix, macrophage infiltration, immunity, and pro-inflammatory. These findings suggest that increases in visceral adipose tissue that accompanies the cessation of pubertal physical activity are associated with the alteration of multiple pathways, some of which may potentiate the development of pubertal obesity and obesity-associated systemic low-grade inflammation that occurs later in life.

  18. Early Zinc Supplementation and Enhanced Growth of the Low-Birth Weight Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Farghali, Ola; El-Wahed, Mohamed Abd; Hassan, Nayera E; Imam, Safaa; Alian, Khadija

    2015-03-15

    Nutritional deficits are almost universal in Low-Birth Weight babies. Zinc is essential for normal infant growth and its supplementation assists growth probably through insulin-like growth factor-1. This double-blind randomized-controlled trial aimed at evaluating the role of zinc in catch-up growth of low-birth-weight infants and investigating its proposed mediator. The study was conducted in Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. Two hundred low-birth-weight neonates were simply randomized to either oral zinc therapy or placebo. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at birth, 3, 6, and 12 months; including weight, recumbent length, head, waist, chest, and mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps and sub-scapular skin fold thickness. We found that initial and 3-months measurements, except weight, were comparable in the 2 groups. All measurements at 6- and 12-months, except sub-scapular skin-fold-thickness, were significantly higher in zinc group than placebo. Catch-up growth, at 12-months, was significant in zinc group and was significantly higher in appropriate-for-gestational-age vs. small-for-gestational-age, in preterm vs. term, and in male vs. female infants. The median 6-months insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly higher in zinc group. We conclude that early start of oral zinc supplementation in low-birth-weight neonates assists catch-up growth, probably through rise of insulin-like growth factor-1.

  19. Playing the Catch-Up Game: Accelerating the Scale-Up of Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) Services to Eliminate New Pediatric HIV Infection in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladele, Edward Adekola; Khamofu, Hadiza; Asala, Seun; Saleh, Mariya; Ralph-Opara, Uche; Nwosisi, Charles; Anyaike, Chukwuma; Gana, Catherine; Adedokun, Oluwasanmi; Dirks, Rebecca; Adebayo, Olufunsho; Oduwole, Modupe; Mandala, Justin; Torpey, Kwasi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction As the world is making progress towards elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, poor coverage of PMTCT services in Nigeria remains a major challenge. In order to address this, scale-up was planned with activities organized into 3 phases. This paper describes the process undertaken in eight high burden Nigerian states to rapidly close PMTCT coverage gaps at facility and population levels between February 2013 and March 2014. Methods Activities were grouped into three phases–pre-assessment phase (engagement of a wide range of stakeholders), assessment (rapid health facility assessment, a cross sectional survey using mixed methods conducted in the various states between Feb and May 2013 and impact modelling), and post-assessment (drawing up costed state operational plans to achieve eMTCT by 2015, data-driven smart scale-up). Results Over a period of 10 months starting June 2013, 2044 facilities were supported to begin provision of PMTCT services. This increased facility coverage from 8% to 50%. A 246% increase was also recorded in the number of pregnant women and their families who have access to HIV testing and counselling in the context of PMTCT. Similarly, access to antiretrovirals for PMTCT has witnessed a 152% increase in these eight states between October 2013 and October 2014. Conclusion A data-driven and participatory approach can be used to rapidly scale-up PMTCT services at community and facility levels in this region. These results present us with hope for real progress in Nigeria. We are confident that the efforts described here will contribute significantly to eliminating new pediatric HIV infection in Nigeria. PMID:28046045

  20. Playing the Catch-Up Game: Accelerating the Scale-Up of Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) Services to Eliminate New Pediatric HIV Infection in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladele, Edward Adekola; Khamofu, Hadiza; Asala, Seun; Saleh, Mariya; Ralph-Opara, Uche; Nwosisi, Charles; Anyaike, Chukwuma; Gana, Catherine; Adedokun, Oluwasanmi; Dirks, Rebecca; Adebayo, Olufunsho; Oduwole, Modupe; Mandala, Justin; Torpey, Kwasi

    2017-01-01

    As the world is making progress towards elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, poor coverage of PMTCT services in Nigeria remains a major challenge. In order to address this, scale-up was planned with activities organized into 3 phases. This paper describes the process undertaken in eight high burden Nigerian states to rapidly close PMTCT coverage gaps at facility and population levels between February 2013 and March 2014. Activities were grouped into three phases-pre-assessment phase (engagement of a wide range of stakeholders), assessment (rapid health facility assessment, a cross sectional survey using mixed methods conducted in the various states between Feb and May 2013 and impact modelling), and post-assessment (drawing up costed state operational plans to achieve eMTCT by 2015, data-driven smart scale-up). Over a period of 10 months starting June 2013, 2044 facilities were supported to begin provision of PMTCT services. This increased facility coverage from 8% to 50%. A 246% increase was also recorded in the number of pregnant women and their families who have access to HIV testing and counselling in the context of PMTCT. Similarly, access to antiretrovirals for PMTCT has witnessed a 152% increase in these eight states between October 2013 and October 2014. A data-driven and participatory approach can be used to rapidly scale-up PMTCT services at community and facility levels in this region. These results present us with hope for real progress in Nigeria. We are confident that the efforts described here will contribute significantly to eliminating new pediatric HIV infection in Nigeria.

  1. Playing the Catch-Up Game: Accelerating the Scale-Up of Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT Services to Eliminate New Pediatric HIV Infection in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Adekola Oladele

    Full Text Available As the world is making progress towards elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, poor coverage of PMTCT services in Nigeria remains a major challenge. In order to address this, scale-up was planned with activities organized into 3 phases. This paper describes the process undertaken in eight high burden Nigerian states to rapidly close PMTCT coverage gaps at facility and population levels between February 2013 and March 2014.Activities were grouped into three phases-pre-assessment phase (engagement of a wide range of stakeholders, assessment (rapid health facility assessment, a cross sectional survey using mixed methods conducted in the various states between Feb and May 2013 and impact modelling, and post-assessment (drawing up costed state operational plans to achieve eMTCT by 2015, data-driven smart scale-up.Over a period of 10 months starting June 2013, 2044 facilities were supported to begin provision of PMTCT services. This increased facility coverage from 8% to 50%. A 246% increase was also recorded in the number of pregnant women and their families who have access to HIV testing and counselling in the context of PMTCT. Similarly, access to antiretrovirals for PMTCT has witnessed a 152% increase in these eight states between October 2013 and October 2014.A data-driven and participatory approach can be used to rapidly scale-up PMTCT services at community and facility levels in this region. These results present us with hope for real progress in Nigeria. We are confident that the efforts described here will contribute significantly to eliminating new pediatric HIV infection in Nigeria.

  2. Interdiffusion and growth of chromium silicide at the interface of Cr/Si(As) system during rapid thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkherbache, H. [Universite de M' Sila, (28000) M' Sila (Algeria); Merabet, A., E-mail: merabet_abdelali@yahoo.f [Laboratoire Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux Metalliques, Departement d' O.M.P., Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Universite de Setif, (19000) Setif (Algeria)

    2010-02-26

    In this work, the solid-state reaction between a thin film of chromium and silicon has been studied using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and the sheet resistance measurements. The thickness of 100 nm chromium layer has been deposited by electronic bombardment on Si (100) substrates, part of them had previously been implanted with arsenic ions of 10{sup 15} at/cm{sup 2} doses and an energy of 100 keV. The samples were heat treated under rapid thermal annealing at 500 {sup o}C for time intervals ranging from 15 to 60 s. The rapid thermal annealing leads to a reaction at the interface Cr/Si inducing the formation and the growth of the unique silicide CrSi{sub 2}, but no other phase can be detected. For samples implanted with arsenic, the saturation value of the sheet resistance is approximately 1.5 times higher than for the non-implanted case.

  3. Rapid growth of black holes in massive star-forming galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D M; Smail, I; Bauer, F E; Chapman, S C; Blain, A W; Brandt, W N; Ivison, R J

    2005-04-07

    The tight relationship between the masses of black holes and galaxy spheroids in nearby galaxies implies a causal connection between the growth of these two components. Optically luminous quasars host the most prodigious accreting black holes in the Universe, and can account for greater than or approximately equal to 30 per cent of the total cosmological black-hole growth. As typical quasars are not, however, undergoing intense star formation and already host massive black holes (> 10(8)M(o), where M(o) is the solar mass), there must have been an earlier pre-quasar phase when these black holes grew (mass range approximately (10(6)-10(8))M(o)). The likely signature of this earlier stage is simultaneous black-hole growth and star formation in distant (redshift z > 1; >8 billion light years away) luminous galaxies. Here we report ultra-deep X-ray observations of distant star-forming galaxies that are bright at submillimetre wavelengths. We find that the black holes in these galaxies are growing almost continuously throughout periods of intense star formation. This activity appears to be more tightly associated with these galaxies than any other coeval galaxy populations. We show that the black-hole growth from these galaxies is consistent with that expected for the pre-quasar phase.

  4. SOCIAL INEQUALITY IN CHINA AS A RESULT OF THE RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вероника Игоревна Шехурдина

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the period of openness in China, laid the foundation for more than 30 years ago, he has made remarkable progress in increasing incomes and reducing absolute poverty. However, they are caused by rising inequality. It should be noted that the rise in inequality was seen almost everywhere in the world over the past two decades. Growing dissatisfaction with the quality of economic growth is often seen in favor of certain groups more than the general population. This is clearly reflected in the growth of inequality between different groups - the rich are getting richer faster than the poor. The economic literature attributes this mainly to globalization, technological change, skills-based, and reduce the "power" of the workers. Growth model, which accompanies the last three decades to China, included a trade-off between high growth (and subsequent reduction of absolute poverty and worsening inequality. The government of China has recognized this problem and taken active steps to reduce the gap incomes and standards of living in the city and rural areas, which have already brought the first results.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-16

  5. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Nerve growth factor influences cleavage rate and embryo development in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispo, M; Dos Santos-Neto, P C; Vilariño, M; Mulet, A P; de León, A; Barbeito, L; Menchaca, A

    2016-10-01

    Recent information about Nerve growth factor (NGF), a protein traditionally associated to the nervous system that regulates survival and maturation of developing neurons, suggests that it may exert action also on different levels in the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NGF added during in vitro oocyte maturation, fertilization or in vitro embryo development in sheep. Nerve growth factor was supplemented to the culture medium at 0, 100, or 1,000 ng/mL, during either in vitro maturation (Exp. 1), in vitro fertilization (Exp. 2), or in vitro culture (Exp. 3). In addition, NGF mRNA expression was determined in cumulus cells and oocytes. Nerve growth factor induced early cleavage when added during oocyte maturation or fertilization, improved embryo development when added during fertilization, and had no significant effect when added during embryo culture. In general, the effect was more evident with 100 rather than 1,000 ng/mL (P growth factor on oocyte maturation and mainly on the fertilization process.

  6. Tissue culture technique for rapid clonal propagation and storage under minimal growth conditions of musa (banana and plantain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, N.; De Langhe, E.

    1985-01-01

    A tissue culture technique for rapid clonal propagation and storage under minimal growth conditions is presented in this paper. Shoot-tip cultures of Musa cultivars (both banana and plantain) are induced by culturing small excised shoot apices on modified MS semisolid medium supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of auxins and cytokinins. The effects of cytokinin concentration in the medium as well as the genotypic configuration of the cultivars on the rate of shoot-bud proliferation have been tested. The established shoot-tip cultures grown on modified MS semisolid medium supplemented with IAA (0.18 mg/l) and Ba (2.30 mg/l) have been successfully stored at 15/sup 0/ C with 1000 lux light intensity up to 13-17 months depending on the cultivar. The cultivars tested in the present investigation seem to vary in their ability to withstand minimal growth temperature. 20 references.

  7. Rapid growth of a Eurasian haplotype of Phragmites australis in a restored brackish marsh in Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R.J.; Travis, S.E.; Sikes, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    While numerous studies have documented patterns of invasion by non-indigenous plant species, few have considered the invasive properties of non-native genotypes of native species. Characteristics associated with specific genotypes, such as tolerance to disturbance, may mistakenly be applied to an entire species in the absence of genetic information, which consequently may affect management decisions. We report here on the incidence and growth of an introduced lineage of Phragmites australis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal zone of Louisiana. P. australis was collected from nine separate locations for inclusion in a series of growth experiments. Chloroplast DNA analysis indicated that specimens collected from four locations in the Mississippi River Delta represented the introduced Eurasian haplotype; the remainder represented the gulf coast haplotype. Three distinct genotypes, or clones, were identified within each haplotype via analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which also revealed reduced genetic diversity of the gulf coast clones compared to the Eurasian clones. Clones of each haplotype were planted along with three other native macrophytes at similar densities in a restored brackish marsh and monitored for growth. After 14 months, the Eurasian haplotype had spread vegetatively to cover about 82% of the experimental plots, more than four times the coverage (18%) of the gulf coast haplotype. Thus, the use of P. australis plantings for wetland restoration should consider the genetic lineage of plants used since our results indicate the potential of the Eurasian haplotype to grow rapidly at newly restored sites. This rapid growth may limit the establishment of more slowly growing native species. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  8. Rapid and Sustained Nuclear-Cytoplasmic ERK Oscillations Induced by Epidermal Growth Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankaran, Harish; Ippolito, Danielle L.; Chrisler, William B.; Resat, Haluk; Bollinger, Nikki; Opresko, Lee K.; Wiley, H. S.

    2009-12-01

    Mathematical modeling has predicted that ERK activity should oscillate in response to cell stimulation, but this has never been observed. To explore this inconsistency, we expressed an ERK1-GFP fusion protein in mammary epithelial cells. Following EGF stimulation, we observed rapid and continuous ERK oscillations between the nucleus and cytoplasm with a periodicity of approximately 15 minutes. These oscillations were remarkably persistent (>45 cycles), displayed an asymmetric waveform, and were highly dependent on cell density, essentially disappearing at confluency. We conclude that the ERK pathway is an intrinsic oscillator. Although the functional implications of the observed oscillations are uncertain, this property can be used to continuously monitor ERK activity in single cells.

  9. Spontaneous hemorrhage simulating rapid growth of a benign subperiosteal plexiform neurofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blitman, Netta M. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital at Montefiore, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Children' s Hospital at Montefiore, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Levsky, Jeffrey M.; Thornhill, Beverly A. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital at Montefiore, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Villanueva-Siles, Esperanza [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Surgical Pathology, Children' s Hospital at Montefiore, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Spontaneous subperiosteal hemorrhage is a rare complication of von Recklinghausen's disease. There are few reports describing the MR imaging characteristics of this entity. Our case is unique among these as an underlying plexiform neurofibroma was visualized by MR imaging. We present a 12-year-old child with neurofibromatosis 1 who presented with a rapidly enlarging mass of the fibula. Surgery and pathology revealed subperiosteal hemorrhage into a benign, plexiform neurofibroma. The MR imaging features, pathogenesis and clinical implications of this entity are discussed. Recognition of this disease process and differentiating it from malignant transformation can prevent unnecessary surgery. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of the use of conductimetry for the rapid and precise measurement of Salmonella spp. growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, A E; Patterson, M F; Kilpatrick, D; Madden, R H

    2006-10-01

    The growth rates of 14 Salmonella serovars in tryptone soy broth plus yeast extract (TSBYE) were estimated using conventional plating techniques and indirect conductimetry using a Don Whitley RABIT system. Both methods gave identical results for the maximum specific growth rate (mumax) P>0.05. However, using the conductimetric method, mumax for a single serovar was determined in less than 7 h, whereas the conventional method required an additional 24 h. In addition, the conductimetric method was considerably more precise, much less labour-intensive and required the use of considerably less consumables. Using conductimetry, a trained operator could accurately determine mumax for 24 serovars in 3 working days, but only one serovar using the conventional plate counting technique. Hence, the use of conductimetry can markedly increase the precision and accuracy of mumax determinations by allowing a very significant increase in the number of results obtained and in their precision. The data generated will allow the development of better mathematical growth models. The method can also be used to compare growth media and conditions and hence rapidly optimise detection protocols for this pathogen.

  11. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-12

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Rapid and highly efficient growth of graphene on copper by chemical vapor deposition of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisi, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.lisi@enea.it [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Buonocore, Francesco; Dikonimos, Theodoros; Leoni, Enrico [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Faggio, Giuliana; Messina, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell' Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Morandi, Vittorio; Ortolani, Luca [CNR-IMM Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Capasso, Andrea [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2014-11-28

    The growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition on metal foils is a promising technique to deliver large-area films with high electron mobility. Nowadays, the chemical vapor deposition of hydrocarbons on copper is the most investigated synthesis method, although many other carbon precursors and metal substrates are used too. Among these, ethanol is a safe and inexpensive precursor that seems to offer favorable synthesis kinetics. We explored the growth of graphene on copper from ethanol, focusing on processes of short duration (up to one min). We investigated the produced films by electron microscopy, Raman and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A graphene film with high crystalline quality was found to cover the entire copper catalyst substrate in just 20 s, making ethanol appear as a more efficient carbon feedstock than methane and other commonly used precursors. - Highlights: • Graphene films were grown by fast chemical vapor deposition of ethanol on copper. • High-temperature/short-time growth produced highly crystalline graphene. • The copper substrate was entirely covered by a graphene film in just 20 s. • Addition of H{sub 2} had a negligible effect on the crystalline quality.

  13. Accumulation of education and regional income growth: Limited human capital effects in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Stokke, Hildegunn; Rattsø, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of education and geographic concentration of educated people in cities are expected to generate urban income growth. New economic geography predicts income divergence across regions. We investigate the dynamic process of accumulating tertiary education and regional income growth in Norway during the past four decades. The expansion of smart cities goes along with catching up of education level in the periphery and overall the education levels converge. Income levels also are show...

  14. Rapid quantitative and qualitative analysis of biofilm production by Staphylococcus epidermidis under static growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Elaine M; McCarthy, Hannah; Hogan, Siobhan; Zapotoczna, Marta; O'Neill, Eoghan; O'Gara, James P

    2014-01-01

    Rapid screening of biofilm forming capacity by Staphylococcus epidermidis is possible using in vitro assays with 96-well plates. This method first developed by Christensen et al. in 1985 is fast and does not require specialized instruments. Thus, laboratories with standard microbiology infrastructure and a 96-well plate reader can easily use this technique to generate data on the biofilm phenotypes of multiple S. epidermidis strains and clinical isolates. Furthermore, this method can be adapted to gain insights into biofilm regulation and the characteristics of biofilms produced by different S. epidermidis isolates. Although this assay is extremely useful for showing whether individual strains are biofilm-positive or biofilm-negative and distinguishing between form weak, moderate or strong biofilm, it is important to acknowledge that the absolute levels of biofilm produced by an individual strain can vary significantly between experiments meaning that strict adherence to the protocol used is of paramount importance. Furthermore, measuring biofilm under static conditions does not generally reflect in vivo conditions in which bacteria are often subjected to shear stresses under flow conditions. Hence, the biofilm characteristics of some strains are dramatically different under flow and static conditions. Nevertheless, rapid measurement of biofilm production under static conditions is a useful tool in the analysis of the S. epidermidis biofilm phenotype.

  15. Rapid Growth of Lung Nodules due to Combined Pulmonary Vasculitis, Silicoanthracosis, and Chondrocalcinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Jungraithmayr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Silicoanthracosis is a pneumoconiosis due to occupational inhalation of silica and carbon dusts. Clinically, it can be associated with vasculitis or rheumatoid arthritis. In association with these diseases, silicoanthracosis can present within the lung with multiple pulmonary nodules which, as a differential diagnosis, can mimic metastatic disease or multiple abscesses. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 62-year old former pit worker with pulmonary nodules, chondrocalcinosis due to calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD, and a history of renal cancer. Within a short period of time, pulmonary nodules grew rapidly. Thoracoscopically, the resected lung specimen revealed silicoanthracosis associated with small-to-medium-size vasculitis in the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmatic autoantibodies (c-ANCA. Conclusion. Pulmonary silicoanthracotic lesions on the base of ANCA-associated vasculitis and CPPD arthritis can rapidly grow. A mutual correlation between silicoanthracosis, ANCA-associated vasculitis, and CPPD seems possible. Apart from this, consideration of metastatic disease should be obligatory in patients with a history of cancer at the same time being immunosuppressed.

  16. Controlling Growth High Uniformity Indium Selenide (In2Se3) Nanowires via the Rapid Thermal Annealing Process at Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Chu; Hung, Yu-Chen; Wang, Chiu-Yen

    2017-09-15

    High uniformity Au-catalyzed indium selenide (In2Se3) nanowires are grown with the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The diameters of Au-catalyzed In2Se3 nanowires could be controlled with varied thicknesses of Au films, and the uniformity of nanowires is improved via a fast pre-annealing rate, 100 °C/s. Comparing with the slower heating rate, 0.1 °C/s, the average diameters and distributions (standard deviation, SD) of In2Se3 nanowires with and without the RTA process are 97.14 ± 22.95 nm (23.63%) and 119.06 ± 48.75 nm (40.95%), respectively. The in situ annealing TEM is used to study the effect of heating rate on the formation of Au nanoparticles from the as-deposited Au film. The results demonstrate that the average diameters and distributions of Au nanoparticles with and without the RTA process are 19.84 ± 5.96 nm (30.00%) and about 22.06 ± 9.00 nm (40.80%), respectively. It proves that the diameter size, distribution, and uniformity of Au-catalyzed In2Se3 nanowires are reduced and improved via the RTA pre-treated. The systemic study could help to control the size distribution of other nanomaterials through tuning the annealing rate, temperatures of precursor, and growth substrate to control the size distribution of other nanomaterials. Graphical Abstract Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process proved that it can uniform the size distribution of Au nanoparticles, and then it can be used to grow the high uniformity Au-catalyzed In2Se3 nanowires via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Comparing with the general growth condition, the heating rate is slow, 0.1 °C/s, and the growth temperature is a relatively high growth temperature, > 650 °C. RTA pre-treated growth substrate can form smaller and uniform Au nanoparticles to react with the In2Se3 vapor and produce the high uniformity In2Se3 nanowires. The in situ annealing TEM is used to realize the effect of heating rate on Au nanoparticle

  17. Rapid growth of zinc oxide nanobars in presence of electric field by physical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouya, Mehraban; Taromian, Fahime; Siami, Simin

    2018-01-01

    In this contribution, electric field has some effects to increase growth for specific time duration on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanobars. First, the zinc (Zn) thin film has been prepared by 235,000 V/m electric field assisted physical vapor deposition (PVD) at vacuum of 1.33 × 10-5 mbar. Second, strong electric field of 134,000 V/m has been used in ambient for growing ZnO nanobars in term of the time include 2.5 and 10 h. The performances of the ZnO nanostructure in absence and presence of electric field have been determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of XRD analysis showed that ZnO has a hexagonal bars structure and a strongly preferred (101) orientation which is strongest than without applying electric field. SEM analysis revealed that physical vapored ZnO thin film in presence of electric field are densely packed with uniform morphological, thinner and denser in distribution. Electric field effect for ZnO growth in 2.5 h is better than it in the 2.5 h without electric field but by passing the time the media influence has good power almost as same as electric field. Through this electric field in PVD, the compact and uniform Zn film has been achieved which is less diameter than ordinary PVD method. Finally, we carry out a series of experiments to grow different-orientation ZnO nanobars with less than 100 nm in diameter, which are the time saving process in base of PVD ever reported. Therefore, the significant conclusion in usage electric field is reducing time of growth.

  18. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to subreplacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman - not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change - that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times are associated with reduced fertility.

  19. Monitoring of Water Spectral Pattern Reveals Differences in Probiotics Growth When Used for Rapid Bacteria Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Slavchev

    Full Text Available Development of efficient screening method coupled with cell functionality evaluation is highly needed in contemporary microbiology. The presented novel concept and fast non-destructive method brings in to play the water spectral pattern of the solution as a molecular fingerprint of the cell culture system. To elucidate the concept, NIR spectroscopy with Aquaphotomics were applied to monitor the growth of sixteen Lactobacillus bulgaricus one Lactobacillus pentosus and one Lactobacillus gasseri bacteria strains. Their growth rate, maximal optical density, low pH and bile tolerances were measured and further used as a reference data for analysis of the simultaneously acquired spectral data. The acquired spectral data in the region of 1100-1850nm was subjected to various multivariate data analyses - PCA, OPLS-DA, PLSR. The results showed high accuracy of bacteria strains classification according to their probiotic strength. Most informative spectral fingerprints covered the first overtone of water, emphasizing the relation of water molecular system to cell functionality.

  20. Rapid population growth. Effects on the social infrastructures of southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J D

    1995-01-01

    Southern Africa's high rate of population growth and widespread poverty have serious implications for the region's social infrastructure. Large increases in the school-age population have undermined efforts to improve the quality of education since all resources are directed toward expansion of availability. To achieve a teacher-pupil ratio of 1:40 at the primary level and 1:35 at the secondary level, an estimated additional 50,000 classrooms would be required. Also jeopardized by high fertility is access to health services, safe water, and sanitation. In Mozambique, for example, where only 30% of the population has access to health services, the under-five years mortality rate is 297/1000 live births and the physician-population ratio is 1:37,970. Substandard housing, homelessness, congestion, deteriorating public services, pollution, and crime dominate urban areas. The single most effective intervention to reduce population growth in Southern Africa is female education. Women without a secondary education bear an average of seven children; if 40% of women attend secondary school, this drops to three children. Thus, governments must make gender equality a central focus of development planning and ensure that women are participants in this process. Property and inheritance laws that serve to increase the economic need for early marriage should be eliminated. Public health programs, including family planning, must be expanded. Finally, women's organizations should be strengthened and urged to foster female empowerment.

  1. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to sub-replacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman---not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change --- that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times lead to reduced fertility.

  2. Rapidly induced chemical defenses in maize stems and their effects on short-term growth of Ostrinia nubilalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafoe, Nicole J; Huffaker, Alisa; Vaughan, Martha M; Duehl, Adrian J; Teal, Peter E; Schmelz, Eric A

    2011-09-01

    Plants damaged by insect herbivory often respond by inducing a suite of defenses that can negatively affect an insect's growth and fecundity. Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer, ECB) is one of the most devastating insect pests of maize, and in the current study, we examined the early biochemical changes that occur in maize stems in response to ECB herbivory and how these rapidly induced defenses influence the growth of ECB. We measured the quantities of known maize defense compounds, benzoxazinoids and the kauralexin class of diterpenoid phytoalexins. ECB herbivory resulted in decreased levels of the benzoxazinoid, 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (DIMBOA-Glc), and a corresponding increase in 2-(2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (HDMBOA-Glc). Total quantities of benzoxazinoids and kauralexins were increased as early as 24 h after the initiation of ECB feeding. The plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET), and the transcripts encoding their key biosynthetic enzymes also accumulated in response to ECB herbivory, consistent with a role in defense regulation. The combined pharmacological application of JA and the ET precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to stem internode tissue likewise resulted in changes in benzoxazinoids similar to that observed with ECB damage. Despite the fact that maize actively mounts a defense response to ECB stem feeding, no differences in percent weight gain were observed between ECB larvae that fed upon non-wounded control tissues compared to tissues obtained from plants previously subjected to 24 h ECB stem herbivory. These rapid defense responses in maize stems do not appear to negatively impact ECB growth, thus suggesting that ECB have adapted to these induced biochemical changes.

  3. Growth and neurodevelopment outcome in symmetric versus asymmetric small for gestational age term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, E; Hamon, I; Fresson, J; Hascoet, J-M

    2016-08-01

    Few studies compared growth and neurodevelopment outcome between asymmetric (aSYM) and symmetric (SYM) small for gestational age (SGA) term infants. We aimed at evaluating their respective outcome at 9 months postnatal age. A cohort study including infants born in 2010 to 2011 with a birth weight Lezine test items. Of 6586 infants, 194 were SGA: 38.7% SYM and 61.3% aSYM. The aSYM group showed better catch-up growth (85% versus 70%, P=0.03) with larger HC (44.9±1.6 versus 43.7±1.2 cm, P<0.0001). No difference in neurodevelopmental screening was observed between SGA groups, but infants without any catch-up growth were at higher risk of delayed outcome. Term SGA infants must be closely followed, regardless of their characteristics, to improve their outcome.

  4. Exploring features and opportunities of rapid-growth wine firms in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J. Román

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While much has been studied regarding the wine industry in Spain and France, little has been studied in developing countries. The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of dynamic wine firms in Chile. This paper presents qualitative research and reports six cases of wine companies, where several variables are analyzed according to Barringer, Jones and Neubaum framework. These variables include prior experience, founders’ knowledge regarding large company management, the use of strategic-planning systems and the use of new technology in the majority of its production. The results of this research could prove insightful for wine entrepreneurs looking to enhance their growth, based on greater differentiation and innovation, and not only on being competitive in pricing.

  5. Rapid gut growth but persistent delay in digestive function in the postnatal period of preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carl Frederik; Thymann, Thomas; Andersen, Anders Daniel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm infants often tolerate full enteral nutrition few weeks after birth but it is not known how this is related to gut maturation. Using pigs as models, we hypothesized that intestinal structure and digestive function are similar in preterm and term individuals at 3-4 weeks after...... volume remained reduced in preterm pigs until 26 d although plasma glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and glucose-dependent insulin-trophic peptide (GIP) levels were increased. Preterm pigs also showed reduced hexose absorptive capacity and brush-border enzyme (sucrase, maltase) activities at 26 d, relative...... to term pigs. CONCLUSION: Intestinal structure shows a remarkable growth adaptation in the first week after preterm birth, especially with enteral nutrition, while some digestive functions remain immature until at least 3-4 weeks. It is important to identify feeding regimens that stimulate intestinal...

  6. Method for rapid, controllable growth and thickness, of epitaxial silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi [Littleton, CO; Stradins, Paul [Golden, CO; Teplin, Charles [Boulder, CO; Branz, Howard M [Boulder, CO

    2009-10-13

    A method of producing epitaxial silicon films on a c-Si wafer substrate using hot wire chemical vapor deposition by controlling the rate of silicon deposition in a temperature range that spans the transition from a monohydride to a hydrogen free silicon surface in a vacuum, to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness is disclosed. The method includes placing a c-Si substrate in a HWCVD reactor chamber. The method also includes supplying a gas containing silicon at a sufficient rate into the reaction chamber to interact with the substrate to deposit a layer containing silicon thereon at a predefined growth rate to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness.

