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Sample records for rapid carbothermal reduction

  1. Roasting of sulphide using carbothermal reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco, Ivana Marcela; Bazan, Vanesa Lucia; Diaz, Andrea Alejandra; Lara, Rodolfo Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The carbothermic reduction process is a direct reduction of sulfides. It allows a roasting in which higher concentrations of metals such as molybdenum are obtained by using both a reducing agent (in this case, carbon C) and a sulfur scavenger, such as CaO so as to prevent air toxic gases pollution such as SO2. In this paper, we analyze sulfur concentrates rich in copper, iron, and molybdenum that are obtained through rougher flotation and differential floats, which give rise to different laws...

  2. Carbothermic reduction of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.N.; Parlee, N.A.D.

    1976-01-01

    The reduction of stable refractory metal oxides by carbon is generally unacceptable since the product is usually contaminated with carbides. The carbide formation may be avoided by selecting a solvent metal to dissolve the reactive metal as it is produced and reduce its chemical activity below that required for carbide formation. This approach has been successfully applied to the oxides of Si, Zr, Ti, Al, Mg, and U. In the case where a volatile suboxide, a carbonyl reaction, or a volatile metal occur, the use of the solvent metal appears satisfactory to limit the loss of material at low pressures. In several solute--solvent systems, vacuum evaporation is used to strip the solvent metal from the alloy to give the pure metal

  3. Boron carbide synthesis by carbothermic reduction of boron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.R.M. de; Paschoal, J.O.A.

    1988-01-01

    Boron carbide (B 4 C) is a ceramic material of technological applications due to its extreme hardness and high chemical as well as thermal stability. Some parameters of the process for obtaining B 4 C by carbothermic reduction of B 2 O 3 have been determined. The starting powders and the final products have been analysed by chemical, spectrographic and X-ray diffraction methods. The results show that the B 4 C obtained by the carbothermic reduction process is suitable for applications with a definite determination of the free carbon content. (author) [pt

  4. Carbothermic Reduction Kinetics of Phosphorous Vaporization from Tri-calcium Phosphate (TCP) Under Microwave Rapid Heating With/Without the Presence of Fe3O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Noboru; Sunako, Manami; Kawahira, Keita; Suzuki, Koki; Miyamoto, Kazunori; Taniguchi, Shoji

    2018-03-01

    The kinetics of vapor phase dephosphorization from tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) by carbothermic reduction was studied with and without the presence of Fe3O4. Microwave heating was utilized to obtain large variations in the heating rate (HR). In the reduction of TCP alone, the phosphorous removal fraction (RF; equal to ΔP2O5/P2O5 0 , where ΔP2O5 is the weight change and P2O5 0is the P2O5 weight before heating) decreased as the HR increased. In other words, a shorter residence time at a high temperature resulted in a smaller reduction fraction of TCP. An apparently third-order reaction was postulated to account for the kinetics using a fitting simulation based on the additive law of the reaction progress. On the other hand, the phosphorous removal (dephosphorization) rate (RR; equal to ΔP2O3/t MW, where tMW is the microwave heating time period) increased as the HR increased above 1200 °C. The reduction ratio of Fe3O4 above 1100 °C is higher than 97 pct regardless of the heating rate. The reduction of TCP in the presence of Fe3O4 showed that RF increased slightly with increasing HR despite a shorter residence time at a high temperature. The RR also increased with the HR even though RF decreased to half of the values observed in the cases without Fe3O4 for temperatures above 1200 °C. The practicality and optimal operation conditions of phosphorus vapor removal were discussed.

  5. Carbothermic Reduction Kinetics of Phosphorous Vaporization from Tri-calcium Phosphate (TCP) Under Microwave Rapid Heating With/Without the Presence of Fe3O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Noboru; Sunako, Manami; Kawahira, Keita; Suzuki, Koki; Miyamoto, Kazunori; Taniguchi, Shoji

    2018-06-01

    The kinetics of vapor phase dephosphorization from tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) by carbothermic reduction was studied with and without the presence of Fe3O4. Microwave heating was utilized to obtain large variations in the heating rate (HR). In the reduction of TCP alone, the phosphorous removal fraction (RF; equal to ΔP2O5/P2O 5 0 , where ΔP2O5 is the weight change and P2O 5 0 is the P2O5 weight before heating) decreased as the HR increased. In other words, a shorter residence time at a high temperature resulted in a smaller reduction fraction of TCP. An apparently third-order reaction was postulated to account for the kinetics using a fitting simulation based on the additive law of the reaction progress. On the other hand, the phosphorous removal (dephosphorization) rate (RR; equal to ΔP2O3/ t MW, where tMW is the microwave heating time period) increased as the HR increased above 1200 °C. The reduction ratio of Fe3O4 above 1100 °C is higher than 97 pct regardless of the heating rate. The reduction of TCP in the presence of Fe3O4 showed that RF increased slightly with increasing HR despite a shorter residence time at a high temperature. The RR also increased with the HR even though RF decreased to half of the values observed in the cases without Fe3O4 for temperatures above 1200 °C. The practicality and optimal operation conditions of phosphorus vapor removal were discussed.

  6. Phase Evolution During the Carbothermic Reduction Process of Ilmenite Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Hai-Peng; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2015-02-01

    The phase evolution during the carbothermic reduction process of Panzhihua ilmenite concentrate was investigated under argon atmosphere. The Panzhihua ilmenite concentrate briquette with graphite powder was reduced at 1473 K, 1573 K, 1673 K, and 1773 K (1200 °C, 1300 °C, 1400 °C, and 1500 °C) respectively, with the molar ratios of C to FeTiO3 being 4:1 and 5:1. The phase transformation of the briquette reduced at different temperatures was investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. During the carbothermic reduction process from 1473 K to 1773 K (1200 °C to 1500 °C), it was found that main phases were Fe, Ti3O5, Ti2O3, and TiC x O y . The lowest temperature for the generation of TiC x O y was 1573 K (1300 °C) for both kinds of briquettes with different C contents. The rate controlling step for the carbothermic reduction above 1573 K (1300 °C) obeyed the diffusion model. The reduction degree of the ilmenite was increased by increasing the temperature. With the increase of reaction temperature and reaction time, TiC x O y phase would be reduced to TiC phase.

  7. Synthesis of silicon carbide by carbothermal reduction of silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Joao Luis

    2009-01-01

    The production of silicon carbide (SiC) in an industrial scale still by carbothermal reduction of silica. This study aims to identify, in a comparative way, among the common reducers like petroleum coke, carbon black, charcoal and graphite the carbothermal reduction of silica from the peat. It is shown, that the peat, also occurs in nature together with high purity silica sand deposits, where the proximity of raw materials and their quality are key elements that determine the type, purity and cost of production of SiC. Tests were running from samples produced in the electric resistance furnace with controlled atmosphere at temperatures of 1550 degree C, 1600 degree C and 1650 degree C, both the precursors and products of reaction of carbothermal reduction were characterized by applying techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray analysis Spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed the formation of SiC for all common reducers, as well as for peat, but it was not possible to realize clearly the difference between them, being necessary, specific tests. (author)

  8. Carbothermic reduction of uranium oxides into solvent metallic baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guisard Restivo, Thomaz A.; Capocchi, Jose D.T.

    2004-01-01

    The carbothermic reduction of UO 2 and U 3 O 8 is studied employing tin and silicon solvent metallic baths in thermal analysis equipment, under Ar inert and N 2 reactive atmospheres. The metallic solvents are expected to lower the U activity by several orders of magnitude owing to strong interactions among the metals. The reduction products are composed of the solvent metal matrix and intermetallic U compounds. Silicon is more effective in driving the reduction since there is no residual UO 2 after the reaction. The gaseous product detected by mass spectrometer (MS) during the reduction is CO. A kinetic study for the Si case was accomplished by the stepwise isothermal analysis (SAI) method, leading to the identification of the controlling mechanisms as chemical reaction at the surface and nucleation, for UO 2 and U 3 O 8 charges, respectively. One example for another system containing Al 2 O 3 is also shown

  9. Carbothermal Reduction of Quartz and Carbon Pellets at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Tangstad, Merete; Ringdalen, Eli

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the carbothermal reduction of pellets composed of quartz and carbon at temperatures between 1898 K and 1948 K (1625 °C and 1675 °C) are investigated. The main product from this reaction is silicon carbide (SiC). The reduction of quartz with carbon black, charcoal, coke, coal, and pre-heated coal in the pellet were compared to investigate the different carbon resources used in silicon production. Charcoal and coke have high SiO reactivity, while carbon black and coal (pre-heated coal) have low SiO reactivity. Charcoal and carbon black show better matching between quartz/carbon reactivity and SiO reactivity, and will lose less SiO gas than coke and pre-heated coal. Coal has a high volatile content and is thus not recommended as a raw material for the pellets.

  10. Carbothermal Reduction of Quartz and Carbon Pellets at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Tangstad, Merete; Ringdalen, Eli

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the carbothermal reduction of pellets composed of quartz and carbon at temperatures between 1898 K and 1948 K (1625 °C and 1675 °C) are investigated. The main product from this reaction is silicon carbide (SiC). The reduction of quartz with carbon black, charcoal, coke, coal, and pre-heated coal in the pellet were compared to investigate the different carbon resources used in silicon production. Charcoal and coke have high SiO reactivity, while carbon black and coal (pre-heated coal) have low SiO reactivity. Charcoal and carbon black show better matching between quartz/carbon reactivity and SiO reactivity, and will lose less SiO gas than coke and pre-heated coal. Coal has a high volatile content and is thus not recommended as a raw material for the pellets.

  11. Mass balance at partial run of quartzite carbothermal reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Węgrzyn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass balance for the process of incomplete carbothermal reduction of SiO2 to SiC thermogravimetric studies was presented. Tests were performed for the molar ratio of C/SiO2 = 3 at a temperature of 1 500 °C under an argon flow in the range from 0,1 to 3,4 dm3/min. Mass balance includes the loss due to escape of SiO and the mass of reactants C and SiO2 due to stopping the reaction. The weight gain of Al2O3 crucible was found and also the formation of crust layer on the surface of the samples. The crucible weight gain and the weight of crust layer created were taken into account in mass balance.

  12. Effects of mechanical activation on the carbothermal reduction of chromite with metallurgical coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Yıldız

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbothermal reduction of mechanically activated chromite with metallurgical coke under an argon atmosphere was investigated at temperatures between 1100 and 1400°C and the effects of the mechanical activation on chromite structure were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. An increase in specific surface area resulted in more contact points. The activation procedure led to amorphization and structural disordering in chromite and accelerated the degree of reduction and metalization in the mixture of chromite and metallurgical coke. Carbothermal reduction products were analzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS.

  13. Study and optimization of the carbothermic reduction process for obtaining boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.R.M. de.

    1989-01-01

    Boron carbide - B sub(4)C - is a ceramic material of technological importance due to its hardness and high chemical and thermal stabilities. Moreover, its high neutron capture cross section makes it suitable for application as neutron absorber in nuclear technology. The process for obtaining carbothermally derived boron carbide has been studied in two steps: firstly, the parameters of the boric acid → boron oxide dehydration reaction have been defined; secondly, the optimization of the carbothermal reduction reaction using boron oxide has been undertaken looking for boron carbide having low level of free carbon. The starting materials as well as the main products have been studied by chemical and spectrographic analyses, X-ray diffractometry, granulometric classification and scanning electron microscopy. The optimization of the carbothermic reduction process allowed for the development and set up of a fabrication procedure yielding high quality B sub(4) C powders, starting from low cost and easily available (in the Brazilian market) raw materials. (author)

  14. In Situ Spectroscopic Analysis of the Carbothermal Reduction Process of Iron Oxides during Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fukushima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of microwave plasma induction and reduction on the promotion of the carbothermal reduction of iron oxides (α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 are investigated using in situ emission spectroscopy measurements during 2.45 GHz microwave processing, and the plasma discharge (such as CN and N2 is measured during microwave E-field irradiation. It is shown that CN gas or excited CN molecules contribute to the iron oxide reduction reactions, as well as to the thermal reduction. On the other hand, no plasma is generated during microwave H-field irradiation, resulting in thermal reduction. Magnetite strongly interacts with the microwave H-field, and the reduction reaction is clearly promoted by microwave H-field irradiation, as well as thermal reduction reaction.

  15. Solar Aluminum Production by Vacuum Carbothermal Reduction of Alumina—Thermodynamic and Experimental Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruesi, M.; Galvez, M. E.; Halmann, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2011-02-01

    Thermochemical equilibrium calculations indicate the possibility of significantly lowering the onset temperature of aluminum vapor formation via carbothermal reduction of Al2O3 by decreasing the total pressure, enabling its vacuum distillation while bypassing the formation of undesired by-products Al2O, Al4C3, and Al-oxycarbides. Furthermore, the use of concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat offers considerable energy savings and reduced concomitant CO2 emissions. When the reducing agent is derived from a biomass source, the solar-driven carbothermal reduction is CO2 neutral. Exploratory experimental runs using a solar reactor were carried out at temperatures in the range 1300 K to 2000 K (1027 °C to 1727 °C) and with total pressures in the range 3.5 to 12 millibar, with reactants Al2O3 and biocharcoal directly exposed to simulated high-flux solar irradiation, yielding up to 19 pct Al by the condensation of product gases, accompanied by the formation of Al4C3 and Al4O4C within the crucible. Based on the measured CO generation, integrated over the duration of the experimental run, the reaction extent reached 55 pct at 2000 K (1727 °C).

  16. Tantalum and niobium carbides obtention by carbothermic reduction of columbotantalite ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordo, E.; Garcia-Carcedo, F.; Torralba, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Tantalum and niobium carbides are characterized by its high hardness and chemical corrosion resistance. Both carbides, but mainly TaC, are used in hard metals (sintered carbides), together with their carbides, to manufacture cutting tools and dies in special machining applications involving mechanical shock at high temperature. Its use as reinforcement of wear resistant materials through powder metallurgy techniques are being investigated. However, the use of TaC is usually limited because of its high cost. Therefore tantalum carbide with niobium content, which is cheaper, is used. In this work the obtention of complex tantalum and niobium carbides from a Spanish columbotantalite ore is studied through relatively cheap and simple process as it is carbothermic reduction. Concentration of the ore, its reduction and the characterization of products are described. (Author) 11 refs

  17. Preparation of Si3N4 Form Diatomite via a Carbothermal Reduction-Nitridation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bin; Huang, Zhaohui; Mei, Lefu; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yangai; Wu, Xiaowen; Hu, Xiaozhi

    2016-05-01

    Si3N4 was produced using diatomite and sucrose as silicon and carbon sources, respectively. The effect of the C/SiO2 molar ratio, heating temperature and soaking time on the morphology and phase compositions of the final products was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The phase equilibrium relationships of the system at different heating temperatures were also investigated based on the thermodynamic analysis. The results indicate that the phase compositions depended on the C/SiO2 molar ratio, heating temperature and soaking time. Fabrication of Si3N4 from the precursor via carbothermal reduction nitridation was achieved at 1550°C for 1-8 h using a C/SiO2 molar ratio of 3.0. The as-prepared Si3N4 contained a low amount of Fe3Si (<1 wt.%).

  18. Phase transformation behavior of titanium during carbothermic reduction of titanomagnetite ironsand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-ran Liu; Jian-liang Zhang; Zheng-jian Liu; Xiang-dong Xing

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of titanomagnetite (TTM) ironsand, which contains 11.41wt% TiO2 and 55.63wt% total Fe, by graphite was per-formed using a thermogravimetric analysis system under an argon gas atmosphere at 1423–1623 K. The behavior and effects of titanium in TTM ironsand during the reduction process were investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. During the reduction procedure, the titanium concentrated in the slag phase, where the phase transformation followed this sequence: FeO + FeTiO3→ Fe2TiO4→ FeTiO3→ FeTi2O5→ TiO2. The calculated results for the reduction kinetics showed that the carbothermic reduction was controlled by the diffusion of ions through the product layer. Furthermore, the apparent activation energy was 170.35 kJ·mol−1.

  19. Carbothermic reduction behaviors of Ti-Nb-bearing Fe concentrate from Bayan Obo ore in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Du, Ya-xing; Wang, Jing-song; Xue, Qing-guo

    2018-01-01

    To support the development of technology to utilize low-grade Ti-Nb-bearing Fe concentrate, the reduction of the concentrate by coal was systematically investigated in the present paper. A liquid phase formed when the Ti-Nb-bearing Fe concentrate/coal composite pellet was reduced at temperatures greater than 1100°C. The addition of CaCO3 improved the reduction rate when the slag basicity was less than 1.0 and inhibited the formation of the liquid phase. Mechanical milling obviously increased the metallization degree compared with that of the standard pellet when reduced under the same conditions. Evolution of the mineral phase composition and microstructure of the reduced Ti-Nb-bearing Fe concentrate/coal composite pellet at 1100°C were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The volume shrinkage value of the reduced Ti-Nb-bearing Fe concentrate/coal composite pellet with a basicity of 1.0 was approximately 35.2% when the pellet was reduced at 1100°C for 20 min, which enhanced the external heat transfer to the lower layers when reduced in a practical rotary hearth furnace. The present work provides key parameters and mechanism understanding for the development of carbothermic reduction technology of a Ti-Nb-bearing Fe concentrate incorporated in a pyrometallurgical utilization flow sheet.

  20. Changes in Effective Thermal Conductivity During the Carbothermic Reduction of Magnetite Using Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiamehr, Saeed; Ahmed, Hesham; Viswanathan, Nurni; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge of the effective thermal diffusivity changes of systems undergoing reactions where heat transfer plays an important role in the reaction kinetics is essential for process understanding and control. Carbothermic reduction process of magnetite containing composites is a typical example of such systems. The reduction process in this case is highly endothermic and hence, the overall rate of the reaction is greatly influenced by the heat transfer through composite compact. Using Laser-Flash method, the change of effective thermal diffusivity of magnetite-graphite composite pellet was monitored in the dynamic mode over a pre-defined thermal cycle (heating at the rate of 7 K/min to 1423 K (1150 °C), holding the sample for 270 minutes at this temperature and then cooling it down to the room temperature at the same rate as heating). These measurements were supplemented by Thermogravimetric Analysis under comparable experimental conditions as well as quenching tests of the samples in order to combine the impact of various factors such as sample dilatations and changes in apparent density on the progress of the reaction. The present results show that monitoring thermal diffusivity changes during the course of reduction would be a very useful tool in a total understanding of the underlying physicochemical phenomena. At the end, effort is made to estimate the apparent thermal conductivity values based on the measured thermal diffusivity and dilatations.

  1. Antimony production by carbothermic reduction of stibnite in the presence of lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padilla R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental work on the carbothermic reduction of Sb2S3 in the presence of lime was carried out in the temperature range of 973 to 1123 K to produce antimony in an environmentally friendly manner. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of producing antimony by this method without producing SO2 gas. Complete conversion of Sb2S3 was obtained at 1023 K in about 1000 seconds and at 1123 K in less than 250 seconds using stibnite-carbon-lime mixtures with molar ratios Sb2S3:CaO:C = 1:3:3. It was found that the reduction proceeds through the formation of an intermediate oxide SbO2, which is subsequently reduced by CO(g to yield antimony metal and CaS. The kinetics of the Sb2S3 reduction was analyzed by using the equation ln(1-X = -kt. The activation energy was 233 kJ mol-1 in the temperature range of 973 to 1123 K. This value would correspond to an antimony catalyzed carbon oxidation by CO2.

  2. Carbothermal reduction of Ti-modified IRMOF-3: an adaptable synthetic method to support catalytic nanoparticles on carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongsik; McNamara, Nicholas D; Her, Theresa H; Hicks, Jason C

    2013-11-13

    This work describes a novel method for the preparation of titanium oxide nanoparticles supported on amorphous carbon with nanoporosity (Ti/NC) via the post-synthetic modification of a Zn-based MOF with an amine functionality, IRMOF-3, with titanium isopropoxide followed by its carbothermal pyrolysis. This material exhibited high purity, high surface area (>1000 m(2)/g), and a high dispersion of metal oxide nanoparticles while maintaining a small particle size (~4 nm). The material was shown to be a promising catalyst for oxidative desulfurization of diesel using dibenzothiophene as a model compound as it exhibited enhanced catalytic activity as compared with titanium oxide supported on activated carbon via the conventional incipient wetness impregnation method. The formation mechanism of Ti/NC was also proposed based on results obtained when the carbothermal reduction temperature was varied.

  3. Preparation of biomorphic SiC ceramic by carbothermal reduction of oak wood charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Junmin; Wang Jiping; Jin Zhihao

    2004-01-01

    Highly porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic with woodlike microstructure has been prepared at 1400-1600 deg. C by carbothermal reduction reaction of charcoal/silica composites in static argon atmosphere. These composites were fabricated by infiltrating silica sol into a porous biocarbon template from oak wood using a vacuum/pressure infiltration process. The morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramic, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to porous SiC ceramic, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Experimental results show that the biomorphic cellular morphology of oak wood charcoal is remained in the porous SiC ceramic with high precision that consists of β-SiC with traces of α-SiC. Silica in the charcoal/silica composites exists in the cellular pores in form of fibers and rods. The SiC strut material is formed by gas-solid reaction between SiO (g) and C (s) during the charcoal-to-ceramic conversion. The densification of SiC strut material may occur at moderate temperatures and holding time

  4. Preparation of biomorphic SiC ceramic by carbothermal reduction of oak wood charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Junmin; Wang Jiping; Jin Zhihao

    2004-04-25

    Highly porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic with woodlike microstructure has been prepared at 1400-1600 deg. C by carbothermal reduction reaction of charcoal/silica composites in static argon atmosphere. These composites were fabricated by infiltrating silica sol into a porous biocarbon template from oak wood using a vacuum/pressure infiltration process. The morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramic, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to porous SiC ceramic, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Experimental results show that the biomorphic cellular morphology of oak wood charcoal is remained in the porous SiC ceramic with high precision that consists of {beta}-SiC with traces of {alpha}-SiC. Silica in the charcoal/silica composites exists in the cellular pores in form of fibers and rods. The SiC strut material is formed by gas-solid reaction between SiO (g) and C (s) during the charcoal-to-ceramic conversion. The densification of SiC strut material may occur at moderate temperatures and holding time.

  5. Sustainable carbothermal reduction and nitridation of Malaysian ilmenite by polyethylene terephthalate and coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Eltefat; Hamid, Sheikh Abdul Rezan Sheikh Abdul; Hussin, Hashim; Baharun, Norlia; Ariffin, Kamar Shah; Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Fauzi, M. N. Ahmad; Ismail, Hanafi

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the carbothermal reduction and nitridation (CTRN) of Malaysian ilmenite has been studied as a part of crucial steps involved in reduction and subsequent chlorination processes for synthesizing titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) from nitrided Malaysian ilmenite concentrates. In CTRN, waste plastics such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) could be utilized as an alternative source of carbon reductant. In this study, titanium oxycarbonitride (TiOxCyNz) separated from iron (Fe) phase was synthesized by non-isothermal CTRN of Malaysian ilmenite under H2-N2 atmosphere by utilizing a mixture of Sarawak Mukah-Balingan coal and PET as reducing agents in a horizontal tube furnace. Experiments have been carried out in the temperature range of 1150-1250°C for 3 hours with various ratios of PET to coal (25 wt.% PET, 50 wt.% PET, and 75 wt.% PET). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) methods of analysis were conducted to assess the microstructures and chemical compositions of the unreduced and reduced samples. The results indicated that utilizing PET had a significant effect on iron separation from titanium oxycarbonitride (TiO0.02C0.13N0.85) at 1250°C with a mixture of 75 wt.% PET. Furthermore, XRD and SEM studies demonstrated that with increasing PET weight ratio in the mixtures, the rate of conversion increased and a low-carbon TiOxCyNz with minimal intermediate titanium sub-oxides was synthesized. The method of applying PET as potential reductant for CTRN of ilmenite has beneficial side effects in sustainable recycling of waste PET.

  6. Carbothermic reduction of pyrolusite for obtaining carbon bearing ferromanganese and slags, adequated to the development of welding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Crespo, A.; Garcia-Sanchez, L. L.; Quintana-Puchol, R.; Perdomo Gonzalez, L.; Gomez-Perez, C. R.; Jimenez-Vielsa, G. E.; Cores-Sanchez, A.

    2004-01-01

    The high carbon ferromanganese obtained by means of carbothermic reduction in an electric arc furnace of direct current is proposed. the ideal composition of slag oxides to achieve a flux to be used in the submerged arc welding (SAW) is established. Calculation for charge components (pyrolusite, coke, steel wool, lime, rutile and fluorite) for no fluxes technology for FeMn is carried out taking into account the welding fluxes characteristics of the SiO 2 -MnO-CaO system. Change materials reduction experiments to obtain FeMn and slag are used to develop a SAW flux. (Author) 21 refs

  7. Investigations in the mechanism of carbothermal reduction of yttria stabilized zirconia for ultra-high temperature ceramics application and its influence on yttria contained in it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhi, Anchal

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is a high modulus ceramic with an ultra-high melting temperature and, consequently, is capable of withstanding extreme environments. Carbon-carbon composites (CCCs) are important structural materials in current commercial and future hypersonic aircraft; however, these materials may be susceptible to degradation when exposed to elevated temperatures during extreme velocities. At speeds of exceeding Mach 5, intense heating of leading edges of the aircraft triggers rapid oxidation of carbon in CCCs resulting in degradation of the structure and probable failure. Environmental/thermal barrier coatings (EBC/TBC) are employed to protect airfoil structures from extreme conditions. Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a well-known EBC/TBC material currently used to protect metallic turbine blades and other aerospace structures. In this work, 3 mol% YSZ has been studied as a potential EBC/TBC on CCCs. However, YSZ is an oxygen conductor and may not sufficiently slow the oxidation of the underlying CCC. Under appropriate conditions, ZrC can form at the interface between CCC and YSZ. Because ZrC is a poor oxygen ion conductor in addition to its stability at high temperatures, it can reduce the oxygen transport to the CCC and thus increase the service lifetime of the structure. This dissertation investigates the thermodynamics and kinetics of the YSZ/ZrC/CCC system and the resulting structural changes across multiple size scales. A series of experiments were conducted to understand the mechanisms and species involved in the carbothermal reduction of ZrO2 to form ZrC. 3 mol% YSZ and graphite powders were uniaxially pressed into pellets and reacted in a graphite (C) furnace. Rietveld x-ray diffraction phase quantification determined that greater fractions of ZrC were formed when carbon was the majority mobile species. These results were validated by modeling the process thermochemically and were confirmed with additional experiments. Measurements were

  8. Synthesis and characterization of TiC nanopowders via sol-gel and subsequent carbothermal reduction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Fan, Jinglian; Lu, Qiong

    2018-06-01

    TiC nanocrystalline powders were synthesized by in-situ carbothermic reduction of Ti-O-C precursor under vacuum atmosphere. And the Ti-O-C precursor was formed by sol-gel method from titanium butyrate (TBOT) and sucrose. To obtain stable sol, TBOT was directly added into mixed solution which contains water, sucrose, acetic acid (AcOH) and acetylacetone (ACAC). This procedure is more convenient and economical because it avoids the use of alcohol which is used as solvent in most reports of alkoxide hydrolysis sol-gel method. TG-DSC, XRD, FTIR and SEM/TEM were employed to analyze and characterize the product during the entire process. The phase composition and crystalline structure parameters of powders with different C/Ti molar ratio were investigated by Rietveld refinement method, and elemental quantitative analysis of the samples were performed. Furthermore, the optimal parameters of carbothermal reduction were obtained and the grain growth mechanism was demonstrated. The results show that TiC nanocrystalline powders (C/Ti molar ratio is 3.5 in the precursor) were synthesized at 1300 °C for 2 h, which have near standard lattice parameter, well crystallinity and fine average grain size ( 37.4 nm).

  9. The synthesis of a high quality, low cost silicon nitride powder by the carbothermal reduction of silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, G.A.; Conner, C.L.; Eisman, G.A.; Weimer, A.W.; Carroll, D.F.; Dunmead, S.D.; Hwang, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    The development and emergence of silicon nitride in the marketplace depends on the availability of a high quality, low cost powder which meets or exceeds the requirements for the customer's part application. The Dow Chemical Company, funded by the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is engaged in developing a process which will economically synthesize commercial quantities of such a high quality powder. The Dow Chemical Company's approach is based on the carbothermal reduction of silica and has been shown to produce a sub-micron, equi-axed powder with high alpha content (> 95%), low oxygen (< 2%), and minimal carbon and impurities. This paper will review The Dow Chemical Company program and present preliminary results of the synthesis and powder processing efforts. (orig.)

  10. Study of the main parameters involved in carbothermal reduction reaction of silica aiming to obtain silicon nitride powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, J.C. da; Greca, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of main parameters involved in the method of silicon nitride attainment by carbothermal reduction of silica followed by nitridation were studied in isothermal experiments of fine powder mixtures of silica and graphite in a nitrogen gas flow. The time, temperature, rate C/SiO 2 and flow of nitrogen were varied since they are the main parameters involved in this kind of reaction. The products of reaction were analysed by X-ray diffraction to identify the crystalline phases and as a result was obtained the nucleation of silicon nitride phase. Meanwhile, corroborating prior results, we verified to be difficult the progress of the reaction and the inhibition of formation of silicon carbide phase, the last one being associated to the formation of silicon nitride phase due to thermodynamic matters [pt

  11. 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopic identification of reaction intermediates in the carbothermal reduction and nitridation of alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Woo-Sik; Chae, Seen-Ae

    2010-01-01

    The reaction intermediates in the carbothermal reduction and nitridation (CRN) reaction of γ-Al 2 O 3 were identified by 27 Al magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This identification ruled out the possibility of a reaction mechanism involving the gaseous reaction intermediates. In the CRN reaction of γ-Al 2 O 3 , AlO 4 units were converted to AlN stepwise via AlN x O 4-x (x = 1, 2, 3) intermediates, while AlO 6 units were more slowly converted to AlN than AlO 4 units and the NMR peaks of partially nitridated AlO 6 units were not detected. The NMR peak intensities of partially nitridated AlO 4 units became weaker with increasing reaction temperature.

  12. Carbothermal Reduction of Iron Ore in Its Concentrate-Agricultural Waste Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhulin Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-containing pellets were prepared with the carbonized product of agricultural wastes and iron concentrate, and an experimental study on the direct reduction was carried out. The experimental results demonstrated that carbon-containing pellets could be rapidly reduced at 1200 to 1300°C in 15 minutes, and the proper holding time at high temperature was 15 to 20 min. The degree of reduction gradually increased with temperature rising, and the appropriate temperature of reducing pellets was 1200°C. The weight loss rate and reduction degree of pellets increased with the rise of carbon proportion, and the relatively reasonable mole ratio of carbon to oxygen was 0.9. A higher content of carbon and an appropriate content of volatile matters in biomass char were beneficial to the reduction of pellets. The carbon-containing pellets could be reduced at high speeds in the air, but there was some reoxidization phenomenon.

  13. Optimization of uranium carbide fabrication by carbothermic reduction with limited oxygen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveu, Gaelle

    2014-01-01

    Mixed carbides (U, Pu)C, are good fuel candidate for generation IV reactors because of their high fissile atoms density and excellent thermal properties for economical (more compact and efficient cores) and safety reasons (high melting margin). UC can be imagine as a surrogate material ror R and D studies on (U,Pu)C fuel behavior, because of their similar structures. The carbothermic reaction was used because it is the most studied and now consider for industrial process. However, it involves powders manipulation: in air, carbide can strongly react at room temperature and under controlled atmosphere it can absorb impurities. An inerted installation under Ar, BaGCARA, was therefore used. Process improvements were carried out, including the sintering atmosphere in order to evaluate the impact on the sample purity (about oxygen content). The original method by ion beam analysis was used to determine the surface composition (oxygen in-depth profiles in the first microns and stoichiometry). This oxygen analysis was set for the first time in carbonaceous materials. XRD analysis showed the formation of an intermediate compound during the carbothermic reaction and a better crystallization of the samples fabricated in BaGCARA. They also have a better microstructure, density, and visual appearance if compared to former samples. Vacuum sintering leads to a denser UC with fewer second phases if compared to Ar, Ar/H 2 or controlled PC atmospheres. However, it was not possible to analyze carbides without air contact which may impact their lattice parameter and lead to their deterioration. When the carbide is initially free of oxygen, it oxidizes faster, more intensely and heterogeneously. The mechanical stress induced between the grains lead to fracturing the material, to corrosion cracking and then a de-bonding of the material. A study of oxidation mechanisms would be interesting to validate and understand the evolution of the material in contact with oxygen. A study of the

  14. Carbon and Mo transformations during the synthesis of mesoporous Mo2C/carbon catalysts by carbothermal hydrogen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Liu, Shida; Liu, Bing; Montes, Vicente; Hill, Josephine M.; Smith, Kevin J.

    2018-02-01

    The synthesis of mesoporous Mo2C/carbon catalysts by carbothermal hydrogen reduction is reported. Petroleum coke (petcoke) was activated with KOH at 800 °C to obtain high surface area microporous activated petcoke (APC; 2000 m2/g). The APC was wet impregnated with ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM: 10 wt% Mo), dried and reduced in H2 at temperatures from 400 to 800 °C, to yield Mo2C/APC catalysts. Increased reduction temperature increased the Mo2C yield and the mesoporous volume of the Mo2C/APC. At a reduction temperature of 750 °C the mesopore volume of the catalyst doubled compared to the APC support and accounted for 37% of the total pore volume. Maintaining the final CHR temperature for 90 min further increased the Mo2C yield and mesoporosity of the catalyst. The role of Mo2C in the catalytic hydrogenation of the APC and mesopore generation is demonstrated. The activity of the Mo2C/carbon catalysts in the hydrodeoxygenation of 4-methyl phenol increased with increased CHR temperature and catalyst mesoporosity.

  15. Preparation of Mg-α SiAlON powder by carbothermal reduction-nitridation of talc and halloysite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qui, J.Y.; Zhang, C.; Komeya, K.; Meguro, T.; Tatami, J.; Cheng, Y.-B.

    2001-01-01

    Carbothermal reduction-nitridation (CRN) of talc (Mg 3 (Si 2 O 5 ) 2 (OH) 2 ) and halloysite (Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ) clay provides a useful route for preparing low-cost Mg-α sialon powder. In this study, the chosen molecular ratios of talc to halloysite were 0.1:1, 0.2:1, 1.5:1.0 and 2.0:1. The CRN reaction was conducted at 1450 to 1520 deg C and 2 to 6h holding time using carbon black as a reducing agent in flowing N 2 (gas). The results showed the synthesized powder was composed of α-sialon, β-sialon and small amounts of SiC, 15R and AlN phases that greatly depended on the ratio of talc to halloysite, the reaction temperature and holding time. The highest content of Mg-α sialon, as much as 90wt%, was achieved at 1480 deg C for a holding time of 4h at a talc to halloysite ratio of 1.5:1.0. SiC was considered as an intermediate compound. We also discuss the evaporation loss of Mg caused by talc decomposing into MgSiN 2 intermediate phase in the CRN reaction. Copyright (2001) The Australian Ceramic Society

  16. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of olivine LiFePO{sub 4} prepared by a carbothermal reduction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-ping; Wang, Zhi-xing; Li, Xin-hai; Guo, Hua-jun; Peng, Wen-jie; Zhang, Yun-he; Hu, Qi-yang [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2008-10-01

    LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite cathode material was prepared by carbothermal reduction method, which uses NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and cheap Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as starting materials, acetylene black and glucose as carbon sources. The precursor of LiFePO{sub 4}/C was characterized by differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that the LiFePO{sub 4}/C is olivine-type phase, and the addition of the carbon reduced the LiFePO{sub 4} grain size. The carbon is dispersed between the grains, ensuring a good electronic contact. The products sintered at 700 C for 8 h with glucose as carbon source possessed excellent electrochemical performance. The synthesized LiFePO{sub 4} composites showed a high electrochemical capacity of 159.3 mAh g{sup -1} at 0.1C rate, and the capacity fading is only 2.2% after 30 cycles. (author)

  17. Preparation of Metallic Iron Powder from Pyrite Cinder by Carbothermic Reduction and Magnetic Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Long

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reduction and magnetic separation procedure of pyrite cinder in the presence of a borax additive was performed for the preparation of reduced powder. The effects of borax dosage, reduction temperature, reduction time and grinding fineness were investigated. The results show that when pyrite cinder briquettes with 5% borax were pre-oxidized at 1050 °C for 10 min, and reduced at 1050 °C for 80 min, with the grinding fineness (<0.44 mm passing 81%, the iron recovery was 91.71% and the iron grade of the magnetic concentrate was 92.98%. In addition, the microstructures of the products were analyzed by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and mineralography, and the products were also studied by the X-ray powder diffraction technique (XRD to investigate the mechanism; the results show that the borax additive was approved as a good additive to improve the separation of iron and gangue.

  18. Tunnel-Structured KxTiO2 Nanorods by in Situ Carbothermal Reduction as a Long Cycle and High Rate Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Wei, Yaqing; Yang, Haotian; Su, Dong; Ma, Ying; Li, Huiqiao; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-03-01

    The low electronic conductivity and the sluggish sodium-ion diffusion in the compact crystal structure of Ti-based anodes seriously restrict their development in sodium-ion batteries. In this study, a new hollandite K x TiO 2 with large (2 × 2) tunnels is synthesized by a facile carbothermal reduction method, and its sodium storage performance is investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses illustrate the formation mechanism of the hollandite K x TiO 2 upon the carbothermal reduction process. Compared to the traditional layered or small (1 × 1) tunnel-type Ti-based materials, the hollandite K x TiO 2 with large (2 × 2) tunnels may accommodate more sodium ions and facilitate the Na + diffusion in the structure; thus, it is expected to get a large capacity and realize high rate capability. The synthesized K x TiO 2 with large (2 × 2) tunnels shows a stable reversible capacity of 131 mAh g -1 (nearly 3 times of (1 × 1) tunnel-structured Na 2 Ti 6 O 13 ) and superior cycling stability with no obvious capacity decay even after 1000 cycles, which is significantly better than the traditional layered Na 2 Ti 3 O 7 (only 40% of capacity retention in 20 cycles). Moreover, the carbothermal process can naturally introduce oxygen vacancy and low-valent titanium as well as the surface carbon coating layer to the structure, which would greatly enhance the electronic conductivity of K x TiO 2 and thus endow this material high rate capability. With a good rate capability and long cyclability, this hollandite K x TiO 2 can serve as a new promising anode material for room-temperature long-life sodium-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage systems, and the carbothermal reduction method is believed to be an effective and facile way to develop novel Ti-based anodes with simultaneous carbon coating and Ti(III) self-doping.

  19. Carbothermic Reduction of Nickeliferous Laterite Ores for Nickel Pig Iron Production in China: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mingjun; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Yuanbo; Fan, Xiaohui

    2013-11-01

    Both the consumption and production of crude stainless steel in China rank first in the world. In 2011, the nickel production in China amounted to 446 kilotons, with the proportion of electrolytic nickel and nickel pig iron (NPI) registering 41.5% and 56.5%, respectively. NPI is a low-cost feedstock for stainless steel production when used as a substitute for electrolytic nickel. The existing commercial NPI production processes such as blast furnace smelting, rotary kiln-electric furnace smelting, and Krupp-Renn (Nipon Yakin Oheyama) processes are discussed. As low-temperature (below 1300°C) reduction of nickeliferous laterite ores followed by magnetic separation could provide an alternative avenue without smelting at high temperature (~1500°C) for producing ferronickel with low cost, the fundamentals and recent developments of the low-temperature reduction of nickeliferous laterite ores are reviewed.

