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Sample records for rapid carvedilol up-titration

  1. Nano and Microparticulate Chitosan Based System for Formulation of Carvedilol Rapid Melt Tablet

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    Ravindra Patil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study rapid melt tablets (RMT’s of carvedilol were prepared by using ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. Carvedilol is beta-adrenergic antagonist and its oral bioavailability is about 25-35% because of first pass metabolism. Methods: The spray-dried microparticles were formulated into RMT’s using a wet granulation process. The Formulation and optimization of carvedilol loaded RMTs using nano and microparticulate chitosan based system (NMCS was done by using 32 factorial designs. Results: Drug entrapment efficiency of about 64.9 % (w/w and loading capacity of 14.44% (w/w were achieved for the microparticles, which were ranged from 1 μm to 4 μm in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated RMTs could be completely dissolved within 40 seconds. Dissolution studies suggested that Carvedilol is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing Carvedilol that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. Conclusion: Results shown that the development of new RMTs designed with crosslinked microparticle might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional RMTs and the side effects related to Carvedilol intrinsic characteristics. The development of Carvedilol NMCS using ludiflash as RMTs could be used as a promising approach for improving the solubility and oral bioavailability of water insoluble drug.

  2. Up-titration of allopurinol in patients with gout.

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    Jennings, Claudine G; Mackenzie, Isla S; Flynn, Rob; Ford, Ian; Nuki, George; De Caterina, Raffaele; Riches, Philip L; Ralston, Stuart H; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2014-08-01

    European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) gout management guidelines recommend achieving a target urate level titration in achieving the EULAR target levels. The Febuxostat versus Allopurinol Streamlined Trial (FAST) is an ongoing multi-centre study comparing the cardiovascular safety of febuxostat and allopurinol (target recruitment: 5706 patients). Recruited patients were already taking allopurinol and the protocol required up-titration of daily allopurinol dose, in 100 mg increments, to achieve the EULAR urate target level prior to randomisation. We reviewed pre-randomisation data from the first 400 recruited and subsequently randomised FAST patients. Of 400 patients, 144 (36%) had urate levels ≥357 µmol/L at screening and required allopurinol up-titration. Higher urate levels were significantly associated with lower allopurinol dose, male sex, increased BMI, increased alcohol intake and diuretic use. Mean fall in urate levels after a single 100-mg dose increase was 71 µmol/L. The number of up-titrations required ranged from one to five (median = 1) with 65% of patients controlled after one 100-mg up-titration. Overall, 97% of up-titrated patients achieved target urate levels with median final allopurinol dose of 300 mg daily. Side effects and complications of up-titration were minimal. Overall, 36% of FAST patients were not at target urate levels and required up-titration. Allopurinol up-titration was effective in achieving urate target levels and was generally well tolerated by patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Carvedilol in hypertension treatment

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    Panagiotis C Stafylas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Panagiotis C Stafylas, Pantelis A Sarafidis1st Department of Medicine, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: Although β-blockers have been previously shown to effectively reduce blood pressure (BP and have been used for hypertension treatment for over 40 years, their effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients remains controversial and its use in uncomplicated hypertension is currently under debate. However, data on the above field derive mainly from studies which were conducted with older agents, such as atenolol and metoprolol, while considerable pharamacokinetic and pharmacodynamic heterogeneity is present within the class of β-blockers. Carvedilol, a vasodilating non-cardioselective β-blocker, is a compound that seems to give the opportunity to the clinician to use a cardioprotective agent without the concerning hemodynamic and metabolic actions of traditional β-blocker therapy. In contrast with conventional β-blockers, carvedilol maintains cardiac output, has a less extended effect on heart rate and reduces BP by decreasing vascular resistance. Further, several studies has shown that carvedilol has a beneficial or at least neutral effect on metabolic parameters, such as glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and lipid metabolism, suggesting that they could be used in subjects with the metabolic syndrome or diabetes without negative consequences. This article summarizes the distinct pharmacologic, hemodynamic, and metabolic properties of carvedilol in relation to conventional β-blockers, attempting to examine the potential use of this agent for hypertension treatment.Keywords: carvedilol, β-blockers, hypertension treatment

  4. Feasibility and Association of Neurohumoral Blocker Up-titration After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

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    Martens, Pieter; Verbrugge, Frederik H; Nijst, Petra; Bertrand, Philippe B; Dupont, Matthias; Tang, Wilson H; Mullens, Wilfried

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves mortality and morbidity on top of optimal medical therapy in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). This study aimed to elucidate the association between neurohumoral blocker up-titration after CRT implantation and clinical outcomes. Doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and beta-blockers were retrospectively evaluated in 650 consecutive CRT patients implanted from October 2008 to August 2015 and followed in a tertiary multidisciplinary CRT clinic. All 650 CRT patients were on a maximal tolerable dose of ACE-I/ARB and beta-blocker at the time of CRT implantation. However, further up-titration was successful in 45.4% for ACE-I/ARB and in 56.8% for beta-blocker after CRT-implantation. During a mean follow-up of 37 ± 22 months, a total of 139 events occurred for the combined end point of heart failure admission and all-cause mortality. Successful, versus unsuccessful, up-titration was associated with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.537 (95% confidence interval 0.316-0.913; P = .022) for ACE-I/ARB and 0.633 (0.406-0.988; P = .044) for beta-blocker on the combined end point heart failure admission and all-cause mortality. Patients in the up-titration group exhibited a similar risk for death or heart failure admission as patients treated with the maximal dose (ACE-I/ARB: P = .133; beta-blockers: P = .709). After CRT, a majority of patients are capable of tolerating higher dosages of neurohumoral blockers. Up-titration of neurohumoral blockers after CRT implantation is associated with improved clinical outcomes, similarly to patients treated with the guideline-recommended target dose at the time of CRT implantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous quantification of vortioxetine, carvedilol and its active metabolite 4-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS: Application to their pharmacokinetic interaction study.

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    Huang, Yi; Zheng, Shuangli; Pan, Yongyang; Li, Tao; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Shao, Meng-Meng

    2016-09-05

    To establish a rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of vortioxetine, carvedilol and its metabolite 4-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol in rat plasma. The analytes and the internal standard (diazepam) were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 chromatography column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm) using gradient elution with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode to monitor the precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 299.2→150.1 for vortioxetine, m/z 407.2→100.3 for carvedilol, m/z 423.2→100.1 for 4-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol and m/z 285.2→193.1 for diazepam (IS) using a positive electrospray ionization interface. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.5-100ng/mL for vortioxetine, 0.5-1000ng/mL for carvedilol and 0.1-50ng/mL for 4-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol. Total time for each chromatograph was 3.0min. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels exhibited relative standard deviations (RSD)vortioxetine and carvedilol after oral administration vortioxetine and carvedilol in rats. Results suggested that the co-administration of vortioxetine and carvedilol results in a significant drug interaction in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum phosphorus level is related to degree of clinical response to up-titration of heart failure pharmacotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rozentryt, Piotr; Nowak, Jolanta; Niedziela, Jacek; Hudzik, Bartosz; Doehner, Wolfram; Jankowska, Ewa A; von Haehling, Stephan; Partyka, Robert; Kawecka, Edyta; Myrda, Krzysztof; Rywik, Tomasz; Szyguła, Bożena; Kokocińska, Danuta; Anker, Stefan D; Ponikowski, Piotr; Poloński, Lech

    2014-01-01

    .... In 722 patients with HF subjected to treatment up-titration we analyzed the prevalence of serum phosphorus abnormalities and their relation to HF severity on top of optimal treatment, and we assessed...

  7. Barriers to Beta-Blocker Use and Up-Titration Among Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction.

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    Levitan, Emily B; Van Dyke, Melissa K; Loop, Matthew Shane; O'Beirne, Ronan; Safford, Monika M

    2017-12-01

    For patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), guidelines recommend use of beta-blockers with gradual up-titration. However, many patients with HFrEF do not use beta-blockers and up-titration is rare. Our purpose was to identify and rank barriers to beta-blocker use and up-titration from the perspective of primary care physicians. We conducted 4 moderated, structured group discussions among 19 primary care physicians using the nominal group technique; 16 participants also completed a survey. Participants generated lists of barriers to beta-blocker use and up-titration among patients with HFrEF. Each participant had six votes with three votes assigned to the item ranked most important, two to the second most important item, and one to the third most important item. Investigators characterized items into themes. The percentage of available votes was calculated for each theme. Fifteen of 16 participating primary care physicians who completed the survey reported that management of beta-blockers was their responsibility. Treatment/side effects, particularly hypotension, were identified as the most important barrier for beta-blocker use (72% of available votes) followed by polypharmacy (11%), healthcare system barriers (10%), and comorbidities (6%). Barriers to up-titration included treatment/side effects (49% of available votes), patient communication/buy-in (21%), polypharmacy (13%), and healthcare system barriers (8%). Many barriers to guideline concordant use of beta-blockers among patients with HFrEF identified by primary care providers are not readily modifiable. Addressing these barriers may require development, testing, and dissemination of protocols for beta-blocker initiation and up-titration that are safe and appropriate in primary care.

  8. Carvedilol's antiarrhythmic properties: therapeutic implications in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

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    Naccarelli, Gerald V; Lukas, Mary Ann

    2005-04-01

    Carvedilol is a beta- and alpha-adrenergic-blocking drug with clinically important antiarrhythmic properties. It possesses anti-ischemic and antioxidant activity and inhibits a number of cationic channels in the cardiomyocyte, including the HERG-associated potassium channel, the L-type calcium channel, and the rapid-depolarizing sodium channel. The electrophysiologic properties of carvedilol include moderate prolongation of action potential duration and effective refractory period; slowing of atrioventricular conduction; and reducing the dispersion of refractoriness. Experimentally, carvedilol reduces complex and repetitive ventricular ectopy induced by ischemia and reperfusion. In patients, carvedilol is effective in controlling the ventricular rate response in atrial fibrillation (AF), with and without digitalis, and is useful in maintaining sinus rhythm after cardioversion, with and without amiodarone. In patients with AF and heart failure (HF), carvedilol reduces mortality risk and improves left ventricular (LV) function. Large-scale clinical trials have demonstrated that combined carvedilol and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy significantly reduces sudden cardiac death, mortality, and ventricular arrhythmia in patients with LV dysfunction (LVD) due to chronic HF or following myocardial infarction (MI). Despite intensive neurohormonal blockade, mortality rates remain relatively high in patients with post-MI and nonischemic LVD. Recent trials of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators added to pharmacologic therapy, especially beta blockers, have shown a further reduction in arrhythmic deaths in these patients.

  9. Three different up-titration regimens of ponesimod, an S1P1 receptor modulator, in healthy subjects.

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    Scherz, Michael W; Brossard, Patrick; D'Ambrosio, Daniele; Ipek, Murat; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2015-06-01

    Ponesimod is a selective S1P1 receptor modulator, and induces dose-dependent reduction of circulating lymphocytes upon oral dosing. Previous studies showed that single doses up to 75 mg or multiple doses up to 40 mg once daily are well tolerated, and heart rate (HR) reduction and atrio-ventricular conduction delays upon treatment initiation are reduced by gradual up-titration to the maintenance dose. This single-center, open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, 3-treatment, 3-way crossover study compared the tolerability, safety, pharmacokinetics, cardiodynamics, and effects on lymphocytes of 3 different up-titration regimens of ponesimod in healthy male and female subjects. Up-titration regimens comprised escalating periods of b.i.d. dosing (2.5 or 5 mg) and q.d. dosing (10 or 20 mg or both). After the third up-titration period a variable-duration washout period of 1-3 days was followed by re-challenge with a single 20-mg dose of ponesimod. Adverse events were transient and mild to moderate in intensity, not different between regimens. HR decrease after the first dose was greater than after all subsequent doses, including up-titration doses. Little or no HR change was observed with morning doses of b.i.d. regimens, suggesting that 2.5 and 5 mg b.i.d. are sufficient to sustain cardiac desensitization for the 12-hours dosing interval. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  10. Carvedilol or propranolol in portal hypertension?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Lise; Møller, Søren; Grønbæk, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. Carvedilol is a non-selective ß-blocker with intrinsic anti-a(1)-adrenergic activity, potentially more effective than propranolol in reducing hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). We compared the long-term effect of carvedilol and propranolol on HVPG and assessed whether...

  11. Carvedilol

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    ... other parts of the body. Damage to these organs may cause heart disease, a heart attack, heart ... Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat ...

  12. Carvedilol Protects against Cyclosporine Nephropathy in Rats

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    H. Kotolová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our experimental work was to study whether carvedilol is able to protect renal tissue from cyclosporine toxic effect in animal model of cyclosporine nephropathy. The study was performed on twenty Wistar rats divided in two experimental groups: control (treated with placebo and carvedilol (treated with p.o. dose 10mg/kg/day in 1 ml solution. Cyclosporine in oral dose of 15 mg/kg/day was administered to all animals during 15 days of experiment. Urine was collected daily for the assessment of diuresis, proteinuria, and determination of urea and creatinine levels. Serum collected at the end of the experiment (day 15 was used for the determination of urea and transferrin levels. The level of renal tissue damage was evaluated by the Jones method for basal membranes, glomeruli and tubuli impregnation, and by the Kossa method for calcium impregnation. For the determination of paranuclear inclusions presence we used chromanilinblue (CAB method. Statistically significant differences between total protein levels in urine on day 7 of the experiment and urea levels in serum at the end of the experiment in the control group and the carvedilol-treated group indicate a protective effect of carvedilol on renal tissue, which is supported also by the results of a histological examination of renal tissue. Significant increase in the serum transferrin level was registered in the carvedilol-treated group and no significant changes were noted in ceruloplasmin serum levels. In conclusion, our pilot study showed that carvedilol has the ability to protect renal tissue from cyclosporine induced nephropathy in rats.

  13. Response and tolerance to oral vasodilator up-titration after intravenous vasodilator therapy in advanced decompensated heart failure.

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    Verbrugge, Frederik H; Dupont, Matthias; Finucan, Michael; Gabi, Alaa; Hawwa, Nael; Mullens, Wilfried; Taylor, David O; Young, James B; Starling, Randall C; Tang, W H Wilson

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the haemodynamic response and tolerance to aggressive oral hydralazine/isosorbide dinitrate (HYD/ISDN) up-titration after intravenous vasodilator therapy in advanced decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Medical records of 147 consecutive ADHF patients who underwent placement of a pulmonary artery catheter and received intravenous vasodilator therapy were reviewed. Intravenous sodium nitroprusside and sodium nitroglycerin as first-line agent for those with preserved blood pressures were utilized in 143 and 32 patients, respectively. Sixty-one percent of patients were converted to oral HYD/ISDN combination therapy through a standardized conversion protocol. These patients had a significantly higher admission mean pulmonary arterial wedge pressure compared with patients not converted (28 ± 7 vs. 25 ± 8 mmHg, respectively; P-value 0.024). Beneficial haemodynamic response to decongestive therapy, defined as low cardiac filling pressures and cardiac index ≥2.20 L/min/m(2) without emergent hypotension, was achieved in 32% and 29% of patients who did or did not receive oral HYD/ISDN, respectively (P-value 0.762). HYD/ISDN dosing was progressively and consistently decreased up to the moment of hospital discharge and during outpatient follow-up, primarily due to incident hypotension. The use of a standardized haemodynamically guided up-titration protocol for conversion from intravenous to oral vasodilators may warrant subsequent dose reductions upon stabilization. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  14. Efficacy of carvedilol in pediatric heart failure

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    Christensen, Alex Hørby; Fatkin, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of: Huang M, Zhang X, Chen S et al. The effect of carvedilol treatment on chronic heart failure in pediatric patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: a prospective, randomized-controlled study. Pediatr. Cardiol. 34, 680-685 (2013). A role for β-blockers in children with heart failure has...

  15. Use of carvedilol in hypertension: an update

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    Leonetti G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastone Leonetti,1 Colin G Egan21Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Ospedale San Luca, Milan, Italy; 2Primula Multimedia SRL, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: β-blockers are effective antihypertensive agents and, together with diuretics, have been the cornerstone of pioneering studies showing their benefits on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as a consequence of blood pressure reduction in patients with hypertension. However, evidence from recent meta-analyses have demonstrated no benefit afforded by atenolol compared with placebo in risk of mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke, and a higher risk of mortality and stroke with atenolol/propranolol compared with other antihypertensive drug classes. Thus, the effect of these agents on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients, especially their use in uncomplicated hypertension, has remained largely controversial. However, it is recognized that the clinical studies used in these meta-analyses were mainly based on the older second-generation β-blockers, such as atenolol and metoprolol. Actually, considerable heterogeneity in, eg, pharmacokinetic, pharmacological, and physicochemical properties exists across the different classes of β-blockers, particularly between the second-generation and newer third-generation agents. Carvedilol is a vasodilating noncardioselective third-generation β-blocker, without the negative hemodynamic and metabolic effects of traditional β-blockers, which can be used as a cardioprotective agent. Compared with conventional β-blockers, carvedilol maintains cardiac output, has a reduced prolonged effect on heart rate, and reduces blood pressure by decreasing vascular resistance. Studies have also shown that carvedilol exhibits favorable effects on metabolic parameters, eg, glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and lipid metabolism, suggesting that it could be considered in the treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome or diabetes. The present report

  16. The Pharmacokinetic Interaction Study between Carvedilol and Bupropion in Rats.

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    Abrudan, Maria Bianca; Muntean, Dana Maria; Gheldiu, Ana Maria; Neag, Maria Adriana; Vlase, Laurian

    2017-01-01

    The effects of multiple-dose bupropion on the pharmacokinetics of single-dose carvedilol were investigated in order to evaluate this possible drug-drug interaction. A preclinical study was conducted among white male Wistar rats. Each rat was cannulated on the femoral vein prior to being connected to BASi Culex ABC®. During the reference period, each rat received an intravenous and an oral dose of 3.57 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) carvedilol, at 2 days distance. After 5 days of pretreatment with 21.42 mg/kg b.w. bupropion (by oral route, twice a day - given in order to reach the steady state), during the sixth day, 3.57 mg/kg b.w. carvedilol and 21.42 mg/kg b.w. bupropion were orally co-administrated (test period). After each administration of carvedilol, several samples of 200 µL blood were collected. The pharmacokinetic parameters of carvedilol were analyzed by the noncompartmental method. The 5 days pretreatment with bupropion increased the exposure to carvedilol in rats by 180%, considering the modifications observed in the area under the curve of carvedilol. Carvedilol was shown to have higher plasma concentrations, delay in maximum concentration, and a prolonged half-life, after being pretreated with bupropion. The administration of multiple-dose bupropion influences the pharmacokinetics of carvedilol (single oral dose) in rats. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Formulation development of carvedilol compression coated tablet.

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    Shah, Ritesh; Patel, Sachin; Patel, Hetal; Pandey, Sonia; Shah, Shailesh; Shah, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of present research was to produce carvedilol compression coated tablet to provide biphasic drug release. A compressed coated tablet made of a sustained release core tablet and an immediate release coat tablet. Both the core and the coat contained carvedilol. The sustained release effect was achieved with polymers (HPMC K4M and PEO WSR 205) to modulate the release of the drug. The powder blends for core and coat tablets were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, compressibility index, and drug content. Compressed coated tablets were evaluated for thickness, diameter, weight variation test, drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration and in vitro release studies. The powder blends showed satisfactory flow properties, compressibility, drug content and all the tablet formulations showed acceptable pharmaco-technical properties. Carvedilol contained in the fast releasing component was released within 3 min, whereas the drug in the core tablet was released at different times up to 24 h, depending on the composition of the matrix tablet. The mechanism of drug release was fickian diffusion or anomalous behavior. Batch F7, containing 10 mg PEO WSR 205 and 5 mg HPMC K4M, showed maximum similarity with theoretical profile and zero order drug release kinetic.

  18. Preparation and evaluation of carvedilol-loaded solid lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop suitable solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing carvedilol (CL) for controlled delivery to site of action. Methods: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing carvedilol (CL) were prepared by hot homogenization and ultrasonication methods. The SLNs were characterized in terms of entrapment ...

  19. Impact of systolic blood pressure on the safety and tolerability of initiating and up-titrating sacubitril/valsartan in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction: insights from the TITRATION study.

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    Senni, Michele; McMurray, John J V; Wachter, Rolf; McIntyre, Hugh F; Anand, Inder S; Duino, Vincenzo; Sarkar, Arnab; Shi, Victor; Charney, Alan

    2017-11-22

    The TITRATION trial investigated two strategies to initiate and up-titrate sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) to the same target dose, over a condensed (3-week) or conservative (6-week) period, in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥100 mmHg. This post hoc analysis examined the relationship between baseline SBP at screening and achievement of the target dose of sacubitril/valsartan of 97 mg/103 mg (also termed 'LCZ696 200 mg') twice per day during the study. Patients (n = 498) were categorized in four groups based on SBP at screening: 100-110 mmHg (n = 70); 111-120 mmHg (n = 93); 121-139 mmHg (n = 168) and ≥140 mmHg (n = 167). Overall, 72.7%, 76.1%, 85.6% and 82.9%, respectively, of patients in these SBP categories achieved and maintained the target dose of sacubitril/valsartan without down-titration/dose interruption over 12 weeks ('treatment success'). Compared with patients with SBP of 100-110 mmHg, rates of treatment success among patients in the higher SBP groups [111-120 mmHg (P = 0.96); 121-139 mmHg (P = 0.06) and ≥140 mmHg (P = 0.25)] did not differ significantly. A higher percentage of patients with lower SBP (100-110 mmHg) achieved treatment success with gradual up-titration (6 weeks) (∼80%) than with rapid up-titration (∼69%). Similar findings were observed with regard to 'tolerability success' (maintenance of the target dose for at least the final 2 weeks prior to study completion). Hypotension occurred more frequently in patients with lower SBP. The majority of patients (>80%) with SBP of ≥100 mmHg achieved and maintained the target dose of sacubitril/valsartan if the treatment was titrated gradually. These findings suggest that low SBP should not prevent clinicians from considering the initiation of sacubitril/valsartan. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of

  20. New therapeutic aspect for carvedilol: Antifibrotic effects of carvedilol in chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdy, Nadia [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-06-15

    Portal hypertension is a common complication of chronic liver diseases associated with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. At present, beta-blockers such as carvedilol remain the medical treatment of choice for protection against variceal bleeding and other complications. Since carvedilol has powerful antioxidant properties we assessed the potential antifibrotic effects of carvedilol and the underlying mechanisms that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness using a chronic model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Two weeks after CCl4 induction of chronic hepatotoxicity, rats were co-treated with carvedilol (10 mg/kg, orally) daily for 6 weeks. It was found that treatment of animals with carvedilol significantly counteracted the changes in liver function and histopathological lesions induced by CCl4. Also, carvedilol significantly counteracted lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities; glutathione-S-transferase and catalase that was induced by CCl4. In addition, carvedilol ameliorated the inflammation induced by CCl4 as indicated by reducing the serum level of acute phase protein marker; alpha-2-macroglobulin and the liver expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Finally, carvedilol significantly reduced liver fibrosis markers including hydroxyproline, collagen accumulation, and the expression of the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation marker; alpha smooth muscle actin. In conclusion, the present study provides evidences for the promising antifibrotic effects of carvedilol that can be explained by amelioration of oxidative stress through mainly, replenishment of GSH, restoration of antioxidant enzyme activities and reduction of lipid peroxides as well as amelioration of inflammation and fibrosis by decreasing collagen accumulation, acute phase protein level, NF-κB expression and finally HSC activation. -- Highlights: ► Carvedilol is a beta blocker with antioxidant and antifibrotic

  1. Chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol

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    Shete Amol S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study Carvedilol nonselective β-adrenoreceptor blocker, chemically (±-1-(Carbazol-4-yloxy-3-[[2-(o-methoxypHenoxy ethyl] amino]-2-propanol, slightly soluble in ethyl ether; and practically insoluble in water, gastric fluid (simulated, TS, pH 1.1, and intestinal fluid (simulated, TS without pancreatin, pH 7.5 Compounds with aqueous solubility less than 1% W/V often represents dissolution rate limited absorption. There is need to enhance the dissolution rate of carvedilol. The objective of our present investigation was to compare chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol. Methods The different formulations were prepared by different methods like solvent change approach to prepare hydrosols, solvent evaporation technique to form solid dispersions and cogrind mixtures. The prepared formulations were characterized in terms of saturation solubility, drug content, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, electron microscopy, in vitro dissolution studies and stability studies. Results The practical yield in case of hydrosols was ranged from 59.76 to 92.32%. The drug content was found to uniform among the different batches of hydrosols, cogrind mixture and solid dispersions ranged from 98.24 to 99.89%. There was significant improvement in dissolution rate of carvedilol with chitosan chlorhdyrate as compare to chitosan and explanation to this behavior was found in the differences in the wetting, solubilities and swelling capacity of the chitosan and chitosan salts, chitosan chlorhydrate rapidly wet and dissolve upon its incorporation into the dissolution medium, whereas the chitosan base, less water soluble, would take more time to dissolve. Conclusion This technique is scalable and valuable in manufacturing process in future for enhancement of dissolution of poorly water soluble

  2. Carvedilol Analogue Inhibits Triggered Activities Evoked by Both Early and Delayed Afterdepolarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Mitsunori; Xiao, Jianmin; Zhou, Qiang; Vembaiyan, Kannan; Chua, Su-Kiat; Rubart-von der Lohe, Michael; Lin, Shien-Fong; Back, Thomas G.; Chen, SR Wayne; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carvedilol and its analogues suppress delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardias by direct action on the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2). OBJECTIVE We tested a hypothesis that carvedilol analogue may also prevent triggered activities (TAs) through the suppression of early afterdepolarizations (EADs). METHODS Intracellular Ca2+ and membrane voltage were simultaneously recorded using optical mapping technique in Langendorff-perfused mouse and rabbit hearts to study the effect of carvedilol analogue, VK-II-36 that does not have significant beta-blocking effects. RESULTS Spontaneous intracellular Ca2+ elevations (SCaEs) during diastole was induced by rapid ventricular pacing and isoproterenol infusion in intact rabbit ventricles. Systolic and diastolic SCaEs were simultaneously noted in Langendorff-perfused RyR2 R4496+/− mouse hearts after creating atrioventricular block. VK-II-36 effectively suppressed SCaEs and eliminated TAs observed in both mouse and rabbit ventricles. We tested the effect of VK-II-36 on EADs using a rabbit model of acquired long QT syndrome in which phase-2 and phase-3 EADs were observed in association with systolic SCaEs. VK-II-36 abolished the systolic SCaEs and phase-2 EADs, and greatly decreased the dispersion of repolarization and the amplitude of phase-3 EADs. VK-II-36 completely prevented EAD-mediated TAs in all ventricles studied. CONCLUSION A carvedilol analogue, VK-II-36 inhibits ventricular tachyarrhythmias in intact mouse and rabbit ventricles by suppression of SCaEs, independent of beta-blocking activity. The RyR2 may be a potential target for treating focal ventricular arrhythmias triggered by either EADs or DADs. PMID:22982970

  3. Carvedilol stimulates nitric oxide synthesis in rat cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, K; Ikeda, U; Maeda, Y; Shimada, K

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the beta-adrenergic blocker carvedilol on nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in cardiac myocytes. We measured the accumulation of nitrite, a stable oxidation product of NO, and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Incubation of the cultures with interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta; 10 ng/ml) caused a marked increase in nitrite production. Although carvedilol alone showed no effect on nitrite accumulation, it significantly enhanced IL-1 beta-induced nitrite production by cardiac myocytes. The effect of carvedilol was completely abolished in the presence of aminoguanidine or actinomycin D. The nitrite production enhanced by carvedilol was accompanied by increased iNOS protein expression. Unlike carvedilol, other beta-blockers, namely propranolol, atenolol and arotinolol, did not enhance IL-1 beta-induced nitrite production. Addition of isoproterenol significantly increased nitrite production by IL-1 beta-stimulated cardiac myocytes. Atenolol suppressed this isoproterenol-induced nitrite accumulation, while carvedilol further increased the nitrite accumulation. These findings indicate that carvedilol increases NO synthesis in IL-1 beta-stimulated rat cardiac myocytes by a beta-adrenoceptor-independent mechanism. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. The impact of paroxetine coadministration on stereospecific carvedilol pharmacokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Stephen M.; Nielsen, Jace; Bleske, Barry E.; Shea, Michael; Brook, Robert; Kerber, Kevin; Welage, Lynda S.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective To assess the impact of paroxetine coadministration on the stereoselective pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of carvedilol. Design Prospective, randomized, 2 phase crossover. Setting The University of Michigan General Clinical Research Unit and Michigan Clinical Research Unit. Participants Twelve healthy volunteers age 18–45 years, male and female, receiving no treatment with prescription or nonprescription medications. Interventions Subjects received single dose oral carvedilol (12.5 mg) with and without coadministration of immediate release paroxetine (10 mg orally twice daily), in random order. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours post carvedilol dose for determination of R and S carvedilol plasma enantiomer concentrations by high pressure liquid chromatography. Measurements and Main Results Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were calculated for each enantiomer by noncompartmental methods and compared between study phases by analysis of variance (ANOVA) controlling for study phase order and subject, with Tukey’s studentized range test post hoc. AUC increased significantly with paroxetine coadministration, approximately 2.5 fold and 1.9 fold for the R and S enantiomers, respectively. R/S AUC ratio increased significantly, from approximately 2.3 to 3.0. Individual increases in enantiomeric AUCs with paroxetine coadministration ranged from 0% – 571% and changes in R/S ratio ranged from −8% – 108%. Heart rate, P-R interval, and blood pressure were monitored and no clinically significant changes in carvedilol effects were noted. Conclusion This study demonstrated a PK drug-drug interaction between paroxetine and carvedilol with considerable intersubject variability in carvedilol PK parameters and magnitude of drug interaction. Stereoselectivity of carvedilol metabolism is preserved with paroxetine coadministration and R/S AUC ratio generally widens. While this drug interaction could

  5. Safety and efficacy of metformin up-titration in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with vildagliptin and low-dose metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Luka; Kanazawa, Akio; Uzawa, Hirotsugu; Osonoi, Yusuke; Masuyama, Atushi; Azuma, Kosuke; Takeno, Kageumi; Takayanagi, Naoko; Sato, Junko; Someya, Yuki; Komiya, Koji; Goto, Hiromasa; Mita, Tomoya; Ikeda, Fuki; Ogihara, Takeshi; Shimizu, Tomoaki; Ohmura, Chie; Saito, Miyoko; Osonoi, Takeshi; Watada, Hirotaka

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the safety and efficacy of metformin up-titration in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with vildagliptin (100 mg/day) and low-dose metformin (500 or 750 mg/day). Fifty patients were randomly allocated to the control group (maintaining the initial low-dose of metformin) and the dose increase group (up-titrating of metformin to 1,500-2,250 mg/day) for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from baseline to 24 weeks. Among the 25 patients allocated to the dose increase group, four patients were not able to complete the study protocol because of gastrointestinal symptoms. HbA1c in the dose increase group was significantly but modestly lower than in the control group (change in HbA1c: 0.22 ± 0.57 vs. -0.15 ± 0.58%, group comparison, P < 0.05). The dose increase group did not gain weight during the study period, and no hypoglycemic events were reported in both groups. The rate of gastrointestinal symptoms in the dose increase group was profoundly higher than in the control group (32 vs. 0%, P < 0.01). In Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes treated with vildagliptin and low-dose metformin, metformin up-titration significantly but modestly improved glycemic control without hypoglycemia and weight gain.

  6. Evaluation of synergistic effects of resynchronization therapy and a β-blocker up-titration strategy based on a predefined patient-management program: the RESTORE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Pietro; Ammendola, Ernesto; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Accogli, Michele; Calò, Leonardo; Ruocco, Antonio; Rapacciuolo, Antonio; Del Giorno, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Valter; Malacrida, Maurizio; Valsecchi, Sergio; Gronda, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested that a substantial number of eligible heart failure (HF) patients fail to receive β-blocker therapy, or receive it at a suboptimal dose. The aim of this study is to assess the benefit of a predefined management program designed for β-blocker up-titration, evaluating the synergistic effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and β-blockers in a HF population. The Resynchronization Therapy and β-Blocker Titration (RESTORE) study is a prospective, case-control, multicenter cohort study designed to test the hypothesis that a β-blocker up-titration strategy based on a predefined management program maximizes the beneficial effect of CRT, increasing the number of patients reaching the target dose of β-blockers and improving their clinical outcome. All study patients receive an implantable defibrillator for CRT delivery in accordance with current guidelines. Enrollments started in December 2011 and are scheduled to end in December 2014. Approximately 250 consecutive patients will be prospectively enrolled in 6 Italian centers and followed up for 24 months after implantation. The primary endpoint is to demonstrate that CRT may allow titration of β-blockers until the optimal dose, or at least to the effective dose, in patients with HF. This study might provide important information about the benefit of a predefined management program for β-blocker up-titration in patients receiving CRT. Moreover, assessment of health-care utilization and the consumption of resources will allow estimating the potential utility of remote monitoring by means of an automated telemedicine system in facilitating the titration of β-blockers in comparison with a standard in-hospital approach. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shete, Amol S; Yadav, Adhikrao V; Murthy, Srinivasa M

    2012-01-01

    .... There is need to enhance the dissolution rate of carvedilol. The objective of our present investigation was to compare chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol...

  8. Effects of up-titration of candesartan versus candesartan plus amlodipine on kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, T; Kojima, M; Machida, H; Sugiyama, M; Kato, T; Komada, T; Miyazaki, T; Ninomiya, T; Ichikawa, T; Nakatani, K; Watanabe, Y; Dohi, Y; Ito, M; Kimura, G

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that up-titrating the dose of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) is superior to combined treatment with an ARB and a calcium channel blocker for the same degree of blood pressure (BP) reduction, with respect to urinary albumin excretion in diabetic patients treated with a standard dose of the ARB. Hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and albuminuria (≥30 mg g(-1) creatinine) were enroled in the study, and were either started on or switched to candesartan (8 mg per day) monotherapy. After a 12-week run-in period, baseline evaluations were performed and patients with BP ≥130/80 mm Hg were randomly assigned to receive either candesartan (12 mg per day) or candesartan (8 mg per day) plus amlodipine (2.5 mg per day) for a further 12 weeks. The primary end-point was a reduction in urinary albumin levels. Although there was no significant difference in the BP reduction between the two groups, the reduction in urinary albumin was greater in the up-titrated than the combination therapy group (-40±14% vs -9±38%, respectively; Pcandesartan more effectively reduces urinary albumin excretion than combined candesartan plus amlodipine in hypertensive patients with diabetes for the same degree of BP reduction.

  9. BETA-BLOCKERS AND RENOPROTECTION: THE POTENTIAL OF CARVEDILOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Murkamilov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presented the importance of carvedilol using in terms of renoprotection in renal dysfunction at the pre-dialysis stage of the disease in order to reduce the risk of progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKD and the development of cardiovascular complications. Immune and non-immune mechanisms (proteinuria, dyslipidemia, anemia, arterial hypertension of renal dysfunction progression in patients with CKD of inflammatory and non-inflammatory origin are described. Moreover, with the slowing down of the glomerular filtration rate in CKD, the role of non-immunefactors in the development of cardiovascular complications becomes very important. In contrast to non-selective and some β1-selective beta-blockers, the use of beta-adenoblocker with vasodilating activity, in particular carvedilol, makes it possible to prevent the onset of the terminal stage ofCKD. Carvedilol, being a lipophilic beta-adrenoblocker of the third generation with alpha-blocking properties, influences the possible mechanismsof renoprotection: antihypertensive (including in combined antihypertensive therapy, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anti-apoptotic, antioxidant, antiplatelet and others. Carvedilol due to the vasodilating effect softens the stress of the parietal shear, exerting a retarding action on theprogression of CKD. Carvedilol with a pronounced vasodilating effect and a long half-life significantly reduces central arterial pressure that is also animportant renoprotective mechanism in the treatment of patients with renal dysfunction. Carvedilol has an important renoprotective mechanism in CKD – inhibition of the secretion of the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin. In the metabolic syndrome, in which there is a significant risk of developing renal dysfunction, carvedilol levels the imbalance of adipokine secretion, insulin resistance, sodium and water retention, and the activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathoadrenal systems. Carvedilol at

  10. Carvedilol use is associated with reduced cancer risk: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effect of carvedilol on the incidence of cancer in a large population-based cohort study. Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The cohort study included 6771 patients who received long-term carvedilol treatment between 2000 and 2010 (carvedilol cohort) and 6771 matched controls (noncarvedilol cohort). A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the risk of cancer in the patients treated with carvedilol. With the mean follow-up period of 5.17 years and 4.93 years in the carvedilol and noncarvedilol cohorts, respectively, the patients in the carvedilol cohort had a 26% reduction of cancer risk compared with those in the noncarvedilol cohort (hazard ratio [HR]=0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.63-0.87; pcancer site, treatment with carvedilol in the carvedilol cohort resulted in significantly lower incidence of stomach and lung cancers than in the noncarvedilol cohort. This nationwide population-based cohort study demonstrated that long-term treatment with carvedilol is associated with reduced upper gastrointestinal tract and lung cancer risk, indicating that carvedilol could be a potential agent in these cancers prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In-vitro Release Study of Carvedilol Phosphate Matrix Tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Matrix tablets containing carvedilol phosphate were prepared from 27 formulations in three batch series coded A, B and C, each containing 9 formulations. Each batch incorporated different ratios of two molecular weight grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel® K4M CR and K15M CR) used as release ...

  12. Formulation and In vitro Evaluation of Carvedilol Transdermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table I: Optimization designs for the development of carvedilol transdermal drug delivery system. (TDDS). Formulation code. Treatment. Level of PMMA, ... Low oral bioavailability (25 %) due to extensive first pass metabolism, a short ..... Implantable therapeutic systems. In: Robinson, J.R.; Vincent HL. Editors. Controlled.

  13. Preparation and evaluation of carvedilol-loaded solid lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    delivery to site of action. Methods: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing carvedilol (CL) were prepared by hot ... efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, cytotoxicity, solid state characterization and drug release. The stability of ..... powders had a non-uniform shape, while SLN formulations had a flaky ...

  14. Preparation and evaluation of carvedilol-loaded solid lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid lipid nanoparticles were deposited on metallic stubs placed in liquid nitrogen and dried under vacuum. Then sputter was coated with gold in a cathodic evaporator. [12]. Solid-state characterization. Differential scanning calorimetric curve of pure carvedilol, polymer and mixture of drug and polymer measurement were ...

  15. HEMODYNAMIC EFFECTS OF CARVEDILOL IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Markova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of carvedilol (Talliton, Egis, Hungary on daily profile of blood pressure (BP, anatomical and functional conditions of left ventricle (LV and cerebral circulation in patients with arterial hypertension (AH, stage II-III. Material and methods. 30 patients (10 men, 20 women, average age 51,9±7,9 y.o. with AH II-III stage ( RSSC,2004 and with initially affected daily profile of BP, cerebral circulation, anatomical and functional disorders of LV took carvedilol 25-75 mg/d during 6 months. Hemodynamics was estimated by ambulatory BP monitoring, Doppler Echocardiography, and ultrasound Dopplerography of extra cranial vessels. Results. A normalizing effect of carvedilol on abnormal daily profile of BP and cerebral circulation was determined. The treatment resulted in the regress of LV hypertrophy with predominant reduction of interventricular septum thickness and also the transformation of concentrical LV hypertrophy in excentrical one. Conclusion. Long-term therapy with carvedilol in patients with AH II-III stage provides a stable BP control and cardioprotective effect, improves cerebral circulation.

  16. Effect of particle size on oral absorption of carvedilol nanosuspensions: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dandan; Pan, Hao; He, Fengwei; Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Jinyu; Yang, Xinggang; Pan, Weisan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the particle size reduction effect of carvedilol on dissolution and absorption. Three suspensions containing different sized particles were prepared by antisolvent precipitation method or in combination with an ultrasonication process. The suspensions were characterized for particle size, surface morphology, and crystalline state. The crystalline form of carvedilol was changed into amorphous form after antisolvent precipitation. The dissolution rate of carvedilol was significantly accelerated by a reduction in particle size. The intestinal absorption of carvedilol nanosuspensions was greatly improved in comparison with microsuspensions and solution in the in situ single-pass perfusion experiment. The in vivo evaluation demonstrated that carvedilol nanosuspensions and microsuspensions exhibited markedly increased Cmax (2.09- and 1.48-fold) and AUC0−t (2.11- and 1.51-fold), and decreased Tmax (0.34- and 0.48-fold) in contrast with carvedilol coarse suspensions. Moreover, carvedilol nanosuspensions showed good biocompatibility with the rat gastric mucosa in in vivo gastrointestinal irritation test. The entire results implicated that the dissolution rate and the oral absorption of carvedilol were significantly affected by the particle size. Particle size reduction to form nanosized particles was found to be an efficient method for improving the oral bioavailability of carvedilol. PMID:26508852

  17. Application of miscibility analysis and determination of Soluplus solubility map for development of carvedilol-loaded nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljević, Olivera; Djuris, Jelena; Čalija, Bojan; Lavrič, Zoran; Kristl, Julijana; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2017-11-30

    Electrospinning was used to produce carvedilol-loaded Soluplus polymer nanofibers using a systematic approach. Miscibility between drug and polymer was determined through calculation of the interaction parameter, χ, and the difference between the total solubility parameters, Δdt. A solubility map for Soluplus was obtained by examining different solvent systems, carrying out electrospinning, and characterizing the nanofibers formed. Miscibility studies showed that carvedilol and Soluplus can form a miscible system (χ=-2.3054; Δδtsolubility map, acetone: chloroform (90:10; w/w) represents a suitable solvent system for electrospinning of carvedilol-loaded Soluplus nanofibers. Scanning electron microscopy of these nanofiber samples showed smooth surface morphology. The nanofibers had a regular cylindrical morphology. Beads appeared along the nanofibers more frequently in formulations with lower percentages of carvedilol. Differential scanning calorimetry showed no melting endothermic peak for carvedilol, which suggests its complete conversion from the crystalline to the amorphous form (at polymer: carvedilol 1:1). The infrared spectrum of the carvedilol-loaded Soluplus nanofibers showed no characteristic carvedilol peak at 3344.5cm-1, which suggests interactions between carvedilol and Soluplus. Dissolution studies of these nanofibers showed improved pure carvedilol dissolution properties, with >85% of the carvedilol released in the first 15min, versus 20% for pure carvedilol. The use of miscibility analysis and polymer solubility studies demonstrate great technological potential to tackle the challenge for inadequate dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation and evaluation of self-nanoemulsifying tablets of carvedilol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Enas A; Bendas, Ehab R; Mohamed, Magdy I

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to combine the advantages of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems and tablets as a conventional dosage form emphasizing the excipients' effect on the development of a new dosage form. Systems composed of HCO-40, Transcutol HP, and medium-chain triglyceride were prepared. Essential properties of the prepared systems regarding carvedilol solubility, a model drug, and self-emulsification time were determined. In order to optimize self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS), formulation dispersion-drug precipitation test was performed in the absence and presence of cellulosic polymers. Furthermore, SNEDDS was loaded onto liquisolid powders. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity of the selected SNEDDS was tested using HCT-116 cells. Carvedilol showed acceptable solubility in the selected excipients. It also demonstrated improvement in the stability upon dilution with aqueous media in the presence of cellulosic polymers. Use of granulated silicon dioxide improved the physical properties of liquisolid powders containing SNEDDS. It improved the compressibility of the selected powders and the tested SNEDDS showed marked P-gp inhibition activity. Prepared self-nanoemulsifying tablet produced acceptable properties of immediate-release dosage forms and expected to increase the bioavailability of carvedilol.

  19. Formulation and evaluation of carvedilol melt-in-mouth tablet using mucoadhesive polymer and PEG-6-stearate as hydrophilic waxy binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Amish Ashvinkumar; Zalodiya, Prakash Bhikhabhai

    2012-10-01

    The demand for melt-in-mouth tablets (MMTs) has been rapidly growing during the last decade, especially for the elderly and children who have swallowing difficulties, to avoid first-pass metabolism and quick drug entry into the systemic circulation. In this work, a new approach has been tried to prepare MMTs using a hydrophilic waxy binder [polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6-stearate]. Carvedilol MMTs were prepared by direct compression method using different mucoadhesive polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), chitosan, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) at various concentrations (range: 0.5-5%) to reduce the flushing action of saliva and to increase mucosal absorption. All the formulations were evaluated for various physiochemical parameters, and the formulations containing the maximum amount of polymer (F4, F7, and F10) were selected for further stability study. The deaggregation time of the tablets was found to be rapid, and the dissolution test revealed that carvedilol was dissolved from the formulation within the compendia limits. This data confirmed that the polymer concentration (0.5-5%) was within acceptable limits. It was also concluded that avicel PH101, pearlitol SD 200, and croscarmellose sodium (CCS) were the appropriate excipients and formulated in the right proportion. As a result, mouth dissolving administration of carvedilol formulated with appropriate excipients and especially with chitosan seems a promising alternative to traditional routes.

  20. Preventive effects of carvedilol on nitrate tolerance--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparative study between carvedilol and arotinolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, H; Kakihana, M; Ohtsuka, S; Sugishita, Y

    1998-11-01

    This study was designed to compare the preventive efect of nitrate tolerance between carvedilol with antioxidant properties and arotinolol without antioxidant properties. The attenuation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production due to inactivation of guanylate cyclase by increased superoxide has been reported as a mechanism of nitrate tolerance. Carvedilol has been known to combine alpha- and beta-blockade with antioxidant properties. To evaluate the preventive effect of nitrate tolerance, 24 patients with untreated hypertension were randomized to receive either carvedilol (10 mg twice a day [carvedilol group, n=8]), arotinolol (10 mg twice a day [arotinolol group, n=8]), or placebo (placebo group, n=8). Vasodilatory response to nitroglycerin (NTG) was assessed with forearm plethysmography by measuring the change in forearm blood flow (FBF) before and 5 min after sublingual administration of 0.3 mg NTG, and at the same time blood samples were taken from veins on the opposite side to measure platelet cGMP. Plethysmography and blood sampling were obtained serially at baseline (day 0), 3 days after carvedilol, arotinolol or placebo administration (day 3) and 3 days after application of a 20 mg/24 h NTG tape concomitantly with carvedilol, arotinolol or placebo (day 6). There was no significant difference in the response of FBF (%FBF) and cGMP (%cGMP) to sublingual administration of NTG on days 0 and 3 among the three groups. On day 6, %FBF and %cGMP were significantly lower in the arotinolol group and the placebo group than days 0 and 3, but these parameters in the carvedilol group were maintained. The results indicated that carvedilol with antioxidant properties may prevent the development of nitrate tolerance during continuous therapy with NTG compared with arotinolol without antioxidant properties.

  1. Potential Role of Carvedilol in the Cardiac Immune Response Induced by Experimental Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Luciano Horta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi causes a cardiac infection characterized by an inflammatory imbalance that could become the inciting factor of the illness. To this end, we evaluated the role of carvedilol, a beta-blocker with potential immunomodulatory properties, on the immune response in C57BL/6 mice infected with VL-10 strain of T. cruzi in the acute phase. Animals (n=40 were grouped: (i not infected, (ii infected, (iii infected + carvedilol, and (iv not infected + carvedilol. We analyzed parameters related to parasitemia, plasma levels of TNF, IL-10, and CCL2, and cardiac histopathology after the administration of carvedilol for 30 days. We did not observe differences in the maximum peaks of parasitemia in the day of their detection among the groups. The plasma TNF was elevated at 60 days of infection in mice treated or not with carvedilol. However, we observed a decreased CCL2 level and increased IL-10 levels in those infected animals treated with carvedilol, which impacted the reduction of the inflammatory infiltration in cardiac tissue. For this experimental model, carvedilol therapy was not able to alter the levels of circulating parasites but modulates the pattern of CCL2 and IL-10 mediators when the VL10 strain of T. cruzi was used in C57BL6 mice.

  2. Anti-NO action of carvedilol in cell-free system and in vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, T; Iwamoto, N; Tsukahara, F; Irie, K; Urakawa, I; Muraki, T

    2000-04-01

    1. Carvedilol, an adrenoceptor blocker with antioxidant activity, was studied for its ability to interact with NO in a cell-free condition and in an endothelial cell line (ECV304). 2. In a cell-free system, carvedilol attenuated NO-dependent reduction of carboxy-2-phenyl-4,4, 5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide induced by a NO donor, 1-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-(aminopropyl)-3-isopropyl-1-triazene (NOC5), which was determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry. The EPR study also showed that nitrosylhaemoglobin formation in rat red blood cells by the addition of NO-saturated solution was attenuated by prior incubation with 0.1 - 10 microM carvedilol. 3. NO-induced fluorescence in 4,5-diaminofluorescein-2 diacethyl (DAF-2DA)-loaded ECV304 cells was attenuated by carvedilol but not by labetalol. The IC(50) of carvedilol for NOC5 or sodium nitroprusside-induced fluorescence of DAF-2DA in ECV304 cells was 1. 0x10(-7) M, which was similar to the reported IC(50) of carvedilol for the antioxidant effect. 4. Cell toxicity induced by a NO donor determined by the number of viable cells after 24 h treatment with 2-2'(hydroxynitrosohydrazino)bis-ethanamine was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with 1 microM carvedilol. 5. Both free and cell-associated carvedilol quenched NO. Because NO mediates both physiological and pathophysiological processes, NO quenching by the drug may have diverse clinical implications depending upon specific functions of local NO in tissues where carvedilol is distributed.

  3. Anti-NO action of carvedilol in cell-free system and in vascular endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Toshimasa; Iwamoto, Noriko; Tsukahara, Fujiko; Irie, Kaoru; Urakawa, Ikuko; Muraki, Takamura

    2000-01-01

    Carvedilol, an adrenoceptor blocker with antioxidant activity, was studied for its ability to interact with NO in a cell-free condition and in an endothelial cell line (ECV304).In a cell-free system, carvedilol attenuated NO-dependent reduction of carboxy-2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide induced by a NO donor, 1-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-(aminopropyl)-3-isopropyl-1-triazene (NOC5), which was determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry. The EPR study also showed that nitrosylhaemoglobin formation in rat red blood cells by the addition of NO-saturated solution was attenuated by prior incubation with 0.1–10 μM carvedilol.NO-induced fluorescence in 4,5-diaminofluorescein-2 diacethyl (DAF-2DA)-loaded ECV304 cells was attenuated by carvedilol but not by labetalol. The IC50 of carvedilol for NOC5 or sodium nitroprusside-induced fluorescence of DAF-2DA in ECV304 cells was 1.0×10−7 M, which was similar to the reported IC50 of carvedilol for the antioxidant effect.Cell toxicity induced by a NO donor determined by the number of viable cells after 24 h treatment with 2-2′(hydroxynitrosohydrazino)bis-ethanamine was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with 1 μM carvedilol.Both free and cell-associated carvedilol quenched NO. Because NO mediates both physiological and pathophysiological processes, NO quenching by the drug may have diverse clinical implications depending upon specific functions of local NO in tissues where carvedilol is distributed. PMID:10742311

  4. Changes of Ventricular Myocytes Membrane Capacitance in Rabbit with Myocardial Infarction and Effects of Carvedilol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Hui-Yan; Liang, Bo; Liu, Nian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of long-term treatment of oral Carvedilol on ventricular myocytes membrane capacitance in HMI. Methods: 30 rabbits were randomly assigned in three groups: HMI group, ligation of circumflex coronary artery; Carvedilol group, with operation the same as HMI group......, and administration of oral Carvedilol 0.33 mg/kg×3 months beginning on the day of operation; Sham group, left thoracotomy with no coronary artery ligation. 3 months after surgery, rabbits were harvested. Myocytes were isolated by enzymatic method. The cell membrane capacitance was recorded by using the whole cell...