  7. Rapid enzyme production and mycelial growth in solid-state fermentation using the non-airflow box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazunari; Gomi, Katsuya; Kariyama, Masahiro; Miyake, Tsuyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) has become an attractive alternative to submerged fermentation (SMF) for the production of enzymes, organic acids, and secondary metabolites, while there are many problems during the culture of SSF. We recently created a SSF system using a non-airflow box (NAB) in order to resolve the problems, which enabled the uniform culture in the whole substrate and high yield of many enzymes. In this paper, further characterization of SSF using the NAB was carried out to obtain other advantages. The NAB culture under the fixed environmental condition exhibited a rapid increase in enzyme production at earlier phase during the culture compared with conventional SSF. Total mycelial growth also exhibited the same trend as enzyme production. Thus, the increase in the rate of the enzyme production was thought to mainly be attributed to that of the growth. To support it, it was suggested that the NAB culture resulted in most optimal water activity for the growth just at the log phase. In addition, the NAB culture was able to achieve high reproducibility of enzyme production, derived from uniform condition of the substrate during the culture. The results indicate that the NAB culture has many benefits for SSF. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Universally Applicable and Rapid Method for Measuring the Growth of Streptomyces and Other Filamentous Microorganisms by Methylene Blue Adsorption-Desorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of growth of filamentous microorganisms, such as streptomycetes, is generally restricted to determination of dry weight. Here, we describe a straightforward methylene blue-based sorption assay to monitor microbial growth quantitatively, simply, and rapidly. The assay is equally applicable to unicellular and filamentous bacterial and eukaryotic microorganisms. PMID:23666340

  9. A Universally Applicable and Rapid Method for Measuring the Growth of Streptomyces and Other Filamentous Microorganisms by Methylene Blue Adsorption-Desorption

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Marco; Sawers, R. Gary

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of growth of filamentous microorganisms, such as streptomycetes, is generally restricted to determination of dry weight. Here, we describe a straightforward methylene blue-based sorption assay to monitor microbial growth quantitatively, simply, and rapidly. The assay is equally applicable to unicellular and filamentous bacterial and eukaryotic microorganisms.

  10. A universally applicable and rapid method for measuring the growth of streptomyces and other filamentous microorganisms by methylene blue adsorption-desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marco; Sawers, R Gary

    2013-07-01

    Quantitative assessment of growth of filamentous microorganisms, such as streptomycetes, is generally restricted to determination of dry weight. Here, we describe a straightforward methylene blue-based sorption assay to monitor microbial growth quantitatively, simply, and rapidly. The assay is equally applicable to unicellular and filamentous bacterial and eukaryotic microorganisms.

  11. Rapid Population Growth and Human Carrying Capacity: Two Perspectives. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 690 and Population and Development Series No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Dennis J., Ed.; And Others

    Two perspectives on carrying capacity and population growth are examined. The first perspective, "Carrying Capacity and Rapid Population Growth: Definition, Cases, and Consequences" (Robert Muscat), explores the possible meanings of the idea of carrying capacity under developing country conditions, looks at historical and present-day cases of…

  12. Rapid economic growth leads to boost in NO2 pollution over India, as seen from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, the Indian economy has been growing at an exceptional pace. This growth was induced and accompanied by a strong increase of the Indian population. Consequently, traffic, electricity consumption, and industrial production have soared over the past decades, leading to a strong increase in fuel consumption and thus pollutant emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2) are a major component of anthropogenic air pollution, playing key part in reaction cycles leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone. They are mainly emitted by the combustion of fossil fuels; other sources include production by lightning, biomass burning, and microbial activity in soils. Since the mid-1990s, space-borne measurements of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been conducted by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, and OMI instruments. These instruments perform hyperspectral measurements of scattered and reflected sunlight. Their measurements are then analyzed using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to yield vertically integrated columnar trace gas abundances. Here, we will present the results of 20 years of NO2 measurements over the Indian subcontinent. After showing the spatial distribution of NO2 pollution over India, we will present time series for individual states and urban agglomerations. These time series will then be related to various indicators of economic development. Finally, we will highlight several instances where single industrial pollution sources and their development can clearly be identified from the NO2 maps and estimate their NO2 emissions.

  13. Incorporating an extended dendritic growth model into the CAFE model for rapidly solidified non-dilute alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Zhao, Shunli [Research Institute, Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China); Wu, Guangxin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Zhang, Jieyu, E-mail: zjy6162@staff.shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Yang, Zhiliang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China)

    2016-05-25

    We have extended the dendritic growth model first proposed by Boettinger, Coriell and Trivedi (here termed EBCT) for microstructure simulations of rapidly solidified non-dilute alloys. The temperature-dependent distribution coefficient, obtained from calculations of phase equilibria, and the continuous growth model (CGM) were adopted in the present EBCT model to describe the solute trapping behaviors. The temperature dependence of the physical properties, which were not used in previous dendritic growth models, were also considered in the present EBCT model. These extensions allow the present EBCT model to be used for microstructure simulations of non-dilute alloys. The comparison of the present EBCT model with the BCT model proves that the considerations of the distribution coefficient and physical properties are necessary for microstructure simulations, especially for small particles with high undercoolings. Finally, the EBCT model was incorporated into the cellular automaton-finite element (CAFE) model to simulate microstructures of gas-atomized ASP30 high speed steel particles that were then compared with experimental results. Both the simulated and experimental results reveal that a columnar dendritic microstructure preferentially forms in small particles and an equiaxed microstructure forms otherwise. The applications of the present EBCT model provide a convenient way to predict the microstructure of non-dilute alloys. - Highlights: • A dendritic growth model was developed considering non-equilibrium distribution coefficient. • The physical properties with temperature dependence were considered in the extended model. • The extended model can be used to non-dilute alloys and the extensions are necessary in small particles. • Microstructure of ASP30 steel was investigated using the present model and verified by experiment.

  14. Recuperação pôndero-estatural em crianças com síndrome de Down e cardiopatia congênita Catch up in children with Down syndrome and congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Jeanne Magioli Bravo-Valenzuela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto das cardiopatias congênitas em crianças no crescimento de crianças com síndrome de Down (SD e a sua recuperação pôndero-estatural após correção cirúrgica. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de portadores da SD, entre 1984 e 2007. Excluídos os mosaicos e/ou portadores de morbidades associadas (n=165. Calcularam-se os escores Z para peso (Zpn e comprimento (Zen no momento do nascimento. Nos pacientes submetidos à correção cirúrgica (n=60, os escores Zp e Ze foram calculados antes da intervenção cirúrgica e em períodos posteriores, em até cinco anos de pós-operatório (PO. Em relação à população geral, Zp e Ze 2,5. Em um ano, 85,7% atingiram Ze > 2,5. Dividindo este grupo por idade, na época da cirurgia, em tercis não ocorreu diferença. CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se déficit pôndero-estatural em relação à população geral desde o nascimento, sendo maior nas crianças com cardiopatia de indicação cirúrgica. A recuperação PO ocorreu em seis meses para o peso e em um ano para a estatura, sem diferença quanto à idade no momento cirúrgico.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of congenital heart diseases in growth of children with Down syndrome (DS and the weight-height recovery after surgical correction. METHODS: Retrospective study of the DS patients between 1984 and 2007. Excluding the mosaics and/or patients with associated morbidities (n=165. Calculated Z scores for weight (Zwb and length (Zlb at birth. Those patients submitted to surgical correction (n= 60 these scores (Zw/Zh were evaluated before surgery and in subsequent periods to five years. Malnutrition was defined as weight/height Z-score 2.5. In one year, 85.7% achieved Zh > 2.5. Dividing this group by age in tertiles at time of surgery no difference was found. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that malnutrition common in children with DS since birth. DS children with congenital heart and surgical indication were smaller and lighter than

  15. Rapid Start-up and Loading of an Attached Growth, Simultaneous Nitrification/Denitrification Membrane Aerated Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Pickering, Karen D.; Barta, Daniel; Shull, Sarah A.; Vega, Letticia M.; Christenson, Dylan; Jackson, W. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Membrane aerated bioreactors (MABR) are attached-growth biological systems used for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification to reclaim water from waste. This design is an innovative approach to common terrestrial wastewater treatments for nitrogen and carbon removal and implementing a biologically-based water treatment system for long-duration human exploration is an attractive, low energy alternative to physiochemical processes. Two obstacles to implementing such a system are (1) the "start-up" duration from inoculation to steady-state operations and (2) the amount of surface area needed for the biological activity to occur. The Advanced Water Recovery Systems (AWRS) team at JSC explored these two issues through two tests; a rapid inoculation study and a wastewater loading study. Results from these tests demonstrate that the duration from inoculation to steady state can be reduced to under two weeks, and that despite low ammonium removal rates, the MABRs are oversized.

  16. New insights into factors influencing adult height in short SGA children: Results of a large multicentre growth hormone trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renes, J S; Willemsen, R H; Mulder, J C; Bakker-van Waarde, W M; Rotteveel, J; Oostdijk, W; Houdijk, E C A M; Westerlaken, C; Noordam, C; Verrijn Stuart, A A; Odink, R J; de Ridder, M A J; Hokken-Koelega, A C S

    2015-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment is effective in improving adult height (AH) in short children born SGA. However, there is a wide variation in height gain, even after adjustment for predictive variables. It is therefore important to investigate new factors which can influence the response to GH. To investigate the efficacy of GH treatment (1 mg/m(2/) day) in short SGA children on AH. To assess the relation between spontaneous catch-up growth after birth and growth during puberty on the total height gain SDS to AH. Longitudinal GH trial in 170 children. Median age at start of GH was 7·1 years and height -3·0 SDS. AH was -1·8 SDS (TH-corrected AH -1·1 SDS) in boys and -1·9 SDS (TH-corrected AH -1·3 SDS) in girls. Spontaneous catch-up growth after birth was ≥0·5 SDS in 42% of children. In contrast to expectation, spontaneous catch-up growth was negatively correlated with total height gain SDS during GH (P = 0·009). During puberty, height SDS declined (-0·4 SDS in boys and -0·5 SDS in girls) resulting in a lower total height gain SDS than expected. Pubertal height gain was 25·5 cm in boys and 15·3 cm in girls, significantly lower compared to AGA children (P Growth velocity was comparable to AGA children during the first two years of puberty, but thereafter significantly lower until reaching AH (P children with greater spontaneous catch-up growth after birth show a lower total height gain SDS during GH. Height SDS declines from mid-puberty, due to a marked early deceleration of growth velocity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Body growth and brain development in premature babies: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Zikou, Anastasia; Kosta, Paraskevi; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Drougia, Aikaterini; Andronikou, Styliani [University of Ioannina, Intensive Care Unit, Child Health Department, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas G. [University of Ioannina, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2014-03-15

    Prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction are associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities. To assess the relationship between growth status and regional brain volume (rBV) and white matter microstructure in premature babies at around term-equivalent age. Premature infants (n= 27) of gestational age (GA): 29.8 ± 2.1 weeks, with normal brain MRI scans were studied at corrected age: 41.2 ± 1.4 weeks. The infants were divided into three groups: 1) appropriate for GA at birth and at the time of MRI (AGA), 2) small for GA at birth with catch-up growth at the time of MRI (SGA{sub a}) and 3) small for GA at birth with failure of catch-up growth at the time of MRI (SGA{sub b}). The T1-weighted images were segmented into 90 rBVs using the SPM8/IBASPM and differences among groups were assessed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured bilaterally in 15 fiber tracts and its relationship to GA and somatometric measurements was explored. Lower rBV was observed in SGA{sub b} in superior and anterior brain areas. A positive correlation was demonstrated between FA and head circumference and body weight. Body weight was the only significant predictor for FA (P< 0.05). In premature babies, catch-up growth is associated with regional brain volume catch-up at around term-equivalent age, starting from the brain areas maturing first. Body weight seems to be a strong predictor associated with WM microstructure in brain areas related to attention, language, cognition, memory and executing functioning. (orig.)

  18. Photosynthetic activity and proteomic analysis highlights the utilization of atmospheric CO2 by Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta) for rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Li; Gu, Wenhui; Gao, Shan; Wang, Guangce

    2016-12-01

    Free-floating Ulva prolifera is one of the causative species of green tides. When green tides occur, massive mats of floating U. prolifera thalli accumulate rapidly in surface waters with daily growth rates as high as 56%. The upper thalli of the mats experience environmental changes such as the change in carbon source, high salinity, and desiccation. In this study, the photosynthetic performances of PSI and PSII in U. prolifera thalli exposed to different atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels were measured. Changes in photosynthesis within salinity treatments and dehydration under different CO2 concentrations were also analyzed. The results showed that PSII activity was enhanced as CO2 increased, suggesting that CO2 assimilation was enhanced and U. prolifera thalli can utilize CO2 in the atmosphere directly, even when under moderate stress. In addition, changes in the proteome of U. prolifera in response to salt stress were investigated. Stress-tolerance proteins appeared to have an important role in the response to salinity stress, whereas the abundance of proteins related to metabolism showed no significant change under low salinity treatments. These findings may be one of the main reasons for the extremely high growth rate of free-floating U. prolifera when green tides occur. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  19. Institutions, regulatory role and economic growth of national economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Vedriš

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present time, characterized by the rapid disturbances in all time more connected global economy, territorially as well as structurally, the role of the state’s influence and responsibility with the adequate institutional addresses and procedures, defined in larger context, becomes the essential point not only of the further growth but also of the existing relations viability. It is simply because the encirclement does not function on the principle of status quo situation any more. Therefore, the role and significance of institutions, adequate regulatory role of these addresses, in the context of demand of permanent and stable economic growth, are of particular interest in the creation of this model. This analysis gains in importance studying the realized accelerated economic growth of states from some parts of the world, notably in the period after WW II. This question turned out to be exceptionally essential during the analysis of national strategies of accelerated economic growth (catch up strategy. On the other side of analysis are the transition period and the processes realized on the territory of the East and Central European states up to 1990 that were under the strong influence of the USSR. The attempts and mistakes in the quest for adequate balance of the market role were initially indoctrinated and led by the predominant conviction that the principles of Washington consensus will lead up to accelerated and efficient change of the entire structure of national economies and new frames for future behaviour. The problems that appeared very soon led to the establishment of significantly more balanced first the understanding and then to establishing significantly, more appropriate concept of balance and complementarity of market development with the permanently present role and responsibility of the state in this process and on this road.

  20. Texture control and growth mechanism of WSe{sub 2} film prepared by rapid selenization of W film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongchao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chongyi Zhangyuan Tungsten Industry Corporation Limited, Ganzhou 341300 (China); Gao, Di; Li, Kun; Pang, Mengde; Xie, Senlin [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Rutie, E-mail: llrrtt@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zou, Jianpeng [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • We present a highly efficient method for preparing WSe{sub 2} film by rapid selenization. • The W film phase composition has little effect on WSe{sub 2} film orientation. • W film density is a critical factor that influences the WSe{sub 2} orientation. • A growth model was proposed for two kinds of WSe{sub 2} film textures. - Abstract: The tungsten diselenide (WSe{sub 2}) films with different orientation present unique properties suitable for specific applications, such as WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis⊥substrate for optoelectronics and WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis // substrate for electrocatalysts. Orientation control of WSe{sub 2} is essential for realizing the practical applications. In this letter, a WSe{sub 2} film has been prepared via rapid selenization of a magnetron-sputtered tungsten (W) film. The influence of the magnetron-sputtered W film on WSe{sub 2} film growth was studied systematically. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the morphology, microstructure and phase composition of the W and WSe{sub 2} films. The substrate temperature has a significant effect on the W film phase composition, but little effect on the WSe{sub 2} film orientation. The WSe{sub 2} orientation can be controlled by changing the W film microstructure. A dense W film that is deposited at low pressure is conducive to the formation of WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis⊥substrate, whereas a porous W film deposited at high pressure favors the formation of WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis // substrate. A growth model for the WSe{sub 2} film with different texture has been proposed based on the experimental results. The direction of selenium (Se) vapor diffusion differs at the top and side surfaces. This is a key factor for the preparation of anisotropic WSe{sub 2} films. Highly oriented WSe{sub 2} films with a C-axis⊥substrate grow from the dense W film deposited at low pressure because Se vapor

  1. Effect of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation on Growth Parameters in Pediatric Patients with Severe Early Childhood Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Jayna; Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Children who have severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) weigh significantly less than caries-free children. The association between S-ECC and weight suggests that its timely treatment at early stages may preserve general health, in addition to preventing pain and infection. This study was conducted to evaluate whether children with untreated S-ECC had lower weight and height as compared with children with low caries and to evaluate whether full mouth rehabilitation of children with S-ECC resulted in the phenomenon of catch-up growth. The weight and height of children with noncontributory medical histories and S-ECC (3-6 years) were compared with caries-free children, before and 6 months after full mouth dental rehabilitation. Prior to dental rehabilitation, children with S-ECC had significantly less weight and height than their comparison counterparts (p children exhibited catch-up growth in relation to weight, as there was no significant difference in the body weight of the test and control groups (p = 0.171). Comprehensive full mouth rehabilitation of children with S-ECC results in catch-up growth, thus improving the overall health of the child. How to cite this article: Sachdev J, Bansal K, Chopra R. Effect of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation on Growth Parameters in Pediatric Patients with Severe Early Childhood Caries. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):15-20.

  2. Rapid structural and compositional change in an old-growth subtropical forest: using plant traits to identify probable drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, Agustina; Easdale, Tomás A; Grau, H Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha(-1) y(-1)) and basal area by 6% (0.13 m(2) ha(-1) y(-1)). Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis) into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species), rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively). However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests.

  3. Rapid structural and compositional change in an old-growth subtropical forest: using plant traits to identify probable drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Malizia

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha(-1 y(-1 and basal area by 6% (0.13 m(2 ha(-1 y(-1. Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species, rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively. However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests.

  4. Syndrome-specific growth charts for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in Caucasian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Alex; McGinn, Michael-John; Zackai, Elaine H; Unanue, Nancy; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M

    2012-11-01

    Growth faltering occurs frequently in infancy in the 22q11 Deletion syndrome (22q11 DS). The subsequent course of growth in childhood and outcome for final adult height lacks consensus. We analyzed 5,149 growth data points from 812 Caucasian subjects with 22q11 DS, from neonates to 37 years old. Charts were constructed for height, weight, body mass index, and head circumference (OFC) using the LMS Chart Maker program. These charts were compared with the WHO birth to 4 years growth standard and US CDC 2000 growth reference between 5 and 20 years. Starting from the 50th centile at birth, by 6-9 months of age boys mean height and weight had fallen to the 9th centile, as did girls height but their weight fell less markedly, to the 25th centile. Feeding difficulties were non-contributory. In children under 2 years old with congenital heart disease (CHD) mean weight was -0.5 SD lighter than no CHD. Catch up growth occurred, more rapid in weight than height in boys. Up to 10 years old both sexes tracked between the 9th and 25th centiles. In adolescence, the trend was to overweight rather than obesity. At 19 years mean height was -0.72 SD for boys, -0.89 SD girls. OFC was significantly smaller than the WHO standard in infancy, between the 9th and 25th centile, rising to the 25th centile by 5 years old. Thereafter the mean was close to the 9th centile of the OFC UK growth reference, more prolonged and marked than in previous studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Catching up with former IDRC awardees | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Eric Smith. Where are they now? Deirdre Anne McKay knows first-hand the benefits of receiving an IDRC award. In 1995, she was given a Young Canadian Research (YCR) Award. Deirdre Anne McKay “The YCRA fellowship enabled me to set up durable in-country networks with local colleagues in academia, government, ...

  6. Re-ED: Science Catches up with Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Lisa M.; Freado, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Fifty years ago, psychologist Nicholas Hobbs led a group of divergent thinking professionals who introduced a new way of perceiving the problems and needs of young people. The National Institute of Mental Health gave a two-million-dollar grant to George Peabody College for Teachers, now a part of Vanderbilt University. Hobbs and colleagues studied…

  7. CATCHING-UP AND INTEGRATION IN NEW AND FUTURE EU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    more productive sectors with export prospects. Almost all governments have followed strict macro-policies. b) Implementation of market institutions and adoption of new regulation assuming property right and protection of private investments, establishment, economic laws on companies, for competition, for labour; creation ...

  8. KMCThinFilm: A C++ Framework for the Rapid Development of Lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) Simulations of Thin Film Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    196–201. 44. Kratzer P. Monte Carlo and kinetic Monte Carlo methods–a tutorial. In: Grotendorst J, Attig N, Blügel S, Marx D, editors. Multiscale...Monte Carlo (kMC) Simulations of Thin Film Growth by James J Ramsey Approved for public release; distribution is...Research Laboratory KMCThinFilm: A C++ Framework for the Rapid Development of Lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) Simulations of Thin Film Growth by

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis of egg white proteins during the rapid embryonic growth period by combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yijun; Qiu, Ning; Ma, Meihu

    2015-10-01

    Egg white proteins provide essential nutrients and antimicrobial protection during embryonic development. Although various biological functions of major egg white proteins have been investigated via embryogenesis, understanding of global changes in low-abundance proteins has been limited. In the current study, a proteomic analysis of low-abundance egg white proteins was conducted using combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight with two mass analyzers for tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS) during the rapid embryonic growth period. Significant increases in the relative abundance of 88 protein spots (P ≤ 0.05), of which 47 spots were found to correspond to 10 proteins from 8 protein families were identified over 16 d incubation. During this developmental process, the protein concentration increased and the amount of albumin solid material decreased in the residual egg white. Clusterin precursors were observed over a wide range of pH values and the tenp protein increased continuously during embryonic development. Low-abundance proteins were identified in a comparison of optimal incubation conditions to the altered conditions of 2 control groups to better understand the function of these proteins in egg whites. Collectively, these findings provide insight into the supportive role of the egg white during embryonic development, enabling a broader understanding of chick embryogenesis. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. The rapid growth of a pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland in the third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upile Tahwinder

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report a case highlighting the multidisciplinary management of a giant pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland that showed rapid growth in the third trimester of pregnancy. Case presentation A 43-year-old Caucasian woman presented in her 32nd week of gestation with a tumor of the parotid gland. Ultrasonography of her neck showed a parotid lesion of 40 × 30 × 27.5 mm. A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scan of the neck four weeks later revealed that the tumor had grown to 70 × 60 × 60 mm, reaching the parapharyngeal space with marked obstruction of the oropharynx of about 50%. After discussing the case with our multidisciplinary tumor board and the gynecologists it was decided to deliver the baby by caesarean section in the 38th week of gestation, and then to perform a surgical resection of the tumor. Conclusion Indications for early surgical intervention of similar cases should be discussed on an individual patient basis in a multidisciplinary setting.

  11. Rapid growth of black holes accompanied with hot or warm outflows exposed to anisotropic super-Eddington radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Eishun; Inayoshi, Kohei; Ohsuga, Ken; Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Mineshige, Shin

    2018-02-01

    We perform two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations of accretion flows onto a black hole (BH) with a mass of 10^3≤M_BH/M_⊙ ⪉ 10^6 in order to study rapid growth of BHs in the early Universe. For spherically symmetric flows, hyper-Eddington accretion from outside the Bondi radius can occur unimpeded by radiation feedback when M_BH ≳ 10^4 M_⊙ (n_∞/10^5 cm^{-3})^{-1}(T_∞/10^4 K)^{3/2}, where the density and temperature of ambient gas are initially set to n∞ = 105 cm-3 and T∞ = 104 K. Here, we study accretion flows exposed to anisotropic radiation from a nuclear accretion disk with a luminosity higher than the Eddington value (LEdd) due to collimation towards the bipolar directions. We find that, unlike the spherically symmetric case, even less massive BHs with MBH radiating region due to the non-radial gas motions. Because of efficient recombination by hydrogen, the entire flow settles in neutral and warm gas with T ≃ 8000 K. The BH is fed at a rate of ˜5 × 104 LEdd/c2 (a half of the inflow rate from the Bondi radius). Moreover, radiation momentum absorbed by neutral hydrogen produces warm outflows towards the bipolar directions at ˜10 % of the BH feeding rate and with a velocity several times higher than the escaping value.

  12. Constitutional growth delay pattern of growth in velo-cardio-facial syndrome: longitudinal follow up and final height of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Serap; Ozdemir, Nihal; Güran, Tülay; Akalın, Figen; Akçay, Teoman; Ayabakan, Canan; Yılmaz, Yüksel; Bereket, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    We report two patients with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) who were admitted to our pediatric endocrinology clinic because of short stature and followed longitudinally until attainment of final height. Both patients followed a growth pattern consistent with constitutional delay of puberty with normal and near normal final height. Case 2 also had partial growth hormone (GH) deficiency and severe short stature (height SDS -3.4 SDS), but showed spontaneous catch-up and ended up with a final height of -2 SDS. These cases suggest that short stature in children with VCFS is due to a pattern of growth similar to that observed in constitutional delay of growth and puberty.

  13. Rapid growth and genetic diversity retention in an isolated reintroduced black bear population in the central appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean M.; Cox, John J.; Clark, Joseph D.; Augustine, Benjamin J.; Hast, John T.; Gibbs, Dan; Strunk, Michael; Dobey, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Animal reintroductions are important tools of wildlife management to restore species to their historical range, and they can also create unique opportunities to study population dynamics and genetics from founder events. We used non-invasive hair sampling in a systematic, closed-population capture-mark-recapture (CMR) study design at the Big South Fork (BSF) area in Kentucky during 2010 and Tennessee during 2012 to estimate the demographic and genetic characteristics of the black bear (Ursus americanus) population that resulted from a reintroduced founding population of 18 bears in 1998. We estimated 38 (95% CI: 31–66) and 190 (95% CI: 170–219) bears on the Kentucky and Tennessee study areas, respectively. Based on the Tennessee abundance estimate alone, the mean annual growth rate was 18.3% (95% CI: 17.4–19.5%) from 1998 to 2012. We also compared the genetic characteristics of bears sampled during 2010–2012 to bears in the population during 2000–2002, 2–4 years following reintroduction, and to the source population. We found that the level of genetic diversity since reintroduction as indicated by expected heterozygosity (HE) remained relatively constant (HE(source, 2004) = 0.763, HE(BSF, 2000–2002) = 0.729, HE(BSF, 2010–2012) = 0.712) and the effective number of breeders (NB) remained low but had increased since reintroduction in the absence of sufficient immigration (NB(BSF, 2000–2002) = 12, NB(BSF, 2010–2012)  = 35). This bear population appears to be genetically isolated, but contrary to our expectations, we did not find evidence of genetic diversity loss or other deleterious genetic effects typically observed from small founder groups. We attribute that to high initial genetic diversity in the founder group combined with overlapping generations and rapid population growth. Although the population remains relatively small, the reintroduction using a small founder group appears to be demographically and genetically

  14. Galaxy interactions trigger rapid black hole growth: An unprecedented view from the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Andy D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Greco, Johnny; Johnson, Sean; Leauthaud, Alexie; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Medezinski, Elinor; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.

    2018-01-01

    Collisions and interactions between gas-rich galaxies are thought to be pivotal stages in their formation and evolution, causing the rapid production of new stars, and possibly serving as a mechanism for fueling supermassive black holes (BHs). Harnessing the exquisite spatial resolution (˜0{^''.}5) afforded by the first ˜170 deg2 of the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey, we present our new constraints on the importance of galaxy-galaxy major mergers (1 : 4) in growing BHs throughout the last ˜8 Gyr. Utilizing mid-infrared observations in the WISE all-sky survey, we robustly select active galactic nuclei (AGN) and mass-matched control galaxy samples, totaling ˜140000 spectroscopically confirmed systems at i < 22 mag. We identify galaxy interaction signatures using a novel machine-learning random forest decision tree technique allowing us to select statistically significant samples of major mergers, minor mergers / irregular systems, and non-interacting galaxies. We use these samples to show that galaxies undergoing mergers are a factor of ˜2-7 more likely to contain luminous obscured AGN than non-interacting galaxies, and this is independent of both stellar mass and redshift to z < 0.9. Furthermore, based on our comparison of AGN fractions in mass-matched samples, we determine that the most luminous AGN population (LAGN ≳ 1045 erg s-1) systematically reside in merging systems over non-interacting galaxies. Our findings show that galaxy-galaxy interactions do, on average, trigger luminous AGN activity substantially more often than in secularly evolving non-interacting galaxies, and we further suggest that the BH growth rate may be closely tied to the dynamical time of the merger system.

  15. Galaxy interactions trigger rapid black hole growth: An unprecedented view from the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Andy D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Greco, Johnny; Johnson, Sean; Leauthaud, Alexie; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Medezinski, Elinor; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.

    2017-12-01

    Collisions and interactions between gas-rich galaxies are thought to be pivotal stages in their formation and evolution, causing the rapid production of new stars, and possibly serving as a mechanism for fueling supermassive black holes (BHs). Harnessing the exquisite spatial resolution (˜0{^''.}5) afforded by the first ˜170 deg2 of the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey, we present our new constraints on the importance of galaxy-galaxy major mergers (1 : 4) in growing BHs throughout the last ˜8 Gyr. Utilizing mid-infrared observations in the WISE all-sky survey, we robustly select active galactic nuclei (AGN) and mass-matched control galaxy samples, totaling ˜140000 spectroscopically confirmed systems at i forest decision tree technique allowing us to select statistically significant samples of major mergers, minor mergers / irregular systems, and non-interacting galaxies. We use these samples to show that galaxies undergoing mergers are a factor of ˜2-7 more likely to contain luminous obscured AGN than non-interacting galaxies, and this is independent of both stellar mass and redshift to z based on our comparison of AGN fractions in mass-matched samples, we determine that the most luminous AGN population (LAGN ≳ 1045 erg s-1) systematically reside in merging systems over non-interacting galaxies. Our findings show that galaxy-galaxy interactions do, on average, trigger luminous AGN activity substantially more often than in secularly evolving non-interacting galaxies, and we further suggest that the BH growth rate may be closely tied to the dynamical time of the merger system.

  16. Growth hormone in chronic renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe growth retardation (below the third percentile for height is seen in up to one-third children with chronic kidney disease. It is thought to be multifactorial and despite optimal medical therapy most children are unable to reach their normal height. Under-nutrition, anemia, vitamin D deficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy; abnormalities in the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor system and sex steroids, all have been implicated in the pathogenesis of growth failure. Therapy includes optimization of nutritional and metabolic abnormalities. Failure to achieve adequate height despite 3-6 months of optimal medical measures mandates the use of recombinant GH (rGH therapy, which has shown to result in catch-up growth, anywhere from 2 cm to 10 cm with satisfactory liner, somatic and psychological development.

  17. Microbiological evaluation of a new growth-based approach for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eiff, Christof; Maas, Dominik; Sander, Gunnar; Friedrich, Alexander W; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten

    OBJECTIVES: Recently, a rapid screening tool for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been introduced that applies a novel detection technology allowing the rapid presence or absence of MRSA to be determined from an enrichment broth after only a few hours of incubation. To evaluate

  18. Good growth despite very low levels of insulin-like growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötsch, J; Siebler, T; Blum, W F; Rascher, W; Kiess, W

    1998-09-01

    A 12.5-year-old girl presented with short stature. Insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-I) and insulin- like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-3) were below the 0.1 percentile. Growth hormone provocation tests disclosed normal responses to L-arginine and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. A huge benign mesenteric cyst was discovered by abdominal ultrasound and completely removed. Subsequently, the girl showed a marked catch-up growth; however, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 remained below the 0.1 percentile. These observations imply that growth may take place even with very low levels of insulin-like growth factors. The interpretation of low IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels in short children still requires good clinical judgement and basic knowledge of their biological action.