  20. Effect of Temperature and Graphite Immersion Method on Carbothermic Reduction of Fayalite Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrašinović, Aleksandar

    2017-09-01

    In this work, graphite flakes were used to reduce fayalite slag originated from the pyrometallurgical copper extraction process. Experiments were conducted with a significantly different contact area between graphite and slag at two temperatures, 1300°C and 1400°C. The process was continuously monitored via the concentration change of CO and CO2 in off-gas. Reduction rate values in experiments where 150-micron-diameter graphite flakes were submerged into the slag and left to float slowly to the top are about four times higher compared with when graphite flakes were dispersed at the top surface of liquid slag. The activation energy for instigating reduction was 302.61 kJ mol-1 and 306.67 kJ mol-1 in the case where graphite flakes were submerged into the slag and dispersed at the surface, respectively. The reduction process is characterized by two distinctive periods: an initial steep increase in the concentration of CO and CO2 controlled by the Boudouard reaction and a subsequent slow decrease of CO and CO2 concentrations in the off-gas controlled by mass transfer of reducible oxides from bulk to the gas-slag interface.

  1. On kinetics of carbothermal reduction of subgroup 2A elements of the Periodic chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodop'yanov, A.G.; AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Metallurgii)

    1984-01-01

    An attempt was made on the basis of a new version of Periodical system to clarify the general regularities of kinetics and transformation mechanism of metal oxides of 2nd A subgroup during their interaction with carbon (in furnaces at approximately 1700-2300 K). According to a new version of Periodic system Ca, Sr, Ba represent both type- and shell-analogs and Ra-shrink-analog of barium. Their full-valent cations in corresponding oxides possess similar structure corresponding to external electronic shells of inert gases with vacant α-shells. Be and Mg represent only type-analogs. Their full-valent cations in corresponding oxides possess ionic electronic structure corresponding to external S 2 - and S 2 p 6 -shells. It is shown that during interaction of solid oxides of 2nd A subgroup elements with carbon similarity of physicochemical properties of type-analog elements is manifested by the presence of common reduction mechanism - interaction proceeds through the gaseous phase with participation of CO as reducer, carbon regenerates CO and forms carbides of corresponding elements. The expected close similarity of properties for oxides of shell-analog elements s manifested additionally in the form of common dependence of change of rate constant of oxide transformation on the value of Gibbs free energy of reduction by carbon up to the vapor of correspondng metal

  2. Comparison of Direct Solar Energy to Resistance Heating for Carbothermal Reduction of Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Gustafson, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of two methods of delivering thermal energy to regolith for the carbo thermal reduction process has been performed. The comparison concludes that electrical resistance heating is superior to direct solar energy via solar concentrators for the following reasons: (1) the resistance heating method can process approximately 12 times as much regolith using the same amount of thermal energy as the direct solar energy method because of superior thermal insulation; (2) the resistance heating method is more adaptable to nearer-term robotic exploration precursor missions because it does not require a solar concentrator system; (3) crucible-based methods are more easily adapted to separation of iron metal and glass by-products than direct solar energy because the melt can be poured directly after processing instead of being remelted; and (4) even with projected improvements in the mass of solar concentrators, projected photovoltaic system masses are expected to be even lower.

  3. Preparation and property of β-SiAlON:Eu{sup 2+} luminescent fibers by an electrospinning method combined with carbothermal reduction nitridation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qian, E-mail: qianliu@sunm.shcnc.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Materials Genome, Shanghai 200444 (China); Lu, Qi [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Materials Genome, Shanghai 200444 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Guanghui [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Materials Genome, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wei, Qinhua [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Materials Genome, Shanghai 200444 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-01-15

    β-SiAlON:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors synthesis usually requires higher temperatures and higher nitrogen pressure conditions. In the present research, a low temperature technique has been developed to synthesize both β-SiAlON and Eu-doped β-SiAlON fibers by electrospinning combined with carbothermal reduction nitridation (CRN). The carbon sources used as reductant in CRN procedure have been optimized to effectively produce a well-crystallized β-SiAlON phase at lower temperatures of 1370–1500 °C. Additionally, through adding sucrose and covering activated carbon powders on the top of fiber precursor layers, the highly-pure β-SiAlON and β-SiAlON:Eu{sup 2+} fibers could be obtained. The pyrolysis behavior of fiber precursors, crystalline phase, morphology, and UV excited luminescence properties of the produced ceramic fibers were also studied by using TG–DSC measurement, XRD analysis, SEM observation, and spectrometer method. The resultant fibers exhibit a smooth surface and an uniforme morphology with a substantial length. Moreover, the β-SiAlON:Eu{sup 2+} fibers thus prepared show a blue light emission peaked at 470 nm under UV excitation. - Highlights: • Eu{sup 2+} doped b-SiAlON blue luminescent fibers were successfully prepared. • Use of electrospinning with carbothermal reduction nitridation. • Sucrose was utilized as carbon source to effectively form β-SiAlON:Eu{sup 2+}. • Active carbon powders were covered on fiber precursor layers during processing. • Produced fibers own smooth surface and uniform morphology.

  4. ZnO nanowire co-growth on SiO2 and C by carbothermal reduction and vapour advection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, N C; Caram, J; Grinblat, G; Comedi, D; Wallar, R; LaPierre, R R; Tirado, M

    2012-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on Au-nanocluster-seeded amorphous SiO 2 films by the advective transport and deposition of Zn vapours obtained from the carbothermal reaction of graphite and ZnO powders. Both the NW volume and visible-to-UV photoluminescence ratio were found to be strong functions of, and hence could be tailored by, the (ZnO+C) source–SiO 2 substrate distance. We observe C flakes on the ZnO NWs/SiO 2 substrates which exhibit short NWs that developed on both sides. The SiO 2 and C substrates/NW interfaces were studied in detail to determine growth mechanisms. NWs on Au-seeded SiO 2 were promoted by a rough ZnO seed layer whose formation was catalysed by the Au clusters. In contrast, NWs grew without any seed on C. A correlation comprising three orders of magnitude between the visible-to-UV photoluminescence intensity ratio and the NW volume is found, which results from a characteristic Zn partial pressure profile that fixes both O deficiency defect concentration and growth rate. (paper)

  5. Semi-empirical software for the aluminothermic and carbothermic reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad Gavrilovski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the reaction thermochemistry as well as formatting the empirical data about element distribution in gas-metal-slag phases is essential for creating a good model for aluminothermic and carbothermic reaction. In this paper modeling of material and energy balance of these reactions is described with the algorithm. The software, based on this model is basically made for production of high purity ferro alloys through aluminothermic process and then extended for some carbothermic process. Model validation is demonstrated with production of FeTi, FeW, FeB and FeMo in aluminothermic and reduction of mill scale, pyrite cinders and magnetite fines in carbothermic process.

  6. Monodisperse porous LiFePO4/C microspheres derived by microwave-assisted hydrothermal process combined with carbothermal reduction for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongrong; Wu, Yixiong; Kong, Xiang Yang

    2014-07-01

    A microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach combined with carbothermal reduction has been developed to synthesize monodisperse porous LiFePO4/C microspheres, which possess the diameter range of 1.0-1.5 μm, high tap density of ∼1.3 g cm-3, and mesoporous characteristic with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 30.6 m2 g-1. The obtained microspheres show meatball-like morphology aggregated by the carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoparticles. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) results indicate that carbon coating can effectively enhance both of the electronic and ionic conductivities for LiFePO4/C microspheres. The Li-ion diffusion coefficient of the LiFePO4/C microspheres calculated from the cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves is ∼6.25 × 10-9 cm2 s-1. The electrochemical performance can achieve about 100 and 90 mAh g-1 at 5C and 10C charge/discharge rates, respectively. As cathode material, the as-prepared LiFePO4/C microspheres show excellent rate capability and cycle stability, promising for high power lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Characterization and electrochemical properties of high tap-density LiFePO4/C cathode materials by a combination of carbothermal reduction and molten salt methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fey, George Ting-Kuo; Lin, Yi-Chuan; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Olivine-structured LiFePO 4 cathode materials were prepared via a combination of carbothermal reduction (CR) and molten salt (MS) methods. To enhance the powder's tap density, the LiFePO 4 /C composite was pressed into pellets and then sintered for at least 1 h at 1028 K in the reaction environment of KCl molten salts. The use of molten salt can effectively influence unit cell volume, morphology and tap density of particles, and consequently change the electrochemical performance of LiFePO 4 /C. The composites were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Raman spectroscopy and tap density testing. The final product with high tap density of 1.50 g cm −3 contains 4.58 wt% carbon and exhibits good discharge capacity of 141 mAh g −1 at a 0.2 C-rate in the potential range of 2.8–4.0 V.

  8. Carbothermic reduction of pyrolusite for obtaining carbon bearing ferromanganese and slags, adequated to the development of welding materials; Reduccion carbotermica de pirolusita para la obtencion de ferromanganeso y escoria, adecuados al desarrollo de materiales de soldadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Crespo, A.; Garcia-Sanchez, L. L.; Quintana-Puchol, R.; Perdomo Gonzalez, L.; Gomez-Perez, C. R.; Jimenez-Vielsa, G. E.; Cores-Sanchez, A.

    2004-07-01

    The high carbon ferromanganese obtained by means of carbothermic reduction in an electric arc furnace of direct current is proposed. the ideal composition of slag oxides to achieve a flux to be used in the submerged arc welding (SAW) is established. Calculation for charge components (pyrolusite, coke, steel wool, lime, rutile and fluorite) for no fluxes technology for FeMn is carried out taking into account the welding fluxes characteristics of the SiO{sub 2}-MnO-CaO system. Change materials reduction experiments to obtain FeMn and slag are used to develop a SAW flux. (Author) 21 refs.

  9. Carbothermic synthesis of (Cm,Pu)N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Masahide; Itoh, Akinori; Akabori, Mitsuo; Ogawa, Toru; Numata, Masami; Okamoto, Hisato

    2001-01-01

    Nitrides are being considered as fuel candidates for the transmutation of minor actinides. Carbothermic reduction of oxides is an effective method to fabricate nitride fuels. In this study, (Cm 0.40 ,Pu 0.60 )N was synthesized by the carbothermic reduction of the mixed oxide in N 2 . By applying excess carbon, an oxide-free nitride was obtained at 1773 K. The lattice parameter of the oxide-free sample was 0.4948 nm, and that of the nitride with oxides was 0.4974 nm. The former value agreed well with that estimated from the literature values for CmN and PuN. The larger lattice parameter of the latter sample is considered to be due to the oxygen dissolved in the nitride. (authors)

  10. Structure and electrochemical performances of LiFe{sub 1−2x}Ti{sub x}PO{sub 4}/C cathode doped with high valence Ti{sup 4+} by carbothermal reduction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Chang-ling, E-mail: clfanhd@yahoo.com.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Han, Shao-chang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Ling-fang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); College of Mechanical Engineering, Hunan University of Art and Science, Changde 415000 (China); Bai, Yong-mei [Equipment Manufacturing College, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038 (China); Zhang, Ke-he; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Xiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2013-11-05

    Highlights: •LiFePO{sub 4}/C and LiFe{sub 1−2x}Ti{sub x}PO{sub 4}/C are prepared by carbothermal reduction method. •Phenol–formaldehyde resin is used as reducing agent and carbon source. •Mechanism of carbothermal reduction reaction is presented on the basis of TG–DSC. •The electrochemical performances of samples are systematically investigated. -- Abstract: LiFePO{sub 4}/C (LFPC) and LiFe{sub 1−2x}Ti{sub x}PO{sub 4}/C (LFTPC) were prepared by carbothermal reduction method using FePO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O as iron source and phenol–formaldehyde resin as reducing agent and carbon source. Different ratios of TiO{sub 2} (IV) with high valence and small radius were applied to dope LiFePO{sub 4} to enhance its electrochemical performances. Results show that LFPC and LFTPC are synthesized successfully by carbothermal reduction method. The optimal carbon content in LFPC is 5 wt.% and its discharge capacity at 0.1 C is 150.8 mA h g{sup −1}. The crystallite structure of LFTPC becomes stable. They possess the smaller particle size compared with LiFePO{sub 4}. LFTPC-2 possesses the best C-rate and cycle performances among all the samples. Its discharge capacities at 0.1 C, 1 C and 3 C are 132.7 mA h g{sup −1}, 98.7 mA h g{sup −1} and 83.1 mA h g{sup −1}. The discharge curve can maintain its stable and flat platform of 3.3 V at 3 C. The electronic conductivity of LFTPC, which is coated with carbon and doped with Ti, can reach ∼10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1}. The charge transfer resistance of LFTPC-2 is 33.68 Ω, which is much lower than that of other samples.

  11. Carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dust and calcination of waelz oxide by semi-pilot scale rotary furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcali M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a common outline about the known recycling techniques from electric arc furnace dusts and describes an investigation of a pyrometallurgical process for the recovery of zinc and iron from electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD. In the waelz process, the reduction of zinc and iron from the waste oxides using solid carbon (lignite coal was studied. In the reduction experiments; temperature, time and charge type (powder and pellet were investigated in detail. It was demonstrated that zinc and iron recovery (% increases with increasing temperature as well as time. Pelletizing was found to be a better method than using the powder as received for the zinc recovery and iron conversion (. In the calcination (roasting process, crude zinc oxide, which evaporated from non-ferric metals were collected as condensed product (crude waelz oxide, was heated in air atmosphere. Lead, cadmium as well as chlorine and other impurities were successfully removed from crude waelz oxide by this method. In the calcination experiments; temperature and time are investigated in detail. It was demonstrated that zinc purification (% increases with increasing temperature. The highest zinc refining (% was obtained at 1200°C for 120 minutes. A kinetic study was also undertaken to determine the activation energy of the process. Activation energies were 242.77 kJ/mol for the zinc recovery with powder forms, 261.99 kJ/mol for the zinc recovery with pellet forms respectively. It was found that, initially, the reaction was chemically controlled.

  12. Characterization of Nd{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N and Sm{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N oxynitrides synthesized by carbothermal reduction and nitridation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevire, Francois, E-mail: francois.chevire@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR CNRS 6226 ' Sciences Chimiques de Rennes' , Equipe Verres et Ceramiques, Groupe Materiaux Azotes et Ceramiques, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Pallu, Arthur; Ray, Erwan; Tessier, Franck [UMR CNRS 6226 ' Sciences Chimiques de Rennes' , Equipe Verres et Ceramiques, Groupe Materiaux Azotes et Ceramiques, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2011-05-12

    Research highlights: > Carbothermal reduction and nitridation leads to rare earth aluminum oxynitride starting from oxide mixture. > Absorption shifts towards visible in Nd{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N (orange) and Sm{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N (yellow). > Oxynitrides are stable up to 600 deg. C in air. > The so-called 'intermediate phase' phenomenon is evidenced in Sm{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N. - Abstract: The Nd{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N and Sm{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N oxynitrides with the K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type structure have been prepared from oxide mixture at 1250 deg. C using the carbothermal reduction and nitridation route (CRN). Optimization of the process is discussed to prevent surface oxidation of the oxynitrides during the synthesis. The absorption of Nd{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N and Sm{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N, orange and yellow respectively, has been characterized by diffuse reflectance as well as their thermal stability versus oxidation by thermogravimetric analyses.

  13. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) reactor to efficiently extract oxygen from lunar regolith. Unlike state-of-the-art carbothermal...

  14. Use of Industrial Waste (Al-Dross, Red Mud, Mill Scale) as Fluxing Agents in the Sulfurization of Fe-Ni-Cu-Co Alloy by Carbothermic Reduction of Calcium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jung Ho; Jeong, Eui Hyuk; Nam, Chul Woo; Park, Kyung Ho; Park, Joo Hyun

    2018-03-01

    The use of industrial waste [mill scale (MS), red mud (RM), Al-dross (AD)] as fluxing agents in the sulfurization of Fe-Ni-Cu-Co alloy to matte (Fe-Ni-Cu-Co-S) by carbothermic reduction of CaSO4 was investigated at 1673 K (1400 °C). The sulfurization efficiency (SE) was 76 (± 2) pct at RM or AD single fluxing. However, SE drastically increased to approximately 89 pct at a `5AD + 5MS' combination, which was equivalent to reagent-grade chemical `5Al2O3 + 5Fe2O3' fluxing (SE = 88 pct). The present results can be used to improve the cost-effective recovery of rare metals (Ni and Co) from deep sea manganese nodules.

  15. Transient burnout under rapid flow reduction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi

    1987-01-01

    Burnout characteristics were experimentally studied using uniformly heated tube and annular test sections under rapid flow reduction conditions. Observations indicated that the onset of burnout under a flow reduction transient is caused by the dryout of a liquid film on the heated surface. The decrease in burnout mass velocity at the channel inlet with increasing flow reduction rate is attributed to the fact that the vapor flow rate continues to increase and sustain the liquid film flow after the inlet flow rate reaches the steady-state burnout flow rate. This is because the movement of the boiling boundary cannot keep up with the rapid reduction of inlet flow rate. A burnout model for the local condition could be applied to the burnout phenomena with the flow reduction under pressures of 0.5 ∼ 3.9 MPa and flow reduction rates of 0.6 ∼ 35 %/s. Based on this model, a method to predict the burnout time under a flow reduction condition was presented. The calculated burnout times agreed well with experimental results obtained by some investigators. (author)

  16. Fuel saving, carbon dioxide emission avoidance, and syngas production by tri-reforming of flue gases from coal- and gas-fired power stations, and by the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halmann, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2006-01-01

    Flue gases from coal, gas, or oil-fired power stations, as well as from several heavy industries, such as the production of iron, lime and cement, are major anthropogenic sources of global CO 2 emissions. The newly proposed process for syngas production based on the tri-reforming of such flue gases with natural gas could be an important route for CO 2 emission avoidance. In addition, by combining the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide with the partial oxidation of the carbon source, an overall thermoneutral process can be designed for the co-production of iron and syngas rich in CO. Water-gas shift (WGS) of CO to H 2 enables the production of useful syngas. The reaction process heat, or the conditions for thermoneutrality, are derived by thermochemical equilibrium calculations. The thermodynamic constraints are determined for the production of syngas suitable for methanol, hydrogen, or ammonia synthesis. The environmental and economic consequences are assessed for large-scale commercial production of these chemical commodities. Preliminary evaluations with natural gas, coke, or coal as carbon source indicate that such combined processes should be economically competitive, as well as promising significant fuel saving and CO 2 emission avoidance. The production of ammonia in the above processes seems particularly attractive, as it consumes the nitrogen in the flue gases

  17. Structure-property relationships of mullite-SiC-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZrO{sub 2} composites developed during carbothermal reduction of aluminosilicate minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifollahzadeh, P., E-mail: Pseifollahzadeh.mat@stu.yazd.ac.ir; Kalantar, M.; Ghasemi, S.S.

    2015-10-25

    Evolution of SiC and ZrO{sub 2} in the matrix of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or mullite have been reported to enhance a higher toughness, good thermal shock resistance (lowering thermal expansion and improving thermal conductivity) and improved creep resistance of composite materials. In this study, the structure-property relationships of mullite-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix composites have been investigated in conjunction with the evolution of reinforcing phases such as SiC–ZrO{sub 2} by an economical heat treatment process called carbothermal reduction of inorganic minerals (Kaolinite, Andalusite, Zircon). The influence of starting materials in relation with the variation in molar ratio of C/SiO{sub 2} on the phase composition, microstructures, physical and mechanical properties have been studied. Light microscopy has been supplemented with scanning electron microscopy, XRD analysis, differential thermal and thermal gravity analysis to follow the structure-property relationships. The experimental results show that with increasing of C/SiO{sub 2} ratio in starting materials, very fine SiC whiskers have been formed in the microstructures. Moreover, the densification and strength are considerable higher for ZrO{sub 2} + SiC containing composites in comparison to that of only SiC added ones. Furthermore, it has been found that the appropriate ratio of C/SiO{sub 2} with the associated firing temperature to develop a higher densification and SiC crystallization have been related to the 3.5, 1550 °C for kaolinite, 3.5, 1450 °C for zircon and 5.5, 1600 °C for andalusite containing composite samples, respectively. - Highlights: • In-situ formation of SiC whiskers in matrix of alumina + mullite composites. • Advantage of availability, abundance and economical for starting materials. • Lack of environmental problems in comparable of utilization of whiskers directly. • A mixture of coke and alumina as a protective layer instead of inert atmosphere. • Fabrication of advanced

  18. Thermodynamics of carbothermic synthesis of actinide mononitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.; Shirasu, Y.; Minato, K.; Serizawa, H.

    1997-01-01

    Carbothermic synthesis will be further applied to the fabrication of nitride fuels containing minor actinides (MA) such as neptunium, americium and curium. A thorough understanding of the carbothermic synthesis of UN will be beneficial in the development of the MA-containing fuels. Thermodynamic analysis was carried out for conditions of practical interest in order to better understand the recent fabrication experiences. Two types of solution phases, oxynitride and carbonitride phases, were taken into account. The Pu-N-O ternary isotherm was assessed for the modelling of M(C, N, O). With the understanding of the UN synthesis, the fabrication problems of Am-containing nitrides are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Templated, carbothermal reduction synthesis of mesoporous silicon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-05

    Feb 5, 2018 ... and a transmission electron microscope with facilities for energy dispersive ... Figure 1 shows SEM images of mesoporous silica shell over the ... leads to an inverted arrangement of CTABr surfactant, which repels rather than ...

  20. Recovery Of Valuable Metals In Tin-Based Anodic Slimes By Carbothermic Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chulwoong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the recovery of anodic slimes by carbothermic reaction in the temperature range of 973~1,273K and amount of carbon as a function of time. Tin anodic slime samples were collected from the bottom of the electrolytic cells during the electro-refining of tin. The anodic slimes are consisted of high concentrated tin, silver, copper and lead oxides. The kinetics of reduction were determined by means of the weight-loss measurement technique. In order to understand in detail of carbothermic reaction, thermodynamic calculation was carried out and compared with experiments. From thermodynamic calculation and experiment, it was confirmed that Sn-based anodic slime could be reduced by controlling temperature and amount of carbon. However, any tendency between the reduction temperature and carbon content for the reduction reaction was not observed.

  1. Fabrication of vanadium nitride by carbothermal nitridation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xitang; Wang Zhuofu; Zhang Baoguo; Deng Chengji

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium nitride is produced from V 2 O 5 by carbon-thermal reduction and nitridation. When the sintered temperature is above 1273 K, VN can be formed, and the nitrogen content of the products increased with the firing temperature raised, and then is the largest when the sintered temperature is 1573 K. The C/V 2 O 5 mass ratio of the green samples is the other key factor affecting on the nitrogen contents of the products. The nitrogen content of the products reaches the most when the C/V 2 O 5 mass ratio is 0.33, which is the theoretical ratio of the carbothermal nitridation of V 2 O 5 . (orig.)

  2. Combined sol–gel and carbothermal synthesis of ZrC–TiC powders for composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umalas, Madis [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014, Tartu (Estonia); Estonian Nanotechnology Competence Centre, Riia 142, 51014, Tartu (Estonia); Hussainova, Irina, E-mail: irina.hussainova@ttu.ee [Department of Materials Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate 5, 19086, Tallinn (Estonia); ITMO University, Kronverksky 49, St. Petersburg, 197101 (Russian Federation); Reedo, Valter [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014, Tartu (Estonia); Young, Der-Liang [Department of Materials Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate 5, 19086, Tallinn (Estonia); Cura, Erkin; Hannula, Simo-Pekka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, POB 16200, Aalto, 00076 (Finland); Lõhmus, Rünno [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014, Tartu (Estonia); Estonian Nanotechnology Competence Centre, Riia 142, 51014, Tartu (Estonia); Lõhmus, Ants [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014, Tartu (Estonia)

    2015-03-01

    The TiC–ZrC binary compound of nanostructured powders was synthesised by combination of sol–gel and carbothermal reduction. The polymeric precursor of the blend was produced by sol–gel process from titanium tetrabutoxide, zirconium tetrabutoxide and benzene-1.4-diol; then carbothermally reduced to the TiC–ZrC blend at 1600 °C in an inert environment. The chemical reactions occurring in the system were monitored by infrared spectrometry. Stable alkoxide solution was obtained by adding acetylacetone to avoid premature gelation of the metal alkoxide mixture. A solid solution of ZrTiC{sub 2} was produced by spark plasma sintering at temperature of 2000 °C. - Highlights: • A polymeric precursor of TiC–ZrC blend was synthesised by sol–gel process. • The polymeric precursor synthesis was studied by infrared spectroscopy. • TiC–ZrC powder blend was carbothermally reduced from polymeric precursor. • TiC–ZrC powder blend was sintered to ZrTiC{sub 2} solid solution by spark plasma sintering. • Sintered ZrTiC{sub 2} have good mechanical properties.

  3. Combined sol–gel and carbothermal synthesis of ZrC–TiC powders for composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umalas, Madis; Hussainova, Irina; Reedo, Valter; Young, Der-Liang; Cura, Erkin; Hannula, Simo-Pekka; Lõhmus, Rünno; Lõhmus, Ants

    2015-01-01

    The TiC–ZrC binary compound of nanostructured powders was synthesised by combination of sol–gel and carbothermal reduction. The polymeric precursor of the blend was produced by sol–gel process from titanium tetrabutoxide, zirconium tetrabutoxide and benzene-1.4-diol; then carbothermally reduced to the TiC–ZrC blend at 1600 °C in an inert environment. The chemical reactions occurring in the system were monitored by infrared spectrometry. Stable alkoxide solution was obtained by adding acetylacetone to avoid premature gelation of the metal alkoxide mixture. A solid solution of ZrTiC 2 was produced by spark plasma sintering at temperature of 2000 °C. - Highlights: • A polymeric precursor of TiC–ZrC blend was synthesised by sol–gel process. • The polymeric precursor synthesis was studied by infrared spectroscopy. • TiC–ZrC powder blend was carbothermally reduced from polymeric precursor. • TiC–ZrC powder blend was sintered to ZrTiC 2 solid solution by spark plasma sintering. • Sintered ZrTiC 2 have good mechanical properties

  4. Sintering of B{sub 4}C powder obtained by a modified carbo-thermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, R.M.; Kazumi, M.H.; Goncalves, D.P.; Melo, F.C.L. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA) - Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco, Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50 Campus do CTA - Vila das Acacias, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Boron carbide is one of the hardest materials and a highly refractory material that is of great interest for structural, electronic and nuclear applications. B{sub 4}C is commercially manufactured by the carbo-thermal reduction of a mixture of boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in an batch electric arc furnace process. However the carbo-thermal reaction on the stoichiometric starting composition results an excess carbon residue because of the boron loss in the form of B{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Thus, a modified carbo-thermal reaction is applied with an excess B{sub 2}O{sub 3} to compensate the loss and to obtain stoichiometric powders. The aim of this work is to study the sinterability of this powder with the lower carbon residue acting as sintering additive. Pressureless sintering in the temperatures of 1900 deg. C/30 min and 2100 deg. C/30 min in argon atmosphere were applied. The synthesized powders were analysed by XRD and SEM. Density of 94% of theoretical density was achieved for sample prepared with the powder obtained with 50% B{sub 2}O{sub 3} excess synthesized at 1700 deg. C/15 min. (authors)

  5. Sintering of B4C powder obtained by a modified carbo-thermal reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, R.M.; Kazumi, M.H.; Goncalves, D.P.; Melo, F.C.L.

    2005-01-01

    Boron carbide is one of the hardest materials and a highly refractory material that is of great interest for structural, electronic and nuclear applications. B 4 C is commercially manufactured by the carbo-thermal reduction of a mixture of boron oxide (B 2 O 3 ) in an batch electric arc furnace process. However the carbo-thermal reaction on the stoichiometric starting composition results an excess carbon residue because of the boron loss in the form of B 2 O 2 . Thus, a modified carbo-thermal reaction is applied with an excess B 2 O 3 to compensate the loss and to obtain stoichiometric powders. The aim of this work is to study the sinterability of this powder with the lower carbon residue acting as sintering additive. Pressureless sintering in the temperatures of 1900 deg. C/30 min and 2100 deg. C/30 min in argon atmosphere were applied. The synthesized powders were analysed by XRD and SEM. Density of 94% of theoretical density was achieved for sample prepared with the powder obtained with 50% B 2 O 3 excess synthesized at 1700 deg. C/15 min. (authors)

  6. Decarbonization process for carbothermically produced aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Marshall J.; Carkin, Gerald E.; DeYoung, David H.; Dunlap, Sr., Ronald M.

    2015-06-30

    A method of recovering aluminum is provided. An alloy melt having Al.sub.4C.sub.3 and aluminum is provided. This mixture is cooled and then a sufficient amount of a finely dispersed gas is added to the alloy melt at a temperature of about 700.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. The aluminum recovered is a decarbonized carbothermically produced aluminum where the step of adding a sufficient amount of the finely dispersed gas effects separation of the aluminum from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates by flotation, resulting in two phases with the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates being the upper layer and the decarbonized aluminum being the lower layer. The aluminum is then recovered from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates through decanting.

  7. Spontaneous rapid reduction of a large acute subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-Hee; Kang, Dong Ho; Hwang, Soo Hyun; Park, In Sung; Jung, Jin-Myung; Han, Jong Woo

    2009-12-01

    The majority of acute post-traumatic subdural hematomas (ASDH) require urgent surgical evacuation. Spontaneous resolution of ASDH has been reported in some cases. We report here on a case of a patient with a large amount of ASDH that was rapidly reduced. A 61-yr-old man was found unconscious following a high speed motor vehicle accident. On initial examination, his Glasgow Coma Score scale was 4/15. His pupils were fully dilated and non-reactive to bright light. Brain computed tomography (CT) showed a massive right-sided ASDH. The decision was made to treat him conservatively because of his poor clinical condition. Another brain CT approximately 14 hr after the initial scan demonstrated a remarkable reduction of the previous ASDH and there was the new appearance of high density in the subdural space adjacent to the falx and the tentorium. Thirty days after his admission, brain CT revealed chronic SDH and the patient underwent surgery. The patient is currently able to obey simple commands. In conclusion, spontaneous rapid resolution/reduction of ASDH may occur in some patients. The mechanisms are most likely the result of dilution by cerebrospinal fluid and the redistribution of hematoma especially in patients with brain atrophy.

  8. Recovery TiO2 by leaching process of carbothermic reduced Kalimantan ilmenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Sari, P. P.; Ramelan, A. H.

    2018-05-01

    Ilmenite naturally occurred in iron titanate (FeTiO3) minerals. The separation of natural ilmenite into TiO2 and Fe2O3 need to be explored to gain the high purity separation product. A new combination method named of carbothermic reduction, acidic-leaching and complexation by EDTA were proposed for separation TiO2 from Ilmenite. Roasting of ilmenite was carried out at 950 °C for 1 h by the addition of activated carbon with mass ratio of ilmenite : activated carbon =4:3. The carbothermic reduction was carried out to yield a high separation of initial content of ilmenite that will be easily to dissolve within hydrochloric acid solution in leaching process. The composition of ilmenite observed by X-Ray Fluoresences (XRF) changed after the carbothermic reduction process and the dominant content is TiO2 (57.56%). X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) of roasted ilmenite composed of decomposed product of ilmenite i.e. hematite (Fe2O3), TiO2 anatase, TiO2 rutile, and inorganic salt. The leaching of the roasted ilmenite has been done by sulphuric acid solution (6 M) to gain the titanyl sulphate solution. Separation of iron impurities of TiO2 gel from titanyl sulphate (TiOSO4) solution was conducted by complexation method using EDTA as a complexation agent. The characteristic of TiO2 obtained using XRD showed that TiO2 is anatase type and the percentage of TiO2 using XRF showed that TiO2 content of 86,03%.

  9. Recovery Of Valuable Metals In Tin-Based Anodic Slimes By Carbothermic Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Han Chulwoong; Kim Young-Min; Son Seong Ho; Choi Hanshin; Kim Tae Bum; Kim Yong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the recovery of anodic slimes by carbothermic reaction in the temperature range of 973~1,273K and amount of carbon as a function of time. Tin anodic slime samples were collected from the bottom of the electrolytic cells during the electro-refining of tin. The anodic slimes are consisted of high concentrated tin, silver, copper and lead oxides. The kinetics of reduction were determined by means of the weight-loss measurement technique. In order to understand in detail o...

  10. Pós de Al2O3/SiC obtidos a partir de reação de redução carbotérmica Al2O3/SiC powders from carbothermal reduction reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Spiandorello

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram utilizadas matérias-primas naturais para a obtenção de pós Al2O3/SiC através da redução carbotérmica das mesmas por um agente rico em carbono. Os aluminossilicatos estudados foram caulim, cianita e ilita-moscovita, sendo que os mesmos foram reduzidos ou por negro de fumo ou por grafite. Os pós resultantes da reação foram caracterizados por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e transmissão, difração de raios X e picnometria de hélio. Durante a reação, as diferenças existentes tanto na estrutura das matérias-primas quanto na composição química produziram pós com morfologia diversa. Foram encontradas estruturas como grandes aglomerados esféricos, whiskers, partículas e aglomerados fibrosos.In this work natural raw materials were used to obtain Al2O3/SiC powders by carbothermal reduction. The aluminosilicates studied were kaolin, kyanite and illite-muscovite and the reductor agents were carbon black or graphite. The reaction powders were characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and helium picnometry. During the reaction, the differences among the raw materials structures as well as into the chemical composition produced powders with several morphologies. Big spherical agglomerates, whiskers, particles and fibrous clusters were found.

  11. 真空碳热还原酸浸含钛高炉渣制备 TiC 分析%Preparation of TiC by carbothermal reduction in vacuum and acid leaching process using titanium bearing blast furnace slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蒙均; 尹方庆; 魏瑞瑞; 邓青宇; 扈玫珑

    2015-01-01

    含钛高炉渣中含有20%~30%的 TiO2,是一种附加值较高的二次资源,但在综合利用过程中存在氧化物还原难度大,硅钛难分离,二次污染严重等问题。基于热力学理论基础,采用真空碳热还原联合酸浸工艺处理含钛高炉渣制备 TiC。结果表明:真空有助于钛氧化物彻底还原,可实现渣中硅钛彻底分离,减少酸耗量,降低二次污染。真空碳热还原联合酸浸工艺处理含钛高炉渣(TiO2含量23%左右)制备 TiC 的最佳条件为:炉渣粒度200目,还原温度1673 K,渣碳质量比100∶38。%Titanium bearing blast furnace slag with 20%-30% titanium dioxide is a valuable second resource.The main problems to utilize the resource are the reduction of the titanium oxides,the separation of titanium and silicon and the second pollution.The main aim of the research is to prepare TiC by the united process of carbothermal reduction in vacuum and acid leaching based on the thermodynamics calculation.The results show that decreasing pressure of the system is helpful for the reduction of the titanium oxides.Titanium and silicon in slag can be separated completely.The second pollution decreases due to evaporation of Mg and SiO produced in vacuum condition.The optimum conditions for the united process to prepare TiC are slag size of 200 mesh,temperature of 1 673 K,and the mass ratio of slag to reductant of 100∶38.

  12. Contingency planning for rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson, Nils K.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The current and predicted levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions are, according to the best international scientific estimates, leading the world towards climate change that will have serious consequences for all countries. The problem is aggravated by the tendency of people and institutions not to take action until catastrophic consequences emerge. The history of crises in other sectors show us that reactions are likely to focus on ad-hoc reactions or using plans that are readily available, with negative results. However, the alternative of developing public plans for drastic and rapid reductions is not likely to gain support because of their radical nature. The author therefore proposes that large organizations with direct or indirect control over substantial GHG emissions should prepare private contingency plans for very rapid reductions in emissions, so that more rational and less destructive plans will be available when the appropriate moment comes for last-minute action. Examples of the type of specific plans that may be appropriate are suggested.

    Según las estimaciones científicas internacionales más optimistas, los niveles actuales y previstos de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI están llevando al mundo hacia un cambio climático que tendrá graves consecuencias para todos los países. El problema se ve agravado por la tendencia de personas e instituciones a no tomar medidas hasta que no se perciben las catastróficas consecuencias. El historial de crisis ocurridas en otros sectores nos demuestra que las reacciones probablemente se centren en medidas ad hoc o en emplear planes que ya existían, pero sin resultados. Sin embargo, es poco probable que la alternativa al desarrollo de planes públicos para las reducciones drásticas y rápidas consiga el apoyo necesario, debido precisamente a su radicalidad. El autor recomienda por tanto que las grandes organizaciones que tengan control directo o indirecto sobre un

  13. Growth mechanism and magnetism in carbothermal synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles from solution combustion precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuanli [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 China (China); Qin, Mingli, E-mail: qinml@mater.ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 China (China); Cao, Zhiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 China (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pan Zhihua University, Pan Zhihua, 617000 China (China); Jia, Baorui; Gu, Yueru; Qu, Xuanhui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 China (China); Volinsky, Alex A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, 33620 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared by carbothermal reduction using solution combustion synthesis precursors derived from ferric nitrate (oxidizer), glycine (fuel) and glucose (carbon source) mixed solution. In this paper, the growth mechanism and magnetism in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were investigated by adjusting the glucose content in precursor and the heat temperature in carbothermal process. The products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Infrared adsorption method and Vibrating sample magnetometry. The results revealed that the more amount of glucose, the earlier Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase generated as temperature increasing. Depending on glucose content and thermal temperature, the average grain size of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles varied from 19.9 nm to 48 nm and saturation magnetization changed from 21.2 emu/g to 71.77 emu/g, which indicated that the saturation magnetization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles fell off as the average grain size decreasing. These results were crucial not only from the application stand-point, but more importantly leaded to a new platform for further studies of high quality magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles at nanoscale. - Highlights: • Solution combustion. • Carbothermal. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • Magnetic properties.

  14. Reduction in Mortality Following Pediatric Rapid Response Team Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovos, Nikoleta S; Gill, Jeff; Michelson, Peter H; Doctor, Allan; Hartman, Mary E

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a physician-led rapid response team program on morbidity and mortality following unplanned admission to the PICU. Before-after study. Single-center quaternary-referral PICU. All unplanned PICU admissions from the ward from 2005 to 2011. The dataset was divided into pre- and post-rapid response team groups for comparison. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the patient characteristics associated with mortality following unplanned PICU admission. Following rapid response team implementation, Pediatric Risk of Mortality, version 3, illness severity was reduced (28.7%), PICU length of stay was less (19.0%), and mortality declined (22%). Relative risk of death following unplanned admission to the PICU after rapid response team implementation was 0.685. For children requiring unplanned admission to the PICU, rapid response team implementation is associated with reduced mortality, admission severity of illness, and length of stay. Rapid response team implementation led to more proximal capture and aggressive intervention in the trajectory of a decompensating pediatric ward patient.

  15. β-sialon via carbothermal reduction using brown coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, G.S.; Smith, M.E.; Trigg, M.B.; Drennan, J.