  5. Validated HPLC determination of the two fixed dose combinations (chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and mebeverine hydrochloride; carvedilol and hydrochlorothiazide) in their tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggag, Rim S; Shaalan, Rasha A; Belal, Tarek S

    2010-01-01

    Simple, rapid, and selective RP-HPLC methods with UV detection were developed for simultaneous determination of chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and mebeverine hydrochloride (Mixture I) and carvedilol and hydrochlorothiazide (Mixture II). The chromatographic separation in both mixtures was achieved by using an RP-C8 (octylsilyl) analytical column. For Mixture I, a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile-0.05 M disodium hydrogen phosphate-triethylamine (50 + 50 + 0.2, v/v/v), pH 2.5, was used; the detector wavelength was 247 nm. For Mixture II, the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0.05 M disodium hydrogen phosphate (50 + 50, v/v), pH 4.0, and the detector was set at 220 nm. Quantification of the analytes was based on measuring their peak areas. Both mixtures were resolved in less than 6 min. The reliability and analytical performance of the proposed HPLC procedures were statistically validated with respect to linearity, range, precision, accuracy, selectivity, robustness, LOD, and LOQ. The linear dynamic ranges were 2.5-150 and 2.5-500 microg/mL for chlordiazepoxide HCI and mebeverine HCI, respectively, and 0.25-200 and 0.25-150 microg/mL for carvedilol and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively. The validated HPLC methods were successfully applied to the analysis of their commercial tablet dosage forms, for which no interfering peaks were encountered from common pharmaceutical adjuvants.

  6. Pulmonary arterial hypertension treatment with carvedilol for heart failure: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Didem; Park, Margaret M.; Cheong, Hoi I.; Asosingh, Kewal; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Stephens, Olivia R.; Roach, Emir C.; Sharp, Jacqueline; Highland, Kristin B.; DiFilippo, Frank P.; Neumann, Donald R.; Tang, W.H. Wilson; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Right-sided heart failure is the leading cause of death in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Similar to left heart failure, sympathetic overactivation and β-adrenoreceptor (βAR) abnormalities are found in PAH. Based on successful therapy of left heart failure with β-blockade, the safety and benefits of the nonselective β-blocker/vasodilator carvedilol were evaluated in PAH. METHODS. PAH Treatment with Carvedilol for Heart Failure (PAHTCH) is a single-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Following 1-week run-in, 30 participants were randomized to 1 of 3 arms for 24 weeks: placebo, low-fixed-dose, or dose-escalating carvedilol. Outcomes included clinical measures and mechanistic biomarkers. RESULTS. Decreases in heart rate and blood pressure with carvedilol were well tolerated; heart rate correlated with carvedilol dose. Carvedilol-treated groups had no decrease in exercise capacity measured by 6-minute walk, but had lower heart rates at peak and after exercise, and faster heart rate recovery. Dose-escalating carvedilol was associated with reduction in right ventricular (RV) glycolytic rate and increase in βAR levels. There was no evidence of RV functional deterioration; rather, cardiac output was maintained. CONCLUSIONS. Carvedilol is likely safe in PAH over 6 months of therapy and has clinical and mechanistic benefits associated with improved outcomes. The data provide support for longer and larger studies to establish guidelines for use of β-blockers in PAH. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01586156 FUNDING. This project was supported by NIH R01HL115008 and R01HL60917 and in part by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, UL1TR000439. PMID:28814664

  7. Differential effects of carvedilol and atenolol on plasma noradrenaline during exercise in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rahmatina B; Jesudason, Peter J; Mustafa, Ali M; Husain, Ruby; Choy, Anna Maria J; Lang, Chim C

    2003-01-01

    Aims Evidence of long-term beneficial effects of β-blockers on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure has been demonstrated in recent randomized trials. However, not all β-blockers are identical. Carvedilol, a nonselective β- and α-adrenergic blocker, can potentially blunt the release of noradrenaline by blocking presynaptic β2-adrenergic receptors. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the effects of carvedilol and atenolol on plasma noradrenaline during exercise in healthy young volunteers. Methods This study investigated the differential effects of 2 weeks pretreatment with carvedilol 25 mg day−1 and atenolol 50 mg day−1 on plasma noradrenaline at rest and during exercise on a treadmill in a double-blind randomized crossover study, involving 12 healthy male volunteers (mean age 21.6 ± 0.3 years). Results Haemodynamic parameters at rest and during exercise were not significantly different in either carvedilol or atenolol pretreatment groups. However, carvedilol pretreatment significantly blunted the increase in plasma noradrenaline during exercise [393.8 ± 51.7 pg ml−1 (pretreatment) to 259.7 ± 21.2 pg ml−1 (post-treatment)], when compared with atenolol [340.4 ± 54.6 pg ml−1 (pretreatment) to 396.2 ± 32.0 pg ml−1 (post-treatment)]. The difference between carvedilol and atenolol (95% confidence interval) was −145.2, −351.0, P < 0.05. Conclusions We have demonstrated that carvedilol but not atenolol significantly blunted the increase in plasma noradrenaline during exercise. These findings may suggest a sympathoinhibitory effect of carvedilol that may enhance its ability to attenuate the cardiotoxicity associated with adrenergic stimulation in patients with heart failure. PMID:12580984

  8. Carvedilol and Its New Analogs Suppress Arrhythmogenic Store Overload-induced Ca2+ Release

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qiang; Xiao, Jianmin; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Ruiwu; Vembaiyan, Kannan; Wang, Aixia; Smith, Chris D.; Xie, Cuihong; Chen, Wenqian; Zhang, Jingqun; Tian, Xixi; Jones, Peter P.; Zhong, Xiaowei; Guo, Ang; Chen, Haiyan

    2011-01-01

    Carvedilol is one of the most effective beta-blockers for preventing ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTs) in heart failure (HF), but the mechanisms underlying its favorable anti-arrhythmic benefits remain unclear. Spontaneous Ca2+ waves, also termed store-overload-induced Ca2+ release (SOICR), are known to evoke VTs in patients with HF. Here we show that carvedilol is the only beta-blocker that effectively suppresses SOICR by directly reducing the open duration of the cardiac ryanodine receptor...

  9. Influence of carvedilol on chronic renal failure progression in spontaneously hypertensive rats with adriamycin nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, D; Jovovic, D; Mihailovic-Stanojevic, N; Miloradovic, Z; Dimitrijevic, J; Maksic, N; Djukanovic, L

    2005-06-01

    In this study, the effects of carvedilol, antihypertensive (alpha-beta blocker) agent with antiproliferative and antioxidative properties, on slowing down of chronic renal failure (CRF) progression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with adriamycin (ADR) nephropathy were examined. Eighty adult (24 weeks) SHR were divided into four groups: 20 SHR; ADR group: 20 SHR treated with ADR (2 mg/kg i.v. twice in 20 days); ADR-C group: 20 SHR treated with ADR and with carvedilol (30 mg/kg/day); ADR-CC group: 20 SHR treated with carvedilol and captopril (60 mg/kg/day). Systolic blood pressure was measured every two weeks, renal blood flow (RBF), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were determined at Weeks 6 and 12, creatinine clearance and proteinuria at Weeks -3 (see measurements), 6 and 12. The rats were sacrificed at Weeks 6 and 12 after the second ADR injection. Glomerular sclerosis, tubulointerstitial and blood vessel changes were determined by semiquantitative scoring. Carvedilol decreased systolic blood pressure. It decreased RVR and MAP, and increased RBF significantly. Carvedilol also significantly decreased interstitial infiltration in the early phase of the study, slowed down the development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and decreased blood vessel changes. The hemodynamic and morphological effects of carvedilol were associated with slowing down the CRF progression as well as a mild decrease in proteinuria. Captopril addition to carvedilol improved its effects especially on prevention of tubulointerstitial changes. Results of this experimental study showed beneficial effect of carvedilol and its combination with captopril on CRF progression, indicating that clinical studies are warranted.

  10. Impact of carvedilol and metoprolol on inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin H; Abu-Zeitone, Abeer; Jons, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on the endpoint of inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study.......The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on the endpoint of inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study....

  11. COMPARISON OF VARIOUS NATURAL SUPERDISINTEGRANTS IN THE FORMULATION OF FAST DISSOLVING CARVEDILOL TABLET

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Sharma et al

    2012-01-01

    In the present investigation, fast dissolving tablets of Carvedilol were formulated by using various natural superdisintegrant like Plantago ovata, Lepidium sativum, Fenugreek and Guar gum. A Direct compression method was used to prepare fast dissolving tablets containing Carvedilol as a model drug using natural superdisintegrants. Prepared formulations were evaluated for Precompression parameters such as micromeritic properties like angle of repose, %compressibility and Hausner’s ratio. Tabl...

  12. Effects of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Patients on Treatment With Glibenclamide and Metformin on Carvedilol Enantiomers Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardotto, Glauco H B; Coelho, Eduardo B; Paiva, Carlos E; Lanchote, Vera L

    2017-06-01

    Carvedilol is available in clinical practice as a racemate in which (S)-(-)-carvedilol is a β- and α 1 -adrenergic antagonist and (R)-(+)-carvedilol is only an α 1 -adrenergic antagonist. Carvedilol is mainly metabolized by glucuronidation, by CYP2D6 to hydroxyphenylcarvedilol (OHC), and by CYP2C9 to O-desmethylcarvedilol (DMC). This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of carvedilol enantiomers and their metabolites OHC and DMC in healthy volunteers (n = 13) and in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with good glycemic control (n = 13). The healthy subjects were enrolled to receive either a 25-mg oral single dose of carvedilol alone (no DDI) or carvedilol simultaneously with 5 mg glibenclamide and 500 mg metformin (DDI), whereas type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who were on long-term treatment with glibenclamide (5 mg/8 h) and metformin (500 mg/8 h) were enrolled to receive only a single oral dose of 25 mg carvedilol. The plasma concentrations of the (R)-(+)-carvedilol, (R)-(+)-DMC, and (R)-(+)-OHC were higher than those of (S)-(-)-carvedilol, (S)-(-)-DMC, and (S)-(-)-OHC in all investigated groups. The pharmacokinetics of the carvedilol enantiomers did not differ between the groups. However, the AUC values of the DMC enantiomers were lower in the type 2 diabetes mellitus patients than in the healthy volunteers (DDI and no DDI) [(R)-(+), 6.9, 10.4, 11.9 ng·h/mL; and (S)-(-), 2.4, 4.3, 4.0 ng·h/mL, respectively]. In contrast, the AUC values of the OHC enantiomers were higher in the type 2 diabetes mellitus patients [(R)-(+), 13.9, 6.6, 4.9 ng·h/mL; and (S)-(-), 7.2, 1.5, 1.5 ng·h/mL], which explains the fact that the carvedilol pharmacokinetics was unchanged. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Low-dose carvedilol reduces transmural heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiang-hua; Chen, Xiao-pan; Yun, Mei-ling; Li, Wei-jing; Chen, Yan-fang; Yao, Zhen

    2007-08-01

    To study the effects of carvedilol on the transmural heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization in rabbits with congestive heart failure (CHF). Rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: control, CHF and carvedilol treated CHF group. Monophasic action potential duration (MAPD) in the 3 myocardial layers was simultaneously recorded. All the rabbits in the CHF group had signs of severe CHF. Compared with the control group, the mean blood pressure and cardiac output were significantly decreased, while peripheral resistance was significantly increased in the CHF group. This proved that the CHF model was successful created with adriamycin in this study. Compared to the control group, the ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) was remarkably decreased and all MAPD of the 3 myocardial layers were extended in rabbits with CHF. However, the extension of MAPD in the midmyocardium was more obvious. The transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) was significantly increased in CHF. Low-dose carvedilol (0.25 mg/kg, twice daily) had no effects on ventricular remodeling. Treatment with low-dose carvedilol significantly increased VFT. Although the MAPD of the 3 myocardial layers were further prolonged in the carvedilol treated CHF group, the prolongation of MAPD in the midmyocardium was shorter than those in the epicardium and endocardium. Treatment with low-dose carvedilol significantly decreased TDR in CHF. In the present study, the transmural heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization increased in the rabbits with CHF. Low-dose carvedilol decreased the transmural heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization in CHF, which may be related to its direct electrophysiological property rather than its effect on ventricular remodeling.

  14. Carvedilol Inhibits Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activation in Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis: Possibilities of Cardioprotective Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypiec-Spring, Monika; Haczkiewicz, Katarzyna; Sapa, Agnieszka; Piasecki, Tomasz; Kwiatkowska, Joanna; Ceremuga, Ireneusz; Wozniak, Mieczyslaw; Biczysko, Wieslawa; Kobierzycki, Christopher; Dziegiel, Piotr; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzenna; Szelag, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Acute myocarditis is a potentially lethal inflammatory heart disease that frequently precedes the development of dilated cardiomyopathy and subsequent heart failure. At present, there is no effective standardized therapy for acute myocarditis, besides the optimal care of heart failure and arrhythmias in accordance with evidence-based guidelines and specific etiology-driven therapy for infectious myocarditis. Carvedilol has been shown to be cardioprotective by reducing cardiac pro-inflammatory cytokines present in oxidative stress in certain heart diseases. However, effects of carvedilol administration in acute myocarditis with its impact on matrix metalloproteinases' (MMPs) activation have not been elucidated. Carvedilol in 3 doses (2, 10, and 30 mg/kg) was given daily to 3 study groups of rats (n = 8) with experimental autoimmune myocarditis by gastric gavage for 3 weeks. In comparison to untreated rats (n = 8) with induced myocarditis, carvedilol significantly prevented the left ventricle enlargement and/or systolic dysfunction depending on the dose in study groups. Performed zymography showed enhanced MMP-2 activity in untreated rats, while carvedilol administration reduced alterations. This was accompanied by prevention of troponin I release and myofilaments degradation in cardiac muscle tissue. Additionally, severe inflammatory cell infiltration was detected in the nontreated group. Carvedilol in all doses tested, had no impact on severity of inflammation. The severity of inflammation did not differ between study groups and in relation to the untreated group. The protective effects of carvedilol on heart function observed in the acute phase of experimental autoimmune myocarditis seem to be associated with its ability to decrease MMP-2 activity and subsequently prevent degradation of myofilaments and release of troponin I while not related to suppression of inflammation.

  15. Differential effects of adrenergic antagonists (Carvedilol vs Metoprolol on parasympathetic and sympathetic activity: a comparison of clinical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Bloom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN is recognized as a significant health risk, correlating with risk of heart disease, silent myocardial ischemia or sudden cardiac death. Beta-blockers are often prescribed to minimize risk. Objectives In this second of two articles, the effects on parasympathetic and sympathetic activity of the alpha/beta-adrenergic blocker, Carvedilol, are compared with those of the selective beta-adrenergic blocker, Metoprolol. Methods Retrospective, serial autonomic nervous system test data from 147 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients from eight ambulatory clinics were analyzed. Patients were grouped according to whether a beta-blocker was (1 introduced, (2 discontinued or (3 continued without adjustment. Group 3 served as the control. Results Introducing Carvedilol or Metoprolol decreased heart rate and blood pressure, and discontinuing them had the opposite effect. Parasympathetic activity increased with introducing Carvedilol. Sympathetic activity increased more after discontinuing Carvedilol, suggesting better sympathetic suppression. With ongoing treatment, resting parasympathetic activity decreased with Metoprolol but increased with Carvedilol. Conclusion Carvedilol has a more profound effect on sympathovagal balance than Metoprolol. While both suppress sympathetic activity, only Carvedilol increases parasympathetic activity. Increased parasympathetic activity may underlie the lower mortality risk with Carvedilol.

  16. Endothelial function is unaffected by changing between carvedilol and metoprolol in patients with heart failure--a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falskov, Britt; Hermann, Thomas Steffen; Raunsø, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    with carvedilol, metoprolol tartrate or metoprolol succinate. Venous occlusion plethysmography, 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate measurements were done before and after a two-month treatment period. RESULTS: Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was not affected by changing from carvedilol to either...

  17. Effect of Metoprolol Versus Carvedilol on Outcomes in MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin H; Ruwald, Anne-Christine H; Jøns, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to compare the effects of metoprolol and carvedilol in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study.......This study sought to compare the effects of metoprolol and carvedilol in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study....

  18. Evaluation of the Short-Term Cost-Effectiveness of IDegLira Versus Continued Up-Titration of Insulin Glargine U100 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Barnaby; Mocarski, Michelle; Valentine, William J; Langer, Jakob

    2017-04-01

    Effective glycemic control can reduce the risk of complications and their related costs in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, many patients fail to reach glycemic targets, often because of adverse effects of treatment (including hypoglycemia or weight gain). The present analysis evaluated the short-term cost-effectiveness of IDegLira versus continued up-titration of insulin glargine U100 in patients with T2DM failing to achieve glycemic control on basal insulin in the US setting. The cost per patient achieving treatment target (cost of control) was assessed for various single and composite endpoints for the entire trial population and in patients with baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >8.0% and HbA1c >9.0%. The proportions of patients achieving treatment targets were analyzed using data obtained in the DUAL V study. Costs were accounted based on published wholesale acquisition costs. When assessing the full trial population, IDegLira was associated with lower annual cost of control than continued up-titration of insulin glargine U100 for patients achieving HbA1c ≤6.5% without confirmed hypoglycemia (by $10,608), HbA1c ≤6.5% without weight gain (by $29,215), and HbA1c ≤6.5% without confirmed hypoglycemia and weight gain (by $57,351). A similar pattern was observed when multifactorial treatment targets were based on achieving a glycemic target of 7.0%. When only HbA1c was considered, IDegLira was associated with a lower cost per patient achieving HbA1c ≤6.5% (by $3306) but cost of control was equivalent for a target of HbA1c 8.0% and HbA1c >9.0%, IDegLira was associated with a lower cost of control for all treatment targets. The significantly greater clinical efficacy in terms of bringing patients to treatment targets identified in the DUAL V study results in lower cost of control values for IDegLira versus continued up-titration of insulin glargine U100 in the USA. This suggests IDegLira is a cost-effective treatment option in the USA. Novo Nordisk

  19. Fabrication of novel GMO/Eudragit E100 nanostructures for enhancing oral bioavailability of carvedilol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sharvil S; Roy, Krishtey; Choudhary, Bhavana; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, novel nanostructures comprising of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) and Eudragit E100 were prepared using high intensity ultrasonic homogenization. 3(2) Factorial design approach was used for optimization of nanostructures. Results of regression analysis revealed that the amount of GMO and Eudragit E100 had a drastic effect on particle size and percent entrapment efficiency. Optimized carvedilol-loaded nanostructures (Car-NS) were characterized by FTIR, TEM, DSC, in vitro drug release study. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, Tmax, Ke, Ka, Vd and AUC were estimated for Car-NS upon its oral administration in Sprague-Dawley rats. Particle size of Car-NS was found to be 183 ± 2.43 nm with an entrapment efficiency of 81.4 ± 0.512%. FTIR studies revealed loading and chemical compatibility of carvedilol with the components of nanostructures. DSC thermograms did not show endothermic peak for melting of carvedilol which could be attributed to solubilization of carvedilol in molten GMO during DSC run. The prepared Car-NS released carvedilol in sustained manner over a period of 10 h as suggested by in vitro drug release study. The pharmacokinetic study of Car-NS showed significant improvement in Cmax (two fold, p GMO/Eudragit E100 nanostructures having ability to release the drug in sustained manner with enhanced oral bioavailability can prove to be a promising carrier system for poorly water soluble drugs.

  20. Non-β-blocking R-carvedilol enantiomer suppresses Ca2+ waves and stress-induced ventricular tachyarrhythmia without lowering heart rate or blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jingqun; Zhou, Qiang; Smith, Chris D.; Chen, Haiyan; Tan, Zhen; Chen, Biyi; Nani, Alma; Wu, Guogen; Song, Long-Sheng; Fill, Michael; Back, Thomas G.; Wayne Chen, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Carvedilol is the current β-blocker of choice for suppressing ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT). However, carvedilol’s benefits are dose-limited, attributable to its potent β-blocking activity that can lead to bradycardia and hypotension. The clinically used carvedilol is a racemic mixture of β-blocking S-carvedilol and non-β-blocking R-carvedilol. We recently reported that novel non-β-blocking carvedilol analogues are effective in suppressing arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves and stress-induced VT wi...

  1. Effects of carvedilol and propranolol on circulatory regulation and oxygenation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Lise; Bendtsen, Flemming; Hansen, Erik F

    2014-01-01

    =16) or propranolol (n=13). Cardiac, systemic and splanchnic parameters along with oxygen saturation and plasma renin were measured at inclusion and after 3 months. RESULTS: Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output decreased equally, central circulation time and systemic vascular...... oxygen gradient remained constant in both groups. Hepatic venous pressure gradient decreased equally in the carvedilol and propranolol groups (-17% and -20%, non significant). CONCLUSIONS: Systemic haemodynamics and pulmonary effects of carvedilol and propranolol are modest and this study could......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Newer studies suggest that carvedilol, a beta-blocker with a moderate anti-alpha-1 activity, is superior to propranolol in reducing the portal pressure and risk of variceal bleeding. The effect on arterial blood pressure is a matter of concern especially in decompensated...

  2. Anti-NO action of carvedilol in cell-free system and in vascular endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, Toshimasa; Iwamoto, Noriko; Tsukahara, Fujiko; Irie, Kaoru; Urakawa, Ikuko; Muraki, Takamura

    2000-01-01

    Carvedilol, an adrenoceptor blocker with antioxidant activity, was studied for its ability to interact with NO in a cell-free condition and in an endothelial cell line (ECV304).In a cell-free system, carvedilol attenuated NO-dependent reduction of carboxy-2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide induced by a NO donor, 1-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-(aminopropyl)-3-isopropyl-1-triazene (NOC5), which was determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry. The EPR study also show...

  3. Protective effects of carvedilol on systemic vascular damage induced by angiotensin II: organ-specific effects independent of antihypertensive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailati, Maria do Carmo Fernandez; Rocha, Noeme Souza; Matsubara, Luiz Shiguero; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Schwartz, Denise Saretta; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian

    2010-01-01

    The protective effect of carvedilol on multiple organ damage induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of carvedilol on the heart, liver, and kidney in rats infused with Ang II. Wistar rats were randomly distributed into three groups: control (no treatment), continuously infused with Ang II (150 etag/min for 72 hr), and treated with Ang II + carvedilol (90 mg/kg/d). Histological sections of the myocardium, kidney, and liver were analyzed for the presence of necrosis. Ang II induced arterial hypertension which was not affected by carvedilol treatment (tail-cuff blood pressures, control: 125+/-13.6, Ang II: 163+/-27.3, Ang II + CV: 178+/-39.8 mmHg, p<0.05). Also, there were perivascular inflammation and necrosis in the myocardium, kidney, and hepatocytes necrosis around the terminal vein. Carvedilol treatment fully prevented damage to the heart and kidney and attenuated liver lesions induced by the Ang II infusion. The protective effect of carvedilol on perivascular damage induced by Ang II infusion depended on the target organ. The prevention of heart damage occurred independently of the antihypertensive effects of carvedilol.

  4. The comparative effects of long-term carvedilol versus bisoprolol therapy on QT dispersion in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygul, Nazif; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Duzenli, Mehmet Akif; Aygul, Meryem Ulku

    2009-01-01

    Carvedilol and bisoprolol reduce QT dispersion (QTD) in chronic heart failure (CHF). However, it is unclear whether there is a difference between the effects of the two drugs. The aim of the present study was to compare the long-term effects of carvedilol and bisoprolol on QTD in patients with CHF. Eighty-one patients with CHF with no previous beta-blocker therapy were included in this prospective study. The patients were randomly allocated to carvedilol or bisoprolol therapy. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), heart rate (HR), QTD, and corrected QTD (QTcD) were calculated at baseline and at the 6th month of therapy. In comparison to baseline values in both therapy groups, LVEF was significantly improved, and a statistically significant decrease was found in HR (carvedilol from 76 +/- 12 to 65 +/- 10 beats/min, p < 0.001; bisoprolol from 78 +/- 13 to 65 +/- 8 beats/min, p < 0.001) and QTcD (carvedilol from 85 +/- 28 to 65 +/- 22 ms, p < 0.001; bisoprolol from 83 +/- 22 to 61 +/- 20 ms, p < 0.001). In our study, carvedilol and bisoprolol were found to have similar effects on LVEF, HR, and QTcD. Carvedilol and bisoprolol decrease HR and QTcD in patients with CHF, and there is no meaningful difference between the two beta-blockers as regards their effects on these parameters. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. In Vitro Enhancement of Carvedilol Glucuronidation by Amiodarone-Mediated Altered Protein Binding in Incubation Mixture of Human Liver Microsomes with Bovine Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Makoto; Takamori, Toru; Nakamura, Saki; Taguchi, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Carvedilol is mainly metabolized in the liver to O-glucuronide (O-Glu). We previously found that the glucuronidation activity of racemic carvedilol in pooled human liver microsomes (HLM) was increased, R-selectively, in the presence of amiodarone. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms for the enhancing effect of amiodarone on R- and S-carvedilol glucuronidation. We evaluated O-Glu formation of R- and S-carvedilol enantiomers in a reaction mixture of HLM including 0.2% bovine serum albumin (BSA). In the absence of amiodarone, glucuronidation activity of R- and S-carvedilol for 25 min was 0.026, and 0.51 pmol/min/mg protein, and that was increased by 6.15 and 1.60-fold in the presence of 50 µM amiodarone, respectively. On the other hand, in the absence of BSA, or when BSA was replaced with human serum albumin, no enhancing effect of amiodarone on glucuronidation activity was observed, suggesting that BSA played a role in the mechanisms for the enhancement of glucuronidation activity. Unbound fraction of S-carvedilol in the reaction mixture was greater than that of R-carvedilol in the absence of amiodarone. Also, the addition of amiodarone caused a greater increase of unbound fraction of R-carvedilol than that of S-carvedilol. These results suggest that the altered protein binding by amiodarone is a key mechanism for R-selective stimulation of carvedilol glucuronidation.

  6. Carvedilol, a third-generation β-blocker prevents oxidative stress-induced neuronal death and activates Nrf2/ARE pathway in HT22 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Ying [Department of Pediatrics, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Ziwei [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Tan, Min [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine Chemistry, College of Chinese Materia Madica, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Anmin [Department of Neurosurgery, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Meihui [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Jun [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Pi, Rongbiao, E-mail: pirb@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Fang, Jianpei, E-mail: jpf2005@163.com [Department of Pediatrics, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •Carvedilol significantly prevented oxidative stress-induced cell death. •Carvedilol significantly decreased the production of ROS. •Carvedilol activated Nrf2/ARE pathway. •Carvedilol increased the protein levels of HO-1 and NQO-1. -- Abstract: Carvedilol, a nonselective β-adrenoreceptor blocker with pleiotropic activities has been shown to exert neuroprotective effect due to its antioxidant property. However, the neuroprotective mechanism of carvedilol is still not fully uncovered. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is an important cellular stress response pathway involved in neuroprotection. Here we investigated the effect of carvedilol on oxidative stress-induced cell death (glutamate 2 mM and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} 600 μM) and the activity of Nrf2/ARE pathway in HT22 hippocampal cells. Carvedilol significantly increased cell viability and decreased ROS in HT22 cells exposed to glutamate or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Furthermore, carvedilol activated the Nrf2/ARE pathway in a concentration-dependent manner, and increased the protein levels of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1(NQO-1), two downstream factors of the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Collectively, our results indicate that carvedilol protects neuronal cell against glutamate- and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced neurotoxicity possibly through activating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.

  7. Carvedilol Enhances the Antioxidant Effect of Vitamins E and C in Chronic Chagas Heart Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budni, Patrícia, E-mail: budnip@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Pedrosa, Roberto Coury [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Dalmarco, Juliana Bastos; Frode, Tânia Sílvia; Wilhelm, Danilo Filho [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Chagas disease is still an important endemic disease in Brazil, and the cardiac involvement is its more severe manifestation. To verify whether the concomitant use of carvedilol will enhance the antioxidant effect of vitamins E and C in reducing the systemic oxidative stress in chronic Chagas heart disease. A total of 42 patients with Chagas heart disease were studied. They were divided into four groups according to the modified Los Andes classification: 10 patients in group IA (normal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no cardiac involvement); 20 patients in group IB (normal electrocardiogram and abnormal echocardiogram; mild cardiac involvement); eight patients in group II (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no heart failure; moderate cardiac involvement); and four patients in group III (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram with heart failure; severe cardiac involvement). Blood levels of markers of oxidative stress were determined before and after a six-month period of treatment with carvedilol, and six months after combined therapy of carvedilol with vitamins E and C. The markers analyzed were as follows: activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and reductase, myeloperoxidade and adenosine deaminase; and the levels of reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, vitamin E, and nitric oxide. After treatment with carvedilol, all groups showed significant decrease in protein carbonyls and reduced glutathione levels, whereas nitric oxide levels and adenosine activity increased significantly only in the less severely affected group (IA). In addition, the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes was decreased in the less severely affected groups (IA and IB). By combining the vitamins with carvedilol, a reduction in protein damage, in glutathione levels, and in the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes were observed. The decrease in oxidative

  8. Pharmacodynamics of beta-blockers in heart failure: lessons from the carvedilol or metoprolol European trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Jerry L; Talbert, Robert L

    2004-06-01

    Heart failure is a growing public health problem in the United States, and the approach to the treatment of heart failure has undergone a radical transformation in the past decade. The use of beta-blocker therapy in heart failure patients is now widely recommended, based on evidence from large-scale clinical trials demonstrating that bisoprolol, carvedilol, and extended-release metoprolol succinate significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. Although these agents appear to provide similar benefits, the question remains whether pharmacologic differences among them could translate to differences in clinical outcomes. The Carvedilol Or Metoprolol European Trial (COMET) compared nonselective blockade of the beta1-/beta2-/alpha1-adrenergic receptors with carvedilol versus selective beta1-blockade with immediate-release metoprolol tartrate in patients with chronic heart failure. The trial found that carvedilol significantly reduced all-cause mortality compared with immediate-release metoprolol tartrate, although there were no differences in hospitalizations. Herein we review the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metoprolol and carvedilol. In doing so, several issues regarding the design of COMET are identified that could alter the interpretation of the results of this trial. These include the choice of dose and dosage regimen of immediate-release metoprolol tartrate, a dosage form that has never been shown to reduce mortality in patients with heart failure. Additional studies are needed to fully understand whether there are any advantages of selective versus nonselective adrenergic blockade and whether there are any clinically meaningful differences in effectiveness between beta-blockers with proven benefit in the management of chronic heart failure. The results of COMET demonstrate that all beta-blockers and dosage forms are not interchangeable when prescribed for heart failure. Clinicians should choose only those agents (and

  9. Protective effect of carvedilol on oxidative stress induced by okadaic acid in N1E-115 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Túnez, Isaac; Collado, Juan A; Medina, Francisco J; Muñoz, M Carmen; Gordillo, Rafael; Sampedro, Concepción; Moyano, María J; Feijóo, Montserrat; Muntané, Jordi; Montilla, Pedro

    2006-09-01

    The effect of carvedilol on oxidative and cell damage induced by okadaic acid in N1E-115 cells were studied. The effects of okadaic acid were evaluated as changes in: the quantity of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyl groups, reduced glutathione content (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and total lactate dehydrogenase (cell LDH). Additionally, a dose of carvedilol (10(-5)M) was added 2h before incubation with okadaic acid (50 nM) and was present until the end of the experiment (2h later added okadaic acid). Our results reveal that okadaic acid induces oxidative stress and an increase of cell LDH in N1E-115 cells, whereas carvedilol prevented the changes prompted by okadaic acid. In conclusion, the data show the protective effect of carvedilol, as well as its ability to modify cell response to okadaic acid, involving like cytoprotective mechanism its antioxidative properties.

  10. Carvedilol alleviates adjuvant-induced arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema: Modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arab, Hany H., E-mail: hany_h_arab@yahoo.com [Biochemistry Division, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Sawalhi, Maha M. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-04-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease with cardiovascular complications as the leading cause of morbidity. Carvedilol is an adrenergic antagonist which has been safely used in treatment of several cardiovascular disorders. Given that carvedilol has powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to investigate its protective potential against arthritis that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness especially in RA patients with concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Two models were studied in the same rat; adjuvant arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 21 days) effectively suppressed inflammation in both models with comparable efficacy to the standard anti-inflammatory diclofenac (5 mg/kg/day p.o.). Notably, carvedilol inhibited paw edema and abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates. The latter observation was confirmed by the histopathological assessment of the pouch lining that revealed mitigation of immuno-inflammatory cell influx. Carvedilol reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and protein thiols) and lowered the release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), and eicosanoids (PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4}) in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. Interestingly, carvedilol, per se, didn't present any effect on assessed biochemical parameters in normal rats. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-arthritic effects of carvedilol that could be mediated through attenuation of leukocyte migration, alleviation of oxidative stress and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids. - Highlights: ► Carvedilol possesses promising anti-arthritic properties. ► It markedly suppressed inflammation in adjuvant arthritis and air pouch edema. ► It abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates and linings. ► It reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers in sera and exudates of

  11. COMPARISON OF CARVEDILOL AND BISOPROLOL EFFICACY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND DIABETES TYPES 2 AFTER MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

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    M. E. Statsenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare efficacy of carvedilol and bisoprolol in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and diabetes mellitus (DM type 2 after myocardial infarction (MI.Material and methods. 60 patients (45-70 y.o. with CHF 2-3 functional class according to NYHA and DM type 2 after MI (3-4 week are included in the study. Patients are randomized on 2 groups. All patients received basic therapy of CHF. Besides patients of 1st group (n=30 were treated with carvedilol (Talliton, Egis 29,0±2,5 mg daily. Patients of 2nd group (n=30 were treated with bisoprolol (6,0±0,5 mg/day. Both groups were similar on age, sex, disease severity, haemodynamic parameters and basic therapy doses. Life quality, functional reserve, echocardiography, kidney function, heart rate variability (HRV, lipid and glucose metabolism were estimated initially and in 16 weeks of treatment.Results. Carvedilol and bisoprolol therapy of patients with CHF and DM after MI resulted in improvement of clinical status, kidney function and increase in HRV. Carvedilol had clinical advantages in comparison with bisoprolol in effects on myocardial remodeling, kidney function and HRV. Carvedilol favorable effects on lipid and glucose metabolism were observed.Conclusion. Carvedilol has a number of significant advantages in comparison with bisoprolol in the therapy of patients with CHF and DM after MI.

  12. THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF AMIODARONE AND CARVEDILOL COMBINATION IN TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH SEVERE CARDIAC RHYTHM DISORDERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetskhladze, E; Khintibidze, I

    2017-06-01

    Different arrhythmias are cause of sudden death in many patients with heart failure. Amiodarone is usually used for prevent this arrhythmias, but it is not drug of choice for treatment the patients with heart failure. We retrospectively analyzed 142 patients with moderate and severe heart failure and history of myocardial infarction. These patients have received amiodarone, carvedilol or combination of these two medications together with standard therapy. In our retrospective analysis, the combination therapy with Amiodarone and Carvedilol had highly significant decrease arrhythmic death compare with carvedilol and amiodarone groups. This therapy is more effective in recovering of sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation and for control ventricular arrhythmias. The effects of carvedilol on left ventricular remodeling, systolic function and symptomatic status are not affected adversly by concurrent treatment with amiodarone. Carvedilol is an effective additional therapy for the patients with chronic heart failure already receiving Amiodarone. Carvedilol can be added to Amiodarone in patients with severe ventricular rhythm disorders and increased risk of sudden death without expecting of increase adverse events (than either drug alone) or loss of clinical efficacy.

  13. Development and Application of Electrochemical Sensor Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer and Carbon Nanotubes for the Determination of Carvedilol

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    Malena Karla Lombello Coelho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the preparation of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs for determination of carvedilol (CAR. Electrochemical behavior of CAR on the modified electrode was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry. The best composition was found to be 65% (m/m of MIP. Under optimized conditions (pH 8.5 in 0.25 mol L−1 Britton–Robinson buffer and 0.1 mol L−1 KCl the voltammetric method showed a linear response for CAR in the range of 50–325 µmol L−1 (R = 0.9755, with detection and quantification limits of 16.14 µmol L−1 and 53.8 µmol L−1, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of CAR in real samples of pharmaceuticals. The sensor presented good sensitivity, rapid detection of CAR, and quick and easy preparation. Furthermore, the material used as modifier has a simple synthesis and its amount utilized is very small, thus illustrating the economic feasibility of this sensor.

  14. COMPARATIVE CONTROLLED STUDY OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF CARVEDILOL IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION AND OBESITY OR DIABETES 2 TYPE (BASED ON RESULTS OF MULTICENTER TRIAL ACCORD

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    Yu. V. Yu.V. Lukina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study efficacy and safety of beta-blocker with vasodilating properties carvedilol (Acridilole, Akrihin, Russia as a part of the combined therapy of patients with arterial hypertension (HT and diabetes mellitus 2 type (DM2 and/or obesity.Material and methods. 592 patients: 176 men (29,7% and 416 women (70,3% with HT were examined. 194 patients had D2 and 398 patients had obesity. Patients were randomized for carvedilol therapy (n=291 or control group (n=301. Carvedilol was prescribed additionally to current therapy in dose of 6,25 mg BID, in 2 weeks the dose was increased to 12,5 mg BID if it was necessary. Blood pressure (BP and heart rate, number of angina attacks were registered at visits. ECG, laboratory analysis (plasma lipide profile, serum glucose, glycolised haemoglobin, serum K+ and Na+, evaluation of depression and anxiety status (according to special questionnaires were performed on the first and the last visits.Results. 582 patients completed the study. 7 patients dropped out from carvedilol group and 3 patients - from control group. The levels of systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were decreased during study, more significantly in carvedilol group (р<0,0001. SBP decreased on 24,8 mm Hg in patients of carvedilol group and on 21,4 mm Hg in patients of control group. DBP decreased on 12,5 mm Hg and 11 mm Hg respectively. Angina attacks were registered less often in patients of carvedilol group (р=0,001. Serum glucose and lipid spectrum did not change in both groups. Depression level decreased in patients receiving carvedilol. 17 side effects were registered in carvedilol group and 15 - in control group (р=0,575Conclusion. High antihypertensive efficacy of carvedilol is confirmed in hypertensive patients with DM2 and/or obesity. Good tolerability and metabolic neutrality of carvedilol is also observed.

  15. COMPARATIVE CONTROLLED STUDY OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF CARVEDILOL IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION AND OBESITY OR DIABETES 2 TYPE (BASED ON RESULTS OF MULTICENTER TRIAL ACCORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Yu.V. Lukina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study efficacy and safety of beta-blocker with vasodilating properties carvedilol (Acridilole, Akrihin, Russia as a part of the combined therapy of patients with arterial hypertension (HT and diabetes mellitus 2 type (DM2 and/or obesity.Material and methods. 592 patients: 176 men (29,7% and 416 women (70,3% with HT were examined. 194 patients had D2 and 398 patients had obesity. Patients were randomized for carvedilol therapy (n=291 or control group (n=301. Carvedilol was prescribed additionally to current therapy in dose of 6,25 mg BID, in 2 weeks the dose was increased to 12,5 mg BID if it was necessary. Blood pressure (BP and heart rate, number of angina attacks were registered at visits. ECG, laboratory analysis (plasma lipide profile, serum glucose, glycolised haemoglobin, serum K+ and Na+, evaluation of depression and anxiety status (according to special questionnaires were performed on the first and the last visits.Results. 582 patients completed the study. 7 patients dropped out from carvedilol group and 3 patients - from control group. The levels of systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were decreased during study, more significantly in carvedilol group (р<0,0001. SBP decreased on 24,8 mm Hg in patients of carvedilol group and on 21,4 mm Hg in patients of control group. DBP decreased on 12,5 mm Hg and 11 mm Hg respectively. Angina attacks were registered less often in patients of carvedilol group (р=0,001. Serum glucose and lipid spectrum did not change in both groups. Depression level decreased in patients receiving carvedilol. 17 side effects were registered in carvedilol group and 15 - in control group (р=0,575Conclusion. High antihypertensive efficacy of carvedilol is confirmed in hypertensive patients with DM2 and/or obesity. Good tolerability and metabolic neutrality of carvedilol is also observed.

  16. Carvedilol atenua o estresse oxidativo na cardiopatia chagásica crônica

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    Patrícia Budni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Há cada vez mais evidências sugerindo que doença de Chagas envolve dano oxidativo e contribui para a progressão da doença cardíaca. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do carvedilol sobre marcadores de estresse oxidativo na doença de Chagas crônica. MÉTODOS: A população de estudo incluiu 42 pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica e os biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo foram medidos antes e após um período de seis meses de tratamento com carvedilol (37,5 mg/dia. Os pacientes foram considerados de acordo com a classificação de Los Andes, e a atividade da superóxido dismutase, catalase, glutationa peroxidase, S-transferase e redutase, mieloperoxidase e adenosina deaminase; e os níveis de glutationa reduzida, de espécies reativas do ácido tiobarbitúrico, proteína carbonil, vitamina E e óxido nítrico foram medidos no sangue. RESULTADOS: Após o tratamento com carvedilol, todos os grupos apresentaram reduções significativas nos níveis de proteína carbonil e glutationa reduzida, enquanto os níveis de óxido nítrico e atividade da adenosina aumentaram significativamente somente no grupo IA. Além disso, a maioria das enzimas antioxidantes apresentou diminuição de suas atividades, nos grupos IA e IB. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados sugerem que o tratamento com carvedilol foi eficaz na atenuação do dano oxidativo, um efeito que pode ser particularmente importante em doença de Chagas crônica com cardiopatia.

  17. Formulation and optimization of chronomodulated press-coated tablet of carvedilol by Box–Behnken statistical design

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    Satwara RS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rohan S Satwara, Parul K PatelDepartment of Pharmaceutics, Babaria Institute of Pharmacy, Vadodara, Gujarat, IndiaObjective: The primary objective of the present investigation was to formulate and optimize chronomodulated press-coated tablets to deliver the antihypertensive carvedilol at an effective quantity predawn, when a blood pressure spike is typically observed in most hypertensive patients.Experimental work: Preformulation studies and drug excipient compatibility studies were carried out for carvedilol and excipients. Core tablets (6 mm containing carvedilol and 10-mm press-coated tablets were prepared by direct compression. The Box–Behnken experimental design was applied to these press-coated tablets (F1–F15 formula with differing concentrations of rate-controlling polymers. Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K4M, ethyl cellulose, and K-carrageenan were used as rate-controlling polymers in the outer layer. These tablets were subjected to various precompression and postcompression tests. The optimized batch was derived both by statistically (using desirability function and graphically (using Design Expert® 8; Stat-Ease Inc. Tablets formulated using the optimized formulas were then evaluated for lag time and in vitro dissolution.Results and discussion: Results of preformulation studies were satisfactory. No interaction was observed between carvedilol and excipients by ultraviolet, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analysis. The results of precompression studies and postcompression studies were within limits. The varying lag time and percent cumulative carvedilol release after 8 h was optimized to obtain a formulation that offered a release profile with 6 h lag time, followed by complete carvedilol release after 8 h. The results showed no significant bias between predicted response and actual response for the optimized formula.Conclusion: Bedtime dosing of chronomodulated press-coated tablets may offer a

  18. Chemiluminometric determination of carvedilol in a multi-pumping flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Cherrine K; Marques, Karine L; Santos, João L M; Lapa, Rui A S; Lima, José L F C; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2005-12-15

    In this work a simple, fast, sensitive and selective flow-based procedure for the chemiluminometric determination of carvedilol, a recent non-cardioselective beta-blocker with noteworthy antioxidant activity, is proposed. The developed methodology takes advantage of the antioxidant capacity of carvedilol to inhibit the chemiluminescence response resulting from the oxidation of luminol by hypochlorite, by acting as a hypochlorite scavenger. The analytical process was implemented in a multi-pumping flow system that employs multiple solenoid actuated micro-pumps as the only active components. These acted as solution insertion, propelling and commuting units assuring an easily controlled, low cost, compact and reliable analytical system. A linear working range for carvedilol concentrations ranging from 1.2x10(-7) to 3.0x10(-6)moll(-1) (r>0.999, n=6), was obtained, with a detection limit of 8.7x10(-9)moll(-1). The system handles about 65 samples per hour yielding precise results (R.S.D.<1.3%, n=10). Recoveries within 95 and 104% were obtained.

  19. Effect of novel mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol on isoprenaline-induced tachycardia

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    Navneet Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was designed to develop bioadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol (CR and evaluate for isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared by using chitosan (CH, sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA as mucoadhesive polymers. The solvent evaporation method was used for the preparation of buccal patches. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like patch thickness, weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, residence time, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the polymer concentration, whereas surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between neutral ranges. In-vitro release study shows that 94.75% drug was release in 8 hours from the patch, which containing 2% w/v chitosan. The folding endurance result shows good elasticity in all the patches.Application of buccal patches on buccal mucosa of rabbit shows a significant result in % inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Prepared buccal patches of chitosan, NaCMC, and PVA containing Carvedilol meet the ideal requirement for the delivery of cardiovascular drugs and inhibit the isoprenaline tachycardia.

  20. Efficacy and safety of carvedilol in patients with chronic heart failure receiving concomitant amiodarone therapy. Australia/New Zealand Heart Failure Research Collaborative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krum, H; Shusterman, N; MacMahon, S; Sharpe, N

    1998-12-01

    The beta-blocker/vasodilator carvedilol is found to have beneficial effects in patients with chronic heart failure. However, the safety and efficacy of this agent in the presence of concomitant amiodarone therapy has not been previously determined. We retrospectively analyzed the Australia/New Zealand Carvedilol Heart Failure Research Collaborative Group study of 415 patients with mild to moderate ischemic heart failure where amiodarone was administered as part of the treatment therapy (in 52 patients). After the open-label carvedilol run-in, patients received carvedilol (target dose 25 mg twice daily) or placebo for an average of 19 months. The main adverse events during this double-blind period were worsened heart failure, hypotension/dizziness, bradycardia/atrioventricular block, and aggravation of angina. By Chi square analysis, carvedilol and amiodarone together were not associated with a greater overall incidence of adverse effects than either drug alone. The beneficial effects of carvedilol on left ventricular ejection that were observed in the main trial were preserved in the presence of amiodarone. Carvedilol is a useful additional therapy for patients with chronic heart failure already receiving amiodarone. Carvedilol can be added to amiodarone in these patients without expectation of increased adverse effects or loss of clinical efficacy.

  1. The influence of new beta-adrenolytics nebivolol and carvedilol on intraocular pressure and iris blood flow in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumny, Dorota; Szeląg, Adam

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of propranolol, nebivolol, and carvedilol on intraocular pressure and blood flow in vessels of rabbit's (New Zealand White) eyeball. The study was carried out on New Zealand white rabbits. Intraocular pressure was measured with the applanation tonometer Möller-Wedel and Icare; blood flow was measured with Doppler Laser Blood Flow Monitor MBD3. Following a single administration into a conjunctival sac, all drugs decreased intraocular pressure. Iris blood flow was decreased following administration of propranol, but increased by nebivolol and carvedilol. After single and repeated oral administration of nebivolol and carvedilol an IOP decrease was demonstrated, but with no effect of all applied doses on iris or retina/choroid blood flow. Studies performed on an animal model indicate that it is possible to reduce the intraocular pressure and increase ocular blood flow in humans, following topical administration of carvedilol and nebivolol. Confirmation of those results in clinical trials may lead to development of a new anti-glaucoma treatment. Further clinical studies of long-term nebivolol and carvedilol are recommended. They are necessary for evaluation of usefulness of those drugs for selected groups of patients, for example those with glaucoma and arterial hypertension.

  2. Farmacocinética-farmacodinâmica dos enantiômeros do carvedilol em voluntários sadios e em pacientes portadores de diabetes mellitus tipo II

    OpenAIRE

    Glauco Henrique Balthazar Nardotto

    2015-01-01

    O carvedilol é um anti-hipertensivo disponível na clínica como mistura racêmica, sendo o (S)-(-)-carvedilol um bloqueador ? e ?1-adrenérgico e o (R)-(+)-carvedilol apenas ?1-adrenérgico. O carvedilol é metabolizado principalmente por glicuronidação e pelo CYP2D6 a hidroxifenilcarvedilol e pelo CYP2C9 a Odesmetilcarvedilol. O presente estudo avalia a disposição cinética e o metabolismo dos enantiômeros do carvedilol, hidroxifenilcarvedilol e O-desmetilcarvedilol em voluntários sadios não comed...

  3. COMPARISON OF THE METABOLIC EFFECTS OF CARVEDILOL AND METОPROLOL IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY. THE CAMELLIA TRIAL

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    S. Y. Martsevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare two therapies based on carvedilol or metoprolol in hypertensive patients with overweight and obesity.Material and methods. 320 patients with arterial hypertension (1-2 degree were involved in the study. 160 patients received carvedilol and 160 patients – metoprolol. Both randomized groups were comparable on the main clinical characteristics.Results. By the end of the study both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP reduced in both groups р<0,0001. There were not differences of antihypertensive effect between investigated drugs (р=0,88 for SBP and р=0,61 for DBP. By the end of the study body mass index decreased by 0,52±0,10 kg/m2 (р<0,0001 in carvedilol group and by 0,26±0,10kg/m2 (р<0,01 in metoprolol group. Carvedilol in comparison with metoprolol had more positive effects on glucose (р<0,01 and lipid blood levels. By the end of the study urine acid blood level reduction was observed in carvedilol group (-16,6 μmol/l while an increasing tendency - in metoprolol group. Carvedilol did not have negative effect on serum potassium and creatinine levels. Adverse effects rate was 6,3% in carvedilol group and 3,8% - in metoprolol group.Conclusion. The results of open, randomized CAMELLIA trial confirmed antihypertensive effect and good tolerability of carvedilol in common clinical practice as well as demonstrated some its advantages in patients with metabolic syndrome. Carvedilol has positive metabolic effects on lipid, glucose and uric acid levels. Carvedilol therapy is more preferable in patients with arterial hypertension and metabolic risk factors.