  19. Hf-W-Th evidence for rapid growth of Mars and its status as a planetary embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphas, N; Pourmand, A

    2011-05-26

    Terrestrial planets are thought to have formed through collisions between large planetary embryos of diameter ∼1,000-5,000 km. For Earth, the last of these collisions involved an impact by a Mars-size embryo that formed the Moon 50-150 million years (Myr) after the birth of the Solar System. Although model simulations of the growth of terrestrial planets can reproduce the mass and dynamical parameters of the Earth and Venus, they fall short of explaining the small size of Mars. One possibility is that Mars was a planetary embryo that escaped collision and merging with other embryos. To assess this idea, it is crucial to know Mars' accretion timescale, which can be investigated using the (182)Hf-(182)W decay system in shergottite-nakhlite-chassignite meteorites. Nevertheless, this timescale remains poorly constrained owing to a large uncertainty associated with the Hf/W ratio of the Martian mantle and as a result, contradicting timescales have been reported that range between 0 and 15 Myr (refs 6-10). Here we show that Mars accreted very rapidly and reached about half of its present size in only 1.8(+0.9)(-1.0) Myr or less, which is consistent with a stranded planetary embryo origin. We have found a well-defined correlation between the Th/Hf and (176)Hf/(177)Hf ratios in chondrites that reflects remobilization of Lu and Th during parent-body processes. Using this relationship, we estimate the Hf/W ratio in Mars' mantle to be 3.51 ± 0.45. This value is much more precise than previous estimates, which ranged between 2.6 and 5.0 (ref. 6), and lifts the large uncertainty that plagued previous estimates of the age of Mars. Our results also demonstrate that Mars grew before dissipation of the nebular gas when ∼100-km planetesimals, such as the parent bodies of chondrites, were still being formed. Mars' accretion occurred early enough to allow establishment of a magma ocean powered by decay of (26)Al.

  20. Results of Pulse-Scaling Experiments on Rapid-Growth DKDP Triplers Using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runkel, M; Burnham, A K; Milam, D; Sell, W; Feit, M; Rubenchik, A

    2000-12-11

    Results are reported from recently performed bulk-damage, pulse-scaling experiments on DKDP tripler samples taken from NIF-size, rapid-growth boule BD7. The tests were performed on LLNL's Optical Sciences Laser. A matrix of samples was exposed to single shots at 351 mn (3 {omega}) with average fluences from 4 to 8 J/cm{sup 2} for pulse durations of 1, 3 and 10 ns. The damage sites were scatter-mapped after testing to determine the damage evolution as a function of local beam fluence. The average bulk damage microcavity (pinpoint) density varied nearly linearly with fluence with peak values of approximately 16,000 pp/mm{sup 3} at 1 ns, 10,000 pp/mm{sup 3} at 3 ns and 400 pp/mm{sup 3} at 10 ns for fluences in the 8-10 J/cm{sup 2} range. The average size of a pinpoint was 10(+14,-9) {micro}m at 1 ns, 37 {+-} 20 {micro}m at 3 ns and {approx} 110 {micro}m at 10 ns, although all pulse durations produced pinpoints with a wide distribution of sizes. Analysis of the pinpoint density data yielded pulse-scaling behavior of t{sup 0.35}. Significant planar cracking around the pinpoint as was observed for the 10 ns case but not for the 1 and 3 ns pulses. Crack formation around pinpoints has also been observed frequently for Zeus ADT tests at {approx}8 ns. The high pinpoint densities also lead to significant eruption of near-surface bulk damage. Measurements of the damage site area for surface and bulk gave ratios (A{sub surf}/A{sub bulk}) of 2:1 at 1 ns, 7:1 at 3 ns and 110:1 at 10 ns. Maximum aperture averaged transmission losses on the order 15 percent have been measured by photometry for the worst damage at 1 and 3 ns for beam fluences in the 8-10 J/cm{sup 2} range. Analysis of this data yielded a pulse-scaling behavior of t{sup 0.25} for the obscured area. It was also determined that the crystals used in this test would survive unconditioned exposure to 4 J/cm{sup 2} shots on the NIF laser and still meet the obscuration requirement of 0.1%.

  1. Determination of rice canopy growth based on high resolution satellite images: a case study using RapidEye imagery in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijeong Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Processing to correct atmospheric effects and classify all constituent pixels in a remote sensing image is required before the image is used to monitor plant growth. The raw image contains artifacts due to atmospheric conditions at the time of acquisition. This study sought to distinguish the canopy growth of paddy rice using RapidEye (BlackBridge, Berlin, Germany satellite data and investigate practical image correction and classification methods. The RapidEye images were taken over experimental fields of paddy rice at Chonnam National University (CNU, Gwangju, and at TaeAn, Choongcheongnam-do, Korea. The CNU RapidEye images were used to evaluate the atmospheric correction methods. Atmospheric correction of the RapidEye images was performed using three different methods, QUick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC, Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH, and Atmospheric and Topographic Correction (ATCOR. To minimize errors in utilizing observed growth and yield estimation of paddy rice, the paddy fields were classified using a supervised classification method and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI thresholds, using the NDVI time-series features of the paddy fields. The results of the atmospheric correction using ATCOR on the satellite images were favorable, which correspond to those from reference UAV images. Meanwhile, the classification method using the NDVI threshold accurately classified the same pixels from each of the time-series images. We have demonstrated that the image correction and classification methods investigated here should be applicable to high resolution satellite images used in monitoring other crop growth conditions.

  2. Rapid Economic Growth and Natural Gas Consumption Nexus: Looking forward from Perspective of 11th Malaysian Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, H. A.; Yasmin, T.

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption by incorporating CO2 emissions, natural gas consumption and population in Malaysia. Annual data and F-bound test and granger causality have applied to test the existence of long run relationship between the series. The results show that variables are cointegrated for long run relationship. The results also indicate that natural gas consumption is an important contributing factor to energy demand and hence economic growth in case of Malaysia. The causality analysis highlights that the feedback hypothesis exists between economic growth and energy consumption. While, conservative hypothesis is validated between natural gas consumption and economic growth which implies that economic growth will push natural gas consumption policies in future. This study opens up new direction for policy makers to formulate a comprehensive natural gas policy to sustain environment for long span of time in case to achieve 11th MP targets.

  3. Rapid and accurate detection of Escherichia coli growth by fluorescent pH-sensitive organic nanoparticles for high-throughput screening applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yang; Grazon, Chloé; Clavier, Gilles; Rieger, Jutta; Audibert, Jean-Frédéric; Sclavi, Bianca; Méallet-Renault, Rachel

    2016-01-15

    Rapid detection of bacterial growth is an important issue in the food industry and for medical research. Here we present a novel kind of pH-sensitive fluorescent nanoparticles (FANPs) that can be used for the rapid and accurate real-time detection of Escherichia coli growth. These organic particles are designed to be non-toxic and highly water-soluble. Here we show that the coupling of pH sensitive fluoresceinamine to the nanoparticles results in an increased sensitivity to changes in pH within a physiologically relevant range that can be used to monitor the presence of live bacteria. In addition, these FANPs do not influence bacterial growth and are stable over several hours in a complex medium and in the presence of bacteria. The use of these FANPs allows for continuous monitoring of bacterial growth via real-time detection over long time scales in small volumes and can thus be used for the screening of a large number of samples for high-throughput applications such as screening for the presence of antibiotic resistant strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Intrauterine growth restriction: endocrinological perspective. Update of the 2007 version (Arch Argent Pediatr 2007;105(1):71-73)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Most children born with low weight or intrauterine growth restriction develop catch-up growth that allows them to reach a final height according to their genetic target height. However, in about 15% of children this growth is insufficient. In both, children who have adequate compensatory growth and therefore normal height and children who remain low in childhood, it is necessary to take into account that if puberty starts early, the final height could be compromised. Timely and appropriate intervention could improve it. Control of body weight is also important, as an excessive gain in childhood is associated with metabolic complications in adolescence and adult life. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  5. Childhood growth, schooling, and cognitive development: further evidence from the Young Lives study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Günther; Rockers, Peter C

    2014-07-01

    A growing literature has linked early childhood growth to later-life cognition and schooling outcomes in developing countries. Although existing evidence suggests that children's ability to recover from early growth delays in later childhood is limited, longitudinal studies on the persistence and risk of growth faltering beyond age 5 y remain scarce. Using longitudinal data recently collected from 4 developing countries as part of the Young Lives study, we investigated catch-up growth in children between the ages of 8 and 15 y and the effects of growth during this late-childhood and early-adolescence period on schooling and developmental outcomes. We analyzed the associations between children's physical growth and development by using longitudinal data from 3327 children aged 8-15 y collected in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam as part of the Young Lives project. The study yielded 2 main results. First, 36% of children stunted at age 8 y managed to catch up with their peers by age 15 y, and those who caught up had smaller deficits in cognitive scores than did children who remained stunted. Second, physical growth faltering was not restricted to early childhood but rather affected a substantial share of children in the 8-15-y age range, with large negative consequences for cognition and schooling outcomes. The results from this study suggest that child development in developing countries is a dynamic process offering continued opportunities for children to catch up during adolescence and sustained risks for children to fall behind in their developmental trajectories. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Transport of Nutrients Determines Growth in Tissue Culture; Why apple shoots grow rapidly and tulip shoots grow slowly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tulip growth in vitro is seriously impaired by inferior transport in the shoots. As a result, tulip cannot be micropropagated commercially using conventional means. In contrast, apple shoots show high transport and are easily micropropagated.

  7. Facial morphology and growth following surgery for congenital midline cervical cleft patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y; Matthews, H; Kilpatrick, N; Claes, P; Clement, J; Penington, A

    2018-01-17

    Congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare condition that consists of a cutaneous midline neck lesion with a sinus extending inferiorly towards the sternum. A fibrous band that extends superiorly to the mandible is a consistent feature of the condition. Restriction of growth of the mandible, possibly due to incomplete removal of the band, is the most significant long-term problem. It remains unclear whether early removal of the fibrous band might allow catch-up growth of the mandible. This study utilized non-invasive three-dimensional photographs to objectively evaluate the facial growth of six CMCC patients. The growth of these CMCC patients was compared to the average growth of age- and sex-matched controls from a database of three-dimensional facial photographs of clinically normal subjects. After surgical removal of the fibrous cord, CMCC patients experience growth in the chin at the same rate as in the normal population; no evidence was found for catch-up growth. As a result, individuals with CMCC are likely to require further surgical intervention to correct the residual retrognathia on completion of facial growth. Early excision of the lesion including aggressive resection of the fibrous band is still recommended, as this should optimize the early growth of the mandible in infancy. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tempo and amplitude in growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanussen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Growth is defined as an increase of size over time with time usually defined as physical time. Yet, the rigid metric of physical time is not directly relevant to the internal dynamics of growth. Growth is linked to maturation. Children and adolescents differ in the tempo at which they mature. One calendar year differs in its meaning in a fast maturing, and in a slow maturing child. The slow child needs more calendar years for completing the same stage of maturity. Many characteristics in the human growth curve are tempo characteristics. Tempo - being fast or slow maturing - has to be carefully separated from amplitude - being tall or short. Several characteristic phenomena such as catch-up growth after periods of illness and starvation are largely tempo phenomena, and do usually not affect the amplitude component of growth. Applying Functional Data Analysis and Principal Component Analysis, the two main sources of height variance: tempo and amplitude can statistically be separate and quantified. Tempo appears to be more sensitive than amplitude to nutrition, health and environmental stress. An appropriate analysis of growth requires disentangling its two major components: amplitude and tempo. The assessment of the developmental tempo thus is an integral part of assessing child and adolescent growth. Though an Internet portal is currently available to process small amounts of height data (www.willi-will-wachsen.com) for separately determining amplitude and tempo in growth, there is urgent need of better and practical solutions for analyzing individual growth.

  9. Growth of short children born small for gestational age and their response to growth hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Hemchand Krishna; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Khadilkar, Anuradha V

    2013-05-08

    Growth hormone [GH] is licensed for use in children born small for gestational age (SGA) who fail to catch-up. We retrospectively compared the response of twenty children born SGA (who satisfied the auxological criteria) to growth hormone (Group I) versus randomly selected age and sex matched controls from a group of SGA children with growth related complaints, not treated with GH (Group II). After 2 years of GH therapy the HAZ increased from -2.8 to -1.6 in Group I, compared 2.2 to -1.7 in group II (P-value children rose from 55% to 65% in cases versus 60% to 75% in the controls (P>0.05). GH resulted in increase in growth velocity Z-score during the first year and (4.3±0.5 in Group-I versus - 0.5±0.6 in Group-II, Pchildren without accelerating pubertal progression.

  10. How to make rapid eye movements “rapid”: the role of growth factors for muscle contractile properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian; Feng, Cheng-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Different muscle functions require different muscle contraction properties. Saccade-generating extraocular muscles (EOMs) are the fastest muscles in the human body, significantly faster than limb skeletal muscles. Muscle contraction speed is subjected to plasticity, i.e., contraction speed can be adjusted to serve different demands, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control contraction speed. Therefore, we examined whether myogenic growth factors modulate contractile properties, including twitch contraction time (onset of force to peak force) and half relaxation time (peak force to half relaxation). We examined effects of three muscle-derived growth factors: insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), cardiotrophin-1 (CT1), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In gain-of-function experiments, CT1 or GDNF injected into the orbit shortened contraction time, and IGF1 or CT1 shortened half relaxation time. In loss-of-function experiments with binding proteins or neutralizing antibodies, elimination of endogenous IGFs prolonged both contraction time and half relaxation time, while eliminating endogenous GDNF prolonged contraction time, with no effect on half relaxation time. Elimination of endogenous IGFs or CT1, but not GDNF, significantly reduced contractile force. Thus, IGF1, CT1, and GDNF have partially overlapping but not identical effects on muscle contractile properties. Expression of these three growth factors was measured in chicken and/or rat EOMs by real-time PCR. The “fast” EOMs express significantly more message encoding these growth factors and their receptors than skeletal muscles with slower contractile properties. Taken together, these findings indicate that EOM contractile kinetics is regulated by the amount of myogenic growth factors available to the muscle. PMID:21279379

  11. Paraneoplastic precocious puberty and excessively rapid somatic growth associated with pediatric malignant hepatic tumor: 1 report of 2 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Bahk, Yong Whee [Cathalic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-04-15

    Sexual precocity in a 28-months-old boy and markedly accelerated skeletal growth with large body in a 5 years and 5 months-old-girl are reported. The former resulted from human chorionic gonadotropin-producing hepatoblastoma and the latter from cerebral gigantism associated with hepatoma. These two different disorders are discussed on the common basis of rare association of malignant hepatic tumors with precocious sexual and / or somatic growth. The clinical manifestations, chemical abnormalities, and the radiologic findings are presented with a brief review of the literature.

  12. Determination of crystal growth rates during rapid solidification of polycrystalline aluminum by nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution in situ transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweiacker, K., E-mail: Kai@zweiacker.org; Liu, C.; Wiezorek, J. M. K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, 648 Benedum Hall, 3700 OHara Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); McKeown, J. T.; LaGrange, T.; Reed, B. W.; Campbell, G. H. [Materials Science Division, Physical and Life Science Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    In situ investigations of rapid solidification in polycrystalline Al thin films were conducted using nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution dynamic transmission electron microscopy. Differences in crystal growth rates and asymmetries in melt pool development were observed as the heat extraction geometry was varied by controlling the proximity of the laser-pulse irradiation and the associated induced melt pools to the edge of the transmission electron microscopy support grid, which acts as a large heat sink. Experimental parameters have been established to maximize the reproducibility of the material response to the laser-pulse-related heating and to ensure that observations of the dynamical behavior of the metal are free from artifacts, leading to accurate interpretations and quantifiable measurements with improved precision. Interface migration rate measurements revealed solidification velocities that increased consistently from ∼1.3 m s{sup −1} to ∼2.5 m s{sup −1} during the rapid solidification process of the Al thin films. Under the influence of an additional large heat sink, increased crystal growth rates as high as 3.3 m s{sup −1} have been measured. The in situ experiments also provided evidence for development of a partially melted, two-phase region prior to the onset of rapid solidification facilitated crystal growth. Using the experimental observations and associated measurements as benchmarks, finite-element modeling based calculations of the melt pool evolution after pulsed laser irradiation have been performed to obtain estimates of the temperature evolution in the thin films.

  13. Do Stronger Intellectual Property Rights Widen Growth Gap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan-Joo Seo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study builds a model of cumulative growth in order to analyze the relationship between intellectual property rights (IPRs and economic growth for a cross-section of countries for the period 1975-2000. This article focuses on the impacts of IPRs on growth gap between countries using a catching-up model and USPTO database. We find that IPRs affect economic growth by stimulating the accumulation of physical capital. However, the economic effects of IPRs on innovation activity are absent in this study. We find also the cumulative causation relationship between investment and growth. Lastly, our estimation results show that the wide variety of possible growth paths available to countries, depending on their 'social capability'.

  14. Financing Constraints and Firm Growth in Emerging Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitner Sandra M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to shed light on the effects of different types of financing constraints on firm sales and employment growth in Emerging Europe before and after the onset of the financial crisis. It analyzes the group of emerging NMS-10 economies (plus Turkey and the group of economically and financially lagging Western Balkan countries. The paper demonstrates that financing constraints significantly obstruct firm growth, particularly in the Western Balkan countries, which calls for policy intervention to ensure swifter job-rich growth and catching-up with the rest of Europe. It also emphasizes that particular firm characteristics are essential for growth in Emerging Europe and demonstrates that exporting only and innovating are recipes for faster firm growth, while importing only and a high foreign ownership share seriously retard firm growth. Finally, it stresses the importance of the particular institutional environment for firms to thrive.

  15. Influence of C60 co-deposition on the growth kinetics of diindenoperylene-From rapid roughening to layer-by-layer growth in blended organic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, C.; Novák, J.; Banerjee, R.; Weimer, S.; Dieterle, J.; Frank, C.; Hinderhofer, A.; Gerlach, A.; Carla, F.; Schreiber, F.

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the growth of the two phase-separating materials diindenoperylene (DIP) and buckminsterfullerene C60 with different mixing ratio in real-time and in situ by X-ray scattering experiments. We found that at room temperature, mixtures with an excess of DIP show a growth mode which is very close to the perfect layer-by-layer limit with DIP crystallites forming over the entire film thickness. An unexpected increase in the island size is observed for these mixtures as a function of film thickness. On the other hand, equimolar and C60 dominated mixtures grow with poor crystallinity but form very smooth films. Additionally, it is observed that higher substrate temperatures lead to an increase in the length scale of phase separation with film thickness.

  16. Contribution of food availability to the more rapid growth of the scallop, Euvola ziczac (Pteroida, Pectinidae in bottom than in suspended culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hunauld

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a 5-month experiment at Turpialito in the Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela, to examine whether the previously reported more rapid growth of scallop Euvola ziczac in bottom compared to suspended culture can be attributed to more abundant or higher quality food resources near the sediment/water interface. The various body components (shell, muscle, digestive gland, gonad and remaining tissues increased in size at a much greater rate for scallops maintained on the bottom, in partly buried cages at 5 m in depth, than in cages suspended at the same depth in the water column. Furthermore, survival was greater on the bottom. Food abundance and quality were examined by analyzing the seston collected in sediment traps at the sediment/water interface in the vicinity of the bottom cages and next to the suspended cages. Phytoplankton abundance (chlorophyll a and the proportion of various fatty acids in the lipid fraction of the seston were similar on the bottom and in suspension. However, sestonic protein, lipid and carbohydrate levels, and the estimated energetic content of the seston, were higher on the bottom than in suspension, and probably contributed to the greater growth on the bottom. As the increase in the energetic content of the seston on the bottom compared to in suspension was less than the increase in growth (biomass on the bottom compared to in suspension, and the evidence showed in previous studies above the negative influence of fouling and wave action in suspended culture, we conclude that the more rapid growth of Euvola ziczac in bottom than suspended culture is principally due to stress relative to suspended culture system. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 455-461. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

  17. Diversity as valued and troubled: social identities and demographic categories in understandings of rapid urban growth in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the simultaneous mainstreaming and diversification of ni-Vanuatu social categories associated with the ways in which population growth is understood as a possible crisis in both demographic knowledge and everyday ni-Vanuatu knowledge. The author is interested in understanding the downplaying but primarily the amplification of difference with respect to place, generation and gender identities. The relationship between reproduction, social reproduction and the multiple meanings of modernity is at issue. In the expert knowledge of demography that proffers advice for the ni-Vanuatu state, it is the lack of modern development - in the form of adequate biomedical birth control, western education, and the equality of women - that is the implicit cause of population growth. Yet, many ni-Vanuatu see population growth as tied to the troubles that arise from the dilution of traditional social forms: there is too much modernity. In both demographic and ni-Vanuatu everyday narrations of the potential population crisis, diversification and mainstreaming take place and vulnerabilities are produced.

  18. A rapid discrimination of authentic and unauthentic Radix Angelicae Sinensis growth regions by electronic nose coupled with multivariate statistical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Weixin; Yang, Yaojun; Yan, Yuning; Wang, Wenyi; Wu, Haozhong; Ren, Zihe

    2014-10-27

    Radix Angelicae Sinensis, known as Danggui in China, is an effective and wide applied material in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and it is used in more than 80 composite formulae. Danggui from Minxian County, Gansu Province is the best in quality. To rapidly and nondestructively discriminate Danggui from the authentic region of origin from that from an unauthentic region, an electronic nose coupled with multivariate statistical analyses was developed. Two different feature extraction methods were used to ensure the authentic region and unauthentic region of Danggui origin could be discriminated. One feature extraction method is to capture the average value of the maximum response of the electronic nose sensors (feature extraction method 1). The other one is to combine the maximum response of the sensors with their inter-ratios (feature extraction method 2). Multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were employed. Nineteen samples were analyzed by PCA, SIMCA and HCA. Then the remaining samples (GZM1, SH) were projected onto the SIMCA model to validate the models. The results indicated that, in the use of feature extraction method 2, Danggui from Yunnan Province and Danggui from Gansu Province could be successfully discriminated using the electronic nose coupled with PCA, SIMCA and HCA, which suggested that the electronic-nose system could be used as a simple and rapid technique for the discrimination of Danggui between authentic and unauthentic region of origin.

  19. Social and environmental determinants of child health in Mongolia across years of rapid economic growth: 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nehal; Bolorhon, Bolormaa; Narula, Indermohan; Zhu, Shihua; Manaseki-Hollan, Semira

    2017-10-30

    To understand the effect of economic growth on health, we investigated the trend in socio-economic and regional determinants of child health in Mongolia. This Central Asian country had the fastest economic growth amongst low and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 2000 to 2010 and a healthcare system in transition. Data was from Mongolian multiple indicator cluster surveys (MICS) in 2000, 2005 and 2010. Child nutrition/growth was measured by height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), prevalence of stunted (HAZ < -2) and underweight (WAZ < -2) children. Access to health care was measured by prevalence of fully immunised children <5 years. Multivariate multi-level logistic mixed modelling was used to estimate the effect of socio-economic and environmental health determinants on each outcome in each year; 2000, 2005 and 2010. T-tests were used to measure significant change in HAZ and WAZ over the decade. Overall, from 2000 to 2010, there was a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in all three outcomes, but the effect of socio-economic factors increased on both stunting and weight. In 2000, region was a significant determinant: children living in three provinces were significantly more likely to be stunted and less likely to be immunised than Ulaanbaatar, but this was not significant by 2010. By 2010, none of the factors were significant determinants of immunisation in children. In 2000, economic status had no effect on stunting (OR = 0.91; 95%CI:0.49,1.66), however by 2010, children in the poorest economic quintile were 4 times more likely to be stunted than the richest (OR = 0.24; 95% CI:0.13,0.45; p < 0.001). The effect of maternal education on stunting prevalence continued over the 10 years, in both 2000 and 2010 children were twice as likely to be stunted if their mother had no education compared to university education (2000 OR = 0.45; 95% CI:0.28,0.73, p < 0.01,2010 OR =0.55; 95% CI:0.35,0.87, p < 0.05). Economic growth in

  20. Low-Temperature Rapid Fabrication of ZnO Nanowire UV Sensor Array by Laser-Induced Local Hydrothermal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukjoon Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate ZnO nanowire based UV sensor by laser-induced hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowire. By inducing a localized temperature rise using focused laser, ZnO nanowire array at ~15 μm size consists of individual nanowires with ~8 μm length and 200~400 nm diameter is readily synthesized on gold electrode within 30 min at the desired position. The laser-induced growth process is consecutively applied on two different points to bridge the micron gap between the electrodes. The resultant photoconductive ZnO NW interconnections display 2~3 orders increase in the current upon the UV exposure at a fixed voltage bias. It is also confirmed that the amount of photocurrent can be easily adjusted by changing the number of ZnO NW array junctions. The device exhibits clear response to the repeated UV illumination, suggesting that this process can be usefully applied for the facile fabrication of low-cost UV sensor array.

  1. Rapid burst of H2O2 by plant growth regulators increases intracellular Ca2+ amounts and modulates CD4+ T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asma; Mukherjee, Sambuddho; Deobagkar, Mukta; Naik, Tanushree; Nandi, Dipankar

    2010-11-01

    The identification of small molecules that affect T cell activation is an important area of research. Three molecules that regulate plant growth and differentiation, but not their structurally similar analogs, were identified to enhance primary mouse CD4(+) T cell activation in conjunction with soluble anti-CD3 stimulation: Indoleacetic acid (natural plant auxin), 1-Napthaleneacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin) and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin and herbicide). These effects are distinct in comparison to Curcumin, the well known phenolic immunomodulator, which lowers T cell activation. An investigation into the mechanisms of action of the three plant growth regulators revealed a rapid induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly comprising H(2)O(2). In addition, these three molecules synergize with soluble anti-CD3 signaling to enhance intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations [Ca(2+)](i), leading to greater T cell activation, e.g. induction of CD25 and IL-2. Enhanced production of TNFα and IFNγ by CD4(+) T cells is also observed upon plant growth regulator treatment with soluble anti-CD3. Interestingly, maximal IL-2 production and CD4(+) T cell cycle progression are observed upon activation with soluble anti-CD3 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a phorbol ester. Additionally, stimulation with PMA and Ionomcyin (a Ca(2+) ionophore), which activates T cells by circumventing the TCR, and plant growth regulators also demonstrated the role of the strength of signal (SOS): T cell cycle progression is enhanced with gentle activation conditions but decreased with strong activation conditions. This study demonstrates the direct effects of three plant growth regulators on CD4(+) T cell activation and cycling. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion combined with a face mask: a cephalometric assessment of craniofacial growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Torres Tagawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to assess potential changes in the cephalometric craniofacial growth pattern of 17 children presenting Angle Class III malocclusion treated with a Haas-type expander combined with a face mask. METHODS: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at beginning (T1 and immediately after removal of the appliances (T2, average of 11 months of treatment. Linear and angular measurements were used to evaluate the cranial base, dentoskeletal changes and facial growth pattern. RESULTS: The length of the anterior cranial base experienced a reduction while the posterior cranial base assumed a more vertical position at T1. Some maxillary movement occurred, there was no rotation of the palatal plane, there was a slight clockwise rotation of the mandible, although not significant. The ANB angle increased, thereby improving the relationship between the jaws; dentoalveolar compensation was more evident in the lower incisors. Five out of 12 cases (29.41% showed the following changes: In one case the pattern became more horizontal and in four cases more vertical. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded after a short-term assessment that treatment with rapid maxillary expansion (RME associated with a face mask was effective in the correction of Class III malocclusion despite the changes in facial growth pattern observed in a few cases.

  3. The nutrition transition in amazonia: rapid economic change and its impact on growth and development in Ribeirinhos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperata, Barbara A; Spence, Jennifer E; Da-Gloria, Pedro; Hubbe, Mark

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to assess the impact of economic change and increased market integration on subsistence strategies, living conditions, growth, and nutritional status of Ribeirinhos living in the rural Amazon, Brazil. Data on weight, height, skinfolds, and circumferences, as well as data on economic strategies and living conditions were collected from 469 individuals in 2002 and 429 in 2009. Of these, 204 individuals were measured on both occasions. Independent and paired t-tests were used to identify changes in nutritional status over time in the larger sample and smaller, longitudinal subsample, respectively. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between changes in economic/living conditions and nutritional status in the longitudinal subsample. Results indicate modest improvements in linear growth (HAZ) and among male children the observed increase was related to enrollment in the Brazilian conditional cash transfer program, Bolsa Família (P = 0.03). In terms of short-term measures of nutritional status, we found a significant increase in ZTSF and a reduction in ZUMA in most age/sex groups. Among subadults, there was a negative relationship between ZUMA and access to electricity (P = 0.01) and positive relationship between ZUMA and the sale of the açaí fruit (P = 0.04). Significant changes in weight and BMI (P economic strategies and lifestyle, changes in nutritional status were modest which may be explained by increased food insecurity documented during this early stage of transition. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Remodelling of the palatal dome following rapid maxillary expansion (RME): laser scan-quantifications during a low growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchitsch, A P; Winsauer, H; Wendl, B; Pichelmayer, M; Kuljuh, E; Szalay, A; Muchitsch, M

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate changes in the palatal vault after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) with bonded splint appliances. The sample comprised 24 children (12 boys and 12 girls) with mixed dentition (mean age 8.3 years; range 6.4-10.4 years). Following expansion, the splint appliance was used as a retainer for 6 months and then removed. Study casts were taken before RME (T0) and when the appliance was removed (T1). Then, 3D laser scans were taken to build complete 3D jaw models. Frontal cross sections were constructed at 53-63, 55-65 and 16-26, exported as coordinates, and finite element calculated to quantify their area, width and height. Maxillary length was also determined. Paired t-tests indicated statistically significant increases in the average palatal width (T1-T0=6.53-6.79 mm) and cross-sectional area (T1-T0=20.39-21.39 mm2) after RME (p0.99 (pmaxillary expansion distinctly increased mean palatal widths and cross-sectional areas. However, palatal height (55-65) and maxillary length decreased to a small extent. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. A CENSUS OF BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN NEARBY GALAXIES: COEVAL STAR FORMATION AND RAPID BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Fang, Jerome J.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Kocevski, Dale D. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hsu, Alexander D. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present the first quantified, statistical map of broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) frequency with host galaxy color and stellar mass in nearby (0.01 < z < 0.11) galaxies. Aperture photometry and z-band concentration measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are used to disentangle AGN and galaxy emission, resulting in estimates of uncontaminated galaxy rest-frame color, luminosity, and stellar mass. Broad-line AGNs are distributed throughout the blue cloud and green valley at a given stellar mass, and are much rarer in quiescent (red sequence) galaxies. This is in contrast to the published host galaxy properties of weaker narrow-line AGNs, indicating that broad-line AGNs occur during a different phase in galaxy evolution. More luminous broad-line AGNs have bluer host galaxies, even at fixed mass, suggesting that the same processes that fuel nuclear activity also efficiently form stars. The data favor processes that simultaneously fuel both star formation activity and rapid supermassive black hole accretion. If AGNs cause feedback on their host galaxies in the nearby universe, the evidence of galaxy-wide quenching must be delayed until after the broad-line AGN phase.