    1992-01-01

    There has been a good deal of interest in the sialon system of ceramics in recent years due to their combination of important engineering properties β including strength, hardness, low thermal expansion and good thermal shock resistance. β-sialon (Si 6-z Al z O z N 8-z ;0 29 Si and 27 Al solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance techniques in determining the nature of intermediate phases which occur. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  16. Drag reduction of a rapid vehicle in supercavitating flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercavitation is one of the most attractive technologies to achieve high speed for underwater vehicles. However, the multiphase flow with high-speed around the supercavitating vehicle (SCV is difficult to simulate accurately. In this paper, we use modified the turbulent viscosity formula in the Standard K-Epsilon (SKE turbulent model to simulate the supercavitating flow. The numerical results of flow over several typical cavitators are in agreement with the experimental data and theoretical prediction. In the last part, a flying SCV was studied by unsteady numerical simulation. The selected computation setup corresponds to an outdoor supercavitating experiment. Only very limited experimental data was recorded due to the difficulties under the circumstance of high-speed underwater condition. However, the numerical simulation recovers the whole scenario, the results are qualitatively reasonable by comparing to the experimental observations. The drag reduction capacity of supercavitation is evaluated by comparing with a moving vehicle launching at the same speed but without supercavitation. The results show that the supercavitation reduces the drag of the vehicle dramatically.

  17. Preparation of silicon carbide nanowires via a rapid heating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xintong; Chen Xiaohong; Song Huaihe

    2011-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires were fabricated in a large quantity by a rapid heating carbothermal reduction of a novel resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF)/SiO 2 hybrid aerogel in this study. SiC nanowires were grown at 1500 deg. C for 2 h in an argon atmosphere without any catalyst via vapor-solid (V-S) process. The β-SiC nanowires were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) facility, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The analysis results show that the aspect ratio of the SiC nanowires via the rapid heating process is much larger than that of the sample produced via gradual heating process. The SiC nanowires are single crystalline β-SiC phase with diameters of about 20-80 nm and lengths of about several tens of micrometers, growing along the [1 1 1] direction with a fringe spacing of 0.25 nm. The role of the interpenetrating network of RF/SiO 2 hybrid aerogel in the carbothermal reduction was discussed and the possible growth mechanism of the nanowires is analyzed.

  18. Myopathy in hyperthyroidism as a consequence of rapid reduction of thyroid hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qianrui; Liu, Yuping; Zhang, Qianying; Tian, Haoming; Li, Jianwei; Li, Sheyu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Myalgia and elevated creatine kinase (CK) are occasionally observed during the treatment of hyperthyroid patients. Relative hypothyroidism resulted from rapid thyroid hormone reduction had been promoted as a plausible cause of these myopathic changes, however rarely reported. Patient concerns: We hereby presented a 20-year-old female with Grave's disease, who developed myopathy and elevated CK during rapid correction of thyroid hormone. Diagnoses: Relative hypothyroidism-i...

  19. Carbothermal shock synthesis of high-entropy-alloy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yonggang; Huang, Zhennan; Xie, Pengfei; Lacey, Steven D.; Jacob, Rohit Jiji; Xie, Hua; Chen, Fengjuan; Nie, Anmin; Pu, Tiancheng; Rehwoldt, Miles; Yu, Daiwei; Zachariah, Michael R.; Wang, Chao; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Li, Ju; Hu, Liangbing

    2018-03-01

    The controllable incorporation of multiple immiscible elements into a single nanoparticle merits untold scientific and technological potential, yet remains a challenge using conventional synthetic techniques. We present a general route for alloying up to eight dissimilar elements into single-phase solid-solution nanoparticles, referred to as high-entropy-alloy nanoparticles (HEA-NPs), by thermally shocking precursor metal salt mixtures loaded onto carbon supports [temperature ~2000 kelvin (K), 55-millisecond duration, rate of ~105 K per second]. We synthesized a wide range of multicomponent nanoparticles with a desired chemistry (composition), size, and phase (solid solution, phase-separated) by controlling the carbothermal shock (CTS) parameters (substrate, temperature, shock duration, and heating/cooling rate). To prove utility, we synthesized quinary HEA-NPs as ammonia oxidation catalysts with ~100% conversion and >99% nitrogen oxide selectivity over prolonged operations.

  20. Class Size Reduction or Rapid Formative Assessment?: A Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of class size reduction (CSR) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of rapid formative assessment, a promising alternative for raising student achievement. Drawing upon existing meta-analyses of the effects of student-teacher ratio, evaluations of CSR in Tennessee, California, and Wisconsin, and RAND cost estimates, CSR…

  1. Synthesis of Al4SiC4 powders from kaolin grog, aluminum and carbon black by carbothermal reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenjie; Yu, Chao; Deng, Chengji; Zhu, Hongxi

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of Al4SiC4 used as natural oxide materials by carbothermal reduction was investigated in order to explore the synthesis route with low costs. The samples were calcined by using kaolin grog, aluminum and carbon black as raw materials with the selected proportion at the temperature from 1500 to 1800 ° C for 2 hours under flow argon atmosphere. The phase composition of reaction products were determined by X-ray diffraction. The microstructure and elemental composition of different phases were observed and identified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The mechanism of reaction processing was discussed. The results show that Al4SiC4 powders composed of hexagonal plate-like particulates with various sizes and the thickness of less than 20 μm are obtained when the temperature reaches 1800 °C.

  2. Synthesis of Al4SiC4 powders from kaolin grog, aluminum and carbon black by carbothermal reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Wenjie; Yu, Chao; Deng, Chengji; Zhu, Hongxi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of Al 4 SiC 4 used as natural oxide materials by carbothermal reduction was investigated in order to explore the synthesis route with low costs. The samples were calcined by using kaolin grog, aluminum and carbon black as raw materials with the selected proportion at the temperature from 1500 to 1800 ° C for 2 hours under flow argon atmosphere. The phase composition of reaction products were determined by X-ray diffraction. The microstructure and elemental composition of different phases were observed and identified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The mechanism of reaction processing was discussed. The results show that Al 4 SiC 4 powders composed of hexagonal plate-like particulates with various sizes and the thickness of less than 20 μm are obtained when the temperature reaches 1800 °C

  3. Rapid Reduction of Alkenes and Alkynes over Pd Nanoparticles Supported on Sulfonated Porous Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Shokrolahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method has been introduced for rapid reduction of alkenes and alkynes, which may be attractive for chemical industries. This method has some advantages such as simplicity and low cost of reactants. Pd supported on sulfonated porous carbon (SPC was used as a new catalyst for reduction of alkenes and alkynes to the corresponding alkanes using sodium borohydride. The heterogeneous reaction was conducted in open air at room temperature to produce the desired saturated compounds in high yields (over 96% and in short reaction time (15 minutes.

  4. Profound and Rapid Reduction in Body Temperature Induced by the Melanocortin Receptor Agonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Kim, Eun Ran; Fan, Shengjie; Xia, Yan; Xu, Yong; Huang, Cheng; Tong, Qingchun

    2014-01-01

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) plays a major role in body weight regulation and its agonist MTII has been widely used to study the role of MC4Rs in energy expenditure promotion and feeding reduction. Unexpectedly, we observed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MTII induced a rapid reduction in both body temperature and energy expenditure, which was independent of its effect on feeding and followed by a prolonged increase in energy expenditure. The rapid reduction was at least partly mediated by brain neurons since intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone, an endogenous melanocortin receptor agonist, produced a similar response. In addition, the body temperature-lowering effect of MTII was independent of the presence of MC4Rs, but in a similar fashion to the previously shown effect on body temperature by 5′AMP. Moreover, β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) were required for the recovery from low body temperature induced by MTII and further pharmacological studies showed that the MTII’s effect on body temperature may be partially mediated by the vasopressin V1a receptors. Collectively, our results reveal a previously unappreciated role for the melanocortin pathway in rapidly lowering body temperature. PMID:25065745

  5. Profound and rapid reduction in body temperature induced by the melanocortin receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Kim, Eun Ran; Fan, Shengjie; Xia, Yan; Xu, Yong; Huang, Cheng; Tong, Qingchun

    2014-08-22

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) plays a major role in body weight regulation and its agonist MTII has been widely used to study the role of MC4Rs in energy expenditure promotion and feeding reduction. Unexpectedly, we observed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MTII induced a rapid reduction in both body temperature and energy expenditure, which was independent of its effect on feeding and followed by a prolonged increase in energy expenditure. The rapid reduction was at least partly mediated by brain neurons since intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone, an endogenous melanocortin receptor agonist, produced a similar response. In addition, the body temperature-lowering effect of MTII was independent of the presence of MC4Rs, but in a similar fashion to the previously shown effect on body temperature by 5'AMP. Moreover, β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) were required for the recovery from low body temperature induced by MTII and further pharmacological studies showed that the MTII's effect on body temperature may be partially mediated by the vasopressin V1a receptors. Collectively, our results reveal a previously unappreciated role for the melanocortin pathway in rapidly lowering body temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Process model for carbothermic production of silicon metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, B.

    1995-09-12

    This thesis discusses an advanced dynamical two-dimensional cylinder symmetric model for the high temperature part of the carbothermic silicon metal process, and its computer encoding. The situation close to that which is believed to exist around one of three electrodes in full-scale industrial furnaces is modelled. This area comprises a gas filled cavity surrounding the lower tip of the electrode, the metal pool underneath and the lower parts of the materials above. The most important phenomena included are: Heterogeneous chemical reactions taking place in the high-temperature zone (above 1860 {sup o}C), Evaporation and condensation of silicon, Transport of materials by dripping, Turbulent or laminar fluid flow, DC electric arcs, Heat transport by convection, conduction and radiation. The results from the calculations, such as production rates, gas- and temperature distributions, furnace- and particle geometries, fluid flow fields etc, are presented graphically. In its present state the model is a prototype. The process is very complex, and the calculations are time consuming. The governing equations are coded into a Fortran 77 computer code applying the commercial 3D code FLUENT as a basis. 64 refs., 110 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Leaching of Carbothermic Reduced Titanium-bearing Blast Furnace Slag by Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN Yulan; ZHANG Guohua; CHOU Kuochih

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of the leaching of carbothermic reduced titanium-bearing blast furnace slag in Panzhihua Iron and Steel Company with acid system under atmosphere pressure was studied. The results show that the temperature and concentration have significant influence on leaching of carbothermic reduced titanium-bearing blast furnace slag by ac-id. The experimental data of leaching indicate that the shrinking core model with chemical reaction controlled process is most applicable for the acid leaching. The apparent activation energy can be estimated to be from 23 to 32 kJ/mol. Fur-thermore, the main products are TiC and SiO2 after leaching.

  8. Myopathy in hyperthyroidism as a consequence of rapid reduction of thyroid hormone: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianrui; Liu, Yuping; Zhang, Qianying; Tian, Haoming; Li, Jianwei; Li, Sheyu

    2017-07-01

    Myalgia and elevated creatine kinase (CK) are occasionally observed during the treatment of hyperthyroid patients. Relative hypothyroidism resulted from rapid thyroid hormone reduction had been promoted as a plausible cause of these myopathic changes, however rarely reported. We hereby presented a 20-year-old female with Grave's disease, who developed myopathy and elevated CK during rapid correction of thyroid hormone. Relative hypothyroidism-induced myopathy. Antithyroid drug (ATD) dosage was reduced without levothyroxine replacement. The muscular symptoms were recovered with CK level returned to normal after adoption of the euthyroid status. Differentiation of relative hypothyroidism from other causes of myopathy, especially with the effect of ATD, is important for clinical practice, although difficult in many cases.

  9. Myopathy in hyperthyroidism as a consequence of rapid reduction of thyroid hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianrui; Liu, Yuping; Zhang, Qianying; Tian, Haoming; Li, Jianwei; Li, Sheyu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Myalgia and elevated creatine kinase (CK) are occasionally observed during the treatment of hyperthyroid patients. Relative hypothyroidism resulted from rapid thyroid hormone reduction had been promoted as a plausible cause of these myopathic changes, however rarely reported. Patient concerns: We hereby presented a 20-year-old female with Grave's disease, who developed myopathy and elevated CK during rapid correction of thyroid hormone. Diagnoses: Relative hypothyroidism-induced myopathy. Interventions: Antithyroid drug (ATD) dosage was reduced without levothyroxine replacement. Outcomes: The muscular symptoms were recovered with CK level returned to normal after adoption of the euthyroid status. Lessons: Differentiation of relative hypothyroidism from other causes of myopathy, especially with the effect of ATD, is important for clinical practice, although difficult in many cases. PMID:28746208

  10. Rapid reduction of acute subdural hematoma and redistribution of hematoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Arata; Omata, Tomohiro; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    An 88-year-old woman presented with acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) which showed rapid resolution on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. She was transferred to our hospital after falling out of bed. On admission, she was comatose with Japan Coma Scale score of 200 and Glasgow Coma Scale score of E1V1M2. Brain CT showed a thick left frontotemporal ASDH. Conservative treatment consisted of 200 ml of glycerol administered intravenously twice a day, and maintenance in the approximately 20 degree head-up position to reduce intracranial pressure. Three days later, her consciousness recovered to Japan Coma Scale score of 30 and Glasgow Coma Scale score of E2V4M5. CT showed obvious reduction of the hematoma without brain or scalp swelling. Spinal MR imaging detected no redistribution of hematoma to the spine. The present case illustrates that rapid spontaneous reduction of ASDH may occur by redistribution of hematoma, mainly to the supratentorial subdural space because of brain atrophy.

  11. Reduction of iron-bearing lunar minerals for the production of oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massieon, Charles; Cutler, Andrew; Shadman, Farhang

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the reduction of simulants of the iron-bearing lunar minerals olivine ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4), pyroxene ((Fe,Mg,Ca)SiO3), and ilmenite (FeTiO3) are investigated, extending previous work with ilmenite. Fayalite is reduced by H2 at 1070 K to 1480 K. A layer of mixed silica glass and iron forms around an unreacted core. Reaction kinetics are influenced by permeation of hydrogen through this layer and a reaction step involving dissociated hydrogen. Reaction mechanisms are independent of Mg content. Augite, hypersthene, and hedenbergite are reduced in H2 at the same temperatures. The products are iron metal and lower iron silicates mixed throughout the mineral. Activation energy rises with calcium content. Ilmenite and fayalite are reduced with carbon deposited on partially reduced minerals via the CO disproportionation reaction. Reduction with carbon is rapid, showing the carbothermal reduction of lunar minerals is possible.

  12. Integrase inhibitors in late pregnancy and rapid HIV viral load reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahangdale, Lisa; Cates, Jordan; Potter, JoNell; Badell, Martina L; Seidman, Dominika; Miller, Emilly S; Coleman, Jenell S; Lazenby, Gweneth B; Levison, Judy; Short, William R; Yawetz, Sigal; Ciaranello, Andrea; Livingston, Elizabeth; Duthely, Lunthita; Rimawi, Bassam H; Anderson, Jean R; Stringer, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-01

    Minimizing time to HIV viral suppression is critical in pregnancy. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), like raltegravir, are known to rapidly suppress plasma HIV RNA in nonpregnant adults. There are limited data in pregnant women. We describe time to clinically relevant reduction in HIV RNA in pregnant women using INSTI-containing and non-INSTI-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) options. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnant HIV-infected women in the United States from 2009 through 2015. We included women who initiated ART, intensified their regimen, or switched to a new regimen due to detectable viremia (HIV RNA >40 copies/mL) at ≥20 weeks gestation. Among women with a baseline HIV RNA permitting 1-log reduction, we estimated time to 1-log RNA reduction using the Kaplan-Meier estimator comparing women starting/adding an INSTI in their regimen vs other ART. To compare groups with similar follow-up time, we also conducted a subgroup analysis limited to women with ≤14 days between baseline and follow-up RNA data. This study describes 101 HIV-infected pregnant women from 11 US clinics. In all, 75% (76/101) of women were not taking ART at baseline; 24 were taking non-INSTI containing ART, and 1 received zidovudine monotherapy. In all, 39% (39/101) of women started an INSTI-containing regimen or added an INSTI to their ART regimen. Among 90 women with a baseline HIV RNA permitting 1-log reduction, the median time to 1-log RNA reduction was 8 days (interquartile range [IQR], 7-14) in the INSTI group vs 35 days (IQR, 20-53) in the non-INSTI ART group (P pregnancy. Inclusion of an INSTI may play a role in optimal reduction of HIV RNA for HIV-infected pregnant women presenting late to care or failing initial therapy. Larger studies are urgently needed to assess the safety and effectiveness of this approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of reduction reactions of niobium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, C.

    1981-01-01

    Reduction processes of niobium oxides by hydrogen, carbon and aluminium are analysed thermodinamically. It is shown that reduction by hydrogen is not technically feasible. High purity of raw materials is required. In the carbothermic process impurities which react to form high stability carbides should be avoided. (Author) [pt

  14. A rapid room temperature chemical route for the synthesis of graphene: metal-mediated reduction of graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ramendra Sundar; Hajra, Saumen; Sahu, Ranjan K; Raj, C Retna; Panigrahi, M K

    2012-02-07

    A rapid and facile route for the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGOs) at room temperature by the chemical reduction of graphene oxide using Zn/acid in aqueous solution is demonstrated. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  15. Carbothermal Upgrading of the Awaso Bauxite Ore using Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... The use of PWS as reductant prevented the formation of hercynite (FeAl2O4). Keywords: Pure water ... bauxite with high iron oxide content calls for novel .... mineral assemblages likely to form at temperatures below 900 °C ...

  16. Rapid evolution of troglomorphic characters suggests selection rather than neutral mutation as a driver of eye reduction in cave crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Sebastian; Mendoza, José C E; Liew, Jia Huan; Plath, Martin; Meier, Rudolf; Yeo, Darren C J

    2013-04-23

    This study asked whether reductive traits in cave organisms evolve at a slower pace (suggesting neutral evolution under relaxed selection) than constructive changes, which are likely to evolve under directional selection. We investigated 11 subterranean and seven surface populations of Sundathelphusa freshwater crabs on Bohol Island, Philippines, and examined constructive traits associated with improved food finding in darkness (increased leg and setae length) and reductive traits (reduced cornea size and eyestalk length). All changes occurred rapidly, given that the age of the most recent common ancestor was estimated to be 722-271 ka based on three mitochondrial markers. In order to quantify the speed of character change, we correlated the degree of morphological change with genetic distances between surface and subterranean individuals. The temporal pattern of character change following the transition to subterranean life was indistinguishable for constructive and reductive traits, characterized by an immediate onset and rapid evolutionary change. We propose that the evolution of these reductive traits-just like constructive traits-is most likely driven by strong directional selection.

  17. Learning Over Time: Using Rapid Prototyping Generative Analysis Experts and Reduction of Scope to Operationalize Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    during the Vietnam Conflict. 67 David A. Kolb , Experiential Learning : Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. (Upper Saddle River, NJ...Essentials for Military Applications. Newport Paper #10. Newport: Newport War College Press. 1996. Kolb , David A. Experiential Learning : Experience... learning over analysis. A broad review of design theory suggests that four techniques - rapid prototyping, generative analysis, use of experts, and

  18. Quantification of process variables for carbothermic synthesis of UC{sub 1-x}N{sub x} fuel microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemer, T.B. [MPi Business Solutions, Inc., Knoxville, TN 37915 (United States); Silva, C.M.; Henry, J.J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6063 (United States); McMurray, J.W., E-mail: mcmurrayjw1@ornl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6063 (United States); Voit, S.L.; Collins, J.L.; Hunt, R.D. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6063 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    This report details the continued investigation of process variables involved in converting sol-gel-derived, urania-carbon microspheres to ∼820-μm-dia. UC{sub 1-x}N{sub x} fuel kernels in flow-through, vertical Mo and W crucibles at temperatures up to 2123 K. Experiments included calcining of air-dried UO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O-C microspheres in Ar and H{sub 2}-containing gases, conversion of the resulting UO{sub 2}-C kernels to dense UO{sub 2}:2UC in the same gases and vacuum, and its conversion in N{sub 2} to UC{sub 1-x}N{sub x} (x = ∼0.85). The thermodynamics of the relevant reactions were applied extensively to interpret and control the process variables. Producing the precursor UO{sub 2}:2UC kernel of ∼96% theoretical density was required, but its subsequent conversion to UC{sub 1-x}N{sub x} at 2123 K was not accompanied by sintering and resulted in ∼83–86% of theoretical density. Increasing the UC{sub 1-x}N{sub x} kernel nitride component to ∼0.98 in flowing N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixtures to evolve HCN was shown to be quantitatively consistent with present and past experiments and the only useful application of H{sub 2} in the entire process. - Highlights: • Sol-gel feedstock conversion to UN through carbothermic reduction. • Investigation of process gas effect on final kernel quality and density. • Recommended process for consistent kernel production.

  19. Rapid Reduction in Breast Cancer Mortality With Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan H. Smith

    2014-11-01

    Interpretation: We found biologically plausible major reductions in breast cancer mortality during high exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water which could not be attributed to bias or confounding. We recommend clinical trial assessment of inorganic arsenic in the treatment of advanced breast cancer.

  20. Synthesis of solid and hollow ATO spheres by carbothermal reduction of ATO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Chunfang; Huang Zaiyin; Liao Dankui; Tan Xuecai; Wu Jian; Yuan Aiqun

    2007-01-01

    Solid and hollow ATO spheres were fabricated by heating ATO nanoparticles and graphite mixture in a tube furnace. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by EDS, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and HRTEM. The size of the solid spheres could be controlled by adjusting the rate of Ar flow and deposition positions. The hollow spheres were synthesized in an alumina tube system under conditions of a relatively high oxygen concentration. The growth mechanism of solid and hollow spheres was analysed

  1. Enhanced reversibility and durability of a solid oxide Fe-air redox battery by carbothermic reaction derived energy storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuan; Li, Xue; Gong, Yunhui; Huang, Kevin

    2014-01-18

    The recently developed solid oxide metal-air redox battery is a new technology capable of high-rate chemistry. Here we report that the performance, reversibility and stability of a solid oxide iron-air redox battery can be significantly improved by nanostructuring energy storage materials from a carbothermic reaction.

  2. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors gate rapid orientation-specific reduction in visual discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Mario; Frey, Sebastian; Köhr, Georg

    2012-11-01

    Prolonged imbalance in sensory experience leads to dramatic readjustments in cortical representation. Neuromodulatory systems play a critical role in habilitating experience-induced plasticity and regulate memory processes in vivo. Here, we show that a brief period of intense patterned visual stimulation combined with systemic activation of alpha-1 adrenergic neuromodulator receptors (α(1)-ARs) leads to a rapid, reversible, and NMDAR-dependent depression of AMPAR-mediated transmission from ascending inputs to layer II/III pyramidal cells in the visual cortex of young and adult mice. The magnitude of this form of α(1)-AR long-term depression (LTD), measured ex vivo with miniature EPSC recordings, is graded by the number of orientations used during visual experience. Moreover, behavioral tests of visual function following the induction of α(1)-AR LTD reveal that discrimination accuracy of sinusoidal drifting gratings is selectively reduced at high spatial frequencies in a reversible, orientation-specific, and NMDAR-dependent manner. Thus, α(1)-ARs enable rapid cortical synaptic depression which correlates with an orientation-specific decrease in visual discrimination. These findings contribute to our understanding of how adrenergic receptors interact with neuronal networks in response to changes in active sensory experience to produce adaptive behavior.

  3. A novel green synthesis and characterization of Ag NPs with its ultra-rapid catalytic reduction of methyl green dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junejo, Y.; Sirajuddin; Baykal, A.; Safdar, M.; Balouch, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ampicillin derived silver nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous medium. Particle size and shape were determined by Transmission electron microscopy which showed the monodispersed morphology. The Fourier transform infrared spectra were represented the interaction of Ampicillin with surface of Ampicillin derived silver nanoparticles. X-ray powder diffraction study gave crystalline nature of the Ampicillin derived silver nanoparticles which exhibited exceptional catalytic activity for the reduction of Methylene Green dye. However, complete reduction of dye was accomplished by Ampicillin derived silver nanoparticles within 4 min only. The catalytic performance of these nanoparticles was adsorbed on glass. They were recovered easily from reaction medium and reused with enhanced catalytic potential. Based upon these results it has been concluded that Ampicillin derived silver nanoparticles are novel, rapid and highly economical alternative for environmental safety against pollution by dyes and extendable for control of other reducible contaminants as well.

  4. Formation of plasmonic silver nanoparticles using rapid thermal annealing at low temperature and study in reflectance reduction of Si surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Bidyut; Dhasmana, Hrishikesh; Verma, Abhishek; Kumar, Amit; Pratap Chaudhary, Shiv; Jain, V. K.

    2017-09-01

    This work presents studies of plasmonic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) formation at low temperatures (200 °C-300 °C) onto Si surface by sputtering followed with rapid thermal processing (RTP) for different time durations(5-30 min). The study reveals that 20 min RTP at all temperatures show minimum average size of AgNPs (60.42 nm) with corresponding reduction in reflectance of Si surface from 40.12% to mere 1.15% only in wavelength region 300-800 nm for RTP at 200 °C. A detailed supporting growth mechanism is also discussed. This low temperature technique can be helpful in achieving efficiency improvement in solar cells via reflectance reduction with additional features such as reproducibility, minimal time and very good adhesion without damaging underlying layers device parameters.

  5. Gold Decorated Graphene for Rapid Dye Reduction and Efficient Electro Catalytic Oxidation of Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddhardha, R. S.; Kumar v, Lakshman; Kaniyoor, A.; Podila, R.; Kumar, V. S.; Venkataramaniah, K.; Ramaprabhu, S.; Rao, A.; Ramamurthy, S. S.; Clemson University Team; Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning Team; IITMadras Team

    2013-03-01

    A well known disadvantage in fabrication of metal-graphene composite is the use of surfactants that strongly adsorb on the surface and reduce the performance of the catalyst. Here, we demonstrate a novel one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by laser ablation of gold strip and simultaneous decoration of these on functionalized graphene derivatives. Not only the impregnation of AuNPs was linker free, but also the synthesis by itself was surfactant free. This resulted in in-situ decoration of pristine AuNPs on functionalized graphene derivatives. These materials were well characterized and tested for catalytic applications pertaining to dye reduction and electrooxidation. The catalytic reduction rates are 1.4 x 102 and 9.4x102 times faster for Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue dyes respectively, compared to earlier reports. The enhanced rate involves synergistic interplay of electronic relay between AuNPs and the dye, also charge transfer between the graphene system and dye. In addition, the onset potential for ethanol oxidation was found to be more negative ~ 100 mV, an indication of its promising application in direct ethanol fuel cells.

  6. Rapid arsenic(V)-reduction by fire in schwertmannite-rich soil enhances arsenic mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnston, Scott G.; Bennett, William W.; Burton, Edward D.

    2018-01-01

    (III) formation (∼90%) within 5–10 min at 400–600 °C, followed by partial re-oxidation to As(V) thereafter. In contrast, heating As(V)-schwertmannite in the absence of soil-organic matter did not cause reduction of As(V) or Fe(III), nor form maghemite; thus highlighting the critical role of organic matter......Arsenic in acid sulfate soil (ASS) landscapes commonly associates with schwertmannite, a poorly crystalline Fe(III) mineral. Fires in ASS landscapes can thermally transform Fe(III) minerals to more crystalline phases, such as maghemite (γFe2O3). Although thermal genesis of maghemite requires...... and hematite at temperatures above 300–400 °C, with some transitory formation of magnetite, and electrons are readily transferred to both Fe(III) and As(V). As(V) reduction to As(III) is influenced by a combination of temperature, heating duration and carbon content and is significantly (P

  7. A novel screening method based on menadione mediated rapid reduction of tetrazolium salt for testing of anti-mycobacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upasana; Akhtar, Shamim; Mishra, Abhishek; Sarkar, Dhiman

    2011-02-01

    A microplate-based rapid, inexpensive and robust technique is developed by using tetrazolium salt 2,3-bis[2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and menadione to determine the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis bacilli in microplate format. In general, XTT reduction is an extremely slow process which takes almost 24 h to produce a detectable signal. Menadione could drastically induce this reduction to an almost equal extent within a few minutes in a dose dependent manner. The reduction of XTT is directly proportional to the cell concentration in the presence of menadione. The standardized protocol used 200 μM of XTT and 60 μM of menadione in 250 μl of cell suspension grown either in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The cell suspension of M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis were incubated for 40 min before reading the optical density at 470 nm whereas M. smegmatis was incubated for 20 min. Calculated Signal/Noise (S/N) ratios obtained by applying this protocol were 5.4, 6.4 and 9.4 using M. bovis BCG, M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis respectively. The calculated Z' factors were >0.8 for all mycobacterium bacilli indicating the robustness of the XTT Reduction Menadione Assay (XRMA) for rapid screening of inhibitors. The assay protocol was validated by applying 10 standard anti-tubercular agents on M. tuberculosis, M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values were found to be similar to reported values from Colony Forming Unit (CFU) and REMA (resazurin microplate assay) assays. Altogether, XRMA is providing a novel anti-tubercular screening protocol which could be useful in high throughput screening programs against different physiological stages of the bacilli. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Simulation scenarios for rapid reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in the western electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a computer simulation analysis of carbon dioxide emissions in the electric power system in the western United States. Legislation at both the state and federal level would impose a price on emissions via cap-and-trade in allowances for carbon dioxide emissions. The simulation scenarios for the western system indicate that dramatic reductions in emissions are possible with generating technologies that exist today. Wind and biomass generators play a key role even with conservative assumptions about their future costs. In contrast, generation from advanced technologies provide only a minor contribution by the year 2025. These scenarios provide support to those who argue that the US should move expeditiously to put a price on carbon dixoide emissions

  9. Abscisic Acid Induces Rapid Reductions in Mesophyll Conductance to Carbon Dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sorrentino

    Full Text Available The rate of photosynthesis (A of plants exposed to water deficit is a function of stomatal (gs and mesophyll (gm conductance determining the availability of CO2 at the site of carboxylation within the chloroplast. Mesophyll conductance often represents the greatest impediment to photosynthetic uptake of CO2, and a crucial determinant of the photosynthetic effects of drought. Abscisic acid (ABA plays a fundamental role in signalling and co-ordination of plant responses to drought; however, the effect of ABA on gm is not well-defined. Rose, cherry, olive and poplar were exposed to exogenous ABA and their leaf gas exchange parameters recorded over a four hour period. Application with ABA induced reductions in values of A, gs and gm in all four species. Reduced gm occurred within one hour of ABA treatment in three of the four analysed species; indicating that the effect of ABA on gm occurs on a shorter timescale than previously considered. These declines in gm values associated with ABA were not the result of physical changes in leaf properties due to altered turgor affecting movement of CO2, or caused by a reduction in the sub-stomatal concentration of CO2 (Ci. Increased [ABA] likely induces biochemical changes in the properties of the interface between the sub-stomatal air-space and mesophyll layer through the actions of cooporins to regulate the transport of CO2. The results of this study provide further evidence that gm is highly responsive to fluctuations in the external environment, and stress signals such as ABA induce co-ordinated modifications of both gs and gm in the regulation of photosynthesis.

  10. Rapid Grain Size Reduction in the Upper Mantle at a Plate Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, S. B.; Scott, J.; Prior, D. J.; Lubicich, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    process was very rapid (<10,000 yrs). In either case we interpret that semi-brittle deformation was a key process responsible for rapid localization in this initiating plate-scale mantle shear zone.

  11. Understanding the Rapid Reduction of Undernutrition in Nepal, 2001-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek D Headey

    Full Text Available South Asia has long been synonymous with unusually high rates of undernutrition. In the past decade, however, Nepal has arguably achieved the fastest recorded decline in child stunting in the world and has done so in the midst of civil war and post-conflict political instability. Given recent interest in reducing undernutrition-particularly the role of nutrition-sensitive policies-this paper aims to quantitatively understand this surprising success story by analyzing the 2001, 2006, and 2011 rounds of Nepal's Demographic Health Surveys. To do so, we construct models of the intermediate determinants of child and maternal nutritional change and then decompose predicted changes in nutrition outcomes over time. We identify four broad drivers of change: asset accumulation, health and nutrition interventions, maternal educational gains, and improvements in sanitation. Many of these changes were clearly influenced by policy decisions, including increased public investments in health and education and community-led health and sanitation campaigns. Other factors, such as rapid growth in migration-based remittances, are more a reflection of household responses to changing political and economic circumstances.

  12. Rapid arsenic(V)-reduction by fire in schwertmannite-rich soil enhances arsenic mobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Scott G.; Bennett, William W.; Burton, Edward D.; Hockmann, Kerstin; Dawson, Nigel; Karimian, Niloofar

    2018-04-01

    Arsenic in acid sulfate soil (ASS) landscapes commonly associates with schwertmannite, a poorly crystalline Fe(III) mineral. Fires in ASS landscapes can thermally transform Fe(III) minerals to more crystalline phases, such as maghemite (γFe2O3). Although thermal genesis of maghemite requires electron transfer via organic matter pyrolysis, the possibility of fire causing concurrent transfer of electrons to schwertmannite-bound As(V) remains unexplored. Here, we subject an organic-rich soil with variable carbon content (∼9-44% organic C) mixed (4:1) with As(V)-bearing schwertmannite (total As of 4.7-5.4 μmol g-1), to various temperatures (200-800 °C) and heating durations (5-120 min). We explore the consequences for As and Fe via X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and selective extracts. Heating transforms schwertmannite to mainly maghemite and hematite at temperatures above 300-400 °C, with some transitory formation of magnetite, and electrons are readily transferred to both Fe(III) and As(V). As(V) reduction to As(III) is influenced by a combination of temperature, heating duration and carbon content and is significantly (P moderate fires in ASS landscapes, even of short duration, may generate considerable labile As(III) species and cause a pulse of As(III)aq mobilisation following initial re-wetting. Further research is warranted to examine if analogous As(III) formation occurs during combustion of organic-rich soil containing common As-bearing Fe(III) minerals such as ferrihydrite and goethite.

  13. Successful and rapid response of speech bulb reduction program combined with speech therapy in velopharyngeal dysfunction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Jeong; Ko, Seung-O

    2015-12-01

    Velopharyngeal dysfunction in cleft palate patients following the primary palate repair may result in nasal air emission, hypernasality, articulation disorder and poor intelligibility of speech. Among conservative treatment methods, speech aid prosthesis combined with speech therapy is widely used method. However because of its long time of treatment more than a year and low predictability, some clinicians prefer a surgical intervention. Thus, the purpose of this report was to increase an attention on the effectiveness of speech aid prosthesis by introducing a case that was successfully treated. In this clinical report, speech bulb reduction program with intensive speech therapy was applied for a patient with velopharyngeal dysfunction and it was rapidly treated by 5months which was unusually short period for speech aid therapy. Furthermore, advantages of pre-operative speech aid therapy were discussed.

  14. Rapid and efficient photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium by using “water dispersible” TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Kang, Shi-Zhao; Li, Xiangqing; Qin, Lixia; Yan, Hao; Mu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, “water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared, and meanwhile, their photocatalytic activity was systematically tested for the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) ions. It is found that the as-prepared “water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles are a highly efficient photocatalyst for the reduction of Cr(VI) ions in water under UV irradiation, and suitable for the remediation of Cr(VI) ions wastewater with low concentration. Compared with commercial TiO 2 nanoparticles (P25), the “water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles exhibit 3.8-fold higher photocatalytic activity. 100% Cr (VI) ions can be reduced into Cr(III) ions within 10 min when the Cr (VI) ions initial concentration is 10 mg L −1 . Moreover, the electrical energy consumption can be obviously decreased using the “water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles. These results suggest that the “water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles are a promising photocatalyst for rapid removal of Cr (VI) in environmental therapy. - Highlights: • “Water dispersible” TiO 2 nanoparticles with high photocatalytic activity. • 100% Cr (VI) (10 mg L −1 ) can be reduced within 10 min. • Obvious decrease of electrical energy consumption.

  15. LastQuake: a comprehensive strategy for rapid engagement of earthquake eyewitnesses, massive crowdsourcing and risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, R.; Roussel, F.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Steed, R.; Frobert, L.

    2015-12-01

    LastQuake is a smartphone app, browser add-on and the most sophisticated Twitter robot (quakebot) for earthquakes currently in operation. It fulfills eyewitnesses' needs by offering information on felt earthquakes and their effects within tens of seconds of their occurrence. Associated with an active presence on Facebook, Pinterest and on websites, this proves a very efficient engagement strategy. For example, the app was installed thousands of times after the Ghorka earthquake in Nepal. Language barriers have been erased by using visual communication; for example, felt reports are collected through a set of cartoons representing different shaking levels. Within 3 weeks of the magnitude 7.8 Ghorka earthquakes, 7,000 felt reports with thousands of comments were collected related to the mainshock and tens of its aftershocks as well as 100 informative geo-located pics. The QuakeBot was essential in allowing us to be identified so well and interact with those affected. LastQuake is also a risk reduction tool since it provides rapid information. Rapid information is similar to prevention since when it does not exist, disasters can happen. When no information is available after a felt earthquake, the public block emergency lines by trying to find out the cause of the shaking, crowds form potentially leading to unpredictable crowd movement, rumors spread. In its next release LastQuake will also provide people with guidance immediately after a shaking through a number of pop-up cartoons illustrating "do/don't do" items (go to open places, do not phone emergency services except if people are injured…). LastQuake's app design is simple and intuitive and has a global audience. It benefited from a crowdfunding campaign (and the support of the Fondation MAIF) and more improvements have been planned after an online feedback campaign organized in early June with the Ghorka earthquake eyewitnesses. LastQuake is also a seismic risk reduction tools thanks to its very rapid

  16. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Davis, Glen M

    2016-01-01

    Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance. Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD), 50 (6) %) of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28). Some investigations (n = 13) lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i) optimizing electrode positioning, (ii) fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii) adjustments to the mode and frequency of exercise training

  17. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    Full Text Available Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance.Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review.Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD, 50 (6 % of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28. Some investigations (n = 13 lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i optimizing electrode positioning, (ii fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii adjustments to the mode and frequency of exercise

  18. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Davis, Glen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance. Methods Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Results Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD), 50 (6) %) of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28). Some investigations (n = 13) lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i) optimizing electrode positioning, (ii) fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii) adjustments to the mode and

  19. Study of the presence of fluorine in the recycled fractions during carbothermal treatment of EAF dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menad, N; Ayala, J N; Garcia-Carcedo, Fernando; Ruiz-Ayúcar, E; Hernández, A

    2003-01-01

    Carbothermal treatment tests of electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD) using the Waelz kiln process were carried out in pilot-scale for the production of zinc oxide. The association of halides in the EAFD, and the recycled products, such as zinc oxide fumes and high-grade iron contents fractions were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. XRD reveals the presence of chlorine and fluorine in the dusts in the form of KCl, NaCl and CaF2. An ultra-pure fraction of zinc was obtained after the Double Leaching Waelz Oxide (DLWO) process was performed on the zinc oxide fumes. The halide contents were reduced to approximately 100 ppm Cl and 700 ppm F. The rest of these elements are in the form of CaF2. About 65% F is volatilised as lead and zinc fluorides, 15% is expected in the magnetic fractions and 20% in non-magnetic fractions as CaF2 and MnF2, respectively.