  4. COMPARISON OF THE METABOLIC EFFECTS OF CARVEDILOL AND METОPROLOL IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY. THE CAMELLIA TRIAL

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    S. Y. Martsevich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare two therapies based on carvedilol or metoprolol in hypertensive patients with overweight and obesity.Material and methods. 320 patients with arterial hypertension (1-2 degree were involved in the study. 160 patients received carvedilol and 160 patients – metoprolol. Both randomized groups were comparable on the main clinical characteristics.Results. By the end of the study both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP reduced in both groups р<0,0001. There were not differences of antihypertensive effect between investigated drugs (р=0,88 for SBP and р=0,61 for DBP. By the end of the study body mass index decreased by 0,52±0,10 kg/m2 (р<0,0001 in carvedilol group and by 0,26±0,10kg/m2 (р<0,01 in metoprolol group. Carvedilol in comparison with metoprolol had more positive effects on glucose (р<0,01 and lipid blood levels. By the end of the study urine acid blood level reduction was observed in carvedilol group (-16,6 μmol/l while an increasing tendency - in metoprolol group. Carvedilol did not have negative effect on serum potassium and creatinine levels. Adverse effects rate was 6,3% in carvedilol group and 3,8% - in metoprolol group.Conclusion. The results of open, randomized CAMELLIA trial confirmed antihypertensive effect and good tolerability of carvedilol in common clinical practice as well as demonstrated some its advantages in patients with metabolic syndrome. Carvedilol has positive metabolic effects on lipid, glucose and uric acid levels. Carvedilol therapy is more preferable in patients with arterial hypertension and metabolic risk factors.

  5. Comparison of effects of ivabradine versus carvedilol in murine model with the Coxsackievirus B3-induced viral myocarditis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue-Chun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated heart rate is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity. The selective I(f current inhibitor ivabradine reduces heart rate without affecting cardiac contractility, and has been shown to be cardioprotective in the failing heart. Ivabradine also exerts some of its beneficial effects by decreasing cardiac proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting peroxidants and collagen accumulation in atherosclerosis or congestive heart failure. However, the effects of ivabradine in the setting of acute viral myocarditis and on the cytokines, oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis have not been investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was designed to compare the effects of ivabradine and carvedilol in acute viral myocarditis. In a coxsackievirus B3 murine myocarditis model (Balb/c, effects of ivabradine and carvedilol (a nonselective β-adrenoceptor antagonist on myocardial histopathological changes, cardiac function, plasma noradrenaline, cytokine levels, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase contents were studied. Both ivabradine and carvedilol similarly and significantly reduced heart rate, attenuated myocardial lesions and improved the impairment of left ventricular function. In addition, ivabradine treatment as well as carvedilol treatment showed significant effects on altered myocardial cytokines with a decrease in the amount of plasma noradrenaline. The increased myocardial MCP-1, IL-6, and TNF-α. in the infected mice was significantly attenuated in the ivabradine treatment group. Only carvedilol had significant anti-oxidative and anti-apoptoic effects in coxsackievirus B3-infected mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that the protective effects of heart rate reduction with ivabradine and carvedilol observed in the acute phase of coxsackievirus B3 murine myocarditis may be due not only to the heart rate reduction itself but also to the downregulation of

  6. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic drug-disease model to predict carvedilol exposure in adult and paediatric heart failure patients by incorporating pathophysiological changes in hepatic and renal blood flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Muhammad Fawad; Khalil, Feras; Läer, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    Chronic diseases are associated with pathophysiological changes that could have profound impacts on drug pharmacokinetic behaviour, with a potential need to modify the administered drug therapy. It is important to acknowledge that most patients with chronic illnesses do not have a single, predominant condition but suffer from multiple comorbidities. The rapid advancement in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling, as well as the increasing quantitative knowledge of disease-related pathophysiological changes, facilitate building of drug-disease models. However, there are only a few published examples of PBPK models incorporating the pathophysiological changes that occur with chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to develop PBPK models that incorporate the haemodynamic changes in hepatic and renal blood flows occurring in chronic heart failure (CHF) and to evaluate these changes in adults and children, using carvedilol as a model drug. After a comprehensive literature search to select the model input parameters, two PBPK models were developed. Model 1 was based on human liver and intestinal microsome clearances, and model 2 was based on clearance by specific cytochrome P450 enzymes. After evaluation of both models in healthy adults, the reduced hepatic and renal blood flows were incorporated into the developed models to predict carvedilol exposure in the adult CHF population. The adult carvedilol models were scaled down to children by using Simcyp(®) (Simcyp Ltd, Sheffield, UK). In order to show the impact of reduced organ blood flows on carvedilol disposition, the predictions in the CHF population were made with and without reductions in organ blood flows. The predictions made by both models in healthy adults were comparable and within the 2-fold error range. In adults with CHF, the mean observed/predicted ratio [ratio(Obs/Pred)] for oral clearance (CL/F) without reductions in organ blood flows was outside the 2-fold error range, i

  7. Development and validation of dissolution method for carvedilol compression-coated tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Shah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the development and validation of a dissolution method for carvedilol compression-coated tablets. Dissolution test was performed using a TDT-06T dissolution apparatus. Based on the physiological conditions of the body, 0.1N hydrochloric acid was used as dissolution medium and release was monitored for 2 hours to verify the immediate release pattern of the drug in acidic pH, followed by pH 6.8 in citric-phosphate buffer for 22 hours, to simulate a sustained release pattern in the intestine. Influences of rotation speed and surfactant concentration in medium were evaluated. Samples were analysed by validated UV visible spectrophotometric method at 286 nm. 1% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS was found to be optimum for improving carvedilol solubility in pH 6.8 citric-phosphate buffer. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference between the results obtained at 50 and 100 rpm. The discriminating dissolution method was successfully developed for carvedilol compression-coated tablets. The conditions that allowed dissolution determination were USP type I apparatus at 100 rpm, containing 1000 ml of 0.1N HCl for 2 hours, followed by pH 6.8 citric-phosphate buffer with 1% SLS for 22 hours at 37.0 ± 0.5 ºC. Samples were analysed by UV spectrophotometric method and validated as per ICH guidelines.O presente estudo descreve o desenvolvimento e a validação de método de dissolução para comprimidos revestidos de carvedilol. O teste de dissolução foi efetuado utilizando-se o aparelho para dissolução TDT-06T. Com base nas condições fisiológicas do organismo, utilizou-se ácido clorídrico 0,1 N como meio de dissolução e a liberação foi monitorada por 2 horas para se verificar o padrão de liberação imediata do fármaco em condições de pH baixo, seguidas por pH 6,8 em tampão cítrico-fosfato por 22 horas, para simular o padrão de liberação controlada no intestino. Avaliou-se a influência da velocidade de

  8. Nanostructured lipid carriers as a potential vehicle for Carvedilol delivery: Application of factorial design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ganesh B; Patil, Nandkishor D; Deshmukh, Prashant K; Patil, Pravin O; Bari, Sanjay B

    2016-01-01

    Present invention relates to design of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) to augment oral bioavailability of Carvedilol (CAR). In this attempt, formulations of CAR-NLCs were prepared with glyceryl-monostearate (GMS) as a lipid, poloxamer 188 as a surfactant and tween 80 as a co-surfactant using high pressure homogenizer by 2(3) factorial design approach. Formed CAR-NLCs were assessed for various performance parameters. Accelerated stability studies demonstrated negligible change in particle size and entrapment efficiency, after storage at specified time up to 3 months. The promising findings in this investigation suggest the practicability of these systems for enhancement of bioavailability of drugs like CAR.

  9. Clinic of dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) treated or not by carvedilol

    OpenAIRE

    LEOMIL NETO, Moacir; BALIEIRO, Júlio César Carvalho; PEREIRA, Elaine Cristina Soares; PEREIRA, Guilherme Gonçalves; OLIVEIRA, Valéria Marinho de; LARSSON, Maria Helena Matiko Akao

    2011-01-01

    O tratamento convencionalmente preconizado para cães acometidos pela CMD consiste na prescrição de vasodilatadores, agentes inotrópicos positivos (digitálico), diuréticos, dieta hipossódica e, quando necessário, antiarrítmicos. O carvedilol é um β-bloqueador de 3ª geração, não seletivo, que bloqueia igualmente e competitivamente os receptores (β1, β2 e α1). Produz uma evidente vasodilatação periférica, exerce efeitos anti-oxidantes, removendo radicais livres de oxigênio e ...

  10. pH-Dependent Solubility and Dissolution Behavior of Carvedilol--Case Example of a Weakly Basic BCS Class II Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Rania; Awadallah, Areeg; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Tarawneh, Ola; Nazzal, Sami; AlBaraghthi, Tamadur; Al Sayyad, Jihan; Abbas, Aiman

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the pH-dependent solubility and dissolution of weakly basic Biopharmaceutical Classification Systems (BCS) class II drugs, characterized by low solubility and high permeability, using carvedilol, a weak base with a pK a value of 7.8, as a model drug. A series of solubility and in vitro dissolution studies was carried out using media that simulate the gastric and intestinal fluids and cover the physiological pH range of the GI from 1.2 to 7.8. The effect of ionic strength, buffer capacity, and buffer species of the dissolution media on the solubility and dissolution behavior of carvedilol was also investigated. The study revealed that carvedilol exhibited a typical weak base pH-dependent solubility profile with a high solubility at low pH (545.1-2591.4 μg/mL within the pH range 1.2-5.0) and low solubility at high pH (5.8-51.9 μg/mL within the pH range 6.5-7.8). The dissolution behavior of carvedilol was consistent with the solubility results, where carvedilol release was complete (95.8-98.2% released within 60 min) in media simulating the gastric fluid (pH 1.2-5.0) and relatively low (15.9-86.2% released within 240 min) in media simulating the intestinal fluid (pH 6.5-7.8). It was found that the buffer species of the dissolution media may influence the solubility and consequently the percentage of carvedilol released by forming carvedilol salts of varying solubilities. Carvedilol solubility and dissolution decreased with increasing ionic strength, while lowering the buffer capacity resulted in a decrease in carvedilol solubility and dissolution rate.

  11. Upgrading of dissolution and anti-hypertensive effect of Carvedilol via two combined approaches: self-emulsification and liquisolid techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Tarek M; Abdallah, Marwa H; El-Megrab, Nagia A; El-Nahas, Hanan M

    2017-12-28

    The aim of the study was to design a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) of the anti-hypertensive Carvedilol in liquid and liquisolid forms as a way to enhance its dissolution profile and anti-hypertensive effect. Solubility studies of Carvedilol in various oils, surfactants and co-surfactants were conducted, followed by the construction of pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and other in vitro assessments. The selected SEDDS formulation (S1) was adsorbed onto solid powder excipients and compressed into tablets. The resulting liquisolid tablets were evaluated under British Pharmacopoeia (B.P.) specifications. Pre- and post-compression studies were performed to determine the flow properties and evaluate the liquisolid systems, followed by in vivo studies in hypertensive rats. Attempts of self-emulsification, droplet size, and thermodynamic stability studies showed acceptable results for the S1 formulation containing Capryol 90, Tween 20, and Transcutol HP (10:53.3:26.2%), respectively. Pre-compression studies showed adequate flowability and compatibility of liquid and solid excipients with Carvedilol. The selected liquisolid tablet (LS7) demonstrated the best disintegration and water absorption ratio in addition to satisfactory friability and hardness. A significantly (p anti-hypertensive effect of Carvedilol.

  12. Metoprolol compared to carvedilol deteriorates insulin-stimulated endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes - a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Britt; Hermann, Thomas S; Major-Pedersen, Atheline

    2010-01-01

    -stimulated endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHOD: 24 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive either 200 mg metoprolol succinate or 50 mg carvedilol daily. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was assessed by using venous occlusion plethysmography with increasing doses of intra...

  13. Carvedilol versus cardioselective beta-blockers for the treatment of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardoun, Riham Zein

    2006-10-01

    Treatment with beta-blockers is recommended to achieve and maintain adequate blood pressure control in patients with hypertension, and these agents have been shown to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in patients with both hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, beta-blocker therapy also may worsen glycemic and lipidemic control and may lead to microalbuminuria. A recent study showed a better metabolic profile with carvedilol than with metoprolol in patients with both type 2 diabetes and hypertension in the presence of renin-angiotensin system blockade. This beneficial effect on metabolic components has been proposed as attributable to carvedilol's alpha-blocking effects or antioxidant properties. In this article, the pathophysiology of hypertension and type 2 diabetes and the association between them are reviewed, the pharmacologic properties of carvedilol are discussed, and clinical studies in the literature comparing carvedilol with selective beta-blockers in patients with both type 2 diabetes and hypertension are identified and evaluated. This information should be useful to practitioners when selecting the optimum beta-blocker for treating hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  14. Systematic development of pH-independent controlled release tablets of carvedilol using central composite design and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Elcin; Eroglu, Hakan; Kockan, Umit; Oner, Levent

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply the optimization method incorporating artificial neural network (ANN) using pH-independent release of weakly basic drug, carvedilol from HPMC-based matrix formulation. Because of weakly basic nature of carvedilol, drug shows pH-dependent solubility. The enteric polymer EUDRAGIT L100 was added formulations to overcome pH-dependent solubility of carvedilol. Effects of the Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M and EUDRAGIT L100 amount on drug release were investigated. For this purpose 13 kinds of formulations were prepared at three different levels of each variables. The optimization of the formulation was evaluated by using ANN method. Two formulation parameters, the amounts of HPMC K4M and Eudragit L100 at three levels (-1, 0, 1) were selected as independent/input variables. In-vitro dissolution sampling times at twelve different time points were selected as dependent/output variables. By using experimental dissolution results and amount of HPMC K4M and EUDRAGIT L100, percentage of dissolved carvedilol was predicted by ANN. Similarity factor (f2) between predicted and experimentally observed profile was calculated and f2 value was found 76.33. This value showed that there was no difference between predicted and experimentally observed drug release profile. As a result of these experiments, it was found that ANNs can be successfully used to optimize controlled release drug delivery systems.

  15. Effects of carvedilol therapy on cardiac autonomic control, QT dispersion, and ventricular arrhythmias in children with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oflaz, Mehmet Burhan; Balli, Sevket; Kibar, Ayse Esin; Ece, Ibrahim; Akdeniz, Celal; Tuzcu, Volkan

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of carvedilol therapy on autonomic control of the heart and QT-interval dispersion (QTd) among children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) whose symptoms were not adequately controlled with standard congestive heart failure therapy. Patients with DCM who were treated with carvedilol were enrolled in the study. All patients had undergone carvedilol therapy in addition to standard therapy for at least 6 months. Clinical, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic parameters, and 24-h Holter records of patients were retrospectively evaluated before and after carvedilol treatment. A total 34 patients (mean age: 7.4 ± 4.3 years) with DCM were analyzed in the study. The median follow-up period was 9.5 months. After the 6 months of carvedilol therapy the clinical score significantly improved, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and fractional shortening (LVFS) significantly increased, and left ventricle end-diastolic dimensions and end-systolic dimensions significantly decreased. There were statistically significant increases in mean SDNN, SDANN, rMSSD, and pNN50 (p = 0.002, p = 0.001, p = 0.008, and p = 0.026, respectively). After the carvedilol therapy, SDNN was correlated with the clinical score, heart rate, LVEF, LVFS, and total premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). In addition, rMSSD and pNN50 were correlated with heart rate, LVEF and LVFS. A significant reduction was observed in QTc-minimum, QTc-maximum, and QTd values (434.9 ± 40.7 vs. 416.1 ± 36.5, 497.8 ± 43.6 vs. 456.3 ± 41.7, 58.6 ± 17.1 vs. 49.3 ± 15.6; p < 0.001, p = 0.001, and p = 0.008, respectively). QTd was significantly related to PVCs (r = 0.62, p = 0.02). We conclude that the addition of carvedilol to standard therapy can improve clinical symptoms and heart rate variability, and reduce in arrhythmia markers in children with DCM.

  16. Development and Validation of New Discriminative Dissolution Method for Carvedilol Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, V.; Murthy, K. V. R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop and validate a discriminative dissolution method for evaluation of carvedilol tablets. Different conditions such as type of dissolution medium, volume of dissolution medium and rotation speed of paddle were evaluated. The best in vitro dissolution profile was obtained using Apparatus II (paddle), 50 rpm, 900 ml of pH 6.8 phosphate buffer as dissolution medium. The drug release was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The dissolution method was validated according to current ICH and FDA guidelines using parameters such as the specificity, accuracy, precision and stability were evaluated and obtained results were within the acceptable range. The comparison of the obtained dissolution profiles of three different products were investigated using ANOVA-based, model-dependent and model-independent methods, results showed that there is significant difference between the products. The dissolution test developed and validated was adequate for its higher discriminative capacity in differentiating the release characteristics of the products tested and could be applied for development and quality control of carvedilol tablets. PMID:22923865

  17. Process optimization and characterization of carvedilol solid dispersion with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and tartaric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuvaraja, K.; Das, Sanjoy Kumar; Khanam, Jasmina [Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India)

    2015-01-15

    The present investigation concerns the experimental design in preparing a solid dispersion of ionized carvedilol with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), tartaric acid (TA) by adopting 'kneading technique'. Simplex lattice design has been chosen to develop model equations that correlate the process variables such as HPβCD (mg), TA (mg), and kneading time (min) with the response variables, such as solubility (mg/mL) and drug release (%) from the solid dispersion. Software-generated ANOVA results confirmed the sufficiency of model equations. Results predicted by model equations are in good agreement with that of experimental results. Optimized formulation with variables 'CV: HPβCD: TA-kneading time' (200mg: 689.6mg: 227.6mg-45 min) showed complete drug release (⁓99%) within 15 min and enhanced solubility of 1.89mg/mL. The instrumental analysis (DSC, XRD and FTIR) of the optimized solid dispersion suggests a transformation of crystallinity of drug to amorphous form, due to its complexation with HPβCD. Hence, this combination of drug and carriers suggests an improvement of carvedilol bioavailability.

  18. Substituição do carvedilol pelo propranolol em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca Sustitución del carvedilol por el propranolol en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca Replacement of carvedilol for propranolol in patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Marques

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Grandes estudos clínicos empregando os betabloqueadores carvedilol, metoprolol, bisoprolol e nebivolol, demonstraram melhora da sobrevida e dos sintomas em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca. Apesar da falta de evidências científicas, é plausível que o efeito benéfico seja extensível a outros betabloqueadores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca o impacto da substituição do carvedilol por propranolol sobre a função ventricular esquerda, capacidade funcional, qualidade de vida, níveis pressóricos e controle autonômico cardíaco. MÉTODOS: Vinte e nove pacientes com terapêutica medicamentosa otimizada incluindo doses máximas toleradas de carvedilol foram divididos em dois grupos: substituição de carvedilol por propranolol (n = 15 e manutenção de carvedilol (n = 14. Na condição basal, e após 6 meses, foram realizadas avaliações clínica e laboratorial com: ventriculografia nuclear, ecocardiografia, questionário de Minnesota, teste de caminhada, MAPA e Holter. RESULTADOS: As características laboratoriais e demográficas foram similares nos dois grupos na avaliação inicial. Ajuste individualizado da dose do propranolol garantiu grau semelhante de betabloqueio avaliado pela frequência cardíaca em repouso e reserva cronotrópica. A dose média de propranolol usada foi 109 ± 43 mg/dia. Apenas um paciente apresentou intolerância ao propranolol com retorno do carvedilol. Foi registrado um óbito no grupo propranolol. A fração de ejeção apresentou aumento significativo no grupo propranolol. As demais variáveis cardiovasculares não sofreram modificações significativas após troca do betabloqueador. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados indicam que a substituição do carvedilol por propranolol em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca não está associada à deterioração da fração de ejeção, da capacidade funcional, da qualidade de vida e das variáveis cardiovasculares de

  19. Effect of carvedilol on pulse pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats with adriamycin nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Dijana; Jovovic, Djurdjica; Mihailovic-Stanojevic, Nevena; Miloradovic, Zoran; Naumovic, Radomir; Dimitrijevic, Jovan; Maksic, Nebojsa; Djukanovic, Ljubica

    2009-09-01

    Recent studies indicated pulse pressure as a risk factor for left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure and stroke as well as chronic renal failure progression. The present study examined the effects of carvedilol and its combination with captopril on blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, kidney vascular changes and kidney function in spontaneously hypertensive rats with adriamycin nephropathy. Four groups of 20 SHR each were involved: (1) control group: SHR; (2) ADR group: SHR treated with ADR (2mg/kg i.v. twice in 20 days); (3) ADR-C group: SHR treated with ADR and carvedilol (30 mg/kg/day) and (4) ADR-CC group: SHR treated with ADR and carvedilol (30 mg/kg/day) and captopril (60 mg/kg/day). Systolic-, diastolic- and mean-pressures and pulse pressure were determined at weeks 6 and 12 after the second ADR injection; and body weight, creatinine clearance and proteinuria at weeks -3, 6 and 12. The rats were sacrificed at week 6 or 12, the weights of the left and right ventricles and kidneys measured and the kidney vascular index was calculated as described by Bader and Mayer. Both carvedilol alone and combined with captopril significantly reduced systemic blood pressure but the effect of the latter was more pronounced and registered from week 4 till the end of the study. Carvedilol and its combination with captopril significantly decreased SBP, DBP and MAP. They also decreased PP, prevented the development of LVH, and renal vascular changes and slowed the progression of chronic renal failure and these effects were stronger in the ADR-CC group than in the ADR-C group. The antihypertensive drugs failed to prevent proteinuria in ADR SHR. Significant positive correlations were found between PP (but not SBP, DBP and MAP) and both proteinuria and Ccr in all groups of rats. In conclusion, carvedilol alone, but more strongly in combination with captopril, significantly reduced blood pressure, PP, LVH, renal blood vessel changes and

  20. Preparation and in vitro characterization of non-effervescent floating drug delivery system of poorly soluble drug, carvedilol phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Meka Venkata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to enhance the solubility of carvedilol phosphate and to formulate it into non-effervescent floating tablets using swellable polymers. Solid dispersions (SD of carvedilol were prepared with hydrophilic carriers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone and poloxamer to enhance solubility. Non-effervescent floating tablets were prepared with a combination of optimized solid dispersions and release retarding polymers/swellable polymers such as xanthan gum and polyethylene oxide. Tablets were evaluated for physicochemical properties such as hardness, thickness and buoyancy. SD prepared with the drug to poloxamer ratio of 1:4 by melt granulation showed a higher dissolution rate than all other dispersions. Formulations containing 40 mg of polyethylene oxide (C-P40 and 50 mg xanthan gum (C-X50 were found to be best, with the drug retardation up to 12 hours. Optimized formulations were characterized using FTIR and DSC and no drug and excipient interactions were detected.

  1. Preparation and in vitro characterization of non-effervescent floating drug delivery system of poorly soluble drug, carvedilol phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth Meka, Venkata; Wee Liang, Vanitha A P Hong; Dharmalingham, Senthil Rajan; Sheshala, Ravi; Gorajana, Adinarayana

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to enhance the solubility of carvedilol phosphate and to formulate it into non-effervescent floating tablets using swellable polymers. Solid dispersions (SD) of carvedilol were prepared with hydrophilic carriers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone and poloxamer to enhance solubility. Non-effervescent floating tablets were prepared with a combination of optimized solid dispersions and release retarding polymers/swellable polymers such as xanthan gum and polyethylene oxide. Tablets were evaluated for physicochemical properties such as hardness, thickness and buoyancy. SD prepared with the drug to poloxamer ratio of 1:4 by melt granulation showed a higher dissolution rate than all other dispersions. Formulations containing 40 mg of polyethylene oxide (C-P40) and 50 mg xanthan gum (C-X50) were found to be best, with the drug retardation up to 12 hours. Optimized formulations were characterized using FTIR and DSC and no drug and excipient interactions were detected.

  2. The influence of new beta-adrenolytics nebivolol and carvedilol on intraocular pressure and iris blood flow in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Szumny, Dorota; Szeląg, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the influence of propranolol, nebivolol, and carvedilol on intraocular pressure and blood flow in vessels of rabbit’s (New Zealand White) eyeball. Methods The study was carried out on New Zealand white rabbits. Intraocular pressure was measured with the applanation tonometer Möller–Wedel and Icare; blood flow was measured with Doppler Laser Blood Flow Monitor MBD3. Results Following a single administration into a conjunctival sac, all drugs decre...

  3. [B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and the effects of carvedilol on BNP levels in juvenile rats with right heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jin-Dou; Liang, Fang; Feng, Song

    2009-07-01

    To examine serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and BNP expression of protein and mRNA in the right ventricular myocardium in juvenile rats with right heart failure (RHF) and the effects of beta-adrenergic receptor blocker carvedilol on serum and myocardial BNP levels in order to investigate the role of BNP in the diagnosis and treatment of RHF. Fifty-one four-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups: RHF 1, RHF 2, carvedilol-treated RHF, control 1 and control 2. RHF was developed 4 weeks after an intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline in the RHF 1, RHF 2 and carvedilol-treated RHF groups. The rats in the RHF 1 and the control 1 groups were sacrificed after the RHF event for observing pathological changes in the myocardium. After the RHF event, the carvedilol-treated group was given intragastric administration of carvedilol (3.5 mg/kg/d) for 2 weeks. The RHF 2 and the control 2 groups were given distilled water of equal dose instead. The rats were sacrificed 2 weeks after carvedilol or distilled water administration. Serum BNP levels were measured using ELISA. BNP protein and mRNA expression in the right ventricular myocardium were measured by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR, respectively. Haemodynamics and some physiological indexes were measured. Serum BNP levels and BNP protein and mRNA expression in the right ventricular myocardium were significantly higher in the RHF 1 group than those in the control 1 group (pRHF 2 group. There was a positive correlation between serum BNP levels and myocardial BNP protein expression in the RHF group (r=0.698, pRHF group were significantly reduced when compared with the RHF 2 group (pRHF and the evaluation of severity in children with RHF. Carvedilol shows protections against RHF caused by pressure load.

  4. Carvedilol versus propranolol effect on hepatic venous pressure gradient at 1 month in patients with index variceal bleed: RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipin; Rawat, Ramakant; Shalimar; Saraya, Anoop

    2017-03-01

    Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) plus beta blocker is the mainstay treatment after index bleed to prevent rebleed. Primary objective of this study was to compare EVL plus propranolol versus EVL plus carvedilol on reduction of HVPG after 1 month of therapy. Patients of cirrhosis presenting with index esophageal variceal bleed received standard treatment (Somatostatin therapy f/b EVL) following which HVPG was measured and patients were randomized to propranolol or carvedilol group if HVPG was >12 mmHg. Standard endotherapy protocol was continued in both groups. HVPG was again measured at 1 month of treatment. Out of 129 patients of index esophageal variceal bleed, 59 patients were eligible and randomized into carvedilol (n = 30) and propranolol (n = 29). At 1 month of treatment, decrease in heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and HVPG was significant within each group (p = 0.001). Percentage decrease in MAP was significantly more in carvedilol group as compared to propranolol group (p = 0.04). Number of HVPG responders (HVPG decrease >20 % or below 12 mmHg) was significantly more in carvedilol group (22/29) as compared to propranolol group (14/28), p = 0.04. Carvedilol is more effective in reducing portal pressure in patients with cirrhosis with esophageal bleed. Though a larger study is required to substantiate this, the results in this study are promising for carvedilol. Clinical trials online government registry (CTRI/2013/10/004119). Trial registration number CTRI/2013/10/004119.

  5. Carvedilol atenua o estresse oxidativo na cardiopatia chagásica crônica Carvedilol atenúa el estrés oxidativo en la cardiopatía chagásica crónica Carvedilol attenuates oxidative stress in chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy

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    Patrícia Budni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Há cada vez mais evidências sugerindo que doença de Chagas envolve dano oxidativo e contribui para a progressão da doença cardíaca. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do carvedilol sobre marcadores de estresse oxidativo na doença de Chagas crônica. MÉTODOS: A população de estudo incluiu 42 pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica e os biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo foram medidos antes e após um período de seis meses de tratamento com carvedilol (37,5 mg/dia. Os pacientes foram considerados de acordo com a classificação de Los Andes, e a atividade da superóxido dismutase, catalase, glutationa peroxidase, S-transferase e redutase, mieloperoxidase e adenosina deaminase; e os níveis de glutationa reduzida, de espécies reativas do ácido tiobarbitúrico, proteína carbonil, vitamina E e óxido nítrico foram medidos no sangue. RESULTADOS: Após o tratamento com carvedilol, todos os grupos apresentaram reduções significativas nos níveis de proteína carbonil e glutationa reduzida, enquanto os níveis de óxido nítrico e atividade da adenosina aumentaram significativamente somente no grupo IA. Além disso, a maioria das enzimas antioxidantes apresentou diminuição de suas atividades, nos grupos IA e IB. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados sugerem que o tratamento com carvedilol foi eficaz na atenuação do dano oxidativo, um efeito que pode ser particularmente importante em doença de Chagas crônica com cardiopatia.FUNDAMENTO: Hay cada vez más evidencias sugiriendo que la enfermedad de Chagas envuelve daño oxidativo y contribuye a la progresión de la enfermedad cardíaca. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto del carvedilol sobre marcadores de estrés oxidativo en la enfermedad de Chagas crónica. MÉTODOS: La población de estudio incluyó 42 pacientes con cardiopatía chagásica y los biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo fueron medidos antes y después de un período de seis meses de tratamiento con carvedilol (37,5 mg/día. Los pacientes fueron

  6. CARDIORENAL RELATIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE IN LONG TERM THERAPY WITH CARVEDILOL AND BISOPROLOL

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    M. A. Statsenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare effects of long term therapy with сarvedilol and bisoprolol on heart and renal functions, heart rate variability (HRV and quality of life in elderly patients with chronic heart failure (CHF.Material and methods. We examined 40 patients aged 60-75 years on the 15-30 day after myocardial infarction complicated with CHF. All the patients taking basic therapy with enalapril, aspirin, simvastatin and diuretics were randomized to either bisoprolol (n=20 or сarvedilol (n=20 therapy group. The average daily doses were 5,7+0,8 mg for and 32,6+3,4 mg for carvedilol. The duration of the observation period was 12 months. Cardiac morphofunctional parameters, HRV, renal function and quality of life were determined at baseline, after 12 weeks and at the end of the study.Results. Complex therapy of CHF including both beta-blockers resulted in clinical improvement, increase in myocardial contractility. However, carvedilol group showed more pronounced increase in ejection fraction in comparison with bisoprolol group, 8,97% and 5,14%, respectively. Local contractility index decreased significantly only in carvedilol group by 29,9% (p<0,05. Carvedilol demonstrated more significant nephroprotective effects: glomerular filtration rate increased by 32,2%, renal functional reserve restored in 70% of patients. Tubular reabsorbtion, sodium clearance and excretion also increased in carvedilol group. After 12 month of treatment microalbuminuria reduced in both groups of patients, but more significant in carvedilol group. Carvedilol provided more strong blocking effect on sympathetic part of autonomic nervous system according to HRV data.Conclusion. In elderly patients with CHF long term therapy with both carvedilol and bisoprolol provided with improvement in clinical conditions and renal function, increased in HRV and was well tolerated. However, carvedilol compared with bisoprolol showed more significant beneficial effects on cardiac morphofunctional

  7. Smad3 inactivation and MiR-29b upregulation mediate the effect of carvedilol on attenuating the acute myocardium infarction-induced myocardial fibrosis in rat.

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    Jie-Ning Zhu

    Full Text Available Carvedilol, a nonselective β-adrenoreceptor antagonist, protects against myocardial injury induced by acute myocardium infarction (AMI. The mechanisms underlying the anti-fibrotic effects of carvedilol are unknown. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of microRNAs (miRNAs in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated whether miR-29b is involved in the cardioprotective effect of carvedilol against AMI-induced myocardial fibrosis. Male SD rats were randomized into several groups: the sham surgery control, left anterior descending (LAD surgery-AMI model, AMI plus low-dose carvedilol treatment (1 mg/kg per day, CAR-L, AMI plus medium-dose carvedilol treatment (5 mg/kg per day, CAR-M and AMI plus high-dose carvedilol treatment (10 mg/kg per day, CAR-H. Cardiac remodeling and impaired heart function were observed 4 weeks after LAD surgery treatment; the observed cardiac remodeling, decreased ejection fraction, and fractional shortening were rescued in the CAR-M and CAR-H groups. The upregulated expression of Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA mRNA was significantly reduced in the CAR-M and CAR-H groups. Moreover, the downregulated miR-29b was elevated in the CAR-M and CAR-H groups. The in vitro study showed that Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA were downregulated and miR-29b was upregulated by carvedilol in a dose-dependent manner in rat cardiac fibroblasts. Inhibition of ROS-induced Smad3 activation by carvedilol resulted in downregulation of Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA and upregulation of miR-29b derived from the miR-29b-2 precursor. Enforced expression of miR-29b significantly suppressed Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA expression. Taken together, we found that smad3 inactivation and miR-29b upregulation contributed to the cardioprotective activity of carvedilol against AMI-induced myocardial fibrosis.

  8. CARDIORENAL RELATIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE IN LONG TERM THERAPY WITH CARVEDILOL AND BISOPROLOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Statsenko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare effects of long term therapy with сarvedilol and bisoprolol on heart and renal functions, heart rate variability (HRV and quality of life in elderly patients with chronic heart failure (CHF.Material and methods. We examined 40 patients aged 60-75 years on the 15-30 day after myocardial infarction complicated with CHF. All the patients taking basic therapy with enalapril, aspirin, simvastatin and diuretics were randomized to either bisoprolol (n=20 or сarvedilol (n=20 therapy group. The average daily doses were 5,7+0,8 mg for and 32,6+3,4 mg for carvedilol. The duration of the observation period was 12 months. Cardiac morphofunctional parameters, HRV, renal function and quality of life were determined at baseline, after 12 weeks and at the end of the study.Results. Complex therapy of CHF including both beta-blockers resulted in clinical improvement, increase in myocardial contractility. However, carvedilol group showed more pronounced increase in ejection fraction in comparison with bisoprolol group, 8,97% and 5,14%, respectively. Local contractility index decreased significantly only in carvedilol group by 29,9% (p<0,05. Carvedilol demonstrated more significant nephroprotective effects: glomerular filtration rate increased by 32,2%, renal functional reserve restored in 70% of patients. Tubular reabsorbtion, sodium clearance and excretion also increased in carvedilol group. After 12 month of treatment microalbuminuria reduced in both groups of patients, but more significant in carvedilol group. Carvedilol provided more strong blocking effect on sympathetic part of autonomic nervous system according to HRV data.Conclusion. In elderly patients with CHF long term therapy with both carvedilol and bisoprolol provided with improvement in clinical conditions and renal function, increased in HRV and was well tolerated. However, carvedilol compared with bisoprolol showed more significant beneficial effects on cardiac morphofunctional

  9. Smad3 inactivation and MiR-29b upregulation mediate the effect of carvedilol on attenuating the acute myocardium infarction-induced myocardial fibrosis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie-Ning; Chen, Ren; Fu, Yong-Heng; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Huang, Shuai; Guo, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Meng-Zhen; Deng, Chun-Yu; Zou, Xiao; Zhong, Shi-Long; Yang, Min; Zhuang, Jian; Yu, Xi-Yong; Shan, Zhi-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Carvedilol, a nonselective β-adrenoreceptor antagonist, protects against myocardial injury induced by acute myocardium infarction (AMI). The mechanisms underlying the anti-fibrotic effects of carvedilol are unknown. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated whether miR-29b is involved in the cardioprotective effect of carvedilol against AMI-induced myocardial fibrosis. Male SD rats were randomized into several groups: the sham surgery control, left anterior descending (LAD) surgery-AMI model, AMI plus low-dose carvedilol treatment (1 mg/kg per day, CAR-L), AMI plus medium-dose carvedilol treatment (5 mg/kg per day, CAR-M) and AMI plus high-dose carvedilol treatment (10 mg/kg per day, CAR-H). Cardiac remodeling and impaired heart function were observed 4 weeks after LAD surgery treatment; the observed cardiac remodeling, decreased ejection fraction, and fractional shortening were rescued in the CAR-M and CAR-H groups. The upregulated expression of Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA mRNA was significantly reduced in the CAR-M and CAR-H groups. Moreover, the downregulated miR-29b was elevated in the CAR-M and CAR-H groups. The in vitro study showed that Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA were downregulated and miR-29b was upregulated by carvedilol in a dose-dependent manner in rat cardiac fibroblasts. Inhibition of ROS-induced Smad3 activation by carvedilol resulted in downregulation of Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA and upregulation of miR-29b derived from the miR-29b-2 precursor. Enforced expression of miR-29b significantly suppressed Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA expression. Taken together, we found that smad3 inactivation and miR-29b upregulation contributed to the cardioprotective activity of carvedilol against AMI-induced myocardial fibrosis.

  10. The effect of carvedilol and propranolol on portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis: a meta-analysis

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    Chen S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheng Chen,1,* Jin-Jun Wang,2,* Qin-Qin Wang,1 Jun-Wei Hu,1 Shuang Dong,1 Li-Juan Hu,1 Yi-Cheng Jian,1 Xin-Yan Liu,2 Gen-Mei Yang,2 Wu-Jun Xiong1 1Department of Hepatology, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai East Hospital, 2Department of Gerontology, Shanghai Traditional Chinese Medicine University, Shanghai Putuo Central Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: Several randomized controlled clinical trials have been conducted to investigate the role of carvedilol and propranolol on the effect of portal pressure in patients with cirrhosis, leading to controversial results. Current meta-analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of the two drugs on portal pressure.Patients and methods: Two-hundred and ninety eligible patients were recruited. Published studies were selected based on PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Journal Full-text Database, and Wanfang Database. The outcome measurements included the mean difference (MD in the percentage of hepatic vein pressure gradient reduction (%HVPG reduction, the risk ratio (RR of nonresponders in hemodynamic assessment, and the percentage of mean arterial pressure reduction (%MAP reduction. Subgroup analysis was performed.Results: Seven trials were identified (including five acute and three long-term drug administration randomized controlled trials. A summary of pooled MD between the %HVPG reduction is as follows: overall -8.62 (confidence interval [CI] -11.76, -5.48, P<0.00001, acute -10.05 (CI -14.24, -5.86, P<0.00001, and long term -6.80 (CI -11.53, -2.07, P=0.005, while summary of pooled RR of hemodynamic nonresponders with carvedilol was as follows: overall 0.64 (CI 0.51, 0.81, P=0.0002, acute 0.63 (CI 0.47, 0.85, P=0.002, and long term 0.67 (CI 0.47, 0.97, P=0.03. Both of the outcome measurements favored carvedilol. Significant heterogeneity (P<0.1, I2=92% existed between the two treatment groups in %MAP reduction

  11. Effects of carvedilol in heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy. Results of a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study (CARIBE study

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    Paulo Roberto Chizzola

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of carvedilol in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, 30 patients (7 women with functional class II and III heart failure were assessed. Their ages ranged from 28 to 66 years (mean of 43±9 years, and their left ventricular ejection fraction varied from 8% to 35%. Carvedilol was added to the usual therapy of 20 patients; placebo was added to the usual therapy of 10 patients. The initial dose of carvedilol was 12.5 mg, which was increased weekly until it reached 75 mg/day, according to the patient's tolerance. Clinical assessment, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and radionuclide ventriculography were performed in the pretreatment phase, being repeated after 2 and 6 months of medication use. RESULTS: A reduction in heart rate (p=0.016 as well as an increase in left ventricular shortening fraction (p=0.02 and in left ventricular ejection fraction (p=0.017 occurred in the group using carvedilol as compared with that using placebo. CONCLUSION: Carvedilol added to the usual therapy for heart failure resulted in better heart function.

  12. Nonselective versus selective beta-blockers in the management of chronic heart failure: clinical implications of the carvedilol or Metoprolol European Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The abundance of evidence supporting beta-blocker therapy has resulted in the widespread acceptance of these drugs in the treatment of heart-failure patients. However, beta-blockers are not a homogeneous class of drugs, and important differences in efficacy have been noted between different members of the class. Thus, practicing physicians are faced with a choice when selecting a particular beta-blocker for treating heart failure. One of the considerations is whether to choose a selective or a nonselective beta-blocker. The results of the Carvedilol or Metoprolol European Trial indicate that carvedilol, a third-generation, nonselective beta-blocker with additional a-blocking, antioxidant, and other properties, is clearly superior to a beta1-blocking drug, metoprolol tartrate. The choice between these drugs is therefore unambiguously in favor of carvedilol.

  13. Use of {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy to assess the impact of carvedilol on cardiac adrenergic neuronal function in childhood dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunoury, Christophe [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, 149 rue de Sevres, 75743, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Acar, Philippe; Sidi, Daniel [Service de Cardiologie Pediatrique, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

    2003-12-01

    Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) cardiac scintigraphy is a useful tool for the assessment of cardiac adrenergic neuronal function, which is impaired in children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In adults with DCM, long-term treatment with carvedilol improves both cardiac adrenergic neuronal function and left ventricular function. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of carvedilol on cardiac adrenergic neuronal function using {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy and on left ventricular function using equilibrium radionuclide angiography in children with DCM. Seventeen patients (11 female, six male; mean age 39{+-}57 months, range 1-168 months) with DCM and left ventricular dysfunction underwent {sup 123}I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy and equilibrium radionuclide angiography before and after a 6-month period of carvedilol therapy. A static anterior view of the chest was acquired 4 h after intravenous injection of 20-75 MBq of {sup 123}I-MIBG. Cardiac neuronal uptake of {sup 123}I-MIBG was measured using the heart to mediastinum count ratio (HMR). Radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed following a standard protocol. MIBG cardiac uptake and left ventricular function respectively increased by 38% and 65% after 6 months of treatment with carvedilol (HMR=223%{+-}49% vs 162%{+-}26%, P<0.0001, and LVEF=43%{+-}17% vs 26%{+-}11%, P<0.0001). Carvedilol can improve cardiac adrenergic neuronal and left ventricular function in children with dilated cardiomyopathy. Further studies are needed to assess the relationship between improvement in MIBG cardiac uptake and the beneficial effects of carvedilol on morbidity and mortality. (orig.)

  14. Efeitos do carvedilol (bloqueador b1,b2,a1 na insuficiência cardíaca refratária Effects of carvedilol (beta1,beta2,alpha1-blocker on refractory congestive heart failure

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    Edimar Alcides Bocchi

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os efeitos dos beta-bloqueadores na insuficiência cardíaca (IC refratária não têm sido adequadamente estudados. Investigamos os efeitos do carvedilol (bloqueador b1,b2,a1 nos sintomas e na função ventricular de portadores de IC refratária. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 21 pacientes, idade média de 56±10 anos, 9 em classe funcional (CF IV, e 12 em CF III intermitente com IV. A dose inicial de carvedilol foi de 6,25mg e, se tolerada, aumentada progressivamente. A dose média final foi 42±11mg. Os pacientes foram submetidos a avaliações clínicas e eletrocardiográficas seriadas. Realizaram-se, antes e com 196±60 dias de evolução, ecocardiograma e ventriculografia radioisotópica. RESULTADOS: O medicamento foi tolerado em 16 (76% pacientes. Um paciente está em fase de titulação em CF II. Com 196±60 dias de evolução observaram-se 8 pacientes em CF I e 7 em II; redução da freqüência cardíaca de 96±15 para 67±10bpm (pPURPOSE: The effects of beta-blockers on severe heart failure are not well known. We investigated the effects of carvedilol (b1,b2,a1-blocker on symptoms, functional class (FC, and left ventricular function in patients with refractory heart failure. METHODS: We studied 21 patients, mean age 56±10 years, 9 in FC IV, e 12 in FC III (intermittently with class IV. The initial dosage was 6.25mg, and it was increased progressively as tolerated. The mean dose was 42±11mg. The patients were submitted to routine clinical evaluation, and electrocardiogram. We determined after 196±60 days of follow-up the left ventricular end diastolic dimension (by echocardiogram, and left ventricular ejection fraction (using MUGA. RESULTS: Carvedilol was well tolerated by 16 (76% patients. One patient is in FC II during increment of the dosage. Eight patients were in FC I, and 7 in FC II at 196±60 days of follow-up. Heart rate decreased from 96±15 to 67±10bpm (p<0.0001, left ventricular end diastolic diameter from 73±13 to

  15. Clínica de cães com cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática, tratados ou não com carvedilol Clinic of dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM treated or not by carvedilol

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    Moacir Leomil Neto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento convencionalmente preconizado para cães acometidos pela CMD consiste na prescrição de vasodilatadores, agentes inotrópicos positivos (digitálico, diuréticos, dieta hipossódica e, quando necessário, antiarrítmicos. O carvedilol é um β-bloqueador de 3ª geração, não seletivo, que bloqueia igualmente e competitivamente os receptores (β1, β2 e α1. Produz uma evidente vasodilatação periférica, exerce efeitos anti-oxidantes, removendo radicais livres de oxigênio e prevenindo a peroxidação lipídica nas membranas cardíacas, prevenindo a perda de miócitos e a ocorrência de arritmias e reduzindo a taxa de mortalidade em pacientes humanos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar clínica, eletrocardiográfica, radiográfica e ecocardiograficamente a evolução de cães com cardiomiopatia dilatada (CMD tratatos com terapia convencional associada ao carvedilol. Para tal foram avaliados 49 cães com CMD divididos em: grupo NT, tratado com terapia convencional, e grupo T, tratado com terapia convencional associada ao carvedilol. Os animais foram submetidos à avaliação clínica e a exames complementares durante o período de um ano. Os resultados demonstraram que a terapia com carvedilol apresentou boa tolerabilidade na dose de 0,3mg kg-1 12-12horas, aumentou a sobrevida dos cães em 30,9%, não alterou as pressões sistólica e diastólica, reduziu a frequência cardíaca após três semanas de terapia, melhorou significantemente as frações de encurtamento e ejeção após seis meses de tratamento, não promoveu alterações radiográficas e da distância E-septo, diminuiu o índice de letalidade da doença, fato demonstrado pela melhora no escore clínico e na classe funcional dos animais, obtida após três semanas de terapia com carvedilol.Commonly prescribed therapy for dogs presenting DCM consists of vasodilators, positive inotropic drugs (digitalics, diuretics, low-sodium diet and, when necessary, anti

  16. Effects of short-term carvedilol on the cardiac sympathetic activity assessed by {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Sandra Marina Ribeiro de; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Freire, Fabiano de Lima; Ribeiro, Mario Luiz; Nobrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas da; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco, E-mail: sandramarina@cardiol.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Azevedo, Jader Cunha; Barbirato, Gustavo Borges; Coimbra, Alexandro [Hospital Pro-Cardiaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dohmann, Hans Fernando da Rocha [Centro de Ensino e Pesquisa do Pro-Cardiaco (PROCEP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Background: autonomic alterations in heart failure are associated with an increase in morbimortality. Several noninvasive methods have been employed to evaluate the sympathetic function, including the Meta-Iodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) scintigraphy imaging of the heart. Objective: to evaluate the cardiac sympathetic activity through {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy, before and after three months of carvedilol therapy in patients with heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 45%. Patients and methods: sixteen patients, aged 56.3 +- 12.6 years (11 males), with a mean LVEF of 28% +- 8% and no previous use of beta-blockers were recruited for the study. Images of the heart innervation were acquired with {sup 123}I-MIBG, and the serum levels of catecholamines (epinephrine, dopamine and norepinephrine) were measured; the radioisotope ventriculography (RIV) was performed before and after a three-month therapy with carvedilol. Results: patients' functional class showed improvement: before the treatment, 50% of the patients were FC II and 50% were FC III. After 3 months, 7 patients were FC I (43.8%) and 9 were FC II (56.2%), (rho = 0.0001). The mean LVEF assessed by RIV increased from 29% to 33% (rho = 0.017). There was no significant variation in cardiac adrenergic activity assessed by {sup 123}I-MIBG (early and late resting images and washout rate). No significant variation was observed regarding the measurement of catecholamines. Conclusion: the short-term treatment with carvedilol promoted the clinical and LVEF improvement. However, this was not associated to an improvement in the cardiac adrenergic activity, assessed by {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy, as well as the measurement of circulating catecholamines. (author)

  17. Moisture sorption–desorption characteristics and the corresponding thermodynamic properties of carvedilol phosphate

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    Ravikiran Allada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Carvedilol phosphate (CDP is a nonselective beta-blocker used for the treatment of heart failures and hypertension. In this work, moisture sorption–desorption characteristics and thermodynamic properties of CDP have been investigated. Materials and Methods: The isotherms were determined using dynamic vapor sorption analyzer at different humidity conditions (0%–90% relative humidity and three pharmaceutically relevant temperatures (20°C, 30°C, and 40°C. The experimental sorption data determined were fitted to various models, namely, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller; Guggenheim-Anderson-De Boer (GAB; Peleg; and modified GAB. Isosteric heats of sorption were evaluated through the direct use of sorption isotherms by means of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Statistical Analysis Used: The sorption model parameters were determined from the experimental sorption data using nonlinear regression analysis, and mean relative percentage deviation (P, correlation (Correl, root mean square error, and model efficiency were considered as the criteria to select the best fit model. Results: The sorption–desorption isotherms have sigmoidal shape – confirming to Type II isotherms. Based on the statistical data analysis, modified GAB model was found to be more adequate to explain sorption characteristics of CDP. It is noted that the rate of adsorption and desorption is specific to the temperature at which it was being studied. It is observed that isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. Conclusions: The calculation of the thermodynamic properties was further used to draw an understanding of the properties of water and energy requirements associated with the sorption behavior. The sorption–desorption data and the set of equations are useful in the simulation of processing, handling, and storage of CDP and further behavior during manufacture and storage of CDP formulations.