  6. Hepatocyte growth factor is a potent trigger of neutrophil adhesion through rapid activation of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, S; Tanaka, Y; Suematu, M; Aso, M; Fujisaki, T; Yamada, S; Eto, S

    1998-11-01

    Recruitment of neutrophils into tissue occurs in several pathologic processes such as inflammation, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and ischemia. In inflammation, the adherence of neutrophils to the endothelium depends on neutrophil integrins. Integrin-mediated adhesion is tightly regulated, ie, integrins do not function if neutrophils are not triggered by certain activation stimuli. We investigated the role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells in inflammation. Our results showed that (a) HGF induced not only lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1)-mediated adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells but also transmigration of neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner; (b) HGF functionally transformed neutrophil integrin LFA-1 to active form and reduced surface L-selectin expression level; (c) HGF induced F-actin polymerization and cytoskeletal rearrangement within seconds; (d) genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as well as wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3 (PI 3)-kinase inhibitor, inhibited both F-actin polymerization and LFA-1-mediated adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells; and (e) neutrophils in cutaneous inflamed tissue highly expressed HGF and serum levels of HGF were elevated in patients with Behçet's disease, which is associated with neutrophilic vasculitis and marked neutrophil accumulation. Our results indicate that HGF plays a pivotal role in integrin-mediated adhesion and transmigration of neutrophils to sites of acute inflammation through cytoskeletal rearrangement activated by tyrosine kinase and PI 3-kinase signaling.

  7. Better to light a candle than curse the darkness: illuminating spatial localization and temporal dynamics of rapid microbial growth in the rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Herron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The rhizosphere is a hotbed of microbial activity in ecosystems, fueled by carbon compounds from plant roots. Basic questions about the location and dynamics of plant-spurred microbial growth in the rhizosphere are difficult to answer with standard, destructive soil assays mixing a multitude of microbe-scale microenvironments in a single, often sieved, sample. Soil microbial biosensors designed with the luxCDABE reporter genes fused to a promoter of interest enable continuous imaging of the microbial perception of (and response to environmental conditions in soil. We used the common soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host to plasmid pZKH2 containing a fusion between the strong constituitive promoter nptII and luxCDABE (coding for light-emitting proteins from Vibrio fischeri. Experiments in liquid media demonstrated that high light production by KT2440/pZKH2 was associated with rapid microbial growth supported by high carbon availability. We applied the biosensors in microcosms filled with non-sterile soil in which corn (Zea mays L., black poplar (Populus nigra L. or tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. was growing. We detected minimal light production from microbiosensors in the bulk soil, but biosensors reported continuously from around roots for as long as six days. For corn, peaks of luminescence were detected 1-4 and 20-35 mm along the root axis behind growing root tips, with the location of maximum light production moving farther back from the tip as root growth rate increased. For poplar, luminescence around mature roots increased and decreased on a coordinated diel rhythm, but was not bright near root tips. For tomato, luminescence was dynamic, but did not exhibit a diel rhythm, appearing in acropetal waves along roots. KT2440/pZKH2 revealed that root tips are not always the only, or even the dominant, hotspots for rhizosphere microbial growth, and carbon availability is highly variable in space and time around roots.

  8. Long-term growth of children with autoantibody-mediated congenital heart block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skog, Amanda; Eliasson, Håkan; Tingström, Joanna; Källberg, Henrik; Salomonsson, Stina; Sonesson, Sven-Erik; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie

    2013-07-01

    To analyse growth of children with and without congenital heart block (CHB) born to anti-Ro/SSA positive mothers from birth to 18 years of age, using a population-based cohort of Swedish CHB patients. Medical records for siblings with (n = 72) and without (n = 60) CHB born 1973-2009 to anti-Ro/SSA positive mothers were retrieved from child healthcare centres and school health services and used to extract data on growth from birth to 18 years. Compared with reference standards, children with CHB were retarded in weight by 0.75-1.0 SD from birth to 2-3 years of age. Thereafter, the CHB children started to catch up, reaching the reference standards at 9-11 years of age. Pacemaker treatment was not correlated with the catch-up in growth. Individuals with CHB were retarded in both weight and height from birth to 9-11 years of age when compared to siblings without CHB, who did not demonstrate restriction in these measurements. Presence of CHB is a more important predictor of growth restriction than maternal rheumatic disease and foetal anti-Ro/SSA exposure. The restriction persists for several years after birth, despite pacemaker treatment, which highlights the importance of follow-up of children with CHB regarding nutrition and growth. © 2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Collagen-embedded hydroxylapatite-beta-tricalcium phosphate-silicon dioxide bone substitute granules assist rapid vascularization and promote cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanaati, Shahram M; Thimm, Benjamin W; Unger, Ronald E; Orth, Carina; Barbeck, Mike; Kirkpatrick, C James [Institute of Pathology, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Langenbeckstr.1, 55101 Mainz (Germany); Kohler, Thomas; Mueller, Ralph, E-mail: ghanaati@uni-mainz.d [Institute for Biomechanics, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str.10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-04-15

    In the present study we assessed the biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo of a low-temperature sol-gel-manufactured SiO{sub 2}-based bone graft substitute. Human primary osteoblasts and the osteoblastic cell line, MG63, cultured on the SiO{sub 2} biomatrix in monoculture retained their osteoblastic morphology and cellular functionality in vitro. The effect of the biomaterial in vivo and its vascularization potential was tested subcutaneously in Wistar rats and demonstrated both rapid vascularization and good integration within the peri-implant tissue. Scaffold degradation was progressive during the first month after implantation, with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive macrophages being present and promoting scaffold degradation from an early stage. This manuscript describes successful osteoblastic growth promotion in vitro and a promising biomaterial integration and vasculogenesis in vivo for a possible therapeutic application of this biomatrix in future clinical studies.

  10. Direct in Situ Conversion of Metals into Metal-Organic Frameworks: A Strategy for the Rapid Growth of MOF Films on Metal Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hoon; Hwang, Sunhyun; Kim, Keonmok; Kim, CheolGi; Jeong, Nak Cheon

    2016-11-30

    The fabrication of metal-organic framework (MOF) films on conducting substrates has demonstrated great potential in applications such as electronic conduction and sensing. For these applications, direct contact of the film to the conducting substrate without a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is a desired step that must be achieved prior to the use of MOF films. In this report, we propose an in situ strategy for the rapid one-step conversion of Cu metal into HKUST-1 films on conducting Cu substrates. The Cu substrate acts both as a conducting substrate and a source of Cu 2+ ions during the synthesis of HKUST-1. This synthesis is possible because of the simultaneous reaction of an oxidizing agent and a deprotonating agent, in which the former agent dissolves the metal substrate to form Cu 2+ ions while the latter agent deprotonates the ligand. Using this strategy, the HKUST-1 film could not only be rapidly synthesized within 5 min but also be directly attached to the Cu substrate. Based on microscopic studies, we propose a plausible mechanism for the growth reaction. Furthermore, we show the versatility of this in situ conversion methodology, applying it to ZIF-8, which comprises Zn 2+ ions and imidazole-based ligands. Using an I 2 -filled HKUST-1 film, we further demonstrate that the direct contact of the MOF film to the conducting substrate makes the material more suitable for use as a sensor or electronic conductor.

  11. Safe communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-02-01

    Due to its rapid economic development, China is facing a huge health, social, and economic burden resulting from injuries. The study's objective was to examine Safe Communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. Literature searches in English and Chinese, which included grey literature, were performed on the Chinese Journal Full-text Search System and Medline, using the words "Safe Community", "injury", "economics", and "prevention". The results showed that the existing 35 recognized members of the International Safe Community Network have not placed due emphasis on suicide prevention, which is one of the leading problems in both rural and urban China. A few groups, such as children, the elderly, cyclists, and pedestrians, have received due emphasis, while other vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers, motorcyclists, students, players, and farmers have not received the necessary attention from the Safe Community perspective. As the evidence describes, Safe Communities in China can be a very effective strategy for injury prevention, but four aspects need to be strengthened in the future: (1) establish and strengthen the policy and regulations in terms of injury prevention at the national level; (2) create a system to involve professional organizations and personnel in projects; (3) consider the economic development status of different parts of China; and (4) intentional injury prevention should receive greater attention.

  12. The development of silk fibroin scaffolds using an indirect rapid prototyping approach: morphological analysis and cell growth monitoring by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M J J; Chou, S M; Chua, C K; Tay, B C M; Ng, B K

    2013-02-01

    To date, naturally derived biomaterials are rarely used in advanced tissue engineering (TE) methods despite their superior biocompatibility. This is because these native materials, which consist mainly of proteins and polysaccharides, do not possess the ability to withstand harsh processing conditions. Unlike synthetic polymers, natural materials degrade and decompose rapidly in the presence of chemical solvents and high temperature, respectively. Thus, the fabrication of tissue scaffolds using natural biomaterials is often carried out using conventional techniques, where the efficiency in mass transport of nutrients and removal of waste products within the construct is compromised. The present study identified silk fibroin (SF) protein as a suitable material for the application of rapid prototyping (RP) or additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Using the indirect RP method, via the use of a mould, SF tissue scaffolds with both macro- and micro-morphological features can be produced and qualitatively examined by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The advanced imaging technique showed the ability to differentiate the cells and SF material by producing high contrasting images, therefore suggesting the method as a feasible alternative to the histological analysis of cell growth within tissue scaffolds. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Redundancy and molecular evolution: the rapid Induction of bone formation by the mammalian transforming growth factor-β3 isoform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Ripamonti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The soluble osteogenic molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β supergene family are the molecular bases of the induction of bone formation and postnatal bone tissue morphogenesis with translation into clinical contexts. The mammalian TGF-β3 isoform, a pleiotropic member of the family, controls a vast array of biological processes including the induction of bone formation. Recombinant hTGF-β3 induces substantial bone formation when implanted with either collagenous bone matrices or coral-derived macroporous bioreactors in the rectus abdominis muscle of the non-human primate Papio ursinus. In marked contrast, the three mammalian TGF-βs do not initiate the induction of bone formation in rodents and lagomorphs. The induction of bone by hTGF-β3/preloaded bioreactors is orchestrated by inducing fibrin-fibronectin rings that structurally organize tissue patterning and morphogenesis within the macroporous spaces. Induced advancing extracellular matrix rings provide the structural anchorage for hyper chromatic cells, interpreted as differentiating osteoblasts re-programmed by hTGF-β3 from invading myoblastic and/or pericytic differentiated cells. Runx2 and Osteocalcin expression are significantly up-regulated correlating to multiple invading cells differentiating into the osteoblastic phenotype. Bioreactors pre-loaded with recombinant human Noggin (hNoggin, a BMPs antagonist, show down-regulation of BMP-2 and other profiled osteogenic proteins’ genes resulting in minimal bone formation. Coral-derived macroporous constructs preloaded with binary applications of hTGF-β3 and hNoggin also show down-regulation of BMP-2 with the induction of limited bone formation. The induction of bone formation by hTGF-β3 is via the BMPs pathway and it is thus blocked by hNoggin. Our systematic studies in Papio ursinus with translational hTGF-β3 in large cranio-mandibulo-facial defects in humans are now requesting the re-evaluation of Bone

  14. Early metabolic defects in dexamethasone-exposed and undernourished intrauterine growth restricted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Somm

    Full Text Available Poor fetal growth, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, is a worldwide health concern. IUGR is commonly associated with both an increased risk in perinatal mortality and a higher prevalence of developing chronic metabolic diseases later in life. Obesity, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome could result from noxious "metabolic programming." In order to better understand early alterations involved in metabolic programming, we modeled IUGR rat pups through either prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoid (dams infused with dexamethasone 100 µg/kg/day, DEX or prenatal undernutrition (dams feeding restricted to 30% of ad libitum intake, UN. Physiological (glucose and insulin tolerance, morphometric (automated tissue image analysis and transcriptomic (quantitative PCR approaches were combined during early life of these IUGR pups with a special focus on their endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue development. In the absence of catch-up growth before weaning, DEX and UN IUGR pups both presented basal hyperglycaemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and pancreatic islet atrophy. Other early metabolic defects were model-specific: DEX pups presented decreased insulin sensitivity whereas UN pups exhibited lowered glucose-induced insulin secretion and more marked alterations in gene expression of pancreatic islet and adipose tissue development regulators. In conclusion, these results show that before any catch-up growth, IUGR rats present early physiologic, morphologic and transcriptomic defects, which can be considered as initial mechanistic basis of metabolic programming.

  15. Growth of functional cranial components in rats with intrauterine growth retardation after treatment with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Fabián Anibal; Castro, Luis Eduardo; Luna, María Eugenia; Guimarey, Luis Manuel; Cesani, María Florencia; Fucini, María Cecilia; Villanueva, Myriam; Prio, Verónica; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to analyse the effect of growth hormone (GH) on catch-up growth of functional facial (splanchnocranial) and neurocranial components in rats with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control (C), sham-operated (SH), IUGR, and IUGR + GH. IUGR was surgically induced and GH was administered between 21 and 60 days of age. Radiographs were obtained at 1, 21, 42, 63, and 84 days of age in order to measure length, width, and height of neurocranium (NL, NW, and NH) and face length, width, and height (FL, FW, and FH). Analysis of variance was performed at 1 day of age and a principal components analysis (PCA) at 84 days of age. Neurocranial and facial volumetric indexes were calculated as NVI = (3)√NL × NW × NH and FVI = (3)√FL × FW × FH, respectively, and adjusted by non-linear regression analysis. On postnatal day 1, there were significant differences between SH and IUGR (P IUGR + GH (P cranial growth. The functional neurocranial and facial components in rats with IUGR presented different recovery strategies through modular behaviour, mainly related to modifications of growth rate as response to GH administration.

  16. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on growth trajectories in young Ethiopian children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Bineyam; Enquselassie, Fikre; Tsegaye, Aster; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Medhin, Girmay; Fogarty, Andrew; Robinson, Karen; Davey, Gail

    2016-09-01

    associated with reduced growth and H. pylori status. Further follow-up will be important to confirm possible catch-up in height trajectory among H. pylori-infected children as they grow older. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatiotemporal changes in both asset value and GDP associated with seismic exposure in China in the context of rapid economic growth from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jidong; Wang, Cailin; He, Xin; Wang, Xu; Li, Ning

    2017-03-01

    Accurate exposure estimation is essential for seismic risk assessment. Recent rapid urbanization and economic growth in China have led to massive spatiotemporal changes in both the asset value and GDP exposed to seismic hazards. Using available GDP data, the asset value dataset produced by Wu et al (2014a) and spatial disaggregation technology, gridded maps of GDP and asset value are overlaid with the latest seismic map to investigate spatiotemporal changes in economic exposure in the most seismically hazardous areas (MSHAs) in China in 1990, 2000 and 2010. We found that 15.4% of China’s asset value and 14.1% of China’s GDP were located in MSHAs in 2010, and the asset value and GDP exposed to MSHAs reached 15.9 trillion CNY and 6.2 trillion CNY, respectively, with average annual rates of increase of 14.4% and 11.3% over the two decades. The evidence of increased exposure provides valuable information regarding whom or what risk managers should give the most attention based on the economic exposure changes in earthquake-prone areas of China. Notably, the North China seismic belt, which is associated with the largest economic exposure to earthquakes and a rapidly increasing rate of economic exposure compared to those in other seismic belts, and the Qinghai-Tibet seismic belt, which has the highest earthquake occurrence, are two seismic belts of interest. A more detailed study is required to determine the relationship between increased economic exposure and earthquake disaster losses combined with hazard level and vulnerability.

  18. Potential of RapidEye and WorldView-2 Satellite Data for Improving Rice Nitrogen Status Monitoring at Different Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanyu Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For in-season site-specific nitrogen (N management of rice to be successful, it is crucially important to diagnose rice N status efficiently across large areas within a short time frame. In recent studies, the FORMOSAT-2 satellite images with traditional blue (B, green (G, red (R, and near-infrared (NIR wavebands have been used to estimate rice N status due to its high spatial resolution, daily revisit capability, and relatively lower cost. This study aimed to evaluate the potential improvements of RapidEye and WorldView-2 data over FORMOSAT-2 for rice N status monitoring, as the former two sensors provide additional wavelengths besides the traditional four wavebands. Ten site-year N rate experiments were conducted in Jiansanjiang, Heilongjiang Province of Northeast China from 2008 to 2011. Plant samples and field hyperspectral data were collected at three growth stages: panicle initiation (PI, stem elongation (SE, and heading (HE. The canopy-scale hyperspectral data were upscaled to simulate the satellite bands. Vegetation index (VI analysis, stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR, and partial least squares regression (PLSR were performed to derive plant N status indicators. The results indicated that the best-performed VIs calculated from the simulated RapidEye and WorldView-2 bands, especially those based on the red edge (RE bands, explained significantly more variability for above ground biomass (AGB, plant N uptake (PNU, and nitrogen nutrition index (NNI estimations than their FORMOSAT-2-based counterparts did, especially at the PI and SE stages. The SMLR and PLSR models based on the WorldView-2 bands generally had the best performance, followed by the ones based on the RapidEye bands. The SMLR results revealed that both the NIR and RE bands were important for N status estimation. In particular, the NIR1 band (760–900 nm from RapidEye or 770–895 nm from WorldView-2 was most important for estimating all the N status indicators. The RE

  19. Development of a rapid method for the analysis of synthetic growth promoters in bovine muscle using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, E M; Elliott, C T; Kennedy, D G; Regan, L

    2009-04-01

    A rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous identification, confirmation and quantitation of thirteen synthetic growth promoters in bovine muscle. The method was validated in accordance with the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. A value of 1mugkg(-1) was chosen as the required performance level (RPL) for all analytes. The growth promoters investigated were alpha and beta trenbolone, 16-beta-OH stanozolol, methylboldenone, fluoxymesterone, methyltestosterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate, melengestrol acetate, dexamethasone, flumethasone, dienestrol and hexestrol. The method involved enzymatic hydrolysis, purification by solid phase extraction followed by analysis by UPLC-MS/MS using electrospray ionization operated in both positive and negative polarities with a total run time of 14 min. The decision limit (CCalpha) values obtained, ranged from 0.09 to 0.19 microgkg(-1) and the detection capability (CCbeta) values obtained, ranged from 0.15 to 0.32 microgkg(-1). The results of the inter-assay study, which was performed by fortifying bovine muscle samples (n=18) on three separate days, show the accuracy calculated for the various analytes to range between 98% and 102%. The precision of the method, expressed as R.S.D. values for the inter-assay variation of each analyte at the three levels of fortification (1, 1.5 and 2.0 microgkg(-1)), ranged between 3.1% and 5.8%. A Day 4 assay was carried out to examine variations due to different animals and different muscle types.

  20. Changes in Underlying Determinants Explain Rapid Increases in Child Linear Growth in Alive & Thrive Study Areas between 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Headey, Derek; Frongillo, Edward A; Tran, Lan Mai; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-03-01

    Background: Child linear growth sometimes improves in both intervention and comparison groups in evaluations of nutrition interventions, possibly because of spillover intervention effects to nonintervention areas or improvements in underlying determinants of nutritional change in both areas.Objective: We aimed to understand what changes in underlying socioeconomic characteristics and behavioral factors are important in explaining improvements in child linear growth.Methods: Baseline (2010) and endline (2014) surveys from the Alive & Thrive impact evaluation were used to identify the underlying determinants of height-for-age z scores (HAZs) among children aged 24-48 mo in Bangladesh (n = 4311) and 24-59 mo in Vietnam (n = 4002). Oaxaca-Blinder regression decompositions were used to examine which underlying determinants contributed to HAZ changes over time.Results: HAZs improved significantly between 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh (∼0.18 SDs) and Vietnam (0.25 SDs). Underlying determinants improved substantially over time and were larger in Vietnam than in Bangladesh. Multiple regression models revealed significant associations between changes in HAZs and socioeconomic status (SES), food security, maternal education, hygiene, and birth weight in both countries. Changes in HAZs were significantly associated with maternal nutrition knowledge and child dietary diversity in Bangladesh, and with prenatal visits in Vietnam. Improvements in maternal nutrition knowledge in Bangladesh accounted for 20% of the total HAZ change, followed by maternal education (13%), SES (12%), hygiene (10%), and food security (9%). HAZ improvements in Vietnam were accounted for by changes in SES (26%), prenatal visits (25%), hygiene (19%), child birth weight (10%), and maternal education (7%). The decomposition models in both countries performed well, explaining >75% of the HAZ changes.Conclusions: Decomposition is a useful and simple technique for analyzing nonintervention drivers of

  1. Changing pattern of premature mortality burden over 6 years of rapid growth of the economy in suburban south-west China: 1998-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan

    2008-05-01

    This study was conducted in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan, a poor province in south-west China experiencing rapid economic growth. The study examined the short-term trend in premature mortality burden from common causes of death in a suburban region between 1998 and 2003. Years of life lost (YLL) per 1000 population and mortality rate per 100,000 population were calculated from medical death certificates, and broken down by cause of death, sex and year without age weighting but with a discounting rate of 3%. Non-communicable diseases contributed over 80% of all causes of YLL, with a slightly increasing trend. The combined rate for communicable, maternal, prenatal and nutritional deficiencies declined from 4.7 to 2.4 per 1000 population. Remarkably, declining trends in YLL were also seen for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, drug use and road traffic accidents, whereas increasing trends were seen for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and liver cancer (males). The YLL rate for stroke, self-inflicted injuries, lung cancer and stomach cancer fluctuated over time. The region should focus on further control of IHD and liver cancer.

  2. The growth of high density network of MOF nano-crystals across macroporous metal substrates - Solvothermal synthesis versus rapid thermal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, James W.; Gonzalo, Cristina Pozo; Merenda, Andrea; Kong, Lingxue; Schütz, Jürg A.; Dumée, Ludovic F.

    2018-01-01

    Fabrication of metal organic framework (MOF) films and membranes across macro-porous metal substrates is extremely challenging, due to the large pore sizes across the substrates, poor wettability, and the lack of sufficient reactive functional groups on the surface, which prevent high density nucleation of MOF crystals. Herein, macroporous stainless steel substrates (pore size 44 × 40 μm) are functionalized with amine functional groups, and the growth of ZIF-8 crystals investigated through both solvothermal synthesis and rapid thermal deposition (RTD), to assess the role of synthesis routes in the resultant membranes microstructure, and subsequently their performance. Although a high density of well interconnected MOF crystals was observed across the modified substrates following both techniques, RTD was found to be a much more efficient route, yielding high quality membranes under 1 h, as opposed to the 24 h required for solvothermal synthesis. The RTD membranes also exhibited high gas permeance, with He permeance of up to 2.954 ± 0.119 × 10-6 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1, and Knudsen selectivities for He/N2, Ar/N2 and CO2/N2, suggesting the membranes were almost defect free. This work opens up route for efficient fabrication of MOF films and membranes across macro-porous metal supports, with potential application in electrically mediated separation applications.

  3. Non-cytotoxic organic-inorganic hybrid bioscaffolds: An efficient bedding for rapid growth of bone-like apatite and cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Lukasz, E-mail: lukasz.john@chem.uni.wroc.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Baltrukiewicz, Marta; Sobota, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Brykner, Renata; Cwynar-Zajac, Lucja [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wroclaw Medical University, 6a Chalubinskiego, 50-368 Wroclaw (Poland); Dziegiel, Piotr [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wroclaw Medical University, 6a Chalubinskiego, 50-368 Wroclaw (Poland); Department of Histology and Embryology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 6 Swiecickiego, 61-781 Poznan (Poland)

    2012-10-01

    Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic macroporous hybrid scaffolds were investigated. The materials were prepared by combining 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and triethoxyvinylsilane (TEVS) chemically modified by Ca{sup 2+} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ions via sol-gel route. In this study we have constructed a sugar-based cracks-free three-dimensional (3D) network with interconnected porous architecture within the range of 150-300 {mu}m and rough topography. The obtained results revealed that both topography and composition of prepared materials allow rapid growth of the bone-like apatite (HAp) layer on their surface after soaking in biological medium. Preliminary studies have shown that hybrids covered by HAp are non-cytotoxic and allow cell proliferation that make them a promising scaffolds in the field of bone regenerative medicine. The materials were mainly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM-EDS). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel derived biomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3D organic-inorganic hybrid composites for bone tissue engineering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sugar-templated cracks-free macroporous scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate/triethoxyvinylsilane blend doped with calcium and phosphate ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-cytotoxic bedding for fibroblasts proliferation.

  4. Do rapid BMI growth in childhood and early-onset obesity offer cardiometabolic protection to obese adults in mid-life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Laura D; Zimmermann, Esther; Weiss, Ram

    2014-01-01

    -onset obesity may be associated with MHO. We aimed to assess whether body mass index (BMI) in childhood and early-onset obesity are associated with MHO. SETTING: General population longitudinal cohort study, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: From 362 200 young men (mean age 20) examined for Danish national service between...... 1943 and 1977, all obese men (BMI ≥31 kg/m(2), N=1930) were identified along with a random 1% sample of the others (N=3601). Our analysis includes 2392 of these men attending a research clinic in mid-life (mean age 42). For 613 of these men, data on childhood BMI are available. We summarised childhood...... that rapid BMI growth in childhood or early-onset obesity was associated with either MHO or the MANW phenotype, for example, among obese men in mid-life, the OR for MHO comparing early-onset obesity with non-early-onset obesity was 0.97 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: We found no robust evidence...

  5. In normal rat, intraventricularly administered insulin-like growth factor-1 is rapidly cleared from CSF with limited distribution into brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorevic Peter D

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Putatively active drugs are often intraventricularly administered to gain direct access to brain and circumvent the blood-brain barrier. A few studies on the normal central nervous system (CNS have shown, however, that the distribution of materials after intraventricular injections is much more limited than presumed and their exit from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is more rapid than generally believed. In this study, we report the intracranial distribution and the clearance from CSF and adjacent CNS tissue of radiolabeled insulin-like growth factor-1 after injection into one lateral ventricle of the normal rat brain. Methods Under barbiturate anesthesia, 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 was injected into one lateral ventricle of normal Sprague-Dawley rats. The subsequent distribution of IGF-1 through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF system and into brain, cerebral blood vessels, and systemic blood was measured over time by gamma counting and quantitative autoradiography (QAR. Results Within 5 min of infusion, IGF-1 had spread from the infused lateral ventricle into and through the third and fourth ventricles. At this time, 25% of the infused IGF-1 had disappeared from the CSF-brain-meningeal system; the half time of this loss was 12 min. The plasma concentration of cleared IGF-1 was, however, very low from 2 to 9 min and only began to rise markedly after 20 min. This delay between loss and gain plus the lack of radiotracer in the cortical subarachnoid space suggested that much of the IGF-1 was cleared into blood via the cranial and/or spinal nerve roots and their associated lymphatic systems rather than periventricular tissue and arachnoid villi. Less than 10% of the injected radioactivity remained in the CSF-brain system after 180 min. The CSF and arteries and arterioles within the subarachnoid cisterns were labeled with IGF-1 within 10 min. Between 60 and 180 min, most of the radioactivity within the cranium was

  6. Comparison of growth during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation using conventional immunosuppressive drugs in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iitaka, K; Hojo, M; Moriya, S; Sakai, T; Endo, T

    1998-01-01

    Growth during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and after renal transplantation (Tx) was assessed in children under the age of 12 years. Growth was assessed by calculating the standard deviation score for height of normal children of the same age and gender. Twenty-one patients undergoing CAPD and 13 patients who had received renal Tx at Kitasato University Hospital. Overall growth in those children undergoing CAPD and after renal Tx was not good, but growth during CAPD seemed to be slightly better than after renal Tx using conventional immunosuppressive drugs. Only young children who had started CAPD or received renal Tx before the age of 5 years with functioning graft showed catch-up growth, but the final height of these children may still be smaller than normal. Growth in children with end-stage renal disease is poor but growth during CAPD seems to be slightly better than after renal Tx using conventional immunosuppressive drugs.

  7. Growth and development after oesophageal atresia surgery: Need for long-term multidisciplinary follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJsselstijn, Hanneke; Gischler, Saskia J; Toussaint, Leontien; Spoel, Marjolein; Zijp, Monique H M van der Cammen-van; Tibboel, Dick

    2016-06-01

    Survival rates in oesophageal atresia patients have reached over 90%. In long-term follow-up studies the focus has shifted from purely surgical or gastrointestinal evaluation to a multidisciplinary approach. We reviewed the literature on the long-term morbidity of these patients and discuss mainly issues of physical growth and neurodevelopment. We conclude that growth problems - both stunting and wasting - are frequently seen, but that sufficient longitudinal data are lacking. Therefore, it is unclear whether catch-up growth into adolescence and adulthood occurs. Data on determinants of growth retardation are also lacking in current literature. Studies on neurodevelopment beyond preschool age are scarce but oesophageal atresia patients seem at risk for academic problems and motor function delay. Many factors contribute to the susceptibility to growth and development problems and we propose a multidisciplinary follow-up schedule into adulthood future care which may help improve quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fetal growth and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galjaard, Sander; Devlieger, Roland; Van Assche, Frans A

    2013-01-01

    The environment in utero and in early neonatal life may induce a permanent response in the fetus and the newborn, leading to enhanced susceptibility to later diseases. This review concentrates on the role and mechanisms of events during the antenatal and immediate postnatal period resulting in later life diseases, concentrating on abnormal growth patterns of the fetus. Fetal overgrowth is related to exposure to a diabetic intra uterine environment, increasing the vulnerability to transgenerational obesity and hence an increased sensitivity to more diabetic mothers. This effect has been supported by animal data. Fetal growth restriction is complex due to malnutrition in utero, catch up growth due to a high caloric intake and low physical activity in later life. Metabolic changes and a transgenerational effect of intra uterine malnutrition has been supported by animal data. In recent years the discovery of alterations of the genome due to different influences during embryonic life, called epigenetics, has led to the phenomenon of fetal programming resulting in changing transgenerational metabolic effects.

  9. Stressful dieting: nutritional conditions but not compensatory growth elevate corticosterone levels in zebra finch nestlings and fledglings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarmand, Mariam; Goymann, Wolfgang; Naguib, Marc

    2010-09-28

    Unfavourable conditions throughout the period of parental care can severely affect growth, reproductive performance, and survival. Yet, individuals may be affected differently, depending on the developmental period during which constraints are experienced. Here we tested whether the nestling phase compared to the fledgling phase is more susceptible to nutritional stress by considering biometry, physiology, sexually selected male ornaments and survival using zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) as a model species. As nestlings (day 0-17) or fledglings (day 17-35), subjects were raised either on low or high quality food. A low quality diet resulted in significantly elevated baseline corticosterone titres in both nestlings and fledglings. Subjects showed substantial compensatory growth after they had experienced low quality food as nestlings but catch-up growth did neither lead to elevated baseline corticosterone titres nor did we detect long term effects on biometry, male cheek patch, or survival. The compensation for temporally unfavourable environmental conditions reflects substantial phenotypic plasticity and the results show that costs of catch-up growth were not mediated via corticosterone as a physiological correlate of allostatic load. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms and plasticity with which animals respond to periods of constraints during development as they may occur in a mistiming of breeding.

  10. Stressful dieting: nutritional conditions but not compensatory growth elevate corticosterone levels in zebra finch nestlings and fledglings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Honarmand

    Full Text Available Unfavourable conditions throughout the period of parental care can severely affect growth, reproductive performance, and survival. Yet, individuals may be affected differently, depending on the developmental period during which constraints are experienced. Here we tested whether the nestling phase compared to the fledgling phase is more susceptible to nutritional stress by considering biometry, physiology, sexually selected male ornaments and survival using zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata as a model species. As nestlings (day 0-17 or fledglings (day 17-35, subjects were raised either on low or high quality food. A low quality diet resulted in significantly elevated baseline corticosterone titres in both nestlings and fledglings. Subjects showed substantial compensatory growth after they had experienced low quality food as nestlings but catch-up growth did neither lead to elevated baseline corticosterone titres nor did we detect long term effects on biometry, male cheek patch, or survival. The compensation for temporally unfavourable environmental conditions reflects substantial phenotypic plasticity and the results show that costs of catch-up growth were not mediated via corticosterone as a physiological correlate of allostatic load. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms and plasticity with which animals respond to periods of constraints during development as they may occur in a mistiming of breeding.