  20. Major Reduction in Anti-Malarial Drug Consumption in Senegal after Nation-Wide Introduction of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Sylla; Thior, Moussa; Faye, Babacar; Ndiop, Médoune; Diouf, Mamadou Lamine; Diouf, Mame Birame; Diallo, Ibrahima; Fall, Fatou Ba; Ndiaye, Jean Louis; Albertini, Audrey; Lee, Evan; Jorgensen, Pernille; Gaye, Oumar; Bell, David

    2011-01-01

    Background While WHO recently recommended universal parasitological confirmation of suspected malaria prior to treatment, debate has continued as to whether wide-scale use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can achieve this goal. Adherence of health service personnel to RDT results has been poor in some settings, with little impact on anti-malarial drug consumption. The Senegal national malaria control programme introduced universal parasite-based diagnosis using malaria RDTs from late 2007 in all public health facilities. This paper assesses the impact of this programme on anti-malarial drug consumption and disease reporting. Methods and Findings Nationally-collated programme data from 2007 to 2009 including malaria diagnostic outcomes, prescription of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and consumption of RDTs in public health facilities, were reviewed and compared. Against a marked seasonal variation in all-cause out-patient visits, non-malarial fever and confirmed malaria, parasite-based diagnosis increased nationally from 3.9% of reported malaria-like febrile illness to 86.0% over a 3 year period. The prescription of ACT dropped throughout this period from 72.9% of malaria-like febrile illness to 31.5%, reaching close equivalence to confirmed malaria (29.9% of 584873 suspect fever cases). An estimated 516576 courses of inappropriate ACT prescription were averted. Conclusions The data indicate high adherence of anti-malarial prescribing practice to RDT results after an initial run-in period. The large reduction in ACT consumption enabled by the move from symptom-based to parasite-based diagnosis demonstrates that effective roll-out and use of malaria RDTs is achievable on a national scale through well planned and structured implementation. While more detailed information on management of parasite-negative cases is required at point of care level to assess overall cost-benefits to the health sector, considerable cost-savings were achieved in ACT

  1. Evolution of the near-UV emission spectrum associated with the reduction process in microwave iron making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Akihiro; Takayama, Sadatsugu; Okajima, Shigeki; Sato, Motoyasu

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the emission spectrum in the near-UV range (240 nm-310 nm) changes drastically from the continuous spectrum to a discrete line spectrum with increasing sample temperature during the carbothermic reduction of magnetite in a 2.45 GHz microwave multimode furnace. The continuous spectrum can be assigned as a cathodoluminescence of magnetite. The dynamic evolution of the spectrum from continuous to discrete represents the progress of the reduction from magnetite to iron.

  2. Rapid isolation of a facultative anaerobic electrochemically active bacterium capable of oxidizing acetate for electrogenesis and azo dyes reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nan; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Wu, Chao; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Song, Xiang-Ning; Li, Wen-Wei; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-05-01

    In this study, 27 strains of electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were rapidly isolated and their capabilities of extracellular electron transfer were identified using a photometric method based on WO3 nanoclusters. These strains caused color change of WO3 from white to blue in a 24-well agar plate within 40 h. Most of the isolated EAB strains belonged to the genera of Aeromonas and Shewanella. One isolate, Pantoea agglomerans S5-44, was identified as an EAB that can utilize acetate as the carbon source to produce electricity and reduce azo dyes under anaerobic conditions. The results confirmed the capability of P. agglomerans S5-44 for extracellular electron transfer. The isolation of this acetate-utilizing, facultative EBA reveals the metabolic diversity of environmental bacteria. Such strains have great potential for environmental applications, especially at interfaces of aerobic and anaerobic environments, where acetate is the main available carbon source.

  3. Rapid reduction of malaria following introduction of vector control interventions in Tororo District, Uganda: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguttu, David W; Matovu, Joseph K B; Okumu, David C; Ario, Alex R; Okullo, Allen E; Opigo, Jimmy; Nankabirwa, Victoria

    2017-05-30

    In 2012, Tororo District had the highest malaria burden in Uganda with community Plasmodium prevalence of 48%. To control malaria in the district, the Ministry of Health introduced universal distribution of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) in 2013 and added indoor residual spraying (IRS) in 2014. This study assessed malaria incidence, test positivity rates and outpatient (OPD) attendance due to malaria before and after vector control interventions. This study was based on analysis of Health Management Information System (HMIS) secondary malaria surveillance data of 2,727,850 patient records in OPD registers of 61 health facilities from 2012 to 2015. The analysis estimated monthly malaria incidence for the entire population and also separately for malaria cases in OPD. Chi square for trends was used to analyse annual change in malaria incidence and logistic regression for monthly reduction. Following universal LLINs coverage, the annual mean monthly malaria incidence fell from 95 cases in 2013 to 76 cases per 1000 in 2014 with no significant monthly reduction (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.96-1.01, P = 0.37). Among children malaria incidence reduced from 130 to 100 cases per 1000 (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-1.00, P = 0.08) when LLINs were used alone in 2014, but declined to 45 per 1000 in 2015 when IRS was combined with LLINs (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.996, P malaria incidence reduced from 59 to 52 cases per 1000 (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.97-1.02, P = 0.8) when LLINs were used alone in 2014, but reduced significantly to 25 per 1000 in 2015 (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.88-0.94, P Malaria test positivity rate reduced from 57% in 2013 to 30% (Chi = 15, P malaria incidence was observed in Tororo District following the introduction of IRS in addition to LLINs. There was no significant reduction in malaria incidence following universal distribution of LLINs to communities before introduction of IRS.

  4. A simple Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system for rapid and simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidative degradation of organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yanan; Yang, Shaojie [Department of Environmental Science, Hubei Key Lab of Biomass Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology, School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, 430079 (China); Zhou, Danna, E-mail: zdncug@163.com [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu, Feng [Department of Environmental Science, Hubei Key Lab of Biomass Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology, School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, 430079 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Rapid and simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) and degradation of organic pollutants occur. • Oxysulfur radicals generated in Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system oxidize the organic pollutants. • Acidic pH facilitates the reactions from both directions of reduction and oxidation. • Degradation potential of aromatic amines depends on the substituted groups. • Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system is promising for “waste control by waste”. - Abstract: Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a heavy-metal contaminant, can be easily reduced to less toxic trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) by sulfite ions (S(IV)). However, S(IV) has not drawn as much attention as the ferrous ion has. We report herein a novel Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system containing sulfite ions that rapidly and simultaneously reduces Cr(VI) and oxidize organic pollutants in the presence of oxygen in aqueous solutions. This Cr(VI)–S(IV)-O{sub 2} system contains the initiator Cr(VI), the reductant S(IV), and the oxidant O{sub 2}, which produce oxysulfur radicals (mainly SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and SO{sub 5}·{sup −}) and hydroxyl radicals (OH·). The Cr(VI)/S(IV) molar ratio, pH, and oxygen content play important roles in the entire reaction system. Acidic conditions (pH 3.0) facilitated degradation of organic compounds and reduction of Cr(VI) as well. In addition, experiments of rapid degradation of several kinds of organic pollutants such as azo dye (acid orange 7, AO7), aniline, phenol, bisphenol A etc were also conducted. Preliminary results show that the removal rates of the analogs of phenols or aromatic amines in this Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system have a relationship with the electronic parameters (Hammett constant, σ) of the substituted groups. Thus, the Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system, provides an excellent strategy of “waste control by waste” for removing multiple industrial contaminants.

  5. Rapid reduction of hepatitis C virus-Core protein in the peripheral blood improve the immunological response in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yasuteru; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Wakui, Yuta; Ninomiya, Masashi; Kakazu, Eiji; Inoue, Jun; Kobayashi, Koju; Obara, Noriyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2011-12-01

      The extracellular hepatitis C virus (HCV)-antigen, including HCV-Core protein, can suppress immune cells. Recently, the efficacy of double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) was reported. However, the mechanism of efficacy of DFPP might not be only the reduction of HCV but also the effect of immune cells via direct and/or indirect mechanisms. The aim of this study is to analyze the virological and immunological parameters of difficult-to-treat HCV patients treated with DFPP combined with Peg-interferon and RBV (DFPP/Peg-IFN/RBV) therapy.   Twelve CHC patients were enrolled and treated with DFPP/Peg-IFN/RBV therapy. The immunological, virological and genetic parameters were studied.   All patients (4/4) treated with the major IL28B allele (T/T) could achieve complete early virological response (EVR). The amounts of HCV-Core antigen in the peripheral blood of EVR patients treated with DFPP/Peg-IFN/RBV rapidly declined in comparison to those of late virological response (LVR) patients treated with DFPP/Peg-IFN/RBV and EVR patients treated with Peg-IFN and RBV (Peg-IFN/RBV). The amount of IFN-γ produced from peripheral blood gradually increased. On the other hand, the amount of IL10 gradually decreased in the EVR patients. The frequencies of HCV-Core binding on CD3+ T cells rapidly declined in EVR patients treated with DFPP/Peg-IFN/RBV therapy. Moreover, the distributions of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and CD16-CD56 high natural killer cells were significantly changed between before and after DFPP.   The rapid reduction of HCV-Core antigens and changes in the distribution of lymphoid cells could contribute to the favorable immunological response during DFPP/Peg-IFN/RBV therapy. © 2011 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  6. Highly recyclable and ultra-rapid catalytic reduction of organic pollutants on Ag-Cu@ZnO bimetal nanocomposite synthesized via green technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangarapu, Manjari; Sarangapany, Saran; Suja, Devipriya P.; Arava, Vijaya Bhaskara Rao

    2018-04-01

    In this study, synthesis of Ag-Cu alloy bimetal nanoparticles anchored on high surface and porous ZnO using a facile, greener and low-cost aqeous bark extract of Aglaia roxburghiana for highly active, ultra-rapid and stable catalyst is performed. The nanocomposite was scrupulously characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrophotometer, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, selected area (electron) diffraction, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of the green synthesized Ag-Cu bimetal nanocomposite was evaluated in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (Rh B) dyes. The different types of dye exhibited very high and effective catalytic activity within few seconds. The theoretical investigations reveal that the unique synergistic effect of Ag-Cu nanoparticles and immobilization over ZnO assists in the reduction of 4-NP, MB and Rh B. Loading and leaching of metal nanoparticles were obtained using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Moreover, the stable and efficient recyclability of nanocomposite by centrifugation after completion of the reaction was demonstrated. The results lead to the design different possible bimetal on ZnO with boosting and an effective catalyst for the environmental applications.

  7. Selective colorimetric sensors based on the monitoring of an unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) reduction for a simple and rapid determination of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarujamrus, Purim; Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Thima, Araya; Khongrangdee, Thatsanee; Mongkontong, Chakrit

    2015-05-01

    In this work, selective colorimetric sensors for simple and rapid detection of Hg(II) ions based on the monitoring of an unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) reduction were developed. The average diameter of synthesized AgNPs was 8.3 ± 1.4 nm which was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The abrupt change in absorbance of the unmodified AgNPs was observed which progressively decreased and slightly shifted to the blue wavelength as the concentration of Hg(II) increased, indicating the oxidation of Ag(0) to Ag(I) occurred. It appears that the AgNPs were oxidized by Hg(II), resulting in disintegration of the AgNPs into smaller particles as well as mediating the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) adsorbed onto the surface of AgNPs. The adsorption of Hg(0) resulted in the lack of sufficient charges on AgNPs surfaces due to the decrease in the surface coverage of negatively charged citrate molecules, which then leaded to enlargement of AgNPs. The calibration curve of this technique was demonstrated from 0.5 to 7 ppm (r2 = 0.995), the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.06 ppm (SDblank/slope of calibration curve) with the precision (RSD, n = 4) of 3.24-4.53. Interestingly, the results show a significant enhance in the Hg(II) analytical sensitivity when Cu(II) is doped onto the unmodified AgNPs, which improves the quantitative detection limit to 0.008 ppm. In addition, greater selectivity toward Hg(II) compared with the other metal ions tested was observed. Furthermore, the percentage recoveries of spiked drinking water, tap water and SRM1641d (mercury in water) were in acceptable range with a good precision (RSD) which were in agreement with the values obtained from graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS). The technique proposed in this study provides a rapid, simple, sensitive and selective detection method for Hg(II) in water samples.

  8. Beam loss reduction by injection painting in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex was commissioned in October 2007. Via the initial beam tuning and a series of underlying beam studies with low-intensity beams, since December 2009, we have intermittently been performing beam tuning experiments with higher-intensity beams including the injection painting technique. By optimizing the injection painting parameters, we have successfully achieved a 420 kW-equivalent output intensity at a low-level intensity loss of less than 1%. Also the corresponding numerical simulation well reproduced the observed painting parameter dependence on the beam loss, and captured a characteristic behavior of the high-intensity beam in the injection painting process. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained in the course of the RCS beam power ramp-up, especially on the beam loss reduction achieved by employing the injection painting, together with the numerical simulation results.

  9. Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephen; Bossis, Anthony; Guss, Jeffrey; Agin-Liebes, Gabrielle; Malone, Tara; Cohen, Barry; Mennenga, Sarah E; Belser, Alexander; Kalliontzi, Krystallia; Babb, James; Su, Zhe; Corby, Patricia; Schmidt, Brian L

    2016-12-01

    Clinically significant anxiety and depression are common in patients with cancer, and are associated with poor psychiatric and medical outcomes. Historical and recent research suggests a role for psilocybin to treat cancer-related anxiety and depression. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 29 patients with cancer-related anxiety and depression were randomly assigned and received treatment with single-dose psilocybin (0.3 mg/kg) or niacin, both in conjunction with psychotherapy. The primary outcomes were anxiety and depression assessed between groups prior to the crossover at 7 weeks. Prior to the crossover, psilocybin produced immediate, substantial, and sustained improvements in anxiety and depression and led to decreases in cancer-related demoralization and hopelessness, improved spiritual wellbeing, and increased quality of life. At the 6.5-month follow-up, psilocybin was associated with enduring anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects (approximately 60-80% of participants continued with clinically significant reductions in depression or anxiety), sustained benefits in existential distress and quality of life, as well as improved attitudes towards death. The psilocybin-induced mystical experience mediated the therapeutic effect of psilocybin on anxiety and depression. In conjunction with psychotherapy, single moderate-dose psilocybin produced rapid, robust and enduring anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects in patients with cancer-related psychological distress. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00957359. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. One-step route to a hybrid TiO2/TixW1−xN nanocomposite by in situ selective carbothermal nitridation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Schnepp, Martin J Hollamby, Masahiko Tanaka, Yoshitaka Matsushita, Yoshio Katsuya and Yoshio Sakka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide/nitride nanocomposites have many existing and potential applications, e.g. in energy conversion or ammonia synthesis. Here, a hybrid oxide/nitride nanocomposite (anatase/TixW1−xN was synthesized by an ammonia-free sol–gel route. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction, complemented with electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, was used to study the structure, composition and mechanism of formation of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite contained nanoparticles (<5 nm diameter of two highly intermixed phases. This was found to arise from controlled nucleation and growth of a single oxide intermediate from the gel precursor, followed by phase separation and in situ selective carbothermal nitridation. Depending on the preparation conditions, the composition varied from anatase/TixW1−xN at low W content to an isostructural mixture of Ti-rich and W-rich TixW1−xN at high W content. In situ selective carbothermal nitridation offers a facile route to the synthesis of nitride-oxide nanocomposites. This conceptually new approach is a significant advance from previous methods, which generally require ammonolysis of a pre-synthesized oxide.

  11. Rapid thermal reduced graphene oxide/Pt–TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays for enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Lan Ching [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak (Malaysia); Leong, Kah Hon [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Saravanan, Pichiah, E-mail: saravananpichiah@um.edu.my [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Center (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Shaliza [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Enhanced visible light character of TNTs was imparted by RGO/Pt via facile route. • Pt NPs contribute exemplary visible light harvesting nature through plasmon effect. • Engulfed RGO promoted enhanced charge-carriers separation. • Synergistic effect of RGO, Pt photoreduced CO{sub 2} to CH{sub 4} with max. of 10.96 μmol m{sup −2}. - Abstract: In this study, a complicate natural photosynthesis process was prototyped through a photocatalysis process by reducing CO{sub 2} to light hydrocarbon, CH{sub 4}. The composite photocatalyst employed for this study utilized Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) and rapid thermal reduced graphene oxide (RGO) deposited over the surface of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNTs). The existence and contribution of both Pt NPs and RGO in the composite was confirmed through various analytical techniques including XRD, HRTEM, FESEM, Raman, FTIR, XPS, UV-DRS and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. The TNTs in the composite exhibited pure anatase phase. The absorption bands at around 450 nm obtained from UV-DRS spectrum supported the existence of LSPR phenomenon of Pt NPs. The promising lower work function of RGO promoted the electrons transfer from TNTs to RGO efficiently. The successful depositions of Pt and RGO onto the surface of TNTs contributed for the improved photocatalytic activity (total CH{sub 4} yield of 10.96 μmol m{sup −2}) in the reduction of CO{sub 2} over TNTs and Pt–TNTs. Both of RGO and Pt NPs are equally important to exert a significant impact on the improvement of CH{sub 4} production rates.

  12. Rapid thermal reduced graphene oxide/Pt–TiO2 nanotube arrays for enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic reduction of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Lan Ching; Leong, Kah Hon; Saravanan, Pichiah; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Enhanced visible light character of TNTs was imparted by RGO/Pt via facile route. • Pt NPs contribute exemplary visible light harvesting nature through plasmon effect. • Engulfed RGO promoted enhanced charge-carriers separation. • Synergistic effect of RGO, Pt photoreduced CO 2 to CH 4 with max. of 10.96 μmol m −2 . - Abstract: In this study, a complicate natural photosynthesis process was prototyped through a photocatalysis process by reducing CO 2 to light hydrocarbon, CH 4 . The composite photocatalyst employed for this study utilized Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) and rapid thermal reduced graphene oxide (RGO) deposited over the surface of the TiO 2 nanotube arrays (TNTs). The existence and contribution of both Pt NPs and RGO in the composite was confirmed through various analytical techniques including XRD, HRTEM, FESEM, Raman, FTIR, XPS, UV-DRS and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. The TNTs in the composite exhibited pure anatase phase. The absorption bands at around 450 nm obtained from UV-DRS spectrum supported the existence of LSPR phenomenon of Pt NPs. The promising lower work function of RGO promoted the electrons transfer from TNTs to RGO efficiently. The successful depositions of Pt and RGO onto the surface of TNTs contributed for the improved photocatalytic activity (total CH 4 yield of 10.96 μmol m −2 ) in the reduction of CO 2 over TNTs and Pt–TNTs. Both of RGO and Pt NPs are equally important to exert a significant impact on the improvement of CH 4 production rates.

  13. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-12-11

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  14. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  15. Reduction of anti-malarial consumption after rapid diagnostic tests implementation in Dar es Salaam: a before-after and cluster randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swai Ndeniria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presumptive treatment of all febrile patients with anti-malarials leads to massive over-treatment. The aim was to assess the effect of implementing malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs on prescription of anti-malarials in urban Tanzania. Methods The design was a prospective collection of routine statistics from ledger books and cross-sectional surveys before and after intervention in randomly selected health facilities (HF in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The participants were all clinicians and their patients in the above health facilities. The intervention consisted of training and introduction of mRDTs in all three hospitals and in six HF. Three HF without mRDTs were selected as matched controls. The use of routine mRDT and treatment upon result was advised for all patients complaining of fever, including children under five years of age. The main outcome measures were: (1 anti-malarial consumption recorded from routine statistics in ledger books of all HF before and after intervention; (2 anti-malarial prescription recorded during observed consultations in cross-sectional surveys conducted in all HF before and 18 months after mRDT implementation. Results Based on routine statistics, the amount of artemether-lumefantrine blisters used post-intervention was reduced by 68% (95%CI 57-80 in intervention and 32% (9-54 in control HF. For quinine vials, the reduction was 63% (54-72 in intervention and an increase of 2.49 times (1.62-3.35 in control HF. Before-and-after cross-sectional surveys showed a similar decrease from 75% to 20% in the proportion of patients receiving anti-malarial treatment (Risk ratio 0.23, 95%CI 0.20-0.26. The cluster randomized analysis showed a considerable difference of anti-malarial prescription between intervention HF (22% and control HF (60% (Risk ratio 0.30, 95%CI 0.14-0.70. Adherence to test result was excellent since only 7% of negative patients received an anti-malarial. However, antibiotic

  16. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  17. An ionic diffusion mechanism of chromite reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, K. P. D.; Finn, C. W. P.; King, R. P.

    1988-08-01

    The occurrence of the various phases that form during the solid-state carbothermic reduction of chromite is explained by the use of a point-defect model. In this model each chromite particle is considered to be comprised of concentric layers of spinel unit cells (Fe2+and Mg2+ occupy tetrahedral sites, Cr3+, Al3+, and Fe3+ occupy octahedral sites). The phases that form are a result of the interchange of cations between unit cells within the particle effected by the presence of carbon monoxide at the surface of the particle. Four stages of reduction are identified: (1) the formation of a slightly iron-enriched core comprising distorted spinel unit cells surrounded by a region of normal spinel unit cells, effected by the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+; (2) the formation of Cr-Al sesquioxide and Mg-Cr-Al spinel phases effected by the metallization of Fe2+ ions and subsequent production of Cr2+ ions; (3) reduction of Fe2+ interstitials in the spinel core; and (4) metallization of chromium ions via the Cr2+ intermediate. The non-appearance of the sesquioxide phase at high temperatures is explained by considering the effect of temperature on the magnitudes of the diffusion coefficients of Cr2+, Mg2+, and interstitial Fe2+ ions.

  18. Novel route for rapid sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite, avoiding ageing and using fast drying with a 50-fold to 200-fold reduction in process time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Arfa, Basam A.E.; Salvado, Isabel M. Miranda, E-mail: isabelmsalvado@ua.pt; Ferreira, José M.F.; Pullar, Robert C., E-mail: rpullar@ua.pt

    2017-01-01

    We have developed an innovative, rapid sol-gel method of producing hydroxyapatite nanopowders that avoids the conventional lengthy ageing and drying processes (over a week), being 200 times quicker in comparison to conventional aqueous sol-gel preparation, and 50 times quicker than ethanol based sol-gel synthesis. Two different sets of experimental conditions, in terms of pH value (5.5 and 7.5), synthesis temperature (45 and 90 °C), drying temperature (60 and 80 °C) and calcination temperature (400 and 700 °C) were explored. The products were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area (SSA) measurements. Pure hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, HAp) was obtained for the powders synthesised at pH 7.5 and calcined at 400 °C, while biphasic mixtures of HAp/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, TCP) were produced at pH 5.5 and (pH 7.5 at elevated temperature). The novel rapid drying was up to 200 times faster than conventional drying, only needing 1 h with no prior ageing step, and favoured the formation of smaller/finer nanopowders, while producing pure HAp or phase mixtures virtually identical to those obtained from the slow conventional drying method, despite the absence of a slow ageing process. The products of this novel rapid process were actually shown to have smaller crystallite sizes and larger SSA, which should result in increased bioactivity. - Highlights: • Fast, novel sol-gel synthesis of HAp nanopowders, requiring just 1 h for drying • A much shortened process, 200 times faster than the usual slow drying/ageing times • Compares rapidly produced HAp with that from a typical 216 h drying/ageing process • Both methods produce very similar products, but rapid HAp had a larger surface area. • Both methods produced pure HAp at 400 °C, and a HAp/TCP mix at 700 °C.

  19. Reduction of the use of antimicrobial drugs following the rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in the vagina at delivery by real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncelet-Jasserand, E; Forges, F; Varlet, M-N; Chauleur, C; Seffert, P; Siani, C; Pozzetto, B; Ros, A

    2013-08-01

    To assess whether the determination of the presence of group B streptococci (GBS) in the vagina using a rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay at delivery was able to spare useless antimicrobial treatments, as compared with conventional culture at 34-38 weeks of gestation. Practical evaluation and prospective cost-effectiveness analysis. A university hospital in France. A cohort of 225 women in labour at the University-Hospital of Saint-Etienne. Each woman had a conventional culture performed at 34-38 weeks of gestation. At the beginning of labour, two vaginal swabs were sampled for rapid PCR testing and culture. The decision to prescribe a prophylactic antimicrobial treatment or not was taken according to the result of the PCR test. A comparative cost-effectiveness analysis of the two diagnostic strategies was carried out. Number of women receiving inadequate prophylactic antimicrobial drugs following each testing strategy, costs of PCR testing and culture, frequency of vaginal GBS, and diagnostic performance of the PCR test at delivery. The percentage of unnecessarily treated women was significantly reduced using the rapid test versus conventional culture (4.5 and 13.6%, respectively; P < 0.001). The rate of vaginal GBS at delivery was 12.5%. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for each inadequate management avoided was €36 and €173 from the point of view of the healthcare system and hospital, respectively. The PCR assay reduced the number of inadequate antimicrobial treatments aimed to prevent the early onset of GBS disease. However, this strategy generates extra costs that must be put into balance with its clinical benefits. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  20. Novel route for rapid sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite, avoiding ageing and using fast drying with a 50-fold to 200-fold reduction in process time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arfa, Basam A E; Salvado, Isabel M Miranda; Ferreira, José M F; Pullar, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    We have developed an innovative, rapid sol-gel method of producing hydroxyapatite nanopowders that avoids the conventional lengthy ageing and drying processes (over a week), being 200 times quicker in comparison to conventional aqueous sol-gel preparation, and 50 times quicker than ethanol based sol-gel synthesis. Two different sets of experimental conditions, in terms of pH value (5.5 and 7.5), synthesis temperature (45 and 90°C), drying temperature (60 and 80°C) and calcination temperature (400 and 700°C) were explored. The products were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area (SSA) measurements. Pure hydroxyapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , HAp) was obtained for the powders synthesised at pH7.5 and calcined at 400°C, while biphasic mixtures of HAp/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , TCP) were produced at pH5.5 and (pH7.5 at elevated temperature). The novel rapid drying was up to 200 times faster than conventional drying, only needing 1h with no prior ageing step, and favoured the formation of smaller/finer nanopowders, while producing pure HAp or phase mixtures virtually identical to those obtained from the slow conventional drying method, despite the absence of a slow ageing process. The products of this novel rapid process were actually shown to have smaller crystallite sizes and larger SSA, which should result in increased bioactivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Extensin network formation in Vitis vinifera callus cells is an essential and causal event in rapid and H2O2-induced reduction in primary cell wall hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Extensin deposition is considered important for the correct assembly and biophysical properties of primary cell walls, with consequences to plant resistance to pathogens, tissue morphology, cell adhesion and extension growth. However, evidence for a direct and causal role for the extensin network formation in changes to cell wall properties has been lacking. Results Hydrogen peroxide treatment of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Touriga) callus cell walls was seen to induce a marked reduction in their hydration and thickness. An analysis of matrix proteins demonstrated this occurs with the insolubilisation of an abundant protein, GvP1, which displays a primary structure and post-translational modifications typical of dicotyledon extensins. The hydration of callus cell walls free from saline-soluble proteins did not change in response to H2O2, but fully regained this capacity after addition of extensin-rich saline extracts. To assay the specific contribution of GvP1 cross-linking and other wall matrix proteins to the reduction in hydration, GvP1 levels in cell walls were manipulated in vitro by binding selected fractions of extracellular proteins and their effect on wall hydration during H2O2 incubation assayed. Conclusions This approach allowed us to conclude that a peroxidase-mediated formation of a covalently linked network of GvP1 is essential and causal in the reduction of grapevine callus wall hydration in response to H2O2. Importantly, this approach also indicated that extensin network effects on hydration was only partially irreversible and remained sensitive to changes in matrix charge. We discuss this mechanism and the importance of these changes to primary wall properties in the light of extensin distribution in dicotyledons. PMID:21672244

  2. One-pot, green, rapid synthesis of flowerlike gold nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide composite with regenerated silk fibroin as efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengjie; Yong, Liu; Wu, Peiyi

    2013-02-01

    Flowerlike gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were fabricated by a facile, one-pot, environmentally friendly method in the presence of regenerated silk fibroin (RSF). The influences of reaction time, temperature, and HAuCl(4): RGO ratio on the morphology of Au NPs loaded on RGO sheets were discussed and a tentative mechanism for the formation of flowerlike Au NPs/RGO composite was proposed. In addition, the flowerlike Au NPs/RGO composite showed superior catalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to Au/RGO composites with other morphologies. Our work provides an alternative facile and green approach to synthesize functional metal/RGO composites.

  3. A two-cavity reactor for solar chemical processes: heat transfer model and application to carbothermic reduction of ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieckert, Christian; Palumbo, Robert; Frommherz, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    A 5 kW two-cavity beam down reactor for the solar thermal decomposition of ZnO with solid carbon has been developed and tested in a solar furnace. Initial exploratory experiments show that it operates with a solar to chemical energy conversion efficiency of about 15% when the solar flux entering the reactor is 1300 kW/m 2 , resulting in a reaction chamber temperature of about 1500 K. The solid products have a purity of nearly 100% Zn. Furthermore, the reactor has been described by a numerical model that combines radiant and conduction heat transfer with the decomposition kinetics of the ZnO-carbon reaction. The model is based on the radiosity exchange method. For a given solar input, the model estimates cavity temperatures, Zn production rates, and the solar to chemical energy conversion efficiency. The model currently makes use of two parameters which are determined from the experimental results: conduction heat transfer through the reactor walls enters the model as a lumped term that reflects the conduction loss during the experiments, and the rate of the chemical reaction includes an experimentally determined term that reflects the effective amount of ZnO and CO participating in the reactor. The model output matches well the experimentally determined cavity temperatures. It suggests that reactors built with this two-cavity concept already on this small scale can reach efficiencies exceeding 25%, if operated with a higher solar flux or if one can reduce conduction heat losses through better insulation and if one can maintain or improve the effective amount of ZnO and CO that participates in the reaction

  4. Individualized dosimetry-based activity reduction of {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC prevents severe and rapid kidney function deterioration from peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnebeek, Sofie van; Baete, Kristof; Vanbilloen, Bert; Terwinghe, Christelle; Mortelmans, Luc [University Hospitals Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Koole, Michel [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Clement, Paul M. [University Hospitals Leuven, Medical Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Haustermans, Karin [University Hospitals Leuven, Radiation Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Cutsem, Eric van; Verslype, Chris [KU Leuven, Department of Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Division of Digestive Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Verbruggen, Alfons [KU Leuven, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Leuven (Belgium); Bogaerts, Kris [KU Leuven, Division of Public Health and Primary Care (I-Biostat), Leuven (Belgium); Deroose, Christophe M. [University Hospitals Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); UZ Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-06-15

    Assessment of kidney function evolution after {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with capped activity administration based on a 37-Gy threshold of biological effective dose (BED) to the kidney. In a prospective phase II study, patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours were evaluated for therapy using 185 MBq {sup 111}In-pentetreotide with amino acid coinfusion. Planar whole-body images were acquired at four time-points after injection and kidney volumes were measured using CT/MRI. BED to the kidneys was estimated using an extended BED formula and biexponential renal clearance. Based on published BED dose-toxicity relationships, we allowed a maximal kidney BED of 37 Gy; if the calculated BED exceeded 37 Gy, treatment activity was reduced accordingly. Kidney function was assessed at baseline and at 18 months, predominantly using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA. The rate of renal function decline was expressed as annual glomerular filtration rate loss (aGFRL). Only 22 of 50 patients reached the 18-months time-point, with most missing patients having died due to disease progression. In the 22 patients who reached 18 months, no rapid kidney function deterioration was observed over the 18 months, aGFRL >33 % was not seen, and only three patients showed an increase of one toxicity grade and one patient an increase of two grades. No significant correlations between kidney volume (p = 0.35), baseline GFR (p = 0.18), risk factors for renal function loss (p = 0.74) and aGFRL were observed. Among the 28 patients who did not reach 18 months, one developed grade 4 kidney toxicity at 15 months after PRRT. Prospective dosimetry using a 37 Gy BED as the threshold for kidney toxicity is a good guide for {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC PRRT and is associated with a low risk of rapid renal function deterioration and evolution to severe nephrotoxicity. (orig.)

  5. Beyond Condoms: Risk Reduction Strategies Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men Receiving Rapid HIV Testing in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Joanne; McFadyen, Amélie; Haig, Thomas; Blais, Martin; Cox, Joseph; Brenner, Bluma; Rousseau, Robert; Émond, Gilbert; Roger, Michel; Wainberg, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have adapted their sexual practices over the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic based on available data and knowledge about HIV. This study sought to identify and compare patterns in condom use among gay, bisexual, and other MSM who were tested for HIV at a community-based testing site in Montreal, Canada. Results showed that while study participants use condoms to a certain extent with HIV-positive partners and partners of unknown HIV status, they also make use of various other strategies such as adjusting to a partner's presumed or known HIV status and viral load, avoiding certain types of partners, taking PEP, and getting tested for HIV. These findings suggest that MSM who use condoms less systematically are not necessarily taking fewer precautions but may instead be combining or replacing condom use with other approaches to risk reduction.

  6. Improving women's nutrition imperative for rapid reduction of childhood stunting in South Asia: coupling of nutrition specific interventions with nutrition sensitive measures essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vir, Sheila C

    2016-05-01

    The implications of direct nutrition interventions on women's nutrition, birth outcome and stunting rates in children in South Asia are indisputable and well documented. In the last decade, a number of studies present evidence of the role of non-nutritional factors impacting on women's nutrition, birth outcome, caring practices and nutritional status of children. The implications of various dimensions of women's empowerment and gender inequality on child stunting is being increasingly recognised. Evidence reveals the crucial role of early age of marriage and conception, poor secondary education, domestic violence, inadequate decision-making power, poor control over resources, strenuous agriculture activities, and increasing employment of women and of interventions such as cash transfer scheme and microfinance programme on undernutrition in children. Analysis of the nutrition situation of women and children in South Asia and programme findings emphasise the significance of reaching women during adolescence, pre-conception and pregnancy stage. Ensuring women enter pregnancy with adequate height and weight and free from being anemic is crucial. Combining nutrition-specific interventions with measures for empowerment of women is essential. Improvement in dietary intake and health services of women, prevention of early age marriage and conception, completion of secondary education, enhancement in purchasing power of women, reduction of work drudgery and elimination of domestic violence deserve special attention. A range of programme platforms dealing with health, education and empowerment of women could be strategically used for effectively reaching women prior to and during pregnancy to accelerate reduction in stunting rates in children in South Asia. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Managing Community Resilience to Climate Extremes, Rapid Unsustainable Urbanization, Emergencies of Scarcity, and Biodiversity Crises by Use of a Disaster Risk Reduction Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canyon, Deon V; Burkle, Frederick M; Speare, Rick

    2015-12-01

    Earth's climate is changing and national and international decision-makers are recognizing that global health security requires urgent attention and a significant investment to protect the future. In most locations, current data are inadequate to conduct a full assessment of the direct and indirect health impacts of climate change. All states require this information to evaluate community-level resilience to climate extremes and climate change. A model that is being used successfully in the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand is recommended to generate rapid information to assist decision-makers in the event of a disaster. The model overcomes barriers to success inherent in the traditional ''top-down'' approach to managing crises and recognizes the capacity of capable citizens and community organizers to facilitate response and recovery if provided the opportunity and resources. Local information is a prerequisite for strategic and tactical statewide planning. Time and resources are required to analyze risks within each community and what is required to prevent (mitigate), prepare, respond, recover (rehabilitate), anticipate, and assess any threatening events. Specific requirements at all levels from state to community must emphasize community roles by focusing on how best to maintain, respond, and recover public health protections and the infrastructure necessary for health security.

  8. A Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm with System Reduction and Restoration for Rapid and Reliable Power Flow Solution of Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abdullah Kubba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a highly accurate power flow solution, reducing the possibility of ending at local minima, by using Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA with system reduction and restoration. The proposed method (RCGA is modified to reduce the total computing time by reducing the system in size to that of the generator buses, which, for any realistic system, will be smaller in number, and the load buses are eliminated. Then solving the power flow problem for the generator buses only by real-coded GA to calculate the voltage phase angles, whereas the voltage magnitudes are specified resulted in reduced computation time for the solution. Then the system is restored by calculating the voltages of the load buses in terms of the calculated voltages of the generator buses, after a derivation of equations for calculating the voltages of the load busbars. The proposed method was demonstrated on 14-bus IEEE test systems and the practical system 362-busbar IRAQI NATIONAL GRID (ING. The proposed method has reliable convergence, a highly accurate solution and less computing time for on-line applications. The method can conveniently be applied for on-line analysis and planning studies of large power systems.

  9. Intensive lifestyle intervention provides rapid reduction of serum fatty acid levels in women with severe obesity without lowering omega-3 to unhealthy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C; Andersen, J R; Våge, V; Rajalahti, T; Mjøs, S A; Kvalheim, O M

    2016-08-01

    Serum fatty acid (FA) levels were monitored in women with severe obesity during intensive lifestyle intervention. At baseline, total FA levels and most individual FAs were elevated compared to a matching cohort of normal and overweight women (healthy controls). After 3 weeks of intensive lifestyle intervention, total level was only 11-12% higher than in the healthy controls and with almost all FAs being significantly lower than at baseline, but with levels of omega-3 being similar to the healthy controls. This is contrary to observations for patients subjected to bariatric surgery where omega-3 levels dropped to levels significantly lower than in the lifestyle patients and healthy controls. During the next 3 weeks of treatment, the FA levels in lifestyle patients were unchanged, while the weight loss continued at almost the same rate as in the first 3 weeks. Multivariate analysis revealed that weight loss and change of serum FA patterns were unrelated outcomes of the intervention for lifestyle patients. For bariatric patients, these processes were associated probably due to reduced dietary input and increased input from the patients' own fat deposits, causing a higher rate of weight loss and simultaneous reduction of the ratio of serum eicosapentaenoic to arachidonic acid. © 2016 World Obesity.