  18. Moisture Sorption–desorption Characteristics and the Corresponding Thermodynamic Properties of Carvedilol Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Ravikiran; Maruthapillai, Arthanareeswari; Palanisamy, Kamaraj; Chappa, Praveen

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Carvedilol phosphate (CDP) is a nonselective beta-blocker used for the treatment of heart failures and hypertension. In this work, moisture sorption–desorption characteristics and thermodynamic properties of CDP have been investigated. Materials and Methods: The isotherms were determined using dynamic vapor sorption analyzer at different humidity conditions (0%–90% relative humidity) and three pharmaceutically relevant temperatures (20°C, 30°C, and 40°C). The experimental sorption data determined were fitted to various models, namely, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller; Guggenheim-Anderson-De Boer (GAB); Peleg; and modified GAB. Isosteric heats of sorption were evaluated through the direct use of sorption isotherms by means of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Statistical Analysis Used: The sorption model parameters were determined from the experimental sorption data using nonlinear regression analysis, and mean relative percentage deviation (P), correlation (Correl), root mean square error, and model efficiency were considered as the criteria to select the best fit model. Results: The sorption–desorption isotherms have sigmoidal shape – confirming to Type II isotherms. Based on the statistical data analysis, modified GAB model was found to be more adequate to explain sorption characteristics of CDP. It is noted that the rate of adsorption and desorption is specific to the temperature at which it was being studied. It is observed that isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. Conclusions: The calculation of the thermodynamic properties was further used to draw an understanding of the properties of water and energy requirements associated with the sorption behavior. The sorption–desorption data and the set of equations are useful in the simulation of processing, handling, and storage of CDP and further behavior during manufacture and storage of CDP formulations. PMID:28584488

  19. Moisture Sorption-desorption Characteristics and the Corresponding Thermodynamic Properties of Carvedilol Phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Ravikiran; Maruthapillai, Arthanareeswari; Palanisamy, Kamaraj; Chappa, Praveen

    2017-01-01

    Carvedilol phosphate (CDP) is a nonselective beta-blocker used for the treatment of heart failures and hypertension. In this work, moisture sorption-desorption characteristics and thermodynamic properties of CDP have been investigated. The isotherms were determined using dynamic vapor sorption analyzer at different humidity conditions (0%-90% relative humidity) and three pharmaceutically relevant temperatures (20°C, 30°C, and 40°C). The experimental sorption data determined were fitted to various models, namely, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller; Guggenheim-Anderson-De Boer (GAB); Peleg; and modified GAB. Isosteric heats of sorption were evaluated through the direct use of sorption isotherms by means of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The sorption model parameters were determined from the experimental sorption data using nonlinear regression analysis, and mean relative percentage deviation (P), correlation (Correl), root mean square error, and model efficiency were considered as the criteria to select the best fit model. The sorption-desorption isotherms have sigmoidal shape - confirming to Type II isotherms. Based on the statistical data analysis, modified GAB model was found to be more adequate to explain sorption characteristics of CDP. It is noted that the rate of adsorption and desorption is specific to the temperature at which it was being studied. It is observed that isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. The calculation of the thermodynamic properties was further used to draw an understanding of the properties of water and energy requirements associated with the sorption behavior. The sorption-desorption data and the set of equations are useful in the simulation of processing, handling, and storage of CDP and further behavior during manufacture and storage of CDP formulations.

  20. Dose proportionality and pharmacokinetics of carvedilol sustained-release formulation: a single dose-ascending 10-sequence incomplete block study

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    Kim YH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yo Han Kim,1 Hee Youn Choi,1 Yook-Hwan Noh,1 Shi Hyang Lee,1 Hyeong-Seok Lim,1 Chin Kim,2 Kyun-Seop Bae11Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, 2Chong Kun Dang Clinical Research and Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Information, CKD Pharmaceuticals, Seoul, Republic of KoreaBackground: Carvedilol is a third-generation β-blocker indicated for congestive heart failure and high blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the dose proportionality of the carvedilol sustained-release (SR formulation in healthy male subjects.Methods: An open-label, single dose-ascending, 10-sequence, 3-period balanced incomplete block study was performed using healthy male subjects. In varying sequences, each subject received three of five carvedilol SR formulations (8, 16, 32, 64, or 128 mg once. The treatment periods were separated by a washout period of 7 days. Serial blood samples were collected up to 48 h after dosing. The plasma concentrations of carvedilol were determined by using validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters including the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC from time 0 to the last measurable time (AUClast, AUC extrapolated to infinity (AUCinf, and the measured peak plasma concentration (Cmax were obtained by noncompartmental analysis. Dose proportionality was evaluated if the ln–ln plots of AUClast, AUCinf, and Cmax versus dose were linear and the 90% confidence intervals (CIs of the slopes were within 0.9195 and 1.0805. Tolerability was assessed by vital signs, electrocardiogram, clinical laboratory tests, and monitoring of adverse events (AEs throughout the study.Results: A total of 31 subjects were enrolled, and 30 completed the study. The assessment of dose proportionality meets the statistical criteria; the point estimates of slope were 1.0104 (90% CI: 0.9849–1.0359 for AUClast, 1

  1. Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade with carvedilol on cachexia in severe chronic heart failure: results from the COPERNICUS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew L; Coats, Andrew J S; Krum, Henry; Katus, Hugo A; Mohacsi, Paul; Salekin, Damien; Schultz, Melissa K; Packer, Milton; Anker, Stefan D

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac cachexia frequently accompanies the progression of heart failure despite the use of effective therapies for left ventricular dysfunction. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of weight loss, but the effects of sympathetic antagonism on cachexia are not well defined. We prospectively evaluated changes in body weight in 2289 patients with heart failure who had dyspnoea at rest or on minimal exertion and a left ventricular ejection fraction 6%) (95% confidence interval: 14-48%, P = 0.002) and were 37% more likely to experience a significant gain in weight (≥5%) (95% confidence interval: 12-66%, P = 0.002). Carvedilol's ability to prevent weight loss was most marked in patients with increased body mass index at baseline, whereas its ability to promote weight gain was most marked in patients with decreased body mass index at baseline. Increases in weight were not accompanied by evidence of fluid retention. Baseline values for body mass index and change in body weight were significant predictors of survival regardless of treatment. Carvedilol attenuated the development and promoted a partial reversal of cachexia in patients with severe chronic heart failure, supporting a role for prolonged sympathetic activation in the genesis of weight loss. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  2. Use of I-123 MIBG cardiac scintigraphy to assess the impact of carvedilol on cardiac adrenergic neuronal function in childhood dilated cardiomyopathy; Interet de la scintigraphie cardiaque a l'I-123 MIBG pour evaluer l'impact du carvedilol sur la fonction neuronale adrenergique cardiaque dans les myocardiopathies dilatees de l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunoury, C. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Dept. de Physiologie et Radio-Isotopes, 75 - Paris (France); Acar, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Service de Cardiologie Pediatrique, Hopital des Enfants, 31 - Toulouse (France); Sidi, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Necker-Enfants-Malades, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-04-15

    I-123 MIBG cardiac scintigraphy is a useful tool to assess cardiac adrenergic neuronal function, which is impaired in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In adults with DCM, long-term treatment with carvedilol improves both cardiac adrenergic neuronal function and left ventricular function. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of carvedilol on cardiac adrenergic neuronal function and on left ventricular function in seventeen patients (11 female, 6 male, mean age 39 {+-} 57 months, range 1 - 168 months) with DCM. All patients underwent I-123 MIBG cardiac scintigraphy and equilibrium radio-nuclide angiography before and after a 6 month period of carvedilol therapy. A static anterior view of the chest was acquired 4 hours after intravenous injection of 20 to 75 MBq of I-123 MIBG. Cardiac neuronal uptake of I-123 MIBG was measured using the heart to mediastinum count ratio (HMR). Radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed following a standard protocol. There was no major cardiac events (death or transplantation) during the follow-up period. I-123 MIBG cardiac uptake and left ventricular function respectively increased by 38% and 65% after 6 months of treatment with carvedilol (HMR 223 {+-} 49% vs 162 {+-} 26%, p < 0.0001 and LVEF = 43 {+-} 17% vs 26 {+-} 11%, p < 0.0001). Carvedilol can improve cardiac adrenergic neuronal function and left ventricular function in children with DCM. Further studies are needed to assess the relationship between improvement in I-123 MIBG cardiac uptake and the beneficial effects of carvedilol on morbidity and mortality. (authors)

  3. Desarrollo y validacion de un metodo rapido por cromatografia liquida de alta resolucion con inyeccion directa de la muestra para la determinacion de atenolol, propranolol y carvedilol en plasma humano

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    del Rosario Brunetto, Maria; Clavijo, Sabrina; Delgado, Yelitza; Orozco, Wendy; Ayala, Carlos; Gallignani, Maximo; Calderon-Gonzalez, Laura

    2011-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se desarrollo un metodo automatizado y robusto para la determinacion simultanea de atenolol, propranolol y carvedilol en muestras de plasma humano por cromatografia liquida de alta resolucion (CLAR...

  4. Carvedilol decrease IL-1β and TNF-α, inhibits MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, and RANKL expression, and up-regulates OPG in a rat model of periodontitis.

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    Raimundo Fernandes de Araújo Júnior

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases are initiated primarily by Gram-negative, tooth-associated microbial biofilms that elicit a host response that causes osseous and soft tissue destruction. Carvedilol is a β-blocker used as a multifunctional neurohormonal antagonist that has been shown to act not only as an anti-oxidant but also as an anti-inflammatory drug. This study evaluated whether Carvedilol exerted a protective role against ligature-induced periodontitis in a rat model and defined how Carvedilol affected metalloproteinases and RANKL/RANK/OPG expression in the context of bone remodeling. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10/group: (1 non-ligated (NL, (2 ligature-only (LO, and (3 ligature plus Carvedilol (1, 5 or 10 mg/kg daily for 10 days. Periodontal tissue was analyzed for histopathlogy and using immunohistochemical analysis characterized the expression profiles of MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, and RANKL/RANK/OPG and determined the presence of IL-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α, myeloperoxidase (MPO, malonaldehyde (MDA and, glutathione (GSH. MPO activity in the group with periodontal disease was significantly increased compared to the control group (p<0.05. Rats treated with 10 mg/kg Carvedilol presented with significantly reduced MPO and MDA concentrations (p<0.05 in addition to presenting with reduced levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 β and TNF-α (p<0.05. IL-10 levels in Carvedilol-treated rats remained unaltered. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated reduced expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, RANK, RANKL, COX-2, and OPG in rats treated with 10 mg/kg Carvedilol. This study demonstrated that Carvedilol affected bone formation/destruction and anti-inflammatory activity in a rat model of periodontitis.

  5. Efficacy and safety of bisoprolol fumarate compared with carvedilol in Japanese patients with chronic heart failure: results of the randomized, controlled, double-blind, Multistep Administration of bisoprolol IN Chronic Heart Failure II (MAIN-CHF II) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Masatsugu; Nagai, Ryozo; Izumi, Tohru; Matsuzaki, Masunori

    2014-03-01

    Bisoprolol fumarate (bisoprolol) is a β-blocker widely used to treat chronic heart failure (CHF). However, few studies have compared its efficacy and safety with those of the widely used β-blocker carvedilol in Japanese patients with CHF. We designed a confirmatory trial of bisoprolol using carvedilol as a control drug; however, the trial was discontinued after an off-label use of bisoprolol was approved during the study. Bisoprolol and carvedilol were administered for 32 weeks in 31 and 28 patients, respectively. The mean maintenance doses of bisoprolol and carvedilol were 3.3 and 13.6 mg/day, respectively, and the mean durations of treatment were 188.2 and 172.9 days, respectively. Heart-rate changes were similar in both groups. The mean changes from baseline to Week 32 in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) (bisoprolol vs carvedilol groups; 11.7 % ± 8.6 % vs 10.1 % ± 10.5 %), LV end-diastolic volume (-37.5 ± 48.7 vs -24.7 ± 29.4 ml), and LV end-systolic volume (-41.9 ± 43.0 vs -29.3 ± 25.9 ml) revealed a decrease in LV volume and an increase in LVEF in both groups. The cumulative event-free rate for a composite of cardiovascular death or admissions to hospital for worsening of CHF was 92.4 % and 94.7 % in the bisoprolol and carvedilol groups, respectively. Overall, 90.3 % and 85.7 % of patients were titrated up to the maintenance doses of bisoprolol and carvedilol, respectively. Bisoprolol, at half the dose used in other countries, is well tolerated and is as effective as carvedilol for treating Japanese patients with mild to moderate CHF.

  6. O carvedilol no tecido conjuntivo cardíaco de ratos durante o desenvolvimento da hipertrofia miocárdica concêntrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leomil Neto Moacir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A estimulação catecolaminérgica precoce e excessiva do coração, que ocorre na insuficiência cardíaca congestiva, acentua a sobrecarga de pressão e o volume nos ventrículos, agravando, conseqüentemente, a isquemia miocárdica, causando morte de miócitos com deposição de tecido conjuntivo e progressiva redução do débito cardíaco. O carvedilol, um b e alfa1-bloqueador não cardio-seletivo, vem sendo associado a melhorias na função miocárdica e à regressão da hipertrofia ventricular esquerda. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a ação do carvedilol em ratos submetidos a um modelo experimental de hipertrofia miocárdica por sobrecarga de pressão, por meio da coartação da aorta subdiafragmática. Ratos Wistar (65 animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: não coartados/tratados com placebo, coartados/tratados com placebo, coartados/tratados com 0,1mg kg-1 de carvedilol e coartados/tratados com 1mg kg-1 de carvedilol. Após o procedimento cirúrgico e 20 dias de tratamento, os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia e coletados fragmentos que, depois de fixados em formol a 10% e processados pela técnica histológica convencional utilizando coloração picrossirius, permitiram contagem de tecido conjuntivo nos ventrículos esquerdo e direito. Resultados: nos animais coartados/tratados com placebo, houve aumento na porcentagem de tecido conjuntivo nos ventrículos esquerdo e direito; nos coartados/tratados com 0,1mg kg-1 de carvedilol, houve uma redução parcial da quantidade de tecido colágeno do ventrículo esquerdo e direito, e, nos coartados/tratados com 1mg kg-1 de carvedilol, houve uma redução significativa na quantidade de tecido colágeno do ventrículo esquerdo.

  7. Effects of MDMA alone and after pretreatment with reboxetine, duloxetine, clonidine, carvedilol, and doxazosin on pupillary light reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysek, Cédric M; Liechti, Matthias E

    2012-12-01

    Pupillometry can be used to characterize autonomic drug effects. This study was conducted to determine the autonomic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), administered alone and after pretreatment with reboxetine, duloxetine, clonidine, carvedilol, and doxazosin, on pupillary function. Infrared pupillometry was performed in five placebo-controlled randomized studies. Each study included 16 healthy subjects (eight men, eight women) who received placebo-MDMA (125 mg), placebo-placebo, pretreatment-placebo, or pretreatment-MDMA using a crossover design. MDMA produced mydriasis, prolonged the latency, reduced the response to light, and shortened the recovery time. The impaired reflex response was associated with subjective, cardiostimulant, and hyperthermic drug effects and returned to normal within 6 h after MDMA administration when plasma MDMA levels were still high. Mydriasis was associated with changes in plasma MDMA concentration over time and longer-lasting. Both reboxetine and duloxetine interacted with the effects of MDMA on pupillary function. Clonidine did not significantly reduce the mydriatic effects of MDMA, although it produced miosis when administered alone. Carvedilol and doxazosin did not alter the effects of MDMA on pupillary function. The MDMA-induced prolongation of the latency to and reduction of light-induced miosis indicate indirect central parasympathetic inhibition, and the faster recovery time reflects an increased sympathomimetic action. Both norepinephrine and serotonin mediate the effects of MDMA on pupillary function. Although mydriasis is lasting and mirrors the plasma concentration-time curve of MDMA, the impairment in the reaction to light is associated with the subjective and other autonomic effects of MDMA and exhibits acute tolerance.

  8. Minimal dose for effective clinical outcome and predictive factors for responsiveness to carvedilol: Japanese chronic heart failure (J-CHF) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hiroshi; Hori, Masatsugu; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Nagai, Ryozo; Yoshikawa, Tsutomu; Fujio, Yasushi; Nonen, Shinpei; Azuma, Junichi; Izumi, Tohru; Ohashi, Yasuo; Kitabatake, Akira

    2013-04-05

    In chronic heart failure (CHF), it remains unclear whether the minimal dose of beta-blockade is related to survival benefits and which parameter predicts morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine the minimal dose related to survival benefits by comparing the efficacy and safety of three doses of carvedilol and the best predictive parameter for effective outcomes in Japanese patients with CHF. In this prospective, randomized, stratified trial, 364 patients with mild to moderate CHF were assigned to a daily carvedilol dose of 2.5, 5, or 20mg, plus optimal standard therapy. During the mean 3-year follow-up, resting heart rate (HR) and BNP were significantly reduced with dose-response relations in the early period but without dose-response relations in the late period. The LVEF and the LVDd were increased and decreased, respectively, without a dose-response relation. No significant difference was seen in the composite primary endpoint of all-cause mortality and hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases and heart failure. Multivariate analysis indicated early decreases in HR and BNP predicted long-term outcomes. However, adverse events increased dose-dependently. Among 237 polymorphisms in 87 heart failure-related genes, the osteopontin G-156 del genotype was associated with an event-free survival rate (Wilcoxon test, P=0.030). A low carvedilol dose is effective if the HR and/or plasma BNP has been reduced. Carvedilol therapy should be guided by reductions in HR and/or BNP, especially by initial HR reduction, but not only by its dose. OPN might be a surrogate genetic marker for long-term event-free survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Preventive effect of low-dose carvedilol combined with candesartan on the cardiotoxicity of anthracycline drugs in the adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, Zhao-zhe; Liu, Yong-ye; Zheng, Zhen-dong; Liang, Xue-feng; Han, Ya-ling; Xie, Xiao-dong

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effect of low-dose carvedilol combined with candesartan in the prevention of acute and chronic cardiotoxicity of anthracycline drugs in adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer. Forty patients were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group with chemotherapy plus low-dose carvedilol combined with candesartan (20 cases) and control group with chemotherapy alone (20 cases). The same chemotherapy was given to the two groups. All the 40 patients had no contraindication for carvedilol and candesartan. Patients of the experimental group received low-dose carvedilol from 2.5 mg orally twice a day at first cycle to 5 mg twice a day gradually if no side reactions, and candesartan 2.5 mg orally once a day. Electrocardiogram, ultrasonic cardiogram, arrhythmia, troponin and non-hematologic toxicity were recorded and compared after the second, forth and sixth cycle of chemotherapy. Each cycle included 21 days. LVEF was decreased along with the prolongation of chemotherapy in the experimental group and control group. LVEDD and LVESD showed no significant changes in the experimental group, but gradually increased in the control group. After four and six cycles of chemotherapy, LVEF were (57.00 ± 5.13)% and (45.95 ± 3.68)%, respectively, in the control group, significantly lower than that of (67.00 ± 5.13)% and (57.50 ± 2.57)%, respectively, in the experimental group (P candesartan can reduce the acute and chronic cardiotoxicity of anthracycline drugs, and with tolerable toxicities. This may provide a new approach to prevent cardiotoxicity of anthracycline drugs in adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer.

  10. Effect of exercise training and carvedilol treatment on cardiac function and structure in mice with sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure

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    A. Medeiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of β-blockers and exercise training on cardiac structure and function, respectively, as well as overall functional capacity in a genetic model of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure in mice (α2A/α2CArKO. α2A/α2CArKO and their wild-type controls were studied for 2 months, from 3 to 5 months of age. Mice were randomly assigned to control (N = 45, carvedilol-treated (N = 29 or exercise-trained (N = 33 groups. Eight weeks of carvedilol treatment (38 mg/kg per day by gavage or exercise training (swimming sessions of 60 min, 5 days/week were performed. Exercise capacity was estimated using a graded treadmill protocol and HR was measured by tail cuff. Fractional shortening was evaluated by echocardiography. Cardiac structure and gastrocnemius capillary density were evaluated by light microscopy. At 3 months of age, no significant difference in fractional shortening or exercise capacity was observed between wild-type and α2A/α2CArKO mice. At 5 months of age, all α2A/α2CArKO mice displayed exercise intolerance and baseline tachycardia associated with reduced fractional shortening and gastrocnemius capillary rarefaction. In addition, α2A/ α2CArKO mice presented cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and ventricular fibrosis. Exercise training and carvedilol similarly improved fractional shortening in α2A/α2CArKO mice. The effect of exercise training was mainly associated with improved exercise tolerance and increased gastrocnemius capillary density while β-blocker therapy reduced cardiac myocyte dimension and ventricular collagen to wild-type control levels. Taken together, these data provide direct evidence for the respective beneficial effects of exercise training and carvedilol in α2A/α2CArKO mice preventing cardiac dysfunction. The different mechanisms associated with beneficial effects of exercise training and carvedilol suggest future studies associating both therapies.

  11. Protective Effects of Carvedilol and Vitamin C against Azithromycin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats via Decreasing ROS, IL1-β, and TNF-α Production and Inhibiting NF-κB and Caspase-3 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shitany, Nagla A; El-Desoky, Karema

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recently warned of the fatal cardiovascular risks of azithromycin in humans. In addition, a recently published study documented azithromycin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. This study aimed to justify the exact cardiovascular events accompanying azithromycin administration in rats, focusing on electrocardiographic, biochemical, and histopathological changes. In addition, the underlying mechanisms were studied regarding reactive oxygen species production, cytokine release, and apoptotic cell-death. Finally, the supposed protective effects of both carvedilol and vitamin C were assessed. Four groups of rats were used: (1) control, (2) azithromycin, (3) azithromycin + carvedilol, and (4) azithromycin + vitamin C. Azithromycin resulted in marked atrophy of cardiac muscle fibers and electrocardiographic segment alteration. It increased the heart rate, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, interleukin-1 beta (IL1-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), and caspase-3. It decreased reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Carvedilol and vitamin C prevented most of the azithromycin-induced electrocardiographic and histopathological changes. Carvedilol and vitamin C decreased lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, IL1-β, TNF-α, NF-κB, and caspase-3. Both agents increased glutathione peroxidase. This study shows that both carvedilol and vitamin C protect against azithromycin-induced cardiotoxicity through antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antiapoptotic mechanisms.

  12. Carvedilol, a nonselective beta-blocker, suppresses the production of tumor necrosis factor and tissue factor by inhibiting early growth response factor-1 expression in human monocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuochi, Yuichiro; Okajima, Kenji; Harada, Naoaki; Molor-Erdene, Perenlei; Uchiba, Mitsuhiro; Komura, Hidefumi; Tsuda, Takako; Katsuya, Hirotada

    2007-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and tissue factor (TF) produced by monocytes and macrophages have been shown to be among the aggravating factors for chronic heart failure (CHF), because they induce cardiac dysfunction and thrombotic complications, respectively. Carvedilol, a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist with alpha(1)- adrenoceptor blockade action, has been demonstrated to improve the outcome of patients with severe CHF, suggesting that carvedilol might inhibit the production of TNF and TF. In this study, this possibility is examined using isolated human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. Carvedilol (10 muM) significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of TNF and TF by monocytes, whereas prazosin (a selective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), bisoprolol (a selective beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), ICI-118,551 (a selective beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist), and arotinolol (a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist with alpha(1)-adrenoceptor blockade action) did not. Carvedilol inhibited both expression of early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, but it did not inhibit activation of either nuclear factor-kappaB or activator protein-1 in monocytes stimulated with LPS. These results suggest that carvedilol inhibits LPS-induced production of TNF and TF by inhibiting activation of the ERK1/2-Egr-1 pathway independent of its adrenoceptor inhibitory activities in monocytes.

  13. O carvedilol potencializa o efeito antioxidante das vitaminas E e C na cardiopatia chagásica crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Budni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A doença de Chagas continua a ser uma importante doença endêmica no país, sendo o acometimento cardíaco a sua manifestação mais grave. OBJETIVO: Verificar se o uso concomitante de carvedilol potencializará o efeito antioxidante das vitaminas E e C na atenuação do estresse oxidativo sistêmico na cardiopatia chagásica crônica. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 42 pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica, agrupados de acordo com a classificação modificada de Los Andes, em quatro grupos: 10 pacientes no grupo IA (eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma normais: sem envolvimento do coração, 20 pacientes do grupo IB (eletrocardiograma normal e ecocardiograma anormal: ligeiro envolvimento cardíaco, oito pacientes no grupo II (eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma anormais, sem insuficiência cardíaca: moderado envolvimento cardíaco e quatro pacientes no grupo III (eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma anormais com insuficiência cardíaca: grave envolvimento cardíaco. Os marcadores de estresse oxidativo foram medidos no sangue, antes e após um período de seis meses de tratamento com carvedilol e após seis meses de terapia combinada com vitaminas E e C. Os marcadores foram: atividades da superóxido dismutase, catalase, glutationa peroxidase, glutationa S-transferase e redutase, mieloperoxidase e adenosina deaminase, e os níveis de glutationa reduzida, de espécies reativas do ácido tiobarbitúrico, proteína carbonilada, vitamina E e óxido nítrico. RESULTADOS: Após o tratamento com carvedilol, todos os grupos apresentaram diminuições significativas dos níveis de proteína carbonilada e glutationa reduzida, enquanto os níveis de óxido nítrico e atividade da adenosina aumentaram significativamente apenas no grupo menos acometido (IA. Além disso, a maioria das enzimas antioxidantes mostrou atividades diminuídas nos grupos menos acometidos (IA e IB. Com a adição das vitaminas ao carvedilol houve diminuição dos danos em prote

  14. Presence of autoantibody directed against β1-adrenergic receptors is associated with amelioration of cardiac function in response to carvedilol: Japanese Chronic Heart Failure (J-CHF) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Kitabatake, Akira; Hori, Masatsugu

    2015-03-01

    Autoantibody against β1-adrenergic receptors (β1-AAb) exerts agonist-like action inducing receptor uncoupling and myocardial damage. We attempted to determine the significance of β1-AAb in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients who received carvedilol in a substudy of the Japanese Chronic Heart Failure study. In this prospective, randomized, multicenter trial, 117 patients were assigned to 2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 20 mg (n = 38, 36, and 43) carvedilol groups according to the target dose. β1-AAb was positive in 51 patients (44%, P) and negative in 66 (56%, N). The percentage increase of left ventricular ejection fraction over 56 weeks (ΔLVEF) was larger in P than in N (P = .050) and in the high-titer group (H) than in the low-titer group (L; P = .04). Left ventricular (LV) volume decreased to a greater extent in H than in L over 56 weeks. β1-AAb titer was significantly correlated with ΔLVEF and the percentage change of LV volume and was an independent predictor of them. No difference was seen in the composite end point (all-cause mortality and hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases or heart failure). However, in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, it was more common in the 2.5 mg group than in the other groups in N, and it was similar among the 3 groups in P. Our data suggest that the presence of β1-AAb is associated with favorable response to carvedilol in CHF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Carvedilol reverses cardiac insufficiency in AKAP5 knockout mice by normalizing the activities of calcineurin and CaMKII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Matta, Shannon M; Sullivan, Ryan D; Bahouth, Suleiman W

    2014-11-01

    Cardiac β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) are key regulators of cardiac haemodynamics and size. The scaffolding protein A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 (AKAP5) is a key regulator of myocardial signalling by β-ARs. We examined the function of AKAP5 in regulating cardiac haemodynamics and size, and the role of β-ARs and Ca(2+)-regulated intracellular signalling pathways in this phenomenon. We used echocardiographic, histological, genetic, and biochemical methods to examine the effect of ablation of AKAP5 on cardiac haemodynamics, size, and signalling in mice. AKAP5(-/-) mice exhibited enhanced signs of cardiac dilatation and dysfunction that progressed with age. Infusions of isoprenaline worsened cardiac haemodynamics in wild-type (WT) mice only, but increased the ratio of heart-to-body weight equally in WT and in AKAP5(-/-) mice. Mechanistically, loss of AKAP5 was associated with enhanced activity of cardiac calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin (CaN) as indexed by nuclear factor of activated T-cell-luciferase activity. Loss of AKAP5 interfered with the recycling of cardiac β1-ARs, which was mediated in part by CaN binding to AKAP5. Carvedilol reversed cardiac hypertrophy and haemodynamic deficiencies in AKAP5(-/-) mice by normalizing the activities of cardiac CaN and CaMKII. These findings identify a novel cardioprotective role for AKAP5 that is mediated by regulating the activities of cardiac CaN and CaMKII and highlight a significant role for cardiac β-ARs in this phenomenon. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Efeito do carvedilol a curto prazo na atividade simpática cardíaca pela cintilografia com 123I-MIBG Effects of short-term carvedilol on the cardiac sympathetic activity assessed by 123I-MIBG scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Marina Ribeiro de Miranda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Alterações autonômicas na insuficiência cardíaca estão associadas a um aumento da morbimortalidade. Vários métodos não invasivos têm sido empregados para avaliar a função simpática, incluindo a imagem cardíaca com 123I-MIBG. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade simpática cardíaca, por meio da cintilografia com 123I-MIBG, antes e após três meses de terapia com carvedilol em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção do VE BACKGROUND: Autonomic alterations in heart failure are associated with an increase in morbimortality. Several noninvasive methods have been employed to evaluate the sympathetic function, including the Meta-Iodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG scintigraphy imaging of the heart. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the cardiac sympathetic activity through 123I-MIBG scintigraphy, before and after three months of carvedilol therapy in patients with heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF < 45%. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients, aged 56.3 ± 12.6 years (11 males, with a mean LVEF of 28% ± 8% and no previous use of beta-blockers were recruited for the study. Images of the heart innervation were acquired with 123I-MIBG, and the serum levels of catecholamines (epinephrine, dopamine and norepinephrine were measured; the radioisotope ventriculography (RIV was performed before and after a three-month therapy with carvedilol. RESULTS: Patients' functional class showed improvement: before the treatment, 50% of the patients were FC II and 50% were FC III. After 3 months, 7 patients were FC I (43.8% and 9 were FC II (56.2%, (p = 0.0001. The mean LVEF assessed by RIV increased from 29% to 33% (p = 0.017. There was no significant variation in cardiac adrenergic activity assessed by 123I-MIBG (early and late resting images and washout rate. No significant variation was observed regarding the measurement of catecholamines. CONCLUSION: The short-term treatment with carvedilol promoted the clinical

  17. Protective Effects of Vasodilatory Βeta-Blockers Carvedilol and Nebivolol against Glycerol Model of Rhabdomyolysis-Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwa, Ahmed; Hegazy, Rehab; Shaffie, Nermeen; Yassin, Neamat; Kenawy, Sanaa

    2016-09-15

    Rhabdomyolysis (RM)-induced acute renal failure (ARF) accounts for about 10-40% of all cases of ARF. The present study investigated the possible protective effect of two nitric oxides (NO)-releasing third generation β-blockers, carvedilol (Carv) and nebivolol (Nebi), against RM-mimicking glycerol (Gly)-induced ARF in rats. After 24 h dehydration, rats received a single dose of 50% Gly (8 ml/kg, im). They were treated with vehicle, Carv (2.5 mg/kg/day, po) or Nebi (10 mg/kg, po) for 3 successive days starting from an hour prior to Gly injection. Evaluation of blood pressure and locomotor activity was performed during the experiment. 72 h following Gly administration, total protein in the urine, serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, sodium and potassium as well as the renal contents of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and NO were assessed, together with a histopathological examination of renal tissues. Carv and Nebi attenuated Gly-induced renal dysfunction and histopathological alterations. They decreased the Gly-induced oxidative stress and increased renal NO concentration. Restoration of normal blood pressure and improvement of locomotor activity were also observed. The results clearly demonstrate protective effects of Carv and Nebi against renal damage involved in RM-induced ARF and suggest a role of their antioxidant and NO-releasing properties.

  18. Carvedilol Improves Inflammatory Response, Oxidative Stress and Fibrosis in the Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Rats by Regulating Kuppfer Cells and Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Fernandes de Araújo Júnior

    Full Text Available To evaluate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and antifibrotic effects of carvedilol (CARV in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury.Liver injury was induced by gavage administration of alcohol (7 g/kg for 28 consecutive days. Eighty Wistar rats were pretreated with oral CARV at 1, 3, or 5 mg/kg or with saline 1 h before exposure to alcohol. Liver homogenates were assayed for interleukin (IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α level as well as for myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and malonyldialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity and liver triglyceride (TG levels were also assayed. Immunohistochemical analyses of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B/ligand (RANK/RANKL, suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS1, the Kupffer cell marker IBA-1 (ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, superoxide dismutase (SOD-1, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1 expression were performed. Confocal microscopy analysis of IL-1β and NF-κB expression and real-time quantitative PCR analysis for TNFα, PCI, PCIII, and NF-κB were performed.CARV treatment (5 mg/kg during the alcohol exposure protocol was associated with reduced steatosis, hepatic cord degeneration, fibrosis and necrosis, as well as reduced levels of AST (p < 0.01, ALT (p < 0.01, TG (p < 0.001, MPO (p < 0.001, MDA (p < 0.05, and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α, both p < 0.05, and increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (p < 0.001 and GSH (p < 0.05, compared to the alcohol-only group. Treatment with CARV 5 mg/kg also reduced expression levels of COX-2, RANK, RANKL, IBA-1, and ICAM-1 (all p < 0.05, while increasing expression of SOCS1, SOD-1, and GPx-1 (all p < 0.05 and decreasing expression of IL-1β and NF-κB (both, p < 0.05. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that mRNA production of TNF-α, procollagen type I (PCI, procollagen

  19. COMPARISON OF THERAPIES BASED ON CARVEDILOL AND METOPROLOL IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH OVERWEIGHT OR OBESITY. THE FIRST RESULTS OF CAMELLIA TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate antihypertensive and metabolic effects of the therapy based on carvedilol (C in comparison with metoprolol (M in hypertensive patients with overweight or obesity.Material and methods. 320 patients were involved in multicenter, randomized open parallel study. One part of the patients received C 12,5 mg BID (Vedicardol, “Sintez”, another part – M 25 mg/day BID. Doubling dose of β-blockers (BB and switching patients to combined therapy with AML 5-10 mg OD (Amlorus, “Sintez” and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT 12,5-25 mg OD was performed if necessary. The study duration was 24 weeks.Results. Significant reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was revealed in both groups, there was no difference between groups (р=0,88 and p=0,61 respectively. Switching patients to combined therapy with AML and HCT was made more often in M group than in C group (p>0,05. Prescription of BB resulted in significant reduction of the heart rate, there was no difference between groups (p=0,61. 96,2% patients of group C and 95,5% of group M reached target levels of BP. Significant reduction of glucose (p<0,01 and uric acid levels were registered in group C as well as tendency to lowering of total cholesterol (TC and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC levels. 34 adverse effects were registered during observation period: 24 in group C and 10 in group M (p>0.05, half of them were not related to BB taking.Conclusion: Controlled antihypertensive therapy, based on С and M, allows reaching target levels of BP in majority of patients with overweight or obesity. Switching to combined therapy was made more seldom in group of С than in M group. Both drugs demonstrated metabolic neutrality, however significant lowering of glucose and uric acid levels and tendency to lowering of TC an LDLC levels was observed only in group С.

  20. COMPARISON OF THERAPIES BASED ON CARVEDILOL AND METOPROLOL IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH OVERWEIGHT OR OBESITY. THE FIRST RESULTS OF CAMELLIA TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate antihypertensive and metabolic effects of the therapy based on carvedilol (C in comparison with metoprolol (M in hypertensive patients with overweight or obesity.Material and methods. 320 patients were involved in multicenter, randomized open parallel study. One part of the patients received C 12,5 mg BID (Vedicardol, “Sintez”, another part – M 25 mg/day BID. Doubling dose of β-blockers (BB and switching patients to combined therapy with AML 5-10 mg OD (Amlorus, “Sintez” and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT 12,5-25 mg OD was performed if necessary. The study duration was 24 weeks.Results. Significant reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was revealed in both groups, there was no difference between groups (р=0,88 and p=0,61 respectively. Switching patients to combined therapy with AML and HCT was made more often in M group than in C group (p>0,05. Prescription of BB resulted in significant reduction of the heart rate, there was no difference between groups (p=0,61. 96,2% patients of group C and 95,5% of group M reached target levels of BP. Significant reduction of glucose (p<0,01 and uric acid levels were registered in group C as well as tendency to lowering of total cholesterol (TC and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC levels. 34 adverse effects were registered during observation period: 24 in group C and 10 in group M (p>0.05, half of them were not related to BB taking.Conclusion: Controlled antihypertensive therapy, based on С and M, allows reaching target levels of BP in majority of patients with overweight or obesity. Switching to combined therapy was made more seldom in group of С than in M group. Both drugs demonstrated metabolic neutrality, however significant lowering of glucose and uric acid levels and tendency to lowering of TC an LDLC levels was observed only in group С.

  1. COMPARISON OF THE INFLUENCE OF LONG-TERM TREATMENT BASED ON CARVEDILOL OR BISOPROLOL ON METABOLIC PARAMETERS IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH OVERWEIGHT OR OBESITY RESULTS OF THE RANDOMIZED OPEN-LABEL PARALLEL-GROUPS STEPPED TRIAL CABRIOLET (PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare antihypertensive and metabolic effects of long-term treatment with carvedilol or bisoprolol in patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 1-2 degree and overweight/obesity. Material and methods. A total of 105 patients were enrolled into open-label comparative stepped trial in two parallel groups. The patients were randomized into two groups: the group 1 (n=53 started treatment with carvedilol 25 mg daily and the group 2 (n=52 – with bisoprolol 5 mg daily. If the effect was insufficient a dose of a beta-blocker was doubled, then amlodipine was added in the dose of 5 mg daily with its further increase if necessary or indapamide in dose 1.5 mg daily. The follow-up for each patient was 24 weeks. At the start and then 12 and 24 weeks later the frequency of target blood pressure (BP achievement, body mass index, biochemical indices, ECG and treatment safety were evaluated. Results. Significant distinctions in antihypertensive therapy effect between the groups were absent (ΔBP=-29.5±11.3/17.8±8.4 and -30.4±12.8/18.7±8 mm Hg for groups 1 and 2, respectively , p<0.001 for the both groups as well as the necessity for additional therapy. All the patients completed the study had achieved target BP level. The patients of the both groups decreased body mass index after 6-month treatment (-0.57±1.1, p=0.001 and -0.53±0.8 kg/m2, p<0.001 for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Patients of the group 1 demonstrated significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose level (-0.45±1.2 mM/l, p=0.01, uric acid (-0.05±0.01 mM/l, p<0.001 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (-0.28±0.9 mM/l, p<0.05 as well as a trend for HOMA index decrease. Serum creatinine level increased in patients of the group 2 (6.35±22.4 mcM/l, p=0.05 with no significant dynamics in metabolic indices. Glomerular filtration rate did not change significantly in the group 1, while there was significant decrease in the group 2 (Δ-3.8±15.2 ml/min/1,73m2, р=0.01. The

  2. COMPARISON OF THE INFLUENCE OF LONG-TERM TREATMENT BASED ON CARVEDILOL OR BISOPROLOL ON METABOLIC PARAMETERS IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH OVERWEIGHT OR OBESITY RESULTS OF THE RANDOMIZED OPEN-LABEL PARALLEL-GROUPS STEPPED TRIAL CABRIOLET (PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare antihypertensive and metabolic effects of long-term treatment with carvedilol or bisoprolol in patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 1-2 degree and overweight/obesity. Material and methods. A total of 105 patients were enrolled into open-label comparative stepped trial in two parallel groups. The patients were randomized into two groups: the group 1 (n=53 started treatment with carvedilol 25 mg daily and the group 2 (n=52 – with bisoprolol 5 mg daily. If the effect was insufficient a dose of a beta-blocker was doubled, then amlodipine was added in the dose of 5 mg daily with its further increase if necessary or indapamide in dose 1.5 mg daily. The follow-up for each patient was 24 weeks. At the start and then 12 and 24 weeks later the frequency of target blood pressure (BP achievement, body mass index, biochemical indices, ECG and treatment safety were evaluated. Results. Significant distinctions in antihypertensive therapy effect between the groups were absent (ΔBP=-29.5±11.3/17.8±8.4 and -30.4±12.8/18.7±8 mm Hg for groups 1 and 2, respectively , p<0.001 for the both groups as well as the necessity for additional therapy. All the patients completed the study had achieved target BP level. The patients of the both groups decreased body mass index after 6-month treatment (-0.57±1.1, p=0.001 and -0.53±0.8 kg/m2, p<0.001 for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Patients of the group 1 demonstrated significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose level (-0.45±1.2 mM/l, p=0.01, uric acid (-0.05±0.01 mM/l, p<0.001 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (-0.28±0.9 mM/l, p<0.05 as well as a trend for HOMA index decrease. Serum creatinine level increased in patients of the group 2 (6.35±22.4 mcM/l, p=0.05 with no significant dynamics in metabolic indices. Glomerular filtration rate did not change significantly in the group 1, while there was significant decrease in the group 2 (Δ-3.8±15.2 ml/min/1,73m2, р=0.01. The

  3. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  4. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  5. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  6. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  7. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  8. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  9. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  10. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  11. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  12. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  13. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  14. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  15. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  16. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  17. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  18. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  19. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  20. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  2. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  3. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  4. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  5. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  6. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  7. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  8. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  9. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  10. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  11. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  12. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  13. Rapid prototyping in medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Márk Horváth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even if it sound a bit incredible rapid prototyping (RPT as production method has been used for decades in other professions. Nevertheless medical science just started discover the possibilities of this technology and use the offered benefits of 3D printing. In this paper authors have investigated the pharmaceutical usage of rapid prototyping.

  14. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  15. A Rapid Coliform Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E-coli with minimal...

  16. Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid nucleic acid-based detector for spaceflight water systems to enable simultaneous quantification of multiple...

  17. Composites by rapid prototyping technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available powder is a fiber, problems of manufacturing occur. The method has also been used to make Metal Matrix Composite (MMC), e.g Fe and graphite [17], WC-Co [18,19], WC-Co and Cu [20,21], Fe, Ni and TiC [22] etc and Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) e.g. Si... of various materials used. Key words: : Rapid Prototyping (RP), Laser, Composites 1 Introduction Rapid Prototyping (RP) initially focussed on polymers. These were later re- placed/supplemented by ceramics, metals and composites. Composites are used in RP...

  18. Developmental evolution facilitates rapid adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Travisano, Michael

    2017-11-21

    Developmental evolution has frequently been identified as a mode for rapid adaptation, but direct observations of the selective benefits and associated mechanisms of developmental evolution are necessarily challenging to obtain. Here we show rapid evolution of greatly increased rates of dispersal by developmental changes when populations experience stringent selection. Replicate populations of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride underwent 85 serial transfers, under conditions initially favoring growth but not dispersal. T. citrinoviride populations shifted away from multicellular growth toward increased dispersal by producing one thousand times more single-celled asexual conidial spores, three times sooner than the ancestral genotype. Conidia of selected lines also germinated fifty percent faster. Gene expression changed substantially between the ancestral and selected fungi, especially for spore production and growth, demonstrating rapid evolution of tight regulatory control for down-regulation of growth and up-regulation of conidia production between 18 and 24 hours of growth. These changes involved both developmentally fixed and plastic changes in gene expression, showing that complex developmental changes can serve as a mechanism for rapid adaptation.

  19. Multigrade Teaching Rapid Appraisal Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Dean

    Multigrade classes have been recognized as part of elementary education for many years, but their special needs have been largely ignored. This manual focuses on the survey research that should predate the design of instructional management strategies in multigrade classrooms. It describes rapid and reliable ways to collect information about the…

  20. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E

    1997-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  1. Furnace for rapid thermal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Duine, P.A.; Sluis, P. van der

    2001-01-01

    A Method (1) for Rapid Thermal Processing of a wafer (7), wherein the wafer (7) is heated by lamps (9), and the heat radiation is reflected by an optical switching device (15,17) which is in the reflecting state during the heating stage. During the cooling stage of the wafer (7), the heat is

  2. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    BIM Building Information Modeling BPA Building Performance Analysis BTU British Thermal Unit CBECS Commercial Building ...geometry, orientation, weather, and materials, generates 3D Building Information Models ( BIM ) guided by satellite views of building footprints and...Rapid Energy Modeling (REM) workflows that employed building information modeling ( BIM ) approaches and conceptual energy analysis.

  3. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  4. Rapid scenarios and observed intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Pettenati; Livio Sirovich

    2012-01-01

    After a destructive earthquake, national Governments need to know the approximate amount of damage, the number of casualties, and the financial losses as soon as possible. Rapid scenarios are also used to inform the general public; see the widely used Shakemap package [Wald et al. 1999, 2006] of the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the one modified by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology), which is reproduced for Figure 1. T...

  5. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  6. Rapid scenarios and observed intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pettenati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available After a destructive earthquake, national Governments need to know the approximate amount of damage, the number of casualties, and the financial losses as soon as possible. Rapid scenarios are also used to inform the general public; see the widely used Shakemap package [Wald et al. 1999, 2006] of the US Geological Survey (USGS and the one modified by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, which is reproduced for Figure 1. The general matter of the use of intensities in damage scenarios was discussed in a special session at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Seismological Society of America (http://www.seismosoc.org/meetings/2008/specialsessions.html, and was also discussed in the NIS-1 session of the European Congress in Moscow, in August 2012 (http://www.esc2012-moscow.org/esc_thematicareas.html. The purposes of the present report are to: (i compare different types of intensities; (ii check two rapid scenarios of intensity; and (iii understand whether the KF formula [Sirovich 1996, Sirovich et al. 2009] can be used as a new 'attenuation' relationship to improve rapid scenarios. […

  7. Rapid diagnosis of mycobacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Drancourt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB remains an important public health issue worldwide, there is an emerging interest in non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM which is responsible for opportunistic infections of the respiratory tract as well as other anatomical sites in both developed and developing countries. In this context the one goal of the clinical mycobacteriology laboratories is to provide physicians with an accurate identification of the mycobacterium as rapidly as possible. During the last ten years, several lines of laboratory tools have been developed in order to speed the isolation and identification of mycobacteria from clinical specimens. Chiefly, the composition of culture medium was renewed along with the protocol of incubation in order to recover Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB micro-colonies as soon as 48 h after the inoculation of the specimen. MALDI-TOF rapid identification is clearly the tool to be implemented in the laboratory for the rapid identification of the micro-colonies. Also, molecular tools and genomics are necessary in order to depict new mycobacteria species, including those of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex and the Mycobacterium avium complex. All these tools and their connections will be presented during this conference.

  8. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  9. Rapid self-healing hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Ameya; Zhang, Chao; Arman, Bedri; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Lele, Ashish K.; Tauber, Michael J.; Arya, Gaurav; Varghese, Shyni

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic materials that are capable of autonomous healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their many potential applications. Despite these advancements, achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels has remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Here, we demonstrate that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. We achieve this feature by arming the hydrogel network with flexible-pendant side chains carrying an optimal balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that allows the side chains to mediate hydrogen bonds across the hydrogel interfaces with minimal steric hindrance and hydrophobic collapse. The self-healing reported here is rapid, occurring within seconds of the insertion of a crack into the hydrogel or juxtaposition of two separate hydrogel pieces. The healing is reversible and can be switched on and off via changes in pH, allowing external control over the healing process. Moreover, the hydrogels can sustain multiple cycles of healing and separation without compromising their mechanical properties and healing kinetics. Beyond revealing how secondary interactions could be harnessed to introduce new functions to chemically cross-linked polymeric systems, we also demonstrate various potential applications of such easy-to-synthesize, smart, self-healing hydrogels. PMID:22392977

  10. Rapid generalization in phonotactic learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Linzen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Speakers judge novel strings to be better potential words of their language if those strings consist of sound sequences that are attested in the language. These intuitions are often generalized to new sequences that share some properties with attested ones: Participants exposed to an artificial language where all words start with the voiced stops [b] and [d] will prefer words that start with other voiced stops (e.g., [g] to words that start with vowels or nasals. The current study tracks the evolution of generalization across sounds during the early stages of artificial language learning. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants received varying amounts of exposure to an artificial language. Learners rapidly generalized to new sounds: In fact, following short exposure to the language, attested patterns were not distinguished from unattested patterns that were similar in their phonological properties to the attested ones. Following additional exposure, participants showed an increasing preference for attested sounds, alongside sustained generalization to unattested ones. Finally, Experiment 3 tested whether participants can rapidly generalize to new sounds based on a single type of sound. We discuss the implications of our results for computational models of phonotactic learning.

  11. Rapid ISS Power Availability Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) Power Resource Officers (PROs) needed a tool to automate the calculation of thousands of ISS power availability simulations used to generate power constraint matrices. Each matrix contains 864 cells, and each cell represents a single power simulation that must be run. The tools available to the flight controllers were very operator intensive and not conducive to rapidly running the thousands of simulations necessary to generate the power constraint data. SOLAR is a Java-based tool that leverages commercial-off-the-shelf software (Satellite Toolkit) and an existing in-house ISS EPS model (SPEED) to rapidly perform thousands of power availability simulations. SOLAR has a very modular architecture and consists of a series of plug-ins that are loosely coupled. The modular architecture of the software allows for the easy replacement of the ISS power system model simulator, re-use of the Satellite Toolkit integration code, and separation of the user interface from the core logic. Satellite Toolkit (STK) is used to generate ISS eclipse and insulation times, solar beta angle, position of the solar arrays over time, and the amount of shadowing on the solar arrays, which is then provided to SPEED to calculate power generation forecasts. The power planning turn-around time is reduced from three months to two weeks (83-percent decrease) using SOLAR, and the amount of PRO power planning support effort is reduced by an estimated 30 percent.

  12. KEPLER RAPIDLY ROTATING GIANT STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Chagas, M. L. das; Leão, I. C.; Oliveira, G. Pereira de; Silva, R. Rodrigues da; Roque, S.; Oliveira, L. L. A. de; Silva, D. Freire da; De Medeiros, J. R., E-mail: renan@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal RN (Brazil)

    2015-07-10

    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  13. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip; McElroy, James F.

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  14. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  15. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles.......In today’s highly dynamic environments, organizational leaders need to quickly adapt existing approaches to digital transformation. However, without a shared mindset between IS and business leaders, it is difficult to adopt new approaches in response to changes in the competitive and technology...... landscape. In this article, we share insights gained from two public sector organizations in which IS and business leaders used the Participatory Process Model (PPM) designed by the authors to share their assumptions about IS leadership, challenge existing IT strategies and collaboration patterns and adapt...

  16. Moved by a Rapid Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueter, C.

    2013-04-01

    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  17. [Rapid diagnostic test for malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, S

    2017-02-01

    The rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) whose main interest lies in their implementation without special equipment by unskilled personnel have grown significantly over the past fifteen years to diagnose malaria. They rely on the detection of specific Plasmodium proteins, PfHRP2, pLDH and aldolase. If the detection of PfHRP2 has very good sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the detection of pLDH or aldolase is less efficient for other species, leaving its place to the reference microscopic diagnosis. RDT could not generally be used to monitor therapeutic efficacy because they can remain positive after clinical and parasitological cure. Furthermore, the development of the use of these tests has highlighted the need for quality assurance programs to monitor their production as their use.

  18. Rapid Solidification of Magnetic Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonji, G.; Deguire, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    The enhanced control over microstructural evolution inherent in rapid solidification processing techniques are exploited to create novel ceramic magnetic materials. The great sensitivity of magnetic properties to local structure provides a powerful probe both for the study of structure and of microscopic solidification mechanisms. The first system studied is the SrO-Fe2O3 binary, which contains the commercially important hard magnetic compound strontium hexaferrite. The products were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and differential thermal analysis. As-quenched ribbons contain high concentrations of super-paramagnetic particles, 80 to 250 Angstroms in diameter, in a glassy matrix. This suggests the possibility of crystallizing monodomain strontium hexaferrite during subsequent heat treatment, with a resulting increase in coercivity over conventionally processed ferrite magnets. That magnetic properties can be controlled in solidification processing by varying the quench rate is demonstrated.