  11. Growth depression and recovery: the remarkable case of American slaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, R H

    1987-01-01

    Legislation designed to prevent slave smuggling after 1807 created an extra-ordinary set of documents identifying slaves transported in the coastwise trade by name, age, sex height and colour. Slaves fell below the first or second centile of modern height standards as children but recovered during and after adolescence to exceed the 25th centile as adults. This profile differs remarkably from other populations. Poor pre-natal care, early weaning, food supplements that were nutritionally poor and often contaminated, and a heavy disease load thwarted growth during childhood, but the diet improved substantially when young adolescents entered the labour force. The results show that humans have remarkable capacity for catch-up growth.

  12. PETROBRAS catch up strategy through R and D cooperative; A estrategia de catch up da PETROBRAS atraves da P e D cooperativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Andre Tosi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Freitas, Adriana Gomes de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Area Interdisciplinar de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    1999-07-01

    The supply of oil, like any other commodity, is sensitive to price changes. However, movements in oil supply depend on other additional factors, the most important of which are the geology of the region and the fiscal and contractual regimes. The future pattern of energy requirements is expected to stimulate upstream exploratory and development activities as well as other development of infrastructures, such as pipelines in the gas and oil industries. The aim of this work was to analyze PETROBRAS, a Brazilian petroleum company, and its technological cooperation contracts.

  13. Assessing the Sustainability of Credit Growth: The case of Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coudert, Virginie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Credit growth rates as high as 30% or 50% a year were observed in some Central Eastern European countries (CEECs in 2006-2007, such as the Baltic States, Bulgaria or Romania. This strong credit growth could have been due to the catching-up process but could also have been excessive, paving the way to the credit crunch that followed the crisis in 2008-2009. We try to assess the excessiveness of credit by applying a number of methods. First, we consider the gap between current credit and its long-term trend and we find some signs of credit booms, in several CEECs in 2005-2007. Second, we assess the "normal" growth of credit with regard to fundamentals through econometric estimations. Credit growth is also shown to have been excessive in several countries just before the 2008-2009 financial crisis.

  14. Inbreeding depression does not increase after exposure to a stressful environment: a test using compensatory growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Trejo, Regina; Head, Megan L; Jennions, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Inbreeding is often associated with a decrease in offspring fitness ('inbreeding depression'). Moreover, it is generally assumed that the negative effects of inbreeding are exacerbated in stressful environments. This G × E interaction has been explored in many taxa under different environmental conditions. These studies usually manipulate environmental conditions either in adulthood or throughout an individual's entire life. Far fewer studies have tested how stressful environments only experienced during development subsequently influence the effects of inbreeding on adult traits. We experimentally manipulated the diet (control versus low food) of inbred and outbred juvenile Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) for three weeks (days 7-28) to test whether experiencing a presumably stressful environment early in life influences their subsequent growth and adult phenotypes. The control diet was a standard laboratory food regime, while fish on the low food diet received less than 25 % of this amount of food. Unexpectedly, despite a large sample size (237 families, 908 offspring) and a quantified 23 % reduction in genome-wide heterozygosity in inbred offspring from matings between full-siblings (f = 0.25), neither inbreeding nor its interaction with early diet affected growth trajectories, juvenile survival or adult size. Individuals did not mitigate a poor start in life by showing 'compensatory growth' (i.e. faster growth once the low food treatment ended), but they showed 'catch-up growth' by delaying maturation. There was, however, no effect of inbreeding on the extent of catch-up growth. There were no detectable effects of inbreeding on growth or adult size, even on a low food diet that should elevate inbreeding depression. Thus, the long-term costs of inbreeding due to lower male reproductive success we have shown in another study appear to be unrelated to inbreeding depression for adult male size or the growth rates that are reported in the current study.

  15. Endocrine Regulation of Compensatory Growth in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene T. Won

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG is a period of accelerated growth that occurs following the alleviation of growth-stunting conditions during which an organism can make up for lost growth opportunity and potentially catch-up in size with non-stunted cohorts. Fish show a particularly robust capacity for the response and have been the focus of numerous studies that demonstrate their ability to compensate for periods of fasting once food is made available again. Compensatory growth is characterized by an elevated growth rate resulting from enhanced feed intake, mitogen production and feed conversion efficiency. Because little is known about the underlying mechanisms that drive the response, this review describes the sequential endocrine adaptations that lead to CG; namely during the precedent catabolic phase (fasting that taps endogenous energy reserves, and the following hyperanabolic phase (refeeding when accelerated growth occurs. In order to elicit a CG response, endogenous energy reserves must first be moderately depleted, which alters endocrine profiles that enhance appetite and growth potential. During this catabolic phase, elevated ghrelin and growth hormone (GH production increase appetite and protein-sparing lipolysis, while insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are suppressed, primarily due to hepatic GH resistance. During refeeding, temporal hyperphagia provides an influx of energy and metabolic substrates that are then allocated to somatic growth by resumed IGF signaling. Under the right conditions, refeeding results in hyperanabolism and a steepened growth trajectory relative to constantly fed controls. The response wanes as energy reserves are re-accumulated and homeostasis is restored. We ascribe possible roles for select appetite and growth-regulatory hormones in the context of these catabolic and hyperanabolic phases of the CG response in teleosts, with emphasis on GH, IGFs, cortisol, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, ghrelin and leptin.

  16. Behaviour of postnatally growth-impaired mice during malnutrition and after partial weight recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Reinhard C.; Kolb, Andreas F.; Lillico, Simon

    2013-01-01

    confounding factors. The present paper is a first report on the behavioural effects of early malnutrition induced by an alternative approach: mice nursed by a-casein-deficient knockout dams showed a severe growth delay during early development and substantial catch-up growth after weaning when compared...... with animals nursed by wild-type females. Methods: Established behavioural tests were used to study the consequences of early postnatal malnutrition on mouse pups at weaning and after partial weight recovery. Results: Despite the impaired growth, the only behavioural difference between malnourished....... Discussion: These results suggest that the role of early nutrition on behavioural development after recovery in animal models may have been overestimated. Further careful examination of this animal model in terms of maternal care and offspring behaviour will be necessary to confirm if mice nursed by a...

  17. Rapid Screening Method for Compounds That Affect the Growth and Germination of Candida albicans, Using a Real-Time PCR Thermocycler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarosz, Lucja M.; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a screening method for compounds affecting growth and germination in Candida albicans using a real-time PCR thermocycler to quantify green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. Using P(ACT1)-GFP and P(HWP1)-GFP reporter strains, the effects of a wide range of compounds on growth and

  18. Early environment and child-to-adult growth trajectories in the 1958 British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leah; Manor, Orly; Power, Chris

    2004-07-01

    Genetics and environmental conditions early in life are known to influence height. However, evidence is restricted to studies conducted at a specific age, and thus the effect on the entire growth trajectory has been neglected. The objective was to determine when parental height and factors early in offspring life start to affect offspring height, when these variables have the strongest effect, and whether these variables persist to adulthood. Longitudinal data from the 1958 British birth cohort (all of whom were born during 1 wk in March 1958), including height measurements at 7, 11, 16, and 33 y of age, were analyzed by using multivariate multilevel response models. Parental height, birth weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, parental divorce, and socioeconomic factors were all significantly associated with childhood height, but their effects differed thereafter. Parental height and birth weight were most strongly associated with offspring height, and their effects persisted (adjusted increase in adult height: 2 cm for 1 SD of maternal or paternal height, or 1 kg of birth weight). Socioeconomic disadvantage (manual social class, large family size, and overcrowded households) was associated with substantial deficits of 2-3 cm (adjusted estimates) in height at 7 y. Catch-up growth was apparent but was insufficient to overcome the initial insult on growth; the adjusted deficit was as high as 1 cm in adulthood. Children from disadvantaged backgrounds have a delayed pattern of growth before the pubertal spurt, which is followed by catch-up growth. The health consequences of this pattern of growth need to be examined in future studies.

  19. 210Pb-226Ra chronology reveals rapid growth rate of Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa on world's largest cold-water coral reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tisnérat-Laborde

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we show the use of the 210Pb-226Ra excess method to determine the growth rate of two corals from the world's largest known cold-water coral reef, Røst Reef, north of the Arctic circle off Norway. Colonies of each of the two species that build the reef, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were collected alive at 350 m depth using a submersible. Pb and Ra isotopes were measured along the major growth axis of both specimens using low level alpha and gamma spectrometry and trace element compositions were studied. 210Pb and 226Ra differ in the way they are incorporated into coral skeletons. Hence, to assess growth rates, we considered the exponential decrease of initially incorporated 210Pb, as well as the increase in 210Pb from the decay of 226Ra and contamination with 210Pb associated with Mn-Fe coatings that we were unable to remove completely from the oldest parts of the skeletons. 226Ra activity was similar in both coral species, so, assuming constant uptake of 210Pb through time, we used the 210Pb-226Ra chronology to calculate growth rates. The 45.5 cm long branch of M. oculata was 31 yr with an average linear growth rate of 14.4 ± 1.1 mm yr−1 (2.6 polyps per year. Despite cleaning, a correction for Mn-Fe oxide contamination was required for the oldest part of the colony; this correction corroborated our radiocarbon date of 40 yr and a mean growth rate of 2 polyps yr−1. This rate is similar to the one obtained in aquarium experiments under optimal growth conditions. For the 80 cm-long L. pertusa colony, metal-oxide contamination remained in both the middle and basal part of the coral skeleton despite cleaning, inhibiting similar age and growth rate estimates. The youngest part of the colony was free of metal oxides and this 15 cm section had an estimated a growth rate of 8 mm yr−1, with high uncertainty (~1 polyp every two to three years. We are less certain of this 210Pb growth rate estimate which is within the lowermost

  20. Growth in small-for-gestational-age preterm-born children from 0 to 4 years: the role of both prematurity and SGA status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Kerstjens, Jorien M; de Winter, Andrea F; Bos, Arend F

    2013-01-01

    Fullterm small-for-gestational-age children (SGAs) are known for their ability to catch up on growth. Nevertheless, increased risk of growth restriction remains. Evidence on preterm SGA children's growth is lacking. To determine absolute gains in height and weight, relative growth, and growth restriction in preterm SGAs from 0 to 4 years and how prematurity and SGA status affect these measures. Community-based cohort study, n = 1,648 preterm-born (gestational age SGA) and 605 term-born (12 SGA). We defined SGA as a birth weight less than -2 SD (P 2.3) compared to counterparts matched for gestational age. Height, weight, and head circumference were obtained from medical records and translated to z-scores. We defined growth restriction as height or weight less than -2 SD compared to fullterm appropriate-for-gestational-age children (AGAs). Absolute height and weight gains were similar, but the relative growth of preterms and fullterms differed. Preterm AGAs and fullterm SGAs, although not reaching it, caught up towards the fullterm AGA median (z-scores at 4 years: -0.3 to -1.0). By contrast, preterm SGA children's z-scores were still -1.4 to -1.7. Head circumference growth was less affected by prematurity and SGA birth (z-scores at 1 year: 0.1 to -0.7). Catch-up growth mainly took place during infancy. 30-39% of all preterm SGAs showed growth restriction at 4 years. Growth in preterm SGAs is affected considerably by the joint effects of preterm birth and SGA status, resulting in a high proportion of growth restriction. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Dynamics of Seedling Growth Acclimation towards Altered Light Conditions Can Be Quantified via GROWSCREEN: A Setup and Procedure Designed for Rapid Optical Phenotyping of Different Plant Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Achim Walter; Hanno Scharr; Frank Gilmer; Rainer Zierer; Kerstin A. Nagel; Michaela Ernst; Anika Wiese; Olivia Virnich; Maja M. Christ; Beate Uhlig; Sybille Jünger; Uli Schurr

    2007-01-01

    Using a novel setup, we assessed how fast growth of Nicotiana tabacum seedlings responds to alterations in the light regime and investigated whether starch-free mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana show...

  2. Delayed transmission of a parasite is compensated by accelerated growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakalahti, T; Bandilla, M; Valtonen, E T

    2005-11-01

    Compensatory or 'catch-up' growth following prolonged periods of food shortages is known to exist in many free-living animals. It is generally assumed that growth rates under normal circumstances are below maximum because elevated rates of growth are costly. The present paper gives experimental evidence that such compensatory growth mechanisms also exist in parasitic species. We explored the effect of periodic host unavailability on survival, infectivity and growth of the fish ectoparasite Argulus coregoni. Survival and infectivity of A. coregoni metanauplii deprived of a host for selected time periods were age dependent, which indicates that all metanauplii carry similar energy resources for host seeking. Following the periods off-host, metanauplii were allowed to settle on rainbow trout and were length measured until they reached gravidity. During early development on fish, body length of attached A. coregoni was negatively correlated with off-host period indicating a mechanism that creates size variance in an attached parasite cohort originally containing equal amounts of resources. However, over time the size differences between parasites became less pronounced and eventually parasites that were kept off-host for longest periods of time reached the length of those individuals that had been allowed to infect a host sooner. A. coregoni thus appears to compensate for delayed growth resulting from an extended host searching period by elevated growth rates, although we show that such accelerated growth incurred a cost, through decreased life-expectancy.

  3. Deindustrialisation, structural change and sustainable economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tregenna, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and empirical evidence on deindustrialisation, with a focus on premature deindustrialisation. Structural change and industrialisation have long been considered important for developing countries to 'catch up'. However, there has been widespread deindustrialisation

  4. Maternal low protein diet leads to placental angiogenic compensation via dysregulated M1/M2 macrophages and TNFa expression in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    A maternal low-protein (LP) diet results in low birth weight, increased offspring rapid adipose tissue catch-up growth, adult obesity, and insulin resistance in Sprague-Dawley rats. The placenta plays key roles in nutrient transport and fetal growth. Placental function is dependent on regulation of ...

  5. The alpha-tubulin gene AmTuba1: a marker for rapid mycelial growth in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkka, Mika T; Schrey, Silvia; Nehls, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    The apical extension of hyphae is of central importance for extensive spread of fungal mycelium in forest soils and for effective ectomycorrhiza development. Since the tubulin cytoskeleton is known to be important for fungal tip growth, we have investigated the expression of an alpha-tubulin gene from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Amanita muscaria (AmTuba1). The phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences revealed the existence of two subgroups of alpha-tubulins in homobasidiomycetes, clearly distinguishable by defined amino acids. AmTuba1 belongs to subgroup1. The AmTuba1 transcript level is related to mycelial growth rate. Growth induction of carbohydrate starved (non-growing) hyphae resulted in an enhanced AmTuba1 expression as soon as hyphal growth started, reaching a maximum at highest mycelial growth rate. Bacterium-induced hyphal elongation also leads to increased AmTuba1 transcript levels. In mature A. muscaria/P. abies ectomycorrhizas, where fungal hyphae are highly branched, and slowly growing, AmTuba1 expression were even lower than in carbohydrate-starved mycelium, indicating a further down-regulation of gene expression in symbiosis. In conclusion, our analyses show that the AmTuba1 gene can be used as a marker for active apical extension in fly agaric, and that alpha-tubulin proteins are promising tools for the classification of fungi.

  6. Substance use during pregnancy: time for policy to catch up with research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester Barry M

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The phenomenon of substance abuse during pregnancy has fostered much controversy, specifically regarding treatment vs. punishment. Should the pregnant mother who engages in substance abuse be viewed as a criminal or as someone suffering from an illness requiring appropriate treatment? As it happens, there is a noticeably wide range of responses to this matter in the various states of the United States, ranging from a strictly criminal perspective to one that does emphasize the importance of the mother's treatment. This diversity of dramatically different responses illustrates the failure to establish a uniform policy for the management of this phenomenon. Just as there is lack of consensus among those who favor punishment, the same lack of consensus characterizes those states espousing treatment. Several general policy recommendations are offered here addressing the critical issues. It is hoped that by focusing on these fundamental issues and ultimately detailing statistics, policymakers throughout the United States will consider the course of action that views both pregnant mother and fetus/child as humanely as possible.

  7. Catching up with the Past: A Small Contribution to a Long History of Interactive Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fox

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the evolution of my thinking in the area of interactive architecture over the past 15 years with students and my office. The work is framed within an overview of a long history of work in the area by others. My personal development has taken a number of clear steps in a relatively logical progression.In summary, the work began with kinetics as a means to facilitate adaptation. Work in this area led to integrating computation as a means of controlling the kinetics. The combination of these two areas led to the use of discrete mechanical assemblies as a systems approach to interaction design, which led to the thinking of control as bottom-up and emergent. Consequently I became fascinated with modular autonomous robotics and the notion that actual architectural space could be made of such systems. This in turn led to the exploration of biomimetics in terms of the processes, which eventually led to the idea that the parts in a system should get smaller to the point that they make up the matter itself.The paper concludes with an explanation of how technical advancements in manufacturing, fabrication and computational control will continue to expand the parameters of what is possible in robotics, and consequently influence the scale by which we understand and construct our environments. The future of interactive environments will most certainly involve re-examining the scale by which things operate to the extent that much of the operations happen within the materials themselves. This scaling down is beginning to force a reinterpretation of the mechanical paradigm of adaptation.

  8. Catching up to the CCSS: A Principal Navigates Out-of-Subject Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quebec Fuentes, Sarah; Switzer, J. Matt; Jimerson, Jo Beth

    2015-01-01

    This case provides principals and principal licensure candidates an opportunity to delve into the nuances of supervising teachers in content areas, which may be unfamiliar, and to explore strategies for increasing knowledge about the structures and emphases of the "Common Core State Standards" (CCSS). The case presents issues related to…

  9. THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF LAW - WILL THE ROMANIAN DOCTRINE FINALLY CATCH UP WITH IT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA-FLORENTINA POPA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although a well-established presence on the international legal scene, the economic analysis of law is still an unfamiliar concept to most Romanian scholars. While worldwide, prestigious universities offer special courses on this topic and an impressive body of legal studies continues to add up, only scant traces of this important legal school can be detected in some recent Romanian doctoral thesis and papers. This article explores the main concepts of the economic analysis of law, the recent spin-offs of this theory, especially in the area of comparative law, as well as some of the critiques addressed in the legal doctrine, concerning the consequences on law of overemphasizing “efficiency” to the expense of less quantifiable, moral and social considerations. Some explanations on why the Romanian doctrine is lagging behind with respect to the economic analysis of law will also be attempted, together with a tentative answer to whether this major legal theory will ever make an impact on local doctrinal developments in the near future.

  10. Foreign Direct Investments in Poland and the Quality Catch-Up of Polish Foreign Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    is still lagging substantial behind that of the EU-countries. The number of products where Poland competes in the export markets is increasing, but the quality level of new products is, in fact, less than that of older surviving products, indicating that Poland is increasingly specialising in price...

  11. Polish Foreign Trade: The Quality Catch-up and the Influence of Foreign Direct Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates how the Polish transition process has expressed itself in export and inward foreign direct investments (FDI), and the relations between export and FDI. Since 1988, the number of Polish products able to compee in export markets has steadily increased. The quality level...

  12. Catching up: the state and potential of historical catch data from Svalbard in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga

    2016-01-01

    Svalbard in the European Arctic has a well-documented history of natural-resource exploitation. Since its discovery in 1596, the archipelago has witnessed phases of commercial whaling, sealing, fur-hunting, and fishing. Scientific expeditions, mass tourism, and mining have also added to the

  13. Catching up? The educational mobility of migrants’ and natives’ children in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberdabernig, Doris; Schneebaum, Alyssa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Migrants into European countries are often less educated than European natives. We analyse whether migrants’ children are more or less likely than natives’ children to achieve upward educational mobility across generations, and study differences in the factors, which contribute to differences in mobility for the two groups. We find that migrants’ descendants are more often upwardly mobile (and less often downwardly mobile) than their native peers in the majority of countries studied, and show that the main factor contributing to these patterns is the education level of parents. Although a lower parental education means that their children are less likely to access the same amount of human, social and financial capital as children of more highly educated parents, migrants’ descendants over the last two generations were able to make significant progress in reducing education gaps with natives. PMID:28620245

  14. Leading Dragons Phenomenon : New Opportunities for Catch-Up in Low-Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Vandana; Lin, Justin Yifu; Wang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Modern economic development is accompanied by the structural transformation from an agrarian to an industrial economy and occurs through a process of continuous industrial and technological upgrading. Since the 18th century, all countries that industrialized successfully in Europe, North America and East Asia followed their comparative advantage and leveraged the late-comer advantage to em...

  15. Catching up? The educational mobility of migrants' and natives' children in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberdabernig, Doris; Schneebaum, Alyssa

    2017-08-09

    Migrants into European countries are often less educated than European natives. We analyse whether migrants' children are more or less likely than natives' children to achieve upward educational mobility across generations, and study differences in the factors, which contribute to differences in mobility for the two groups. We find that migrants' descendants are more often upwardly mobile (and less often downwardly mobile) than their native peers in the majority of countries studied, and show that the main factor contributing to these patterns is the education level of parents. Although a lower parental education means that their children are less likely to access the same amount of human, social and financial capital as children of more highly educated parents, migrants' descendants over the last two generations were able to make significant progress in reducing education gaps with natives.

  16. Government-Business Relations and Catching Up Reforms in the CIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Libman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of similarities and divergence of transition paths at the later stage of transition in the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The main aim is to clarify the influence of specifics of government-business relations on economic reforms carried out at the later stage of transition in countries, which have been relatively less successful during the earlier transition. The paper discusses potential channels of influence of institutional organization of government-business relations on economic reforms and compares government-business relation models and paths of transition in Russia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine

  17. Playing the game of catching-up: global strategy building in a Chinese company.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yi; Lynch, Richard; Jin, Zhongqi

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in emerging Chinese multinational corporations (MNCs), most previous studies have focused on the strategic content and end results of their internationalization strategies. There has been little or no research on the process by which some Chinese companies are beginning to build integrated global strategies. The purpose of this contribution is to identify issues with regard to the benefits, difficulties, the learning process and the adaptation associated with companie...

  18. ‘Devolution and Cultural Catch-Up: Decoupling England and its Literature from English Literature’

    OpenAIRE

    Dix, Hywel

    2013-01-01

    Robert McLiam Wilson’s 1989 novel Ripley Bogle uses an unreliable narrator to expose the differences – regional, linguistic and national – between communities Bogle, the protagonist, experiences in Cambridge and Northern Ireland. Bogle is an English Literature student and then drop-out whose rejection of canonical study is the rejection of Arnoldianism and a traditionally organist and imperialist discipline that reanimates the debate about civic values and literary culture. A similar device i...

  19. A prediction model for COPD readmissions: catching up, catching our breath, and improving a national problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fischman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Frequent COPD exacerbations have a large impact on morbidity, mortality and health-care expenditures. By 2020, the World Health Organization expects COPD and COPD exacerbations to be the third leading cause of death world-wide. Furthermore, In 2005 it was estimated that COPD exacerbations cost the U.S. health-care system 38 billion dollars. Studies attempting to determine factors related to COPD readmissions are still very limited. Moreover, few have used a organized machine-learning, sensitivity analysis approach, such as a Random Forest (RF statistical model, to analyze this problem. This study utilized the RF machine learning algorithm to determine factors that predict risk for multiple COPD exacerbations in a single year.This was a retrospective study with a data set of 106 patients. These patients were divided randomly into training (80% and validating (20% data-sets, 100 times, using approximately sixty variables intially, which in prior studies had been found to be associated with patient readmission for COPD exacerbation. In an interactive manner, an RF model was created using the training set and validated on the testing dataset. Mean area-under-curve (AUC statistics, sensitivity, specificity, and negative/positive predictive values (NPV, PPV were calculated for the 100 runs. The following variables were found to be important predictors of patients having at least two COPD exacerbations within one year: employment, body mass index, number of previous surgeries, administration of azithromycin/ceftriaxone/moxifloxacin, and admission albumin level. The mean AUC was 0.72, sensitivity of 0.75, specificity of 0.56, PPV of 0.7 and NPV of 0.63. Histograms were used to confirm consistent accuracyThe RF design has consistently demonstrated encouraging results. We expect to validate our results on new patient groups and improve accuracy by increasing our training dataset. We hope that identifying patients at risk for frequent readmissions will improve patient outcome and save valuable hospital resources.

  20. Accelerated Reader as a Literacy Catch-Up Intervention during Primary to Secondary School Transition Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Nadia; Gorard, Stephen; See, Beng Huat

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of an internet-based reading programme called Accelerated Reader (AR), which is widely used in UK schools and worldwide. AR is a whole-group reading management and monitoring programme that aims to stimulate the habit of independent reading among primary and secondary age pupils. The evaluation involved 349…

  1. Violent Women: Are They Catching Up To Violent Men or Have They Surpassed Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, R. Barri

    Current statistics on arrests, convictions, and prison inmates and recent studies on violence by women indicate that the number of women who commit violent crimes is rising. Violent crimes include murder, rape, terrorism, gang participation, domestic violence, and prostitution. The first section, "Women Who Kill," discusses women who…

  2. Education Catching up with Science: Preparing Students for Three-Dimensional Literacy in Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, IJsbrand M.; Dahmani, Hassen-Reda; Delouche, Pamina; Bidabe, Marissa; Schneeberger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The large number of experimentally determined molecular structures has led to the development of a new semiotic system in the life sciences, with increasing use of accurate molecular representations. To determine how this change impacts students' learning, we incorporated image tests into our introductory cell biology course. Groups of students…

  3. Government-Business Relations and Catching Up Reforms in the CIS

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Libman

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of similarities and divergence of transition paths at the later stage of transition in the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The main aim is to clarify the influence of specifics of government-business relations on economic reforms carried out at the later stage of transition in countries, which have been relatively less successful during the earlier transition. The paper discusses potential channels of influence of institutional organization...

  4. Use of Adaptive Laboratory Evolution To Discover Key Mutations Enabling Rapid Growth of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 on Glucose Minimal Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaCroix, Ryan A.; Sandberg, Troy E.; O'Brien, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    often mutated: the global transcription gene rpoB, an 82-bp deletion between the metabolic pyrE gene and rph, and an IS element between the DNA structural gene hns and tdk. Model-derived classification of gene expression revealed a number of processes important for increased growth that were missed...

  5. Rapid adjustment in chrysanthemum carbohydrate turnover and growth activity to a change in time-of-day application of light and daylength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Poiré, Richard; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2012-01-01

    diurnally-regulated parameters related to growth. In this study, chrysanthemum plants were exposed to a change in the time-of-day application of light followed by short days or long days with a night interruption of light. We observed a clear shift in the diel cycle of sucrose turnover and relative leaf...

  6. MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate pattern recognition analysis for the rapid biomarker profiling of Escherichia coli in different growth phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momo, Remi A; Povey, Jane F; Smales, C Mark; O'Malley, Christopher J; Montague, Gary A; Martin, Elaine B

    2013-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) has been exploited extensively in the field of microbiology for the characterisation of bacterial species, the detection of biomarkers for early disease diagnosis and bacterial identification. Here, the multivariate data analysis technique of partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to 'intact cell' MALDI-ToF MS data obtained from Escherichia coli cell samples to determine if such an approach could be used to distinguish between, and characterise, different growth phases. PLS-DA is a technique that has the potential to extract systematic variation from large and noisy data sets by identifying a lower-dimensional subspace that contains latent information. The application of PLS-DA to the MALDI-ToF data obtained from cells at different stages of growth resulted in the successful classification of the samples according to the growth phase of the bacteria cultures. A further outcome of the analysis was that it was possible to identify the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio peaks or ion signals that contributed to the classification of the samples. The Swiss-Prot/TrEMBL database and primary literature were then used to provisionally assign a small number of these m/z ion signals to proteins, and these tentative assignments revealed that the major contributors from the exponential phase were ribosomal proteins. Additional assignments were possible for the stationary phase and the decline phase cultures where the proteins identified were consistent with previously observed biological interpretation. In summary, the results show that MALDI-ToF MS, PLS-DA and a protein database search can be used in combination to discriminate between 'intact cell' E. coli cell samples in different growth phases and thus could potentially be used as a tool in process development in the bioprocessing industry to enhance cell growth and cell engineering strategies.

  7. Effects of reproduction on growth and survival in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, assessed by comparison to triploids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trippel, Edward A.; Butts, Ian; Babin, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    in captive iteroparous, batch-spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), utilizing diploids and triploids, knowing that triploid females invest little to no energy into gametogenesis. Based on annual specific growth rate, there was no evidence for a somatic cost of reproduction at ages 2 (virgin year) and 4....... years, but there was at age 3. years. At age 2. years, low investment in reproduction likely accounted for the lack of a somatic cost of reproduction, whereas at age 4 the absence was associated with heightened growth post-spawning enabling mature fish to catch up to immature fish. At age 3......, compensatory growth during post-spawning was below that of immature fish. Survival represented a significant component of the cost of reproduction. Laboratory experiments examining the cost of reproduction have traditionally focused on shorter time periods, commonly spanning several months, whereas ours...

  8. Liquid phase separation and rapid dendritic growth of highly undercooled ternary Fe62.5Cu27.5Sn10 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Z. C.; Wang, W. L.; Luo, S. B.; Wei, B.

    2015-02-01

    The phase separation and dendritic growth characteristics of undercooled liquid Fe62.5Cu27.5Sn10 alloy have been investigated by glass fluxing and drop tube techniques. Three critical bulk undercoolings of microstructure evolution are experimentally determined as 7, 65, and 142 K. Equilibrium peritectic solidification proceeds in the small undercooling regime below 7 K. Metastable liquid phase separation takes place if bulk undercooling increases above 65 K. Remarkable macroscopic phase separation is induced providing that bulk undercooling overtakes the third threshold of 142 K. With the continuous increase of bulk undercooling, the solidified microstructure initially appears as well-branched dendrites, then displays microscale segregation morphology, and finally evolves into macrosegregation patterns. If alloy undercooling is smaller than 142 K, the dendritic growth velocity of γFe phase varies with undercooling according to a power function relationship. Once bulk undercooling exceeds 142 K, its dendritic growth velocity increases exponentially with undercooling, which reaches 30.4 m/s at the maximum undercooling of 360 K (0.21TL). As a comparative study, the liquid phase separation of Fe62.5Cu27.5Sn10 alloy droplets is also explored under the free fall condition. Theoretical calculations reveal that the thermal and solutal Marangoni migrations are the dynamic mechanisms responsible for the development of core-shell structure.