  10. Phylogenetic signal detection from an ancient rapid radiation: Effects of noise reduction, long-branch attraction, and model selection in crown clade Apocynaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Shannon C K; Moore, Michael J; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Liston, Aaron; Livshultz, Tatyana

    2014-11-01

    Crown clade Apocynaceae comprise seven primary lineages of lianas, shrubs, and herbs with a diversity of pollen aggregation morphologies including monads, tetrads, and pollinia, making them an ideal group for investigating the evolution and function of pollen packaging. Traditional molecular systematic approaches utilizing small amounts of sequence data have failed to resolve relationships along the spine of the crown clade, a likely ancient rapid radiation. The previous best estimate of the phylogeny was a five-way polytomy, leaving ambiguous the homology of aggregated pollen in two major lineages, the Periplocoideae, which possess pollen tetrads, and the milkweeds (Secamonoideae plus Asclepiadoideae), which possess pollinia. To assess whether greatly increased character sampling would resolve these relationships, a plastome sequence data matrix was assembled for 13 taxa of Apocynaceae, including nine newly generated complete plastomes, one partial new plastome, and three previously reported plastomes, collectively representing all primary crown clade lineages and outgroups. The effects of phylogenetic noise, long-branch attraction, and model selection (linked versus unlinked branch lengths among data partitions) were evaluated in a hypothesis-testing framework based on Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. Discrimination among alternative crown clade resolutions was affected by all three factors. Exclusion of the noisiest alignment positions and topologies influenced by long-branch attraction resulted in a trichotomy along the spine of the crown clade consisting of Rhabdadenia+the Asian clade, Baisseeae+milkweeds, and Periplocoideae+the New World clade. Parsimony reconstruction on all optimal topologies after noise exclusion unambiguously supports parallel evolution of aggregated pollen in Periplocoideae (tetrads) and milkweeds (pollinia). Our phylogenomic approach has greatly advanced the resolution of one of the most perplexing radiations in Apocynaceae, providing the

  11. Waste conversion into high-value ceramics: Carbothermal nitridation synthesis of titanium nitride nanoparticles using automotive shredder waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayyas, Mohannad; Pahlevani, Farshid; Maroufi, Samane; Liu, Zhao; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2017-03-01

    Environmental concern about automotive shredder residue (ASR) has increased in recent years due to its harmful content of heavy metals. Although several approaches of ASR management have been suggested, these approaches remain commercially unproven. This study presents an alternative approach for ASR management where advanced materials can be generated as a by-product. In this approach, titanium nitride (TiN) has been thermally synthesized by nitriding pressed mixture of automotive shredder residue (ASR) and titanium oxide (TiO 2 ). Interactions between TiO 2 and ASR at non-isothermal conditions were primarily investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry. Results indicated that TiO 2 influences and catalyses degradation reactions of ASR, and the temperature, at which reduction starts, was determined around 980 °C. The interaction between TiO 2 and ASR at isothermal conditions in the temperature range between 1200 and 1550 °C was also studied. The pressed mixture of both materials resulted in titanium nitride (TiN) ceramic at all given temperatures. Formation kinetics were extracted using several models for product layer diffusion-controlled solid-solid and solid-fluid reactions. The effect of reactants ratio and temperature on the degree of conversion and morphology was investigated. The effect of reactants ratio was found to have considerable effect on the morphology of the resulting material, while temperature had a lesser impact. Several unique structures of TiN (porous nanostructured, polycrystalline, micro-spherical and nano-sized structures) were obtained by simply tuning the ratio of TiO 2 to ASR, and a product with appreciable TiN content of around 85% was achieved after only one hour nitridation at 1550 °C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of the oxide reduction and interstitial contents during sintering of different plain carbon steels by in situ mass spectrometry in nitrogen atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, Mohammad; Gierl, Christian; Danninger, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Degassing phenomenon was studied in plain steels with different iron base powders. → The integrated area below the MS m12 graph can be used as an indicator of formed CO. → The integrated area is an indicator for in situ carbon loss in the specimen. → Carbon loss and area below the m12 graph can be correlated. - Abstract: Reduction of oxides covering powder particles is an important process during sintering and a prerequisite to form sintering contacts in PM parts. In the present research, degassing and reduction phenomena during sintering of plain carbon steels prepared from different atomised and sponge iron powders were studied by mass spectrometry (MS) in the dilatometer under protective N 2 atmosphere. Interstitial constituents were measured by carbon and oxygen analysis. According to the results, the major part of CO 2 is formed during carbothermic reduction of surface oxides in the low to moderate temperature range ( 600 deg. C, the main product of carbothermic reduction is CO and not CO 2 , but the former cannot be detected by MS in N 2 atmosphere. Signals m44 (CO 2 ) and m12 (C) were however found to be reliable indicators for CO. Similar intensity of mass 12 signals for both ASC and SC up to 1000 deg. C is consistent with equal carbon loss through carbothermic reaction. The integrated areas below the MS signal graphs, and thus the areas of the different degassing peaks obtained in the MS, were used as at least semi-quantitative estimation of the amount of gases formed, bearing in mind that MS is not really a quantitative analytical tool. Although a clearly defined relationship is not visible between oxygen loss and area below the m16 graph, the area for m12 can be used as an indicator for in situ carbon loss in the specimen. Increasing integrated areas for m12 and 16 between 800 and 1300 deg. C with only marginal enhancement of m44 indicates that the major part of oxides are removed as CO, in agreement with Boudouard equilibrium, at

  13. Reduction redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lawrence

    2018-04-01

    Putnam's criticisms of the identity theory attack a straw man. Fodor's criticisms of reduction attack a straw man. Properly interpreted, Nagel offered a conception of reduction that captures everything a physicalist could want. I update Nagel, introducing the idea of overlap, and show why multiple realization poses no challenge to reduction so construed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid charging of nickel-cadmium accumulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, F

    1972-01-01

    Four types of charging of gas-tight Ni-Cd accumulators (a) normal; (b) accelerated; (c) rapid; and (d) ultra-rapid are described. For rapid charging, a built-in temperature sensor cuts off charging current at a prescribed point. In ultra-rapid charging, 50% charge can be attained in 3.5 min. and 25% charge within 50 sec. In the second phase of ultra-rapid charging, a surplus of oxygen is released at the positive electrode and a safety valve is provided for pressure reduction. Characteristic curves are given for various rates of charging and some data on discharge rates is also given.

  15. Reduction corporoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakky, Tariq S; Martinez, Daniel; Yang, Christopher; Carrion, Rafael E

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the first video demonstration of reduction corporoplasty in the management of phallic disfigurement in a 17 year old man with a history sickle cell disease and priapism. Surgical management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora has yet to be defined in the literature. We preformed bilateral elliptical incisions over the lateral corpora as management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora to correct phallic disfigurement. The patient tolerated the procedure well and has resolution of his corporal disfigurement. Reduction corporoplasty using bilateral lateral elliptical incisions in the management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora is a safe an feasible operation in the management of phallic disfigurement.

  16. Adaptation to a high protein, carbohydrate-free diet induces a marked reduction of fatty acid synthesis and lipogenic enzymes in rat adipose tissue that is rapidly reverted by a balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, S M R C; Moura, M A F; Kawashita, N H; Festuccia, W T L; Garófalo, M A R; Kettelhut, I C; Migliorini, R H

    2005-06-01

    We have previously shown that in vivo lipogenesis is markedly reduced in liver, carcass, and in 4 different depots of adipose tissue of rats adapted to a high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP) diet. In the present work, we investigate the activity of enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the epididymal adipose tissue (EPI) of rats adapted to an HP diet before and 12 h after a balanced diet was introduced. Rats fed an HP diet for 15 days showed a 60% reduction of EPI fatty acid synthesis in vivo that was accompanied by 45%-55% decreases in the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, ATP-citrate lyase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme. Reversion to a balanced diet for 12 h resulted in a normalization of in vivo EPI lipogenesis, and in a restoration of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity to levels that did not differ significantly from control values. The activities of ATP-citrate lyase and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex increased to about 75%-86% of control values, but the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme remained unchanged 12 h after diet reversion. The data indicate that in rats, the adjustment of adipose tissue lipogenic activity is an important component of the metabolic adaptation to different nutritional conditions.

  17. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  18. Reduction Corporoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq S. Hakky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Here we present the first video demonstration of reduction corporoplasty in the management of phallic disfigurement in a 17 year old man with a history sickle cell disease and priapism. Introduction Surgical management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora has yet to be defined in the literature. Materials and Methods: We preformed bilateral elliptical incisions over the lateral corpora as management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora to correct phallic disfigurement. Results The patient tolerated the procedure well and has resolution of his corporal disfigurement. Conclusions Reduction corporoplasty using bilateral lateral elliptical incisions in the management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora is a safe an feasible operation in the management of phallic disfigurement.

  19. Snubber reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.E.; Singh, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Many safety-related piping systems in nuclear power plants have been oversupported. Since snubbers make up a large percentage of the pipe supports or restraints used in a plant, a plant's snubber population is much larger than required to adequately restrain the piping. This has resulted in operating problems and unnecessary expenses for maintenance and inservice inspections (ISIs) of snubbers. This paper presents an overview of snubber reduction, including: the incentives for removing snubbers, a historical perspective on how piping became oversupported, why it is possible to remove snubbers, and the costs and benefits of doing so

  20. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  1. Lean-Six Sigma: tools for rapid cycle cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Chip

    2006-10-01

    Organizational costs can be grouped as process cost, cost of quality, and cost of poor quality. Providers should train managers in the theory and application of Lean-Six Sigma, including the seven categories of waste and how to remove them. Healthcare financial executives should work with managers in eliminating waste to improve service and reduce costs.

  2. Drag reduction of a rapid vehicle in supercavitating flow

    OpenAIRE

    D. Yang; Y.L. Xiong; X.F. Guo

    2017-01-01

    Supercavitation is one of the most attractive technologies to achieve high speed for underwater vehicles. However, the multiphase flow with high-speed around the supercavitating vehicle (SCV) is difficult to simulate accurately. In this paper, we use modified the turbulent viscosity formula in the Standard K-Epsilon (SKE) turbulent model to simulate the supercavitating flow. The numerical results of flow over several typical cavitators are in agreement with the experimental data and theoretic...

  3. The Reduction of Nitriles to Aldehydes: Applications of Raney Nickel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    The selective reduction of a nitrile to an aldehyde, especially when the substrate ..... prelude to reductive amination chemistry was thwarted by a rapid aldol ... and allowed the direct incorporation of the α-methylbenzylamine chiral auxiliary.

  4. Evaluation and Enhancement of the Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity on Hafnium Oxide Nanoparticles Assisted by L(+)-lysine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisaka, Mitsuharu; Itagaki, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on oxide compounds is difficult owing to the insulating nature of oxides. In this study, various amounts of L(+)-lysine were added to the precursor dispersion for the hydrothermal synthesis of hafnium oxide nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide sheets (HfO_x–rGO) to coat the HfO_x catalysts with layers of carbon, thereby increasing the conductivity and number of active sites. When the mass ratio of L(+)-lysine to GO, R, was above 26, carbon layers were formed and the amount monotonically increased with increasing R, as noted by cyclic voltammogrametry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and rotating disk electrode analyses revealed that pyrolysis produced ORR-active oxygen defects, whose formation was proposed to involve carbothermal reduction. When 53 ≤ R ≤ 210, HfO_x–rGO contained a similar amount of oxygen defects and ORR activity, as represented by an onset potential of 0.9 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode in 0.1 mol dm"−"3 H_2SO_4. However, the number of active sites depended on R due to the amount of L(+)-lysine-derived carbon layers that increased both the number of active sites and resistivity towards oxygen diffusion.

  5. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  6. Study on Reduction Kinetics of Briquettes of Hematite Fines with Boiler Grade Coal and Coke Dust in Two Different Forms: Intermixing and Multilayered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Gopal Ghosh; Sarkar, Bitan Kumar; Chaudhuri, Mahua Ghosh; Mitra, Manoj Kumar; Dey, Rajib

    2017-10-01

    An attempt has been made to utilise hematite ore fines in the form of briquettes with two different form of mixing i.e. intermixing and multilayered by means of carbothermal reduction along with boiler grade coal and coke dust. The influence of reduction temperature (1323, 1373 and 1423 K) and reduction time (10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 min) has been investigated in detail and the reduced briquettes are characterised by XRD, SEM analyses. The reducibility of intermixing briquettes is found to be higher for multilayered briquettes. In addition, isothermal kinetic study has also been carried out for both intermixing and multilayered briquettes. The activation energy for intermixing briquettes are evaluated to be 125.88 kJ/mol for the initial stage of reaction (CG3 controlled mechanism) and 113.11 kJ/mol for the later part of reaction (D3 controlled mechanism), respectively. In case of multilayered briquettes, the corresponding activation energy is found to be 235.59 kJ/mol for reaction (CG3 controlled mechanism). These results corroborate the observed better reducibility of the intermixing briquettes over multilayered briquettes.

  7. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  8. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  9. Simultaneous reduction and adsorption for immobilization of uranium from aqueous solution by nano-flake Fe-SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lingjun, E-mail: kongl_jun@163.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of radioactive contamination control and resources, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Zhu, Yuting; Wang, Min; Li, Zhixuan; Tan, Zhicong; Xu, Ruibin; Tang, Hongmei; Chang, Xiangyang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of radioactive contamination control and resources, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Xiong, Ya [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Chen, Diyun, E-mail: cdy@gzhu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of radioactive contamination control and resources, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Uranium containing radioactive wastewater is seriously hazardous to the natural environment if it is being discharged directly. Herein, nano-flake like Fe loaded sludge carbon (Fe-SC) is synthesized by carbothermal process from Fe-rich sludge waste and applied in the immobilization of uranium in aqueous. Batch isotherm and kinetic adsorption experiments are adopted to investigate the adsorption behavior of Fe-SC to uranium in aqueous. XPS analyses were conducted to evaluate the immobilized mechanism. It was found that the carbonized temperature played significant role in the characteristics and immobilization ability of the resulted Fe-SC. The Fe-SC-800 carbonized at 800 °C takes more advantageous ability in immobilization of uranium from aqueous than the commercial available AC and powder zero valent iron. The adsorption behavior could be fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm adsorption model and pseudo-second order model. The equilibrium adsorption amount and rate for Fe-SC-800 is high to 148.99 mg g{sup -1} and 0.015 g mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}, respectively. Both reductive precipitation and physical adsorption are the main mechanisms of immobilization of uranium from aqueous by Fe-SC-800.

  10. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlates of rapid neuroleptic response in male patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, E C; Faustman, W O; Moses, J A; Lombrozo, L; Csernansky, J G

    1990-08-01

    Correlates of neuroleptic response latency were assessed in 16 male schizophrenic inpatients during 4 weeks of fixed dose (20 mg/day) haloperidol treatment. Rapid responders showed a mean 40% reduction in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) positive symptom scores by day 10 of treatment. Rapid responders had significantly lower plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations compared to non-rapid responders during week 4 of haloperidol treatment. However, rapid versus non-rapid responders did not differ with respect to demographics, baseline positive or negative BPRS symptom scores, performance on tests of neuropsychological function, or mean plasma haloperidol concentrations.

  12. Rapid Response in Psychological Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W. Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across three different treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥ 70% reduction in binge-eating by week four, was determined for remission from binge-eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and non-rapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge-eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than non-rapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and non-rapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Conclusions Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge-eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based stepped care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and non-rapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of non-rapid response to first-line CBTgsh. PMID:25867446

  13. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts

  14. Breast Reduction Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... considering breast reduction surgery, consult a board-certified plastic surgeon. It's important to understand what breast reduction surgery entails — including possible risks and complications — as ...

  15. Rapid viscosity measurements of powdered thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.; Dalal, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method of obtaining processing-related data on powdered thermosetting resins has been investigated. The method involved viscosity measurements obtained with a small specimen (less than 100 mg) parallel plate plastometer. A data acquisition and reduction system was developed which provided a value of viscosity and strain rate about 12-13 second intervals during a test. The effects of specimen compaction pressure and reduction of adhesion between specimen and parallel plates were examined. The plastometer was used to measure some processing-related viscosity changes of an addition polyimide resin, including changes caused by pre-test heat treatment, test temperature, and strain rate.

  16. Silver/iron oxide/graphitic carbon composites as bacteriostatic catalysts for enhancing oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming; You, Shijie; Gong, Xiaobo; Dai, Ying; Zou, Jinlong; Fu, Honggang

    2015-06-01

    Biofilms from anode heterotrophic bacteria are inevitably formed over cathodic catalytic sites, limiting the performances of single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Graphitic carbon (GC) - based nano silver/iron oxide (AgNPs/Fe3O4/GC) composites are prepared from waste pomelo skin and used as antibacterial oxygen reduction catalysts for MFCs. AgNPs and Fe3O4 are introduced in situ into the composites by one-step carbothermal reduction, enhancing their conductivity and catalytic activity. To investigate the effects of Fe species on the antibacterial and catalytic properties, AgNPs/Fe3O4/GC is washed with sulfuric acid (1 mol L-1) for 0.5 h, 1 h, and 5 h and marked as AgNPs/Fe3O4/GC-x (x = 0.5 h, 1 h and 5 h, respectively). A maximum power density of 1712 ± 35 mW m-2 is obtained by AgNPs/Fe3O4/GC-1 h, which declines by 4.12% after 17 cycles. Under catalysis of all AgNP-containing catalysts, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) proceeds via the 4e- pathway, and no toxic effects to anode microorganisms result from inhibiting the cathodic biofilm overgrowth. With the exception of AgNPs/Fe3O4/GC-5 h, the AgNPs-containing composites exhibit remarkable power output and coulombic efficiency through lowering proton transfer resistance and air-cathode biofouling. This study provides a perspective for the practical application of MFCs using these efficient antibacterial ORR catalysts.

  17. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  18. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  19. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  20. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  1. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems: Normalising Reduction Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketema, J.; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    We study normalising reduction strategies for infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs). We prove that all fair, outermost-fair, and needed-fair strategies are normalising for orthogonal, fully-extended iCRSs. These facts properly generalise a number of results on normalising strategies in

  2. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  3. Automated data reduction for optical interferometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.D.; Miller, D.J.; Ghiglia, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    The potential for significant progress in understanding many transport processes exists through the use of a rapid and automated data reduction process of optical interferometric data. An example involving natural convection in a horizontal annulus is used to demonstrate that the accuracy possible in automated techniques is better than 99.0%

  4. Reduction in language testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka; Jensen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    /video recorded speech samples and written reports produced by two experienced raters after testing. Our findings suggest that reduction or reduction-like pronunciation features are found in tested L2 speech, but whenever raters identify and comment on such reductions, they tend to assess reductions negatively......This study represents an initial exploration of raters' comments and actual realisations of form reductions in L2 test speech performances. Performances of three L2 speakers were selected as case studies and illustrations of how reductions are evaluated by the raters. The analysis is based on audio...

  5. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  6. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  7. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  8. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  9. Rapid MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Buxton, R.B.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods typically require several minutes to produce an image, but the periods of respiration, cardiac motion and peristalsis are on the order of seconds or less. The need to reduce motion artifact, as well as the need to reduce imaging time for patient comfort and efficiency, have provided a strong impetus for the development of rapid imaging methods. For abdominal imaging, motion artifacts due to respiration can be significantly reduced by collecting the entire image during one breath hold. For other applications, such as following the kinetics of administered contrast agents, rapid imaging is essential to achieve adequate time resolution. A shorter imaging time entails a cost in image signal/noise (S/N), but improvements in recent years in magnet homogeneity, gradient and radiofrequency coil design have led to steady improvements in S/N and consequently in image quality. For many chemical applications the available S/N is greater than needed, and a trade-off of lower S/N for a shorter imaging time is acceptable. In this chapter, the authors consider the underlying principles of rapid imaging as well as clinical applications of these methods. The bulk of this review concentrates on short TR imaging, but methods that provide for a more modest decrease in imaging time as well as or those that dramatically shorten the imaging time to tens of milliseconds are also discussed

  10. Comparison of pressure between barium reduction and air reduction of the intussusception in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hwan; Park, Sang Gyu; Park, Choong Ki; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    There are many method of treatment of the intussusception in children, including surgery, barium reduction, air reduction, and saline enema under ultrasonographic monitoring. Among them, barium reduction and air reduction have been used widely as nonsurgical method of treatment in radiologic department. During barium reduction, the bottle filled with barium solution must not be elevated over a 3 feet from the operating table. In air reduction, diagnostic pressure is about 60 mmHg and pressure during reduction usually is maintained between 90 mmHg and 130 mmHg. The authors have studied about pressure difference of barium solution by changing height of the bottle filled with barium solution, and have compared with pressure in air reduction. The results are as follows; 1. Pressure of 20 w/v % barium solution at the 60 cm height is 44.4 mmHg, and 69.6 mmHg at the 90 cm height. 2. Pressure of 40 w/v % barium solution at the 60 cm height is 51.4 mmHg, and 80.1 mmHg at the 90 cm height. 3. Pressure of 40 w/v % barium solution at the 90cm height is much lower than the pressure maintained during air reduction, and this difference in pressure may be one of the causes of low reduction rate in barium reduction then air reduction. 4. The pressure gradient per 10 cm height is about 8.45 mmHg in 20 w/v % barium solution, about 9.21 mmHg in 30 w/v % barium solution, and about 9.72 mmHg 40 w/v % barium solution. 5. Intraluminal pressure difference between the barium reduction and the air reduction is probably of the major causes of rapid diagnosis and high reduction rate in the air reduction.

  11. Comparison of pressure between barium reduction and air reduction of the intussusception in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Hwan; Park, Sang Gyu; Park, Choong Ki; Yoon, Jong Sup

    1989-01-01

    There are many method of treatment of the intussusception in children, including surgery, barium reduction, air reduction, and saline enema under ultrasonographic monitoring. Among them, barium reduction and air reduction have been used widely as nonsurgical method of treatment in radiologic department. During barium reduction, the bottle filled with barium solution must not be elevated over a 3 feet from the operating table. In air reduction, diagnostic pressure is about 60 mmHg and pressure during reduction usually is maintained between 90 mmHg and 130 mmHg. The authors have studied about pressure difference of barium solution by changing height of the bottle filled with barium solution, and have compared with pressure in air reduction. The results are as follows; 1. Pressure of 20 w/v % barium solution at the 60 cm height is 44.4 mmHg, and 69.6 mmHg at the 90 cm height. 2. Pressure of 40 w/v % barium solution at the 60 cm height is 51.4 mmHg, and 80.1 mmHg at the 90 cm height. 3. Pressure of 40 w/v % barium solution at the 90cm height is much lower than the pressure maintained during air reduction, and this difference in pressure may be one of the causes of low reduction rate in barium reduction then air reduction. 4. The pressure gradient per 10 cm height is about 8.45 mmHg in 20 w/v % barium solution, about 9.21 mmHg in 30 w/v % barium solution, and about 9.72 mmHg 40 w/v % barium solution. 5. Intraluminal pressure difference between the barium reduction and the air reduction is probably of the major causes of rapid diagnosis and high reduction rate in the air reduction

  12. MCNP variance reduction overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.; Booth, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The MCNP code is rich in variance reduction features. Standard variance reduction methods found in most Monte Carlo codes are available as well as a number of methods unique to MCNP. We discuss the variance reduction features presently in MCNP as well as new ones under study for possible inclusion in future versions of the code

  13. Modern Reduction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Pher G

    2008-01-01

    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  14. Bio-hydrogen production based on catalytic reforming of volatiles generated by cellulose pyrolysis: An integrated process for ZnO reduction and zinc nanostructures fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, Adriana Veloso; Job, Aldo Eloizo; Nova Mussel, Wagner da; Brito, Walter de; Duarte Pasa, Vanya Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a process of cellulose thermal degradation with bio-hydrogen generation and zinc nanostructures synthesis. Production of zinc nanowires and zinc nanoflowers was performed by a novel processes based on cellulose pyrolysis, volatiles reforming and direct reduction of ZnO. The bio-hydrogen generated in situ promoted the ZnO reduction with Zn nanostructures formation by vapor-solid (VS) route. The cellulose and cellulose/ZnO samples were characterized by thermal analyses (TG/DTG/DTA) and the gases evolved were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy (TG/FTIR). The hydrogen was detected by TPR (Temperature Programmed Reaction) tests. The results showed that in the presence of ZnO the cellulose thermal degradation produced larger amounts of H 2 when compared to pure cellulose. The process was also carried out in a tubular furnace with N 2 atmosphere, at temperatures up to 900 o C, and different heating rates. The nanostructures growth was catalyst-free, without pressure reduction, at temperatures lower than those required in the carbothermal reduction of ZnO with fossil carbon. The nanostructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence (PL). One mechanism was presented in an attempt to explain the synthesis of zinc nanostructures that are crystalline, were obtained without significant re-oxidation and whose morphologies are dependent on the heating rates of the process. This route presents a potential use as an industrial process taking into account the simple operational conditions, the low costs of cellulose and the importance of bio-hydrogen and nanostructured zinc.

  15. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on decays of excited strange mesons in the extended NJL model, production of heavy evaporation residues in the reactions induced by an extracted 48 Ca beam on a 208 Pb target, scaling behaviour of tensor analyzing power (A yy ) in the inelastic scattering or relativistic deuterons,two-photon collisions at very low Q 2 from LEP2: forthcoming results, high magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target, multichannel time-to-digital converter for drift detector and wavelet-analysis: application to Gaussian signals

  16. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on the measurement of charge radii for Ti nuclei, spectroscopy of 13 Be, concentrations of hadrons and quark-gluon plasma in mixed phase, experimental results on one-spin pion asymmetry in the d↑ + A → π±(90 0 ) + X process, new results on cumulative pion and proton production in p-D collisions, investigation of charge exchange reactions, the study of the tensor analyzing power in cumulative particle production on a deuteron beam and an evidence for the excited states of the S = -2 stable light dibaryon. 32 figs., 6 tabs

  17. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on analytic QCD running coupling with finite IR behaviour and universal α bar s (0) value, quark condensate in the interacting pion- nucleon medium at finite temperature and baryon number density, γ-π 0 discrimination with a shower maximum detector using neural networks for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC, off-specular neutron reflection from magnetic media with nondiagonal reflectivity matrices and molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. 21 fig., 1 tab

  18. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on additional conditions on eigenvectors in solving inverse problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation, on an absolute calibration of deuteron beam polarization at LHE, determination of the vector component of the polarization of the JINR synchrophasotron deuteron beam, wavelet-analysis: criterion of reliable signal selection, on asymptotics in inclusive production of antinuclei and nuclear fragments, use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring and impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

  19. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate reports on Monte Carlo simulation of silicon detectors for the ALICE experiment at LHC, a study of single tagged multihadronic γγ* events at an average Q 2 of 90 GeV 2 , epithermal neutron activation analysis of moss, lichen and pine needles in atmospheric deposition monitoring, the theory of neutrino oscillation, coupled quadrupole and monopole vibrations of large amplitude and test of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule using parametrization of the measured lepton-proton asymmetry. 21 figs., 18 tabs

  20. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  1. Photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerksen, W.K.

    1993-10-20

    The photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate solutions to tetravalent uranium was investigated as a means of producing uranium dioxide feed for the saltless direct oxide reduction (SDOR) process. At high uranium concentrations, reoxidation of U{sup +4} occurs rapidly. The kinetics of the nitric oxidation of tetravalent uranium depend on the concentrations of hydrogen ion, nitrate ion, nitrous acid, and tetravalent uranium in the same manner as was reported elsewhere for the nitrate oxidation of PU{sup +3}. Reaction rate data were successfully correlated with a mechanism in which nitrogen dioxide is the reactive intermediate. Addition of a nitrous acid scavenger suppresses the reoxidation reaction. An immersion reactor employing a mercury vapor lamp gave reduction times fast enough for routine production usage. Precipitation techniques for conversion of aqueous U(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} to hydrous UO{sub 2} were evaluated. Prolonged dewatering times tended to make the process time consuming. Use of 3- to 4-M aqueous NaOH gave the best dewatering times observed. Reoxidation of the UO{sub 2} by water of hydration was encountered, which required the drying process to be carried out under a reducing atmosphere.

  2. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  3. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  4. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, DUBNA, contains eight separate records on symmetry in modern physics (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician V.A.Fock), the double φ-meson production investigation on the Serpukhov accelerator, two-leptonic η-meson decays and SUSY without R parity, charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12 C, increasing of muon-track reconstruction efficiency in ME1/1 Dubna prototype for the CMS/LHC, study of photon-structure function F 2 γ in the reaction e + e - → e + e - + hadrons at LEP2, jets reconstruction possibility in pAu and AuAu interactions at STAR RHIC and high-vacuum nondispersable gas absorber

  5. Rapid thermal pulse annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.G.; Koehn, B.W.; Chaplin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of recovery processes have been investigated for cases of heating a sample to successively higher temperatures by means of isochronal annealing or by using a rapid pulse annealing. A recovery spectra shows the same features independent of which annealing procedure is used. In order to determine which technique provides the best resolution, a study was made of how two independent first-order processes are separated for different heating rates and time increments of the annealing pulses. It is shown that the pulse anneal method offers definite advantages over isochronal annealing when annealing for short time increments. Experimental data by means of the pulse anneal techniques are given for the various substages of stage I of aluminium. (author)

  6. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the identification of events with a secondary vertex in the experiment EXCHARM, the zero degree calorimeter for CERN WA-98 experiment, a new approach to increase the resource of installation elements for super-high energy physics, a method of the in-flight production of exotic systems in the charge-exchange reactions, the neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems, a search for 28 O and study of the neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron closure N=20, a search for new neutron-rich nuclei with a 70A MeV 48 Ca beam. 33 figs., 4 tabs

  7. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on quasi-classical description of one-nucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions, elastic and inelastic scattering in the high energy approximation, experimental study of fission and evaporation cross sections for 6 He + 209 Bi reaction, d ↑ + 12 C → p + X at Θ p = 0 o in the region of high internal momenta in the deuteron, the Nuclotron internal targets, actively screened superconducting magnets, using of polarized target in backward elastic dp scattering, application of transputers in the data acquisition system of the INESS-ALPHA spectrometer, narrow dibaryon resonances with isotopic spin I=2. 93 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  8. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on Lorentz transformations with superluminal velocities, photo chromic effect in HTSC films, the investigation of hypernuclei in the Nuclotron accelerator, a new hadron jets finding algorithm in the four-dimensional velocity space, investigations of neutral particle production by relativistic nuclei on the LHE 90-channel γ-spectrometer (results and perspectives), coherent meson production in the dp → 3 HeX reaction, the relativistic projectile nuclei fragmentation and A-dependence of nucleon Fermi-momenta, energy spectra of γ-quanta from d-propane interactions at momentum P d = 1.25 GeV/c per nucleon. 86 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  9. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on measurements of the total cross section difference Δσ L (np) at 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV, to the estimation of angular distributions of double charged spectator fragments in nucleus-nucleus interactions at superhigh energies, simulation dE/dx analysis results for silicon inner tracking system of ALICE set-up at LHC accelerator, high-multiplicity processes, triggering of high-multiplicity events using calorimetry, ORBIT-3.0 - a computer code for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons and determination of memory performance

  10. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on yields of the rare-earth neutron-deficient isotopes in the reactions of Mo isotopes with 40 Ca ions, observations of slow components of solitonic-type wave structure excited by e-beam in massive copper sample, development and investigation of low-mass multilayer drift chambers (MDC-2) for inner part of the HADES spectrometer, temperature measurement of the uranium sample irradiated with secondary neutrons, edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, the influence of the dielectric frame, an object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo event generators and uranium-238 as a source for electronuclear power production. 32 figs., 3 tabs

  11. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on collective energy dissipation and fluctuations in elastoplastic systems, diagnostics system of the circulating beam of the NUCLOTRON based on microchannel plates, time-of-flight detector for WA98 CERN experiment, fractal structure formation on the surfaces of solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion treatment, production of nuclei in 32,34,36 S-induced reactions in the energy range 6-75 MeV/A, rare-earth elements in soil and pine needle from northern terrestrial ecosystems, 'thermal' multifragmentation in p + Au collisions at relativistic energies, search for effects of the OZI rule violation in φ and ω mesons production in polarized deuteron beam interaction with polarized proton target (project DPHE3) and fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

  12. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on observation of transversal handedness in the diffractive production of pion triples, a possible experiment on the research of dibaryon states, Cherenkov beam counter system of the CERES/NA45 spectrometer for investigation with 160 GeV/n. lead ions, a profile-based gaseous detector with capacitive pad readout as the prototype of the shower maximum detector for the end-cap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment, what DELPHI can get with an upgraded position for the very small angle tagger, estimation of the radiation environment and the shielding aspect for the point 2 area of the LHC and the orthopositronium decay puzzle

  13. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  14. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on investigation of the tensor analyzing power A yy in the reaction A(d polarized, p)X at large transverse momenta of proton, double-differential ionization cross section calculations for fast collisions of ions and atoms, a study of the two-photon interactions tagged at an average 2 > of 90 GeV 2 , cluster and single-particle distributions in nucleus-nucleus interactions, the Coulomb interaction of charged pions in CC-and CTa-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, influence of nitrogen and oxygen gas admixtures on the response of the DELPHI HCAL and MUS detectors and an automation of physics research on base of open standards

  15. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on effects arising from charged particles overcoming of the light velocity barrier, deformable templates for circle recognition, scintillation detectors for precise time measurements, atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions of atoms and ions with the number of electrons N ≤ 10, experimental set-up ANOMALON for measurement of relativistic nuclear fragmentation cross sections, superconducting dipole magnet for ALICE dimuon arm spectrometer, analysis of transverse mass dependence of Bose-Einstein correlation radii using the DELPHI data, low-energy theorem in softly broken supersymmetry and study of the characteristics of particles in reactions π - , p, d, He, C + C with the total disintegration on carbon nucleus

  16. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on test of a threshold aerogel Cherenkov counter on cosmic particles, first results of study of transversal dimension of region of cumulative particles production in d + C and d + Cu reactions for energy 2 GeV/nucleon, the evidence of σ[0 + (0 ++ 0)] meson at a mass of M π + π - = 750 ± 5 MeV/c 2 observed in π + π - combinations from the reaction np → npπ + π - at an incident momentum of P n (5.20 ± 0.16 GeV/c, inclusive spectra of protons and π - mesons emitted in 4 HeC and 12 CC interactions with total disintegration of nuclei, heavy quark-antiquark pair production by double pomeron exchange in pp and AA collisions on the CMS and global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

  17. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  18. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  19. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  20. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  1. Reduction - competitive tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, L.; Bargerstock, S.

    1995-01-01

    Inventory reduction is one of the few initiatives that represent significant cost-reduction potential that does not result in personnel reduction. Centerior Energy's Perry nuclear power plant has embarked on an aggressive program to reduce inventory while maintaining plant material availability. Material availability to the plant was above 98%, but at an unacceptable 1994 inventory book value of $47 million with inventory carrying costs calculated at 30% annually

  2. Process energy reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowthian, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    Process Energy Reduction (PER) is a demand-side energy reduction approach which complements and often supplants other traditional energy reduction methods such as conservation and heat recovery. Because the application of PER is less obvious than the traditional methods, it takes some time to learn the steps as well as practice to become proficient in its use. However, the benefit is significant, often far outweighing the traditional energy reduction approaches. Furthermore, the method usually results in a better process having less waste and pollution along with improved yields, increased capacity, and lower operating costs

  3. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts with minimum cardinality. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, apply a set of simplification steps to this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. I present results of computer experiments for a collection of decision tables from UCIML Repository. For many of the experimented tables, the simplification steps solved the problem.

  4. Metallothermic reduction of molybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, T.K.; Bose, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives a brief account of the investigations conducted so far on metallothermic reduction of high grade molybdenite with particular emphasis on the work carried out in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Based on thermochemical considerations, the paper first introduces a number of metallic reductants suitable for use in metallothermic reduction of molybdenite. Aluminium, sodium and tin are found to be suitable reducing agents and very rightly they have found most applications in the research and development efforts on metallothermic reduction of molybdenite. The reduction with tin was conducted on fairly large scale both in vacuum and hydrogen atmosphere. The reaction was reported to be invariant depending mainly on the reduction temperature and a temperature of the order of 1250deg to 1300degC was required for good metal recovery. In comparison to tin, aluminothermic reduction of molybdenite was studied more extensively and it was conducted in closed bomb, vacuum and also in open atmosphere. In aluminothermic reduction, the influence of amount of reducing agent, amount of heat booster, preheating temperature and charging procedure on these metal yield was studied in detail. The reduction generally yielded massive molybdenum metal contaminated with aluminium as the major impurity element. Efforts were made to purify the reduced metal by arc melting, electron beam melting and molten salt electrorefining. 9 refs. (author)

  5. Microbial reductive dehalogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, W W; Tiedje, J M

    1992-01-01

    A wide variety of compounds can be biodegraded via reductive removal of halogen substituents. This process can degrade toxic pollutants, some of which are not known to be biodegraded by any other means. Reductive dehalogenation of aromatic compounds has been found primarily in undefined, syntrophic anaerobic communities. We discuss ecological and physiological principles which appear to be important in these communities and evaluate how widely applicable these principles are. Anaerobic communities that catalyze reductive dehalogenation appear to differ in many respects. A large number of pure cultures which catalyze reductive dehalogenation of aliphatic compounds are known, in contrast to only a few organisms which catalyze reductive dehalogenation of aromatic compounds. Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB-1 is an anaerobe which dehalogenates aromatic compounds and is physiologically and morphologically unusual in a number of respects, including the ability to exploit reductive dehalogenation for energy metabolism. When possible, we use D. tiedjei as a model to understand dehalogenating organisms in the above-mentioned undefined systems. Aerobes use reductive dehalogenation for substrates which are resistant to known mechanisms of oxidative attack. Reductive dehalogenation, especially of aliphatic compounds, has recently been found in cell-free systems. These systems give us an insight into how and why microorganisms catalyze this activity. In some cases transition metal complexes serve as catalysts, whereas in other cases, particularly with aromatic substrates, the catalysts appear to be enzymes. Images PMID:1406492

  6. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  7. Rapid flow imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelc, N.J.; Spritzer, C.E.; Lee, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid, phase-contrast, MR imaging method of imaging flow has been implemented. The method, called VIGRE (velocity imaging with gradient recalled echoes), consists of two interleaved, narrow flip angle, gradient-recalled acquisitions. One is flow compensated while the second has a specified flow encoding (both peak velocity and direction) that causes signals to contain additional phase in proportion to velocity in the specified direction. Complex image data from the first acquisition are used as a phase reference for the second, yielding immunity from phase accumulation due to causes other than motion. Images with pixel values equal to MΔΘ where M is the magnitude of the flow compensated image and ΔΘ is the phase difference at the pixel, are produced. The magnitude weighting provides additional vessel contrast, suppresses background noise, maintains the flow direction information, and still allows quantitative data to be retrieved. The method has been validated with phantoms and is undergoing initial clinical evaluation. Early results are extremely encouraging

  8. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains twelve separate reports on an estimation of the possibility of fusion reactions in water molecules, an analysis of pion spectra of the charge-exchange reaction Mg(t, 3 He), the results of simulation of e + e - pair production and detection in the ALICE experiment, the data on the edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, standard and nonstandard applications of wavelet analysis, the design and study of light readout system for scintillator shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, a study of multiparticle azimuthal correlations in high energy interactions, coherent multifragmentation of relativistic nuclei, superposition of neutrino eigenstates and neutrino oscillation, simulation results and suggestions for possible design of gaseous shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, determination of the sizes of the pion emission region in np-interactions at P n =(5.2±0.16)GeV/c using the interference correlation method for identical particles, inelasticity of nucleus-nucleus collisions in the CMS experiment. 65 figs., 19 tabs

  9. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  10. Active3 noise reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzfuss, J.

    1996-01-01

    Noise reduction is a problem being encountered in a variety of applications, such as environmental noise cancellation, signal recovery and separation. Passive noise reduction is done with the help of absorbers. Active noise reduction includes the transmission of phase inverted signals for the cancellation. This paper is about a threefold active approach to noise reduction. It includes the separation of a combined source, which consists of both a noise and a signal part. With the help of interaction with the source by scanning it and recording its response, modeling as a nonlinear dynamical system is achieved. The analysis includes phase space analysis and global radial basis functions as tools for the prediction used in a subsequent cancellation procedure. Examples are given which include noise reduction of speech. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Radioactive wastes: the challenge of volumes reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.

    2005-01-01

    The reduction of radioactive waste volumes is a priority for the French atomic energy commission (CEA) and for the Areva group. This article gives a rapid overview of the equipments and processes used to separate the valorizable materials from the ultimate wastes: pulsed separation columns and evaporators for the liquid-liquid extraction, compactification of spent fuel hulls, remote handling systems, recoverable colloid for surface decontamination, decontaminating foam, hydrothermal oxidation of organic and aqueous effluents, cold crucible vitrification etc. (J.S.)