  19. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To avoid high tooling costs in product development, a rapid prototyping process chain has been established that enables rapid manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents from functional models to small lot series within a short time. This process chain combines the fast and inexpensive supply of master models by rapid ...

  20. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…

  1. Rapid Tooling via Investment Casting and Rapid Prototype Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Michael D.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this work to develop the materials processing and design technologies required to reduce the die development time for metal mold processes from 12 months to 3 months, using die casting of Al and Mg as the example process. Sandia demonstrated that investment casting, using rapid prototype patterns produced from Stereo lithography or Selective laser Sintering, was a viable alternative/supplement to the current technology of machining form wrought stock. A demonstration die insert (ejector halt) was investment cast and subsequently tested in the die casting environment. The stationary half of the die insert was machined from wrought material to benchmark the cast half. The two inserts were run in a die casting machine for 3,100 shots of aluminum and at the end of the run no visible difference could be detected between the cast and machined inserts. Inspection concluded that the cast insert performed identically to the machined insert. Both inserts had no indications of heat checking or degradation.

  2. Formulation and In vitro Evaluation of Carvedilol Transdermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 23 factorial design was used based on three variables (PMMA, EE100, DMSO). at two levels Second order polynomial equations indicating interplay of ingredients were obtained by factorial design using SigmaTech software for 1, 4, 8 and 20 h release data. so the design was extended to central composite design (CCD).

  3. In-vitro Release Study of Carvedilol Phosphate Matrix Tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tablets were compressed using a compression force and compression time of 5 tons and 20 s, respectively. Prior to compression, the die and punch surfaces were sufficiently lubricated with magnesium stearate. In vitro release studies. In vitro drug release studies of the matrix tablets were carried out using a six-station.

  4. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  5. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Klinker

    Full Text Available The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  6. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  7. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  8. The Application Trends of Rapid Prototyping Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Xiao Lin

    2016-01-01

    characteristics of laser stero lithography (LSL selective laser sintering (SLS, three-dimensional printing (DP, fused deposition modeling (FDM, computer numerical control (CNC and other rapid prototyping technologies. After discussed these five rapid prototyping technology materials, we presented the hotspot and direction of rapid prototyping technology and look forward to the development of its technique, the expansion of its field and the progress of its academic ideology.

  9. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  10. WIST: toolkit for rapid, customized LIMS development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Y Wayne; Arkin, Adam P; Chandonia, John-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Workflow Information Storage Toolkit (WIST) is a set of application programming interfaces and web applications that allow for the rapid development of customized laboratory information management systems (LIMS...

  11. JIEDDO Experience Provides Rapid Acquisition Insights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James P Craft

    2015-01-01

    .... JIDA's rapid acquisition capabilities were preserved by transitioning the expedient organization that received supplemental funding into the Defense Department's newest combat support agency (CSA...

  12. Test plan for the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.

    1993-06-01

    This document describes the test plant for demonstrating and testing a set of optically pumped cesium-based total field magnetometers using the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor platform. The proposed testing will be used to assess the function of these magnetometers as deployed on the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor and evaluate the practical utility of high resolution magnetic data for supporting waste retrieval efforts.

  13. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  14. Rapid Prototyping of Mobile Learning Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federley, Maija; Sorsa, Timo; Paavilainen, Janne; Boissonnier, Kimo; Seisto, Anu

    2014-01-01

    This position paper presents the first results of an on-going project, in which we explore rapid prototyping method to efficiently produce digital learning solutions that are commercially viable. In this first phase, rapid game prototyping and an iterative approach was tested as a quick and efficient way to create learning games and to evaluate…

  15. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  16. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  17. Risks and Benefits of Rapid Clozapine Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhead, Jeannie D; Nelson, Michele A; Schneider, Alan L

    2016-05-18

    Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  18. Risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannie D. Lochhead

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  19. A scoping review of rapid review methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Antony, Jesmin; Zarin, Wasifa; Strifler, Lisa; Ghassemi, Marco; Ivory, John; Perrier, Laure; Hutton, Brian; Moher, David; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-09-16

    Rapid reviews are a form of knowledge synthesis in which components of the systematic review process are simplified or omitted to produce information in a timely manner. Although numerous centers are conducting rapid reviews internationally, few studies have examined the methodological characteristics of rapid reviews. We aimed to examine articles, books, and reports that evaluated, compared, used or described rapid reviews or methods through a scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, internet websites of rapid review producers, and reference lists were searched to identify articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened literature search results and abstracted data from included studies. Descriptive analysis was conducted. We included 100 articles plus one companion report that were published between 1997 and 2013. The studies were categorized as 84 application papers, seven development papers, six impact papers, and four comparison papers (one was included in two categories). The rapid reviews were conducted between 1 and 12 months, predominantly in Europe (58 %) and North America (20 %). The included studies failed to report 6 % to 73 % of the specific systematic review steps examined. Fifty unique rapid review methods were identified; 16 methods occurred more than once. Streamlined methods that were used in the 82 rapid reviews included limiting the literature search to published literature (24 %) or one database (2 %), limiting inclusion criteria by date (68 %) or language (49 %), having one person screen and another verify or screen excluded studies (6 %), having one person abstract data and another verify (23 %), not conducting risk of bias/quality appraisal (7 %) or having only one reviewer conduct the quality appraisal (7 %), and presenting results as a narrative summary (78 %). Four case studies were identified that compared the results of rapid reviews to systematic reviews. Three studies found that the conclusions between

  20. New developments in rapidly solidified magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Chang, C.F. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Raybould, D. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); King, J.F. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom); Thistlethwaite, S. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1992-12-31

    In the present paper, we will examine the new developments in the rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-Nd (EA55RS) alloy. We shall first briefly review the process scale-up currently employed for producing rapidly solidified magnesium alloys in large quantities, and then discuss the effect of billet size and processing parameters on the mechanical properties of various mill product forms such as extrusions and sheets. The superplastic behavior of EA55RS extrusions and rolled sheets are also discussed. Finally, some results on magnesium metal-matrix composites using rapidly solidified EA55RS matrix powders and SiC particulates are presented. (orig.)

  1. Implementation of rapid diagnostics with antimicrobial stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minejima, Emi; Wong-Beringer, Annie

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship (ASP) is an intervention-based program to improve patient outcomes to infection while limiting spread of resistance and unintended consequences. Many rapid diagnostic tools are now FDA cleared for clinical use, with three evaluated across multiple settings: Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, Verigene, and FilmArray. Areas covered: This review will focus on studies published that evaluated ASP intervention with rapid diagnostic implementation on outcomes of infection. A description of the key ASP personnel, rapid diagnostic notification methods, hours of notification, and scope of ASP intervention is summarized. Expert commentary: It is critical that ASPs continually re-evaluate and evolve with technological advances. Rapid diagnostic tools are powerful in their ability to identify organisms quickly. A trained clinician is needed to evaluate the results and interact with the providers to educate them on result interpretation and optimal antimicrobial selection to maximize treatment success.

  2. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  3. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  4. Rapid Chemical Exposure and Dose Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA evaluates the potential risks of the manufacture and use of thousands of chemicals. To assist with this evaluation, EPA scientists developed a rapid, automated model using off the shelf technology that predicts exposures for thousands of chemicals.

  5. Innovative rapid construction/reconstruction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Innovative construction and reconstruction methods provide the opportunity to significantly reduce the time of roadway projects while maintaining the necessary quality of workmanship. The need for these rapid methods stems from the increase in ...

  6. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Data Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Datasets used in the analysis of the Colorado Plateau (COP) Rapid Ecoregion Assessment (REA).They can be downloaded via a layer package (lpk, similar to a zip file...

  7. Development of a Rapid Thermoplastic Impregnation Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weustink, A.P.D.

    2007-01-01

    A melt impregnation device for rapid thermoplastic impregnation of fiber bundles has been developed through modeling and experiments. The basic principles behind the thermoplastic impregnation process are investigated and the properties needed for a successful thermoplastic impregnation device are

  8. Practical implications of rapid development methodologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development methodologies are popular approaches for the development of modern software systems. The goals of these methodologies are the inclusion of the client into the analysis, design and implementation activities, as well...

  9. The Rapid Perceptual Impact of Emotional Distractors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana L Kennedy

    Full Text Available The brief presentation of an emotional distractor can temporarily impair perception of a subsequent, rapidly presented target, an effect known as emotion-induced blindness (EIB. How rapidly does this impairment unfold? To probe this question, we examined EIB for targets that immediately succeeded ("lag-1" emotional distractors in a rapid stream of items relative to EIB for targets at later serial positions. Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that emotional distractors interfere with items presented very soon after them, with impaired target perception emerging as early as lag-1. Experiment 3 included an exploratory examination of individual differences, which suggested that EIB onsets more rapidly among participants scoring high in measures linked to negative affect.

  10. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  11. Rapidly separating microneedles for transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan Dan; Wang, Qi Lei; Liu, Xu Bo; Guo, Xin Dong

    2016-09-01

    The applications of polymer microneedles (MNs) into human skin emerged as an alternative of the conventional hypodermic needles. However, dissolving MNs require many minutes to be dissolved in the skin and typically have difficulty being fully inserted into the skin, which may lead to the low drug delivery efficiency. To address these issues, we introduce rapidly separating MNs that can rapidly deliver drugs into the skin in a minimally invasive way. For the rapidly separating MNs, drug loaded dissolving MNs are mounted on the top of solid MNs, which are made of biodegradable polylactic acid which eliminate the biohazardous waste. These MNs have sufficient mechanical strength to be inserted into the skin with the drug loaded tips fully embedded for subsequent dissolution. Compared with the traditional MNs, rapidly separating MNs achieve over 90% of drug delivery efficiency in 30s while the traditional MNs needs 2min to achieve the same efficiency. With the in vivo test in mice, the micro-holes caused by rapidly separating MNs can heal in 1h, indicating that the rapidly separating MNs are safe for future applications. These results indicate that the design of rapidly separating dissolvable MNs can offer a quick, high efficient, convenient, safe and potentially self-administered method of drug delivery. Polymer microneedles offer an attractive, painless and minimally invasive approach for transdermal drug delivery. However, dissolving microneedles require many minutes to be dissolved in the skin and typically have difficulty being fully inserted into the skin due to the skin deformation, which may lead to the low drug delivery efficiency. In this work we proposed rapidly separating microneedles which can deliver over 90% of drug into the skin in 30s. The in vitro and in vivo results indicate that the new design of these microneedles can offer a quick, high efficient, convenient and safe method for transdermal drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  12. Exploring data with RapidMiner

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial style using examples so that users of different levels will benefit from the facilities offered by RapidMiner.If you are a computer scientist or an engineer who has real data from which you want to extract value, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have at least a basic awareness of data mining techniques and some exposure to RapidMiner.

  13. Transverse vetoes with rapidity cutoff in SCET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, Andrew; Kang, Daekyoung; Makris, Yiannis; Mehen, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    We consider di-jet production in hadron collisions where a transverse veto is imposed on radiation for (pseudo-)rapidities in the central region only, where this central region is defined with rapidity cutoff. For the case where the transverse measurement (e.g., transverse energy or min p T for jet veto) is parametrically larger relative to the typical transverse momentum beyond the cutoff, the cross section is insensitive to the cutoff parameter and is factorized in terms of collinear and soft degrees of freedom. The virtuality for these degrees of freedom is set by the transverse measurement, as in typical transverse-momentum dependent observables such as Drell-Yan, Higgs production, and the event shape broadening. This paper focuses on the other region, where the typical transverse momentum below and beyond the cutoff is of similar size. In this region the rapidity cutoff further resolves soft radiation into (u)soft and soft-collinear radiation with different rapidities but identical virtuality. This gives rise to rapidity logarithms of the rapidity cutoff parameter which we resum using renormalization group methods. We factorize the cross section in this region in terms of soft and collinear functions in the framework of soft-collinear effective theory, then further refactorize the soft function as a convolution of the (u)soft and soft-collinear functions. All these functions are calculated at one-loop order. As an example, we calculate a differential cross section for a specific partonic channel, qq ' → qq ' , for the jet shape angularities and show that the refactorization allows us to resum the rapidity logarithms and significantly reduce theoretical uncertainties in the jet shape spectrum.

  14. Prostate treatments, 1MRT o RapidArc; Tratamiento de prostata, IMART o RapidArc?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro novais, J.; Ruiz Maqueda, S.; Pardo Perez, E.; Molina Lopez, M. Y.; Cerro Penalver, E.

    2015-07-01

    Techniques that modulate the dose (as IMRT or RapidArcTM) improve dose homogeneity within the target volume decreasing the dose in healthy organs. The aim of this work is to study the dosimetric differences in prostate radiotherapy treatments with IMRT and RapidArcTM. The results of the 109 patients studied show that plans to RapidArcTM have better coverage, compliance and dose gradient outside the target volume. (Author)

  15. An Exponential Regulator for Rapidity Divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ye [Fermilab; Neill, Duff [MIT, Cambridge, CTP; Zhu, Hua Xing [MIT, Cambridge, CTP

    2016-04-01

    Finding an efficient and compelling regularization of soft and collinear degrees of freedom at the same invariant mass scale, but separated in rapidity is a persistent problem in high-energy factorization. In the course of a calculation, one encounters divergences unregulated by dimensional regularization, often called rapidity divergences. Once regulated, a general framework exists for their renormalization, the rapidity renormalization group (RRG), leading to fully resummed calculations of transverse momentum (to the jet axis) sensitive quantities. We examine how this regularization can be implemented via a multi-differential factorization of the soft-collinear phase-space, leading to an (in principle) alternative non-perturbative regularization of rapidity divergences. As an example, we examine the fully-differential factorization of a color singlet's momentum spectrum in a hadron-hadron collision at threshold. We show how this factorization acts as a mother theory to both traditional threshold and transverse momentum resummation, recovering the classical results for both resummations. Examining the refactorization of the transverse momentum beam functions in the threshold region, we show that one can directly calculate the rapidity renormalized function, while shedding light on the structure of joint resummation. Finally, we show how using modern bootstrap techniques, the transverse momentum spectrum is determined by an expansion about the threshold factorization, leading to a viable higher loop scheme for calculating the relevant anomalous dimensions for the transverse momentum spectrum.

  16. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2015-04-07

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid penetration into granular media visualizing the fundamental physics of rapid earth penetration

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magued

    2015-01-01

    Rapid Penetration into Granular Media: Visualizing the Fundamental Physics of Rapid Earth Penetration introduces readers to the variety of methods and techniques used to visualize, observe, and model the rapid penetration of natural and man-made projectiles into earth materials. It provides seasoned practitioners with a standard reference that showcases the topic's most recent developments in research and application. The text compiles the findings of new research developments on the subject, outlines the fundamental physics of rapid penetration into granular media, and assembles a com

  18. Polyjet technology applications for rapid tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udroiu Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer Jetting (PolyJet has proved to be one of the most accurate additive manufacturing technologies, in order to manufacture rapid tools. Rapid Tooling (RT is different from conventional tooling as follow: manufacturing time is shorter, the cost is much less, but the tool life is shorter and tolerances are wider. The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative study between the soft tools (silicon moulds and hard tools (acrylic thermoplastic moulds based on the Polymer Jetting technology. Thus, two types of moulds have been made in order to manufacture a test part. Reaction injection moulding (RIM and casting techniques were used to fill these moulds with resins that simulate the plastic injection materials. Rapid tooling applications, such as indirect tooling and direct tooling, based on PolyJet technology were experimentally investigated.

  19. Rapid Hepatitis B Vaccination in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur Özcan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is a very important method in prevention of HBV.Especially rapid immunization takes an important place in subjects at highrisk. We have injected HBV vaccine to health workers who are attending inour hospital by rapid immunisation programme (at 0, 1 and 2 months andaimed to identify it’s efficiacy. Eighty seven subjects (69% male, 31%female were included to our study. Median age was 34 for male and 32 forwomen. We obtained 90% achievement of immunity rate after theprogramme finished. There were no significant difference between maleend female groups, and age groups. The non-responder rate was 11.6% inmale, and 7.4% in female. This rate was 6% in under 40 years old group,and 22.7% in 40 or older group. This difference was significant in twogroups statistically (p=0.02. The rapid immunization programme, weperformed has nearly the same success results as in standard programme.

  20. Rapid solidification of Nb-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, A. B.; Javed, K. R.; Abbaschian, G. J.; Lewis, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    New Nb-base alloys are of interest for aerospace structural applications at high temperatures, viz, 800 to 1650 C. Fundamental information regarding the effects of rapid solidification in achieving greatly refined microstructures, extended solid solubility, suppression of embrittling equilibrium phases, and formation of new phases is desired in a number of Nb-X alloys. The microstructures and selected properties of Nb-Si and other Nb-base alloys are presented for materials both rapidly quenched from the equilibrium liquidus and rapidly solidified following deep supercooling. Electromagnetic levitation was used to achieve melting and supercooling in a containerless inert gas environment. A variety of solidification conditions were employed including splatting or drop casting of supercooled samples. The morphology and composition of phases formed are discussed in terms of both solidification history and bulk composition.

  1. Rapid serial visual presentation design for cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A powerful new image presentation technique has evolved over the last twenty years, and its value demonstrated through its support of many and varied common tasks. Conceptually, Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is basically simple, exemplified in the physical world by the rapid riffling of the pages of a book in order to locate a known image. Advances in computation and graphics processing allow RSVP to be applied flexibly and effectively to a huge variety of common tasks such as window shopping, video fast-forward and rewind, TV channel selection and product browsing. At its heart is a

  2. Accuracy of rapid disposition by emergency clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backay, Andrew; Bystrzycki, Adam; Smit, De Villiers; Keogh, Martin; O'Reilly, Gerard; Mitra, Biswadev

    2017-05-01

    Objectives Rapid disposition protocols are increasingly being considered for implementation in emergency departments (EDs). Among patients presenting to an adult tertiary referral hospital, this study aimed to compare prediction accuracy of a rapid disposition decision at the conclusion of history and examination, compared with disposition following standard assessment. Methods Prospective observational data were collected for 1 month between October and November 2012. Emergency clinicians (including physicians, registrars, hospital medical officers, interns and nurse practitioners) filled out a questionnaire within 5min of obtaining a history and clinical examination for eligible patients. Predicted patient disposition (representing 'rapid disposition') was compared with final disposition (determined by 'standard assessment'). Results There were 301 patient episodes included in the study. Predicted disposition was correct in 249 (82.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 78.0-86.8) cases. Accuracy of predicting discharge to home appeared highest among emergency physicians at 95.8% (95% CI 78.9-99.9). Overall accuracy at predicting admission was 79.7% (95% CI 67.2-89.0). The remaining 20.3% (95% CI 11.0-32.8) were not admitted following standard assessment. Conclusion Rapid disposition by ED clinicians can predict patient destination accurately but was associated with a potential increase in admission rates. Any model of care using rapid disposition decision making should involve establishment of inpatient systems for further assessment, and a culture of timely inpatient team transfer of patients to the most appropriate treating team for ongoing patient management. What is known about the topic? In response to the National Emergency Access Targets, there has been widespread adoption of rapid-disposition-themed care models across Australia. Although there is emerging data that clinicians can predict disposition accurately, this data is currently limited. What does this

  3. Rapidly destructive osteoarthritis can mimic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Hart, MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The intraoperative appearance of rapidly destructive osteoarthritis and septic arthritis can be similar. Three patients at our institution demonstrated preoperative or intraoperative findings potentially consistent with infection during primary total hip arthroplasty; however, none of these patients were found to have an actual infection. One of these patients underwent an unnecessary 2-stage total hip arthroplasty secondary to the intraoperative appearance of their joint fluid. We advocate performing an infection workup preoperatively when patients present with rapid degenerative changes of their hip joint to diminish the uncertainty of proceeding with arthroplasty.

  4. Corrosion of metal samples rapidly measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskell, C. E.

    1966-01-01

    Corrosion of a large number of metal samples that have been exposed to controlled environment is accurately and rapidly measured. Wire samples of the metal are embedded in clear plastic and sectioned for microexamination. Unexposed wire can be included in the matrix as a reference.

  5. Morphological Transition in Rapidly Expanding Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolinski, J.; Chakraborty, P.; Gioia, G.; Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Many explosive eruptions are initiated by rapid decompression of bubbly magma, which behaves as an elastic material during the decompression and fragments into discrete pieces following the decompression. To emulate the rapid decompression of bubbly magma, we subject a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles to quasi-static expansion. A recent theory predicts that where a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles is first subjected to expansion, the foam expands homogeneously. After a critical value of expansion is attained, the foam undergoes a morphological transition and separates into a large number of small bubbles immersed in a background of a few large bubbles [Vainchtein and Aref, Physics of Fluids 13, 2001]. In our experiments we verify the phenomenon of morphological transition under area expansion. We verity the predictions of Vainchtein and Aref, compare our results with the experimental results on rapidly expanding bubble-bearing viscoelastic fluids reported by [Namiki and Manga, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236, 2005], and discuss the implications of our results for the rapid decompression of magmas.

  6. Rapid resistome mapping using nanopore sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Helm, Eric; Imamovic, Lejla; Ellabaan, Mostafa M Hashim

    2017-01-01

    of bacterial infections. Yet, rapid workflows for resistome characterization are lacking. To address this challenge we developed the poreFUME workflow that deploys functional metagenomic selections and nanopore sequencing to resistome mapping. We demonstrate the approach by functionally characterizing the gut...

  7. Rapid Targeted Genomics in Critically Ill Newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diemen, Cleo C; Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S; Bergman, Klasien A; de Koning, Tom J; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; van der Velde, Joeri K; Abbott, Kristin M; Herkert, Johanna C; Löhner, Katharina; Rump, Patrick; Meems-Veldhuis, Martine T; Neerincx, Pieter B T; Jongbloed, Jan D H; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M; Swertz, Morris A; Sinke, Richard J; van Langen, Irene M; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic whole-genome sequencing has been explored in critically ill newborns, hoping to improve their clinical care and replace time-consuming and/ or invasive diagnostic testing. A previous retrospective study in a research setting showed promising results with diagnoses in

  8. Cognitive Predictors of Rapid Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Englund, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in rapid automatized naming (RAN) have been found to be a sensitive cognitive marker for children with dyslexia. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the construct validity and theoretical neuro-cognitive processes involved in RAN. Additionally, most studies investigating RAN include a narrow range of cognitive measures. The…

  9. Utilizing Information Technology to Facilitate Rapid Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ordering systems to facilitate streamlined commercial item acquisitions that reap the benefits of improved efficiency, reduced overall costs, and...PAGES 109 14. SUBJECT TERMS Rapid Acquisition, eCommerce , eProcurement, Information Technology, Contracting, Global Information Network...streamlined commercial item acquisitions that reap the benefits of improved efficiency, reduced overall costs, and timeliness. This thesis

  10. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Ma’ayeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient’s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  11. Preparation, Evaluation and Optimization of Rapidly Disintegrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unit dose content uniformity, dissolution rate, assay values and other tablet characteristics evaluated were all within the acceptable limits. Thus, it was possible to formulate an RDT of artemether-lumefantrine FDC using CPVP as a disintegrant and camphor as a pore forming agent. Keywords: rapidly disintegrating tablet ...

  12. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    fast and inexpensive supply for polymer master models and a ceramic shaping method that enables the replication of the RP model into multiple ceramic materials within a short time. (Knitter et al 1999). 2. Rapid prototyping process chains. The manufacturing of ceramic microparts presented here set out with the 3D-CAD ...

  13. RESEARCH NOTE Rapid isolation and characterization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fraser c

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... Rapid isolation and characterization of microsatellites in the critically endangered Mountain Bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci). Authors: Fraser J Combe1, Evelyn Taylor-Cox1, Graeme Fox1, Tommy Sandri1,3, Nick Davis2, Martin J Jones1, Bradly Cain1, David. Mallon1, W Edwin Harris1*. 1. Division of ...

  14. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ma'ayeh, Marwan

    2014-06-18

    This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient\\'s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  15. Short Communication: Rapid Visual Assessment of Fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Rapid Visual Assessment of Fish Communities on Selected Reefs in the Bazaruto Archipelago. ... the Bazaruto reef types to provide a basis for their sound management and conservation. Keywords: Bazaruto Archipelago, Mozambique, ichthyofauna, fish surveys, underwater visual census, coral reefs.

  16. Rapid response systems in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludikhuize, Jeroen; Hamming, Annette; de Jonge, Evert; Fikkers, Bernard G.

    2011-01-01

    Sixty-three (approximately 80%) of the 81 hospitals that responded to a survey sent to all hospitals in The Netherlands with nonpediatric intensive care units had a rapid response system (RRS) in place or were in the final process of starting one. Among many other findings regarding RRS

  17. Rapid micropropagation of three elite Sugarcane (Saccharum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... For rapid multiplication the regenerated shoots were transferred on liquid Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2% sucrose, supplemented with. BAP in combinations with GA3. Optimum multiplication was observed at 1 mg/l BAP in combination with. 0.1 mg/l GA3 for variety HSF-240. Best response of ...

  18. Rapid micropropagation of Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... A rapid multiplication method is required to supply sufficient disease-free plant material for large scale cultivation using in vitro propa- gation. In vitro propagation of Zingiberaceae has already been reported, for example Alpinia galanga (Inden and. Asahir, 1988) and Zingiber officinale (Hosoki and Sagawa,.

  19. The RapidEye mission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyc, George; Tulip, John; Schulten, Daniel; Krischke, Manfred; Oxfort, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The RapidEye mission is a commercial remote sensing mission by the German Company RapidEye AG. The RapidEye mission will deliver information products for various customers in the agricultural insurance market, large producers, international institutions and cartography. The mission consists of a constellation of five identical small satellites and a sophisticated ground infrastructure based on proven systems. The five satellites will be placed in a single sun-synchronous orbit of approximately 620 km, with the satellites equally spaced over the orbit. The RapidEye system has the unique ability to image any area on earth once per day and can also provide large area coverage within 5 days. The satellites will each carry a 5 band multi-spectral optical imager with a ground sampling distance of 6.5 m at nadir and a swath width of 80 km. These capabilities along with the processing throughput of the ground segment allows the system to deliver the information products needed by the customers reliably and in a time frame that meets their specific needs.

  20. Integrating Rapid Prototyping into Graphic Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renmei; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Integrating different science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas can help students learn and leverage both the equipment and expertise at a single school. In comparing graphic communications classes with classes that involve rapid prototyping (RP) technologies like 3D printing, there are sufficient similarities between goals,…

  1. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    BIM Building Information Model BLCC building life cycle costs BPA Building Performance Analysis CAD computer assisted...utilizes information on operations, geometry, orientation, weather, and materials, generating Three-Dimensional (3D) Building Information Models ( BIM ...executed a demonstration of Rapid Energy Modeling (REM) workflows that employed building information modeling ( BIM ) approaches and

  2. Rapid high performance liquid chromatographic determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid high performance liquid chromatographic determination of chlorpropamide in human plasma. MTB Odunola, IS Enemali, M Garba, OO Obodozie. Abstract. Samples were extracted with dichloromethane and the organic layer evaporated to dryness. The residue was dissolved in methanol, and 25 ìl aliquot injected ...

  3. Rapidly progressive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sirolimus, a potent inhibitor of B- and T-cell activation, is a commonly used immunosuppressant after renal transplantation. Withdrawal of sirolimus from the immunosuppression regimen may reduce B-cell surveillance. We present a case of rapidly progressive central nervous system (CNS) polymorphic Epstein-Barr virus ...

  4. Diffraction and rapidity gap measurements with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kus, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Two diffraction related measurements of proton-proton collisions in the ATLAS experiment of the Large Hadron Collider at $\\surd s$ = 7 TeV centre-of-mass energy are reviewed. First of them is a fraction of diffractive contribution to the inelastic cross section. Second measurement is dedicated to the identification of Single Diffractive interactions with large pseudo-rapidity gaps using early 2010 data sample of integrated luminosity 7.1 $\\mu b^{-1}$. Differential cross sections of largest forward areas of the ATLAS detector starting at its most forward edges $\\eta = \\pm 4.9$ without any particle activity above different transverse momentum thresholds are measured. Results are compared to several distinctive Monte Carlo models resulting in constraint of Pomeron intercept value in triple Pomeron based approach. Furthermore, proton-proton interactions in small pseudo-rapidity gap region test qualitatively a description of different hadronisation models as well as statistical fluctuations during hadronisation pr...

  5. To Internationalize Rapidly from Inception: Crowdsource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosh Kannangara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Technology entrepreneurs continuously search for tools to accelerate the internationalization of their startups. For the purpose of internationalizing rapidly from inception, we propose that technology startups use crowdsourcing to internalize the tacit knowledge embodied in members of a crowd distributed across various geographies. For example, a technology startup can outsource to a large crowd the definition of a customer problem that occurs across various geographies, the development of the best solution to the problem, and the identification of attractive business expansion opportunities. In this article, we analyze how three small firms use crowdsourcing, discuss the benefits of crowdsourcing, and offer six recommendations to technology entrepreneurs interested in using crowdsourcing to rapidly internationalize their startups from inception.

  6. Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber, details

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Parts of the hydraulic expansion system of the Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber (RCBC). RCBC was the largest of 3 rapid-cycling bubble-chambers (the others were LEBC and HOLEBC), used as target- and vertex-detectors within the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) in the SPS North Area (EHN1). RCBC contained 250 l of liquid hydrogen and was located inside a 3 T superconducting magnet. It was designed for 30 expansions/s (100 times faster than BEBC), the system shown here allowed 50 expansions/s. RCBC operated from 1981 to 1983 for experiments NA21, NA22 and NA23 at a rate of 15 expansions/s, clocking up a total of over 4 million. In the rear, at left, is bearded Lucien Veillet; Augustin Didona is at the right. See also 8001009. The installation of the piston assembly in the RCBC chamber body is shown in the Annual Report 1980, p.65.

  7. Rapid quenching effects in PVC films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. D.; Mandell, J. F.; Mcgarry, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    Using a specially constructed microbalance for hydrostatic weighing, density changes in PVC thin films (with no additives, 30-100 micrometers thick), due to rapid quenching (approximately 300 C/sec) through the glass transition temperature, have been observed. The more severe the quench, the greater is the free volume content. Isobaric volume recovery of PVC has also been studied by volume dilatometry. Both show aging of relaxing molecular rearrangements takes place as a linear function of logarithmic aging time at room temperature. Distribution of retardation times and Primak's distributed activation energy spectra have been applied to the volume recovery data. The concomitant changes in mechanical properties of PVC after quenching have been monitored by tensile creep and stress-strain to failure. All reflect the presence of excess free volume content, due to rapid quenching.

  8. Rapid parapatric speciation on holey adaptive landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilets, S; Vose, M D; Gavrilets, Sergey; Li, Hai; Vose, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    A classical view of speciation is that reproductive isolation arises as a by-product of genetic divergence. Here, individual-based simulations are used to evaluate whether the mechanisms implied by this view may result in rapid speciation if the only source of genetic divergence are mutation and random genetic drift. Distinctive features of the simulations are the consideration of the complete process of speciation (from initiation until completion), and of a large number of loci, which was only one order of magnitude smaller than that of bacteria. It is demonstrated that rapid speciation on the time scale of hundreds of generations is plausible without the need for extreme founder events, complete geographic isolation, the existence of distinct adaptive peaks or selection for local adaptation. The plausibility of speciation is enhanced by population subdivision. Simultaneous emergence of more than two new species from a subdivided population is highly probable. Numerical examples relevant to the theory of ce...

  9. Rapid prototyping: An innovative technique in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeba Quadri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of advanced digital technology has opened up new perspectives for design and production in the field of dentistry. Rapid prototyping (RP is a technique to quickly and automatically construct a three-dimensional (3D model of a part or product using 3D printers or stereolithography machines. RP has various dental applications, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, maxillofacial prosthesis and frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, wax patterns for the dental prosthesis and complete denture. Rapid prototyping presents fascinating opportunities, but the process is difficult as it demands a high level of artistic skill, which means that the dental technicians should be able to work with the models obtained after impression to form a mirror image and achieve good esthetics. This review aims to focus on various RP methods and its application in dentistry.

  10. Rapid eye movement sleep in breath holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, J; Hasegawa, T; Shimohira, M; Fukumizu, M; Iwakawa, Y

    2000-07-01

    One-night polysomnography was performed on seven subjects suffering from breath-holding spells, including one whose death was suggested to be a consequence of a breath-holding spell. The fatal case showed no rapid eye movements (REMs) during REM sleep, although he exhibited REMs during wakefulness. The average numbers of both REMs and bursts of REMs in REM sleep in the other six breath holders were significantly lower than those in age-matched controls. The breath holders showed no airway obstruction, desaturation, or sleep fragmentation. Since the rapid ocular activity in REM sleep is generated in the brain stem, we hypothesized that a functional brainstem disturbance is involved in the occurrence of breath-holding spells.

  11. Rapidly moving contact lines and damping contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Contact angle varies dynamically with contact line (CL) speed when a liquid moves across a solid support, as when a liquid spreads rapidly. For sufficiently rapid spreading, inertia competes with capillarity to influence the interface shape near the support. We use resonant-mode plane-normal support oscillations of droplets to drive lateral contact-line motion. Reynolds numbers based on CL speeds are high and capillary numbers are low. These are inertial-capillary motions. By scanning the driving frequency, we locate the frequency at peak amplification (resonance), obtain the scaled peak height (amplification factor) and a measure of band-width (damping ratio). We report how a parameter for CL mobility depends on these scanning metrics, with the goal of distinguishing contributions from the bulk- and CL-dissipation to overall damping.

  12. Organizational Design for USSOCOM Rapid Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    2 Ibid., 249. 25 of the programs.3 In rapid innovation , it is important for Program Executive Officers to ensure that technical...organizational learning is what the company does in order to create innovative products and survive. They note that, “interviewees emphasized the importance ...14. ABSTRACT USSOCOM Special Operations Forces (SOF) Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (AT&L) struggles to keep pace with technology innovation

  13. Rapid determination of capsaicinoids by colorimetric method

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Wang-Kyun; Kim, Hee-Woong; Kim, Geun-Dong; Rhee, Hae-Ik

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicinoids, the pungent component of chili peppers, are generally analyzed by precise analytical techniques, such as gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but these are not practical for the mass analyses of samples. To analyze mass samples rapidly, a colorimetric method was suggested. In this work, pigments and capsaicinoids were efficiently separated from chili pepper extract by sequential solid–liquid extraction and liquid–liquid extraction in test tubes ...

  14. Rapid Set Materials for Advanced Spall Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of rupture, and the coefficient of thermal expansion. pavement , spall repair, airfield damage repair...expediency and quality. Rapid repairs extend the life of a pavement using more forgiving methods than those used in traditional repairs, but...cement-based polymer -cement mortar and concrete • Magnesium-ammonium-phosphate-cement mortar and concrete • Polymer -based mortar and concrete

  15. Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    governing equations are often used in conjunction with each other to define the flow characteristics of a given hydraulic phenomenon. The energy equation...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC TN-EMRRP-SR-48 February 2016 Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration...account the hydraulic conditions of the stream being restored. This is true whether the project involves a few feet of bank stabilization or several

  16. Development and tendency of rapid prototyping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongnian; Hong, Guodong

    1998-08-01

    The definition of the rapid prototyping is given in this paper. Various RP processes, which build the prototypes with 2.5 or 3 dimensional layers, are introduced. The relative techniques of RP and the differences between RP technique and CNC manufacturing are analyzed. The paper discusses the RP's applied fields and methods and presents the RP development in the world. According to the idea that requirements determine the developing, the RP's tendency is discussed.

  17. Rapid and highly fieldable viral diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a rapid, highly fieldable, nearly reagentless diagnostic to identify active RNA viral replication in a live, infected cells, and more particularly in leukocytes and tissue samples (including biopsies and nasal swabs) using an array of a plurality of vertically-aligned nanostructures that impale the cells and introduce a DNA reporter construct that is expressed and amplified in the presence of active viral replication.

  18. Removable partial dentures: use of rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Julia Magalhaes Costa; Anami, Lilian Costa; Araujo, Rodrigo Maximo; Pavanelli, Carlos A

    2014-10-01

    The CAD/CAM technology associated with rapid prototyping (RP) is already widely used in the fabrication of all-ceramic fixed prostheses and in the biomedical area; however, the use of this technology for the manufacture of metal frames for removable dentures is new. This work reports the results of a literature review conducted on the use of CAD/CAM and RP in the manufacture of removable partial dentures. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Diffraction and rapidity gap measurements in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bernat, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The early data recorded by the ATLAS detector during 2010 presents a great opportunity to study diffraction cross section in proton-proton collision. The differential cross section of diffractive dissociation is studied as a function of the maximum rapidity gap, up to 8 in rapidity units. Data are compared to different models of diffractive dynamics in standard event generators. A rise at large rapidity gaps is interpreted with a triple pomeron based approach, using Pythia 8 prediction (with a Donnachie-Landshoff model). A pomeron intercept of 1.058 ± 0.003(stat) +0.034-0.039 (syst) is found. A measurement of the dijet production with a jet veto on additional central activity using 2010 data is also presented. The use of a veto scale at 20 GeV allows to measure the jet activity in dijet events. As the veto scale is much larger than Lambda_s different QCD phenomena can be studied. Moreover, ATLAS data explores regions of the phase space for the first time. The main observable in this analysis is the fraction ...

  20. Rapidly progressive young-onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Brendan J; Boeve, Bradley F; Josephs, Keith A

    2009-03-01

    To characterize a cohort of individuals who have experienced rapidly progressive dementia with onset before age 45. Very little data regarding the clinical features or clinical spectrum of rapidly progressive young-onset dementia (RP-YOD) is available, primarily consisting of case reports or small series. A search of the Mayo Clinic medical record was employed to identify patients who had onset before age 45 of rapidly progressive dementia. All available medical records, laboratory data, neuroimaging studies, and pathologic data were reviewed. Twenty-two patients met the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Behavioral and affective disorders, cerebellar dysfunction, and visual and/or oculomotor dysfunction were common early clinical features within the cohort, as were clinical features often associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Diagnostic testing identified an etiology in most patients. Presentations of RP-YOD result from a variety of etiologies and significant overlap in clinical features is observed. Clinical features often associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease seem to be common within the entire cohort of RP-YOD patients. Diagnostic studies aided in establishing a diagnosis in most patients, however 5 had uncertain diagnoses despite exhaustive evaluation.

  1. Rapid Prototyping and its Application in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. V. Madhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical implants and biological models have three main characteristics: low volume, complex shape, and can be customized. These characteristics suit very well with Rapid Prototyping (RP and Rapid Manufacturing (RM processes. RP/RM processes are fabricated part layer- by-layer until complete shape finished from 3D model. Biocompatible materials, such as Titanium and Titanium alloy, Zirconium, Cobalt Chromium, PEEK, etc, are used for fabrication process. Reverse Engineering (RE technology greatly affects RP/RM processes. RE is used to capture or scan image of the limb, cranium, tooth, and other biological objects. Three common methods to get the image are 3D laser scanning, Computer Tomography (CT, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Main RP/RM techniques used in Dentistry are Stereotype Lithography Apparatus (SLA, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS, and ink jet printing. This article reviews the changing scenario of technology in dentistry with special emphasis on Rapid Prototyping and its various applications in Dentistry.

  2. The genomic landscape of rapid repeated evolutionary ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–based signaling pathway as a shared target of selection. This suggests evolutionary constraint on adaptive solutions to complex toxicant mixtures at each site. However, distinct molecular variants apparently contribute to adaptive pathway modification among tolerant populations. Selection also targets other toxicity-mediatinggenes and genes of connected signaling pathways; this indicates complex tolerance phenotypes and potentially compensatory adaptations. Molecular changes are consistent with selection on standing genetic variation. In killifish, high nucleotide diversityhas likely been a crucial substrate for selective sweeps to propel rapid adaptation. This manuscript describes genomic evaluations that contribute to our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary risks associated with chronic contaminant exposures to wildlife populations. Here, we assessed genetic patterns associated with long-term response to an important class of highly toxic environmental pollutants. Specifically, chemical-specific tolerance has rapidly and repeatedly evolved in an estuarine fish species resident to estuaries of the Atlantic U.S. coast. We used laboratory studies to ch

  3. Management of Infections with Rapidly Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hwan Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM is not uncommon, andthe prevalence of RGM infection has been increasing. Clinical diagnosis is difficult becausethere are no characteristic clinical features. There is also no standard antibiotic regimenfor treating RGM infection. A small series of patients with RGM infections was studied toexamine their treatments and outcomes.Methods A total of 5 patients who had developed postoperative infections from January2009 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were initially screened using amycobacteria rapid screening test (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-reverse blot hybridizationassay. To confirm mycobacterial infection, specimens were cultured for nontuberculousmycobacteria and analyzed by 16 S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene PCR.Results The patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization,and oral antibiotics were administered after discharge. The mean duration of follow-upwas 9 months, and all patients were completely cured of infection with a regimen of acombination of antibiotics plus surgical treatment. Although none of the patients developedrecurrence, there were complications at the site of infection, including hypertrophic scarring,pigmentation, and disfigurement.Conclusions Combination antibiotic therapy plus drainage of surgical abscesses appeared tobe effective for the RGM infections seen in our patients. Although neither the exact dosagenor a standardized regimen has been firmly established, we propose that our treatment canprovide an option for the management of rapidly growing mycobacterial infection.

  4. Rapid Column Extraction method for SoilRapid Column Extraction method for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III; Culligan, Brian K.

    2005-11-07

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring as well as for emergency preparedness. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that provides total dissolution of large soil samples, high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu) neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines a rapid fusion step for total dissolution to dissolve refractory analytes and matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  5. Rapid Response in Psychological Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W. Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across three different treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥ 70% reduction in binge-eating by week four, was determined for remission from binge-eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and non-rapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge-eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than non-rapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and non-rapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Conclusions Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge-eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based stepped care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and non-rapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of non-rapid response to first-line CBTgsh. PMID:25867446

  6. Rapidly progressive periodontitis. A distinct clinical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, R C; Altman, L C; Ebersole, J L; Vandesteen, G E; Dahlberg, W H; Williams, B L; Osterberg, S K

    1983-04-01

    We report radiographic, clinical, historical, and laboratory observations on seven patients selected to illustrate the features and characteristics of rapidly progressive periodontitis, with the aim of establishing this disease as a distinct clinical entity. This form of periodontitis is seen most commonly in young adults in their twenties, but it can occur in postpubertal individuals up to approximately 35 years of age. During the active phase, the gingival tissues are extremely inflamed and there is hemorrhage, proliferation of the marginal gingiva, and exudation. Destruction is very rapid, with loss of much of the alveolar bone occurring within a few weeks or months. This phase may be accompanied by general malaise, weight loss, and depression, although these symptoms are not seen in all patients. The disease may progress, without remission, to tooth loss, or alternatively, it may subside and become quiescent with or without therapy. The quiescent phase is characterized by the presence of clinically normal gingiva that may be tightly adapted to the roots of teeth with very advanced bone loss and deep periodontal pockets. The quiescent phase may be permanent, it may persist for an indefinite period, or the disease activity may return. Most patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis have serum antibodies specific for various species of Bacteroides, Actinobacillus, or both, and manifest defects in either neutrophil or monocyte chemotaxis. Affected patients generally respond favorably to treatment by scaling and open or closed curettage, especially when accompanied by standard doses of antibiotics for conventional time periods. A small minority of patients do not respond to any treatment, including antibiotics, and the disease progresses inexorably to tooth loss even in the presence of aggressive periodontal therapy and maintenance. At the present time it is not possible to distinguish prior to treatment which individuals will respond to therapy and which will

  7. Intraperitoneal Glucose Sensing is Sometimes Surprisingly Rapid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lyngvi Fougner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate and robust glucose measurements are needed to make a safe artificial pancreas for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. The present gold standard of continuous glucose sensing, subcutaneous (SC glucose sensing, has been claimed to have slow response and poor robustness towards local tissue changes such as mechanical pressure, temperature changes, etc. The present study aimed at quantifying glucose dynamics from central circulation to intraperitoneal (IP sensor sites, as an alternative to the SC location. Intraarterial (IA and IP sensors were tested in three anaesthetized non-diabetic pigs during experiments with intravenous infusion of glucose boluses, enforcing rapid glucose level excursions in the range 70--360 mg/dL (approximately 3.8--20 mmol/L. Optical interferometric sensors were used for IA and IP measurements. A first-order dynamic model with time delay was fitted to the data after compensating for sensor dynamics. Additionally, off-the-shelf Medtronic Enlite sensors were used for illustration of SC glucose sensing. The time delay in glucose excursions from central circulation (IA to IP sensor location was found to be in the range 0--26 s (median: 8.5 s, mean: 9.7 s, SD 9.5 s, and the time constant was found to be 0.5--10.2 min (median: 4.8 min, mean: 4.7 min, SD 2.9 min. IP glucose sensing sites have a substantially faster and more distinctive response than SC sites when sensor dynamics is ignored, and the peritoneal fluid reacts even faster to changes in intravascular glucose levels than reported in previous animal studies. This study may provide a benchmark for future, rapid IP glucose sensors.

  8. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1998-02-10

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies have to be able to respond quickly with improved, high quality, cost efficient products. Because companies and their suppliers are geographically distributed, rapid product realization is dependent on the development of a secure integrated concurrent engineering environment operating across multiple business entities. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies implemented in a secure environment. This documents the work done under this CRADA to develop capabilities, which permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), through a CRADA with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), worked within a consortium of major industrial firms--Ford, General Motors, Texas Instruments, United Technologies, and Eastman Kodak--and several small suppliers of advanced manufacturing technology--MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., Teknowledge Corp., Cimplex Corp., Concentra, Spatial Technology, and Structural Dynamics Research Corp. (SDRC)--to create infrastructure to support the development and implementation of secure engineering environments for Rapid Response Manufacturing. The major accomplishment achieved under this CRADA was the demonstration of a prototypical implementation of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined parts in a secure NWC compliant environment. Specifically, methods needed to permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process were developed and demonstrated. An important aspect of this demonstration was

  9. Rapid visual colorimetry of peritoneal lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandberg, D; Reitmeyer, S T; Cheney, P R

    1990-11-01

    That visual colorimetry can be used to rapidly and precisely estimate the erythrocyte count of 1:5 dilutions of simulated peritoneal lavage fluid. Fifty-four normal adult human subjects. The automated or chamber RBC count is often used on fluid obtained by peritoneal lavage in patients with abdominal trauma to help determine the need for surgery. Unfortunately, this method sometimes results in excessive delay. We designed and built a simple colorimeter that facilitated rapid direct visual comparison of unknown samples with known color standards. A radiograph view box was used as a light source. Standards were prepared in 16-mm glass tubes to simulate peritoneal lavage fluid with RBC counts ranging from 0 to 140,000 in 10,000 cell/microL increments; 1:5 dilutions with water were used throughout to reduce opacity. Thimerosal was added to unknowns and standards to stabilize color; all samples were kept refrigerated at 4 C when not in use. In a double-blind in-vitro study, each subject matched 20 randomly distributed unknowns ranging from 12,000 to 131,000 erythrocytes/microL to the nearest standard. The mean absolute error for all 1,080 determinations was 3,560 RBC/microL (95% CI = 4,290-4,830; SD = 4,560; t = 39.6; df = 1,079; P less than .001). This method correctly predicted the RBC count to within 9,000 cells/microL 95% of the time. Visual comparison of 1:5 dilutions of simulated peritoneal lavage fluid with known color standards can be used to rapidly and precisely estimate the erythrocyte count.

  10. Sheet metal forming using rapid prototyped tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Bin

    The demand for rapid, low-cost die fabrication and modification technology is greater than ever in sheet metal forming industry. One category of rapid tooling technology involves the application of advanced polymers and composites to fabricate metal forming dies. Despite their advantages in lead time and cost reductions, polymer dies for sheet metal forming applications have several drawbacks. Due to their lack of strength as compared to conventional die materials, the use of polymer dies is often limited to prototype or short-run production. In addition, because the mechanisms by which they fail are not fully understood, the dies are designed on the basis of experience and intuition. The research (1) characterized the mechanical behavior of an advanced polymer composite tooling material, (2) developed a method to predict the failure mode and the life of a polymer die, and (3) established optimal die design guidelines. The focus was on rapid prototyped, aluminum trihydrate(ATH)-filled, polyurethane-based dies in sheet metal forming. The study involved the determination of dominant process parameters based on the finite element analyses of 90° V-die bending and cylindrical cup drawing processes. The effects of process parameters on stress distribution in the die provided guidelines to the modification of die design for achieving the desired die life. The presented parametric study lays the groundwork for providing reliable tool failure prediction and design optimization guidelines for advanced polymer tooling materials in metal forming. In addition, the failure mechanisms were investigated to predict the failure mode and the fatigue life of the die. To establish a fundamental understanding of the fatigue behavior of the polyurethane-based die material, extensive material tests were performed, the microstructure was studied, and the fatigue properties were identified experimentally. The test data were incorporated into the local stress-based fatigue analysis to

  11. CFD Script for Rapid TPS Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This grid generation script creates unstructured CFD grids for rapid thermal protection system (TPS) damage aeroheating assessments. The existing manual solution is cumbersome, open to errors, and slow. The invention takes a large-scale geometry grid and its large-scale CFD solution, and creates a unstructured patch grid that models the TPS damage. The flow field boundary condition for the patch grid is then interpolated from the large-scale CFD solution. It speeds up the generation of CFD grids and solutions in the modeling of TPS damages and their aeroheating assessment. This process was successfully utilized during STS-134.

  12. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Jennum, Poul

    2009-01-01

    and neurological disease. RBD is related to brainstem pathology. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that RBD is frequently related to Parkinsonian disorders and narcolepsy. This article reviews recent knowledge about RBD with focus on the diagnostic process and management. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-May......Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of REM sleep and related electromyographic atonia with marked muscular activity and dream enactment behaviour. RBD is seen in 0.5% of the population. It occurs in an idiopathic form and secondarily to medical...

  13. Simulation Model of Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Fergyanto E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is modern solution for mass transportation system. The system, in comparison to the rail-based transportation system, is significantly cheaper and requires shorter development time, but lower performance. The BRT system performance strongly depends on variables related to station design and infrastructure. A numerical model offers an effective and efficient means to evaluate the system performance. This article offers a detailed numerical model on the basis of the discrete-event approach and demonstrates its application.