  9. Impact of placental insufficiency on fetal skeletal muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D; Hay, William W

    2016-11-05

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) caused by placental insufficiency is one of the most common and complex problems in perinatology, with no known cure. In pregnancies affected by placental insufficiency, a poorly functioning placenta restricts nutrient supply to the fetus and prevents normal fetal growth. Among other significant deficits in organ development, the IUGR fetus characteristically has less lean body and skeletal muscle mass than their appropriately-grown counterparts. Reduced skeletal muscle growth is not fully compensated after birth, as individuals who were born small for gestational age (SGA) from IUGR have persistent reductions in muscle mass and strength into adulthood. The consequences of restricted muscle growth and accelerated postnatal "catch-up" growth in the form of adiposity may contribute to the increased later life risk for visceral adiposity, peripheral insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in individuals who were formerly IUGR. This review will discuss how an insufficient placenta results in impaired fetal skeletal muscle growth and how lifelong reductions in muscle mass might contribute to increased metabolic disease risk in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sustaining protein synthesis in the absence of rapid cell division: an investigation of plasmid-encoded protein expression in Escherichia coli during very slow growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flickinger, M C; Rouse, M P

    1993-01-01

    The minimum growth rate capable of supporting plasmid-encoded gene expression is determined using continuous cultures of Escherichia coli MZ9387 at dilution rates (D) as low as 5% of the maximum specific growth rate. Expression from a low copy number plasmid, pMPR166, encoding cyanase under the control of P(lac) is investigated in order to study plasmid-encoded gene expression under conditions approaching starvation. Plasmid copy number was stabilized by selection in the presence of 500 micrograms/mL chloramphenicol by constitutive expression of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT). Plasmid retention was determined by dot-blot hybridization and chloramphenicol resistance. The contribution of plasmid maintenance and cyanase expression to the maximum cell yield (Y'x/s) and the maintenance coefficient (ms) was determined for MZ9387 and MZ9387:pMPR166 under uninduced and IPTG-induced conditions. The values of Y'x/s and ms for non-plasmid-bearing cultures were 0.56 g of cell dry mass (DCM)/g of glucose and 0.26 g of glucose/g of DCM.h, respectively. The cell yield for plasmid-bearing cultures under uninduced conditions (Y 0'x/s) was 0.28 g of DCM/g of glucose, with m0s = 0.08 g of glucose/g of DCM.h. These values decreased following induction of cyanase expression. Glucose consumption in the presence of IPTG was linearly related to the growth rate at D cyanase expression alters metabolism and glucose consumption. The fraction of plasmid-free cells decreased with decreasing Damköhler number (Da). These data confirm the usefulness of Da for predicting the relationship between plasmid-free and plasmid-bearing cells where plasmids are stabilized by concentrations of antibiotic greater than the minimum plasmid-free host cell growth inhibitory concentration. Specific cyanase expression increased as the dilution rate decreased to D = 0.15 h-1. Between D = 0.15 h-1 and D = 0.14 h-1, expression decreased 7-fold. At very low dilution rates (D < or = 0.06 h-1), nonseptated

  11. LBW and SGA Impact Longitudinal Growth and Nutritional Status of Filipino Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, Palmera; Ayaso, Edna B.; Monterde, Donna Bella S.; Acosta, Luz P.; Olveda, Remigio M.; Tallo, Veronica; Friedman, Jennifer F.

    2016-01-01

    We performed this study to longitudinally compare rates of stunting, wasting and underweight among low birthweight (LBW), non-LBW, and/or small-for-gestational age (SGA) and non-SGA infants in Leyte, The Philippines and factors that predicted catch up. Birthweights of 357 infants born in Leyte, The Philippines were obtained within 48 hours of delivery and infants were evaluated at one, six and 12 months. Newborns were classified as LBW, SGA, or both. We derived length-for-age, weight-for-length and weight-for-age Z-scores using WHOAnthro. Generalized estimating equations models were used to compare the differences in prevalence and mean Z-scores for these growth and nutritional outcomes, with separate models made with LBW and SGA as distinct primary predictors. We compared the longitudinal risk of stunting, wasting and underweight during infancy among LBW versus non-LBW and SGA versus non-SGA infants, while also evaluating key potential confounding, explanatory and modifying covariates. Overall, 9.0% of infants were born prematurely, 14.0% of infants were LBW and 22.9% were SGA. LBW infants had significantly increased odds of stunting, wasting and underweight persisting to 12 months of age, and SGA infants had significantly increased odds of stunting and underweight. LBW and SGA infants had higher rates of weight-for-length gain in the first month of life. Maternal educational attainment and exclusive breastfeeding decreased the risk of stunting and undernutrition. In this setting, LBW and SGA infants have higher rates of growth stunting and undernutrition during the first year of life and do not exhibit catch-up growth by 12 months of age. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00486863 PMID:27441564

  12. Studies in Phylogeny, Development of Rapid IdentificationMethods, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Growth Rates of Clinical Strains of Sporothrix schenckii Complex in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Rumi; Yikelamu, Alimu; Tanaka, Reiko; Igawa, Ken; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection caused by the Sporothrix species, which have distinct virulence profiles and geographic distributions. We performed a phylogenetic study in strains morphologically identified as Sporothrix schenckii from clinical specimens in Japan, which were preserved at the Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University. In addition, we examined the in vitro antifungal susceptibility and growth rate to evaluate their physiological features. Three hundred strains were examined using sequence analysis of the partial calmodulin gene, or polymerase chain reaction(PCR)method using newly designed species-specific primers; 291 strains were Sporothrix globosa and 9 strains were S. schenckii sensu stricto (in narrow sense, s. s.). S. globosa strains were further clustered into two subclades, and S. schenckii s. s. strains were divided into three subclades. In 38 strains of S. globosa for which antifungal profiles were determined, 4 strains (11%) showed high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for itraconazole. All tested strains of S. schenckii s. s. and S. globosa showed low sensitivity for amphotericin B. These antifungals are used for treatment of sporotrichosis when infection is severe. S. schenckii s. s. grew better than S. globosa; wherein S. globosa showed restricted growth at 35℃ and did not grow at 37℃. Our molecular data showed that S. globosa is the main causal agent of sporotrichosis in Japan. It is important to determine the antifungal profiles of each case, in addition to accurate species-level identification, to strategize the therapy for sporotrichosis.

  13. A super-agonist of growth hormone-releasing hormone causes rapid improvement of nutritional status in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Stanisław; Sikorska, Hanna; Wiecek, Andrzej; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Załecka, Klaudia; Gorczyńska, Joanna; Kubik, Małgorzata; Czerwieńska, Beata; Gosek, Katarzyna; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Wagner, David A; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Hakonen, Tiina; Kay, Sam Wai Kit; Jouhikainen, Taneli; Schaefer, Franz

    2010-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease is frequently associated with protein-energy wasting related to chronic inflammation and a resistance to anabolic hormones such as insulin and growth hormone (GH). In this study, we determined whether a new GH-releasing hormone super-agonist (AKL-0707) improved the anabolism and nutritional status of nondialyzed patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease randomized to twice daily injections of the super-agonist or placebo. After 28 days, this treatment significantly increased 24-h GH secretion by almost 400%, without altering the frequency or rhythmicity of secretory bursts or fractional pulsatile GH release, and doubled the serum insulin-like growth factor-1 level. There was a significant change in the Subjective Global Assessment from 'mildly to moderately malnourished' to 'well-nourished' in 6 of 9 patients receiving AKL-0707 but in none of 10 placebo-treated patients. By dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, both the mean fat-free mass and the body mineral content increased, but fat mass decreased, all significantly. In the AKL-0707-treated group, both serum urea and normalized protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance significantly decreased with no change in dietary protein intake, indicating a protein anabolic effect of treatment. Thus, our study shows that stimulation of endogenous GH secretion by AKL-0707 overcomes uremic catabolism of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

  14. Human growth and body weight dynamics: an integrative systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.

  15. Metformin for Rapidly Maturing Girls with Central Adiposity: Less Liver Fat and Slower Bone Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; García Beltrán, Cristina; López-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2017-11-07

    Girls with low-birth weight (LBW) and postnatal weight catch-up tend to develop visceral and hepatic fat excess, which may be accompanied by an upregulated adrenarche with precocious pubarche (PP) and by a rapidly progressive puberty with early menarche and shorter stature. A pilot study suggested that metformin treatment for 4 years reduces central adiposity in LBW-PP girls and normalizes puberty and adult height. In this cohort, we studied the relationship between metformin treatment, bone maturation, and body composition. Longitudinal hand X-rays (0-4 years, analyzed by BoneXpert) were available from 34 LBW-PP girls (89% of the original cohort; n = 17 untreated, n = 17 metformin-treated; age at the start of treatment 8 years) along with body composition (0-4 years, by DXA), hepatic fat, and abdominally subcutaneous and visceral fat (posttreatment, by MRI). The tempo of bone aging was accelerated in untreated girls (≈16% faster vs. chronological aging) and normal in metformin-treated girls (≈20% slower vs. untreated girls). Metformin-treated girls gained more height per bone-age year and had less visceral and hepatic fat. The tempo of bone maturation was associated (R = 0.55; p fat. Metformin treatment in rapidly maturing girls with central adiposity normalized bone maturation. This normalization was accompanied by less central fat and was related closely to hepatic fat. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Rapid Urban Growth in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Monitoring Land Use Land Cover Dynamics of a Himalayan City with Landsat Imageries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Ishtiaque

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Kathmandu Valley of Nepal epitomizes the growing urbanization trend spreading across the Himalayan foothills. This metropolitan valley has experienced a significant transformation of its landscapes in the last four decades resulting in substantial land use and land cover (LULC change; however, no major systematic analysis of the urbanization trend and LULC has been conducted on this valley since 2000. When considering the importance of using LULC change as a window to study the broader changes in socio-ecological systems of this valley, our study first detected LULC change trajectories of this valley using four Landsat images of the year 1989, 1999, 2009, and 2016, and then analyzed the detected change in the light of a set of proximate causes and factors driving those changes. A pixel-based hybrid classification (unsupervised followed by supervised approach was employed to classify these images into five LULC categories and analyze the LULC trajectories detected from them. Our results show that urban area expanded up to 412% in last three decades and the most of this expansion occurred with the conversions of 31% agricultural land. The majority of the urban expansion happened during 1989–2009, and it is still growing along the major roads in a concentric pattern, significantly altering the cityscape of the valley. The centrality feature of Kathmandu valley and the massive surge in rural-to-urban migration are identified as the primary proximate causes of the fast expansion of built-up areas and rapid conversions of agricultural areas.

  17. Body composition in preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, Letícia Duarte; Méio, Maria Dalva Barbosa Baker; Gomes Junior, Saint Clair S; de Abranches, Andrea Dunshee; Soares, Fernanda Valente Mendes; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2018-02-06

    The comparison of body composition parameters between the small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) at term, 1, 3 and 5 months corrected ages in very preterm infants. This cohort study included 92 preterm infants at term age, younger than 32 weeks or preterm infants had less lean mass (g), fat mass (g) and percent fat mass but a greater LM/FM index than AGA infants (Ppreterm infants when compared to AGA preterm infants. However, the SGA preterm infants remained lighter, shorter and with smaller head circumferences than the AGA preterm infants until 3 months of corrected age. The greater lean tissue deficits and an earlier "catch-up" in fat in the SGA group can reflect growth patterns variability since the early life.

  18. Assimilation of GOES satellite-based convective initiation and cloud growth observations into the Rapid Refresh and HRRR systems to improve aviation forecast guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecikalski, John; Smith, Tracy; Weygandt, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Latent heating profiles derived from GOES satellite-based cloud-top cooling rates are being assimilated into a retrospective version of the Rapid Refresh system (RAP) being run at the Global Systems Division. Assimilation of these data may help reduce the time lag for convection initiation (CI) in both the RAP model forecasts and in 3-km High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model runs that are initialized off of the RAP model grids. These data may also improve both the location and organization of developing convective storm clusters, especially in the nested HRRR runs. These types of improvements are critical for providing better convective storm guidance around busy hub airports and aviation corridor routes, especially in the highly congested Ohio Valley - Northeast - Mid-Atlantic region. Additional work is focusing on assimilating GOES-R CI algorithm cloud-top cooling-based latent heating profiles directly into the HRRR model. Because of the small-scale nature of the convective phenomena depicted in the cloud-top cooling rate data (on the order of 1-4 km scale), direct assimilation of these data in the HRRR may be more effective than assimilation in the RAP. The RAP is an hourly assimilation system developed at NOAA/ESRL and was implemented at NCEP as a NOAA operational model in May 2012. The 3-km HRRR runs hourly out to 15 hours as a nest within the ESRL real-time experimental RAP. The RAP and HRRR both use the WRF ARW model core, and the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) is used within an hourly cycle to assimilate a wide variety of observations (including radar data) to initialize the RAP. Within this modeling framework, the cloud-top cooling rate-based latent heating profiles are applied as prescribed heating during the diabatic forward model integration part of the RAP digital filter initialization (DFI). No digital filtering is applied on the 3-km HRRR grid, but similar forward model integration with prescribed heating is used to assimilate

  19. In situ controlled rapid growth of novel high activity TiB2/(TiB2–TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a reaction coupling self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (RC-SHS method was developed for the in situ controlled synthesis of novel, high activity TiB2/(TiB2–TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites using TiO2, Mg, B2O3, KBH4 and NH4NO3 as raw materials. The as-synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX, transition electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution TEM (HRTEM and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED. The obtained TiB2/TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites demonstrated an average particle size of 100–500 nm, and every particle surface was covered by many multibranched, tapered nanorods with diameters in the range of 10–40 nm and lengths of 50–200 nm. In addition, the tapered nanorod presents a rough surface with abundant exposed atoms. The internal and external components of the nanorods were TiB2 and TiN, respectively. Additionally, a thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analyzer (TG-DSC comparison analysis indicated that the as-synthesized samples presented better chemical activity than that of commercial TiB2 powders. Finally, the possible chemical reactions as well as the proposed growth mechanism of the TiB2/(TiB2–TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites were further discussed.

  20. Responses of Rapid Viscoanalyzer Profile and Other Rice Grain Qualities to Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators under High Day and High Night Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Khan, Fahad; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Ullah, Abid; Wu, Chao; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Alharby, Hesham; Amanullah; Nasim, Wajid; Shahzad, Babar; Tanveer, Mohsin; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature stress degrades the grain quality of rice; nevertheless, the exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) might alleviate the negative effects of high temperatures. In the present study, we investigated the responses of rice grain quality to exogenously applied PGRs under high day temperatures (HDT) and high night temperatures (HNT) under controlled conditions. Four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA) and triazoles (Tr) were exogenously applied to two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) prior to the high-temperature treatment. A Nothing applied Control (NAC) was included for comparison. The results demonstrated that high-temperature stress was detrimental for grain appearance and milling qualities and that both HDT and HNT reduced the grain length, grain width, grain area, head rice percentage and milled rice percentage but increased the chalkiness percentage and percent area of endosperm chalkiness in both cultivars compared with ambient temperature (AT). Significantly higher grain breakdown, set back, consistence viscosity and gelatinization temperature, and significantly lower peak, trough and final viscosities were observed under high-temperature stress compared with AT. Thus, HNT was more devastating for grain quality than HDT. The exogenous application of PGRs ameliorated the adverse effects of high temperature in both rice cultivars, and Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the best combination for both cultivars under high temperature stress.

  1. [Relationship of plasma ghrelin, IGF-1 and insulin with the growth and development of 2 -7 year-old children with small for gestational age at birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yaying; Song, Guangyao; Zhou, Lixia; Cai, Baoping; Zhao, Xiumian; Yin, Jianying

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relationship of Ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin with the growth and development of 2 -7 year-old children with small for gestational age (SGA) at birth. The levels of ghrelin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, insulin and glucose were measured in the children with preterm SGA and term SGA and compared with the children with preterm appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and term AGA. The correlation of ghrelin with IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and insulin was analyzed. Plasma ghrelin in preterm SGA was higher than that in term SGA (P 0.05). Plasma ghrelin in preterm AGA and term SGA was higher than that in term AGA (P development of preterm and SGA children, regardless of the magnitude of their catch up growth. As a re-regulatory factor to insulin, ghrelin regulates the energy metabolism in a form of negative feedback.

  2. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  3. Influence of homo-buffer layers and post-deposition rapid thermal annealing upon atomic layer deposition grown ZnO at 100 °C with three-pulsed precursors per growth cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Chen; Yuan, Kai-Yun; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2017-10-01

    ZnO main epilayers are deposited with three-pulsed precursors in every growth cycle at 100 °C on various thicknesses of 300 °C-grown homo-buffer layers by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on sapphire substrate. Samples are treated without and with post-deposition rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Two different annealing temperatures 300 and 1000 °C are utilized in the ambience of oxygen for 5 min. Extremely low background electron concentration 8.4 × 1014 cm-3, high electron mobility 62.1 cm2/V s, and pronounced enhancement of near bandgap edge photoluminescence (PL) are achieved for ZnO main epilayer with sufficient thickness of buffer layer (200 ALD cycles) and post-deposition RTA at 1000 °C. Effective block and remove of thermally unstable mobile defects and other crystal lattice imperfections are the agents of quality promotion of ZnO thin film.

  4. Three-year growth response to growth hormone treatment in very young children born small for gestational age-data from KIGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguszewski, Margaret C S; Lindberg, Anders; Wollmann, Hartmut A

    2014-08-01

    Children born small for gestational age (SGA) with poor growth during the first years of life may remain short in stature during childhood and as adults. To evaluate the 3-year growth response to GH treatment in very young short children born SGA, and to test the existing predictions models for growth response developed for older SGA children. KIGS (The Pfizer International Growth Database). A total of 620 SGA children (birth length and/or weight below -2 SD score [SDS]) on GH treatment, 156 in the 2- to 4-year-old group (100 boys; median age, 3.3 y), and 464 in the 4- to 6-year-old group (284 boys; median age, 4.9 y). Median values and 10th-90th percentiles are presented. Both groups presented a significant increase in height velocity during GH treatment. Median height SDS increased from -3.9 (-5.4 to -2.9) at the start to -2.2 (-3.8 to -1.0) at 3 years in the 2- to 4-year-old group (P growth response could be estimated by the SGA model. Very young children born SGA without spontaneous catch-up growth presented a significant improvement in height and weight during the 3 years of GH treatment. Growth response could be estimated by the SGA model.

  5. Effect of the slow (K or rapid (k+ feathering gene on body and feather growth and fatness according to ambient temperature in a Leghorn × brown egg type cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordas André

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chicks of both sexes issued from the cross of heterozygous K/k+ cocks for the slow-feathering sex linked K allele with k+ (rapid feathering hens, were compared from the age of 4 to 10 weeks at two ambient temperatures. In individual cages, 30 male chicks of each genotype (K/k+ and k+/k+ were raised at 21°C, and 60 others, distributed in the same way, were raised at 31°C. 71 K/W females and 69 k+/W females were raised in a floor pen at 31°C till 10 weeks of age. In the males, the body weight, feed consumption and feed efficiency at different ages were influenced only by temperature (lower growth rate and feed intake at 31°C; no significant effects of the genotype at locus K nor genotype × temperature interaction were observed. In females, all at 31°C, the genotype (K/W or k+/W had no significant effect on growth rate. Plumage weight and weight of abdominal fat (absolute or related to body weight were measured on half of the males of each group in individual cages, at 10 weeks of age. Moreover, on 36 males and 48 females of the two genotypes, in a group battery at 31°C, the absolute and relative weight of plumage were measured on a sample every two weeks between 4 and 10 weeks. In the first case, no significant effect of genotype appeared. In the second case, an interaction between age and genotype was suggested from plumage weight: its growth, especially in male chicks, appears to be temporarily and unexpectedly faster from 4 to 6 weeks of age for the K/k+ and K/W genotypes.

  6. North Korean children: nutrition and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Kyung Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available North Korea suffered from severe famine in the mid-1990s; this impacted many areas, including people's transnational movement, child growth, and mortality. This review carefully examined nutritional status trends of children in North Korea using published reports from national nutrition assessment surveys. Nutritional adaptation of North Korean child refugees living in South Korea was also studied with their growth and food consumption, using published researches. The nutritional status of children in North Korea has recovered to a “low” level acute malnutrition status and a "medium" level chronic malnutrition status. Large disparities by geographic region still remain. North Korean child refugees in South Korea were significantly shorter and lighter than their age- and sex-matched South Korean counterparts (P<0.05; however, North Korean child refugees were catching up, and weight was improving faster than height. Linear growth retarded (height for age Z-score < -1 North Korean children showed a significantly higher respiratory quotient than nonlinear growth retarded children, indicating metabolic adaptation responding to the food shortage. These changes, accompanied by abundant access to food in South Korea, have led to the elimination of significant differences in the obesity ratio between North Korean and South Korean children living in South Korea after approximately 2 years of residency. This nutritional adaptation may not be beneficial to North Korean child refugees, especially given the prediction of Barker’s theory. The lack of studies prevented a better understanding of this issue; therefore, large cohort studies, preferably with random sampling strategies, are needed to further understand this issue and to design appropriate interventions.

  7. Developmental evolution facilitates rapid adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Travisano, Michael

    2017-11-21

    Developmental evolution has frequently been identified as a mode for rapid adaptation, but direct observations of the selective benefits and associated mechanisms of developmental evolution are necessarily challenging to obtain. Here we show rapid evolution of greatly increased rates of dispersal by developmental changes when populations experience stringent selection. Replicate populations of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride underwent 85 serial transfers, under conditions initially favoring growth but not dispersal. T. citrinoviride populations shifted away from multicellular growth toward increased dispersal by producing one thousand times more single-celled asexual conidial spores, three times sooner than the ancestral genotype. Conidia of selected lines also germinated fifty percent faster. Gene expression changed substantially between the ancestral and selected fungi, especially for spore production and growth, demonstrating rapid evolution of tight regulatory control for down-regulation of growth and up-regulation of conidia production between 18 and 24 hours of growth. These changes involved both developmentally fixed and plastic changes in gene expression, showing that complex developmental changes can serve as a mechanism for rapid adaptation.

  8. Postdischarge growth and development in a predominantly Hispanic, very low birth weight population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, George C; Ramamurthy, Rajam; Schoolfield, John; Matula, Kathleen

    2008-12-01

    The goals were to assess postdischarge growth and developmental progress of very low birth weight (birth weight: population and to identify predictors for neurodevelopmental impairment at 3 years of age. A cohort of 135 very low birth weight infants (gestational age: 23 to 35 weeks) were monitored to 3 years of age. Maternal and neonatal characteristics, anthropometric z scores, and developmental performance (using corrected age until 24 months) were analyzed collectively and according to gestational age groups. Specific criteria for failure to thrive and microcephaly were used. A characteristic pattern of poor weight gain in the first 12 months was followed by accelerated weight gain starting at 18 months, whereas head growth decreased at 18 months, with recovery beginning at 30 months of age. Infants born at gestational age of growth-impaired at 3 years of age, whereas infants born at gestational age of >or=27 weeks achieved catch-up growth by 30 months of age. Mean developmental scores also decreased in infancy, with improvements in motor development emerging at 18 months and cognitive skills at 30 months. Growth z scores, particularly for head growth, correlated with developmental scores. Infants born at gestational age of growth patterns that coincided with developmental progress in the first 3 years of life. Birth at gestational age of

  9. [Effects of postnatal growth retardation on early neurodevelopment in premature infants with intrauterine growth retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yue-Ju; Song, Yan-Yan; Huang, Zhi-Jian; Li, Jian; Qi, Jun-Ye; Xiao, Xu-Wen; Wang, Lan-Xiu

    2015-09-01

    To study the effects of postnatal growth retardation on early neurodevelopment in premature infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 171 premature infants who were born between May 2008 and May 2012 and were followed up until a corrected gestational age of 6 months. These infants were classified into two groups: IUGR group (n=40) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (n=131). The growth retardation rates at the corrected gestational ages of 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months, as well as the neurodevelopmental outcome (evaluated by Gesell Developmental Scale) at corrected gestational ages of 3 and 6 months, were compared between the two groups. The growth retardation rate in the IUGR group was significantly higher than in the AGA group at the corrected gestational ages of 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. All five developmental quotients evaluated by Gesell Developmental Scale (gross motor, fine motor, language, adaptability and individuality) in the IUGR group were significantly lower than in the AGA group at the corrected gestational ages of 3 months. At the corrected gestational age of 6 months, the developmental quotients of fine motor and language in the IUGR group were significantly lower than in the AGA group, however, there were no significant differences in the developmental quotients of gross motor, adaptability and individuality between the two groups. All five developmental quotients in IUGR infants with catch-up lag in weight were significantly lower than in IUGR and AGA infants who had caught up well. Growth retardation at early postnatal stages may adversely affect the early neurodevelopment in infants with IUGR.

  10. Crescimento e desenvolvimento a longo prazo do prematuro extremo Growth and developmental outcomes of the extremely preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria Suppo de Souza Rugolo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Fornecer informações para pediatras e neonatologistas quanto à expectativa real da evolução destas crianças e, assim, auxiliar no planejamento de sua atuação. FONTES DOS DADOS: Pesquisa bibliográfica nas bases de dados da Cochrane Library, MEDLINE e Lilacs. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Para avaliação do crescimento e desenvolvimento nos primeiros 2-3 anos, deve-se corrigir a idade cronológica em função do grau de prematuridade. Prematuros pequenos para a idade gestacional e os com displasia broncopulmonar despertam maior preocupação quanto a seu prognóstico. Especial atenção deve ser dada à adequação da nutrição do prematuro de extremo baixo peso nos primeiros anos; estes prematuros geralmente evoluem com falha no catch-up, elevada morbidade e necessidade de reinternação nos primeiros 2 anos de vida. São crianças menores e mais leves no início da infância, mas podem apresentar catch-up tardio, entre 8-14 anos. Crianças nascidas de extremo baixo peso são de alto risco para anormalidades neurológicas e atraso no desenvolvimento nos primeiros anos de vida. Na idade escolar, são freqüentes os problemas educacionais, comportamentais e psicológicos. Adolescentes e adultos nascidos de extremo baixo peso ainda persistem com alguma diferença em seu desempenho, mas sua integração social não é prejudicada. CONCLUSÕES: O crescimento e desenvolvimento de todos os prematuros de extremo baixo peso devem ser cuidadosamente monitorizados após a alta hospitalar, para garantir que estas crianças e suas famílias recebam adequado suporte e intervenção, a fim de otimizar seu prognóstico.OBJETIVE: To provide information for pediatricians and neonatologists to create realistic outcome expectations and thus help plan their actions. DATA SOURCES: Searches were made of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and Lilacs databases. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: The assessment of growth and development over the first 2-3 years must adjust

  11. Factors affecting growth and final adult height after pediatric renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H W; Kim, H Y; Lee, Y A; Kang, H G; Shin, C H; Ha, I S; Cheong, H I; Yang, S W

    2013-01-01

    Growth retardation is a common problem for children with chronic kidney disease. Although renal transplantation (RTx) resolves endocrine metabolic and uremic disturbances, growth continues to be suboptimal. This study aims to describe changes in height from diagnosis to final adult height (FAH) in Korean renal allograft recipients and determine factors associated with posttransplantation growth. We retrospectively reviewed 63 renal allograft recipients who underwent RTx at 3 years afterwards. Pre- and post-RTx growth was analyzed by height Z scores (Ht_Z) at RTx, 2 and 5 years follow-up, and at FAH. Ht_Z decreased from diagnosis to dialysis by -0.8 (P = .009) and from dialysis to RTx by -0.46 (P height at RTx. Height at start of dialysis and dialysis duration were significant determinants of baseline height at RTx (P growth among younger recipients and among those with greater baseline height deficit, catch-up growth is not sustained and greater FAH is attained in those who are taller at RTx. Achieving greater height before dialysis and decreasing dialysis duration leads to maximal height at RTx as well as greater FAH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Involvement of 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS (membrane associated, rapid response steroid-binding), a novel vitamin D receptor, in growth inhibition of breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Cynthia L. [Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G2W1 (Canada); Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Rohe, Ben [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Nemere, Ilka [Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Center for Integrated BioSystems, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 8700 (United States); Meckling, Kelly A., E-mail: kmecklin@uoguelph.ca [Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G2W1 (Canada)

    2010-03-10

    In addition to classical roles in calcium homeostasis and bone development, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} [1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}] inhibits the growth of several cancer types, including breast cancer. Although cellular effects of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} traditionally have been attributed to activation of a nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), a novel receptor for 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} called 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS (membrane-associated, rapid response steroid-binding) protein was identified recently. The purpose of this study was to determine if the level of 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS expression modulates 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} activity in breast cancer cells. Relative levels of 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS protein in MCF-7, MDA MB 231, and MCF-10A cells were estimated by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. To determine if 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor was involved in the growth inhibitory effects of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} in MCF-7 cells, a ribozyme construct designed to knock down 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS mRNA was stably transfected into MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 clones in which 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor expression was reduced showed increased sensitivity to 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} ( IC{sub 50} 56 {+-} 24 nM) compared to controls (319 {+-} 181 nM; P < 0.05). Reduction in 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor lengthened the doubling time in transfectants treated with 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. Knockdown of 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor also increased the sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to the vitamin D analogs KH1060 and MC903, but not to unrelated agents (all-trans retinoic acid, paclitaxel, serum/glucose starvation, or the isoflavone, pomiferin). These results suggest that 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor expression interferes with the growth inhibitory activity of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} in breast cancer cells, possibly through the nuclear VDR. Further research should examine the potential for pharmacological or natural agents that modify 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS expression or activity as anticancer agents.

  13. Linear growth and final height characteristics in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalit Modan-Moses

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Growth retardation is an established complication of anorexia nervosa (AN. However, findings concerning final height of AN patients are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess these phenomena in female adolescent inpatients with AN. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all 211 female adolescent AN patients hospitalized in an inpatient eating disorders department from 1/1/1987 to 31/12/99. Height and weight were assessed at admission and thereafter routinely during hospitalization and follow-up. Final height was measured in 69 patients 2-10 years after discharge. Pre-morbid height data was available in 29 patients. RESULTS: Patients' height standard deviation scores (SDS on admission (-0.285±1.0 and discharge (-0.271±1.02 were significantly (p<0.001 lower than expected in normal adolescents. Patients admitted at age ≤13 years, or less than 1 year after menarche, were more severely growth-impaired than patients admitted at an older age, (p = 0.03. Final height SDS, available for 69 patients, was -0.258±1.04, significantly lower than expected in a normal population (p = 0.04, and was more severely compromised in patients who were admitted less than 1 year from their menarche. In a subgroup of 29 patients with complete growth data (pre-morbid, admission, discharge, and final adult height, the pre-morbid height SDS was not significantly different from the expected (-0.11±1.1, whereas heights at the other time points were significantly (p = 0.001 lower (-0.56±1.2, -0.52±1.2, and -0.6±1.2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that whereas the premorbid height of female adolescent AN patients is normal, linear growth retardation is a prominent feature of their illness. Weight restoration is associated with catch-up growth, but complete catch-up is often not achieved.