  12. Thermal plasma reduction of UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.; Swank, W.D.; Haggard, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental demonstration of a process for the direct plasma reduction of depleted uranium hexafluoride to uranium metal. The process exploits the large departures from equilibrium that can be achieved in the rapid supersonic expansion of a totally dissociated and partially ionized mixture of UF 6 , Ar, He, and H 2 . The process is based on the rapid condensation of subcooled uranium vapor and the relatively slow rate of back reaction between metallic uranium and HF to F 2 to reform stable fluorides. The high translational velocities and rapid cooling result in an overpopulation of atomic hydrogen which persists throughout the expansion process. Atomic hydrogen shifts the equilibrium composition by inhibiting the reformation of uranium-fluorine compounds. This process has the potential to reduce the cost of reducing UF 6 to uranium metal with the added benefit of being a virtually waste free process. The dry HF produced is a commodity which has industrial value

  13. Potential for waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author focuses on wastes considered hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This chapter discusses wastes that are of interest as well as the factors affecting the quantity of waste considered available for waste reduction. Estimates are provided of the quantities of wastes generated. Estimates of the potential for waste reduction are meaningful only to the extent that one can understand the amount of waste actually being generated. Estimates of waste reduction potential are summarized from a variety of government and nongovernment sources

  14. Rapid response in psychological treatments for binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E; Wilson, G Terence

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across 3 different treatments for binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; APA, 1994) criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by Week 4, was determined for remission from binge eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-ups. Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and nonrapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than nonrapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and nonrapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based, stepped-care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and nonrapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of nonrapid response to first-line CBTgsh. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Rapid determination of actinides in seawater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L.; Culligan, B.K.; Hutchison, J.B.; Utsey, R.C.; McAlister, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The actinides can be measured by alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The new method employs novel pre-concentration steps to collect the actinide isotopes quickly from 80 L or more of seawater. Actinides are co-precipitated using an iron hydroxide co-precipitation step enhanced with Ti +3 reductant, followed by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Stacked TEVA Resin and TRU Resin cartridges are used to rapidly separate Pu, U, and Np isotopes from seawater samples. TEVA Resin and DGA Resin were used to separate and measure Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in seawater volumes up to 80 L. This robust method is ideal for emergency seawater samples following a radiological incident. It can also be used, however, for the routine analysis of seawater samples for oceanographic studies to enhance efficiency and productivity. In contrast, many current methods to determine actinides in seawater can take 1-2 weeks and provide chemical yields of ∼30-60 %. This new sample preparation method can be performed in 4-8 h with tracer yields of ∼85-95 %. By employing a rapid, robust sample preparation method with high chemical yields, less seawater is needed to achieve lower or comparable detection limits for actinide isotopes with less time and effort. (author)

  16. Rapid maxillary expansion in contemporary orthodontic literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Mutinelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed our retrospective research about rapid maxillary expansion performed in the early mixed dentition to summarize the results of different studies regarding maxillary dental arch width variation and crowding improvement in light of contemporary literature. The aim is to define the effects of treatments followed until the end of dental arch growth. In all studies, a Haas expander anchored to the deciduous dentition was used. The samples consisted of treated patients with and without a lateral crossbite and homogeneous untreated individuals as controls. Two additional control groups of adolescents and adults in dental Class 1 were also compared. As a result of the analysis, rapid maxillary expansion with anchorage to the deciduous dentition was found to be effective in increasing transverse width in intermolar and intercanine areas, and the change was preserved until the full permanent dentition stage. When performed before maxillary lateral incisors have fully erupted, this procedure allows for a rapid increase in the arch length in the anterior area and consequently, in the space available for permanent incisors with a stable reduction in crowding over time.

  17. Breast reduction (mammoplasty) - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100189.htm Breast reduction (mammoplasty) - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... Lickstein, MD, FACS, specializing in cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery, Palm Beach Gardens, FL. Review provided by ...

  18. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  19. Microbial reductive dehalogenation.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohn, W W; Tiedje, J M

    1992-01-01

    A wide variety of compounds can be biodegraded via reductive removal of halogen substituents. This process can degrade toxic pollutants, some of which are not known to be biodegraded by any other means. Reductive dehalogenation of aromatic compounds has been found primarily in undefined, syntrophic anaerobic communities. We discuss ecological and physiological principles which appear to be important in these communities and evaluate how widely applicable these principles are. Anaerobic commun...

  20. Air Layer Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccio, Steven; Elbing, Brian; Winkel, Eric; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc

    2008-11-01

    A set of experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel to investigate skin-friction drag reduction with the injection of air into a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. Testing was performed on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth and fully rough at downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220 million and at speeds to 20 m/s. Local skin-friction, near-wall bulk void fraction, and near-wall bubble imaging were monitored along the length of the model. The instrument suite was used to access the requirements necessary to achieve air layer drag reduction (ALDR). Injection of air over a wide range of air fluxes showed that three drag reduction regimes exist when injecting air; (1) bubble drag reduction that has poor downstream persistence, (2) a transitional regime with a steep rise in drag reduction, and (3) ALDR regime where the drag reduction plateaus at 90% ± 10% over the entire model length with large void fractions in the near-wall region. These investigations revealed several requirements for ALDR including; sufficient volumetric air fluxes that increase approximately with the square of the free-stream speed, slightly higher air fluxes are needed when the surface tension is reduced, higher air fluxes are required for rough surfaces, and the formation of ALDR is sensitive to the inlet condition.

  1. Rapid prototyping: een veelbelovende methode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverman, T.M.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Prins, H.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization,

  2. Quantum theory without reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cini, Marcello; Levy-Leblond, J.-M.

    1990-01-01

    Quantum theory offers a strange, and perhaps unique, case in the history of science. Although research into its roots has provided important results in recent years, the debate goes on. Some theorists argue that quantum theory is weakened by the inclusion of the so called 'reduction of the state vector' in its foundations. Quantum Theory without Reduction presents arguments in favour of quantum theory as a consistent and complete theory without this reduction, and which is capable of explaining all known features of the measurement problem. This collection of invited contributions defines and explores different aspects of this issue, bringing an old debate into a new perspective, and leading to a more satisfying consensus about quantum theory. (author)

  3. Measuring mandibular ridge reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, W.H.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mandibular reduction in height of complete denture wearers and overdenture wearers. To follow this reduction in the anterior region as well as in the lateral sections of the mandible, an accurate and reproducible measuring method is a prerequisite. A radiologic technique offers the best chance. A survey is given of the literature concerning the resorption process after the extraction of teeth. An oblique cephalometric radiographic technique is introduced as a promising method to measure mandibular ridge reduction. The reproducibility and the accuracy of the technique are determined. The reproducibility in the positioning of the mandible is improved by the introduction of a mandibular support which permits a precise repositioning of the edentulous jaw, even after long periods of investigation. (Auth.)

  4. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  5. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-16

    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  6. Bacterial chromate reduction and product characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, R.J.; Buchanan, B.B.; Leighton, T.

    1992-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis reduced hexavalent chromate to trivalent chromium under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Reduction of CR(VI) and appearance of extracellular Cr(III) were demonstrated by electron spin resonance and spectrophotometry. Chromate reduction was stimulated more than five-fold by freeze-thawing, indicating that intracellular reductases or chemical reductants reduce chromate more rapidly than do intact cells. Moderately concentrated cells (10% pellet volume after centrifugation) reduced approximately 40 μM chromate/min (2 mg Cr/1-min) when exposed to 100 μM chromate (5 mg Cr/1). Highly concentrated cells (70% pellet volume) reduced more than 99.8% of 2 mM chromate (100 mg Cr/1) within 15 min. This rate of chromate reduction was of the same order of magnitude as the rate of respiration in aerobic cells. A substantial fraction of the reduction product (ca. 75%) was extracellular Cr(M), which could readily be separated from the cells by centrifugation. At high chromate concentrations, some fraction of reduced CR(VI) appeared to be taken up by cells, consistent with a detection of intracellular paramagnetic products. At low chromate concentrations, undefined growth medium alone reduced Cr(VI), but at a slow rate, relative to cells. Under appropriate conditions, B. subtilis appears to be an organism of choice for detoxifying chromate-contaminated soil and water

  7. Reduction of dinitrogen ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Processes of dinitrogen ligand reduction in complexes of transition metals are considered. The basic character of the dinitrogen ligand is underlined. Data on X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and intensities of bands ν (N 2 ) in IR-spectra of nitrogen complexes are given. The mechanism of protonation of an edge dinitrogen ligand is discussed. Model systems and mechanism of nitrogenogenase are compared

  8. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketema, Jeroen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    We define infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs), thus providing the first notion of infinitary higher-order rewriting. The systems defined are sufficiently general that ordinary infinitary term rewriting and infinitary ¿-calculus are special cases. Furthermore,we generalise a number...

  9. Galactorrhea after reduction mammaplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A. H.; Assies, J.; van der Horst, C. M.; Bos, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    A case of extremely painful swelling of the breasts following a reduction mammaplasty is presented. There were no signs of an abscess or hematoma. A milky white fluid due to galactorrhea was evacuated at operation, and further galactorrhea was inhibited by medication. The pathogenesis of

  10. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  11. Streaming Reduction Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Kuper, Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Molenkamp, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Reduction circuits are used to reduce rows of floating point values to single values. Binary floating point operators often have deep pipelines, which may cause hazards when many consecutive rows have to be reduced. We present an algorithm by which any number of consecutive rows of arbitrary lengths

  12. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  13. Rapid Continuous Multimaterial Extrusion Bioprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wanjun; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Heinrich, Marcel A.; De Ferrari, F; Jang, HL; Bakht, SM; Alvarez, MM; Yang, J; Li, YC; Trujillo-de Stantiago, G; Miri, AK; Zhu, K; Khoshakhlagh, P; Prakash, G; Cheng, H; Guan, X; Zhong, Z; Ju, J; Zhu, GH; Jin, X; Ryon Shin, Su; Dokmeci, M.R.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    The development of a multimaterial extrusion bioprinting platform is reported. This platform is capable of depositing multiple coded bioinks in a continuous manner with fast and smooth switching among different reservoirs for rapid fabrication of complex constructs, through digitally controlled

  14. Rapid prototyping-assisted maxillofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qian; Tang, Zhangui; Liu, Ousheng; Peng, Zhiwei

    2015-05-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have found many uses in dentistry, and especially oral and maxillofacial surgery, due to its ability to promote product development while at the same time reducing cost and depositing a part of any degree of complexity theoretically. This paper provides an overview of RP technologies for maxillofacial reconstruction covering both fundamentals and applications of the technologies. Key fundamentals of RP technologies involving the history, characteristics, and principles are reviewed. A number of RP applications to the main fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery, including restoration of maxillofacial deformities and defects, reduction of functional bone tissues, correction of dento-maxillofacial deformities, and fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses, are discussed. The most remarkable challenges for development of RP-assisted maxillofacial surgery and promising solutions are also elaborated.

  15. Colour reconnections and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennblad, Leif

    1996-01-01

    I argue that the success of recently proposed models describing events with large rapidity gaps in DIS at HERA in terms of non-perturbative colour exchange is heavily reliant on suppression of perturbative gluon emission in the proton direction. There is little or no physical motivation for such suppression and I show that a model without this suppression cannot describe the rapidity gap events at HERA. (author)

  16. Dilepton distributions at backward rapidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betemps, M. A.; Ducati, M. B. Gay; Oliveira, E. G. de

    2006-01-01

    The dilepton production at backward rapidities in pAu and pp collisions at RHIC and LHC energies is investigated in the dipole approach. The results are shown through the nuclear modification ratio R pA considering transverse momentum and rapidity spectra. The dilepton modification ratio presents interesting behavior at the backward rapidities when compared with the already known forward ones, since it is related with the large x kinematical region that is being probed. The rapidity dependence of the nuclear modification ratio in the dilepton production is strongly dependent on the Bjorken x behavior of the nuclear structure function ratio R F 2 =F 2 A /F 2 p . The R pA transverse momentum dependence at backward rapidities is modified due to the large x nuclear effects: at RHIC energies, for instance, the ratio R pA is reduced as p T increases, presenting an opposite behavior when compared with the forward one. It implies that the dilepton production at backward rapidities should carry information of the nuclear effects at large Bjorken x, as well as that it is useful to investigate the p T dependence of the observables in this kinematical regime

  17. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  18. BP volume reduction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yoshinori; Muroo, Yoji; Hamanaka, Isao

    2003-01-01

    A new type of burnable poison (BP) volume reduction system is currently being developed. Many BP rods, a subcomponent of spent fuel assemblies are discharged from nuclear power reactors. This new system reduces the overall volume of BP rods. The main system consists of BP rod cutting equipment, equipment for the recovery of BP cut pieces, and special transport equipment for the cut rods. The equipment is all operated by hydraulic press cylinders in water to reduce operator exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  19. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, van der, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic and/or mutagenic to life. To remove azo dyes from wastewater, a biological treatment strategy based on anaerobic reduction of the azo dye...

  20. Thermochemical nitrate reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.L.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

    1992-09-01

    A series of preliminary experiments was conducted directed at thermochemically converting nitrate to nitrogen and water. Nitrates are a major constituent of the waste stored in the underground tanks on the Hanford Site, and the characteristics and effects of nitrate compounds on stabilization techniques must be considered before permanent disposal operations begin. For the thermochemical reduction experiments, six reducing agents (ammonia, formate, urea, glucose, methane, and hydrogen) were mixed separately with ∼3 wt% NO 3 - solutions in a buffered aqueous solution at high pH (13); ammonia and formate were also mixed at low pH (4). Reactions were conducted in an aqueous solution in a batch reactor at temperatures of 200 degrees C to 350 degrees C and pressures of 600 to 2800 psig. Both gas and liquid samples were analyzed. The specific components analyzed were nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Results of experimental runs showed the following order of nitrate reduction of the six reducing agents in basic solution: formate > glucose > urea > hydrogen > ammonia ∼ methane. Airnmonia was more effective under acidic conditions than basic conditions. Formate was also effective under acidic conditions. A more thorough, fundamental study appears warranted to provide additional data on the mechanism of nitrate reduction. Furthermore, an expanded data base and engineering feasibility study could be used to evaluate conversion conditions for promising reducing agents in more detail and identify new reducing agents with improved performance characteristics

  1. Rapid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla M. Wassim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of Aedes caspius mosquitoes are incriminated to be a potential reservoir of “Rift Valley Fever Virus” (RVF during interepizootic periods in Egypt. Ae. caspius contains two distinct forms which are morphologically indistinguishable but differ in physiology and behavior; Ae. caspius form (a requires a blood meal for each egg batch(anautogeny, is unable to mate in confined spaces(eurygamous. The second form (b lays egg batch without blood meal (autogenous and can mate in confined spaces (stenogamous. In this work, we collected the autogenous and anautogenous forms of Ae. caspius from two different breeding habitats in the Qalyubia Governorate. Analysis of the Drosophila ace-Orthologous acetylecholinesterase gene revealed that a single polymorphic region characterized each species. Based on this region, specific primers were used to amplify the entire section of intron II, sections of Exon 2 and Exon 3 of ace-2 gene for differentiating the complex species of mosquitoes. The amplicons of anautogenous form sized 441 pb and increase 116 bp than autogenous form of Ae. caspius. High rates of point mutations were addressed; deletion/insertion events are 120 bases. The transversion mutations were 44 bases and were relatively close to the transtion mutations 43 base. The genetic distance was 0.01 between the two forms.

  2. Vietnam; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper of Vietnam, known as the Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (CPRGS). It is an action program to achieve economic growth and poverty reduction objectives. This paper reviews the objectives and tasks of socio-economic development and poverty reduction. The government of Vietnam takes poverty reduction as a cutting-through objective in the process of country socio-economic development and declares its commitment to impleme...

  3. Optimal reduction of humus in demineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, F.

    1989-04-01

    To have an optimal reduction of organic substance and colloids in a demineralization plant the following ought to be observed. * At least two anion exchangers should be in series. The firs one being either a weak macroporous polystyrene anion exchanger or a weak polyacrylic anion exchanger. A third anion exchanger in series improves the reduction only marginally. * The leakage of organic substance and colloids increases rapidly at the same time or before the leakage of anions. The anion exchangers in a plant should therefore have a higher capacity than the cation exchangers. If the anion exchangers do not have a higher capacity than the cation exchangers only 90-95 % of the capacity shall be used. * The filtration rates have normally no influence of the reduction organic of substance. Sometime a low filtration rate gives a better reduction of colloids. * The content of organic substance in the water to the plants has a great effect on the capacity for ions. At high content of organic substance (20 mg KMnO 4 ) the capacity for ions can be reduced with 30-40 %. * Different technics for regenerations does not seem to have any influence on the reduction of organic substances and colloids. Neither age of the anion exchangers nor washing with solutions of sodium chloride seems to have any influence on the reduction. Age and organic contamination have mainly an influence on the capacity per regeneration. At all demineralization plants some organic substances and colloids leak through the plant, the quantities depending on the colloids. To remove this organic substances and colloids the ion exchangers must be completed with for instance flocculation or reverse osmosis. (L.E.)

  4. Hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, A.

    1995-09-01

    The field of hard diffraction, which studies events with a rapidity gap and a hard scattering, has expanded dramatically recently. A review of new results from CDF, D OE, H1 and ZEUS will be given. These results include diffractive jet production, deep-inelastic scattering in large rapidity gap events, rapidity gaps between high transverse energy jets, and a search for diffractive W-boson production. The combination of these results gives new insight into the exchanged object, believed to be the pomeron. The results axe consistent with factorization and with a hard pomeron that contains both quarks and gluons. There is also evidence for the exchange of a strongly interacting color singlet in high momentum transfer (36 2 ) events

  5. On the rapid melt quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usatyuk, I.I.; Novokhatskij, I.A.; Kaverin, Yu.F.

    1994-01-01

    Specific features of instrumentation of traditionally employed method of melt spinning (rapid quenching), its disadvantages being discussed, were analyzed. The necessity of the method upgrading as applied to the problems of studying fine structure of molten metals and glasses was substantiated. The principle flowsheet of experimental facility for extremely rapid quenching of the melts of metals is described, specificity of its original functional units being considered. The sequence and character of all the principal stages of the method developed were discussed. 18 refs.; 3 figs

  6. Discrete Routh reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalnapurkar, Sameer M; Leok, Melvin; Marsden, Jerrold E; West, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops the theory of Abelian Routh reduction for discrete mechanical systems and applies it to the variational integration of mechanical systems with Abelian symmetry. The reduction of variational Runge-Kutta discretizations is considered, as well as the extent to which symmetry reduction and discretization commute. These reduced methods allow the direct simulation of dynamical features such as relative equilibria and relative periodic orbits that can be obscured or difficult to identify in the unreduced dynamics. The methods are demonstrated for the dynamics of an Earth orbiting satellite with a non-spherical J 2 correction, as well as the double spherical pendulum. The J 2 problem is interesting because in the unreduced picture, geometric phases inherent in the model and those due to numerical discretization can be hard to distinguish, but this issue does not appear in the reduced algorithm, where one can directly observe interesting dynamical structures in the reduced phase space (the cotangent bundle of shape space), in which the geometric phases have been removed. The main feature of the double spherical pendulum example is that it has a non-trivial magnetic term in its reduced symplectic form. Our method is still efficient as it can directly handle the essential non-canonical nature of the symplectic structure. In contrast, a traditional symplectic method for canonical systems could require repeated coordinate changes if one is evoking Darboux' theorem to transform the symplectic structure into canonical form, thereby incurring additional computational cost. Our method allows one to design reduced symplectic integrators in a natural way, despite the non-canonical nature of the symplectic structure

  7. Poverty Reduction and Shared Prosperity in Moldova : Progress and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Moldova has experienced rapid economic growth in the past decade, which has been accompanied by reductions in poverty and good performance in shared prosperity. Nonetheless, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe and faces challenges in sustaining the progress. The challenges for progress include spatial and cross-group inequalities, particularly because of unequal access t...

  8. Research on the application in disaster reduction for using cloud computing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Liang; Fan, Yida; Wang, Xingling

    Cloud Computing technology has been rapidly applied in different domains recently, promotes the progress of the domain's informatization. Based on the analysis of the state of application requirement in disaster reduction and combining the characteristics of Cloud Computing technology, we present the research on the application of Cloud Computing technology in disaster reduction. First of all, we give the architecture of disaster reduction cloud, which consists of disaster reduction infrastructure as a service (IAAS), disaster reduction cloud application platform as a service (PAAS) and disaster reduction software as a service (SAAS). Secondly, we talk about the standard system of disaster reduction in five aspects. Thirdly, we indicate the security system of disaster reduction cloud. Finally, we draw a conclusion the use of cloud computing technology will help us to solve the problems for disaster reduction and promote the development of disaster reduction.

  9. Sulfate reduction in an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M.; Janka, K. [Tampella Power, Tampere (Finland); Frederick, W.J.; Littau, M.; Sricharoenchaikul, V.; Jivakanun, N.; Waag, K. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Sulfate reduction and carbon conversion during pyrolysis and gasification of black liquor particles were experimentally studied in a laminar entrained-flow reactor. A model was also developed to simulate an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier. Experimental results were then compared to model calculations. Results indicated that carbon must be present to get a high degree of sulfate reduction during gasification. It is therefore important to balance the rates of carbon conversion and sulfate reduction. High local temperatures in the reactor should be avoided so that carbon does not convert too rapidly, but temperatures of nearly 1000 degrees C are required to achieve good sulfate reduction. It was suggested that a new equation was needed to adequately predict sulfate reduction in an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier. 12 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Exploring the Early Structure of a Rapidly Decompressed Particle Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, Heather; Adrian, R. J.; Clarke, Amanda; Johnson, Blair; Arizona State University Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Rapid expansion of dense, pressurized beds of fine particles subjected to rapid reduction of the external pressure is studied in a vertical shock tube. A near-sonic expansion wave impinges on the particle bed-gas interface and rapidly unloads the particle bed. A high-speed video camera captures events occurring during bed expansion. The particle bed does not expand homogeneously, but breaks down into horizontal slabs and then transforms into a cellular-type structure. There are several key parameters that affect the particle bed evolution, including particle size and initial bed height. Analyses of this bed structure evolution from experiments with varying particle sizes and initial bed heights is presented. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science and Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  11. Economical benzene emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, R.

    1999-01-01

    Benzene has been classified as a toxic compound under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. This has prompted the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) to introduce specific reporting and monitoring guidelines for the oil and gas industry regarding excessive benzene emissions. Glycol dehydration units have been determined to be the major single source of benzene emissions causing air and soil pollution. DualTank Corp. has designed a condensation and storage tank unit to enhance emission reduction, odour elimination and liquid recovery from dehydration units. Their newly designed combined tank unit consists of a large, uninsulated surface area for cooling, and an excessive internal volume for increased retention time. The first prototype was installed in December 1998 at an Enerplus Resources Site. The system provides excellent benzene emission reduction and the elimination of odours and visual plumes. Effective January 1, 1999, the petroleum and natural gas industry must either clean up excessive emissions voluntarily or face government imposed regulations, facility shutdowns and/or fines. 1 fig

  12. LOFT data reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, N.L.

    1975-08-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is an experimental facility built around a ''scaled'' version of a large pressurized water reactor (LPWR). LOFT will be used to run loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCEs) and to acquire the necessary data required ''to evaluate the adequacy and improve the analytical methods currently used to predict the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) response of LPWRs'' and ''to identify and investigate any unexpected event(s) or threshold(s) in the response of either the plant or the engineered safety features and develop analytical techniques that adequately describe and account for the unexpected behavior(s)''. During the LOCE this required data will be acquired and recorded in both analog and digital modes. Subsequent to the test the analog data will also be converted to the raw digital mode. This raw digital data will be converted to the desired engineering units using the LOFT Data Reduction System. This system is implemented on the IBM 360/75 and is a part of a commercially available data processing program called MAC/RAN III. The theory of reducing LOFT data to engineering units and the application of the MAC/ RAN III system to accomplish this reduction is given. (auth)

  13. Islam and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M

    2010-03-01

    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Emergency planning zone reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the process used by a large industrial Department of Energy (DOE) site to communicate changing hazards to its stakeholders and install the confidence necessary to implement the resulting emergency planning changes. Over the last decade as the sites missions have shifted from full-scale production to a greater emphasis on environmental restoration and waste management, the off-site threat from its operations has substantially decreased. The challenge was to clearly communicate the reduced hazards, install confidence in the technical analysis that documented the hazard reduction, and obtain stakeholder buy-in on the path forward to change the emergency management program. The most significant change to the emergency management program was the proposed reduction of the sites Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). As the EPZ is defined as an area for which planning is needed to protect the public in the event of an accident, the process became politically challenging. An overview of how the site initially approached this problem and then learned to more substantially involve the state and local emergency preparedness agencies and the local Citizens Advisory Board will be presented. (author)

  15. Furnace for rapid thermal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Duine, P.A.; Sluis, P. van der

    2001-01-01

    A Method (1) for Rapid Thermal Processing of a wafer (7), wherein the wafer (7) is heated by lamps (9), and the heat radiation is reflected by an optical switching device (15,17) which is in the reflecting state during the heating stage. During the cooling stage of the wafer (7), the heat is

  16. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E

    1997-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  17. Rapid general microdetermination of fluorine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, H.C.E. van; Rotscheid, G.J.; Buis, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid micromethod for the determination of fluorine in a wide variety of materials has been developed. The method is based on the liberation of the fluorine (as HF) from the sample by means of pyrohydrolysis with steam at 1120?? C, The amount of fluoride in the condensate is subsequently measured

  18. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  19. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  20. Reduction operators of Burgers equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocheketa, Oleksandr A; Popovych, Roman O

    2013-02-01

    The solution of the problem on reduction operators and nonclassical reductions of the Burgers equation is systematically treated and completed. A new proof of the theorem on the special "no-go" case of regular reduction operators is presented, and the representation of the coefficients of operators in terms of solutions of the initial equation is constructed for this case. All possible nonclassical reductions of the Burgers equation to single ordinary differential equations are exhaustively described. Any Lie reduction of the Burgers equation proves to be equivalent via the Hopf-Cole transformation to a parameterized family of Lie reductions of the linear heat equation.

  1. Telerobotics for dry size reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, A.J. Jr; La Valle, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Remote handling in nuclear Environmental Management (EM) programs is likely to emphasize small batch sizes in unstructured environments. Most existing robotic solutions are impractical due to cost, complexity, or reliability issues. New processes that are environmentally safe are too demanding for human operators, and require precise motion control making traditional electromechanical, hydraulic, and master/slave manipulators unacceptable. The critical missing element is a method to bridge the gap between manual operation and full automation. Rapid advances in computer technology, coupled with national laboratory research activities, has challenged PaR Systems to develop a new line of telerobotics, exploiting this technology, to enhance EM processes. Telerobotics systems permit the human operator to direct and supervise the operation of a remote robotic mechanism. The typical robotic device responds to human inputs and transfers human motion into robot motion. However, unlike teleoperation, the robotic system not only incorporates local decision making authority but can enhance input devices by; producing motion in multiple coordinate frames (e.g., base, tool, joint), automating repetitive motions, responding to real-time sensory input, and facilitating a virtual collaborative environment. The basic premise is to augment, not replace, the human operator and blend the individual abilities of each system. Humans have superior cognitive and pattern recognitive skills, while the robot is a tireless precise positioning device. To provide insight into why telerobotics is crucial to EM, this paper highlights a proposed telerobotic system for the Dry Size Reduction of contaminated components. Different design concepts, robotic control features, and networking for remote operation needed are discussed. (author)

  2. Rapid-scan EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sandra S; Shi, Yilin; Woodcock, Lukas; Buchanan, Laura A; McPeak, Joseph; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J; Eaton, Gareth R

    2017-07-01

    In rapid-scan EPR the magnetic field or frequency is repeatedly scanned through the spectrum at rates that are much faster than in conventional continuous wave EPR. The signal is directly-detected with a mixer at the source frequency. Rapid-scan EPR is particularly advantageous when the scan rate through resonance is fast relative to electron spin relaxation rates. In such scans, there may be oscillations on the trailing edge of the spectrum. These oscillations can be removed by mathematical deconvolution to recover the slow-scan absorption spectrum. In cases of inhomogeneous broadening, the oscillations may interfere destructively to the extent that they are not visible. The deconvolution can be used even when it is not required, so spectra can be obtained in which some portions of the spectrum are in the rapid-scan regime and some are not. The technology developed for rapid-scan EPR can be applied generally so long as spectra are obtained in the linear response region. The detection of the full spectrum in each scan, the ability to use higher microwave power without saturation, and the noise filtering inherent in coherent averaging results in substantial improvement in signal-to-noise relative to conventional continuous wave spectroscopy, which is particularly advantageous for low-frequency EPR imaging. This overview describes the principles of rapid-scan EPR and the hardware used to generate the spectra. Examples are provided of its application to imaging of nitroxide radicals, diradicals, and spin-trapped radicals at a Larmor frequency of ca. 250MHz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reductive dechlorination of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers in soil under anaerobic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, P.J.M.; Doesburg, van W.C.J.; Schraa, G.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The biological anaerobic reductive dechlorination of -hexachlorocyclohexane under methanogenic conditions was tested in a number of contaminated soil samples from two locations in the Netherlands. Soils from a heavily polluted location showed rapid dechlorination of -hexachlorocyclohexane to benzene

  4. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesselberger, Markus

    . The influence of the ion adsorption strength, which is observed in the “particle size studies” on the oxygen reduction rate on Pt/C catalysts, is further investigated under similar reaction conditions by infrared spectroscopy. The designed in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup features a high level...... of instrument automation and online data treatment, and provides welldefined mass transport conditions enabling kinetic measurements. A modified electrochemical / spectroscopic interface is presented allowing the exclusive investigation of the Pt/C catalyst layer. Three types of potential dependent adsorption...... adsorption on Pt does not block the ORR directly. Instead, the onset of oxide formation with the concomitant conversion of the anion adsorbate layer is the decisive blocking mechanism....

  5. Multiple gas reduction strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Kurosawa [Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Future global warming has a close relationship with the abatement potential of six greenhouse gases (GHGs), including carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Therefore, multiple gas reduction flexibility should be assessed. The emission of each non-CO{sub 2} GHG is calculated endogenously by the sum of the product of the emission factor and the endogenous activity index using an integrated assessment model, GRAPE (Global Relationship Assessment to Protect the Environment). The model consists of five modules dealing with issues on energy, climate, land use, macroeconomics and environmental impacts. The uncertainty in the non-CO{sub 2} GHG emission inventory and emission factors is discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Minimal Reducts with Grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Iddaly Mendez Gurrola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The proper detection of patient level of dementia is important to offer the suitable treatment. The diagnosis is based on certain criteria, reflected in the clinical examinations. From these examinations emerge the limitations and the degree in which each patient is in. In order to reduce the total of limitations to be evaluated, we used the rough set theory, this theory has been applied in areas of the artificial intelligence such as decision analysis, expert systems, knowledge discovery, classification with multiple attributes. In our case this theory is applied to find the minimal limitations set or reduct that generate the same classification that considering all the limitations, to fulfill this purpose we development an algorithm GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure.

  7. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  8. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Information 6 Things You ... Disease and Dementia (12/20/13) Research Spotlights Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Shown To ...

  9. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  10. Confluence reduction for Markov automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Mark; Katoen, Joost P.; van de Pol, Jaco; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    Markov automata are a novel formalism for specifying systems exhibiting nondeterminism, probabilistic choices and Markovian rates. As expected, the state space explosion threatens the analysability of these models. We therefore introduce confluence reduction for Markov automata, a powerful reduction

  11. Hazardous material reduction initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.

    1995-02-01

    The Hazardous Material Reduction Initiative (HMRI) explores using the review of purchase requisitions to reduce both the use of hazardous materials and the generation of regulated and nonregulated wastes. Based on an 11-month program implemented at the Hanford Site, hazardous material use and waste generation was effectively reduced by using a centralized procurement control program known as HMRI. As expected, several changes to the original proposal were needed during the development/testing phase of the program to accommodate changing and actual conditions found at the Hanford Site. The current method requires a central receiving point within the Procurement Organization to review all purchase requisitions for potentially Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hazardous products. Those requisitions (approximately 4% to 6% of the total) are then forwarded to Pollution Prevention personnel for evaluation under HMRI. The first step is to determine if the requested item can be filled by existing or surplus material. The requisitions that cannot filled by existing or surplus material are then sorted into two groups based on applicability to the HMRI project. For example, laboratory requests for analytical reagents or standards are excluded and the purchase requisitions are returned to Procurement for normal processing because, although regulated, there is little opportunity for source reduction due to the strict protocols followed. Each item is then checked to determine if it is regulated or not. Regulated items are prioritized based on hazardous contents, quantity requested, and end use. Copies of these requisitions are made and the originals are returned to Procurement within 1-hr. Since changes to the requisition can be made at later stages during procurement, the HMRI fulfills one of its original premises in that it does not slow the procurement process

  12. Dose Reduction Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program

  13. Dose Reduction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  14. Alcohol harm reduction in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herring, Rachel; Betsy, Thom; Beccaria, Franca

    2010-01-01

    The EMCDDA’s 10th scientific monograph, entitled Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges provides a comprehensive overview of the harm reduction field. Part I of the monograph looks back at the emergence of harm reduction approaches and their diffusion, and explores the concept from diff...

  15. Characteristics of centrifugal rapid contactor, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Mitsuo; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Takasu, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Tadaya

    1979-01-01

    Organic solvent yields the degradation product as a result of irradiation, in the extraction process of spent fuel reprocessing. The development of a centrifugal rapid contactor is required for the reduction of the solvent degradation by shortening the contact time. The effects of fine solid particles were investigated with a SGN-Robatel LX-208N contactor, following the uranium extraction and re-extraction performance tests. It was found as the experimental result that the considerable quantity of solids accumulated in the rotor of the centrifugal contactor. As for this experimental apparatus, the flow diagram for the centrifugal rapid contactor and auxiliary apparatuses is shown, which are the same system used for the uranium extraction and re-extraction tests. The schematic diagram, the typical stage construction and fluid transfer path of the LX-208 contactor are illustrated. The main specifications of the LX-208 contactor are as follows: the internal diameter of a rotating bowl 200 mm, the material SUS 316, the number of stages 8, and the total hold-up volume of the contactor 1.8 l. Most tests were carried out with aqueous feed only, because white Alundum is easily deposited in the rotor, and the particle concentration in effluent stream becomes undetectable when organic and aqueous feeds are supplied simultaneously. As the experimental results, the correlation of Alundum concentration in effluent and running time, the effect of rotor speed on effluent stream concentration, the particle size distribution curves for No. 6000 and No. 8000 white Alundum, the effect of flow rate on effluent stream concentration and the effect of flow rate on particle size distribution for both No. 6000 and No. 8000 white Alundum are presented. (Nakai, Y.)

  16. Rapid and sustained cost management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Accenture helps clients develop comprehensive, process-driven strategies for rapid and sustained cost management that leverage deep insights and analytics. This approach enables companies to gain operating cost advantages by rationalizing, simplifying and automating current operating capabilities. It drives structural cost advantages by optimizing business mix, capital structure, organizational structure and geographic presence. This paper discussed how successful companies achieve high performance during times of economic turmoil. It also discussed the value of the winner's strategy in terms of rapid and sustained cost management (RSCM). It discussed how Accenture operates and its leveraged capabilities, improved efficiency, margins and cash flow while maintaining customer service levels. Building structural advantage and the Accenture difference were also discussed. It was concluded that RSCM is one vital way that Accenture can help companies achieve success. 4 figs

  17. Rapidly Progressive Quadriplegia and Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, DonRaphael; McCorquodale, Donald; Peters, Angela; Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, Gordon; Ansari, Safdar

    2016-11-01

    A woman aged 77 years was transferred to our neurocritical care unit for evaluation and treatment of rapidly progressive motor weakness and encephalopathy. Examination revealed an ability to follow simple commands only and abnormal movements, including myoclonus, tongue and orofacial dyskinesias, and opsoclonus. Imaging study findings were initially unremarkable, but when repeated, they demonstrated enhancement of the cauda equina nerve roots, trigeminal nerve, and pachymeninges. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed mildly elevated white blood cell count and protein levels. Serial electrodiagnostic testing demonstrated a rapidly progressive diffuse sensory motor axonopathy, and electroencephalogram findings progressed from generalized slowing to bilateral periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. Critical details of her recent history prompted a diagnostic biopsy. Over time, the patient became completely unresponsive with no further abnormal movements and ultimately died. The differential diagnosis, pathological findings, and diagnosis are discussed with a brief review of a well-known yet rare diagnosis.

  18. Rapid mask prototyping for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, B G C; Honegger, T; Cordeiro, J; Lecarme, O; Thiry, T; Fuard, D; Berton, K; Picard, E; Zelsmann, M; Peyrade, D

    2016-03-01

    With the rise of microfluidics for the past decade, there has come an ever more pressing need for a low-cost and rapid prototyping technology, especially for research and education purposes. In this article, we report a rapid prototyping process of chromed masks for various microfluidic applications. The process takes place out of a clean room, uses a commercially available video-projector, and can be completed in less than half an hour. We quantify the ranges of fields of view and of resolutions accessible through this video-projection system and report the fabrication of critical microfluidic components (junctions, straight channels, and curved channels). To exemplify the process, three common devices are produced using this method: a droplet generation device, a gradient generation device, and a neuro-engineering oriented device. The neuro-engineering oriented device is a compartmentalized microfluidic chip, and therefore, required the production and the precise alignment of two different masks.

  19. Carbothermal Upgrading of the Awaso Bauxite Ore using Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a measure will increase the unemployment rate since the sachet water business employs a significant proportion of people. Meanwhile, the country currently exports its bauxite raw, without any value addition. Gradual depletion of high grade bauxite (with high alumina content) and the emergence of low grade bauxite with ...

  20. Carbothermal Upgrading of the Awaso Bauxite Ore using Sawdust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... Bauxite Ore using Sawdust and Coconut Shells as Reductant”, Ghana Mining Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp ... The fruit is consumed locally, producing greater volumes .... made into paste by drop-wise addition of water. The paste ...

  1. Production of boron carbide powder by carbothermal synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    weight armour plates etc (Alizadeh et al 2004). It can also be used as a reinforcing material for ceramic matrix composites. It is an excellent neutron absorption material in nuclear industry due to its high neutron absorption co- efficient (Sinha et al 2002). Boron carbide can be prepared by reaction of elemental boron and ...

  2. Carbothermal preparation of Si2N2O powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolech, M.; Metselaar, R.; van Dijen, F.K.; Blömer, F.; With, de G.; Ramaekers, P.P.J.; Vincenzini, P.

    1987-01-01

    At temperatures 1400 - 1450 °C silicon oxynitride powder can be produced from silica/carbon mixtures with a molar ratio 2/3 under a nitrogen flow. The conversion rate is considerably exhanced by the presence of oxide additions like CaO, BaO and SrO, which form a liquid phase with silica at the

  3. Carbothermal Upgrading of the Awaso Bauxite Ore using Sawdust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... 1University of Mines and Technology, P.O. Box 237, Tarkwa, Ghana. Fosu, A. Y. ... disposal of red mud in storage areas contribute to about 5 ... LPG was employed as the fuel ... Calcination of hydrated aluminium oxide to form.

  4. Rapidity correlations test stochastic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, C; Gavin, S; Moschelli, G

    2017-01-01

    We show that measurements of the rapidity dependence of transverse momentum correlations can be used to determine the characteristic time τ π that dictates the rate of isotropization of the stress energy tensor, as well as the shear viscosity ν = η/sT . We formulate methods for computing these correlations using second order dissipative hydrodynamics with noise. Current data are consistent with τ π /ν ∼ 10 but targeted measurements can improve this precision. (paper)

  5. Rapid duodenal and jejunal intubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A size 12 French radiopaque catheter, 135 cm long, suitable for rapid duodenal and jejunal intubation, is described. Its size and flexibility enable it to be passed with ease through the nose, stomach and duodenum. A guide wire is used to act as a stiffener as the catheter is passed through the stomach. The catheter is suitable for infusing barium directly into the small intestine and for performing hypotonic duodenography. The technique for duodenal and jejunal intubation is discussed. (author)

  6. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  7. Rapid reconnection of flux lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, A.