  14. Rapid thermal processing science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Fair, Richard B

    1993-01-01

    This is the first definitive book on rapid thermal processing (RTP), an essential namufacturing technology for single-wafer processing in highly controlled environments. Written and edited by nine experts in the field, this book covers a range of topics for academics and engineers alike, moving from basic theory to advanced technology for wafer manufacturing. The book also provides new information on the suitability or RTP for thin film deposition, junction formation, silicides, epitaxy, and in situ processing. Complete discussions on equipment designs and comparisons between RTP and other

  15. Rapid prototyping of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George; Rais-Rohani, Masoud; Hall, Kenneth; Holifield, Walt; Sullivan, Rani; Brown, Scott

    The faculty, staff and students of the Raspet Flight Research Laboratory (RFRL) have developed a rapid prototyping capability in a series of research aircraft and unmanned aircraft development projects. There has been a steady change in the technologies used to accomplish these tasks at the RFRL. The most recent development has been the utilization of computer graphics and a 5-axis gantry robot router to accelerate the design, moldmaking and parts trimming tasks. The composite structure fabrication processes at the RFRL have evolved from wet-lay-up to autoclave curve. Currently, the feasibility of the stitched composite material preform and resin transfer molding process is being explored.

  16. Onset of chaos in rapidly rotating nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberg, S. (Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, Oak Ridge, TN (USA) Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden))

    1990-06-25

    The onset of chaos is investigated for excited, rapidly rotating nuclei, utilizing a schematic two-body residual interaction added to the cranked Nilsson Hamiltonian. Dynamical effects at various degrees of mixing between regularity and chaos are studied in terms of fragmentation of the collective rotational strength. It is found that the onset of chaos is connected to a saturation of the average standard deviation of the rotational strength function. Still, the rotational-damping width may exhibit motional narrowing in the chaotic regime.

  17. Chaotic Maps Dynamics, Fractals, and Rapid Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Goong

    2011-01-01

    This book consists of lecture notes for a semester-long introductory graduate course on dynamical systems and chaos taught by the authors at Texas A&M University and Zhongshan University, China. There are ten chapters in the main body of the book, covering an elementary theory of chaotic maps in finite-dimensional spaces. The topics include one-dimensional dynamical systems (interval maps), bifurcations, general topological, symbolic dynamical systems, fractals and a class of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems which are induced by interval maps, plus rapid fluctuations of chaotic maps as a

  18. Rapid HIV Testing and Counselling in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conseil et le test rapide du VIH pendant le travail dans un milieu du Nigéria du nord Entre avril et aôut. 2004 toutes les femmes en travail à]UTH ont subi le test pour le VIH et ont reçu du conseil avec l'opportunité de refuser le test. Les femmes séro-positives reçu la monothérapie de névirapine standard shéma prophylaxie.

  19. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  20. Crowdsourced Translation for Rapid Internationalization in Cyberspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Yen; Yonatany, Moshe; Mahnke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how Facebook effectively used crowdsourced translation to accelerate its rapid internationalization. We apply the learning perspective of internationalization theory to unpack what the firm learned in order to mobilize crowd-based knowledge to facilitate internationalization...... and codified knowledge, rather than the experiential knowledge traditionally suggested in the literature on the process of internationalization, and (2) the firm's success rested on its ability to use virtual learning tools and incentive systems to acquire, articulate and integrate knowledge from communities...... of internationally dispersed users – the “crowd” – to accelerate its internationalization in cyberspace. This empirical study extends internationalization theory regarding knowledge and organizational learning....

  1. Rapid Prototyping: Technologies, Materials and Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of product development, the term rapid prototyping (RP is widely used to describe technologies which create physical prototypes directly from digital data. Recently, this technology has become one of the fastest-growing methods of manufacturing parts. The paper provides brief notes on the creation of composites using RP methods, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering or melting, laminated object modelling, fused deposition modelling or three-dimensional printing. The emphasis of this work is on the methodology of composite fabrication and the variety of materials used in these technologies.

  2. An Unusual Case of Rapidly Progressive Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M. Thornton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of hyperbilirubinemia with rapid early progression leading to bilirubin encephalopathy in a term neonate. Despite early recognition and intervention, the total serum bilirubin reached a maximum level of 39 mg/dL at 32 hours of life. Prior to an emergent exchange transfusion, the patient’s diagnostic evaluation was significant for Coombs-negative microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Further testing revealed a deficiency of ADAMTS13 protein, or von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease, a finding diagnostic of congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, or Upshaw-Schulman syndrome. This rare disease is often misdiagnosed, especially in the newborn period.

  3. Rapid Genetic Analysis in Congenital Hyperinsulinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Brusgaard, Klaus; Alm, Jan

    2007-01-01

    with a paternal germline ABCC8 or KCNJ11 mutation and a focal loss of maternal chromosome 11p15, whereas a maternal mutation, or homozygous/compound heterozygous ABCC8 and KCNJ11 mutations predict diffuse-type disease. However, genotyping usually takes too long to be helpful in the absence of a founder mutation....... One patient had a paternal KCNJ11 mutation and focal disease confirmed by positron emission tomography scan and biopsies. One patient had a de novo heterozygous ABBC8 mutation and unexplained diffuse disease confirmed by positron emission tomography scan and biopsies. CONCLUSION: A rapid analysis...

  4. Rapid disturbances in Arctic permafrost regions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost thaw is often perceived as a slow process dominated by press disturbances such as gradual active layer thickening. However, various pulse disturbances such as thermokarst formation can substantially increase the rate of permafrost thaw and result in rapid landscape change on sub-decadal to decadal time scales. Other disturbances associated with permafrost thaw are even more dynamic and unfold on sub-annual timescales, such as catastrophic thermokarst lake drainage. The diversity of processes results in complex feedbacks with soil carbon pools, biogeochemical cycles, hydrology, and flora and fauna, and requires a differentiated approach when quantifying how these ecosystem componentsare affected,how vulnerablethey are to rapid change, and what regional to global scale impacts result. Here we show quantitative measurements for three examples of rapid pulse disturbances in permafrost regions as observed with remote sensing data time series: The formation of a mega thaw slump (>50 ha) in syngenetic permafrost in Siberia, the formation of new thermokarst ponds in ice-rich permafrost regions in Alaska and Siberia, and the drainage of thermokarst lakes along a gradient of permafrost extent in Western Alaska. The surprising setting and unabated growth of the mega thaw slump during the last 40 years indicates that limited information on panarctic ground ice distribution, abundance, and vulnerability remains a key gap for reliable projections of thermokarst and thermo-erosion impacts, and that the natural limits on the growth and size of thaw slumps are still poorly understood. Observed thermokarst pond formation and expansion in our study regions was closely tied to ice-rich permafrost terrain, such as syngenetic Yedoma uplands, but was also found in old drained thermokarst lake basins with epigenetic permafrost and shallow drained thermokarst lake basins whose ground ice had not been depleted by the prior lake phase. The very different substrates in which new

  5. A rapid diagnostic test for schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Christina Mello-Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an improvement to the Kato-Katz (KK method, making it faster and more efficient for the visualisation of fertile eggs in stool samples. This modified KK method uses sodium acetate formalin as a fixative and reveals the intensity of infection in less than 1 h, reducing the diagnostic time without increasing the cost. This modified method may contribute to future epidemiological studies in both hospitals and the field due to its rapid and precise diagnostic, which allow for immediate treatment.

  6. Plant MAPK cascades: Just rapid signaling modules?

    KAUST Repository

    Boudsocq, Marie

    2015-08-27

    © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone mediating important stress-related processes. We recently unveiled an ABA-activated MAPK signaling module constituted of MAP3K17/18-MKK3-MPK1/2/7/14. Unlike classical rapid MAPK activation, we showed that the activation of the new MAPK module is delayed and relies on the MAP3K protein synthesis. In this addendum, we discuss the role of this original and unexpected activation mechanism of MAPK cascades which suggests that MAPKs can regulate both early and longterm plant stress responses.

  7. Experiments on rapidly-sheared wall turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Sourabh; Morrison, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    The use of linear theories in wall turbulence dates back to Townsend (1976, Cambridge University Press) who extensively used Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT) for understanding the structure of near-wall turbulence. Various other linear tools have been used in more recent investigations. The present study is an attempt to further explore this aspect and is in part motivated by the recent numerical work of Sharma et al. (Phys. Fluids 23, 2011) that highlighted the possible role of linear mechanisms in wall turbulence. Our experimental arrangement involves passing a grid-generated turbulent flow over a flat plate mounted downstream of the grid in a wind tunnel. The grid turbulence is subjected to large rates of shear strain by the wall layer close to the leading edge of the plate and as a result, over a certain region in its vicinity, the approximations of the RDT can be expected to be approximately satisfied. We present detailed single-point and planar velocity measurements, and pressure measurements using surface-mounted pressure transducers, the aim being to establish a turbulent wall layer in which linear processes are dominant. Such a flow can be used to evaluate the ideas relating to linear theories of Townsend and Landahl, among others. We also present the structural changes that take place as the rapidly-sheared wall layer evolves towards a more conventional boundary layer further downstream. We acknowledge financial support from EPSRC under Grant No. EP/I037938.

  8. RAPID MANUFACTURING SYSTEM OF ORTHOPEDIC IMPLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relvas, Carlos; Reis, Joana; Potes, José Alberto Caeiro; Fonseca, Fernando Manuel Ferreira; Simões, José Antonio Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This study, aimed the development of a methodology for rapid manufacture of orthopedic implants simultaneously with the surgical intervention, considering two potential applications in the fields of orthopedics: the manufacture of anatomically adapted implants and implants for bone loss replacement. This work innovation consists on the capitation of the in situ geometry of the implant by direct capture of the shape using an elastomeric material (polyvinylsiloxane) which allows fine detail and great accuracy of the geometry. After scanning the elastomeric specimen, the implant is obtained by machining using a CNC milling machine programmed with a dedicated CAD/CAM system. After sterilization, the implant is able to be placed on the patient. The concept was developed using low cost technology and commercially available. The system has been tested in an in vivo hip arthroplasty performed on a sheep. The time increase of surgery was 80 minutes being 40 minutes the time of implant manufacturing. The system developed has been tested and the goals defined of the study achieved enabling the rapid manufacture of an implant in a time period compatible with the surgery time.

  9. Rapid and precise genotyping of porcine microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, G H; Beeckmann, P; Bartenschlager, H; Moser, G; Geldermann, H

    1999-11-01

    Microsatellites are useful markers for genetic mapping and linkage analysis because they are highly polymorphic, abundant in genomes and relatively easily scored with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A rapid genotyping system for microsatellites was developed, which included multiplex PCRs, multiple use of Hydrolink gels, automated fluorescent detection of fragments on an A.L.F. DNA sequencer, automatic assignment of alleles to each locus and verification of genotypes with a self-developed computer program "Fragtest". Eight multiplex PCRs have been developed to genotype 29 microsatellites for genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping on pig chromosomes 6, 7, 12 and 13. Three to six microsatellites could be amplified in one multiplex PCR. Each multiplex reaction required only different concentrations of each pair of primers and a low concentration of dNTP (100 microM). A dNTP concentration of 100 microM proved to be optimal for the coamplification of microsatellites under the concentration of 1.5 mM MgCl2. Using four internal size standards added in each sample, the 5% Hydrolink gel could subsequently be used up to five times (total running time of 500 min) on the A.L.F. automated sequencer without significant loss of resolution and precision of fragment length analysis. Automatic assignment of alleles on each locus using "Fragtest" significantly increased the efficiency and precision of the genotyping. This system is thus a rapid, cheap, and highly discriminating genotyping system.

  10. Rapid Glass Refiner Development Program, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-20

    A rapid glass refiner (RGR) technology which could be applied to both conventional and advanced class melting systems would significantly enhance the productivity and the competitiveness of the glass industry in the United States. Therefore, Vortec Corporation, with the support of the US Department of Energy (US DOE) under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-90ID12911, conducted a research and development program for a unique and innovative approach to rapid glass refining. To provide focus for this research effort, container glass was the primary target from among the principal glass types based on its market size and potential for significant energy savings. Container glass products represent the largest segment of the total glass industry accounting for 60% of the tonnage produced and over 40% of the annual energy consumption of 232 trillion Btu/yr. Projections of energy consumption and the market penetration of advanced melting and fining into the container glass industry yield a potential energy savings of 7.9 trillion Btu/yr by the year 2020.

  11. Rapid Rebuilding of the Outer Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocer, A.; Fok, M.-C.; Nagai, T.; Toth, G.; Guild, T.; Bkake, J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations by the radiation monitor (RDM) on the spacecraft Akebono have shown several cases of greater than 2.5 MeV radiation belt electron enhancements occurring on timescales of less than a few hours. Similar enhancements are also seen in detectors on board the NOAA/POES and TWINS 1 satellites. These intervals are shorter than typical radial diffusion or wave-particle interactions can account for. We choose two so-called "rapid rebuilding" events that occur during high speed streams (4 September 2008 and 22 July 2009) and simulated them with the Space Weather Modeling Framework configured with global magnetosphere, radiation belt, ring current, and ionosphere electrodynamics model. Our simulations produce a weaker and delayed dipolarization as compared to observations, but the associated inductive electric field in the simulations is still strong enough to rapidly transport and accelerate MeV electrons resulting in an energetic electron flux enhancement that is somewhat weaker than is observed. Nevertheless, the calculated flux enhancement and dipolarization is found to be qualitatively consistent with the observations. Taken together, the modeling results and observations support the conclusion that storm-time dipolarization events in the magnetospheric magnetic field result in strong radial transport and energization of radiation belt electrons.

  12. Rapid prototyping with high power fiber lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, R.M. [Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University Lisbon (Portugal); IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TULISBON, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lopes, G. [Welding Engineering Research Centre, Building 46, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Quintino, L. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TULISBON, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: lquintino@ist.utl.pt; Rodrigues, J.P. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TULISBON, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Williams, S. [Welding Engineering Research Centre, Building 46, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Laser rapid prototyping technologies comprise a set of technologies used in a wide range of materials to produce prototypes or small batches of complex shaped components. This paper presents a research work on rapid prototyping technology with laser additive manufacture of wire based alloy Ti-6Al-4V with an 8 kW fiber laser for the production of components with cylindrical geometry. For this, an engineering system was developed, a demonstration part produced and the deposition process was characterized. Two processing parameters were investigated: and these were the relative position between the wire feeding system and the substrate and the laser beam to wire width ratio. The former affects the molten metal transfer mode and the pressure exerted by the wire tip on the molten pool, while the laser beam to wire width ratio affects the process efficiency, since this is a compromise of process stability and process speed. Both parameters control surface finishing and the smoothness of the part. The melting efficiency of the process is low when compared to alternative processes involving powder pre deposition, but the density of the part is improved with homogeneous structural characteristics.

  13. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannika E Boström

    Full Text Available Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively, which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey.

  14. Multiple gingival pregnancy tumors with rapid growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lian Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy gingivitis is an acute form of gingivitis that affects pregnant women, with a prevalence of 30%, possibly ranging up to 100%. Sometimes, pregnancy gingivitis shows a tendency toward a localized hyperplasia called gingival pyogenic granuloma. Pregnancy tumor is a benign gingival hyperplasia with the gingiva as the most commonly involved site, but rarely it involves almost the entire gingiva. A 22-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of gingival swelling that had lasted for 2 days. The lesions progressed rapidly and extensively, and almost all the gingiva was involved a week later. Generalized erythema, edema, hyperplasia, a hemorrhagic tendency, and several typical hemangiomatous masses were noted. Pregnancy was denied by the patient at the first and second visits, but was confirmed 2 weeks after the primary visit. The patient was given oral hygiene instructions. She recovered well, and the mass gradually regressed and had disappeared completely at the end of 12 weeks of pregnancy, without recurrence. The gingival lesions were finally diagnosed as multiple gingival pregnancy tumors. The patient delivered a healthy infant. An extensive and rapid growth of gingival pregnancy tumors during the early first month of pregnancy is a rare occurrence that is not familiar to dentists, gynecologists, and obstetricians. Those practitioners engaged in oral medicine and periodontology, primary care obstetrics, and gynecology should be aware of such gingival lesions to avoid misdiagnosis and overtreatment.

  15. Rapid magnetic hardening by rapid thermal annealing in NdFeB-based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, K.-T.; Jin, Z Q; Chakka, Vamsi M; Liu, J P [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2005-11-21

    A systematic study of heat treatments and magnetic hardening of NdFeB-based melt-spun nanocomposite ribbons have been carried out. Comparison was made between samples treated by rapid thermal annealing and by conventional furnace annealing. Heating rates up to 200 K s{sup -1} were adopted in the rapid thermal processing. It was observed that magnetic hardening can be realized in an annealing time as short as 1 s. Coercivity of 10.2 kOe in the nanocomposites has been obtained by rapid thermal annealing for 1 s, and prolonged annealing did not give any increase in coercivity. Detailed results on the effects of annealing time, temperature and heating rate have been obtained. The dependence of magnetic properties on the annealing parameters has been investigated. Structural characterization revealed that there is a close correlation between magnetic hardening and nanostructured morphology. The coercivity mechanism was also studied by analysing the magnetization minor loops.

  16. Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle P.; Harding, Robert

    2011-01-01

    1.Technology Description-Researchers discovered that when the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) reactivates from latency in the body, the virus is consistently present in saliva before the appearance of skin lesions. A small saliva sample is mixed with a specialized reagent in a test kit. If the virus is present in the saliva sample, the mixture turns a red color. The sensitivity and specificity emanates from an antibody-antigen reaction. This technology is a rapid, non-invasive, point of-of-care testing kit for detecting the virus from a saliva sample. The device is easy to use and can be used in clinics and in remote locations to quickly detect VZV and begin treatment with antiviral drugs. 2.Market Opportunity- RST Bioscience will be the first and only company to market a rapid, same day test kit for the detection of VZV in saliva. The RST detection test kit will have several advantages over existing, competitive technology. The test kit is self contained and laboratory equipment is not required for analysis of the sample. Only a single saliva sample is required to be taken instead of blood or cerebral spinal fluid. The test kit is portable, sterile and disposable after use. RST detection test kits require no electrical power or expensive storage equipment and can be used in remote locations. 3.Market Analysis- According to the CDC, it is estimated that 1 million cases of shingles occur each year in the U.S. with more than half over the age of sixty. There is a high demand for rapid diagnostics by the public. The point-of-care testing (POCT) market is growing faster than other segments of in vitro diagnostics. According to a July 2007 InteLab Corporation industry report the overall market for POCT was forecast to increase from $10.3 billion in 2005 to $18.7 billion by 2011. The market value of this test kit has not been determined. 4.Competition- The VZV vaccine prevents 50% of cases and reduces neuralgia by 66%. The most popular test detects VZV-specific IgM antibody

  17. Seismogeodesy for rapid earthquake and tsunami characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid estimation of earthquake magnitude and fault mechanism is critical for earthquake and tsunami warning systems. Traditionally, the monitoring of earthquakes and tsunamis has been based on seismic networks for estimating earthquake magnitude and slip, and tide gauges and deep-ocean buoys for direct measurement of tsunami waves. These methods are well developed for ocean basin-wide warnings but are not timely enough to protect vulnerable populations and infrastructure from the effects of local tsunamis, where waves may arrive within 15-30 minutes of earthquake onset time. Direct measurements of displacements by GPS networks at subduction zones allow for rapid magnitude and slip estimation in the near-source region, that are not affected by instrumental limitations and magnitude saturation experienced by local seismic networks. However, GPS displacements by themselves are too noisy for strict earthquake early warning (P-wave detection). Optimally combining high-rate GPS and seismic data (in particular, accelerometers that do not clip), referred to as seismogeodesy, provides a broadband instrument that does not clip in the near field, is impervious to magnitude saturation, and provides accurate real-time static and dynamic displacements and velocities in real time. Here we describe a NASA-funded effort to integrate GPS and seismogeodetic observations as part of NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii. It consists of a series of plug-in modules that allow for a hierarchy of rapid seismogeodetic products, including automatic P-wave picking, hypocenter estimation, S-wave prediction, magnitude scaling relationships based on P-wave amplitude (Pd) and peak ground displacement (PGD), finite-source CMT solutions and fault slip models as input for tsunami warnings and models. For the NOAA/NASA project, the modules are being integrated into an existing USGS Earthworm environment, currently limited to traditional seismic data. We are focused on a network of

  18. Rapid determination of radiostrontium in seawater samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Utsey, Robin C.

    2013-03-12

    A new method for the determination of radiostrontium in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of strontium and yttrium isotopes in seawater samples for measurement. The new SRNL method employs a novel and effective pre-concentration step that utilizes a blend of calcium phosphate with iron hydroxide to collect both strontium and yttrium rapidly from the seawater matrix with enhanced chemical yields. The pre-concentration steps, in combination with rapid Sr Resin and DGA Resin cartridge separation options using vacuum box technology, allow seawater samples up to 10 liters to be analyzed. The total 89Sr + 90Sr activity may be determined by gas flow proportional counting and recounted after ingrowth of 90Y to differentiate 89Sr from 90Sr. Gas flow proportional counting provides a lower method detection limit than liquid scintillation or Cerenkov counting and allows simultaneous counting of samples. Simultaneous counting allows for longer count times and lower method detection limits without handling very large aliquots of seawater. Seawater samples up to 6 liters may be analyzed using Sr Resin for 89Sr and 90Sr with a Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of 1-10 mBq/L, depending on count times. Seawater samples up to 10 liters may be analyzed for 90Sr using a DGA Resin method via collection and purification of 90Y only. If 89Sr and other fission products are present, then 91Y (beta energy 1.55 MeV, 58.5 day half-life) is also likely to be present. 91Y interferes with attempts to collect 90Y directly from the seawater sample without initial purification of Sr isotopes first and 90Y ingrowth. The DGA Resin option can be used to determine 90Sr, and if 91Y is also present, an ingrowth option with using DGA

  19. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barren, E.; Penney, C.M.; Sheldon, R.B. [GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A number of contamination sites exist in this country where the area and volume of material to be remediated is very large, approaching or exceeding 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} and 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}. Typically, only a small fraction of this material is actually contaminated. In such cases there is a strong economic motivation to test the material with a sufficient density of measurements to identify which portions are uncontaminated, so extensively they be left in place or be disposed of as uncontaminated waste. Unfortunately, since contamination often varies rapidly from position to position, this procedure can involve upwards of one million measurements per site. The situation is complicated further in many cases by the difficulties of sampling porous surfaces, such as concrete. This report describes a method for sampling concretes in which an immediate distinction can be made between contaminated and uncontaminated surfaces. Sample acquisition and analysis will be automated.

  20. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes...... it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been su ering from unreliable electricity supply for many years and companies and households have learned...... as the Transmission System Operator (TSO) requests demand response and the winning endusers are disconnected immediately if the TSO accepts the result of the auction. The endusers are compensated with a uniform auction price job by job and the Aggregator receives part of the surplus. The simulation captures...

  1. Motion Analysis Based on Invertible Rapid Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the use of invertible rapid transform (IRT for the motion estimation in a sequence of images. Motion estimation algorithms based on the analysis of the matrix of states (produced in the IRT calculation are described. The new method was used experimentally to estimate crowd and traffic motion from the image data sequences captured at railway stations and at high ways in large cities. The motion vectors may be used to devise a polar plot (showing velocity magnitude and direction for moving objects where the dominant motion tendency can be seen. The experimental results of comparison of the new motion estimation methods with other well known block matching methods (full search, 2D-log, method based on conventional (cross correlation (CC function or phase correlation (PC function for application of crowd motion estimation are also presented.

  2. Dysfunction of Rapid Neural Adaptation in Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Winter, Rebecca; Murtagh, Jack; Cyr, Abigail; Chang, Patricia; Halverson, Kelly; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-12-21

    Identification of specific neurophysiological dysfunctions resulting in selective reading difficulty (dyslexia) has remained elusive. In addition to impaired reading development, individuals with dyslexia frequently exhibit behavioral deficits in perceptual adaptation. Here, we assessed neurophysiological adaptation to stimulus repetition in adults and children with dyslexia for a wide variety of stimuli, spoken words, written words, visual objects, and faces. For every stimulus type, individuals with dyslexia exhibited significantly diminished neural adaptation compared to controls in stimulus-specific cortical areas. Better reading skills in adults and children with dyslexia were associated with greater repetition-induced neural adaptation. These results highlight a dysfunction of rapid neural adaptation as a core neurophysiological difference in dyslexia that may underlie impaired reading development. Reduced neurophysiological adaptation may relate to prior reports of reduced behavioral adaptation in dyslexia and may reveal a difference in brain functions that ultimately results in a specific reading impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Zweben

    2011-05-16

    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ~10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  4. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2010-07-01

    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.

  5. Quadrupole magnet for a rapid cycling synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) feature interleaved warm and cold dipole magnets; the field of the warm magnets is used to modulate the average bending field depending on the particle energy. It has been shown that RCS can be an attractive option for fast acceleration of particles, for example, muons, which decay quickly. In previous studies it was demonstrated that in principle warm dipole magnets can be designed which can provide the required ramp rates, which are equivalent to frequencies of about 1 kHz. To reduce the losses it is beneficial to employ two separate materials for the yoke; it was also shown that by employing an optimized excitation coil geometry the eddy current losses are acceptable. In this paper we show that the same principles can be applied to quadrupole magnets targeting 30 T/m with a repetition rate of 1kHz and good field quality.

  6. Rapid prototyping-assisted maxillofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qian; Tang, Zhangui; Liu, Ousheng; Peng, Zhiwei

    2015-05-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have found many uses in dentistry, and especially oral and maxillofacial surgery, due to its ability to promote product development while at the same time reducing cost and depositing a part of any degree of complexity theoretically. This paper provides an overview of RP technologies for maxillofacial reconstruction covering both fundamentals and applications of the technologies. Key fundamentals of RP technologies involving the history, characteristics, and principles are reviewed. A number of RP applications to the main fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery, including restoration of maxillofacial deformities and defects, reduction of functional bone tissues, correction of dento-maxillofacial deformities, and fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses, are discussed. The most remarkable challenges for development of RP-assisted maxillofacial surgery and promising solutions are also elaborated.

  7. Rapid eye-fixation training without eyetracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Leung, Parkson; Franconeri, Steve; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2009-06-01

    Maintenance of stable central eye fixation is crucial for a variety of behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging experiments. Naive observers in these experiments are not typically accustomed to fixating, either requiring the use of cumbersome and costly eyetracking or producing confounds in results. We devised a flicker display that produced an easily detectable visual phenomenon whenever the eyes moved. A few minutes of training using this display dramatically improved the accuracy of eye fixation while observers performed a demanding spatial attention cuing task. The same amount of training using control displays did not produce significant fixation improvements, and some observers consistently made eye movements to the peripheral attention cue, contaminating the cuing effect. Our results indicate that (1) eye fixation can be rapidly improved in naive observers by providing real-time feedback about eye movements, and (2) our simple flicker technique provides an easy and effective method for providing this feedback.

  8. [Rapid antibiotic susceptibility test in Clinical Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; Bratos Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The most widely used antibiotic susceptibility testing methods in Clinical Microbiology are based on the phenotypic detection of antibiotic resistance by measuring bacterial growth in the presence of the antibiotic being tested. These conventional methods take typically 24hours to obtain results. A review is presented here of recently developed techniques for the rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility. Data obtained with different methods such as molecular techniques, flow cytometry, chemiluminescence, mass spectrometry, commercial methods used in routine work, colorimetric methods, nephelometry, microarrays, microfluids, and methods based on cell disruption and sequencing, are analyzed and discussed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Microfluidic Wheatstone bridge for rapid sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyeri, Melikhan; Ranka, Mikhil; Sittipolkul, Natawan; Schroeder, Charles M

    2011-12-21

    We developed a microfluidic analogue of the classic Wheatstone bridge circuit for automated, real-time sampling of solutions in a flow-through device format. We demonstrate precise control of flow rate and flow direction in the "bridge" microchannel using an on-chip membrane valve, which functions as an integrated "variable resistor". We implement an automated feedback control mechanism in order to dynamically adjust valve opening, thereby manipulating the pressure drop across the bridge and precisely controlling fluid flow in the bridge channel. At a critical valve opening, the flow in the bridge channel can be completely stopped by balancing the flow resistances in the Wheatstone bridge device, which facilitates rapid, on-demand fluid sampling in the bridge channel. In this article, we present the underlying mechanism for device operation and report key design parameters that determine device performance. Overall, the microfluidic Wheatstone bridge represents a new and versatile method for on-chip flow control and sample manipulation.

  10. Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01

    If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

  11. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2015-10-27

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  12. Synchronous Routing for Personal Rapid Transit Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mrad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal rapid transit (PRT is a public and automated transport system in which a fleet of small driverless vehicles operate in order to transport passengers between a set of stations through a network of guided ways. Each customer is carried from one station to another directly with no stop in intermediate stations. This mode of transport can result in a high level of unused capacity due to the empty moves of the vehicles. In this paper, we model the problem of minimizing the energy consumed by the PRT system while assuming predeterministic list of orders; then we solve it using some constructive heuristics. Experiments are run on 1320 randomly generated test problems with various sizes. Our algorithms are shown to give good results over large trip instances.

  13. Physical Mechanisms of Rapid Lake Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenters, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have shown significant warming of inland water bodies around the world. Many lakes are warming more rapidly than the ambient surface air temperature, and this is counter to what is often expected based on the lake surface energy balance. A host of reasons have been proposed to explain these discrepancies, including changes in the onset of summer stratification, significant loss of ice cover, and concomitant changes in winter air temperature and/or summer cloud cover. A review of the literature suggests that no single physical mechanism is primarily responsible for the majority of these changes, but rather that the large heterogeneity in regional climate trends and lake geomorphometry results in a host of potential physical drivers. In this study, we discuss the variety of mechanisms that have been proposed to explain rapid lake warming and offer an assessment of the physical plausibility for each potential contributor. Lake Superior is presented as a case study to illustrate the "perfect storm" of factors that can cause a deep, dimictic lake to warm at rate that exceeds the rate of global air temperature warming by nearly an order of magnitude. In particular, we use a simple mixed-layer model to show that spatially variable trends in Lake Superior surface water temperature are determined, to first order, by variations in bathymetry and winter air temperature. Summer atmospheric conditions are often of less significance, and winter ice cover may simply be a correlate. The results highlight the importance of considering the full range of factors that can lead to trends in lake surface temperature, and that conventional wisdom may often not be the best guide.

  14. Rapid palatal expansion: the role of microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilello, G; Currò, G; Messina, P; Scardina, G

    2015-08-01

    Transverse palate modifications fall under expansive orthopedic therapy of the upper maxilla. The only practical approach to the problem on the transverse plane is that of performing the expansion of the maxillary arch through an opening of the median palatal suture. It is important to understand the changes of the vascular network in midpalatal suture following the starting of rapid maxillary expansion. It is critical to maintain the blood supply and circulation for the osteogenesis and bone remodeling after the expansion. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of rapid orthopedic expansion (REP) at the microcirculatory level through capillaroscopic examination. Fifteen patients in their developing years between 9 and 15 years of age (average age 12.16 years) were examined. The application of the REP was the first step in the planning of orthopedic-orthodontic treatment which foresaw further stages in the odonto-osseous movement. The method of Biomicroscopic Video-Imaging of the microcirculation of oral mucosa is performed through the technique of computerized capillaroscopy and the related software. From the results it is evident that immediately after achieving the expansion of the upper maxilla (t1), a slight decrease in the number of vessels per mm² can be observed. In addition, a slight ectasia can be observed in these vessels in comparison to t0. Comparing the videocapillaroscopic images of t1 and t2, an increase in the capillaries per mm² can be observed. Ectasia of the capillaries, though subject to strictly individual variables, can be considered perfectly normal and it is compatible with the normal biology and physiology of vessel microcirculation.

  15. Connecting network properties of rapidly disseminating epizoonotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel L Rivas

    Full Text Available To effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. To test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure.Using geo-temporal data collected from epizoonotics in which all hosts were susceptible (mammals infected by Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Uruguay, 2001; birds infected by Avian Influenza virus H5N1, Nigeria, 2006, two models were compared: 1 'connectivity', a model that integrated bio-physical concepts (the agent's transmission cycle, road topology into indicators designed to measure networks ('nodes' or infected sites with short- and long-range links, and 2 'contacts', which focused on infected individuals but did not assess connectivity.THE CONNECTIVITY MODEL SHOWED FIVE NETWORK PROPERTIES: 1 spatial aggregation of cases (disease clusters, 2 links among similar 'nodes' (assortativity, 3 simultaneous activation of similar nodes (synchronicity, 4 disease flows moving from highly to poorly connected nodes (directionality, and 5 a few nodes accounting for most cases (a "20:80" pattern. In both epizoonotics, 1 not all primary cases were connected but at least one primary case was connected, 2 highly connected, small areas (nodes accounted for most cases, 3 several classes of nodes were distinguished, and 4 the contact model, which assumed all primary cases were identical, captured half the number of cases identified by the connectivity model. When assessed together, the synchronicity and directionality properties explained when and where an infectious disease spreads.Geo-temporal constructs of Network Theory's nodes and links were retrospectively validated in rapidly disseminating infectious diseases. They distinguished classes of cases, nodes, and networks, generating information usable

  16. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Amal Najihah M; Corstanje, Ron; Harris, Jim A; Grafius, Darren R; Siriwardena, Gavin M

    2017-06-01

    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) and Yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier) in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines). The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance) were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such models for

  17. Rapid genetic detection of ingested Amanita phalloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausterer, Christian; Penker, Martina; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Stein, Christina; Stimpfl, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Mushrooms are often poorly digested by humans. Thus, their remains (tissues, spores) may persist in the gastrointestinal tract and can be detected in feces several days after mushroom consumption. In this report, we present protocols for the rapid PCR-based detection of fungal traces in a variety of complex samples. Novel primers were designed to amplify portions of ribosomal DNA from deadly poisonous European members of the genus Amanita, namely the death cap (A. phalloides), the destroying angel (A. virosa) and the fool's mushroom (A. verna), respectively. Assay sensitivity was sufficient to discover diluted DNA traces in amounts below the genomic content of a single target mushroom cell. Specificity testing was performed with DNA extracts from a variety of mushroom species. Template amplification was exclusively observed with intended targets and it was not compromised by a vast excess of non-target DNA (i.e. DNA from human and human fecal origin, respectively). A series of experiments was conducted with prepared specimens in order to follow the course of mushroom food processing and digestion. Amplification by direct PCR was successful with raw, fried and digested mixed mushrooms. To improve assay performance with fecal samples, a rapid protocol for sample pre-processing (including water-ether sedimentation and bead beating) and a modified PCR reaction mix were applied. Thereby, it was possible to detect the presence of A. phalloides DNA in spiked feces as well as in clinical samples (vomit, stool) from two independent cases of suspected mushroom poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 78 FR 11678 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Grand Rapids Public Museum, Grand Rapids, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    .... ADDRESSES: Marilyn Merdzinski, Director of Education & Interpretation, Grand Rapids Public Museum, 272 Pearl... time of death or later as part of the death rite or ceremony. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a... associated funerary objects should contact Marilyn Merdzinski, Director of Education & Interpretation, Grand...

  19. Is the rapid adaptation paradigm too rapid? Implications for face and object processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemrodov, Dan; Itier, Roxane J

    2012-07-16

    Rapid adaptation is an adaptation procedure in which adaptors and test stimuli are presented in rapid succession. The current study tested the validity of this method for early ERP components by investigating the specificity of the adaptation effect on the face-sensitive N170 ERP component across multiple test stimuli. Experiments 1 and 2 showed identical response patterns for house and upright face test stimuli using the same adaptor stimuli. The results were also identical to those reported in a previous study using inverted face test stimuli (Nemrodov and Itier, 2011). In Experiment 3 all possible adaptor-test combinations between upright face, house, chair and car stimuli were used and no interaction between adaptor and test category, expected in the case of test-specific adaptation, was found. These results demonstrate that the rapid adaptation paradigm does not produce category-specific adaptation effects around 170-200 ms following test stimulus onset, a necessary condition for the interpretation of adaptation results. These results suggest the rapid categorical adaptation paradigm does not work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The challenges of rapid urbanization on sustainable development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the challenges of rapid urbanization on the sustainable development of Nyanya, Abuja. An interesting finding of the study is that the primary factor for the rapid urbanization of Nyanya within a short period of time is migration. The consequence of this rapid urbanization and population rise within a short ...

  1. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  2. A rapid ultrasound particle agglutination method for HIV antibody detection: Comparison with conventional rapid HIV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystryak, Simon; Ossina, Natalya

    2017-11-01

    We present the results of the feasibility and preliminary studies on analytical performance of a rapid test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in human serum or plasma that is an important advance in detecting HIV infection. Current methods for rapid testing of antibodies against HIV are qualitative and exhibit poor sensitivity (limit of detection). In this paper, we describe an ultrasound particle agglutination (UPA) method that leads to a significant increase of the sensitivity of conventional latex agglutination tests for HIV antibody detection in human serum or plasma. The UPA method is based on the use of: 1) a dual mode ultrasound, wherein a first single-frequency mode is used to accelerate the latex agglutination process, and then a second swept-frequency mode of sonication is used to disintegrate non-specifically bound aggregates; and 2) a numerical assessment of results of the agglutination process. The numerical assessment is carried out by optical detection and analysis of moving patterns in the resonator cell during the swept-frequency mode. The single-step UPA method is rapid and more sensitive than the three commercial rapid HIV test kits analyzed in the study: analytical sensitivity of the new UPA method was found to be 510-, 115-, and 80-fold higher than that for Capillus™, Multispot™ and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen HIV antibody rapid test kits, respectively. The newly developed UPA method opens up additional possibilities for detection of a number of clinically significant markers in point-of-care settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 78 FR 11680 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Grand Rapids Public Museum, Grand Rapids, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ...: Marilyn Merdzinski, Director of Education & Interpretation, Grand Rapids Public Museum, 272 Pearl St. NW... near individual human remains at the time of death or later as part of the death rite or ceremony and... Education & Interpretation, Grand Rapids Public Museum, 272 Pearl St. NW., Grand Rapids, MI 49501, telephone...

  4. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  5. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Bhirud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB ranks as the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Early diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples becomes important in the control of TB both for the treatment of patients and for curbing of disease transmission to the others in the community. The study objective was to perform Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN staining, fluorochrome staining, line probe assay (LPA, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for rapid detection of pulmonary TB (PTB and to compare the results of LPA and LAMP in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and turnaround time. Methods: A total of 891 sputum samples from clinically diagnosed/suspected cases of TB were subjected to ZN and fluorochrome staining. Smear positive samples were subjected to LPA, and smear negative were cultured on Lowenstein–Jensen media. A total of 177 samples were subjected to liquid culture and LAMP. Conventional culture was considered as “gold standard” for calculation of parameters. Results: Light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy had the same sensitivity as ZN with similar high specificity. LPA was performed on 548 sputum samples which includes 520 smear positive and 28 smear negative culture positive samples and multidrug-resistant TB was detected in 32.64%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of TB-LAMP on direct sputum samples was found to be 98.96%, 95%, 96%, and 98.70%, respectively, when compared with ZN smear microscopy. By considering culture as “gold standard,” LAMP showed a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 98.94%, 96.34%, 96.90%, and 98.75%, respectively. The sensitivity and PPV of TB-LAMP were 98.97% and 96%, respectively, when compared with LPA. Conclusions: A successful rapid laboratory diagnosis of PTB is possible when one combines the available methodology of microscopy, culture as well as molecular techniques. The LAMP

  6. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhirud, Prasanna; Joshi, Ameeta; Hirani, Nilma; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) ranks as the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Early diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples becomes important in the control of TB both for the treatment of patients and for curbing of disease transmission to the others in the community. The study objective was to perform Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, fluorochrome staining, line probe assay (LPA), and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of pulmonary TB (PTB) and to compare the results of LPA and LAMP in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and turnaround time. A total of 891 sputum samples from clinically diagnosed/suspected cases of TB were subjected to ZN and fluorochrome staining. Smear positive samples were subjected to LPA, and smear negative were cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen media. A total of 177 samples were subjected to liquid culture and LAMP. Conventional culture was considered as "gold standard" for calculation of parameters. Light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy had the same sensitivity as ZN with similar high specificity. LPA was performed on 548 sputum samples which includes 520 smear positive and 28 smear negative culture positive samples and multidrug-resistant TB was detected in 32.64%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of TB-LAMP on direct sputum samples was found to be 98.96%, 95%, 96%, and 98.70%, respectively, when compared with ZN smear microscopy. By considering culture as "gold standard," LAMP showed a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 98.94%, 96.34%, 96.90%, and 98.75%, respectively. The sensitivity and PPV of TB-LAMP were 98.97% and 96%, respectively, when compared with LPA. A successful rapid laboratory diagnosis of PTB is possible when one combines the available methodology of microscopy, culture as well as molecular techniques. The LAMP assay was found to be simple, self-contained, and efficacious for

  7. Using Bedside Ultrasound to Rapidly Differentiate Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Moussa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 62-year-old female presented from a nursing home for altered mental status. She had an initial Glascow coma score of 9. Her blood pressure was 70/44, temperature 36.8 C, heart rate 82, respiratory rate 23, and oxygen saturation 88% on room air. The patient’s initial lactate was 3.1 mmol/L. A rapid ultrasound for shock and hypotension (RUSH exam demonstrated the need for fluid resuscitation. 2 liters of normal saline was given, resulting in the improvement of her blood pressure to 93/53. Ultimately, the patient required intubation because of the severity of her pneumonia. A subsequent lactate of 0.8 mmol/L demonstrated adequate resuscitation. Significant findings: A RUSH exam demonstrated hyperdynamic cardiac contractility and collapse of the inferior vena cava (IVC with probe compression more than 50% suggesting hypovolemia likely secondary to sepsis. Incidentally, Morrison’s pouch revealed a large right renal cyst but no signs of free fluid. A computed tomography of abdomen/pelvis showed a 10.8 x 9.5 cm right renal cyst and left lower lobe pneumonia. Discussion: Sepsis is defined as organ dysfunction in a patient with a known source of infection. Signs of sepsis include hypotension, tachypnea, and altered mental status.1 Although not a standard of care yet, the RUSH exam proves to be a valuable and rapid instrument to evaluate the cause of shock and hypotension in critically ill patients in the emergency department (ED. The components of the RUSH exam can be remembered by the mnemonic HI-MAP: Heart, IVC, Morrison’s/FAST abdominal views, Aorta, and Pneumothorax scanning.2 Ultrasound can be used to quickly differentiate cardiogenic, distributive, and hypovolemic shock. RUSH has a sensitivity of 72.7% and specificity of 100% for shock with distributive etiology.3 Measurement of the IVC diameter can be used to estimate CVP and thus a patient’s likelihood to respond to fluid resuscitation. A maximum IVC diameter

  8. Final rapid reactivation project environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-10

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Rapid Reactivation Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The EA analyzes the potential effects of a proposal to increase production of neutron generators from the current capability of 600 units per year up to 2,000 units per year. The project would use existing buildings and infrastructure to the maximum extent possible to meet the additional production needs. The increased production levels would necessitate modifications and additions involving a total area of approximately 26,290 gross square feet at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Technical Area 1. Additional production equipment would be procured and installed. The no-action alternative would be to continue production activities at the current capability of 600 units per year. The EA analyzes effects on health, safety, and air quality, resulting from construction and operation and associated cumulative effects. A detailed description of the proposed action and its environmental consequences is presented in the EA.

  9. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (△R/R of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost.

  10. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-04-01

    The word rapid prototyping (RP) was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena.

  11. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjna Nayar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The word rapid prototyping (RP was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD. To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena.

  12. Rapid prototyping--when virtual meets reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguma, Zubeda; Chhedat, Pratik

    2014-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) describes the customized production of solid models using 3D computer data. Over the past decade, advances in RP have continued to evolve, resulting in the development of new techniques that have been applied to the fabrication of various prostheses. RP fabrication technologies include stereolithography (SLA), fused deposition modeling (FDM), computer numerical controlled (CNC) milling, and, more recently, selective laser sintering (SLS). The applications of RP techniques for dentistry include wax pattern fabrication for dental prostheses, dental (facial) prostheses mold (shell) fabrication, and removable dental prostheses framework fabrication. In the past, a physical plastic shape of the removable partial denture (RPD) framework was produced using an RP machine, and then used as a sacrificial pattern. Yet with the advent of the selective laser melting (SLM) technique, RPD metal frameworks can be directly fabricated, thereby omitting the casting stage. This new approach can also generate the wax pattern for facial prostheses directly, thereby reducing labor-intensive laboratory procedures. Many people stand to benefit from these new RP techniques for producing various forms of dental prostheses, which in the near future could transform traditional prosthodontic practices.

  13. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepcha, Nor Tshering; Chettri, Chandra Kumar; Getshen, Kunzang; Rai, Bhim Bahadur; Ramaswamy, Shamanna Bindiganavale; Saibaba, Saravanan; Nirmalan, Praveen Kumar; Demarchis, Emilia Hansson; Tabin, Geoffrey; Morley, Michael; Morley, Katharine

    2013-08-01

    To conduct a rapid assessment of avoidable blindness survey in Bhutan to obtain estimates of blindness, visual impairment, and cataract surgical coverage, outcomes and barriers among persons ≥50 years old. A total of 82 clusters of 50 people ≥50 years were selected using probability proportionate to size sampling. Eligible participants were selected from households using compact segment sampling, and underwent ophthalmic examination for visual acuity, followed by penlight and direct ophthalmoscopy. Participants with cataract were interviewed regarding surgical outcomes and barriers to surgery. Overall, 4046 of 4100 persons enumerated (98.7%) underwent ophthalmic examination. Adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence of bilaterally blind persons with available correction was 1.5% (95% confidence interval 1.09-1.89). Most blindness (67.1%) and severe visual impairment (74.1%) resulted from cataract, but 22.1% resulted from posterior segment pathology. Cataract surgical coverage for bilaterally blind persons was 72.7%. Almost 90% of patients reported moderate or good satisfaction, despite poor surgical outcomes in 23.6%. The prevalence of blindness in people aged ≥50 years in Bhutan was relatively low when compared with neighboring countries and World Health Organization sub-region estimates. Areas for improvement include community outreach, surgical outcomes, and posterior segment diseases.

  14. Rapid determination of capsaicinoids by colorimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Wang-Kyun; Kim, Hee-Woong; Kim, Geun-Dong; Rhee, Hae-Ik

    2017-10-01

    Capsaicinoids, the pungent component of chili peppers, are generally analyzed by precise analytical techniques, such as gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but these are not practical for the mass analyses of samples. To analyze mass samples rapidly, a colorimetric method was suggested. In this work, pigments and capsaicinoids were efficiently separated from chili pepper extract by sequential solid-liquid extraction and liquid-liquid extraction in test tubes followed by a colorimetric analysis on the capsaicinoids by a selective chromogenic reaction with Gibbs reagent (2,6-dichloroquinone-4-chloroimide). In the comparison of the capsaicinoid content by the colorimetric method and HPLC using acetone extracts of fresh pepper and dry red pepper as samples, R2 was 0.9973 and 0.9816, respectively, which shows a high linear correlation. In addition, a minimum of 1 μg/mL capsaicinoids can be detected and it was therefore determined that the method can efficiently analyze a great quantity of samples in a short time. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Rapid determination of capsaicinoids by colorimetric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Kyun Ryu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicinoids, the pungent component of chili peppers, are generally analyzed by precise analytical techniques, such as gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, but these are not practical for the mass analyses of samples. To analyze mass samples rapidly, a colorimetric method was suggested. In this work, pigments and capsaicinoids were efficiently separated from chili pepper extract by sequential solid–liquid extraction and liquid–liquid extraction in test tubes followed by a colorimetric analysis on the capsaicinoids by a selective chromogenic reaction with Gibbs reagent (2,6-dichloroquinone-4-chloroimide. In the comparison of the capsaicinoid content by the colorimetric method and HPLC using acetone extracts of fresh pepper and dry red pepper as samples, R2 was 0.9973 and 0.9816, respectively, which shows a high linear correlation. In addition, a minimum of 1 μg/mL capsaicinoids can be detected and it was therefore determined that the method can efficiently analyze a great quantity of samples in a short time.

  16. RRTM: A rapid radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlawer, E.J.; Taubman, S.J.; Clough, S.A. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM) for the calculation of longwave clear-sky fluxes and cooling rates has been developed. The model, which uses the correlated-k method, is both accurate and computationally fast. The foundation for RRTM is the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) from which the relevant k-distributions are obtained. LBLRTM, which has been extensively validated against spectral observations e.g., the high-resolution sounder and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, is used to validate the flux and cooling rate results from RRTM. Validations of RRTM`s results have been performed for the tropical, midlatitude summer, and midlatitude winter atmospheres, as well as for the four Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) cases from the Spectral Radiance Experiment (SPECTRE). Details of some of these validations are presented below. RRTM has the identical atmospheric input module as LBLRTM, facilitating intercomparisons with LBLRTM and application of the model at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Cloud and Radiation Testbed sites.

  17. Web tools for rapid experimental visualization prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Jonathan W.; Livingstion, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Quite often a researcher finds themselves looking at spreadsheets of high-dimensional data generated by experimental models and user studies. We can use analysis to challenge or confirm hypothesis, but unexpected results can easily be lost in the shuffle. For this reason, it would be useful to visualize the results so we can explore our data and make new discoveries. Web browsers have become increasingly capable for creating complex, multi-view applications. Javascript is quickly becoming a de facto standard for scripting, online and offline. This work demonstrates the use of web technologies as a powerful tool for rapid visualization prototyping. We have developed two prototypes: One for high-dimensional results of the abELICIT - multi-agent version of the ELICIT platform tasked with collaborating to identify the parameters of a pending attack. Another prototype displays responses to a user study on the effectiveness of multi-layer visualization techniques. We created coordinated multiple views prototypes in the Google Chrome web browser written in Javascript, CSS and HTML. We will discuss the benefits and shortcomings of this approach.