  14. Improved growth velocity of a patient with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS/LAH) without growth hormone deficiency by low-dose growth hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasawa, Kei; Takishima, Shigeru; Morioka, Chikako; Nishioka, Masato; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Aoki, Yoko; Shimohira, Masayuki; Kashimada, Kenichi; Morio, Tomohiro

    2015-10-01

    Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS/LAH; OMIM 607721) is caused by a heterozygous c.4A>G mutation in SHOC2. Most cases exhibit both growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and growth hormone insensitivity (GHI) and thus require a high dose of growth hormone (GH) therapy (e.g., 35-40 µg/kg/day). We report on a genetically diagnosed NS/LAH patient manifesting severe short stature (-3.85 SDs) with low serum level of IGF1, 30 ng/ml. The peak levels of GH stimulation tests were within the normal range, and GHI was not observed in the IGF1 generation test. However, with low-dose GH therapy (25 µg/kg/day) for two years, IGF1 level and height were remarkably improved (IGF1: 117 ng/ml, height SDs: -2.20 SDs). Further, catch-up of motor development and improvement of the proportion of extending limbs to trunk were observed (the Developmental Quotient score increased from 68 to 98 points, and the relative sitting height ratio decreased from 0.62 to 0.57). Our results suggest that endocrinological causes for short stature are variable in NS/LAH and that GH therapy should be considered as a possible treatment for delayed development in NS/LAH. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Anophthalmia, hearing loss, abnormal pituitary development and response to growth hormone therapy in three children with microdeletions of 14q22q23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, Sophie; Slamova, Zuzana; Dusatkova, Petra; Briand-Suleau, Audrey; Milcent, Karen; Metay, Corinne; Simandlova, Martina; Sumnik, Zdenek; Tosca, Lucie; Goossens, Michel; Labrune, Philippe; Zemankova, Elsa; Lebl, Jan; Tachdjian, Gerard; Sedlacek, Zdenek

    2014-02-28

    Microdeletions of 14q22q23 have been associated with eye abnormalities and pituitary defects. Other phenotypic features in deletion carriers including hearing loss and response to growth hormone therapy are less well recognized. We studied genotype and phenotype of three newly identified children with 14q22q23 deletions, two girls and one boy with bilateral anophthalmia, and compared them with previously published deletion patients and individuals with intragenic defects in genes residing in the region. The three deletions were de novo and ranged in size between 5.8 and 8.9 Mb. All three children lacked one copy of the OTX2 gene and in one of them the deletion involved also the BMP4 gene. All three patients presented partial conductive hearing loss which tended to improve with age. Analysis of endocrine and growth phenotypes showed undetectable anterior pituitary, growth hormone deficiency and progressive growth retardation in all three patients. Growth hormone therapy led to partial catch-up growth in two of the three patients but just prevented further height loss in the third. The pituitary hypoplasia, growth hormone deficiency and growth retardation associated with 14q22q23 microdeletions are very remarkable, and the latter appears to have an atypical response to growth hormone therapy in some of the cases.

  16. Growth and development in internationally adopted children: extent and timing of recovery after early adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jesús; Román, Maite; Camacho, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Following initial adversity, internationally adopted children arrive with significant growth and developmental delays. Post-placement recovery has been widely documented, but little has been known about its extent and timing several years after placement and in children with diverse pre-adoptive experiences. A total of 289 children adopted from six countries into Spanish families were studied. Growth and psychological development were considered on arrival and after an average of over 3 years. Growth and developmental initial delays affected a substantial percentage of the children. Post-adoption recovery seemed quicker and more complete in weight and height than in head circumference and psychological development. Initial and later values were correlated, but growth-development relation on arrival subsequently lost significance. Most of the catch-up happened in the first three post-adoption years. Adoption offers an impressive opportunity for recovery after previous adversity, although continuity between past and present persists. The improvement is more marked in some areas than in others and more substantial in the first post-adoption years. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors as hypothalamic targets of developmental programming in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; Stocker, Claire J.; Edward T. Wargent; Cripps, Roselle L.; Garfield, Alastair S.; Zorica Jovanovic; Giuseppe D'Agostino; Giles S. H. Yeo; Cawthorne, Michael A.; Arch, Jonathan?R.S.; Heisler, Lora K.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although obesity is a global epidemic, the physiological mechanisms involved are not well understood. Recent advances reveal that susceptibility to obesity can be programmed by maternal and neonatal nutrition. Specifically, a maternal low-protein diet during pregnancy causes decreased intrauterine growth, rapid postnatal catch-up growth and an increased risk for diet-induced obesity. Given that the synthesis of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is nutritionally regulate...

  18. The growth and development of the Annals of Human Biology: a 25-year retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J M

    1999-01-01

    The history of the founding in 1958 of the Society for the Study of Human Biology is outlined, and the circumstances in which the Annals of Human Biology began publication in 1974. The contents of the papers published 1974-1997 are reviewed; about 40% concern Population Biology, 40% Auxology and 20% Population Physiology. Some outstanding contributions in the first two of these fields are mentioned. Many consist of groups of papers from an ongoing study: 11 papers from the Otmoor villages study by Harrison and colleagues, and 11 concerning the growth of children in the Zurich Longitudinal Study, by Gasser and colleagues. Papers concerning the analysis of growth data and modelling of the growth curve, especially by Healy, are noted, and papers giving evidence of mini-spurts in growth and the saltation-stasis growth model are recalled. Wilson's papers on catch-up and growth regulation in twins are reviewed; also the contribution to growth-as-a-mirror of social conditions by workers at the Stockholm Institute of Education. The National Study of Health and Growth, led by Rona, contributed 13 papers over 14 years to the Annals, and there were outstanding one-off papers from the National Child Development Study, and the Cuban National Growth Study of 1972, and concerning the secular trend towards greater leg length in Japan, the upward social mobility of the taller of pairs of brothers, the growth of 18th century children in Vienna and Stuttgart and the measurements of 19th century slaves in the USA.

  19. [Effects of growth hormone treatment on anthropometrics, metabolic risk, and body composition variables in small for gestational age patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Bueno Lozano, Olga; Moreno Aznar, Luis Alberto; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2017-05-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) children without catch-up growth can benefit from treatment with growth hormone (rhGH). However, they should be monitored very closely because they are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome. A group of 28 SGA children with a mean age of 8.79 years and undergoing treatment with rhGH were selected for evaluation. Over the course of 4 years, an annual evaluation was performed on the anthropometric variables (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], growth rate, blood pressure and waist perimeter), metabolic risk variables (glycaemia, glycosylated haemoglobin, cholesterol ratio, insulinaemia, insulin-like growth factor 1[IGF1], IGF binding protein-3 [IGFBP-3], IGF1/IGFBP3 ratio, and HOMA index), and body composition variables. Treatment with rhGH was associated with a significant increase in height (-2.76±.11 SD to -1.53±.17 SD, P=.000), weight (-1.50±.09 SD to -1.21±.13 SD; P=.016), and growth rate (-1.43±.35 SD to .41±.41 SD; P=.009), without a corresponding change in the BMI. Insulinaemia (9.33±1.93mU/ml to 16.55±1.72mU/ml; P=.044) and the HOMA index (3.63±.76 to 6.43±.67; P=.042) increased, approaching insulin resistance levels. No changes were observed in the lipid profile. Body composition changes were observed, with a significant increase in lean mass (73.19±1.26 to 78.74±1.31; P=.037), and a reduction of fat mass (26.81±1.26 to 21.26±1.31; P=.021). Treatment with rhGH is effective for improving anthropometric variables in SGA patients who have not experienced a catch-up growth. It also produces changes in body composition, which may lead to a reduction in risk of metabolic syndrome. However, some insulin resistance was observed. It is important to follow up this patient group in order to find out whether these changes persist into adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of body growth in prepubertal Japanese children with obstructive sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy over a long postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Shinsaku; Hara, Hirotaka; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify changes in body growth patterns in prepubertal Japanese children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after adenotonsillectomy (AT) over a long postoperative period. We retrospectively analyzed the hospital records of 69 children, aged 3-10 years with OSA, who were followed-up for a median period of 38 months (range, 24-92 months) after AT. Height and weight were measured during the preoperative period and 12, and 24 months postoperatively, data were converted to standard deviation scores (SDS) using current gender- and age-specific values for the growth parameters adopted by the National growth chart of Japan. Comparisons between the pre and postoperative SDS values for height and weight were performed. The numerical data were examined statistically. The SDS for height and weight of Japanese OSA children significantly increased 24 months post AT and continued over the entire 24-month follow-up period. Height growth acceleration after AT ended earlier in children of 6.0 ± 1.5 years at the time of AT than in children of 4.7 ± 1.3 years who could not catch-up. In prepubertal Japanese children with OSA, AT was effective for the growth of those children over a long postoperative period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up: An evidence-based intervention for vulnerable infants and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Mary; Roben, Caroline K P; Caron, Eb; Hoye, Julie; Bernard, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we highlight issues we consider key to the development of an evidence-based intervention for the parents of young children who had experienced early adversity. The intervention was initially developed for foster infants, but adapted for infants living with their neglecting parents, then for young children adopted internationally, and finally for toddlers in foster care or living with neglecting birth parents. The intervention and its adaptations share a focus on the importance of providing nurturance to children when they are distressed, and following children's lead when they are not distressed. We approached intervention development from a theoretical position, with attachment theory and stress neurobiology central. But we are, at heart, clinical scientists and have been open to confirmation or disconfirmation of our ideas and hypotheses. In this paper, we describe our approach, discuss issues and challenges central to our work, and share advice for addressing similar issues and challenges.

  2. Catching up and Falling behind: An Appraisal of Brazilian Industrial Policy in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kasahara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Amidst analyses of industrial policy’s renaissance in Latin America, Brazil is often hailed as the paragon of this movement. The mix of old and new institutions and instruments would constitute a unique effort in promoting industrial development in the post-neoliberal period. However, this experience has been followed by middling results of industrial performance. Reviewing an emerging literature about the institutionalization and results of the Brazilian industrial policy, we argue that important aspects of path-dependency have been ignored. Organizational and ideational resistance have led to a much more traditional and conservative industrial policy than would be expected. Grounded historical analysis about intra-government conflicts, combined with studies about policy and sectoral developments, could give us elements to better assess the failures and achievements of the Brazilian case. Resumen: Avances y retrocesos: Una evaluación de la política industrial brasileña en el siglo XXI A la luz de diversos análisis sobre el renacimiento de la política industrial en América Latina, Brasil es frecuentemente alabado como el país arquetipo de la mencionada coyuntura. La combinación de instituciones e instrumentos antiguos y modernos constituiría un singular esfuerzo para promover el desarrollo industrial en el periodo post-neoliberal.  Sin embargo, la consecución de dicha experiencia fueron mediocres resultados de actividad industrial. Habiendo efectuado un examen de reciente literatura sobre la institucionalización y los resultados de la política industrial brasileña, sostenemos que, en dicho material, han sido ignorados importantes aspectos de la dependencia de la trayectoria (path-dependency. Resistencia organizativa y de formación de ideas han conducido a la implementación de una política industrial mucho más tradicional y conservadora de lo que se hubiera esperado. Un profundo análisis histórico acerca de conflictos intergubernamentales, combinado con estudios sobre política y evoluciones sectoriales pueden ofrecernos instrumentos para evaluar más eficazmente los fallos y los logros del caso brasileño.

  3. Catching up with the Vaughn express: Six years of standards-based teacher evaluation and performance pay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M. Kellor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of paying and evaluating teachers in the United States are longstanding, but discussions about changing these systems to support teacher quality and student achievement goals are becoming more common. Efforts to make significant changes to these programs can be difficult and take many years to design, gain approval, and implement; thus, few examples of alternative teacher compensation and evaluation systems exist. Relieved from many of the restrictions and requirements associated with most traditional public school systems, charter schools often are better positioned to implement changes more quickly than a traditional school, yet their experiences can provide useful information for others who are engaging in similar activities. Thus, the experience of a large urban charter school that designed and implemented an innovative teacher compensation system and standards-based teacher evaluation system that has been in place for six years offers important lessons in designing, implementing, evaluating and refining these systems.

  4. Early Patient Access to Medicines: Health Technology Assessment Bodies Need to Catch Up with New Marketing Authorization Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela

    National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European 'postcode' lottery will continue. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Reproductive cloning in humans and therapeutic cloning in primates: is the ethical debate catching up with the recent scientific advances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, S; Bortolotti, L

    2008-09-01

    After years of failure, in November 2007 primate embryonic stem cells were derived by somatic cellular nuclear transfer, also known as therapeutic cloning. The first embryo transfer for human reproductive cloning purposes was also attempted in 2006, albeit with negative results. These two events force us to think carefully about the possibility of human cloning which is now much closer to becoming a reality. In this paper we tackle this issue from two sides, first summarising what scientists have achieved so far, then discussing some of the ethical arguments in favour and against human cloning which are debated in the context of policy making and public consultation. Therapeutic cloning as a means to improve and save lives has uncontroversial moral value. As to human reproductive cloning, we consider and assess some common objections and failing to see them as conclusive. We do recognise, though, that there will be problems at the level of policy and regulation that might either impair the implementation of human reproductive cloning or make its accessibility restricted in a way that could become difficult to justify on moral grounds. We suggest using the time still available before human reproductive cloning is attempted successfully to create policies and institutions that can offer clear directives on its legitimate applications on the basis of solid arguments, coherent moral principles, and extensive public consultation.

  6. Catching up with wonderful women: The women-are-wonderful effect is smaller in more gender egalitarian societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krys, Kuba; Capaldi, Colin A; van Tilburg, Wijnand; Lipp, Ottmar V; Bond, Michael Harris; Vauclair, C-Melanie; Manickam, L Sam S; Domínguez-Espinosa, Alejandra; Torres, Claudio; Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi; Teyssier, Julien; Miles, Lynden K; Hansen, Karolina; Park, Joonha; Wagner, Wolfgang; Yu, Angela Arriola; Xing, Cai; Wise, Ryan; Sun, Chien-Ru; Siddiqui, Razi Sultan; Salem, Radwa; Rizwan, Muhammad; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Nader, Martin; Maricchiolo, Fridanna; Malbran, María; Javangwe, Gwatirera; Işık, İdil; Igbokwe, David O; Hur, Taekyun; Hassan, Arif; Gonzalez, Ana; Fülöp, Márta; Denoux, Patrick; Cenko, Enila; Chkhaidze, Ana; Shmeleva, Eleonora; Antalíková, Radka; Ahmed, Ramadan A

    2017-03-14

    Inequalities between men and women are common and well-documented. Objective indexes show that men are better positioned than women in societal hierarchies-there is no single country in the world without a gender gap. In contrast, researchers have found that the women-are-wonderful effect-that women are evaluated more positively than men overall-is also common. Cross-cultural studies on gender equality reveal that the more gender egalitarian the society is, the less prevalent explicit gender stereotypes are. Yet, because self-reported gender stereotypes may differ from implicit attitudes towards each gender, we reanalysed data collected across 44 cultures, and (a) confirmed that societal gender egalitarianism reduces the women-are-wonderful effect when it is measured more implicitly (i.e. rating the personality of men and women presented in images) and (b) documented that the social perception of men benefits more from gender egalitarianism than that of women. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Catching Up with the Vaughn Express: Six Years of Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation and Performance Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellor, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional methods of paying and evaluating teachers in the United States are longstanding, but discussions about changing these systems to support teacher quality and student achievement goals are becoming more common. Efforts to make significant changes to these programs can be difficult and take many years to design, gain approval, and…

  8. Older adults catch up to younger adults on a learning and memory task that involves collaborative social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, B J; Duff, M C; Weldon, K; Zhang, J; Zamba, K D; Tranel, D; Denburg, N L

    2015-01-01

    Learning and memory abilities tend to decline as people age. The current study examines the question of whether a learning situation that emphasises collaborative social interaction might help older persons overcome age-related learning and memory changes and thus perform similarly to younger persons. Younger and Older participants (n = 34 in each group) completed the Barrier Task (BT), a game-like social interaction where partners work together to develop labels for a set of abstract tangrams. Participants were also administered standard clinical neuropsychological measures of memory, on which the Older group showed expected inferiority to the Younger group. On the BT, the Older group performed less well than the Younger group early on, but as the task progressed, the performance of the Older group caught up and became statistically indistinguishable from that of the Younger group. These results can be taken to suggest that a learning milieu characterised by collaborative social interaction can attenuate some of the typical memory disadvantages associated with being older.

  9. Catching-up trajectories in the wine sector: a comparative study of Chile, Italy and South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusmano, L.; Morrison, A.; Rabellotti, R.

    2010-01-01

    From a development perspective an investigation of the changes that have occurred in the wine industry is of particular interest because it provides evidence on how emerging economies have been able to acquire significant shares of the international market in a dynamic sector. Based on novel

  10. How to improve the national innovation systems of catching-up economies? / Urmas Varblane, Davis Dyker, Dorel Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varblane, Urmas, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Ülevaade innovatsioonisüsteemide arengust Euroopa Liidu uutes üleminekuriikides. Rahvusliku innovatsioonisüsteemi mõiste arengust, põhilistest probleemidest rahvuslike innovatsioonisüsteemide rajamisel, soovitused innovatsioonipoliitika kujundamiseks

  11. Catching Up or Falling Behind? Continuing Wealth Disparities for Immigrants to Canada by Region of Origin and Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, Michelle; Aylsworth, Laura

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates wealth disparities among first-generation immigrants using data from the 2012 Survey of Financial Security. We apply logistic and linear regression models to estimate disparities in homeownership and household equivalent net worth by immigrant status, region of origin, and time since arrival. By focusing on immigrant families from different regions who entered Canada at different points in time, this research applies theories related to assimilation, human capital, and structural barriers to wealth. Our findings demonstrate that even though many immigrant families transition into homeownership and grow their wealth over time, certain first-generation immigrant groups continue to experience wealth disparities many years after their arrival to Canada. In particular, immigrant families from African, Asian, and Middle Eastern countries experienced the largest wealth gaps. Cet article examine les disparités de richesse entre les immigrants de première génération en utilisant les données de l'Enquête 2012 sur la sécurité financière. Nous appliquons des modèles de régression logistique et linéaire pour estimer les disparités dans la propriété et valeur nette des ménages équivalente par le statut d'immigrant, la région d'origine, et le temps écoulé depuis leur arrivée. En se concentrant sur les familles d'immigrants de différentes régions qui sont entrés au Canada à différents points dans le temps, cette recherche applique les théories liées à l'assimilation, le capital humain, et les obstacles structurels à la richesse. Nos résultats démontrent que même si de nombreuses familles d'immigrants transition vers la propriété et de croître leur richesse au fil du temps, certains groupes d'immigrants de première génération continuent d'éprouver des disparités de richesse de nombreuses années après leur arrivée au Canada. En particulier, les familles d'immigrants d'Afrique, d'Asie, et les pays du Moyen-Orient ont connu les plus grands écarts de richesse. © 2016 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  12. Playing catch-up with Escherichia coli: Using yeast to increase success rates in recombinant protein production experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn Mary Bill

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several host systems are available for the production of recombinant proteins, ranging from Escherichia coli to mammalian cell-lines. This article highlights the benefits of using yeast, especially for more challenging targets such as membrane proteins. On account of the wide range of molecular, genetic and microbiological tools available, use of the well-studied model organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, provides many opportunities to optimize the functional yields of a target protein. Despite this wealth of resources, it is surprisingly under-used. In contrast, Pichia pastoris, a relative new-comer as a host organism, is already becoming a popular choice, particularly because of the ease with which high biomass (and hence recombinant protein yields can be achieved. In the last few years, advances have been made in understanding how a yeast cell responds to the stress of producing a recombinant protein and how this information can be used to identify improved host strains in order to increase functional yields. Given these advantages, and their industrial importance in the production of biopharmaceuticals, I argue that S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris should be considered at an early stage in any serious strategy to produce proteins

  13. Association Between Vitamin D and Carboxy-Terminal Cross-Linked Telopeptide of Type I Collagen in Children During Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska-Sędek, Ewelina; Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Anna; Kucharska, Anna; Demkow, Urszula; Pyrżak, Beata

    2017-09-22

    Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play a crucial role in the regulation of bone turnover. Adequate vitamin D status supports proper bone remodeling, leading to normal longitudinal bone growth and normal peak bone mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) in children and adolescents with growth hormone deficiency at baseline and during recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy. The study was prospective and included 30 children and adolescents aged 5 to 17 years. Concentrations of 25(OH)D, ICTP, and IGF-1 were measured at baseline and during the first year of rhGH therapy. Baseline serum 25(OH)D concentration correlated with ICTP concentrations during the first trimester of rhGH therapy (r = 0.38, p < 0.050); the correlation was stronger in the second trimester of therapy (r = 0.6, p = 0.002). We conclude that proper vitamin D status is important in reaching the adequate dynamics of bone remodeling during growth, which is essential to achieve a catch-up growth during rhGH therapy.

  14. Impact of long-term use of oral nutritional supplement on nutritional adequacy, dietary diversity, food intake and growth of Filipino preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Dieu T T; Estorninos, Elvira; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Oliver, Jeffery S; Low, Yen Ling; Rosales, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies during childhood have adverse effects on child growth and health. In a single-arm 48-week long-term intervention, we previously reported the efficacy of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) and dietary counselling on catch-up growth and growth maintenance in nutritionally at-risk Filipino children. The present analysis was done to assess the contributing effects of ONS to nutritional adequacy, dietary diversity, food intake and longitudinal growth. ONS (450 ml) was consumed daily providing 450 kcal (1880 kJ) and at least 50 % of micronutrient requirements among 200 children aged 3-4 years with weight-for-height percentiles between 5th and 25th (WHO Growth Standards). Weight, height and dietary intakes using 24-h food recalls were measured at baseline, and at weeks 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48. Nutrient adequacy and dietary diversity score (DDS) were calculated. Generalised estimating equations were used to assess the effects of total nutrient intakes, DDS, ONS compliance and sociodemographic factors on longitudinal growth. The percentages of children with adequate intake of energy, protein, Fe, Ca and some vitamins at each post-baseline visit were improved from baseline, reaching 100 % for most nutrients. DDS was also increased from baseline and reached significance from week 16 onwards (P growth of Filipino children.

  15. Linear growth in relation to the circulating concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I in young children with acyanotic congenital heart disease with left to right shunts before versus after surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ashraf T; Elawwa, Ahmed; Khella, Aiman; Saeed, Saad; Yassin, Haytham

    2012-09-01

    The aim was to determine the degree of linear growth retardation of patients with congenital acyanotic heart disease at presentation and the magnitude of catch-up growth, if any, in relation to their echocardiographic changes and insulin-like growth factor- I (IGF-I) concentration before versus after surgical intervention. This prospective study recorded the anthropometric data and measured the circulating IGF-I, free thyroxin (FT4), and thyrotropin (TSH) of 27 infants and children with congenital acyanotic heart disease with left to right shunt (10 with VSD, 8 with ASD, 9 PDA) without heart failure, or severe pulmonary hypertension, before and 12 months or more after surgical or catheter intervention. Eighty normal age and sex- matched normal siblings of these patients were included as controls for the auxologic data. At presentation, patients' mean age = 35.6 ± 26 months, height SDS (HtSDS) = -1.6 ± 1.1, and body mass index (BMI) = 15.1 ± 2.5. They were significantly shorter and with lower BMI compared to normal controls (HtSDS = 0.25 ± 0.3, BMI = 16.4 ± 1.5). One year or more after catheter or surgical treatment, the HtSDS and BMI increased significantly in patients to -0.55 ± 0.9 and 15.9 ± 1.5, respectively). IGF-I levels increased from 46.8 ± 29 mcg/L before to 77.3 ± 47.6 mcg/L after intervention. No significant change has been detected in circulating FT4 or TSH concentrations. The HtSDS after treatment was correlated with the IGF-I concentration (r = 0.804, P congenital acyanotic heart diseases, early surgical interference and weight gain have beneficial effect on postoperative growth spurt. This catch-up growth appears to be mediated through activation of the GH/IGF-I system and suggests an important role of increasing BMI (an indicator of nutrition) as an imperative factor.

  16. Extra pulmonary tuberculosis: Rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis grown in Mycobacterium growth indicator tube 960 and Lowenstein-Jensen media, employing Standard diagnostics Bioline Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein 64 antigen detection kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Kandhakumari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Investigation of extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB in and around Pondicherry is being carried out since August 2011 in our tertiary care super specialty hospital. Objectives: To compare the rapid Kit SD Bio-Line MPT 64 Ag with conventional and time consuming biochemical tests. Confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a reasonable time frame is the main thrust. Materials and Methods: Thirty three Mycobacterium tuberculosis and four Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM grown in MGIT960 system/Lowenstein-Jensen media (LJ were examined by the rapid MPT 64 antigen detection as well as a battery of conventional tests like niacin, nitrate reduction, paraminobenzoic acid susceptibility and cord formation. Results and Conclusion: . Both the rapid kit and conventional tests correctly identified 33 M.tuberculosis isolates. Keeping conventional identification as reference, sensitivity and specificity for rapid kit was 100%. Rapid kit which takes only 15 minutes is accurate, cost effective, and facilitates early treatment for these EPTB patients, whose clinical specimens are paucibacillary.

  17. A mixed longitudinal study of physical growth in children with atopic dermatitis

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    Palit Aparna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing disorder associated with significant morbidity. Growth retardation is known to occur in children affected with atopic dermatitis. However, there is not enough Indian data for this disorder. Aims: We conducted a longitudinal study to look for the effect of atopic dermatitis on growth attainment of Indian preschool children. Methods: The growth patterns of 62 children, aged 3-5 years and suffering from atopic dermatitis were studied in terms of body weight, height and head circumference. Sixty-eight normal healthy children matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status were taken as controls. Every child was followed up at intervals of three months following a mixed longitudinal study design for the duration of one year. Severity of the disease was determined by the scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD index. Results: Growth velocities were lower in patients than in controls. Mean changes in body weight of patients of both sexes showed close similarity to controls. Mean values for height and head circumference were found to be significantly lower in girls than in the girls of the control group at majority of the age levels. In contrast, in boys, these values for the patients remained comparable or higher than in the boys of the control group at some of the ages. Girls had comparatively more severe disease than boys and they had lower values than boys for all the growth parameters assessed. Conclusion: Growth retardation was observed among children with a more severe form of the disease. Height of the affected children was compromised mostly, though a tendency for catch-up growth was observed. Severe forms of atopic dermatitis may impair a child′s linear growth temporarily.

  18. Postnatal growth restriction and gene expression changes in a mouse model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminen-Ahola, Nina; Ahola, Arttu; Flatscher-Bader, Traute; Wilkins, Sarah J; Anderson, Greg J; Whitelaw, Emma; Chong, Suyinn

    2010-10-01

    Growth restriction, craniofacial dysmorphology, and central nervous system defects are the main diagnostic features of fetal alcohol syndrome. Studies in humans and mice have reported that the growth restriction can be prenatal or postnatal, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown.We recently described a mouse model of moderate gestational ethanol exposure that produces measurable phenotypes in line with fetal alcohol syndrome (e.g., craniofacial changes and growth restriction in adolescent mice). In this study, we characterize in detail the growth restriction phenotype by measuring body weight at gestational day 16.5, cross-fostering from birth to weaning, and by extending our observations into adulthood. Furthermore, in an attempt to unravel the molecular events contributing to the growth phenotype, we have compared gene expression patterns in the liver and kidney of nonfostered, ethanol-exposed and control mice at postnatal day 28.We find that the ethanol-induced growth phenotype is not detectable prior to birth, but is present at weaning, even in mice that have been cross-fostered to unexposed dams. This finding suggests a postnatal growth restriction phenotype that is not due to deficient postpartum care by dams that drank ethanol, but rather a physiologic result of ethanol exposure in utero. We also find that, despite some catch-up growth after 5 weeks of age, the effect extends into adulthood, which is consistent with longitudinal studies in humans.Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed interesting ethanol-induced changes in the liver, including genes involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds, iron homeostasis, and lipid metabolism. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  20. Infants' physical and cognitive development after international adoption from foster care or institutions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Dries, Linda; Juffer, Femmie; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-01-01

    To compare the physical, cognitive, and motor development of infants adopted from foster care with infants adopted from institutions. Forty-two formerly fostered and 50 post-institutionalized girls adopted from China, aged between 11 and 16 months on arrival, were visited 2 and 6 months after adoption. Children's height, weight, and head circumference were measured. Stress regulation was assessed by diurnal salivary cortisol levels, and cognitive and motor development were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-second edition. At both assessments, the (modest) physical growth delays were similar for formerly fostered and post-institutionalized children. For weight and head circumference (but not for height) a catch-up over time was found, with a significant interaction between time and age at arrival, showing a more rapid catch-up for earlier adopted children. The daily cortisol curves of the formerly fostered and post-institutionalized children were similar and did not change over time. At both assessments, the former foster children outperformed the post-institutionalized children on mental and motor skills. Both groups showed a similar catch-up for mental development. For motor development, no catch-up was found. The influence of pre-adoption foster versus institutional rearing seems more pronounced for cognitive and motor development than for physical development and hormonal stress regulation. Our outcomes suggest that pre-adoption foster care is less detrimental to children's cognitive and motor development than institutional rearing.

  1. IGF-I and relation to growth in infancy and early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants and term born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Miranda; Cranendonk, Anneke; Twisk, Jos W R; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M

    2017-01-01

    In very-low-birth-weight infants IGF-I plays an important role in postnatal growth restriction and is probably also involved in growth restriction in childhood. We compared IGF-I and its relation to growth in early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants and term appropriate for gestational age born infants. We included 41 very-low-birth-weight and 64 term infants. Anthropometry was performed at all visits to the outpatient clinic. IGF-I and insulin were measured in blood samples taken at 6 months and 2 years corrected age (very-low-birth-weight children) and at 3 months, 1 and 2 years (term children). Over the first 2 years of life growth parameters are lower in very-low-birth-weight children compared to term children, but the difference in length decreases significantly. During the first 2 years of life IGF-I is higher in very-low-birth-weight children compared to term children. In both groups there is a significant relationship between IGF-I and (change in) length and weight over the first 2 years of life and between insulin and change in total body fat. Considering the relation of IGF-I to growth and the decrease in difference in length, higher IGF-I levels in very-low-birth-weight infants in early childhood probably have an important role in catch-up growth in length.