    1982-01-01

    The rapid reconnection of flux lines in an incompressible fluid through a singular layer of the current density is discussed. It is shown that the liberated magnetic energy must partially appear in the form of plasma kinetic energy. A laminar structure of the flow is possible, but Alfven velocity must be achieved in eddies of growing size at the ends of the layer. The gross structure of the flow and the magnetic configuration may be obtained from variational principles. (author)

  8. Single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswat, K.C.; Moslehi, M.M.; Grossman, D.D.; Wood, S.; Wright, P.; Booth, L.

    1989-01-01

    Future success in microelectronics will demand rapid innovation, rapid product introduction and ability to react to a change in technological and business climate quickly. These technological advances in integrated electronics will require development of flexible manufacturing technology for VLSI systems. However, the current approach of establishing factories for mass manufacturing of chips at a cost of more than 200 million dollars is detrimental to flexible manufacturing. The authors propose concepts of a micro factory which may be characterized by more economical small scale production, higher flexibility to accommodate many products on several processes, and faster turnaround and learning. In-situ multiprocessing equipment where several process steps can be done in sequence may be a key ingredient in this approach. For this environment to be flexible, the equipment must have ability to change processing environment, requiring extensive in-situ measurements and real time control. This paper describes the development of a novel single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing (RTM) reactor for next generation flexible VLSI manufacturing. This reactor will combine lamp heating, remote microwave plasma and photo processing in a single cold-wall chamber, with applications for multilayer in-situ growth and deposition of dielectrics, semiconductors and metals

  9. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K.; Baca, E.T.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids

  10. Model Reduction in Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan

    mechanical parameters from experimental results. However, in real biological world, these homogeneous and isotropic assumptions are usually invalidate. Thus, instead of using hypothesized model, a specific continuum model at mesoscopic scale can be introduced based upon data reduction of the results from molecular simulations at atomistic level. Once a continuum model is established, it can provide details on the distribution of stresses and strains induced within the biomolecular system which is useful in determining the distribution and transmission of these forces to the cytoskeletal and sub-cellular components, and help us gain a better understanding in cell mechanics. A data-driven model reduction approach to the problem of microtubule mechanics as an application is present, a beam element is constructed for microtubules based upon data reduction of the results from molecular simulation of the carbon backbone chain of alphabeta-tubulin dimers. The data base of mechanical responses to various types of loads from molecular simulation is reduced to dominant modes. The dominant modes are subsequently used to construct the stiffness matrix of a beam element that captures the anisotropic behavior and deformation mode coupling that arises from a microtubule's spiral structure. In contrast to standard Euler-Bernoulli or Timoshenko beam elements, the link between forces and node displacements results not from hypothesized deformation behavior, but directly from the data obtained by molecular scale simulation. Differences between the resulting microtubule data-driven beam model (MTDDBM) and standard beam elements are presented, with a focus on coupling of bending, stretch, shear deformations. The MTDDBM is just as economical to use as a standard beam element, and allows accurate reconstruction of the mechanical behavior of structures within a cell as exemplified in a simple model of a component element of the mitotic spindle.

  11. Study of transient burnout under flow reduction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi

    1986-09-01

    Transient burnout characteristics of a fuel rod under a rapid flow reduction condition of a light water reactor were experimentally and analytically studied. The test sections were uniformly heated vertical tube and annulus with the heated length of 800 mm. Test pressures ranged 0.5 ∼ 3.9 MPa, heat fluxes 2,160 ∼ 3,860 KW/m 2 , and flow reduction rates 0.44 ∼ 770 %/s. The local flow condition during flow reduction transients were calculated with a separate flow model. The two-fluid/three-field thermal-hydraulic code, COBRA/TRAC, was also used to investigate the liquid film behavior on the heated surface. The major results obtained in the present study are as follows: The onset of burnout under a rapid flow reduction condition was caused by a liquid film dryout on the heated surface. With increasing flow reduction rate beyond a threshold, the burnout mass velocity at the inlet became lower than the steady-state burnout mass velocity. This is explained by the fact that the vapor flow rate continues to increase due to the delay of boiling boundary movement and the resultant high vapor velocity sustains the liquid film flow after the inlet flow rate reaches the steady-state burnout flow rate. The ratio of inlet burnout mass velocities between flow reduction transient and steady-state became smaller with increasing system pressure because of the lower vapor velocity due to the lower vapor specific volume. Flow reduction burnout occurred when the outlet quality agreed with the steady-state burnout quality within 10 %, suggesting that the local condition burnout model can be used for flow reduction transients. Based on this model, a method to predict the time to burnout under a flow reduction condition in a uniformly heated tube was developed. The calculated times to burnout agreed well with some experimental results obtained by the Author, Cumo et al., and Moxon et al. (author)

  12. Reduction of blue tungsten oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilken, T.; Wert, C.; Woodhouse, J.; Morcom, W.

    1975-01-01

    A significant portion of commercial tungsten is produced by hydrogen reduction of oxides. Although several modes of reduction are possible, hydrogen reduction is used where high purity tungsten is required and where the addition of other elements or compounds is desired for modification of the metal, as is done for filaments in the lamp industry. Although several investigations of the reduction of oxides have been reported (1 to 5), few principles have been developed which can aid in assessment of current commercial practice. The reduction process was examined under conditions approximating commercial practice. The specific objectives were to determine the effects of dopants, of water vapor in the reducing atmosphere, and of reduction temperature upon: (1) the rate of the reaction by which blue tungsten oxide is reduced to tungsten metal, (2) the intermediate oxides associated with reduction, and (3) the morphology of the resulting tungsten powder

  13. Size reduction machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-01-01

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users

  14. Electrochemical reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund

    NO and NO2 (collectively referred to as NOx) are air pollutants, and the largest single contributor to NOx pollution is automotive exhaust. This study investigates electrochemical deNOx, a technology which aims to remove NOx from automotive diesel exhaust by electrochemical reduction of NOx to N2...... and O2. The focus in this study is on improving the activity and selectivity of solid oxide electrodes for electrochemical deNOx by addition of NOx storage compounds to the electrodes. Two different composite electrodes, La0.85Sr0.15MnO3-δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (LSM15-CGO10) and La0.85Sr0.15FeO3-δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O......1.95 (LSF15-CGO10), have been investigated in combination with three different NOx storage compounds: BaO, K2O and MnOx. The main focus in the investigation has been on conversion measurements and electrochemical characterization, the latter by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...

  15. Syncrude emissions reduction project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, M.A. [Alstom Power Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Ibbotson, P. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described an emissions reduction project conducted by Syncrude Canada and various other companies currently developing and processing oil sands in Alberta. Syncrude's upgrader expansion program included the installation of an ammonia-based wet flue gas desulfurizer (FGD) designed to remove sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from a coker train. Syncrude is also installing the FGD technology at its existing plants. It is expected that installation of the FGDs will reduced total site emissions of SO{sub 2} by 60 per cent. The fluid cokers are used to crack the long hydrocarbon chain bitumen molecules into shorter molecules. It is expected that the FGD system will also reduce particulate and SO{sub 3} levels. The FGD system was selected after an evaluation of technologies used by the coal-fired power industry. A dry FGD system was selected to operate above the water saturation temperature of the flue gas. Calcium oxide was used as a reagent. Hot gas was quenched in a spray dryer absorber with a slurry of calcium hydroxide. Rotary atomizers were used to developer uniform droplets of slurry. The system's fabric filter was a low ratio reverse gas-cleaned unit. Particulate matter from the gases was deposited on the interior of the filter bags. Clean hot gas was drawn through reverse gas fans into a reverse gas manifold. A timeline of the FGD technology installation process was included. 3 tabs., 28 figs.

  16. Accelerated cleanup risk reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, R.B.; Aines, R.M.; Blake, R.G.; Copeland, A.B.; Newmark, R.L.; Tompson, A.F.B.

    1998-01-01

    There is no proven technology for remediating contaminant plume source regions in a heterogeneous subsurface. This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop the requisite new technologies so that will be rapidly accepted by the remediation community. Our technology focus is hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) which is a novel in situ thermal technique. We have expanded this core technology to leverage the action of steam injection and place an in situ microbial filter downstream to intercept and destroy the accelerated movement of contaminated groundwater. Most contaminant plume source regions, including the chlorinated solvent plume at LLNL, are in subsurface media characterized by a wide range in hydraulic conductivity. At LLNL, the main conduits for contaminant transport are buried stream channels composed of gravels and sands; these have a hydraulic conductivity in the range of 10 -1 to 10 -2 cm/s. Clay and silt units with a hydraulic conductivity of 10 -1 to 10 -6 cm/s bound these buried channels; these are barriers to groundwater movement and contain the highest contaminant concentrations in the source region. New remediation technologies are required because the current ones preferentially access the high conductivity units. HPO is an innovative process for the in situ destruction of contaminants in the entire subsurface. It operates by the injection of steam. We have demonstrated in laboratory experiments that many contaminants rapidly oxidize to harmless compounds at temperatures easily achieved by injecting steam, provided sufficient dissolved oxygen is present. One important challenge in a heterogeneous source region is getting heat, contaminants, and an oxidizing agent in the same place at the same time. We have used the NUFT computer program to simulate the cyclic injection of steam into a contaminated aquifer for design of a field demonstration. We used an 8 hour, steam/oxygen injection cycle followed by a 56 hour relaxation period in which the

  17. Investigating broadband acoustic adsorption using rapid manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbold, O.

    The reduction of nuisance noise and the removal of unwanted sound modes within a room or component enclosure-area can be accomplished through the use of acoustic absorbers. Sound absorption can be achieved through conversion of the kinetic energy associated with pressure waves, into heat energy via viscous dissipation. This occurs within open porous materials, or by utilising resonant effects produced using simple cavity and orifice configurations. The manufacture of traditional porous and resonant absorbers is commonly realised using basic manufacturing techniques. These techniques restrict the geometry of a given resonant construction, and limit the configuration of porous absorbers. The aim of this work is to exploit new and emerging capabilities of Rapid Manufacturing (RM) to produce components with geometrical freedom, and apply it to the development of broadband acoustic absorption. New and novel absorber geometric configurations are identified and their absorption performance is determined. The capabilities and limitations of RM processes in reproducing these configurations are demonstrated. The geometric configuration of RM resonant absorbers is investigated. Cavity modifications aimed at damping the resonant effect by restricting the motion of cavity air, and adding increased viscous resistance are explored. Modifications relating to cavity shape, the addition of internal perforations and increased cavity surface area have all been shown to add acoustic resistance, thereby increasing the bandwidth of absorption. Decreasing the hydraulic radius of the cavity cross section and reducing internal feature dimensions provide improved resistance over conventional configurations..

  18. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A. M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask participants to

  19. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  20. Principal Components as a Data Reduction and Noise Reduction Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of principal components as a pipeline data reduction technique for thematic mapper data was assessed and principal components analysis and its transformation as a noise reduction technique was examined. Two primary factors were considered: (1) how might data reduction and noise reduction using the principal components transformation affect the extraction of accurate spectral classifications; and (2) what are the real savings in terms of computer processing and storage costs of using reduced data over the full 7-band TM complement. An area in central Pennsylvania was chosen for a study area. The image data for the project were collected using the Earth Resources Laboratory's thematic mapper simulator (TMS) instrument.

  1. A reduction in marine primary productivity driven by rapid warming over the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Roxy, M.K.; Modi, A.; Murtugudde, R; Valsala, V.; Panickal, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Ravichandran, M.; Vichi, M.; Levy, M.

    . Yoshimura, and M. Hirabara (2013), Basic performance of a new earth system model of the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI-ESM1), Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics, 64, 1-19. Beaulieu, C., S. A. Henson, J. L. Sarmiento, J. P. Dunne, S. C. Doney, R...-755. Brewin, R. J., D. E. Raitsos, G. Dall'Olmo, N. Zarokanellos, T. Jackson, M.-F. Racault, E. S. Boss, S. Sathyendranath, B. H. Jones, and I. Hoteit (2015), Regional ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea, Remote Sensing of Environment, 165...

  2. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    landscape. In this article, we share insights gained from two public sector organizations in which IS and business leaders used the Participatory Process Model (PPM) designed by the authors to share their assumptions about IS leadership, challenge existing IT strategies and collaboration patterns and adapt...... the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles....

  3. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  4. Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Emerging technologies in the field of ''Test ampersand Measurement'' have recently enabled the development of the Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT). Based on software developed with LabVIEW, the RAIT design enables quick reconfiguration to test and calibrate a wide variety of telemetry systems. The consequences of inadequate testing could be devastating if a telemetry system were to fail during an expensive flight mission. Supporting both open-bench testing as well as automated test sequences, the RAIT has significantly lowered total time required to test and calibrate a system. This has resulted in an overall lower per unit testing cost than has been achievable in the past

  5. Adaptive Model Predictive Control of Diesel Engine Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction or SCR is coming into worldwide use for diesel engine emissions reduction for on- and off-highway vehicles. These applications are characterized by broad operating range as well as rapid and unpredictable changes in operating conditions. Significant nonlinearity, input and output constraints, and stringent performance…

  6. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  7. Direct, rapid RNA sequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peattie, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The original methods of RNA sequence analysis were based on enzymatic production and chromatographic separation of overlapping oligonucleotide fragments from within an RNA molecule followed by identification of the mononucleotides comprising the oligomer. Over the past decade the field of nucleic acid sequencing has changed dramatically, however, and RNA molecules now can be sequenced in a variety of more streamlined fashions. Most of the more recent advances in RNA sequencing have involved one-dimensional electrophoretic separation of 32 P-end-labeled oligoribonucleotides on polyacrylamide gels. In this chapter the author discusses two of these methods for determining the nucleotide sequences of RNA molecules rapidly: the chemical method and the enzymatic method. Both methods are direct and degradative, i.e., they rely on fragmatic and chemical approaches should be utilized. The single-strand-specific ribonucleases (A, T 1 , T 2 , and S 1 ) provide an efficient means to locate double-helical regions rapidly, and the chemical reactions provide a means to determine the RNA sequence within these regions. In addition, the chemical reactions allow one to assign interactions to specific atoms and to distinguish secondary interactions from tertiary ones. If the RNA molecule is small enough to be sequenced directly by the enzymatic or chemical method, the probing reactions can be done easily at the same time as sequencing reactions

  8. Rapid learning: a breakthrough agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheredge, Lynn M

    2014-07-01

    A "rapid-learning health system" was proposed in a 2007 thematic issue of Health Affairs. The system was envisioned as one that uses evidence-based medicine to quickly determine the best possible treatments for patients. It does so by drawing on electronic health records and the power of big data to access large volumes of information from a variety of sources at high speed. The foundation for a rapid-learning health system was laid during 2007-13 by workshops, policy papers, large public investments in databases and research programs, and developing learning systems. Challenges now include implementing a new clinical research system with several hundred million patients, modernizing clinical trials and registries, devising and funding research on national priorities, and analyzing genetic and other factors that influence diseases and responses to treatment. Next steps also should aim to improve comparative effectiveness research; build on investments in health information technology to standardize handling of genetic information and support information exchange through apps and software modules; and develop new tools, data, and information for clinical decision support. Further advances will require commitment, leadership, and public-private and global collaboration. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. Robust methods for data reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Farcomeni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Robust Methods for Data Reduction gives a non-technical overview of robust data reduction techniques, encouraging the use of these important and useful methods in practical applications. The main areas covered include principal components analysis, sparse principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, factor analysis, clustering, double clustering, and discriminant analysis.The first part of the book illustrates how dimension reduction techniques synthesize available information by reducing the dimensionality of the data. The second part focuses on cluster and discriminant analy

  10. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by fasted and fed human gastric fluid. II. Ex vivo gastric reduction modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirman, Christopher R., E-mail: ckirman@summittoxicology.com [Summit Toxicology, Orange Village, OH, 44022 (United States); Suh, Mina, E-mail: msuh@toxstrategies.com [ToxStrategies, Inc., Mission Viejo, CA, 92692 (United States); Hays, Sean M., E-mail: shays@summittoxicology.com [Summit Toxicology, Allenspark, CO, 8040 (United States); Gürleyük, Hakan, E-mail: hakan@brooksrand.com [Brooks Applied Labs, Bothell, WA, 98011 (United States); Gerads, Russ, E-mail: russ@brooksrand.com [Brooks Applied Labs, Bothell, WA, 98011 (United States); De Flora, Silvio, E-mail: sdf@unige.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Parker, William, E-mail: william.parker@duke.edu [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Durham, NC, 27710 (United States); Lin, Shu, E-mail: shu.lin@duke.edu [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Durham, NC, 27710 (United States); Haws, Laurie C., E-mail: lhaws@toxstrategies.com [ToxStrategies, Inc., Katy, TX, 77494 (United States); Harris, Mark A., E-mail: mharris@toxstrategies.com [ToxStrategies, Inc., Austin, TX, 78751 (United States); Proctor, Deborah M., E-mail: dproctor@toxstrategies.com [ToxStrategies, Inc., Mission Viejo, CA, 92692 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    To extend previous models of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] reduction by gastric fluid (GF), ex vivo experiments were conducted to address data gaps and limitations identified with respect to (1) GF dilution in the model; (2) reduction of Cr(VI) in fed human GF samples; (3) the number of Cr(VI) reduction pools present in human GF under fed, fasted, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-use conditions; and (4) an appropriate form for the pH-dependence of Cr(VI) reduction rate constants. Rates and capacities of Cr(VI) reduction were characterized in gastric contents from fed and fasted volunteers, and from fasted pre-operative patients treated with PPIs. Reduction capacities were first estimated over a 4-h reduction period. Once reduction capacity was established, a dual-spike approach was used in speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry analyses to characterize the concentration-dependence of the 2nd order reduction rate constants. These data, when combined with previously collected data, were well described by a three-pool model (pool 1 = fast reaction with low capacity; pool 2 = slow reaction with higher capacity; pool 3 = very slow reaction with higher capacity) using pH-dependent rate constants characterized by a piecewise, log-linear relationship. These data indicate that human gastric samples, like those collected from rats and mice, contain multiple pools of reducing agents, and low concentrations of Cr(VI) (< 0.7 mg/L) are reduced more rapidly than high concentrations. The data and revised modeling results herein provide improved characterization of Cr(VI) gastric reduction kinetics, critical for Cr(VI) pharmacokinetic modeling and human health risk assessment. - Highlights: • SIDMS allows for measurement of Cr(VI) reduction rate in gastric fluid ex vivo • Human gastric fluid has three reducing pools • Cr(VI) in drinking water at < 0.7 mg/L is rapidly reduced in human gastric fluid • Reduction rate is concentration- and pH-dependent • A refined PK

  11. Fraction Reduction in Membrane Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraction reduction is a basic computation for rational numbers. P system is a new computing model, while the current methods for fraction reductions are not available in these systems. In this paper, we propose a method of fraction reduction and discuss how to carry it out in cell-like P systems with the membrane structure and the rules with priority designed. During the application of fraction reduction rules, synchronization is guaranteed by arranging some special objects in these rules. Our work contributes to performing the rational computation in P systems since the rational operands can be given in the form of fraction.

  12. Logistics Reduction: Heat Melt Compactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction (LR) project Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) technology is a waste management technology. Currently, there are...

  13. Nonlinear Model Reduction for RTCVD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newman, Andrew J; Krishnaprasad, P. S

    1998-01-01

    ...) for semiconductor manufacturing. They focus on model reduction for the ordinary differential equation model describing heat transfer to, from, and within a semiconductor wafer in the RTCVD chamber...

  14. Kinetics of actinide reduction by hydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltunov, V.S.; Zhuravleva, G.I.; Shapovalov, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of Pu(6) reduction to Pu(5) with hydroxylamine in perchloric acid solution at the ionic force of μ=3 in the temperature range of 40-68 deg C is studied. The reaction rate is described with the equation d[Pu(6)]/dt=k 1 [Pu(6)]x[NH 3 OH + ]/[H + ], where k 1 =4.22+-0.12 min -1 at 60 deg C. The energy and entropy of activation constitute 78+-2 kJ/mol-10 entropy units respectively. At [H + ]> approximately 0.5 mol/l the reaction is accelerated autocatalytically at the expense of PuO 2 2+ and Pu 3+ -ion interaction with subsequent rapid transition of Pu(4) to Pu(3) as a result of reaction with hydroxylamine. The reaction mechanism is discussed [ru

  15. Rapid chemical analysis of allanite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Goro; Hayashi, Hiroshi

    1981-01-01

    Rapid chemical analysis of allanite was studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Powdered sample was fused with mixture of sodium carbonate anhydrous and borax (4 : 1 weight) in platinum crucible and sample solution was prepared. SiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , MnO and rare earth metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, CaO, MgO and Ce 2 O 3 by titration, ThO 2 by colorimetry, and La 2 O 3 by flame photometry respectively. For sample solution treated with hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Na 2 O and K 2 O were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, TiO 2 and P 2 O 5 by colorimetry. Chemical analyses for four samples were carried out and gave consistent results. (author)

  16. Rapid world modelling for robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littile, C.Q.; Wilson, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to use an interactive world model, whether it is for robotics simulation or most other virtual graphical environments, relies on the users ability to create an accurate world model. Typically this is a tedious process, requiring many hours to create 3-D CAD models of the surfaces within a workspace. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop usable methods to rapidly build world models of real world workspaces. This brings structure to an unstructured environment and allows graphical based robotics control to be accomplished in a reasonable time frame when traditional CAD modelling is not enough. To accomplish this, 3D range sensors are deployed to capture surface data within the workspace. This data is then transformed into surface maps, or models. A 3D world model of the workspace is built quickly and accurately, without ever having to put people in the environment

  17. On rapid rotation in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, Per

    2008-01-01

    The conditions under which rapid plasma rotation may occur in a three-dimensional magnetic field, such as that of a stellarator, are investigated. Rotation velocities comparable to the ion thermal speed are found to be attainable only in magnetic fields which are approximately isometric. In an isometric magnetic field the dependence of the magnetic field strength B on the arc length l along the field is the same for all field lines on each flux surface ψ. Only in fields where the departure from exact isometry, B=B(ψ,l), is of the order of the ion gyroradius divided by the macroscopic length scale are rotation speeds comparable to the ion thermal speed possible. Moreover, it is shown that the rotation must be in the direction of the vector ∇ψx∇B. (author)

  18. Microstructure of rapidly solidified materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H.

    1984-07-01

    The basic features of rapidly solidified microstructures are described and differences arising from alternative processing strategies are discussed. The possibility of achieving substantial undercooling prior to solidification in processes such as quench atomization and chill block melt spinning can give rise to striking microstructural transitions even when external heat extraction is nominally Newtonian. The increased opportunity in laser and electron beam surface melting for epitaxial growth on the parent solid at an accelerating rate, however, does not exclude the formation of nonequilibrium phases since the required undercooling can be locally attained at the solidification front which is itself advancing at a sufficiently high velocity. The effects of fluid flow indicated particularly in melt spinning and surface melting are additional to the transformational and heat flow considerations that form the present basis for interpretation of such microstructural effects.

  19. Rapid iconic erasure without masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijus, Charles Albert; Reeves, Adam

    2004-01-01

    We report on the erasure of the iconic memory of an array of 12 black letters flashed on a continuously- present white field. Erasure is accomplished by replacing the 16 ms letter array (frame 1) with a blank white frame for 16 ms (frame 2). The letter array returns in frame 3, with from one to six letters missing. Report of the missing letters is accurate without the blank white frame but is impoverished with it, as if interposing the blank erases the icon. Erasure occurs without any obvious luminance masking, 'mud splashes', pattern masking (backward, forward, or metacontrast), lateral masking, or masking by object substitution. Erasure is greatly decreased if the blank is presented one frame earlier or later. We speculate that erasure is due to a rapid reset of the icon produced by an informational mis-match.

  20. Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicholas K; Doorenbosch, Xenia; Christie, John G

    2011-03-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression. A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal ataxia and loss of bladder control. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine revealed a large vascular epidural mass extending between T6 and T8 vertebral bodies. Associated displacement and compression of the spinal cord was present. A highly vascular bony lesion was found during surgery. Histopathology identified this tumour to be a vertebral haemangioma. We present an extremely unusual acute presentation of a paediatric vertebral haemangioma. This study highlights the need for early diagnosis, MRI for investigation and urgent surgical management. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  1. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.

  2. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum alloys containing 10 to 11.5 wt. pct. of iron and 1.5 to 3 wt. pct. of chromium using the technique of rapid solidification powder metallurgy were studied. Alloys were prepared as thin ribbons (.002 inch thick) rapidly solidified at uniform rate of 10(6) C/second by the melt spinning process. The melt spun ribbons were pulverized into powders (-60 to 400 mesh) by a rotating hammer mill. The powders were consolidated by hot extrusion at a high reduction ratio of 50:1. The powder extrusion temperature was varied to determine the range of desirable processing conditions necessary to yield useful properties. Powders and consolidated alloys were characterized by SEM and optical metallography. The consolidated alloys were evaluated for (1) thermal stability, (2) tensile properties in the range, room temperature to 450 F, and (3) notch toughness in the range, room temperature to 450 F.

  3. Microelectromechanical high-density energy storage/rapid release system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, James J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    1999-08-01

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  4. Confluence reduction for probabilistic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Mark; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    In this presentation we introduce a novel technique for state space reduction of probabilistic specifications, based on a newly developed notion of confluence for probabilistic automata. We proved that this reduction preserves branching probabilistic bisimulation and can be applied on-the-fly. To

  5. Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Hamilton; Nark, Douglas M.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2016-01-01

    The material presents highlights of propulsion and airframe noise research being completed for the Advanced Air Transport Technology Project. The basis of noise reduction plans along with representative work for the airframe, propulsion, and propulsion-airframe integration is discussed for the Aircraft Noise reduction Subproject.

  6. Casting light on harm reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jourdan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Harm reduction is commonly regarded as complementary to other drug problem responses - as the fourth tier. Yet even core examples of harm reduction such as the provision of injection equipment and methadone treatment has over and over encountered considerable opposition, and harm redu...

  7. Reduction of chemical reaction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenklach, Michael

    1991-01-01

    An attempt is made to reconcile the different terminologies pertaining to reduction of chemical reaction models. The approaches considered include global modeling, response modeling, detailed reduction, chemical lumping, and statistical lumping. The advantages and drawbacks of each of these methods are pointed out.

  8. Comments on Beckmann's Uniform Reducts

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Arnold Beckmann defined the uniform reduct of a propositional proof system f to be the set of those bounded arithmetical formulas whose propositional translations have polynomial size f-proofs. We prove that the uniform reduct of f + Extended Frege consists of all true bounded arithmetical formulas iff f + Extended Frege simulates every proof system.

  9. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the results of this thesis, it can be concluded that sleep problems and chronic sleep reduction have a high impact on adolescents’ daytime functioning. Additionally, this research shows that gradual sleep extension can improve adolescents’ sleep and especially their chronic sleep reduction.

  10. International decade for natural disaster reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, W. W.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout history, humanity has found itself in conflict with naturally occurring events of geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric origin. this conflict has been demonstrated repeatedly when people build urban centers at the water's edge, in or near active fault systems capable of generating earthquakes, on steep slopes, near active volcanoes, or at the urban-wilderness interface prone to wildfires. Naturally occurring, recurrent events such as floods, windstorms, tsunamis, earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and wildfires have tested human-engineered works many times and have often found them unable to withstand the forces generated by the event. In the past 20 years, for example, events like these throughout the world have claimed more than 2.8 million lives and adversely affected 820 million people; single disasters have caused economic losses of billions of dollars. Industrialized countries like the United States and Japan have been able to absorb the socioeconomic losses of past natural disasters, but the economics of many developing countries have been devastated by losses equal to a large percentage of their gross national product. Furthermore, the magnitude of the losses is increasing at a rapid rate as the building wealth of nations is expanded to meet the needs of rapidly increasing population, often without adequate consideration of the potential threat posed by the recurrent natural hazards and without implementing effective loss-reduction measures because of lack of knowledge or lack of technical capability. 

  11. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…

  12. Biochemistry of Catabolic Reductive Dehalogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincker, Maeva; Spormann, Alfred M

    2017-06-20

    A wide range of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms couple the reductive dehalogenation of organohalides to energy conservation. Key enzymes of such anaerobic catabolic pathways are corrinoid and Fe-S cluster-containing, membrane-associated reductive dehalogenases. These enzymes catalyze the reductive elimination of a halide and constitute the terminal reductases of a short electron transfer chain. Enzymatic and physiological studies revealed the existence of quinone-dependent and quinone-independent reductive dehalogenases that are distinguishable at the amino acid sequence level, implying different modes of energy conservation in the respective microorganisms. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about catabolic reductive dehalogenases and the electron transfer chain they are part of. We review reaction mechanisms and the role of the corrinoid and Fe-S cluster cofactors and discuss physiological implications.

  13. Rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Polylthia longifolia leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tollamadugu Nagavenkata

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In this research article we present a simple and eco-friendly biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using P. longifolia leaf extract as reducing agent. Methods: Characterization using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM was performed. Results: TEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 57 nm. Conclusions: P. longifolia demonstrated strong potential for synthesis of silver nanoparticles by rapid reduction of silver ions (Ag+ to Ag0. Biological methods are a good competent for the chemical procedures, which are enviro- friendly and convenient.

  14. Technical feasibility study of 60 MWe fast reactor concept: RAPID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Ueda, Nobuyuki; Uotani, Masaki

    1993-01-01

    A study has been performed on the passive safety features and technical feasibility of an inherently safe 60 MWe fast reactor concept RAPID to meet various power requirements in Japan. The system dynamic analyses on the UTOP and ULOF transients revealed that the enhanced reactivity feedback derived from an annular core configuration and the integrated fuel assembly provides a high margin of self-protection. Structural integrity of the integrated fuel assembly has also been confirmed. The following innovative key technologies have been demonstrated; Lithium Injection Modules (LIM) for ultimate shutdown, Lithium Expansion Modulus (LEM) for inherent reactivity feedback and Void Leading Channel (VLC) for the sodium void worth reduction. (author)

  15. Rapid and Decentralized Human Waste Treatment by Microwave Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tu Anh; Babel, Sandhya; Boonyarattanakalin, Siwarutt; Koottatep, Thammarat

    2017-07-01

      This study evaluates the technical feasibility of using microwave radiation for the rapid treatment of human feces. Human feces of 1000 g were radiated with a commercially available household microwave oven (with rotation) at different exposure time lengths (30, 50, 60, 70, and 75 mins) and powers (600, 800, and 1000 W). Volume reduction over 90% occurred after 1000 W microwave radiation for 75 mins. Pathogen eradiation performances of six log units or more at a high range of microwave powers were achieved. Treatments with the same energy input of 1000 Wh, but at lower powers with prolonged exposure times, significantly enhanced moisture removal and volume reduction. Microwave radiation caused carbonization and resulted in a more stable end product. The energy content of the samples after microwave treatment at 1000 W and 75 mins is 3517 ± 8.85 calories/g of dried sample, and the product can also be used as compost.

  16. Determination of reduction yield of lithium metal reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kyu; Cho, Young Hwan; Kim, Taek Jin; Jee, Kwang Young

    2004-01-01

    Metal reduction of spent oxide fuel is the first step for the effective storage of spent fuel in Korea as well as transmutation purpose of long-lived radio-nuclides. During the reduction of uranium oxide by lithium metal to uranium metal, lithium oxide is stoichiometrically produced. By determining the concentration of lithium oxide in lithium chloride, we can estimate that how much uranium oxide is converted to uranium metal. Previous method to determine the lithium oxide concentration in lithium chloride is tedious and timing consuming. This paper describe the on-line monitoring method of lithium oxide during the reduction process

  17. Republic of Armenia; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates Armenia’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) Progress Report covering August 2003–December 2004. The developments in 2003–04 are rather reassuring. The resulting pattern, overall, is more favorable than what was foreseen by the PRSP development scenario. Particularly, the economy grew twice as rapidly as the projected rate, and the government continues to implement a public expenditure policy that is focused on social sectors and infrastructure development. As a resu...

  18. A conserved mechanism for sulfonucleotide reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S Carroll

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonucleotide reductases are a diverse family of enzymes that catalyze the first committed step of reductive sulfur assimilation. In this reaction, activated sulfate in the context of adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS or 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS is converted to sulfite with reducing equivalents from thioredoxin. The sulfite generated in this reaction is utilized in bacteria and plants for the eventual production of essential biomolecules such as cysteine and coenzyme A. Humans do not possess a homologous metabolic pathway, and thus, these enzymes represent attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we studied the mechanism of sulfonucleotide reduction by APS reductase from the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, using a combination of mass spectrometry and biochemical approaches. The results support the hypothesis of a two-step mechanism in which the sulfonucleotide first undergoes rapid nucleophilic attack to form an enzyme-thiosulfonate (E-Cys-S-SO(3- intermediate. Sulfite is then released in a thioredoxin-dependent manner. Other sulfonucleotide reductases from structurally divergent subclasses appear to use the same mechanism, suggesting that this family of enzymes has evolved from a common ancestor.

  19. Further Cost Reduction of Battery Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Asif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for batteries for energy storage is growing with the rapid increase in photovoltaics (PV and wind energy installation as well as electric vehicle (EV, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV. Electrochemical batteries have emerged as the preferred choice for most of the consumer product applications. Cost reduction of batteries will accelerate the growth in all of these sectors. Lithium-ion (Li-ion and solid-state batteries are showing promise through their downward price and upward performance trends. We may achieve further performance improvement and cost reduction for Li-ion and solid-state batteries through reduction of the variation in physical and electrical properties. These properties can be improved and made uniform by considering the electrical model of batteries and adopting novel manufacturing approaches. Using quantum-photo effect, the incorporation of ultra-violet (UV assisted photo-thermal processing can reduce metal surface roughness. Using in-situ measurements, advanced process control (APC can help ensure uniformity among the constituent electrochemical cells. Industrial internet of things (IIoT can streamline the production flow. In this article, we have examined the issue of electrochemical battery manufacturing of Li-ion and solid-state type from cell-level to battery-level process variability, and proposed potential areas where improvements in the manufacturing process can be made. By incorporating these practices in the manufacturing process we expect reduced cost of energy management system, improved reliability and yield gain with the net saving of manufacturing cost being at least 20%.

  20. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  1. Rapid contextual conditioning in autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, P D; Schwartz, A L

    1981-10-01

    Two experiments are reported which investigate the speed of contextual conditioning in autoshaping. In both experiments, a procedure was employed in which ring doves were magazine trained in one context prior to the manipulation of background values in a second context. In Experiment 1, subjects were exposed to 4, 8, 64, 128, or 256 US-only presentations prior to autoshaping. Acquisition speed and maintained response measures were monotonically related to the number of pretraining trials. Subjects in Group 4 acquired the key-peck response fastest, and retardation was maximal within 64 pretraining trials. In Experiment 2, subjects given 20 pretraining trials were significantly more retarded than subjects given 2 pretraining trials, but only when pretraining and testing were conducted in the same context. Overall, the results of these experiments show that in autoshaping, contextual conditioning is very rapid; this demonstrates the plausibility of theoretical accounts of Pavlovian conditioning which assert that the development of the conditioned response depends on the associative values of both the CS and background stimuli.

  2. Rapid Gradient-Echo Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Gradient echo sequences are widely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for numerous applications ranging from angiography to perfusion to functional MRI. Compared with spin-echo techniques, the very short repetition times of gradient-echo methods enable very rapid 2D and 3D imaging, but also lead to complicated “steady states.” Signal and contrast behavior can be described graphically and mathematically, and depends strongly on the type of spoiling: fully balanced (no spoiling), gradient spoiling, or RF-spoiling. These spoiling options trade off between high signal and pure T1 contrast while the flip angle also affects image contrast in all cases, both of which can be demonstrated theoretically and in image examples. As with spin-echo sequences, magnetization preparation can be added to gradient-echo sequences to alter image contrast. Gradient echo sequences are widely used for numerous applications such as 3D perfusion imaging, functional MRI, cardiac imaging and MR angiography. PMID:23097185

  3. Rapidly developing market regions : Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto, A.

    1997-01-01

    Brazil and the State of Rio Grande do Sul are experiencing a period of rapid industrial development. Global investment has been forecast to reach $240 billion over the next five to seven years. This level of development is likely to result in a sharp increase in the consumption of plastic products made from olefins and from aromatic products. Accordingly, Copesul, the centre of raw materials for the State complex, is expected to increase its production of ethane from 685 tonnes to 1.13 million tonnes after 1999. The government has established a program of incentives to stimulate investment in third generation industries. Also, the State petrochemical industry has been rendered more competitive as a result of the purchase of the latest generation equipment. The principal challenges that exist for the petrochemical industry in Brazil and for that matter, around the world, are to reduce production costs and to preserve the natural environment. Another challenge, also world-wide, is to address the issue of plastic residues and to eliminate such residues through plastic recycling programs

  4. Rapidly Progressive Corticobasal Degeneration Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Herrero Valverde

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with no specific pathologic substratum. Its accurate diagnosis is a challenge for neurologists; in order to establish CBS definitively, postmortem confirmation is required. Some clinical and radiological features can help to distinguish it from other neurodegenerative conditions, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Clinical Case: A 74-year-old woman presented with language impairment, difficulty in walking and poor attentiveness that had begun 10 days before. Other symptoms, such as asymmetrical extra-pyramidal dysfunction, limb dystonia and ‘alien limb’ phenomena, were established over the next 2 months, with rapid progression. Death occurred 3 months after symptom onset. Laboratory results were normal. Initially, imaging only showed restricted diffusion with bilateral parieto-occipital gyri involvement on DWI-MRI, with unspecific EEG changes. An autopsy was performed. Brain neuropathology confirmed sporadic CJD (sCJD. Conclusions: CBS is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome whose differential diagnosis is extensive. CJD can occasionally present with clinical characteristics resembling CBS. MRI detection of abnormalities in some sequences (FLAIR, DWI, as previously reported, has high diagnostic utility for sCJD diagnosis – especially in early stages – when other tests can still appear normal. Abnormalities on DWI sequencing may not correlate with neuropathological findings, suggesting a functional basis to explain the changes found.

  5. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinker, Henrike; Haas, Caroline; Harrer, Nadine; Becker, Peter B; Mueller-Planitz, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP) as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  6. Cost reduction through system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsing, P.

    1994-01-01

    In resent years cost reduction has been a key issue in the petroleum industry. Several findings are not economically attractive at the current cost level, and for this and other reasons some of the major oil companies require the suppliers to have implemented a cost reduction programme to prequalify for projects. The present paper addresses cost reduction through system design and integration in both product development and working methods. This is to be obtained by the combination of contracts by reducing unnecessary coordination and allow re-use of proven interface designs, improve subsystem integration by ''top down'' system design, and improve communication and exchange of experience. 3 figs

  7. Chemical model reduction under uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Malpica Galassi, Riccardo; Valorani, Mauro; Najm, Habib N.; Safta, Cosmin; Khalil, Mohammad; Ciottoli, Pietro P.

    2017-01-01

    A general strategy for analysis and reduction of uncertain chemical kinetic models is presented, and its utility is illustrated in the context of ignition of hydrocarbon fuel–air mixtures. The strategy is based on a deterministic analysis

  8. Acute IPPS - Readmissions Reduction Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 3025 of the Affordable Care Act added section 1886(q) to the Social Security Act establishing the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, which requires CMS...