  18. Literacy acquisition influences children's rapid automatized naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L; Arnett, Anne B; Pennington, Bruce F; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard K

    2017-08-15

    Previous research has established that learning to read improves children's performance on reading-related phonological tasks, including phoneme awareness (PA) and nonword repetition. Few studies have investigated whether literacy acquisition also promotes children's rapid automatized naming (RAN). We tested the hypothesis that literacy acquisition should influence RAN in an international, longitudinal population sample of twins. Cross-lagged path models evaluated the relationships among literacy, PA, and RAN across four time points from pre-kindergarten through grade 4. Consistent with previous research, literacy showed bidirectional relationships with reading-related oral language skills. We found novel evidence for an effect of earlier literacy on later RAN, which was most evident in children at early phases of literacy development. In contrast, the influence of earlier RAN on later literacy was predominant among older children. These findings imply that the association between these two related skills is moderated by development. Implications for models of reading development and for dyslexia research are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Rapid flow-based peptide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Mark D; Heider, Patrick L; Adamo, Andrea; Vinogradov, Alexander A; Mong, Surin K; Li, Xiyuan; Berger, Tatiana; Policarpo, Rocco L; Zhang, Chi; Zou, Yekui; Liao, Xiaoli; Spokoyny, Alexander M; Jensen, Klavs F; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2014-03-21

    A flow-based solid-phase peptide synthesis methodology that enables the incorporation of an amino acid residue every 1.8 min under automatic control or every 3 min under manual control is described. This is accomplished by passing a stream of reagent through a heat exchanger into a low volume, low backpressure reaction vessel, and through a UV detector. These features enable continuous delivery of heated solvents and reagents to the solid support at high flow rate, thereby maintaining maximal concentration of reagents in the reaction vessel, quickly exchanging reagents, and eliminating the need to rapidly heat reagents after they have been added to the vessel. The UV detector enables continuous monitoring of the process. To demonstrate the broad applicability and reliability of this method, it was employed in the total synthesis of a small protein, as well as dozens of peptides. The quality of the material obtained with this method is comparable to that for traditional batch methods, and, in all cases, the desired material was readily purifiable by RP-HPLC. The application of this method to the synthesis of the 113-residue Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RNase and the 130-residue DARPin pE59 is described in the accompanying manuscript. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Rapid innovation diffusion in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindler, Gabriel E; Young, H Peyton

    2014-07-22

    Social and technological innovations often spread through social networks as people respond to what their neighbors are doing. Previous research has identified specific network structures, such as local clustering, that promote rapid diffusion. Here we derive bounds that are independent of network structure and size, such that diffusion is fast whenever the payoff gain from the innovation is sufficiently high and the agents' responses are sufficiently noisy. We also provide a simple method for computing an upper bound on the expected time it takes for the innovation to become established in any finite network. For example, if agents choose log-linear responses to what their neighbors are doing, it takes on average less than 80 revision periods for the innovation to diffuse widely in any network, provided that the error rate is at least 5% and the payoff gain (relative to the status quo) is at least 150%. Qualitatively similar results hold for other smoothed best-response functions and populations that experience heterogeneous payoff shocks.

  1. Indigenous people's detection of rapid ecological change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Shankar; Lauer, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Rapid prototype modeling in a multimodality world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidaut, Luc; Madewell, John; Yasko, Alan

    2006-03-01

    Introduction: Rapid prototype modeling (RPM) has been used in medicine principally for bones - that are easily extracted from CT data sets - for planning orthopaedic, plastic or maxillo-facial interventions, and/or for designing custom prostheses and implants. Based on newly available technology, highly valuable multimodality approaches can now be applied to RPM, particularly for complex musculo-skeletal (MSK) tumors where multimodality often transcends CT alone. Methods: CT data sets are acquired for primary evaluation of MSK tumors in parallel with other modalities (e.g., MR, PET, SPECT). In our approach, CT is first segmented to provide bony anatomy for RPM and all other data sets are then registered to the CT reference. Parametric information relevant to the tumor's characterization is then extracted from the multimodality space and merged with the CT anatomy to produce a hybrid RPM-ready model. This model - that also accommodates digital multimodality visualization - is then produced on the latest generation of 3D printers, which permits both shapes and colors. Results: Multimodality models of complex MSK tumors have been physically produced on modern RPM equipment. This new approach has been found to be a clear improvement over the previously disconnected physical RPM and digital multimodality visualization. Conclusions: New technical developments keep opening doors to sophisticated medical applications that can directly impact the quality of patient care. Although this early work still deals with bones as base models for RPM, its use to encompass soft tissues is already envisioned for future approaches.

  3. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goran G. Jankes; Olga Cvetkovic; Nebojsa M. Milovanovic; Marko Ercegovaci Ercegovac; Miroljub Adzic; Mirjana Stamenic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield), forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900{sup o}C) and retention times (3-28 s) were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900{sup o}C). The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300{sup o}C). Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900{sup o}C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenospheres, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Interface dynamics and banding in rapid solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karma, A.; Sarkissian, A. (Physics Department, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Rapid-solidification experiments on metallic alloys in the last decade have provided widespread observations of a novel banded structure.'' We report the results of numerical and analytical studies of the interface dynamics underlying the formation of this structure in a model of directional solidification which includes both solute and heat diffusion and nonequilibrium effects. The thrust of these studies is on the unsteady dynamics of the planar interface and thermal effects. The main conclusion is that the origin of banding can be related to relaxation oscillations of the solidification front, characterized by large variations of the interface velocity, which are dramatically affected by latent-heat diffusion. Without the latter, the oscillations are found to be reasonably well approximated by the phenomenological model of Carrard [ital et] [ital al]. [Acta Metall. 40, 983 (1992)], and the band spacing is inversely proportional to the temperature gradient. In contrast, with latent-heat diffusion the band spacing is insensitive to the temperature gradient, but is controlled instead by the interplay of solute and heat diffusion. The smallness of the solutal diffusivity to thermal diffusivity ratio is exploited to explain analytically this effect and to derive considerably simpler equations of interface motion that provide an efficient numerical means to study the nonplanar interface dynamics expected to cause dark bands. A reasonable agreement with experiment is found for the spacing of banded structures dominated by light-band microsegregation-free regions in Al-Fe alloys.

  5. Nanostructured bioluminescent sensor for rapidly detecting thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longyan; Bao, Yige; Denstedt, John; Zhang, Jin

    2016-03-15

    Thrombin plays a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. The abnormal level of thrombin in body fluids may lead to different diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, glomerulonephritis, etc. Detection of thrombin level in blood and/or urine is one of important methods for medical diagnosis. Here, a bioluminescent sensor is developed for non-invasively and rapidly detecting thrombin in urine. The sensor is assembled through conjugating gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and a recombinant protein containing Renilla luciferase (pRluc) by a peptide, which is thrombin specific substrate. The luciferase-catalyzed bioluminescence can be quenched by peptide-conjugating Au NPs. In the presence of thrombin, the short peptide conjugating luciferase and Au NPs is digested and cut off, which results in the recovery of bioluminescence due to the release of luciferase from Au NPs. The bioluminescence intensity at 470 nm is observed, and increases with increasing concentration of thrombin. The bioluminescence intensity of this designed sensor is significantly recovered when the thrombin digestion time lasts for 10 min. In addition, a similar linear relationship between luminescence intensity and the concentration of thrombin is found in the range of 8 nM to 8 μM in both buffer and human urine spiked samples. The limit of detection is as low as 80 pM. It is anticipated that our nanosensor could be a promising tool for clinical diagnosis of thrombin in human urine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A rapid molecular approach for chromosomal phasing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Regan

    Full Text Available Determining the chromosomal phase of pairs of sequence variants - the arrangement of specific alleles as haplotypes - is a routine challenge in molecular genetics. Here we describe Drop-Phase, a molecular method for quickly ascertaining the phase of pairs of DNA sequence variants (separated by 1-200 kb without cloning or manual single-molecule dilution. In each Drop-Phase reaction, genomic DNA segments are isolated in tens of thousands of nanoliter-sized droplets together with allele-specific fluorescence probes, in a single reaction well. Physically linked alleles partition into the same droplets, revealing their chromosomal phase in the co-distribution of fluorophores across droplets. We demonstrated the accuracy of this method by phasing members of trios (revealing 100% concordance with inheritance information, and demonstrate a common clinical application by phasing CFTR alleles at genomic distances of 11-116 kb in the genomes of cystic fibrosis patients. Drop-Phase is rapid (requiring less than 4 hours, scalable (to hundreds of samples, and effective at long genomic distances (200 kb.

  7. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield, forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N2 at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900°C and retention times (3-28 s were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900°C. The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300°C. Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900°C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenosferes, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed.

  8. Rapid Raman mapping of a fulgurite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth A; Pasek, Matthew A; Smith, Tim; Kee, Terence P; Hines, Peter; Edwards, Howell G M

    2010-08-01

    A fulgurite is a naturally occurring glass formed when lightning hits sand, rock, or soil. The formation of fulgurites is accompanied by mineralogical and sometimes compositional changes, and may record information about the environment in which they were formed. A previous investigation using Raman point spectroscopy discovered the presence of anatase, a low-temperature polymorph of TiO(2), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons within a fulgurite. These findings indicate that there were regions within the sample that were not subjected to temperatures of 2,000 K or more that the matrix is reported to attain when struck by lightning. This paper seeks to expand the previous research by utilizing the capabilities of a new Raman spectroscopic technological development that enables rapid mapping. The entire surface area of a cross-sectioned fulgurite (approximately 40 mm x 23 mm) sample was mapped allowing several regions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and anatase to be located. Furthermore, shocked quartz was found within the boundary regions of the fulgurite, and is proposed to have resulted from contact with vaporized material during the lightning strike. Shocked quartz is typically indicative of extraterrestrial impact, yet its discovery here suggests that its formation is not exclusive to the impact process.

  9. Bulgaria: Ethnic differentials in rapidly declining fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter Philipov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter provides a detailed description of the fertility changes in Bulgaria during recent decades and discusses possible reasons and consequences. It also gives an overview of the steps that the government has undertaken to offset the considerable decline in fertility. Before the fall of communism, fertility trends in Bulgaria were stable and characterized by a nearly universal entry into parenthood, dominance of a two-child family model, an early start and early end of childbearing, stable mean ages at entry into childbearing and marriage, and low percentages of non-marital births. During the 1990s and in the first years of the new century, we observe a marked, rapid change in fertility behaviour. Together with the severe decline in overall fertility rates, demographic data reveal a significant postponement of entry into motherhood and marriage, a decline of the two-child family model, and an emergence of new family forms. Most research attributes these changes to the particular political and social situation in Bulgaria since 1989.

  10. Facing Two Rapidly Spreading Internet Worms

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is currently facing a growing number of computer infections due to two rapidly spreading worms. The "Conficker" and "Downadup" worms have infected an estimated 1.1 million PCs in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number of infected computers to 3.5 million [1]. Via a single USB stick, these worms were also responsible for the infection of about 40 laptops at the last EGEE conference in Istanbul. In order to reduce the impact of these worms on CERN Windows computers, the Computer Security Team has suggested several preventive measures described here. Disabling the Windows AutoRun and AutoPlay Features The Computer Security Team and the IT/IS group have decided to disable the "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" functionality on all centrally-managed Windows computers at CERN. When inserting CDs, DVDs or USB sticks into a PC, "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" are responsible for automatically playing music or films stored on these media, or ...

  11. YAM- A Framework for Rapid Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    YAM is a software development framework with tools for facilitating the rapid development and integration of software in a concurrent software development environment. YAM provides solutions for thorny development challenges associated with software reuse, managing multiple software configurations, the development of software product-lines, multiple platform development and build management. YAM uses release-early, release-often development cycles to allow developers to incrementally integrate their changes into the system on a continual basis. YAM facilitates the creation and merging of branches to support the isolated development of immature software to avoid impacting the stability of the development effort. YAM uses modules and packages to organize and share software across multiple software products. It uses the concepts of link and work modules to reduce sandbox setup times even when the code-base is large. One side-benefit is the enforcement of a strong module-level encapsulation of a module s functionality and interface. This increases design transparency, system stability as well as software reuse. YAM is in use by several mid-size software development teams including ones developing mission-critical software.

  12. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.

    1990-08-01

    This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

  13. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment: Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Garman, Steven L.; Walters, Annika; Ray, Andrea; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wesner, Jeff S.; O’Donnell, Michael S.; Sherrill, Kirk R.; Babel, Nils C.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) being conducted for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change, and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks. The REA also may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing the cumulative effects of a variety of land uses. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and partners for the ecoregion, identify the information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant aquatic and terrestrial species and communities that are to be conserved and (or) restored. The REA also will evaluate major drivers of ecosystem change (Change Agents) currently affecting or likely to affect the status of Conservation Elements. We selected 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages to be included as Conservation Elements. We will address the four primary Change Agents—development, fire, invasive species, and climate change—required for the REA. The purpose of the work plan for the Wyoming Basin REA is to document the selection process for, and final list of, Management Questions, Conservation Elements, and Change Agents. The work plan also presents the overall assessment framework that will be used to assess the status of Conservation Elements and answer Management Questions.

  14. Rapid Delivery of Cyber Capabilities: Evaluation of the Requirement for a Rapid Cyber Acquisition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    capabilities and rapid implementation of tactics—all aspects readily addressed using non-material solutions. Additionally, configuration and maintenance of...Offict Symbol: 4. Co~ttac-t 1nror11tation: (l\\’am~ Pj Rcqu.-$1/.Uomtlt’nttNU POC) (RD.11J.!Crrult’) (0/ Jit ’’ Spn) Phone’ 1\\’un.rbo S. T ec:hni<’lll POC 6

  15. A rapid mitochondrial toxicity assay utilizing rapidly changing cell energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuki, Yosuke; Araki, Tetsuro; Nakazono, Osamu; Tsurui, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a major cause of safety-related drug-marketing withdrawals. Several drugs have been reported to disrupt mitochondrial function, resulting in hepatotoxicity. The development of a simple and effective in vitro assay to identify the potential for mitochondrial toxicity is thus desired to minimize the risk of causing hepatotoxicity and subsequent drug withdrawal. An in vitro test method called the "glucose-galactose" assay is often used in drug development but requires prior-culture of cells over several passages for mitochondrial adaptation, thereby restricting use of the assay. Here, we report a rapid version of this method with the same predictability as the original method. We found that replacing the glucose in the medium with galactose resulted in HepG2 cells immediately shifting their energy metabolism from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation due to drastic energy starvation; in addition, the intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by mitotoxicants when glucose in the medium was replaced with galactose. Using our proposed rapid method, mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells can be evaluated by drug exposure for one hour without a pre-culture step. This rapid assay for mitochondrial toxicity may be more suitable for high-throughput screening than the original method at an early stage of drug development.

  16. RAPID: Collaborative Commanding and Monitoring of Lunar Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Powell, Mark W.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Abramyan, Lucy; Shams, Khawaja S.; Wallick, Michael; Allan, Mark; hide

    2011-01-01

    RAPID (Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate) software utilizes highly robust technology to facilitate commanding and monitoring of lunar assets. RAPID provides the ability for intercenter communication, since these assets are developed in multiple NASA centers. RAPID is targeted at the task of lunar operations; specifically, operations that deal with robotic assets, cranes, and astronaut spacesuits, often developed at different NASA centers. RAPID allows for a uniform way to command and monitor these assets. Commands can be issued to take images, and monitoring is done via telemetry data from the asset. There are two unique features to RAPID: First, it allows any operator from any NASA center to control any NASA lunar asset, regardless of location. Second, by abstracting the native language for specific assets to a common set of messages, an operator may control and monitor any NASA lunar asset by being trained only on the use of RAPID, rather than the specific asset. RAPID is easier to use and more powerful than its predecessor, the Astronaut Interface Device (AID). Utilizing the new robust middleware, DDS (Data Distribution System), developing in RAPID has increased significantly over the old middleware. The API is built upon the Java Eclipse Platform, which combined with DDS, provides platform-independent software architecture, simplifying development of RAPID components. As RAPID continues to evolve and new messages are being designed and implemented, operators for future lunar missions will have a rich environment for commanding and monitoring assets.

  17. Hi'iaka: Haumea's Rapidly Spinning Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    An image from the Keck telescope of the dwarf planet Haumea (center) and its two moons, Hiiaka (above) and Namaka (below). [Caltech/Keck/Mike Brown]Recent observations of Hiiaka, the largest satellite of the dwarf planet Haumea, reveal that the moon is spinning much more rapidly than expected. What could this tell us about how Haumea and its moons formed?A Distant DwarfThe dwarf planet Haumea orbits beyond Neptune and has a mass of roughly 1/3 that of Pluto. Like Pluto, Haumea also has companions: two satellites of roughly 0.5% and 0.05% of Haumeas mass, orbiting at rather large distances of 36 and 70 Haumea radii (roughly 26,000 and 50,000 km).In a recently published study, a team led by Danielle Hastings (UC Los Angeles and Florida Institute of Technology) explored Hubble and Magellan observations of Hiiaka Haumeas larger, outer satellite to determine the rate at which it rotates on its axis.Hiiakas light curve, phase-folded at its most likely rotation period of 9.8 hours. The double peak is due to the fact that Hiiaka is likely not a spherical body, so it shows two maxima in brightness in each full rotation. [Hastings et al. 2016]Rapid RotationNominally, wed expect Hiiaka to be rotating synchronously its rotation period should be the same as its orbital period of 49.5 days. We expect this because the amount of time needed for tidal forces to despin Hiiaka to synchronous rotation should be much shorter than the time needed for these forces to produce Hiiakas observed low eccentricity and large semimajor axis.Therefore it was quite the surprise when Hastings and collaborators analyzed Hiiakas light curve and found that the moon revolves on its axis once every 9.8 hours! Thats roughly 120 times faster than the expected synchronous rate.Formation TheoriesWhat does this discovery reveal about Hiiakas formation? Hastings and collaborators propose three possible scenarios. They then use analytic calculations and numerical simulations to try to constrain them based on

  18. Commercial aspects of rapid thermal processing (RTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.G.; Huffman, D.R. [Ensyn Technologies Inc., Greely, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    In its broadest sense, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP{sup TM}) covers the conversion of all types of carbonaceous materials to liquid fuels, high quality fuel gases, and chemicals. Scientifically, it is based on the general premise that products which result from the extremely rapid application of heat to a given feedstock are inherently more valuable than those which are produced when heat is applied much more slowly over longer periods of processing time. Commercial RTP{sup TM} activities (including the actual implementation in the market as well as the short-term R and D initiatives) are much narrower in scope, and are focused on the production of high yields of light, non-tarry liquids (i.e. `bio-crude`) from biomass for fuel and chemical markets. Chemicals are of significant interest from an economical point of view since they typically have a higher value than fuel products. Liquid fuels are of interest for many reasons: (1) Liquid fuels do not have to be used immediately after production, such as is the case with hot combustion gases or combustible gases produced via gasification. This allows the decoupling of fuel production from the end-use (ie. the conversion of fuel to energy). (2) The higher energy density of liquid fuels vs. that of fuel gases and solid biomass results in a large reduction in the costs associated with storage and transportation. (3) The costs to retrofit an existing gas or oil fired combustion system are much lower than replacement with a solid fuel combustor. (4) In general, liquid fuel combustion is much more efficient, controllable, and cleaner than the combustion of solid fuels. (5) The production of liquid `bio-crude` permits the removal of ash from the biomass prior to combustion or other end-use applications. (6) Gas or liquid fuel-fired diesel or turbine engines cannot operate commercially on solid fuels. Although wood represents the biomass which is of principal commercial interest (including a vast array of wood residues

  19. RAPID FLUCTUATIONS IN THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J. K.; Cadavid, A. C.; Christian, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330-8268 (United States); Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M., E-mail: john.lawrence@csun.edu [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-10

    The Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument reveals solar atmospheric fluctuations at high frequencies. Spectra of variations of the G-band intensity (I{sub G} ) and Ca II K-line intensity (I{sub K} ) show correlated fluctuations above white noise to frequencies beyond 300 mHz and 50 mHz, respectively. The noise-corrected G-band spectrum for f = 28-326 mHz shows a power law with exponent -1.21 {+-} 0.02, consistent with the presence of turbulent motions. G-band spectral power in the 25-100 mHz ('UHF') range is concentrated at the locations of magnetic bright points in the intergranular lanes and is highly intermittent in time. The intermittence of the UHF G-band fluctuations, shown by a positive kurtosis {kappa}, also suggests turbulence. Combining values of I{sub G} , I{sub K} , UHF power, and {kappa} reveals two distinct states of the solar atmosphere. State 1, including almost all the data, is characterized by low I{sub G} , I{sub K} , and UHF power and {kappa} Almost-Equal-To 6. State 2, including only a very small fraction of the data, is characterized by high I{sub G} , I{sub K} , and UHF power and {kappa} Almost-Equal-To 3. Superposed epoch analysis shows that the UHF power peaks simultaneously with spatio-temporal I{sub G} maxima in either state. For State 1, I{sub K} shows 3.5 minute chromospheric oscillations with maxima occurring 21 s after I{sub G} maxima implying a 150-210 km effective height difference. However, for State 2 the I{sub K} and I{sub G} maxima are simultaneous; in this highly magnetized environment sites of G-band and K-line emission may be spatially close together.

  20. Rapid Fluctuations in the Lower Solar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. K.; Cadavid, A. C.; Christian, D. J.; Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument reveals solar atmospheric fluctuations at high frequencies. Spectra of variations of the G-band intensity (IG ) and Ca II K-line intensity (IK ) show correlated fluctuations above white noise to frequencies beyond 300 mHz and 50 mHz, respectively. The noise-corrected G-band spectrum for f = 28-326 mHz shows a power law with exponent -1.21 ± 0.02, consistent with the presence of turbulent motions. G-band spectral power in the 25-100 mHz ("UHF") range is concentrated at the locations of magnetic bright points in the intergranular lanes and is highly intermittent in time. The intermittence of the UHF G-band fluctuations, shown by a positive kurtosis κ, also suggests turbulence. Combining values of IG , IK , UHF power, and κ reveals two distinct states of the solar atmosphere. State 1, including almost all the data, is characterized by low IG , IK , and UHF power and κ ≈ 6. State 2, including only a very small fraction of the data, is characterized by high IG , IK , and UHF power and κ ≈ 3. Superposed epoch analysis shows that the UHF power peaks simultaneously with spatio-temporal IG maxima in either state. For State 1, IK shows 3.5 minute chromospheric oscillations with maxima occurring 21 s after IG maxima implying a 150-210 km effective height difference. However, for State 2 the IK and IG maxima are simultaneous; in this highly magnetized environment sites of G-band and K-line emission may be spatially close together.

  1. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2005-12-01

    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  2. Universal primers for rapid detection of hytrosaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Alla, Adly M M; Salem, Tamer Z; Parker, Andrew G; Wang, Yongjie; Jehle, Johannes A; Vreysen, Marc J B; Boucias, Drion

    2011-01-01

    Hytrosaviridae is a proposed virus family encompassing viruses that cause salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) syndrome in infected insects and reduce the fertility in their dipteran insect hosts. They contain a large, double stranded DNA genome of 120-190 kbp. To date, these viruses have been detected only in adult Diptera. These include hytrosaviruses detected in various tsetse fly species (Glossina spp.), the narcissus bulb fly Merodon equestris and the house fly Musca domestica. The limited number of hytrosaviruses reported to date may be a reflection of the frequent absence of external symptoms in infected adult flies and the fact that the virus does not cause rapid mortality. Based on the complete genome sequence of Glossinia pallidipes (GpSGHV) and Musca domestica (MdSGHV) salivary gland hypertrophy viruses, a PCR based methodology was developed to detect the viruses in these species. To be able to detect hytrosaviruses in other Diptera, five degenerate primer pairs were designed and tested on GpSGHV and MdSGHV DNA using gradient PCR with annealing temperatures from 37 to 61°C. Two pairs of primers were selected from p74, two pairs from PIF-1 and one pair from ODV-e66 homologous proteins. Four primer pairs generated a virus specific PCR product on both MdSGHV and GpSGHV at all tested annealing temperatures, while the ODV-e66 based primers did not generate a virus specific product with annealing temperatures higher that 47°C. No non-specific PCR product was found when using genomic DNA of infected flies as template DNA. These results offer new sets of primers that could be used to detect hytrosaviruses in other insects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Diffraction and rapidity gap measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bernat, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    These proceedings report of two measurements performed with the ATLAS detector. These measurements use the notion of 'rapidity gaps', although the definition of gap and the probed physics are quite different. The paper [1] presents the rapidity gap cross sections measured with the ATLAS detector using early 2010 pp collisions data. Gap translates the absence of particle produced in a rapidity region. Diffractive events are recorded using the Minimum Bias Trigger Scintillators mounted in front of the end-cap calorimeters. The paper [2] presents the measurement of dijet production with a jet veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions recorded by ATLAS in 2010. Rapidity gaps are defined by the absence of jet in the rapidity interval bounded by the dijet system, of transverse momentum above 20 GeV. There is therefore some QCD activity in these rapidity gaps. Dijet events are collected using calorimeters jets trigger.

  4. Rapid response in psychological treatments for binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E; Wilson, G Terence

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across 3 different treatments for binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; APA, 1994) criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by Week 4, was determined for remission from binge eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-ups. Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and nonrapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than nonrapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and nonrapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based, stepped-care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and nonrapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of nonrapid response to first-line CBTgsh. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    Rapid prototyping and the human factors • • engineering process David Beevis* and Gaetan St Denist *Senior Human Factors Engineer, Defence and...qr-..2. 9 Rapid prototyping or ’virtual prototyping ’ of human-machine interfaces offers the possibility of putting the human operator ’in the loop...8217 without the effort and cost associated with conventional man-in-the-loop simulation. Advocates suggest that rapid prototyping is compatible with

  6. Rapid response oxygen-sensing nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Ruipeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Behera, Prajna; Viapiano, Mariano S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Lannutti, John J., E-mail: lannutti.1@osu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Molecular oxygen has profound effects on cell and tissue viability. Relevant sensor forms that can rapidly determine dissolved oxygen levels under biologically relevant conditions provide critical metabolic information. Using 0.5 μm diameter electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber containing an oxygen-sensitive probe, tris (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride, we observed a response time of 0.9 ± 0.12 s while the t{sub 95} for the corresponding film was more than two orders of magnitude greater. Interestingly, the response and recovery times of slightly larger diameter PCL fibers were 1.79 ± 0.23 s and 2.29 ± 0.13 s, respectively, while the recovery time was not statistically different likely due to the more limited interactions of nitrogen with the polymer matrix. A more than 10-fold increase in PCL fiber diameter reduces oxygen sensitivity while having minor effects on response time; conversely, decreases in fiber diameter to less than 0.5 μm would likely decrease response times even further. In addition, a 50 °C heat treatment of the electrospun fiber resulted in both increased Stern–Volmer slope and linearity likely due to secondary recrystallization that further homogenized the probe microenvironment. At exposure times up to 3600 s in length, photobleaching was observed but was largely eliminated by the use of either polyethersulfone (PES) or a PES–PCL core–shell composition. However, this resulted in 2- and 3-fold slower response times. Finally, even the non-core shell compositions containing the Ru oxygen probe result in no apparent cytotoxicity in representative glioblastoma cell populations. Highlights: • Nanofiber-based structures can self-report localized oxygen concentrations. • Ideal for tissue engineering as they allow close interaction of cells. • Nanofiber-incorporated oxygen-sensitive probes provide a perfectly linear response. • Photobleaching is largely eliminated by the use of PES–PCL core

  7. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  8. Rapid temporal recalibration to visuo-tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Joachim; Kapala, Katharina; Krause, Holger; Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2017-11-15

    For a comprehensive understanding of the environment, the brain must constantly decide whether the incoming information originates from the same source and needs to be integrated into a coherent percept. This integration process is believed to be mediated by temporal integration windows. If presented with temporally asynchronous stimuli for a few minutes, the brain adapts to this new temporal relation by recalibrating the temporal integration windows. Such recalibration can occur even more rapidly after exposure to just a single trial of asynchronous stimulation. While rapid recalibration has been demonstrated for audio-visual stimuli, evidence for rapid recalibration of visuo-tactile stimuli is lacking. Here, we investigated rapid recalibration in the visuo-tactile domain. Subjects received visual and tactile stimuli with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) and were asked to report whether the visuo-tactile stimuli were presented simultaneously. Our results demonstrate visuo-tactile rapid recalibration by revealing that subjects' simultaneity reports were modulated by the temporal order of stimulation in the preceding trial. This rapid recalibration effect, however, was only significant if the SOA in the preceding trial was smaller than 100 ms, while rapid recalibration could not be demonstrated for SOAs larger than 100 ms. Since rapid recalibration in the audio-visual domain has been demonstrated for SOAs larger than 100 ms, we propose that visuo-tactile recalibration works at shorter SOAs, and thus faster time scales than audio-visual rapid recalibration.

  9. 3D Printing for the Rapid Prototyping of Structural Electronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macdonald, Eric; Salas, Rudy; Espalin, David; Perez, Mireya; Aguilera, Efrain; Muse, Dan; Wicker, Ryan B

    2014-01-01

    .... The use of advanced 3D printing technology enhanced with component placement and electrical interconnect deposition can provide electronic prototypes that now can be rapidly fabricated in comparable...

  10. Antiarrhythmic effect of carvedilol after acute myocardial infarction: results of the Carvedilol Post-Infarct Survival Control in Left Ventricular Dysfunction (CAPRICORN) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurray, John; Køber, Lars; Robertson, Michele

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Whether beta-blockers reduce atrial arrhythmias and, when added to an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ventricular arrhythmia is unknown. BACKGROUND: Ventricular and atrial arrhythmias are common after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and are associated with a poor prog...

  11. Rapid response learning of brand logo priming: Evidence that brand priming is not dominated by rapid response learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Stephan G; Smith, Ciaran; Muench, Niklas; Noble, Kirsty; Atherton, Catherine

    2017-08-31

    Repetition priming increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Repetition priming can result from two complementary sources: rapid response learning and facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks. In conceptual classification tasks, rapid response learning dominates priming of object recognition, but it does not dominate priming of person recognition. This suggests that the relative engagement of network facilitation and rapid response learning depends on the stimulus domain. Here, we addressed the importance of the stimulus domain for rapid response learning by investigating priming in another domain, brands. In three experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions for brand logos. Strong priming was present, but it was not dominated by rapid response learning. These findings add further support to the importance of the stimulus domain for the relative importance of network facilitation and rapid response learning, and they indicate that brand priming is more similar to person recognition priming than object recognition priming, perhaps because priming of both brands and persons requires individuation.

  12. Rapid Prototyping of Simulated VIIRS Data in the SERVIR Fire Rapid Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easson, G.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Yarbrough, L. D.; Irwin, D.; Cherrington, E.

    2006-12-01

    A rapid prototyping capability experiment has been established involving the application of the SERVIR (Sistema Regional de Visualización y Monitoreo) decision support tool, which is NASA's and its partner agencies' tool to monitor groundcover and climatic conditions in Mesoamerica. As an information system, the SERVIR tool processes data products from multiple sources and the outcome is visualized through interactive digital maps, standard view map outputs or 3D real-time visualization. The focus of this research is one of the SERVIR Fire Rapid Response products known as the MODIS SERVIR Fire Extent Product, which was developed to meet the requirements of the Guatemalan Park Service. The credibility of SERVIR's monitoring tools currently depends upon NASA's MODIS data, which is nearing the end of its availability. This will make it necessary to transition to the planned replacement sensor, VIIRS. The impact of this transition on the performance of SERVIR's fire detection tools is the current focus of our investigation. A quantitative assessment of fire conditions in Guatemala is made using MODIS data and is compared to the anticipated performance using simulated data that would have been produced by a VIIRS-like sensor. Using a low-density geospatial database, the comparison is made for a number of dates from the 2003 Guatemalan fire season, where ground validation data is available. A comparative assessment is also made using the kappa statistic applied to the land classifications resulting from both the MODIS- and VIIRS- based fire detection algorithms.

  13. Rapid preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis by microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Ko, Ju-Young; Jang, Jun-Ho; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Suck; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-11-20

    This study describes a simple preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis using a microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system (MAREDS) with various carbohydrases, and evaluates their antioxidative effects. Polysaccharide hydrolysates were prepared using MAREDS under different hydrolytic conditions of the carbohydrases and microwave powers. Polysaccharides less than 10kDa (Low molecular weight polysaccharides, LMWP, ≤10kDa) were efficiently obtained using an ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off of 10kDa). MAREDS increases AMG activation via an increased degree of hydrolysis; the best AMG hydrolysate was prepared using a 10:1 ratio of substrate to enzyme for 2h in MAREDS with 400W. LMWP consisted of galactose (27.3%), glucose (64.5%), and mannose (8.3%) from the AMG hydrolysate had stronger antioxidant effects than the high molecular weight polysaccharides (>10kDa). We rapidly prepared functional LMWPs by using MAREDS with carbohydrases, and suggest that LMWP might be potentially a valuable algal polysaccharide antioxidant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Full cycle rapid scan EPR deconvolution algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Rapid scan electron paramagnetic resonance (RS EPR) is a continuous-wave (CW) method that combines narrowband excitation and broadband detection. Sinusoidal magnetic field scans that span the entire EPR spectrum cause electron spin excitations twice during the scan period. Periodic transient RS signals are digitized and time-averaged. Deconvolution of absorption spectrum from the measured full-cycle signal is an ill-posed problem that does not have a stable solution because the magnetic field passes the same EPR line twice per sinusoidal scan during up- and down-field passages. As a result, RS signals consist of two contributions that need to be separated and postprocessed individually. Deconvolution of either of the contributions is a well-posed problem that has a stable solution. The current version of the RS EPR algorithm solves the separation problem by cutting the full-scan signal into two half-period pieces. This imposes a constraint on the experiment; the EPR signal must completely decay by the end of each half-scan in order to not be truncated. The constraint limits the maximum scan frequency and, therefore, the RS signal-to-noise gain. Faster scans permit the use of higher excitation powers without saturating the spin system, translating into a higher EPR sensitivity. A stable, full-scan algorithm is described in this paper that does not require truncation of the periodic response. This algorithm utilizes the additive property of linear systems: the response to a sum of two inputs is equal the sum of responses to each of the inputs separately. Based on this property, the mathematical model for CW RS EPR can be replaced by that of a sum of two independent full-cycle pulsed field-modulated experiments. In each of these experiments, the excitation power equals to zero during either up- or down-field scan. The full-cycle algorithm permits approaching the upper theoretical scan frequency limit; the transient spin system response must decay within the scan

  15. Rapid telemetry and earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R.; Bose, M.; Brown, H.; Cua, G.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Heaton, T.; Hellweg, M.; Jordan, T.; Kireev, A.; Maechling, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Oppenheimer, D.; Solanki, K.; Zeleznik, M.

    2008-05-01

    The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is currently testing algorithms for earthquake early warning on the realtime seismic systems in the state. An earthquake warning system rapidly detects the initiation of earthquakes and assesses the associated hazard. The goal is to provide warning of potentially damaging ground motion in a target region prior to the arrival of seismic waves. The network-based approach to early warning requires station data to be gathered at a central site for joint processing. ElarmS, one network-based approach being tested, currently runs 15 sec behind realtime in order to gather ~90% of station data before processing. Even with this delay the recent Mw 5.4 Alum Rock earthquake near San Jose was detected and an accurate hazard assessment was available before ground shaking in San Francisco. The Virtual Seismologist (VS) method, another network-based approach, is a Bayesian method that incorporates information such as network topology, previously observed seismicity, and the Gutenberg-Richter relationship in magnitude and location estimation. The VS method is currently being transitioned from off-line to real-time testing and will soon be running 15 sec behind real-time, as in the case of ElarmS. We are also testing an on-site warning approach, which is based on single-station observations. On-site systems can deliver earthquake information faster than regional systems, and the warning could possibly reach potential users at much closer epicentral distances before the damaging shaking starts. By definition, on-site systems do not require a central processing facility or delivery of data from a distant seismic station, but they are less robust that networked-based systems and need a fast and reliable telemetry to deliver warnings to local users. The range of possible warning times is typically seconds to tens of seconds and every second of data latency translates into an equal reduction in the available warning time. Minimal latency

  16. Rapid spheroid clearing on a microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Santisteban, Tomas; Rabajania, Omid; Kalinina, Iana; Robinson, Stephen; Meier, Matthias

    2017-12-19

    Spheroids are three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures that aim to bridge the gap between the use of whole animals and cellular monolayers. Microfluidics is regarded as an enabling technology to actively control the chemical environment of 3D cell cultures. Although a wide variety of platforms have been developed to handle spheroid cultures, the development of analytical systems for spheroids remains a major challenge. In this study, we engineered a microfluidic large-scale integration (mLSI) chip platform for tissue-clearing and imaging. To enable handling and culturing of spheroids on mLSI chips, with diameters within hundreds of microns, we first developed a general rapid prototyping procedure, which allows scaling up of the size of pneumatic membrane valves (PMV). The presented prototyping method makes use of milled poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) molds for obtaining semi-circular microchannels with heights up to 750 μm. Semi-circular channel profiles are required for the functioning of the commonly used PMVs in normally open configuration. Height limits to tens of microns for this channel profile on photolithographic molds have hampered the application of 3D tissue models on mLSI chips. The prototyping technique was applied to produce an mLSI chip for miniaturization, automation, and integration of the steps involved in the tissue clearing method CLARITY, including spheroid fixation, acrylamide hydrogel infiltration, temperature-initiated hydrogel polymerization, lipid extraction, and immuno-fluorescence staining of the mitochondrial protein COX-IV, and metabolic enzyme GAPDH. Precise fluidic control over the liquids in the spheroid culturing chambers allowed implementation of a local hydrogel polymerization reaction, exclusively within the spheroid tissue. Hydrogel-embedded spheroids undergo swelling and shrinkage depending on the pH of the surrounding buffer solution. A pH-jump from 8.5 to 5.5 shrinks the hydrogel-embedded spheroid volume by 108% with a rate

  17. Effect of phenolic compounds on the rapid direct enzymatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-15

    May 15, 2009 ... β-D-Galactosidase and β-D-glucuronidase are 2 marker enzymes used in the rapid detection of total coliforms and E. coli, respectively. A range of bioprobes and biosensors have recently been developed for the rapid, direct and in situ detection of these enzymes. Chromogenic substrates are often used to ...

  18. Particle Trapping and Banding in Rapid Colloidal Solidification

    KAUST Repository

    Elliott, J. A. W.

    2011-10-11

    We derive an expression for the nonequilibrium segregation coefficient of colloidal particles near a moving solid-liquid interface. The resulting kinetic phase diagram has applications for the rapid solidification of clay soils, gels, and related colloidal systems. We use it to explain the formation of bandlike defects in rapidly solidified alumina suspensions. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  19. Evaluating the use of dedicated swab for rapid antigen detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common and fearful bacterial cause in pediatric acute pharyngitis due to its serious complications. Several generations of rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) have been developed to facilitate rapid detection of GAS pharyngitis. We assessed the value of using a ...

  20. A Parent-Oriented Approach to Rapid Toilet Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Dai; Toussaint, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    The current evaluation assessed the effectiveness of a rapid toilet training procedure for three young males with autism. The evaluation extended the research on rapid toilet training procedures by assessing parents' preference to include two common toilet training components, a urine alarm and positive practice. In addition, we assessed child…

  1. Rapid die manufacturing using direct laser metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the work undertaken at the CSIR on the issue of rapid die manufacturing through the application and evaluation of a rapid prototyping technique and coating technologies applied to die components of a high pressure casting die...

  2. A comparison of rapid diagnostic testing (by plasmodium lactate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold ...

  3. Implementation of Additive Rapid Prototyping on Retrofit CNC Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeform fabrication techniques are gaining popularity as a means of making parts. Layered additive methods are associated with rapid prototyping. Many rapid prototyping methods are commercially proprietary and may cost thousands of dollars. Using a retrofit CNC mill for layered fabrication and C...

  4. Rapid heating of matter using high power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Woosuk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-08

    This slide presentation describes motivation (uniform and rapid heating of a target, opportunity to study warm dense matter, study of nuclear fusion reactions), rapid heating of matter with intense laser-driven ion beams, visualization of the expanding warm dense gold and diamond, and nuclear fusion experiments using high power lasers (direct heating of deuterium spheres (radius ~ 10nm) with an intense laser pulse.

  5. Cook & Chill - Rapid Chilling of Food 'in situ'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Rapid cooling of products is of increasing importance for food preservation and for industrial processes. Slurry ice (Binary Ice) is a two-phase cooling fluid consisting of suspended ice crystals in an aqueous solution or mixture. Latent energy contained in the fluid yields rapid cooling which...

  6. Rapid climate change: lessons from the recent geological past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jonathan; Lowe, John; Wolff, Eric; Srokosz, Meric

    2011-12-01

    Rapid, or abrupt, climate change is regarded as a change in the climate system to a new state following the crossing of a threshold. It generally occurs at a rate exceeding that of the change in the underlying cause. Episodes of rapid climate change abound in the recent geological past (defined here as the interval between the last glacial maximum, dated to approximately 20,000 years ago, and the present). Rapid climate changes are known to have occurred over time periods equal to or even less than a human lifespan: moreover, their effects on the global system are sufficiently large to have had significant societal impacts. The potential for similar events to occur in the future provides an important impetus for investigating the nature and causes of rapid climate change. This paper provides a brief overview of rapid climate change and an introduction to this special issue, which presents results generated by the palaeoclimatic component of the UK Natural Environment Research Council's rapid climate change programme, called RAPID. The papers in the special issue employ palaeoclimatic proxy data-sets obtained from marine, ice core and terrestrial archives to reconstruct rapid climate change during the last glacial cycle, its subsequent termination and the ensuing Holocene interglacial; some papers also report new attempts to match the palaeoclimate data to hypothesised causes through numerical modelling. The results confirm the importance of freshwater forcing in triggering changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and the close links between MOC and rapid climate change. While advancing our understanding of these linkages, the RAPID research has highlighted the need for further research in order to elucidate more specific details of the mechanisms involved.

  7. Public health in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Andreeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several months in 2013 and 2014 have been a hardly predictable time in Ukraine, and the situation is still far from being stable. This made the editorial team of TCPHEE based in Ukraine postpone publishing consecutive issues. However, while the situation still requires practical steps, many aspects including those related to public health require analysis and debate. Thus we invite opinion pieces and studies addressing all different spheres of how public health should function under changing social circumstances. There might be a wide range of such related topics. The most obvious ones are those linked to changing living conditions. Many studies have been undertaken and published with regard to health threats to refugees, people involved in natural or technical disasters (Noji, 2005. Along with environmental health threats, there might be mental health disturbances (World Health Organization, 1992 resulting from long-term strain, losses et cetera. Another important focus is related to changes in health services provision. Crimea, which is a former Ukrainian territory now occupied by the Russian Federation, was among those in Ukraine highly affected with HIV (Dehne, Khodakevich, Hamers, & Schwartlander, 1999. This was responded by several NGOs actively providing harm reduction services to high-risk groups along with methadone substitution therapy to opiate users and antiretroviral medicines to those HIV-infected (Curtis, 2010. However, there are news reports that Russia is going to stop provision of methadone (kommersant.ru, 2014. As opiate substitution programs have been shown an effective approach towards preventing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (MacArthur et al., 2012, such change in public health policies might affect not only most at risk populations but their partners and population as a whole as well resulting in a rapid spread of HIV. Yet another related topic is that of how health services can be organized at times of

  8. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized...... by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however......, a distinct phenotype with respect to other RBD patients and characterized also by absence of gender predominance, elementary rather than complex movements, less violent behavior and earlier age at onset of motor events, and strong association to narcolepsy with cataplexy/hypocretin deficiency. Patients...

  9. RapidIO as a multi-purpose interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baymani, Simaolhoda; Alexopoulos, Konstantinos; Valat, Sébastien

    2017-10-01

    RapidIO (http://rapidio.org/) technology is a packet-switched high-performance fabric, which has been under active development since 1997. Originally meant to be a front side bus, it developed into a system level interconnect which is today used in all 4G/LTE base stations world wide. RapidIO is often used in embedded systems that require high reliability, low latency and scalability in a heterogeneous environment - features that are highly interesting for several use cases, such as data analytics and data acquisition (DAQ) networks. We will present the results of evaluating RapidIO in a data analytics environment, from setup to benchmark. Specifically, we will share the experience of running ROOT and Hadoop on top of RapidIO. To demonstrate the multi-purpose characteristics of RapidIO, we will also present the results of investigating RapidIO as a technology for high-speed DAQ networks using a generic multi-protocol event-building emulation tool. In addition we will present lessons learned from implementing native ports of CERN applications to RapidIO.

  10. Rapid Clozapine Titration in Patients with Treatment Refractory Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Özdemir, Armağan; Sağlam, Nazife Gamze Usta; Turan, Şenol; Poyraz, Burç Çağrı; Tomruk, Nesrin; Duran, Alaattin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rapid clozapine titration in patients with schizophrenia in hospital settings. We conducted a retrospective two-center cohort study to compare the safety and effectiveness of clozapine with different titration rates in treatment-refractory patients with schizophrenia. In the first center, clozapine was started at 25-50 mg followed by 50-100 mg as needed every 6 h on day 1, followed by increases of 50-100 mg/day. In the second center, titration was slower; clozapine initiated with 12.5-50 mg on day 1 followed by increases of 25-50 mg/day. The number of days between starting of clozapine until discharge was shorter in the rapid titration group (22.4 ± 8.72 vs 27.0 ± 10.5, p = 0.1). Number of days of total hospital stay were significantly shorter in the rapid titration group (29.6 ± 10.6 vs 41.2 ± 14.8, p = 0.002). Hypotension was more common in the rapid titration group and one patient had suspected myocarditis. Rapid clozapine titration appeared safe and effective. The length of stay following initiation of clozapine was shorter in the rapid-titration group, although this was not statistically significant. However starting clozapine earlier together with rapid titration has significantly shortened the length of hospital stay in patients with treatment refractory schizophrenia.

  11. Rapid mimicry and emotional contagion in domestic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Nicotra, Velia; Cordoni, Giada

    2015-12-01

    Emotional contagion is a basic form of empathy that makes individuals able to experience others' emotions. In human and non-human primates, emotional contagion can be linked to facial mimicry, an automatic and fast response (less than 1 s) in which individuals involuntary mimic others' expressions. Here, we tested whether body (play bow, PBOW) and facial (relaxed open-mouth, ROM) rapid mimicry is present in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) during dyadic intraspecific play. During their free playful interactions, dogs showed a stronger and rapid mimicry response (less than 1 s) after perceiving PBOW and ROM (two signals typical of play in dogs) than after perceiving JUMP and BITE (two play patterns resembling PBOW and ROM in motor performance). Playful sessions punctuated by rapid mimicry lasted longer that those sessions punctuated only by signals. Moreover, the distribution of rapid mimicry was strongly affected by the familiarity linking the subjects involved: the stronger the social bonding, the higher the level of rapid mimicry. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the presence of rapid mimicry in dogs, the involvement of mimicry in sharing playful motivation and the social modulation of the phenomenon. All these findings concur in supporting the idea that a possible linkage between rapid mimicry and emotional contagion (a building-block of empathy) exists in dogs.

  12. Testing techniques for mechanical characterization of rapidly solidified materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Mechanical property testing techniques are reviewed for rapidly solidified materials. Mechanical testing of rapidly solidified materials is complicated by the fact that in most cases at least one dimension of the material is very small (less than 100 microns). For some geometries, i.e., powder or thin surface layers, microhardness is the only feasible mechanical test. The ribbon geometry which is obtained by the melt-spinning method, however, has been used for a variety of mechanical property measurements including elastic properties, tensile properties, fracture toughness, creep, and fatigue. These techniques are described with emphasis placed on the precautions required by the restricted geometry of rapidly solidified specimens.

  13. Southern Great Plains rapid ecoregional assessment : Pre-assessment report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of...

  14. Agile Science Planning: Rapid Response Re-planning Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop autonomous rapid response to science observations in missions targeting small bodies in fly-by mode where observing and reaction time is precious.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parkinsonism have been diagnosed with anxiety, social phobias, depression, and seizures. It is unclear whether these disorders are related to the genetic changes that cause rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism . Related ...

  16. Solid modeling and applications rapid prototyping, CAD and CAE theory

    CERN Document Server

    Um, Dugan

    2016-01-01

    The lessons in this fundamental text equip students with the theory of Computer Assisted Design (CAD), Computer Assisted Engineering (CAE), the essentials of Rapid Prototyping, as well as practical skills needed to apply this understanding in real world design and manufacturing settings. The book includes three main areas: CAD, CAE, and Rapid Prototyping, each enriched with numerous examples and exercises. In the CAD section, Professor Um outlines the basic concept of geometric modeling, Hermite and Bezier Spline curves theory, and 3-dimensional surface theories as well as rendering theory. The CAE section explores mesh generation theory, matrix notion for FEM, the stiffness method, and truss Equations. And in Rapid Prototyping, the author illustrates stereo lithographic theory and introduces popular modern RP technologies. Solid Modeling and Applications: Rapid Prototyping, CAD and CAE Theory is ideal for university students in various engineering disciplines as well as design engineers involved in product...

  17. Turnbull - Early Detection and Rapid Response Team 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Biocontrol agents and chemicals to facilitate the rapid response phase of the project will be purchased and applied and a Washington Service Corps AmeriCorps member...

  18. Effect of rapid maxillary expansion on sleep characteristics in children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashok, Navya; Varma, N K Sapna; Ajith, V V; Gopinath, Siby

    2014-01-01

    Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthopedic treatment procedure routinely used to treat constricted maxillary arches and also a potential additional treatment in children presenting with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB...

  19. Effect of rapid maxillary expansion on sleep characteristics in children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Navya Ashok; N. K. Sapna Varma; V V Ajith; Siby Gopinath

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthopedic treatment procedure routinely used to treat constricted maxillary arches and also a potential additional treatment in children presenting with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB...

  20. Humans copy rapidly increasing choices in a multiarmed bandit problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toelch, U.; Bruce, M.J.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Reader, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Conformist social learning, the tendency to acquire the most common trait in a group, allows individuals to rapidly acquire established beneficial traits from a multitude of options. However, conformist strategies hinder acquisition of novel advantageous behavior patterns, because such innovations

  1. Jet-Like Correlations between Forward and Mid-Rapidity

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F

    2007-01-01

    Mid-rapidity azimuthal correlations probe di-jets originating mainly from gluon-gluon hard-scattering. Measurements of such correlations have revealed significant (gluon-)jet modification in central Au+Au collisions. Azimuthal correlations at forward rapidity with a mid-rapidity high-pt hadron, on the other hand, are sensitive primarily to quark-gluon hard-scattering and may probe quark-jet modification in nuclear medium. They may be also sensitive to the Color Glass Condensate by separating d-side and Au-side in d+Au collisions. We present the first results on correlations of charged hadrons at forward rapidity in the STAR FTPCs (2.7 3 GeV/c). Preliminary results from pp, d+Au, and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV are compared. Implications of the results are discussed.

  2. Microfluidic Immunoassays as Rapid Saliva-Based Clinical Diagnostics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amy E. Herr; Anson V. Hatch; Daniel J. Throckmorton; Huu M. Tran; James S. Brennan; William V. Giannobile; Anup K. Singh

    2007-01-01

    .... Here we report on a clinical POC diagnostic that enables rapid quantitation of an oral disease biomarker in human saliva by using a monolithic disposable cartridge designed to operate in a compact analytical instrument...

  3. Hydrothermal iron flux variability following rapid sea level changes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Middleton, Jennifer L; Langmuir, Charles H; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; McManus, Jerry F; Mitrovica, Jerry X

    2016-01-01

    .... Mir sediments reveal sixfold to eightfold increases in hydrothermal iron and copper deposition during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by a rapid decline during the sea level rise associated with deglaciation...

  4. Rapid Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis Using a Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jy Ben

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: The microarray method provides a more accurate and rapid diagnostic tool for bacterial meningitis compared to traditional culture methods. Clinical application of this new technique may reduce the potential risk of delay in treatment.