  2. International Comparison of Adult Height in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency and Limitations of Growth Hormone Treatment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2017-03-01

    The approved therapeutic dose of growth hormone (GH) for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) varies depending on the country. Japan has the lowest therapeutic dose globally, with a single dose of 0.175 mg/kg/week. GH treatment for GHD is considered as a replacement therapy and in fact, a dose of 0.175 mg/kg/week is slightly higher than GH secretion in prepubertal healthy children but nearly the same as that of pubertal children. Although the same growth rate as that of healthy children is expected in response to replacement therapy, the catch-up growth observed for the first 1 to 2 years of GH treatment was misinterpreted as an effect of the GH replacement therapy. The real effect of the GH replacement therapy was the growth rate appeared after more than 3 years of GH therapy, when patients showed nearly the same growth rate as healthy children. Therefore, children with GHD can have a higher growth rate than healthy children only for the first 1 to 2 years of GH therapy, after which their growth rate begins to wane. In the United States and Europe, the various therapeutic doses and high-dose treatment are accepted and the SD score of adult height after treatment is higher than that in Japan. The improvement degree of the height SD score and the adult height SD score with GH therapy are lower in Japan compared with other countries that administer a similar therapeutic dose. This suggests that the response to GH can be affected by race. Actual comparison of the response to GH between Japanese and Caucasian patients using KIGS (Pharmacia International Growth Database) data showed that both the short-term response and the effect on adult height were reduced in Japanese patients. As there is a strong positive correlation between adult height and height at the onset of puberty, treatment methods that can increase pubertal growth will be considered in the future for patients with GDH who enter puberty with short stature. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  3. Modulation of growth factors by growth hormone in children with chronic renal failure. The Southwest Pediatric Nephrology Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D R; Liu, F; Baker, B K; Hintz, R L; Lee, P D; Durham, S K; Brewer, E D; Frane, J W; Watkins, S L; Hogg, R J

    1997-06-01

    Anthropometric measurements and circulating growth factors were studied serially in 44 prepubertal children with growth failure and chronic renal failure (GFR = 10 to 40 ml/min/1.73 m2) who were randomized to receive either recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH; N = 30) or no treatment (N = 14). RhGH was given as Nutropin, 0.05 mg/kg/day, and the studies were carried out at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. At baseline, serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and -2 levels were, while IGFBP-3 levels were not, higher than those of children with normal renal function. In addition, height SDS at baseline correlated inversely with serum IGFBP-2 levels (r = -0.461, P = 0.0016), but did not correlate significantly with any other factor. After 12 months of study, the 30 children receiving rhGH showed: (i) greater increase in height (9.1 +/- 2.8 vs. 5.5 +/- 1.9 cm, P < 0.0001); (ii) increases in serum levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, free IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and acid labile subunit (ALS); (iii) a greater decrease in serum IGFBP-1 levels; and (iv) no significant difference in serum IGFBP-2 levels, when compared to the 14 control patients. The change in height SDS after 12 months of rhGH (+0.8) in the 30 treated children correlated significantly and positively with serum ALS, IGFBP-3, total IGF, IGF-I, IGF-II and free IGF-I levels measured during treatment. These observations suggest that, in children with growth failure associated with chronic renal failure: (i) IGFBP-2, and not IGFBP-3, is likely to be a growth inhibitor; (ii) rhGH stimulates catch-up growth in part by increasing serum levels of IGF peptides; and (iii) linear growth is influenced by the balance between growth stimulating IGFs and growth inhibitory IGFBPs.

  4. Growth hormone therapy, muscle thickness, and motor development in Prader-Willi syndrome: an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reus, Linda; Pillen, Sigrid; Pelzer, Ben J; van Alfen-van der Velden, Janielle A A E M; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Zwarts, Machiel; Otten, Barto J; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effect of physical training combined with growth hormone (GH) on muscle thickness and its relationship with muscle strength and motor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). In a randomized controlled trial, 22 infants with PWS (12.9 ± 7.1 months) were followed over 2 years to compare a treatment group (n = 10) with a waiting-list control group (n = 12). Muscle thickness of 4 muscle groups was measured by using ultrasound. Muscle strength was evaluated by using the Infant Muscle Strength meter. Motor performance was measured with the Gross Motor Function Measurement. Analyses of variance were used to evaluate between-group effects of GH on muscle thickness at 6 months and to compare pre- and posttreatment (after 12 months of GH) values. Multilevel analyses were used to evaluate effects of GH on muscle thickness over time, and multilevel bivariate analyses were used to test relationships between muscle thickness, muscle strength, and motor performance. A significant positive effect of GH on muscle thickness (P muscle thickness and muscle strength (r = 0.61, P muscle thickness and motor performance (r = 0.81, P muscle strength and motor performance (r = 0.76, P muscle thickness, which was related to muscle strength and motor development in infants with PWS. Catch-up growth was faster in muscles that are most frequently used in early development. Because this effect was independent of GH, it suggests a training effect. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Cope With a Parent's Suicide? Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months Print A A A What's in ... months of life are a period of rapid growth. Your baby will gain about 1 to 1½ ...

  6. Compensatory Growth in Juveniles of Freshwater Redclaw Crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus Reared at Three Different Temperatures: Hyperphagia and Food Efficiency as Primary Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Liane; López Greco, Laura S

    2015-01-01

    Feeding restriction, as a trigger for compensatory growth, might be considered an alternative viable strategy for minimizing waste as well as production costs. The study assessed whether juvenile redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (initial weight 0.99 ± 0.03 g) was able to compensate for feeding restriction at different temperatures (23 ± 1, 27 ± 1 and 31 ± 1 ° C). Hyperphagia, food utilization efficiency, energetic reserves, and hepatopancreas structure were analyzed. Three temperatures and two feeding regimes (DF-daily fed throughout the experiment and CF- 4 days food deprivation followed by 4 days of feeding, intermittently) were tested. The restriction period was from day 1 to 45, and the recovery period was from day 45 to 90. The previously restricted crayfish held at 23, 27, and 31 ± 1 ° C displayed complete body weight catch-up through compensatory growth following the restriction period with depressed growth. The mechanisms that might explain this response were higher feed intake (hyperphagia), and increased food utilization efficiency. Hepatopancreatic lipids were used as a metabolic fuel and hepatosomatic index was reduced in the previously restricted crayfish, but recovery at the same level of unrestricted crayfish occurred after the shift to daily feeding. The highest temperature affected adversely growth, feed intake, food efficiency, and metabolism of crayfish, whereas the lowest temperature and feeding restriction induced a more efficient growth of the crayfish.

  7. Compensatory Growth in Juveniles of Freshwater Redclaw Crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus Reared at Three Different Temperatures: Hyperphagia and Food Efficiency as Primary Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Stumpf

    Full Text Available Feeding restriction, as a trigger for compensatory growth, might be considered an alternative viable strategy for minimizing waste as well as production costs. The study assessed whether juvenile redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (initial weight 0.99 ± 0.03 g was able to compensate for feeding restriction at different temperatures (23 ± 1, 27 ± 1 and 31 ± 1 ° C. Hyperphagia, food utilization efficiency, energetic reserves, and hepatopancreas structure were analyzed. Three temperatures and two feeding regimes (DF-daily fed throughout the experiment and CF- 4 days food deprivation followed by 4 days of feeding, intermittently were tested. The restriction period was from day 1 to 45, and the recovery period was from day 45 to 90. The previously restricted crayfish held at 23, 27, and 31 ± 1 ° C displayed complete body weight catch-up through compensatory growth following the restriction period with depressed growth. The mechanisms that might explain this response were higher feed intake (hyperphagia, and increased food utilization efficiency. Hepatopancreatic lipids were used as a metabolic fuel and hepatosomatic index was reduced in the previously restricted crayfish, but recovery at the same level of unrestricted crayfish occurred after the shift to daily feeding. The highest temperature affected adversely growth, feed intake, food efficiency, and metabolism of crayfish, whereas the lowest temperature and feeding restriction induced a more efficient growth of the crayfish.

  8. Treatment of potato tubers with the synthetic cytokinin 1-(alpha-ethylbenzyl)-3-nitroguanidine results in rapid termination of endodormancy and induction of transcripts associated with cell proliferation and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial plants undergo repression of meristematic activity in a process called dormancy. Dormancy is a complex metabolic process with implications for plant breeding and crop yield. Endodormancy, a specific subclass of dormancy, originates within tissue which is in a repressed state of growth and ...

  9. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  10. The Question of Instability, Uncompetitiveness and Growth Slowdown of Small Middle –Income Countries in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Senjur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thesis of this article is that a small country with a below-average per capita income is in a disadvantaged macroeconomic position inside the euro area. Small middle-income countries expected an acceleration of growth by joining the EMU. They were hoping to catch up in the convergence process within the euro area. Yet things turned out differently. The crisis in 2009–2012 has led to excessive instability due to exogenous macroeconomic prices and the lack of a lender of last resort for sovereign debtors. Small MICs are more vulnerable to asymmetric shocks from abroad due to the ‘one-size-fits-all’ economic policy at the EMU level. This is reflected in the excessive volatility of real economic variables (such as GDP and unemployment, and excessive financial instability (such as indebtedness and sovereign debt. The crisis also revealed weak price competitiveness of exports due to overvalued exchange rate of the euro and overall under-average productivity of the MICs. MICs had to respond with deflationary internal (surrogate devaluations and depressed aggregate demand. Measures of internal surrogate devaluations may partially improve situation in the medium term, yet they may worsen the competitive growth situation in the long run. A macroeconomic environment of macroeconomic instability and weak competitiveness may trigger a slowdown in growth.

  11. Toward Sustainable Economic Growth: A Spatial Panel Data Analysis of Regional Income Convergence in US BEA Economic Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Up Lim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A question fundamental to sustainable economic growth is whether a poor region tends to grow faster than a rich one, such that the poor region catches up with the rich region in terms of the level of per capita income. In this article, we apply the spatial panel data approach to the analysis of regional income convergence across 177 economic areas in the contiguous US states over the period from 1969 to 2009. Using data on per capita incomes in the functionally defined economic areas, we find that the absolute value of the estimated coefficient of the initial per capita income decreases in the spatial and time-period fixed effects spatial lag model and increases in the spatial and time-period fixed effects spatial error model. This result implies that the growth rate in a specific economic area will be not only directly affected by an exogenous shock introduced into that economic area but also be impacted more by both the indirect effects of the first-order neighboring economic areas and the induced effects of the higher-order neighboring economic areas. This gives helpful hints on the issue of spatial interaction and regional policy coordination to start a virtuous circle of sustainable economic growth.

  12. Growth inhibition in rats fed inadequate and incomplete proteins: repercussion on mandibular biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, Clarisa; Champin, Graciela M; Bozzini, Carlos E; Alippi, Rosa M

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the effects of feeding growing rats with a diet containing inadequate and incomplete proteins on both the morphological and the biomechanical properties of the mandible. Female rats aged 30 d were fed freely with one of two diets, control (CD, 301 Cal/100g) and experimental (ED, 359 Cal/100g). CD was a standard laboratory diet, while ED was a synthetic diet containing cornflower supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Both diets had the same physical characteristics. Control (C) and experimental (E) animals were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each. C40 and E40 rats were fed CD and ED, respectively, for 40 d; C105 were fed the CD for 105 d; and E105 were fed the ED for 40 d and then the CD for the remainder of the experimental period (65 d). Mandibular growth was estimated directly on excised and cleaned bones by taking measurements between anatomical points. Mechanical properties of the right hemimandible were estimated by using a 3-point bending test to estimate the structural properties of the bone. Geometric properties of both the entire bone and the cross-section were determined. Bone material properties were calculated from structural and geometric properties. The left hemimandibles were ashed and the ash weight obtained. Rats fed the ED failed to achieve normal body weight gain. Complete catch-up was observed at the end of nutritional rehabilitation. Mandibular weight and length were negatively affected by the ED, as were the cross-sectional area, the mineralized cortical area, and the cross-sectional moment of inertia. All of these parameters showed incomplete catch-up. The structural bone mechanical properties indicative of strength and stiffness were negatively affected. Intrinsic material properties, as assessed by the modulus of elasticity and maximal elastic stress, were within normal values. In summary, the experimental bone was weaker than the control and structurally incompetent. The bone considered was smaller than the

  13. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Ma’ayeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient’s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  14. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ma'ayeh, Marwan

    2014-06-18

    This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient\\'s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  15. Endocrinology of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Ron G

    2010-01-01

    Growth is a remarkably complex biological phenomenon, requiring the coordinated production of multiple hormones and growth factors. Human growth is characterized by several distinct features, including: (1) rapid growth in late gestation; (2) growth deceleration immediately following birth; (3) a prolonged childhood and a mid-childhood growth spurt; (4) a pubertal growth spurt; (5) relatively late attainment of adult height, and (6) minimal sexual dimorphism of adult stature. Secular changes in the height of humans probably reflect nutritional and environmental factors, rather than major genomic changes. While multiple hormones impact growth, the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis plays a central role in both intrauterine and postnatal growth. GH, after being secreted by the pituitary, binds to a transmembrane receptor and activates a postreceptor signaling cascade, ultimately leading to phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5b. STAT5b transcriptionally regulates the genes for IGF-I and for key IGF-binding proteins. IGF-I, in turn, binds to the type 1 IGF receptor, resulting in chondrocyte proliferation and statural growth. IGF-deficient states may be divided into secondary forms, reflecting defects in GH production, and primary forms. Molecular defects of the GH-IGF axis have been identified in humans, with phenotypes that correspond to the specific genetic lesions. Therapy with GH or IGF-I can now be matched to specific defects in the GH-IGF axis. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Bone growth during rapamycin therapy in young rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yu-Zhu

    2009-01-01

    significantly decreased endochondral bone growth. No catch-up growth was demonstrated at the end of 4 weeks, although markers of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation improved. Clinical studies need to be done to evaluate these changes in growing children.

  17. Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01

    If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

  18. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  19. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The problems of poverty in the United States, and their resolution, are inextricably connected with the nature of the economic growth process and its...economic deprivation, but the adjustments required by growth have left in their wake new pockets of poverty . In the future, one of the key variables...that will determine how rapidly we can eliminate poverty in the United States will be the rate of increase in average incomes. And one of the key

  20. Previsibilidade de sucesso na disjunção palatina avaliada pelo estágio de maturação esquelética: estudo piloto Sucess predictability in rapid maxillary expansion when assessed by skeletal growth maturation phase: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rezende de Albuquerque

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: a proposta deste estudo foi determinar se a previsibilidade de sucesso da disjunção palatina está correlacionada a algum evento de maturidade esquelética que determine o final do crescimento geral do organismo. METODOLOGIA: utilizando o conhecimento dos estágios de maturação esquelética visualizados por radiografia de mão e punho e registrados em um gráfico do surto de crescimento puberal, foram avaliados dezenove pacientes de ambos os gêneros, com idades variando de dez anos e três meses a vinte e oito anos e quatro meses, supervisionados por análises clínicas e radiográficas específicas antes e após o procedimento de disjunção palatina. RESULTADO E CONCLUSÃO: pode-se afirmar que não foi possível determinar a previsibilidade de sucesso da disjunção palatina quando esta foi correlacionada com a ossificação total do osso rádio.AIM: to evaluate the possibility of rapid maxillary expansion in patients who have reached the decisive event of facial growth ending (total fusion of the radius. METHODS: the study was held using esqueletal maturation data from hand and wrist x-ray plotted in a puberal growth spurt graph from nineteen patients of both genders at ages ranging from ten years and three months to twenty-eight years and four months surveilled by specific clinical and radiographic analysis before and after the rapid maxillary expansion procedure. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: it could be concluded that it was not possible to establish a successful correlation between total fusion of radius with rapid maxillary expansion.

  1. Causal Links among Saving, Investment and Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between saving, investment and GDP still remains an empirical issue. In their aspiration to catch up the rest of the world, developing countries provides a special place on this matter. This paper tried to investigate the main determinants of saving and the connection among saving, investment and GDP in the ...

  2. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  3. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  4. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  5. [Concordance between a head circumference growth function and intellectual disability in relation with the cause of microcephaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, R; Macaya Ruíz, A; Giraldo Arjonilla, J; Roig-Quilis, M

    2015-08-01

    Our aim was to investigate the correlations between patterns of head growth and intellectual disability among distinct aetiological presentations of microcephaly. 3,269 head circumference (HC) charts of patients from a tertiary neuropediatric unit were reviewed and 136 microcephalic participants selected. Using the Z-scores of registered HC measurements we defined the variables: HC Minimum, HC Drop and HC Catch-up. We classified patients according to the presence or absence of intellectual disability (IQ below 71) and according to the cause of microcephaly (idiopathic, familial, syndromic, symptomatic and mixed). Using Discriminant Analysis a C-function was defined as C=HC Minimum + HC Drop with a cut-off level of C=-4.32 Z-score. In our sample 95% of patients scoring below this level, severe microcephaly, were classified in the disabled group while the overall concordance was 66%. In the symptomatic-mixed group the concordance between HC function and outcome reached 82% in contrast to only 54% in the idiopathic-syndromic group (P-value=0.0002). We defined a HC growth function which discriminates intellectual disability of microcephalic patients better than isolated HC measurements, especially for those with secondary and mixed aetiologies. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and optimal glycolytic flux are required for rapid adaptation and growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of the weak-acid preservative sorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, C D; Stratford, M; McMullin, Z; Cole, M B; Crimmins, K; Brown, A J; Coote, P J

    1996-01-01

    The weak acid sorbic acid transiently inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in media at low pH. During a lag period, the length of which depended on the severity of this weak-acid stress, yeast cells appeared to adapt to this stress, eventually recovering and growing normally. This adaptation to weak-acid stress was not due to metabolism and removal of the sorbic acid. A pma1-205 mutant, with about half the normal membrane H+-ATPase activity, was shown to be more sensitive to sorbic acid than its parent. Sorbic acid appeared to stimulate plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity in both PMA1 and pma1-205. Consistent with this, cellular ATP levels showed drastic reductions, the extent of which depended on the severity of weak-acid stress. The weak acid did not appear to affect the synthesis of ATP because CO2 production and O2 consumption were not affected significantly in PMA1 and pma1-205 cells. However, a glycolytic mutant, with about one-third the normal pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase activity and hence a reduced capacity to generate ATP, was more sensitive to sorbic acid than its isogenic parent. These data are consistent with the idea that adaptation by yeast cells to sorbic acid is dependent on (i) the restoration of internal pH via the export of protons by the membrane H+-ATPase in an energy-demanding process and (ii) the generation of sufficient ATP to drive this process and still allow growth. PMID:8795204

  7. Growth hormone treatment for short stature in children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heike; Rosilio, Myriam; Blum, Werner F; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2008-10-01

    Children born small for gestational age (SGA) who do not show catch-up in the first 2 years generally remain short for life. Although the majority of children born SGA are not growth hormone (GH) deficient, GH treatment is known to improve average growth in these children.Early studies using GH in children born SGA demonstrated increased height velocity, but these effects tended to be short-term with effects decreasing when GH treatment stopped. With refined GH regimens, significant effects on height have been shown, with gains of approximately 1 standard deviation score after 2 years. Studies have also shown that long-term continuous GH therapy can significantly increase final height to within the normal range. GH treatment of children born SGA does not appear to unduly affect bone age or pubertal development. Growth prediction models have been used to identify various factors involved in the response to GH therapy with age at start, treatment duration, and GH dose showing strong effects. Genetic factors such as the exon 3 deletion of the GH receptor may contribute to short stature of children born SGA and may also be involved in the responsiveness to GH treatment, but there remain other unknown genetic and/or environmental factors. No unexpected safety concerns have arisen in GH therapy trials. In particular, no long-term adverse effects have been seen for glucose metabolism, and positive effects have been shown for lipid profiles and blood pressure.GH treatment in short children born SGA has shown a beneficial, growth-promoting effect in both the short-and long-term, and has become a recognized indication in both the US and Europe. Further studies on individualized treatment regimens and long-term safety are ongoing.

  8. EFFECTS OF GROWTH HORMONE ON THE ONTOGENETIC ALLOMETRY OF CRANIOFACIAL BONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Paula N.; Kristensen, Erika; Morck, Douglas W.; Boyd, Steven; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    Organism size is controlled by interactions between genetic and environmental factors mediated by hormones with systemic and local effects. As changes in size are usually not isometric, a considerable diversity in shape can be generated through modifications in the patterns of ontogenetic allometry. In this study we evaluated the role of timing and dose of growth hormone (GH) release on growth and correlated shape changes in craniofacial bones. Using a longitudinal study design, we analyzed GH deficient mice treated with GH supplementation commencing pre- and post-puberty. We obtained 3D in vivo micro-CT images of the skull between 21 and 60 days of age and used geometric morphometrics to analyze size and shape changes among control and GH deficient treated and non-treated mice. The variable levels of circulating GH altered the size and shape of the adult skull, and influenced the cranial base, vault, and face differently. While cranial base synchondroses and facial sutures were susceptible to either the direct or indirect effect of GH supplementation, its effect was negligible on the vault. Such different responses support the role of intrinsic growth trajectories of skeletal components in controlling the modifications induced by systemic factors. Contrary to the expected, the timing of GH treatment did not have an effect on catch-up growth. GH levels also altered the ontogenetic trajectories by inducing changes in their location and extension in the shape space, indicating that differences arose before 21 days and were further accentuated by a truncation of the ontogenetic trajectories in GHD groups. PMID:25098638

  9. [Response to 3 years of growth hormone therapy in small for gestational age children: clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güemes Hidalgo, M; Fernández de Larrea Baz, N; Muñoz Calvo, M T; Argente, J

    2013-05-01

    To analyze the effectiveness and safety of growth hormone (GH) treatment, administered over a 3 year period to children small for gestational age (SGA) without catch-up growth, followed up in the Department of Endocrinology at the University Hospital Niño Jesús in Madrid between 2003 and 2011. Anthropometric and analytical data from 52 SGA patients receiving GH therapy (mean dose: 0.035mg/kg/day) were retrospectively examined in order to determine its influence on linear growth, body composition, bone maturation, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, thyroid hormone profile and blood pressure. GH treatment induced a significant increase in growth velocity, with the highest rise occurring during the first 12 months of its administration and in children under 5 years of age. Insulin-like growth factor-I levels increased significantly, along with a significant acceleration in bone maturation, with both parameters remaining within normal limits. A progressive rise in fasting glucose levels, glycosylated hemoglobin, baseline insulin, and homeostasis model assessment index, were also found. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels decreased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (HDL-c) increased significantly. The atherogenic ratios of total-cholesterol/HDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c also decreased significantly. GH treatment promotes physical growth in SGA patients, generates certain resistance to the action of insulin, and improves atherogenic risk ratios after 3 years of therapy. Long-term monitoring is required until adult height is reached. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  11. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  12. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  13. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  14. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  15. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because their parents are. But some children have growth disorders. Growth disorders are problems that prevent children from developing ... or other features. Very slow or very fast growth can sometimes signal a gland problem or disease. ...

  16. Effect of severe maternal dietary restriction on growth and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weights in offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mikiko; Shibanuma, Mayumi; Kimura, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, the number of low weight birth babies is increasing. The increase in the number of slim young women is considered to be associated with the rising number of low birth weight babies in Japan. In 1993, Barker et al. published highly influential findings indicating a relationship between low birth weight and increased risk of developing symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Here, we report on results that occur when dietary restriction is applied during all periods of pregnancy. It was shown that, at 5 d, the mean weight of pups in the dietary restriction group was lower than the mean weight of pups in the control group. Catch-up growth began when milk yields of the dietary restriction group pups attained the same levels as those of the control group pups. Intra-abdominal adipose tissue weights of the dietary restricted group were significantly higher than those of the control group in males at 280 d after birth. Intra-abdominal adipose tissue weights of the dietary restricted group had a tendency to be higher than those of the control group for female rats. In male rats, it is considered that increase in intra-abdominal adipose tissue is related to lean body mass but it is not related to the function of brown adipose tissue (BAT). In female rats, it is considered that the increase in intra-abdominal adipose tissue is related to the function of BAT and lean body mass.

  17. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  18. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  19. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  20. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail: vidya.patil@ruparel.edu; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: mugdha.patki@ruparel.edu [D. G. Ruparel College, Senapati Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  1. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  2. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  3. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  4. Growth in Children with Cerebral Palsy during five years after Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy: a practice-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Philippe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight is reported as a side effect of SDR. The aims were to study the development of weight, height and body mass index (BMI during five years after SDR. Methods This prospective, longitudinal and practice-based study included all 56 children with CP spastic diplegia undergoing SDR from the start in March 1993 to April 2003 in our hospital. The preoperative Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels were I-II in 17, III in 15, IV-V in 24 children. Median age at SDR was 4.3 years (range 2.4-7.4 years. Weight and height/recumbent length were measured. Swedish growth charts for typically developing children generated weight, height and BMI z-scores for age and gender. Results The preoperative median z-scores were for height -1.92 and for body mass index (BMI -0.22. Five years later, the median BMI z-score was increased by + 0.57 (p + 2 SD increased (p The individual growth was highly variable, but a tendency towards increasing stunting with age was seen in severe gross motor dysfunction (GMFCS levels IV-V and the opposite, a slight catch-up of height in children with walking ability (GMFCS levels I-III. Conclusions These are the first available subtype- and GMFCS-specific longitudinal growth data for children with CP spastic diplegia. Their growth potential according to these data should be regarded as a minimum, as some children were undernourished. It is unknown whether the spasticity reduction through SDR increased the weight gain velocity, or if the relative weight increase was part of the general "obesity epidemic". For some children the weight increase was highly desirable. In others, it resulted in overweight and obesity with risk of negative health effects. Weight and height should be monitored to enable early prevention of weight aberrations also causing problems with mobility, activity and participation.

  5. Evaluation of Neonatal Lung Volume Growth by Pulmonary Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopper, Melissa A; Walkup, Laura L; Tkach, Jean A; Higano, Nara S; Lim, Foong Yen; Haberman, Beth; Woods, Jason C; Kingma, Paul S

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate postnatal lung volume in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and determine if a compensatory increase in lung volume occurs during the postnatal period. Using a novel pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging method for imaging neonatal lungs, the postnatal lung volumes in infants with CDH were determined and compared with prenatal lung volumes obtained via late gestation magnetic resonance imaging. Infants with left-sided CDH (2 mild, 9 moderate, and 1 severe) were evaluated. The total lung volume increased in all infants, with the contralateral lung increasing faster than the ipsilateral lung (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 3.0 mL/week vs 3.4 ± 2.1 mL/week, P = .005). In contrast to prenatal studies, the volume of lungs of infants with more severe CDH grew faster than the lungs of infants with more mild CDH (Spearman's ρ=-0.086, P = .01). Although the contralateral lung volume grew faster in both mild and moderate groups, the majority of total lung volume growth in moderate CDH came from increased volume of the ipsilateral lung (42% of total lung volume increase in the moderate group vs 32% of total lung volume increase in the mild group, P = .09). Analysis of multiple clinical variables suggests that increased weight gain was associated with increased compensatory ipsilateral lung volume growth (ρ = 0.57, P = .05). These results suggest a potential for postnatal catch-up growth in infants with pulmonary hypoplasia and suggest that weight gain may increase the volume growth of the more severely affected lung. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  8. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  9. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  10. Dynamics of rapid innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, T M A; Palma, R; Farr, R S

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a model of innovation in which products are composed of components and new components are adopted one at a time. We show that the number of products we can make now gives a distorted view of the number we can make in the future: the more complex a product is, the more it gets under-represented. From this complexity discount we derive a strategy for increasing the rate of innovation by choosing components on the basis of long-term growth rather than just short-term gain. We test our model on data from language, gastronomy and technology and predict the best strategy for innovating in each.

  11. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  12. Rapid Tools Compensation in Sheet Metal Stamping Process

    OpenAIRE

    Iorio Lorenzo; Strano Matteo; Monno Michele

    2016-01-01

    The sudden growth of additive manufacturing is generating a renovated interest towards the field of rapid tooling. We propose a geometrical compensation method for rapid tools made by thermoset polyurethane. The method is based on the explicit FEM simulation coupled to a geometrical optimization algorithm for designing the stamping tools. The compensation algorithm is enhanced by considering the deviations between the stamped and designed components. The FEM model validation has been performe...

  13. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  14. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  15. Secular trends in growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudvoye, Julie; Parent, Anne-Simone

    2017-06-01

    Human adult height has been increasing world-wide for a century and a half. The rate of increase depends on time and place of measurement. Final height appears to have reached a plateau in Northern European countries but it is still increasing in southern European countries as well as Japan. While mean birth length has not changed recently in industrialized countries, the secular trend finally observed in adult height mostly originates during the first 2 years of life. Secular trend in growth is a marker of public health and provides insights into the interaction between growth and environment. It has been shown to be affected by income, social status, infections and nutrition. While genetic factors cannot explain such rapid changes in average population height, epigenetic factors could be the link between growth and environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Linear growth in relation to the circulating concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I in young children with acyanotic congenital heart disease with left to right shunts before versus after surgical intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim was to determine the degree of linear growth retardation of patients with congenital acyanotic heart disease at presentation and the magnitude of catch-up growth, if any, in relation to their echocardiographic changes and insulin-like growth factor- I (IGF-I concentration before versus after surgical intervention. Materials and Methods: This prospective study recorded the anthropometric data and measured the circulating IGF-I, free thyroxin (FT4, and thyrotropin (TSH of 27 infants and children with congenital acyanotic heart disease with left to right shunt (10 with VSD, 8 with ASD, 9 PDA without heart failure, or severe pulmonary hypertension, before and 12 months or more after surgical or catheter intervention. Eighty normal age and sex- matched normal siblings of these patients were included as controls for the auxologic data. Results: At presentation, patients′ mean age = 35.6 ± 26 months, height SDS (HtSDS = -1.6 ± 1.1, and body mass index (BMI = 15.1 ± 2.5. They were significantly shorter and with lower BMI compared to normal controls (HtSDS = 0.25 ± 0.3, BMI = 16.4 ± 1.5. One year or more after catheter or surgical treatment, the HtSDS and BMI increased significantly in patients to -0.55 ± 0.9 and 15.9 ± 1.5, respectively. IGF-I levels increased from 46.8 ± 29 mcg/L before to 77.3 ± 47.6 mcg/L after intervention. No significant change has been detected in circulating FT4 or TSH concentrations. The HtSDS after treatment was correlated with the IGF-I concentration (r = 0.804, P < 0.001. The change in the HtSDS after intervention was correlated significantly with BMI (r = 0.594, P 0.001 and negatively with age (r = -0.52, P< 0.01. The shunt size was correlated negatively with BMI and HtSDS before intervention (r = -0.35, P < 0.01 and 0.01 and r = -0.461, P < 0.05, respectively. GVSDS after intervention surgery was correlated with BMI after intervention (r = 0.495, P < 0.001 and negatively with the age at

  17. The 23K variant of the R23K polymorphism in the glucocorticoid receptor gene protects against postnatal growth failure and insulin resistance after preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finken, Martijn J J; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Dekker, Friedo W; Frölich, Marijke; Romijn, Johannes A; Slagboom, P Eline; Wit, Jan M

    2007-12-01

    Preterm birth is associated with postnatal growth failure, abdominal fat accumulation, insulin resistance, and hypertension, resembling increased glucocorticoid bioactivity. We tested the effects of the R23K and N363S polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor gene, associated with decreased and increased sensitivity to cortisol, respectively, on linear growth and the adult metabolic profile in a cohort (n = 249) of men and women born less than 32 gestational weeks and followed up prospectively from birth until 19 yr of age. This was a birth cohort study that included 249 19-yr-old survivors born at a gestational age less than 32 wk from the Dutch Project on Preterm and Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants cohort. This project was a nationwide multicenter follow-up study. Linear growth and adult body composition, fasting cortisol, glucose, insulin, and cholesterol concentrations, and blood pressure were measured. The 23K variant (n = 24) was associated with lower fasting insulin levels [mean difference after log transformation: -0.09 (95% confidence interval -0.16, -0.01) mU/liter] and a lower homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index [mean difference after log transformation: -0.09 (95% confidence interval -0.16, -0.01)] as well as with a taller stature departing from the age of 1 yr onward. 23K carriers showed complete catch-up growth between the ages of 3 months and 1 yr, and attained height was similar to the population reference mean, whereas stature in noncarriers was on average 0.5 sd below this mean. In contrast, the N363S polymorphism was not associated with any of the outcomes. Carriers of the 23K variant are, at least in part, protected against postnatal growth failure and insulin resistance after preterm birth.

  18. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  19. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  20. Forest evaporation models: Relationships between stand growth and evaporation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between forest stand structure, growth and evaporation were analysed to determine whether forest evaporation can be estimated from stand growth data. This approach permits rapid assessment of the potential impacts of afforestation...