  5. A review of rapid solidification studies of intermetallic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    A review of rapid solidification studies of high-temperature ordered intermetallic compounds is presented. Emphasis is on the nickel - and iron- aluminides which are of potential interest as structural materials. The nickel-base aluminides which have been rapidly solidified exhibit changes in grain size, compositional segregation, and degree of long range order (as reflected in APB size and distribution) which markedly affect mechanical properties. Some experiments indicate the formation of a metastable L1(2) phase in rapidly solidified Fe-(Ni,Mn)-Al-C alloys, while other work observes only a metastable fcc phase in the same composition range. The metastable phases and/or microstructures in both nickel and iron aluminides are destroyed by annealing at temperatures above 750 K, with subsequent degradation of mechanical properties. Rapid solidification studies of several other intermetallic compounds are briefly noted.

  6. The reasons for the rapid development of human technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    While playing with a two-year-old girl in Australia, Alan Macfarlane explains one reason for the rapid development of humans, namely their curiosity and desire to experiment and to imagine and make new things.

  7. Adsorption of Chloroform by the Rapid Response System Filter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karwacki, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    Adsorption equilibria and dynamic breakthrough data were measured to determine the adsorption capacity and effect of purge air on the desorption of chloroform from activated carbon simulating the Rapid Response System (RRS) filter...

  8. Rapid Detection of Cellular Response to Biological Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Bryan R

    2005-01-01

    Our program objective is to develop simple and rapid methods for detecting at a cellular level, individual responses to environmental stresses elaborated by exposure to infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses...

  9. Rapid Detection of Cellular Responses to Biological Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    Our program objective is to develop simple and rapid methods for detecting, at a cellular level, individual responses to environmental stresses elaborated by exposure to infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses...

  10. Rapid Detection of Cellular Responses to Biological Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    Our program objective is to develop simple and rapid methods for detecting, at a cellular level, individual responses to environmental stresses elaborated by exposure to infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses...

  11. Risk Informed Design Using Integrated Vehicle Rapid Assessment Tools Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A successful proof of concept was performed in FY 2012 integrating the Envision tool for parametric estimates of vehicle mass and the Rapid Response Risk Assessment...

  12. Rapid intermittent movement of axonal neurofilaments observed by fluorescence photobleaching

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, L; Brown, A

    2001-01-01

    Observations on naturally occurring gaps in the axonal neurofilament array of cultured neurons have demonstrated that neurofilament polymers move along axons in a rapid, intermittent, and highly asynchronous manner...

  13. Turnbull - Early Detection and Rapid Response Team 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Funding from this grant will allow for the purchase of biocontrol agents and chemicals to facilitate the rapid response phase of the project and to provide funds to...

  14. Turnbull - Early Detection and Rapid Response Team 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Funding from this grant will allow for the purchase of biocontrol agents and chemicals to facilitate the rapid response phase of the project and to provide match for...

  15. Rapid pointwise stabilization of vibrating strings and beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia BARHOUMI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Applying a general construction and using former results on the observability we prove, under rather general assumptions, a rapid pointwise stabilization of vibrating strings and beams.

  16. [Rapid identification system for seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Pengfei; Guo, Qiaosheng; Wang, Tao; Shao, Qingsong

    2012-04-01

    To achieve the rapid identification for seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium, the discriminant equation was established and the software for rapid identification was designed. Leaf structure of medicinal Chrysanthemum of 12 cultivars was analyzed to establish the discriminant equation based on variance analysis and discriminant analysis. On this basis, the identification program and software (based on the python language) were designed. Through the analysis of variance and multiple comparisons for the 11 leaf parameter index data of 12 different cultivars, it was found that that the leaf parameters were significant different from each other and reached significant levels. The discriminant equation and the rapid identification software were set up based on the analysis of various indicators. The rapid identification system of seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum could be achieved through the establishment of discriminant equation combined with computer technology.

  17. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guerrero, M L; Morrow, R C; Calva, J J; Ortega-Gallegos, H; Weller, S C; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Morrow, A L

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding...

  18. ETV Tech Brief: Rapid Fungi and Bacteria Detection Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical brief that summarizes the results for Mycometer, Inc. Mycometer®-test and Bactiquant®-test, which are rapid detection technologies for fungi and bacteria. The brief summarizes the results of the verification report and statement.

  19. In vitro rapid and mass multiplication of highly valuable medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro rapid and mass multiplication of highly valuable medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. Sudhir Sharma, Barkha Kamal, Neelima Rathi, Sudhir Chauhan, Vikas Jadon, Neha Vats, Ashok Gehlot, Sarita Arya ...

  20. Analysis of Rapid Acquisition Processes to Fulfill Future Urgent Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    UAVs , the DOD defines UAVs as “powered aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator; use aerodynamic forces to provide lift; can be autonomously...25 B. UAV ...25 1. UAV Background ...............................................................................25 2. Rapid Acquisition in UAV

  1. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change provides data and information on global and regional land cover change in raster format for...

  2. TCSP GOES 11 RAPID SCAN WINDS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TCSP GOES 11 Rapid Scan Winds dataset was generated from image triplets with 30 or 60 minute intervals, and occasionally 15 minute intervals. During...

  3. Lessons learned from Rapid Response Research on wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh Lentile; Penny Morgan; Colin Hardy; Andrew Hudak; Robert Means; Roger Ottmar; Peter Robichaud; Elaine Sutherland; Frederick Way; Sarah Lewis

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, more researchers are collecting data either on active wildfires or immediately after wildfire occurrence. Known as Rapid Response Research, this important undertaking provides real-time information, useful data, and improved tools for managers.

  4. [Rapidly developing vertebral eosinophilic granuloma. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laburthe-Tolra, Y; Boutillier, J B; Chome, J

    1983-04-01

    Radiographs taken at an interval of one week showed collapse of the twelfth dorsal vertebra, very suggestive of an eosinophilic granuloma. A biopsy performed during surgery, because of the rapid progression of the lesion, was able to confirm the diagnosis.

  5. Rapid folding of DNA into nanoscale shapes at constant temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sobczak, Jean-Philippe J; Martin, Thomas G; Gerling, Thomas; Dietz, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    .... Unfolding occurred in apparent equilibrium at higher temperatures than those for folding. Folding at optimized constant temperatures enabled the rapid production of three-dimensional DNA objects with yields that approached 100...

  6. Rapid Tools Compensation in Sheet Metal Stamping Process

    OpenAIRE

    Iorio Lorenzo; Strano Matteo; Monno Michele

    2016-01-01

    The sudden growth of additive manufacturing is generating a renovated interest towards the field of rapid tooling. We propose a geometrical compensation method for rapid tools made by thermoset polyurethane. The method is based on the explicit FEM simulation coupled to a geometrical optimization algorithm for designing the stamping tools. The compensation algorithm is enhanced by considering the deviations between the stamped and designed components. The FEM model validation has been performe...

  7. Rapid Hepatitis C Virus Divergence among Chronically Infected Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Carpio-Pedroza, Juan Carlos; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Lozano, Daniela; Vergara-Castaneda, Arely; Rivera-Osorio, Pilar; Martinez-Guarneros, Armando; Chacon, Carlos A. Vazquez; Fonseca-Coronado, Salvador; Vaughan, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Here, we analyze the viral divergence among hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic cases infected with genotype 1. The intrahost viral evolution was assessed by deep sequencing using the 454 Genome Sequencer platform. The results showed a rapid nucleotide sequence divergence. This notorious short-term viral evolution is of the utmost importance for the study of HCV transmission, because direct links between related samples were virtually lost. Thus, rapid divergence of HCV significantly affects gene...

  8. What caused the rapid recovery of the Carrington storm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keika, Kunihiro; Ebihara, Yusuke; Kataoka, Ryuho

    2015-05-01

    The geomagnetic storm during the Carrington event, which occurred on 2 September 1859, displayed extremely rapid recovery. The geomagnetic field increased by approximately 650 nT/h at Bombay, India, and by >300 nT/h in 1-h averaged data. Although the rapid recovery is considered due to a sudden increase in the magnetopause current, a sudden decrease of the ring current, or/and a sudden enhancement of the ionospheric currents, this study focuses on the ring current decay. The Carrington rapid recovery had a time constant (approximately 1 h) comparable to the storm development (i.e., decrease in the geomagnetic field), indicating that energy loss from the ring current region is predominantly controlled by E × B convection transport which is responsible for energy input during the storm main phase. This feature has led us to a hypothesis that the flow-out of dense ring current ions and injections of tenuous plasma sheet ions caused the rapid decay of the ring current and in turn the storm rapid recovery. This study examines whether the Carrington rapid recovery can be explained by the flow-out effect. We extend the empirical Burton's model to a model that takes into consideration a sudden change in solar wind density which is correlated with plasma sheet density. We first apply the extended Burton's model to previously observed four intense magnetic storms (Dst minimum solar wind data are available. Using the best fit parameters found by forward modeling, the extended model estimates the recovery of the Carrington storm. The estimate indicates that a solar wind structure with a density bump by approximately 100 cm-3 (and southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) of 65 nT and solar wind speed of 1,500 km/s) can cause the rapid recovery under a continuous southward IMF condition. We conclude that the flow-out effect plays a significant role in producing the rapid recovery of the Carrington storm.

  9. MR sequences and rapid acquisition for MR guided interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E; Faranesh, Anthony Z; Lederman, Robert J; Hansen, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Interventional MR uses rapid imaging to guide diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. One of the attractions of MR-guidance is the abundance of inherent contrast mechanisms available. Dynamic procedural guidance with real-time imaging has pushed the limits of MR technology, demanding rapid acquisition and reconstruction paired with interactive control and device visualization. This article reviews the technical aspects of real-time MR sequences that enable MR-guided interventions. PMID:26499283

  10. Rapid HIV-1 testing during labor: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulterys, Marc; Jamieson, Denise J; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Cohen, Mardge H; Maupin, Robert; Nesheim, Steven; Webber, Mayris P; Van Dyke, Russell; Wiener, Jeffrey; Branson, Bernard M

    2004-07-14

    Timely testing of women in labor with undocumented human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status could enable immediate provision of antiretroviral prophylaxis. To determine the feasibility and acceptance of rapid HIV testing among women in labor and to assess rapid HIV assay performance. The Mother-Infant Rapid Intervention At Delivery (MIRIAD) study implemented 24-hour counseling and voluntary rapid HIV testing for women in labor at 16 US hospitals from November 16, 2001, through November 15, 2003. A rapid HIV-1 antibody test for whole blood was used. Acceptance of HIV testing; sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the rapid test; time from blood collection to patient notification of results. There were 91,707 visits to the labor and delivery units in the study, 7381 of which were by eligible women without documentation of HIV testing. Of these, 5744 (78%) women were approached for rapid HIV testing and 4849 (84%) consented. HIV-1 test results were positive for 34 women (prevalence = 7/1000). Sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 100% and 99.9%, respectively; positive predictive value was 90% compared with 76% for enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Factors independently associated with higher test acceptance included younger age, being black or Hispanic, gestational age less than 32 weeks, and having had no prenatal care. Lower acceptance was associated with being admitted between 4 pm and midnight, particularly on Friday nights, but this may be explained in part by fewer available personnel. Median time from blood collection to patient notification of result was 66 minutes (interquartile range, 45-120 minutes), compared with 28 hours for EIA (PHIV testing is feasible and delivers accurate and timely test results for women in labor. It provides HIV-positive women prompt access to intrapartum and neonatal antiretroviral prophylaxis, proven to reduce perinatal HIV transmission, and may be particularly applicable to higher-risk populations.

  11. Neuromuscular Control of Rapid Linear Accelerations in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    fish : Final Report Eric D. Tytell Department of Biology , Tufts University, eric.tytell@tufts.edu Abstract In this project, we measured muscle... important aspects of how rapid movements are controlled, but will have to be done using a negative stimulus such as a object accelerating toward the fish ...sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Animals with flexible bodies, like fishes , face a tradeoff for rapid movements. To produce high forces, they must

  12. Reliable, rapid and simple voltammetric detection of urea nitrate explosive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, Avi; Lu, Donglai; Cizek, Karel; La Belle, Jeff; Wang, Joseph

    2008-05-01

    A highly selective and rapid electrochemical assay of the improvised explosive urea nitrate (UN) is reported. The method involves a short ( approximately 10 s) acid-catalyzed reaction of UN with 4-nitrotoluene (NT) followed by a rapid ( approximately 2 s) square-wave voltammetric (SWV) detection of the 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) product. The new protocol offers great promise for a reliable field detection of UN, with significant advantages of speed, sensitivity, portability, simplicity, and cost.

  13. Template preparation for rapid PCR in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca M. Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of DNA for PCR is time-consuming and involves many reagents. The aim of this work was to optimise a rapid and easy PCR methodology without previous DNA isolation. Different strains of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum were used. Protoplasts were generated using lytic enzymes under high incubation temperatures using different methodologies to obtain the template. A rapid (10 minute methodology was successful for smaller amplicons (<750 bp.

  14. The photon PDF in events with rapidity gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harland-Lang, L.A. [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Khoze, V.A. [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ryskin, M.G. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    We consider photon-initiated events with large rapidity gaps in proton-proton collisions, where one or both protons may break up. We formulate a modified photon PDF that accounts for the specific experimental rapidity gap veto, and demonstrate how the soft survival probability for these gaps may be implemented consistently. Finally, we present some phenomenological results for the two-photon induced production of lepton and W boson pairs. (orig.)

  15. La multiplication rapide du bananier et du plantain au Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonte, E.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Multiplication of Banana and Plantain Trees in Cameroon. To increase the rate of multiplication of banana and plantain trees, several technics are practiced. Less sophisticated than tissue culture which necessitates a laboratory, this note presents two types of rapid multiplication practices : 1 ° by removal of the apical dominance, that is decapitation, bending over and false decapitation. 2° by spliting of corms and buds.

  16. Microstructures in rapidly solidified Ni-Mo alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, N.; Tewari, S. N.; Hemker, K. J.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1986-01-01

    Ni-Mo alloys of compositions ranging from pure Ni to Ni-40 at. percent Mo were rapidly solidified by Chill Block Melt Spinning in vacuum and were examined by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Rapid solidification resulted in an extension of molybdenum solubility in nickel from 28 to 37.5 at. percent. A number of different phases and microstructures were seen at different depths (solidification conditions) from the quenched surface of the melt spun ribbons.

  17. Rapid method for detection of salmonella in meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a rapid method for the detection of Salmonella in meat as well as to a kit for performing said method. The method provides a time-to-result of less than 8 hours.......The present invention relates to a rapid method for the detection of Salmonella in meat as well as to a kit for performing said method. The method provides a time-to-result of less than 8 hours....

  18. La multiplication rapide du bananier et du plantain au Cameroun

    OpenAIRE

    Bonte, E.; Verdonck, R.; Grégoire, L.

    1995-01-01

    Rapid Multiplication of Banana and Plantain Trees in Cameroon. To increase the rate of multiplication of banana and plantain trees, several technics are practiced. Less sophisticated than tissue culture which necessitates a laboratory, this note presents two types of rapid multiplication practices : 1 ° by removal of the apical dominance, that is decapitation, bending over and false decapitation. 2° by spliting of corms and buds.

  19. Rapid Motion Planning and Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    SUBTITLE Rapid Motion Planning and Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Vehicles 6. AUTHOR(S) Laird-Philip Ryan Lewis 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited RAPID MOTION PLANNING AND AUTONOMOUS OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE FOR UNMANNED...of Robot Motion; Theory, Algorithms, and Implementation, The MIT Press, 2005. 7. Zefran, M., Continuous Methods for Motion Planning , Doctoral

  20. Review, Selection and Installation of a Rapid Prototype Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEndree, Caryl

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to impress upon the reader the benefits and advantages of investing in rapid prototyping (additive manufacturing) technology thru the procurement of one or two new rapid prototyping machines and the creation of a new Prototype and Model Lab at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This new resource will be available to all of United Space Alliance, LLC (USA), enabling engineers from around the company to pursue a more effective means of communication and design with our co-workers, and our customer, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Rapid Protoyping/3D printing industry mirrors the transition the CAD industry made several years ago, when companies were trying to justify the expenditure of converting to a 3D based system from a 2D based system. The advantages of using a 3D system seemed to be outweighed by the cost it would take to convert not only legacy 2D drawings into 3D models but the training of personnel to use the 3D CAD software. But the reality was that when a 3D CAD system is employed, it gives engineers a much greater ability to conceive new designs and the ability to engineer new tools and products much more effectively. Rapid Prototyping (RP) is the name given to a host of related technologies that are used to fabricate physical objects directly from Computer Aided Design (CAD) data sources. These methods are generally similar to each other in that they add and bond materials in a layer wise-fashion to form objects, instead of machining away material. The machines used in Rapid Prototyping are also sometimes referred to as Rapid Manufacturing machines due to the fact that some of the parts fabricated in a RP machine can be used as the finished product. The name "Rapid Prototyping" is really a misnomer. It is much more than prototypes and it is not always rapid.

  1. PHENIX Results on Heavy-Flavor Yields at Forward Rapidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M.

    2016-12-01

    The PHENIX collaboration is actively pursuing a physics program to make precision open and closed heavy flavor measurements over a large rapidity range (- 2.2 production at all rapidities and are expanding our measurements of inclusive open heavy flavor to separated charm and beauty measurements carried out via single lepton measurements and through the separation of prompt and B → J / ψ + X production. We present the current status of these measurements.

  2. RRT*-SMART: A Rapid Convergence Implementation of RRT*

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Jauwairia; Islam, Fahad; Malik, Usman; Ayaz, Yasar; Hasan, Osman; Khan, Mushtaq; Muhammad, Mannan Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Many sampling based algorithms have been introduced recently. Among them Rapidly Exploring Random Tree (RRT) is one of the quickest and the most efficient obstacle free path finding algorithm. Although it ensures probabilistic completeness, it cannot guarantee finding the most optimal path. Rapidly Exploring Random Tree Star (RRT*), a recently proposed extension of RRT, claims to achieve convergence towards the optimal solution thus ensuring asymptotic optimality along with probabilistic comp...

  3. Optimal Schedules of Light Exposure for Rapidly Correcting Circadian Misalignment

    OpenAIRE

    Kirill Serkh; Forger, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Jet lag arises from a misalignment of circadian biological timing with the timing of human activity, and is caused by rapid transmeridian travel. Jet lag's symptoms, such as depressed cognitive alertness, also arise from work and social schedules misaligned with the timing of the circadian clock. Using experimentally validated mathematical models, we develop a new methodology to find mathematically optimal schedules of light exposure and avoidance for rapidly re-entraining the human circadian...

  4. Naturalistic rapid deceleration data: Drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chevalier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research manuscript “Predictors of older drivers’ involvement in rapid deceleration events”, which investigates potential predictors of older drivers’ involvement in rapid deceleration events including measures of vision, cognitive function and driving confidence (A. Chevalier et al., 2016 [1]. In naturalistic driving studies such as this, when sample size is not large enough to allow crashes to be used to investigate driver safety, rapid deceleration events may be used as a surrogate safety measure. Naturalistic driving data were collected for up to 52 weeks from 182 volunteer drivers aged 75–94 years (median 80 years, 52% male living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Accelerometer data were recorded 32 times per second and Global Positioning System (GPS data each second. To measure rapid deceleration behavior, rapid deceleration events (RDEs were defined as having at least one data point at or above the deceleration threshold of 750 milli-g (7.35 m/s2. All events were constrained to a maximum 5 s duration. The dataset provided with this article contains 473 events, with a row per RDE. This article also contains information about data processing, treatment and quality control. The methods and data presented here may assist with planning and analysis of future studies into rapid deceleration behaviour using in-vehicle monitoring.

  5. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however, a distinct phenotype with respect to other RBD patients and characterized also by absence of gender predominance, elementary rather than complex movements, less violent behavior and earlier age at onset of motor events, and strong association to narcolepsy with cataplexy/hypocretin deficiency. Patients with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic motor activities in REM sleep and dream-enacting behavior are mostly reported in presence of cataplexy. Narcolepsy without cataplexy is a condition rarely associated with hypocretin deficiency. We proposed that hypocretin neurons are centrally involved in motor control during wakefulness and sleep in humans, and that hypocretin deficiency causes a functional defect in the motor control involved in the development of cataplexy during wakefulness and RBD/RSWA/phasic motor activity during REM sleep. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid Response Teams: Is it Time to Reframe the Questions of Rapid Response Team Measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra, Gail G; Bindler, Ruth C; Daratha, Kenn B

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of rapid response team (RRT) history in the United States, provide a review of prior RRT effectiveness research, and propose the reframing of four new questions of RRT measurement that are designed to better understand RRTs in the context of contemporary nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. RRTs were adopted in the United States because of their intuitive appeal, and despite a lack of evidence for their effectiveness. Subsequent studies used mortality and cardiac arrest rates to measure whether or not RRTs "work." Few studies have thoroughly examined the effect of RRTs on nurses and on nursing practice. An extensive literature review provided the background. Suppositions and four critical, unanswered questions arising from the literature are suggested. The results of RRT effectiveness, which have focused on patient-oriented outcomes, have been ambiguous, contradictory, and difficult to interpret. Additionally, they have not taken into account the multiple ways in which these teams have impacted nurses and nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. What happens in terms of RRT process and utilization is likely to have a major impact on nurses and nursing care on general medical and surgical wards. What that impact will be depends on what we can learn from measuring with an expanded yardstick, in order to answer the question, "Do RRTs work?" Evidence for the benefits of RRTs depends on proper framing of questions relating to their effectiveness, including the multiple ways RRTs contribute to nursing efficacy. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. Audiovisual Simultaneity Judgment and Rapid Recalibration throughout the Lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Noel

    Full Text Available Multisensory interactions are well established to convey an array of perceptual and behavioral benefits. One of the key features of multisensory interactions is the temporal structure of the stimuli combined. In an effort to better characterize how temporal factors influence multisensory interactions across the lifespan, we examined audiovisual simultaneity judgment and the degree of rapid recalibration to paired audiovisual stimuli (Flash-Beep and Speech in a sample of 220 participants ranging from 7 to 86 years of age. Results demonstrate a surprisingly protracted developmental time-course for both audiovisual simultaneity judgment and rapid recalibration, with neither reaching maturity until well into adolescence. Interestingly, correlational analyses revealed that audiovisual simultaneity judgments (i.e., the size of the audiovisual temporal window of simultaneity and rapid recalibration significantly co-varied as a function of age. Together, our results represent the most complete description of age-related changes in audiovisual simultaneity judgments to date, as well as being the first to describe changes in the degree of rapid recalibration as a function of age. We propose that the developmental time-course of rapid recalibration scaffolds the maturation of more durable audiovisual temporal representations.

  8. Rapid Health and Needs assessments after disasters: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yzermans CJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publichealth care providers, stakeholders and policy makers request a rapid insight into health status and needs of the affected population after disasters. To our knowledge, there is no standardized rapid assessment tool for European countries. The aim of this article is to describe existing tools used internationally and analyze them for the development of a workable rapid assessment. Methods A review was conducted, including original studies concerning a rapid health and/or needs assessment. The studies used were published between 1980 and 2009. The electronic databasesof Medline, Embase, SciSearch and Psychinfo were used. Results Thirty-three studies were included for this review. The majority of the studies was of US origin and in most cases related to natural disasters, especially concerning the weather. In eighteen studies an assessment was conducted using a structured questionnaire, eleven studies used registries and four used both methods. Questionnaires were primarily used to asses the health needs, while data records were used to assess the health status of disaster victims. Conclusions Methods most commonly used were face to face interviews and data extracted from existing registries. Ideally, a rapid assessment tool is needed which does not add to the burden of disaster victims. In this perspective, the use of existing medical registries in combination with a brief questionnaire in the aftermath of disasters is the most promising. Since there is an increasing need for such a tool this approach needs further examination.

  9. Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K. R.; Levine, A.

    2014-09-01

    The Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit combines the former Geothermal Regulatory Roadmap, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Database, and other resources into a Web-based tool that gives the regulatory and utility-scale geothermal developer communities rapid and easy access to permitting information. RAPID currently comprises five tools - Permitting Atlas, Regulatory Roadmap, Resource Library, NEPA Database, and Best Practices. A beta release of an additional tool, the Permitting Wizard, is scheduled for late 2014. Because of the huge amount of information involved, RAPID was developed in a wiki platform to allow industry and regulatory agencies to maintain the content in the future so that it continues to provide relevant and accurate information to users. In 2014, the content was expanded to include regulatory requirements for utility-scale solar and bulk transmission development projects. Going forward, development of the RAPID Toolkit will focus on expanding the capabilities of current tools, developing additional tools, including additional technologies, and continuing to increase stakeholder involvement.

  10. Rapidity resummation for B-meson wave functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Yue-Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse-momentum dependent (TMD hadronic wave functions develop light-cone divergences under QCD corrections, which are commonly regularized by the rapidity ζ of gauge vector defining the non-light-like Wilson lines. The yielding rapidity logarithms from infrared enhancement need to be resummed for both hadronic wave functions and short-distance functions, to achieve scheme-independent calculations of physical quantities. We briefly review the recent progress on the rapidity resummation for B-meson wave functions which are the key ingredients of TMD factorization formulae for radiative-leptonic, semi-leptonic and non-leptonic B-meson decays. The crucial observation is that rapidity resummation induces a strong suppression of B-meson wave functions at small light-quark momentum, strengthening the applicability of TMD factorization in exclusive B-meson decays. The phenomenological consequence of rapidity-resummation improved B-meson wave functions is further discussed in the context of B → π transition form factors at large hadronic recoil.

  11. Do the eyes scan dream images during rapid eye movement sleep? Evidence from the rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair-Visonneau, Laurène; Oudiette, Delphine; Gaymard, Bertrand; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    Rapid eye movements and complex visual dreams are salient features of human rapid eye movement sleep. However, it remains to be elucidated whether the eyes scan dream images, despite studies that have retrospectively compared the direction of rapid eye movements to the dream recall recorded after having awakened the sleeper. We used the model of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (when patients enact their dreams by persistence of muscle tone) to determine directly whether the eyes move in the same directions as the head and limbs. In 56 patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 17 healthy matched controls, the eye movements were monitored by electrooculography in four (right, left, up and down) directions, calibrated with a target and synchronized with video and sleep monitoring. The rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-associated behaviours occurred 2.1 times more frequently during rapid eye movement sleep with than without rapid eye movements, and more often during or after rapid eye movements than before. Rapid eye movement density, index and complexity were similar in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and controls. When rapid eye movements accompanied goal-oriented motor behaviour during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (e.g. grabbing a fictive object, hand greetings, climbing a ladder), which happened in 19 sequences, 82% were directed towards the action of the patient (same plane and direction). When restricted to the determinant rapid eye movements, the concordance increased to 90%. Rapid eye movements were absent in 38-42% of behaviours. This directional coherence between limbs, head and eye movements during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder suggests that, when present, rapid eye movements imitate the scanning of the dream scene. Since the rapid eye movements are similar in subjects with and without rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, this concordance can be extended

  12. Spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of Carvedilol and Hydrochlorothiazide in combined dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada S. Abdelwahab

    2016-09-01

    In Method (I, two wavelengths were selected for each drug in such a way that the difference in absorbance is zero for the second drug. At wavelengths 238 and 248.8 nm HCT has equal absorbance values, therefore, these two wavelengths have been used to determine CV, on similar basis 266 and 289.4 nm were selected to determine HCT in the combined formulation. Method (II involves the formation of Q-absorbance equation using the respective absorptivity values at 229.2 nm (isoabsorptive point and 241 nm (λmax of CV. The drugs obey Beer’s Lambert’s law in the concentration range of 1–10 μg/mL for both CV and HCT (for Method I and in the range of 1–10 and 2–10 μg/mL for CV and HCT, respectively (for Method II. The accuracy and precision were determined and recovery studies confirmed the accuracy of the developed methods that were carried out following the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines. Statistical comparison of the suggested methods with the reported spectrophotometric one using F and t tests showed no significant difference regarding both accuracy and precision.

  13. Potential Additive Effects of Ticagrelor, Ivabradine, and Carvedilol on Sinus Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Di Serafino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old male patient presented to the emergency room with an anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction. After a loading dose of both ticagrelor and aspirin, the patient underwent primary-PCI on the left anterior descending coronary artery with stent implantation. After successful revascularization, medical therapy included beta-blockers, statins, and angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Two days later, ivabradine was also administered in order to reduce heart rate at target, but the patient developed a severe symptomatic bradycardia and sinus arrest, even requiring administration of both atropine and adrenaline. Ivabradine and ticagrelor have been then suspended and this latter changed with prasugrel. Any other similar event was not reported during the following days. This clinical case raised concerns about the safety of the combination of beta-blockers and ivabradine in patients treated with ticagrelor, particularly during the acute phase of an acute coronary syndrome. These two latter drugs, in particular, might interact with the same receptor. In fact, ivabradine directly modulates the If-channel which is also modulated by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels. These latter have been shown to increase after ticagrelor assumption via inhibition of adenosine uptake by erythrocytes. Further studies are warrant to better clarify the safety of this association.

  14. Rapid Statistical Learning Supporting Word Extraction From Continuous Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J

    2017-07-01

    The identification of words in continuous speech, known as speech segmentation, is a critical early step in language acquisition. This process is partially supported by statistical learning, the ability to extract patterns from the environment. Given that speech segmentation represents a potential bottleneck for language acquisition, patterns in speech may be extracted very rapidly, without extensive exposure. This hypothesis was examined by exposing participants to continuous speech streams composed of novel repeating nonsense words. Learning was measured on-line using a reaction time task. After merely one exposure to an embedded novel word, learners demonstrated significant learning effects, as revealed by faster responses to predictable than to unpredictable syllables. These results demonstrate that learners gained sensitivity to the statistical structure of unfamiliar speech on a very rapid timescale. This ability may play an essential role in early stages of language acquisition, allowing learners to rapidly identify word candidates and "break in" to an unfamiliar language.

  15. Nanomaterial-enabled Rapid Detection of Water Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shun; Chang, Jingbo; Zhou, Guihua; Chen, Junhong

    2015-10-28

    Water contaminants, e.g., inorganic chemicals and microorganisms, are critical metrics for water quality monitoring and have significant impacts on human health and plants/organisms living in water. The scope and focus of this review is nanomaterial-based optical, electronic, and electrochemical sensors for rapid detection of water contaminants, e.g., heavy metals, anions, and bacteria. These contaminants are commonly found in different water systems. The importance of water quality monitoring and control demands significant advancement in the detection of contaminants in water because current sensing technologies for water contaminants have limitations. The advantages of nanomaterial-based sensing technologies are highlighted and recent progress on nanomaterial-based sensors for rapid water contaminant detection is discussed. An outlook for future research into this rapidly growing field is also provided. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Rapid detection of EBOLA VP40 in microchip immunofiltration assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miethe, Peter; Gary, Dominik; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Gad, Anne-Marie

    2015-05-01

    In the spring of 2014, the Ebola virus (EBOV) strain Zaire caused a dramatic outbreak in several regions of West Africa. The RT-PCR and antigen capture diagnostic proved to be effective for detecting EBOV in blood and serum. In this paper, we present data of a rapid antigen capture test for the detection of VP40. The test was performed in a microfluidic chip for immunofiltration analysis. The chip integrates all necessary assay components. The analytical sensitivity of the rapid test was 8 ng/ml for recombinant VP40. In serum and whole blood samples spiked with virus culture material, the detection limit was 2.2 x 102 PFU/ml. The performance data of the rapid test (15 min) are comparable to that of the VP40 laboratory ELISA.

  17. Rapid detection of genetic modification for GMO monitoring in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sofija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic technology has expanded the ways of new genetic variability creation. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs are organisms which total genome is altered in a way that could not happen in nature. GM crops recorded a steady increase in its share in agricultural production. However, for the most part, GMO in agriculture has been limited to two cultivars - soy and corn, and the two genetic modifications, the total herbicide resistance and pest of the Lepidoptera genus. In order to monitor cultivation and trade of GMOs, tests of different precision are used, qualitatively and/or quantitatively determining the presence of genetic modification. Tests for the rapid determination of the presence of GM are suitable, since they can be implemented quickly and accurately, in terms of declared sensitivity, outside or in the laboratory. The example of the use of rapid tests demonstrates their value in use for rapid and efficient monitoring.

  18. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  19. Rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-rare earth alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.F.; Das, S.K.; Raybould, D.

    1987-01-01

    Among the light metal alloys, magnesium is the lightest structural material except for beryllium, and yet magnesium alloys have not seen extensive use because of their poor strength and corrosion resistance. Rapid solidification technology offers a possible solution to these problems. A number of Mg-Al-Zn alloys containing rare earth (RE) elements (e.g. Ce, Pr, Y, and Nd) have been investigated using rapid solidification processing for possible structural applications. The processing consists of planar flow or jet casting into ribbons, pulverization of ribbon to powder, and consolidation of powder into bulk shapes. The mechanical properties of some of these alloys show attractive combinations of strength, ductility and corrosion resistance. The microstructures of these alloys are correlated with their mechanical properties. The rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-RE alloys show great potential for applications in automotive and aerospace industries. 7 references.

  20. Abrupt tectonics and rapid slab detachment with grain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Schubert, Gerald; Ricard, Yanick

    2015-02-03

    A simple model for necking and detachment of subducting slabs is developed to include the coupling between grain-sensitive rheology and grain-size evolution with damage. Necking is triggered by thickened buoyant crust entrained into a subduction zone, in which case grain damage accelerates necking and allows for relatively rapid slab detachment, i.e., within 1 My, depending on the size of the crustal plug. Thick continental crustal plugs can cause rapid necking while smaller plugs characteristic of ocean plateaux cause slower necking; oceanic lithosphere with normal or slightly thickened crust subducts without necking. The model potentially explains how large plateaux or continental crust drawn into subduction zones can cause slab loss and rapid changes in plate motion and/or induce abrupt continental rebound.

  1. Trichomonas spp. in pigeons: detection by OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Petr; Kunca, Tomas; Langrova, Iva; Hartlova, Helena; Brozova, Adela; Jankovska, Ivana; Kudrnacova, Marie; Sloup, Vladislav

    2013-12-01

    The efficacy of the OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test (developed for rapid diagnosis of human Trichomonas vaginalis) in detection of Trichomonas spp. in pigeons (Columba livia) was investigated. Two oral cavity swabs were taken from 50 farm pigeons. Cultivation in Diamond Trichomonas medium was used as a reference method. According to a morphological determination, Trichomonas gallinae was the only protozoan found; however, no further molecular analysis was conducted. The OSOM Trichomonas test was positive in 39 oral swabs. In comparison with the cultivation method three samples were identified as false negative and one as false positive. Test specificity and sensitivity were established as 93% and 90%, respectively. Using Cohen's Kappa, the concordance between the two testing methods was found to be strong (kappa = 0.7506, 95% CI = 0.5162-0.9850). The OSOM Trichomonas test is not able to distinguish between Trichomonas species; however, results suggest that the test is suitable for the rapid detection of Trichomonas spp. infection in pigeons.

  2. Determine quality of rice seed using rapid techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Zheng, Siyuan; Ying, Yibin

    2007-09-01

    This paper is aimed at investigating the possibility of sorting rice seeds by rapid techniques. Machine vision and dielectric separation were involved to determine external and internal quality of rice seeds. A conceptual rapid seed sorter is proposed. Two varieties of rice seeds planted and harvested in different years were involved in the experiments. Using morphological and color features gave a highly acceptable classification of normal and defective seeds. Dielectric parameters can be used to classify rice seeds into high vigor and low vigor. Combination of appearance characteristics and dielectric properties provide comprehensive response of seed quality. A highly acceptable defects classification and vigor improvement were achieved when the principle prototype was implemented for all the samples to test the adaptability. The good adaptability of machine vision and dielectric separation indicate the potential to determine quality of rice seeds rapidly. This paper presents the significant elements of the conceptual prototype and emphasizes the important aspects of the image processing and dielectric separation techniques.

  3. RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF RADIOSTRONTIUM IN EMERGENCY MILK SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-07-17

    A new rapid separation method for radiostrontium in emergency milk samples was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Environmental Bioassay Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that will allow rapid separation and measurement of Sr-90 within 8 hours. The new method uses calcium phosphate precipitation, nitric acid dissolution of the precipitate to coagulate residual fat/proteins and a rapid strontium separation using Sr Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Darien, IL, USA) with vacuum-assisted flow rates. The method is much faster than previous method that use calcination or cation exchange pretreatment, has excellent chemical recovery, and effectively removes beta interferences. When a 100 ml sample aliquot is used, the method has a detection limit of 0.5 Bq/L, well below generic emergency action levels.

  4. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jeremy A [Albuquerque, NM; Davis, Donald W [Albuquerque, NM; Chavez, Bart D [Albuquerque, NM; Gallegos, Phillip L [Albuquerque, NM; Wicker, Ryan B [El Paso, TX; Medina, Francisco R [El Paso, TX

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  5. Rapid Conditioning for the Next Generation Melting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, David M. [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-06-17

    This report describes work on Rapid Conditioning for the Next Generation Melting System under US Department of Energy Contract DE-FC36-06GO16010. The project lead was the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). Partners included Owens Corning and Johns Manville. Cost share for this project was provided by NYSERDA (the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority), Owens Corning, Johns Manville, Owens Illinois, and the US natural gas industry through GTI’s SMP and UTD programs. The overreaching focus of this project was to study and develop rapid refining approaches for segmented glass manufacturing processes using high-intensity melters such as the submerged combustion melter. The objectives of this project were to 1) test and evaluate the most promising approaches to rapidly condition the homogeneous glass produced from the submerged combustion melter, and 2) to design a pilot-scale NGMS system for fiberglass recycle.

  6. Rapid electrochemiluminescence assays of polymerase chain reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenten, J H; Casadei, J; Link, J; Lupold, S; Willey, J; Powell, M; Rees, A; Massey, R

    1991-09-01

    We demonstrate the first use of an electrochemiluminescent (ECL) label, [4-(N-succimidyloxycarbonylpropyl)-4'-methyl-2,2'- bipyridine]ruthenium(II) dihexafluorophosphate (Origen label; IGEN Inc.), in DNA probe assays. This label allows rapid (less than 25 min) quantification and detection of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified products from oncogenes, viruses, and cloned genes. For the PCR, we used labeled oligonucleotide primers complementary to human papiloma virus and the Ha-ras oncogene. These samples were followed by ECL analysis or hybridization with specific, Origen-labeled oligonucleotide probes. These studies demonstrate the speed, specificity, and effectiveness of the new ECL labels, compared with 32P, for nucleic acid probe applications. We describe formats involving conventional methodologies and a new format that requires no wash step, allowing simple and rapid sample analysis. These rapid assays also reduce PCR contamination, by requiring less sample handling. Improvements in ECL detectability are currently under investigation for use in DNA probe assays without amplification.

  7. Patient specific ankle-foot orthoses using rapid prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivak Seth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prefabricated orthotic devices are currently designed to fit a range of patients and therefore they do not provide individualized comfort and function. Custom-fit orthoses are superior to prefabricated orthotic devices from both of the above-mentioned standpoints. However, creating a custom-fit orthosis is a laborious and time-intensive manual process performed by skilled orthotists. Besides, adjustments made to both prefabricated and custom-fit orthoses are carried out in a qualitative manner. So both comfort and function can potentially suffer considerably. A computerized technique for fabricating patient-specific orthotic devices has the potential to provide excellent comfort and allow for changes in the standard design to meet the specific needs of each patient. Methods In this paper, 3D laser scanning is combined with rapid prototyping to create patient-specific orthoses. A novel process was engineered to utilize patient-specific surface data of the patient anatomy as a digital input, manipulate the surface data to an optimal form using Computer Aided Design (CAD software, and then download the digital output from the CAD software to a rapid prototyping machine for fabrication. Results Two AFOs were rapidly prototyped to demonstrate the proposed process. Gait analysis data of a subject wearing the AFOs indicated that the rapid prototyped AFOs performed comparably to the prefabricated polypropylene design. Conclusions The rapidly prototyped orthoses fabricated in this study provided good fit of the subject's anatomy compared to a prefabricated AFO while delivering comparable function (i.e. mechanical effect on the biomechanics of gait. The rapid fabrication capability is of interest because it has potential for decreasing fabrication time and cost especially when a replacement of the orthosis is required.

  8. Are Melt Migration Rates Through the Mantle Universally Rapid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, M. K.; Sims, K. W.

    2001-12-01

    Significant enrichments in 226Ra over 230Th have been observed in basalts erupted in nearly all tectonic settings. These enrichments generally are greatest in lavas with low concentrations of U, Th and other incompatible elements, including those from mid-ocean ridges and "depleted" volcanic arcs. Excesses of 226Ra over 230Th in mid-ocean ridge settings are commonly attributed to smaller bulk partition coefficients for Ra with respect to Th during mantle melting, and extraction of ingrown Ra into melts slowly migrating through interconnected pore space. In contrast, 226Ra excesses in basalts from volcanic arcs have been attributed to fluid additions from subducting slabs to the sources of the basalt and rapid (102 - 103y) melt migration to the surface (e.g. Turner et al., 2001). Such rapid melt velocities imply channeled flow rather than diffuse porous flow, and suggest that basalts from other tectonic settings migrate similarly rapidly. Here, we show that the compositions of basalts from both arc and mid-ocean ridge settings indeed can be explained by melting models involving rapid transit times to the surface. Simple fluxed melting models and rapid transfer of melt to the surface explain the U-Th-Ra systematics and incompatible trace element compositions of arc basalts. The U-Th-Ra and trace element data for young MORB from the East Pacific Rise (Sims et al. 2001) and the Siqueiros transform (Lundstrom et al. 1999) are modeled using simple 2-d polybaric melting based on Braun et al. (2000) and rapid melt migration rates. Successful models mix small-degree fractional melts derived from a broad cross-sectional area of mantle at depth with high-degree melts derived from a small cross-sectional area of shallow mantle that is the aged residue of the small degree melt.

  9. Algal and water-quality data for Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Putnam, Larry D.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of algae and water-quality sampling on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007. The overall purpose of the study was to determine the algal community composition of Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake in relation to organisms that are known producers of unwanted tastes and odors in drinking-water supplies. Algal assemblage structure (phytoplankton and periphyton) was examined at 16 sites on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007, and actinomycetes bacteria were sampled at the Rapid City water treatment plant intake in May 2007, to determine if taste-and-odor producing organisms were present. During the May 2007 sampling, 3 Rapid Creek sites and 4 Canyon Lake sites were quantitatively sampled for phytoplankton in the water column, 7 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 4 lake and retention pond sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Five Rapid Creek sites were sampled for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, two common taste-and-odor causing compounds known to affect water supplies. During the September 2007 sampling, 4 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 3 Canyon Lake sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were measured during each sampling event. Methods of collection and sample analysis are presented for the various types of biological and chemical constituent samples. Diatoms comprised 91-100 percent of the total algal biovolume in periphyton samples collected during May and September. Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) were detected in 7 of the 11 quantitative periphyton samples and ranged from 0.01 to 2.0 percent of the total biovolume. Cyanobacteria were present in 3 of the 7 phytoplankton samples collected in May, but the relative biovolumes were small (0.01-0.2 percent). Six of seven qualitative samples collected from Canyon Lake

  10. Rapid Tools Compensation in Sheet Metal Stamping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iorio Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sudden growth of additive manufacturing is generating a renovated interest towards the field of rapid tooling. We propose a geometrical compensation method for rapid tools made by thermoset polyurethane. The method is based on the explicit FEM simulation coupled to a geometrical optimization algorithm for designing the stamping tools. The compensation algorithm is enhanced by considering the deviations between the stamped and designed components. The FEM model validation has been performed by comparing the results of a DOE done at different values of press force.

  11. Integrated database for rapid mass movements in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jaedicke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid gravitational slope mass movements include all kinds of short term relocation of geological material, snow or ice. Traditionally, information about such events is collected separately in different databases covering selected geographical regions and types of movement. In Norway the terrain is susceptible to all types of rapid gravitational slope mass movements ranging from single rocks hitting roads and houses to large snow avalanches and rock slides where entire mountainsides collapse into fjords creating flood waves and endangering large areas. In addition, quick clay slides occur in desalinated marine sediments in South Eastern and Mid Norway. For the authorities and inhabitants of endangered areas, the type of threat is of minor importance and mitigation measures have to consider several types of rapid mass movements simultaneously.

    An integrated national database for all types of rapid mass movements built around individual events has been established. Only three data entries are mandatory: time, location and type of movement. The remaining optional parameters enable recording of detailed information about the terrain, materials involved and damages caused. Pictures, movies and other documentation can be uploaded into the database. A web-based graphical user interface has been developed allowing new events to be entered, as well as editing and querying for all events. An integration of the database into a GIS system is currently under development.

    Datasets from various national sources like the road authorities and the Geological Survey of Norway were imported into the database. Today, the database contains 33 000 rapid mass movement events from the last five hundred years covering the entire country. A first analysis of the data shows that the most frequent type of recorded rapid mass movement is rock slides and snow avalanches followed by debris slides in third place. Most events are recorded in the steep fjord

  12. Rapid method to estimate temperature changes in electronics elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborskii G. A., Savel’eva O. S., Shikhireva Yu. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behavior of electronic equipment is the determining factor for performing rapid assessment of the effectiveness of design and operation of the equipment. The assessment method proposed in this article consists in fixation of an infrared video stream from the surface of the device and converting it into a visible flow by means of a thermal imager, splitting it into component colors and their further processing using parabolic transformation. The result of the transformation is the number used as a rapid criterion for estimation of distribution stability of heat in the equipment.

  13. Reliability of a rapid hematology stain for sputum cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Jéssica; Pizzichini, Emilio; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Steidle, Leila John Marques; Rocha, Cristiane Cinara; Ferreira, Samira Cardoso; Zimmermann, Célia Tânia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reliability of a rapid hematology stain for the cytological analysis of induced sputum samples. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comparing the standard technique (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain) with a rapid hematology stain (Diff-Quik). Of the 50 subjects included in the study, 21 had asthma, 19 had COPD, and 10 were healthy (controls). From the induced sputum samples collected, we prepared four slides: two were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, and two w...

  14. Rapid solidification via melt spinning - Equipment and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jech, R. W.; Moore, T. J.; Glasgow, T. K.; Orth, N. W.

    1984-01-01

    One of the simpler methods available to accomplish rapid solidification processing is free jet melt spinning. With only a modest expenditure of time, effort, and capital, an apparatus suitable for preliminary experimentation can be assembled. Wheel and crucible materials, process atmospheres, crucible design, heating methods, and process parameters and their relationship to melt composition are described. Practical solutions to processing problems, based on 'hands-on' experience, are offered. Alloys with melting points up to 3000 F have been rapidly solidified using the techniques described.

  15. Angiographic features of rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma (RICH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konez, Orhan; Burrows, Patricia E. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Mulliken, John B. [Division of Plastic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Fishman, Steven J. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kozakewich, Harry P.W. [Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma (RICH) is a recently recognized entity in which the vascular tumor is fully developed at birth and undergoes rapid involution. Angiographic findings in two infants with congenital hemangioma are reported and compared with a more common postnatal infantile hemangioma and a congenital infantile fibrosarcoma. Congenital hemangiomas differed from infantile hemangiomas angiographically by inhomogeneous parenchymal staining, large and irregular feeding arteries in disorganized patterns, arterial aneurysms, direct arteriovenous shunts, and intravascular thrombi. Both infants had clinical evidence of a high-output cardiac failure and intralesional bleeding. This congenital high-flow vascular tumor is difficult to distinguish angiographically from arteriovenous malformation and congenital infantile fibrosarcoma. (orig.)

  16. Rapid Prototyping of wax foundry models in an incremental process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kozik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis incremental methods of creating wax founding models. There are two methods of Rapid Prototypingof wax models in an incremental process which are more and more often used in industrial practice and in scientific research.Applying Rapid Prototyping methods in the process of making casts allows for acceleration of work on preparing prototypes. It isespecially important in case of element having complicated shapes. The time of making a wax model depending on the size and the appliedRP method may vary from several to a few dozen hours.

  17. Integrated database for rapid mass movements in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaedicke, C.; Lied, K.; Kronholm, K.

    2009-03-01

    Rapid gravitational slope mass movements include all kinds of short term relocation of geological material, snow or ice. Traditionally, information about such events is collected separately in different databases covering selected geographical regions and types of movement. In Norway the terrain is susceptible to all types of rapid gravitational slope mass movements ranging from single rocks hitting roads and houses to large snow avalanches and rock slides where entire mountainsides collapse into fjords creating flood waves and endangering large areas. In addition, quick clay slides occur in desalinated marine sediments in South Eastern and Mid Norway. For the authorities and inhabitants of endangered areas, the type of threat is of minor importance and mitigation measures have to consider several types of rapid mass movements simultaneously. An integrated national database for all types of rapid mass movements built around individual events has been established. Only three data entries are mandatory: time, location and type of movement. The remaining optional parameters enable recording of detailed information about the terrain, materials involved and damages caused. Pictures, movies and other documentation can be uploaded into the database. A web-based graphical user interface has been developed allowing new events to be entered, as well as editing and querying for all events. An integration of the database into a GIS system is currently under development. Datasets from various national sources like the road authorities and the Geological Survey of Norway were imported into the database. Today, the database contains 33 000 rapid mass movement events from the last five hundred years covering the entire country. A first analysis of the data shows that the most frequent type of recorded rapid mass movement is rock slides and snow avalanches followed by debris slides in third place. Most events are recorded in the steep fjord terrain of the Norwegian west coast, but

  18. RAPID: A random access picture digitizer, display, and memory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimovsky, Y.; Rayfield, M.; Eskenazi, R.

    1976-01-01

    RAPID is a system capable of providing convenient digital analysis of video data in real-time. It has two modes of operation. The first allows for continuous digitization of an EIA RS-170 video signal. Each frame in the video signal is digitized and written in 1/30 of a second into RAPID's internal memory. The second mode leaves the content of the internal memory independent of the current input video. In both modes of operation the image contained in the memory is used to generate an EIA RS-170 composite video output signal representing the digitized image in the memory so that it can be displayed on a monitor.

  19. Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for rapid brain tumor histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid histology of brain tissues with sufficient diagnostic information has the great potential to aid neurosurgeons during operations. Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS microscopy is an emerging label-free imaging technique, with the intrinsic chemical resolutions to delineate brain tumors from normal tissues without the need of time-consuming tissue processing. Growing number of studies have shown SRS as a “virtual histology” tool for rapid diagnosis of various types of brain tumors. In this review, we focus on the basic principles and current developments of SRS microscopy, as well as its applications for brain tumor imaging.

  20. Rapid Population Growth and its Implication for Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide concern has recently focused on the negative aspects of rapid population growth for the' future as regards natural and non-renewable re- sources, energy and the environment. A United. Nations sponsored international conference on. "Environment and Development" was held in Brazil. inJune 1992 to focus ...