  9. Fermion masses from dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the fermion masses in gauge theories obtained from ten dimensions through dimensional reduction on coset spaces. We calculate the general fermion mass matrix and we apply the mass formula in illustrative examples. (orig.)

  10. Fermion masses from dimensional reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece)); Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1990-10-11

    We consider the fermion masses in gauge theories obtained from ten dimensions through dimensional reduction on coset spaces. We calculate the general fermion mass matrix and we apply the mass formula in illustrative examples. (orig.).

  11. Fertility reduction programmes should accompany land reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiku, J

    1994-01-01

    Changes in population size both affect and are affected by the rate of development. With the total world population estimated to be 5.7 billion in mid-1994 and annual growth at 1.7%, declines in total fertility rates and overall growth rates in developing countries have not been sufficient to precipitate a decline in actual numbers. The population of developing countries has doubled from 1962 to 1994. The highest growth rates are expected to be in sub-Saharan Africa, but the largest absolute increase in population is expected to occur in Asia. Uganda's population has increased from 4.9 to 16.7 million from 1948 to 1991. At the current rate of increase (2.5%) and taking AIDS into account, Uganda's population is expected to double in 28 years. Rapid population growth in developing countries can be explained by the following factors: 1) high levels of morbidity and mortality which threaten child survival and encourage large families; 2) early marriage which extends reproductive activity; 3) a high value placed on children, especially sons; 4) unmet needs for family planning; 5) widespread poverty which causes children to be viewed as old age security; and 6) population momentum which would contribute to growth even if replacement fertility were achieved because of the current age-sex structure of the population. The impact of rapid population growth on development requires further study, but some things are clear. Economic development is hindered when the number of dependent and poor individuals in a population increases. High rates of fertility result in poor infant and maternal health. The provision of social welfare services and the capacity for providing basic services such as health care, education, safe water, and sanitation is strained by rapid population growth. Also, the quality of the environment is adversely affected by rapid population growth. Population policies should be developed for each country and should emphasize activities to improve individual

  12. Model order reduction techniques with applications in finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Zu-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Despite the continued rapid advance in computing speed and memory the increase in the complexity of models used by engineers persists in outpacing them. Even where there is access to the latest hardware, simulations are often extremely computationally intensive and time-consuming when full-blown models are under consideration. The need to reduce the computational cost involved when dealing with high-order/many-degree-of-freedom models can be offset by adroit computation. In this light, model-reduction methods have become a major goal of simulation and modeling research. Model reduction can also ameliorate problems in the correlation of widely used finite-element analyses and test analysis models produced by excessive system complexity. Model Order Reduction Techniques explains and compares such methods focusing mainly on recent work in dynamic condensation techniques: - Compares the effectiveness of static, exact, dynamic, SEREP and iterative-dynamic condensation techniques in producing valid reduced-order mo...

  13. Radwaste volume reduction and solidification by General Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, T.A.; Weech, M.E.; Miller, G.P.; Eberle, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1978 General Electric has been actively engaged in developing a volume reduction and solidifcation system or treatment of radwaste generated in commercial nuclear power plants. The studies have been aimed at defining an integrated system that would be directly responsive to the rapid evolving needs of the industry for the volume reduction and solidification of low-level radwaste. The resulting General Electric Volume Reduction System (GEVRS) is an integrated system based on two processes: the first uses azeotropic distillation technology and is called AZTECH, and the second is controlled-air incineration...called INCA. The AZTECH process serves to remove water from concentrated salt solutions, ion exchange resins and filter sludge slurries and then encapsulates the dried solids into a dense plastic product. The INCA unit serves to reduce combustible wastes to ashes suitable for encapsulation into the same plastic product produced by AZTECH

  14. Reduction and determination of dixanthogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M S

    1971-06-01

    A convenient method for the reduction and determination of dixaathogen has been developed. It is based on the quantitative reaction of dixanthogen with zinc amalgam to form xanthate; the latter can be determined by iodine titration, potentiometric titration with silver nitrate or by spectrophotometry at 310 mmu. Dixanthogen can be determined in mixtures containing xanthate, by titration of aliquots with and without reduction. Higher dixanthogens can also be determined, and flotation liquors analysed.

  15. Chemical model reduction under uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Najm, Habib; Galassi, R. Malpica; Valorani, M.

    2016-01-01

    We outline a strategy for chemical kinetic model reduction under uncertainty. We present highlights of our existing deterministic model reduction strategy, and describe the extension of the formulation to include parametric uncertainty in the detailed mechanism. We discuss the utility of this construction, as applied to hydrocarbon fuel-air kinetics, and the associated use of uncertainty-aware measures of error between predictions from detailed and simplified models.

  16. Chemical model reduction under uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Najm, Habib

    2016-01-05

    We outline a strategy for chemical kinetic model reduction under uncertainty. We present highlights of our existing deterministic model reduction strategy, and describe the extension of the formulation to include parametric uncertainty in the detailed mechanism. We discuss the utility of this construction, as applied to hydrocarbon fuel-air kinetics, and the associated use of uncertainty-aware measures of error between predictions from detailed and simplified models.

  17. Electrochemical Reduction Process for Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Hong, Sun-Seok; Park, Wooshin; Im, Hun Suk; Oh, Seung-Chul; Won, Chan Yeon; Cha, Ju-Sun; Hur, Jin-Mok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Nuclear energy is expected to meet the growing energy demand while avoiding CO{sub 2} emission. However, the problem of accumulating spent fuel from current nuclear power plants which is mainly composed of uranium oxides should be addressed. One of the most practical solutions is to reduce the spent oxide fuel and recycle it. Next-generation fuel cycles demand innovative features such as a reduction of the environmental load, improved safety, efficient recycling of resources, and feasible economics. Pyroprocessing based on molten salt electrolysis is one of the key technologies for reducing the amount of spent nuclear fuel and destroying toxic waste products, such as the long-life fission products. The oxide reduction process based on the electrochemical reduction in a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O electrolyte has been developed for the volume reduction of PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) spent fuels and for providing metal feeds for the electrorefining process. To speed up the electrochemical reduction process, the influences of the feed form for the cathode and the type of anode shroud on the reduction rate were investigated.

  18. INEL waste reduction: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southeastern Idaho. Located at the INEL are a Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) which processes low level radioactive waste (LLW) materials and a Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) which provides for disposal of radioactive waste materials. There are currently 9 active facilities (waste generators) at the INEL which produce an average total volume of about 5000 cubic meters of solid LLW annually. This boxed or bulk waste is ultimately disposed of at the RWMC Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The SDA is currently the only active LLW disposal site at the INEL, and the prospects for opening another shallow land burial disposal facility are uncertain. Therefore, it has become imperative that EG and G Idaho Waste Management Department make every reasonable effort to extend the disposal life of the SDA. Among Waste Management Department's principal efforts to extend the SDA disposal life are operation of the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) and administration of the INEL Waste Reduction Program. The INEL Waste Reduction Program is charged with providing assistance to all INEL facilities in reducing LLW generation rates to the lowest practical levels while at the same time encouraging optimum utilization of the volume reduction capabilities of WERF. Both waste volume and waste generation reductions are discussed

  19. The cost of implementing rapid HIV testing in sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggman, Ashley A; Feaster, Daniel J; Leff, Jared A; Golden, Matthew R; Castellon, Pedro C; Gooden, Lauren; Matheson, Tim; Colfax, Grant N; Metsch, Lisa R; Schackman, Bruce R

    2014-09-01

    Rapid HIV testing in high-risk populations can increase the number of persons who learn their HIV status and avoid spending clinic resources to locate persons identified as HIV infected. We determined the cost to sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics of point-of-care rapid HIV testing using data from 7 public clinics that participated in a randomized trial of rapid testing with and without brief patient-centered risk reduction counseling in 2010. Costs included counselor and trainer time, supplies, and clinic overhead. We applied national labor rates and test costs. We calculated median clinic start-up costs and mean cost per patient tested, and projected incremental annual costs of implementing universal rapid HIV testing compared with current testing practices. Criteria for offering rapid HIV testing and methods for delivering nonrapid test results varied among clinics before the trial. Rapid HIV testing cost an average of US $22/patient without brief risk reduction counseling and US $46/patient with counseling in these 7 clinics. Median start-up costs per clinic were US $1100 and US $16,100 without and with counseling, respectively. Estimated incremental annual costs per clinic of implementing universal rapid HIV testing varied by whether or not brief counseling is conducted and by current clinic testing practices, ranging from a savings of US $19,500 to a cost of US $40,700 without counseling and a cost of US $98,000 to US $153,900 with counseling. Universal rapid HIV testing in STD clinics with same-day results can be implemented at relatively low cost to STD clinics, if brief risk reduction counseling is not offered.

  20. Effectiveness Analysis of a Part-Time Rapid Response System During Operation Versus Nonoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youlim; Lee, Dong Seon; Min, Hyunju; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Eun Young; Song, Inae; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Jo, You Hwan; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Do, Sang Hwan; Lee, Yeon Joo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a part-time rapid response system on the occurrence rate of cardiopulmonary arrest by comparing the times of rapid response system operation versus nonoperation. Retrospective cohort study. A 1,360-bed tertiary care hospital. Adult patients admitted to the general ward were screened. Data were collected over 36 months from rapid response system implementation (October 2012 to September 2015) and more than 45 months before rapid response system implementation (January 2009 to September 2012). None. The rapid response system operates from 7 AM to 10 PM on weekdays and from 7 AM to 12 PM on Saturdays. Primary outcomes were the difference of cardiopulmonary arrest incidence between pre-rapid response system and post-rapid response system periods and whether the rapid response system operating time affects the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence. The overall cardiopulmonary arrest incidence (per 1,000 admissions) was 1.43. Although the number of admissions per month and case-mix index were increased (3,555.18 vs 4,564.72, p times (0.82 vs 0.49/1,000 admissions; p = 0.001) but remained similar during rapid response system nonoperating times (0.77 vs 0.73/1,000 admissions; p = 0.729). The implementation of a part-time rapid response system reduced the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence based on the reduction of cardiopulmonary arrest during rapid response system operating times. Further analysis of the cost effectiveness of part-time rapid response system is needed.

  1. A hydrogen fuel cell for rapid, enzyme-catalysed organic synthesis with continuous monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lei; Megarity, Clare F; Siritanaratkul, Bhavin; Armstrong, Fraser A

    2018-01-23

    A one-pot fuel cell for specific, enzyme-catalysed organic synthesis, with continuous monitoring of rate and reaction progress, combines an electrode catalysing rapid, reversible and diffusion-controlled interconversion of NADP + and NADPH with a Pt electrode catalysing 2H + /H 2 interconversion. This Communication demonstrates its performance and characteristics using the reductive amination of 2-oxoglutarate as a test system.

  2. RAPID TRANSFER ALIGNMENT USING FEDERATED KALMAN FILTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUDong-qing; QINYong-yuan; PENGRong; LIXin

    2005-01-01

    The dimension number of the centralized Kalman filter (CKF) for the rapid transfer alignment (TA) is as high as 21 if the aircraft wing flexure motion is considered in the rapid TA. The 21-dimensional CKF brings the calculation burden on the computer and the difficulty to meet a high filtering updating rate desired by rapid TA. The federated Kalman filter (FKF) for the rapid TA is proposed to solve the dilemma. The structure and the algorithm of the FKF, which can perform parallel computation and has less calculation burden, are designed.The wing flexure motion is modeled, and then the 12-order velocity matching local filter and the 15-order attitud ematching local filter are devised. Simulation results show that the proposed EKE for the rapid TA almost has the same performance as the CKF. Thus the calculation burden of the proposed FKF for the rapid TA is markedly decreased.

  3. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1995-06-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). (orig.)

  4. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1996-01-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Parallel, Rapid Diffuse Optical Tomography of Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yodh, Arjun

    2001-01-01

    During the last year we have experimentally and computationally investigated rapid acquisition and analysis of informationally dense diffuse optical data sets in the parallel plate compressed breast geometry...

  6. Parallel, Rapid Diffuse Optical Tomography of Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yodh, Arjun

    2002-01-01

    During the last year we have experimentally and computationally investigated rapid acquisition and analysis of informationally dense diffuse optical data sets in the parallel plate compressed breast geometry...

  7. Numerology on pion and proton rapidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugelot, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The pseudo-rapidity of pion jets which were measured for 50 GeV and 150 GeV incident pions and protons on carbon, copper and lead targets is analysed. The shape of the rapidity distribution for a ''fireball'' which emits particles isotropically in its center of mass is a cosh -2 y distribution. It is possible to unfold all measured distributions into three groups which correspond to a low rapidity originating from the target fragmentation, a middle group which is a function of the center of mass of the projectile and target rapidity and a fast group which is due to the projectile. 11 refs., 8 figs. (author)

  8. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  9. Rapid Robot Design Validation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  10. State of the direct reduction and reduction smelting processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markotić A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For quite a long time efforts have been made to develop processes for producing iron i.e. steel without employing conventional procedures - from ore, coke, blast furnace, iron, electric arc furnace, converter to steel. The insufficient availability and the high price of the coking coals have forced many countries to research and adopt the non-coke-consuming reduction and metal manufacturing processes (non-coke metallurgy, direct reduction, direct processes. This paper represents a survey of the most relevant processes from this domain by the end of 2000, which display a constant increase in the modern process metallurgy.

  11. Unfavourable results following reduction mammoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Saleem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast reduction is a common cosmetic surgical procedure. It aims not only at bringing down the size of the breast proportionate to the build of the individual, but also to overcome the discomfort caused by massive, ill-shaped and hanging breasts. The operative procedure has evolved from mere reduction of breast mass to enhanced aesthetic appeal with a minimum of scar load. The selection of technique needs to be individualised. Bilateral breast reduction is done most often. Haematoma, seroma, fat necrosis, skin loss, nipple loss and unsightly, painful scars can be the complications of any procedure on the breast. These may result from errors in judgement, wrong surgical plan and imprecise execution of the plan. Though a surfeit of studies are available on breast reduction, very few dwell upon its complications. The following article is a distillation of three decades of experience of the senior author (L.S. in reduction mammoplasty. An effort is made to understand the reasons for unfavourable results. To conclude, most complications can be overcome with proper selection of procedure for the given patient and with gentle tissue handling.

  12. A Virtual Aluminum Reduction Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Zhou, Chenn Q.; Wu, Bing; Li, Jie

    2013-11-01

    The most important component in the aluminum industry is the aluminum reduction cell; it has received considerable interests and resources to conduct research to improve its productivity and energy efficiency. The current study focused on the integration of numerical simulation data and virtual reality technology to create a scientifically and practically realistic virtual aluminum reduction cell by presenting complex cell structures and physical-chemical phenomena. The multiphysical field simulation models were first built and solved in ANSYS software (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA). Then, the methodology of combining the simulation results with virtual reality was introduced, and a virtual aluminum reduction cell was created. The demonstration showed that a computer-based world could be created in which people who are not analysis experts can see the detailed cell structure in a context that they can understand easily. With the application of the virtual aluminum reduction cell, even people who are familiar with aluminum reduction cell operations can gain insights that make it possible to understand the root causes of observed problems and plan design changes in much less time.

  13. Commercial aspects of rapid thermal processing (RTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R G; Huffman, D R [Ensyn Technologies Inc., Greely, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    In its broadest sense, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP{sup TM}) covers the conversion of all types of carbonaceous materials to liquid fuels, high quality fuel gases, and chemicals. Scientifically, it is based on the general premise that products which result from the extremely rapid application of heat to a given feedstock are inherently more valuable than those which are produced when heat is applied much more slowly over longer periods of processing time. Commercial RTP{sup TM} activities (including the actual implementation in the market as well as the short-term R and D initiatives) are much narrower in scope, and are focused on the production of high yields of light, non-tarry liquids (i.e. `bio-crude`) from biomass for fuel and chemical markets. Chemicals are of significant interest from an economical point of view since they typically have a higher value than fuel products. Liquid fuels are of interest for many reasons: (1) Liquid fuels do not have to be used immediately after production, such as is the case with hot combustion gases or combustible gases produced via gasification. This allows the decoupling of fuel production from the end-use (ie. the conversion of fuel to energy). (2) The higher energy density of liquid fuels vs. that of fuel gases and solid biomass results in a large reduction in the costs associated with storage and transportation. (3) The costs to retrofit an existing gas or oil fired combustion system are much lower than replacement with a solid fuel combustor. (4) In general, liquid fuel combustion is much more efficient, controllable, and cleaner than the combustion of solid fuels. (5) The production of liquid `bio-crude` permits the removal of ash from the biomass prior to combustion or other end-use applications. (6) Gas or liquid fuel-fired diesel or turbine engines cannot operate commercially on solid fuels. Although wood represents the biomass which is of principal commercial interest (including a vast array of wood residues

  14. Commercial aspects of rapid thermal processing (RTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.G.; Huffman, D.R. [Ensyn Technologies Inc., Greely, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    In its broadest sense, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP{sup TM}) covers the conversion of all types of carbonaceous materials to liquid fuels, high quality fuel gases, and chemicals. Scientifically, it is based on the general premise that products which result from the extremely rapid application of heat to a given feedstock are inherently more valuable than those which are produced when heat is applied much more slowly over longer periods of processing time. Commercial RTP{sup TM} activities (including the actual implementation in the market as well as the short-term R and D initiatives) are much narrower in scope, and are focused on the production of high yields of light, non-tarry liquids (i.e. `bio-crude`) from biomass for fuel and chemical markets. Chemicals are of significant interest from an economical point of view since they typically have a higher value than fuel products. Liquid fuels are of interest for many reasons: (1) Liquid fuels do not have to be used immediately after production, such as is the case with hot combustion gases or combustible gases produced via gasification. This allows the decoupling of fuel production from the end-use (ie. the conversion of fuel to energy). (2) The higher energy density of liquid fuels vs. that of fuel gases and solid biomass results in a large reduction in the costs associated with storage and transportation. (3) The costs to retrofit an existing gas or oil fired combustion system are much lower than replacement with a solid fuel combustor. (4) In general, liquid fuel combustion is much more efficient, controllable, and cleaner than the combustion of solid fuels. (5) The production of liquid `bio-crude` permits the removal of ash from the biomass prior to combustion or other end-use applications. (6) Gas or liquid fuel-fired diesel or turbine engines cannot operate commercially on solid fuels. Although wood represents the biomass which is of principal commercial interest (including a vast array of wood residues

  15. Model reduction of parametrized systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Patera, Anthony; Rozza, Gianluigi; Urban, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The special volume offers a global guide to new concepts and approaches concerning the following topics: reduced basis methods, proper orthogonal decomposition, proper generalized decomposition, approximation theory related to model reduction, learning theory and compressed sensing, stochastic and high-dimensional problems, system-theoretic methods, nonlinear model reduction, reduction of coupled problems/multiphysics, optimization and optimal control, state estimation and control, reduced order models and domain decomposition methods, Krylov-subspace and interpolatory methods, and applications to real industrial and complex problems. The book represents the state of the art in the development of reduced order methods. It contains contributions from internationally respected experts, guaranteeing a wide range of expertise and topics. Further, it reflects an important effor t, carried out over the last 12 years, to build a growing research community in this field. Though not a textbook, some of the chapters ca...

  16. Thermodynamics of lunar ilmenite reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenberg, B. H.; Franklin, H. A.; Jones, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    With the prospect of returning to the moon, the development of a lunar occupation would fulfill one of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of the late 1980's. Processing lunar resources into useful products, such as liquid oxygen for fuel and life support, would be one of many aspects of an active lunar base. ilmenite (FeTiO3) is found on the lunar surface and can be used as a feed stock to produce oxygen. Understanding the various ilmenite-reduction reactions elucidates many processing options. Defining the thermodynamic chemical behavior at equilibrium under various conditions of temperature and pressures can be helpful in specifying optimal operating conditions. Differences between a previous theoretical analysis and experimentally determined results has sparked interest in trying to understand the effect of operating pressure on the hydrogen-reduction-of-ilmenite reaction. Various aspects of this reduction reaction are discussed.

  17. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  18. Outage reduction of Hamaoka NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hida, Shigeru; Anma, Minoru

    1999-01-01

    In the Hamaoka nuclear power plant, we have worked on the outage reduction since 1993. In those days, the outage length in Hamaoka was 80 days or more, and was largely far apart from excellent results of European and American plants about the 30days. A concrete strategy to achieve the reduction process is the extension of working hours, the changing work schedule control unit for every hour, the equipment improvements, and the improvements of work environments, etc. We executed them one by one reflecting results. As a result, we achieved the outage for 57 days in 1995. Starting from this, we acquired the further outage reduction one by one and achieved the outage for 38 days in 1997 while maintaining safety and reliability of the plant. We advance these strategies further and we will aim at the achievement of the 30·35 days outage in the future. (author)

  19. Representative mass reduction in sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Harry Kim; Dahl, Casper Kierulf

    2004-01-01

    We here present a comprehensive survey of current mass reduction principles and hardware available in the current market. We conduct a rigorous comparison study of the performance of 17 field and/or laboratory instruments or methods which are quantitatively characterized (and ranked) for accuracy...... dividers, the Boerner Divider, the ??spoon method??, alternate/fractional shoveling and grab sampling. Only devices based on riffle splitting principles (static or rotational) passes the ultimate representativity test (with minor, but significant relative differences). Grab sampling, the overwhelmingly...... most often used mass reduction method, performs appallingly?its use must be discontinued (with the singular exception for completely homogenized fine powders). Only proper mass reduction (i.e. carried out in complete compliance with all appropriate design principles, maintenance and cleaning rules) can...

  20. Catalytic reduction of ruthenium tetroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhutin, I.E.; Polyakov, A.S.; Ananyan, O.S.; Blinnikov, S.A.; Kulakov, A.I.; Takmazyan, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    RuO 4 removal from the gaseous phase by reduction to solid RuO 2 with carbon oxide has been investigated. The reaction has been shown to be autocatalytic. A catalyst (RuO 2 on Al 2 O 3 ) for the reduction has been developed. There have been determined the region of reaction RuO 4 +CO on the catalyst containing RuO 2 , the temperature dependence of the decontamination factor and the reaction order in RuO 4 . The feasibility of RuO 4 thermal decomposition on the catalyst has been shown. A number of other metal oxides that can catalyze the process is listed

  1. Bohm's theory versus dynamical reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.

    1995-10-01

    This essay begins with a comparison between Bohm's theory and the dynamical reduction program. While there are similarities (e.g., the preferred basis), there are also important differences (e.g., the type of nonlocality or of Lorentz invariance). In particular, it is made plausible that theories which exhibit parameter dependence effects cannot be ''genuinely Lorentz invariant''. For the two approaches under consideration, this analysis provides a comparison that can produce a richer understanding both of the pilot wave and of the dynamical reduction mechanism. (author). 33 refs, 1 fig

  2. NEC-2020 emission reduction scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slentø, Erik; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    The upcoming NEC-2020 EU directive sets up emission ceilings for NOX, SO2, NH3, NMVOC and PM in order to meet the environmental exposure targets of the Thematic Strategy. This report contains an assessment of intermediary emission reduction scenarios for Denmark, computed by the GAINS model 2007,......, which serves as the basis for the pending negotiations in EU. The assessment is brought up to date by including a brief evaluation of the new reduction scenarios published in 2008, founding the European Commission NEC-2020 directive proposal....

  3. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  4. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  5. Rapid 3-D analysis of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Greg M.; Guerin, A.; Avdievitch, Nikita N.; Collins, Brian D.; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Recent fatal and damaging rockfalls in Yosemite National Park indicate the need for rapid response data collection methods to inform public safety and assist with management response. Here we show the use of multiple-platform remote sensing methods to rapidly capture pertinent data needed to inform management and the public following a several large rockfalls from El Capitan cliff in Yosemite Valley, California.

  6. Rapid Prototyping: An Alternative Instructional Design Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Steven D.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of instructional design and describes rapid prototyping as a feasible model for instructional system design (ISD). The use of prototyping in software engineering is described, similarities between software design and instructional design are discussed, and an example is given which uses rapid prototyping in designing a…

  7. A Systems Approach to Rapid School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Carlas

    2018-01-01

    To support systemic thinking about school improvement, the Center on School Turnaround at WestEd developed a framework to assist states, districts, and schools in leading and managing rapid improvement efforts. The framework, which is presented in this article, has four domains that have proved central to rapid, significant improvement: (1)…

  8. Patterns, correlates, and reduction of homework copying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Palazzo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Submissions to an online homework tutor were analyzed to determine whether they were copied. The fraction of copied submissions increased rapidly over the semester, as each weekly deadline approached and for problems later in each assignment. The majority of students, who copied less than 10% of their problems, worked steadily over the three days prior to the deadline, whereas repetitive copiers (those who copied >30% of their submitted problems exerted little effort early. Importantly, copying homework problems that require an analytic answer correlates with a 2(σ decline over the semester in relative score for similar problems on exams but does not significantly correlate with the amount of conceptual learning as measured by pretesting and post-testing. An anonymous survey containing questions used in many previous studies of self-reported academic dishonesty showed ∼1/3 less copying than actually was detected. The observed patterns of copying, free response questions on the survey, and interview data suggest that time pressure on students who do not start their homework in a timely fashion is the proximate cause of copying. Several measures of initial ability in math or physics correlated with copying weakly or not at all. Changes in course format and instructional practices that previous self-reported academic dishonesty surveys and/or the observed copying patterns suggested would reduce copying have been accompanied by more than a factor of 4 reduction of copying from ∼11% of all electronic problems to less than 3%. As expected (since repetitive copiers have approximately three times the chance of failing, this was accompanied by a reduction in the overall course failure rate. Survey results indicate that students copy almost twice as much written homework as online homework and show that students nationally admit to more academic dishonesty than MIT students.

  9. New software for neutron data reduction and visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worlton, T.; Chatterjee, A.; Hammonds, J.; Chen, D.; Loong, C.K.; Mikkelson, D.; Mikkelson, R.

    2001-01-01

    Development of advanced neutron sources and instruments has necessitated corresponding advances in software for neutron scattering data reduction and visualization. New sources produce datasets more rapidly, and new instruments produce large numbers of spectra. Because of the shorter collection times, users are able to make more measurements on a given sample. This rapid production of datasets requires that users be able to reduce and analyze data quickly to prevent a data bottleneck. In addition, the new sources and instruments are accommodating more users with less neutron-scattering specific expertise, which requires software that is easy to use and freely available. We have developed an Integrated Spectral Analysis Workbench (ISAW) software package to permit the rapid reduction and visualization of neutron data. It can handle large numbers of spectra and merge data from separate measurements. The data can be sorted according to any attribute and transformed in numerous ways. ISAW provides several views of the data that enable users to compare spectra and observe trends in the data. A command interpreter, which is now part of ISAW, allows scientists to easily set up a series of instrument-specific operations to reduce and visualize data automatically. ISAW is written entirely in Java to permit portability to different computer platforms and easy distribution of the software. The software was constructed using modern computer design methods to allow easy customization and improvement. ISAW currently only reads data from IPNS 'run' files, but work is underway to provide input of NeXus files. (author)

  10. New software for neutron data reduction and visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worlton, T.; Chatterjee, A.; Hammonds, J.; Chen, D.; Loong, C.K. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Mikkelson, D.; Mikkelson, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Development of advanced neutron sources and instruments has necessitated corresponding advances in software for neutron scattering data reduction and visualization. New sources produce datasets more rapidly, and new instruments produce large numbers of spectra. Because of the shorter collection times, users are able to make more measurements on a given sample. This rapid production of datasets requires that users be able to reduce and analyze data quickly to prevent a data bottleneck. In addition, the new sources and instruments are accommodating more users with less neutron-scattering specific expertise, which requires software that is easy to use and freely available. We have developed an Integrated Spectral Analysis Workbench (ISAW) software package to permit the rapid reduction and visualization of neutron data. It can handle large numbers of spectra and merge data from separate measurements. The data can be sorted according to any attribute and transformed in numerous ways. ISAW provides several views of the data that enable users to compare spectra and observe trends in the data. A command interpreter, which is now part of ISAW, allows scientists to easily set up a series of instrument-specific operations to reduce and visualize data automatically. ISAW is written entirely in Java to permit portability to different computer platforms and easy distribution of the software. The software was constructed using modern computer design methods to allow easy customization and improvement. ISAW currently only reads data from IPNS 'run' files, but work is underway to provide input of NeXus files. (author)

  11. Experimental study on solid state reduction of chromite with rising temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekkonen, M.; Syynimaa, A.; Holappa, L.

    1998-07-01

    The solid state reduction of preoxidized sintered chromite pellets, raw pellets, process pellets and lumpy ores have been studied with rising temperature 700-1520 deg C under CO-atmosphere in order to better simulate the conditions in the upper part of a real submerged arc furnace. According to the reduction degree curves the reduction behaviour of chromite pellets seems to be similar. The reduction rate was slow at the beginning but increased rapidly when the temperature reached about 1000 deg C. The final reduction degree was highest in the case of process pellets and lowest in the case of raw pellet. In the case of preoxidized pellets there was not much difference of the reduction rate and final reduction degree between different oxidation states. In the case of lumpy ores the reduction rate and the final reduction degree was much lower compared to the pellets. Optical photographs, phase and microanalysis show that the reduction has proceeded further in the surface of the samples and confirmed also that the reduction degree remained lower in the case of raw pellet and lumpy ores which was also seen from the reduction degree curves. According to the experiments in the case of preoxidized pellets the effect of oxidation state on the reduction rate was not observed due to small difference in the oxidation state of the samples. But when comparing the reduction of preoxidized pellets and unoxidised raw pellet we can say that preoxidation promotes the reduction. The final reduction degree of the raw pellet remained lower than in the case of preoxidized pellets. (orig.)

  12. High Early-Age Strength Concrete for Rapid Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maler, Matthew O.

    The aim of this research was to identify High Early-Age Strength (HES) concrete batch designs, and evaluate their suitability for use in the rapid repair of highways and bridge decks. To this end, two criteria needed to be met; a minimum compressive strength of 20.68 MPa (3000 psi) in no later than 12 hours, and a drying shrinkage of less than 0.06 % at 28 days after curing. The evaluations included both air-entrained, and non-air-entrained concretes. The cement types chosen for this study included Type III and Type V Portland cement and "Rapid Set"--a Calcium Sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement. In addition, two blended concretes containing different ratios of Type V Portland cement and CSA cement were investigated. The evaluation of the studied concretes included mechanical properties and transport properties. Additionally, dimensional stability and durability were investigated. Evaluations were conducted based on cement type and common cement factor. Fresh property tests showed that in order to provide a comparable workability, and still remain within manufactures guideline for plasticizer, the water-to-cement ratio was adjusted for each type of cement utilized. This resulted in the need to increase the water-to-cement ratio as the Blaine Fineness of the cement type increased (0.275 for Type V Portland cement, 0.35 for Type III Portland cement, and 0.4 for Rapid Set cement). It was also observed that negligible changes in setting time occurred with increasing cement content, whereas changes in cement type produced notable differences. The addition of air-entrainment had beneficial effect on workability for the lower cement factors. Increasing trends for peak hydration heat were seen with increases in cement factor, cement Blaine Fineness, and accelerator dosage. Evaluation of hardened properties revealed opening times as low as 5 hours for Type V Portland cement with 2.0 % accelerator per cement weight and further reduction in opening time by an hour when accelerator

  13. RIPS - A Rapid Pattern Simulator for BRDFs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hirsch, Herbert

    1999-01-01

    .... Finally applications and results for modeling BRDFs are presented. The technique is shown to provide substantial computational reduction over contemporary modeling methods, while maintaining accuracy and precision...

  14. Morphologisation or Reduction by Context?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegård Petersen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    of regression analysis which shows that also a following sound or pause, word form frequency and social class are factors that contribute significantly to the reduction pattern of the variable (te). The study cannot find any effects of clitizisation or n-gram based contextual predictability, factors...

  15. GumTree: Data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, Hugh [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: hrz@ansto.gov.au; Hathaway, Paul [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Hauser, Nick [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Fei, Yang [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Franceschini, Ferdi [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Lam, Tony [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation.

  16. Intraoperative hydrostatic reduction of intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Uday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To find out an easier way of reduction of intussusception during open surgery to avoid unnecessary bowel injury. Materials and Methods: Under general anesthesia, before laparotomy, warm normal saline was infused into the rectum with a Foley catheter and an intravenous drip set maintaining the level of the bottle at 80 cm above the operating table. After opening the abdomen, pressure was applied on the colon filled with normal saline distal to the intussusceptum. The pressure was transmitted to the intussusceptum and the walls of the intussuscipient and caused reduction of intussusception without any injury to the intussuscipient and intussusceptum. This procedure was performed on those patients on whom laparotomy was performed as a primary procedure due to nonavailability of fluoroscopy or ultrasonography. Results: Between August 1998 and July 2005, we had six patients of mean (range age 11 months (7-17 months. In two cases, at laparotomy, the intussusceptions were found to have already reduced. Conclusions: Gentle finger pressure is necessary for reduction of intussusception. This subjective "gentleness" is dependant on experience of the surgeon and varies from person to person. Focal pressure on the intussuscipient and apex of the intussusceptum by the finger during reduction may be more damaging than the diffusely transmitted hydrostatic pressure even by a less-experienced surgeon. This will avoid the needless resection and anastomosis of the intestine on many occasions.

  17. Sex-work harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekart, Michael L

    2005-12-17

    Sex work is an extremely dangerous profession. The use of harm-reduction principles can help to safeguard sex workers' lives in the same way that drug users have benefited from drug-use harm reduction. Sex workers are exposed to serious harms: drug use, disease, violence, discrimination, debt, criminalisation, and exploitation (child prostitution, trafficking for sex work, and exploitation of migrants). Successful and promising harm-reduction strategies are available: education, empowerment, prevention, care, occupational health and safety, decriminalisation of sex workers, and human-rights-based approaches. Successful interventions include peer education, training in condom-negotiating skills, safety tips for street-based sex workers, male and female condoms, the prevention-care synergy, occupational health and safety guidelines for brothels, self-help organisations, and community-based child protection networks. Straightforward and achievable steps are available to improve the day-to-day lives of sex workers while they continue to work. Conceptualising and debating sex-work harm reduction as a new paradigm can hasten this process.

  18. Reduction des effectifs ou licenciements

    CERN Multimedia

    Maiani, Luciano

    2002-01-01

    "Vous faites un amalgame entre la reduction en cours des effectifs du CERN (organisation europeenne pour la recherche nucleaire) et les economies que le laboratoire doit realiser dans les cinq ans a venir pour financer le projet de grand collisionneur de hadrons (Le Monde du 4 septembre)" (1/2 page).

  19. Noise reduction by wavelet thresholding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    .... I rather present new material and own insights in the que stions involved with wavelet based noise reduction . On the other hand , the presented material does cover a whole range of methodologies, and in that sense, the book may serve as an introduction into the domain of wavelet smoothing. Throughout the text, three main properties show up ever again: spar...

  20. Dimensional Reduction and Hadronic Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signer, Adrian; Stoeckinger, Dominik

    2008-01-01

    We consider the application of regularization by dimensional reduction to NLO corrections of hadronic processes. The general collinear singularity structure is discussed, the origin of the regularization-scheme dependence is identified and transition rules to other regularization schemes are derived.

  1. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  2. Dose reduction - the radiologist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.G.B.

    1984-01-01

    The magnitude of the exposure to ionising radiation dominates radiological practice in only three fields, i.e. foetal radiography, mammography and computed tomography. The balance between risk and benefit are briefly examined. The types of hazard considered are carcinogenesis, genetic injury and organogenesis. Ways of achieving a reduction of the dose to the patient are also briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Basis reduction for layered lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Torreão Dassen (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. With this new theory certain problems that usually are solved by using classical lattices with a "weighting" gain a new, more natural form. Using the layered lattice basis reduction algorithms introduced here these

  4. GumTree: Data reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, Hugh; Hathaway, Paul; Hauser, Nick; Fei, Yang; Franceschini, Ferdi; Lam, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation

  5. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-12-31

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 {mu}M. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 {mu}M h{sup -1} while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 {mu}M h{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination

  6. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-01-01

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO 4 2- concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 μM. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 μM h -1 while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 μM h -1 , respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 μg d -1 g -1 ) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 μg d -1 g -1 ) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 μg d -1 g -1 ) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m -2 d -1 , while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m -2 d -1 , respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Carglumic acid enhances rapid ammonia detoxification in classical organic acidurias with a favourable risk-benefit profile : a retrospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Baruteau, Julien; Delgado, Maria Bueno; Cano, Aline; Couce, Maria L; Del Toro, Mireia; Donati, Maria Alice; Garcia-Cazorla, Angeles; Gil-Ortega, David; Gomez-de Quero, Pedro; Guffon, Nathalie; Hofstede, Floris C; Kalkan-Ucar, Sema; Coker, Mahmut; Lama-More, Rosa; Martinez-Pardo Casanova, Mercedes; Molina, Agustin; Pichard, Samia; Papadia, Francesco; Rosello, Patricia; Plisson, Celine; Le Mouhaer, Jeannie; Chakrapani, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Isovaleric aciduria (IVA), propionic aciduria (PA) and methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) are inherited organic acidurias (OAs) in which impaired organic acid metabolism induces hyperammonaemia arising partly from secondary deficiency of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) synthase. Rapid reduction in

  8. Risks and Benefits of Rapid Clozapine Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhead, Jeannie D; Nelson, Michele A; Schneider, Alan L

    2016-05-18

    Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  9. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  10. Risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannie D. Lochhead

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  11. Recursions of Symmetry Orbits and Reduction without Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Malykh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider a four-dimensional PDE possessing partner symmetries mainly on the example of complex Monge-Ampère equation (CMA. We use simultaneously two pairs of symmetries related by a recursion relation, which are mutually complex conjugate for CMA. For both pairs of partner symmetries, using Lie equations, we introduce explicitly group parameters as additional variables, replacing symmetry characteristics and their complex conjugates by derivatives of the unknown with respect to group parameters. We study the resulting system of six equations in the eight-dimensional space, that includes CMA, four equations of the recursion between partner symmetries and one integrability condition of this system. We use point symmetries of this extended system for performing its symmetry reduction with respect to group parameters that facilitates solving the extended system. This procedure does not imply a reduction in the number of physical variables and hence we end up with orbits of non-invariant solutions of CMA, generated by one partner symmetry, not used in the reduction. These solutions are determined by six linear equations with constant coefficients in the five-dimensional space which are obtained by a three-dimensional Legendre transformation of the reduced extended system. We present algebraic and exponential examples of such solutions that govern Legendre-transformed Ricci-flat Kähler metrics with no Killing vectors. A similar procedure is briefly outlined for Husain equation.

  12. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by fasted and fed human gastric fluid. I. Chemical reduction and mitigation of mutagenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Flora, Silvio, E-mail: sdf@unige.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Camoirano, Anna, E-mail: Anna.Fiorenza.Camoirano@unige.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Micale, Rosanna T., E-mail: rosannamicale@yahoo.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa (Italy); La Maestra, Sebastiano, E-mail: lamaestra78@yahoo.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Savarino, Vincenzo, E-mail: vsavarin@unige.it [Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Zentilin, Patrizia, E-mail: Patrizia.Zentilin@unige.it [Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Marabotto, Elisa, E-mail: emarabotto@libero.it [Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Suh, Mina, E-mail: msuh@toxstrategies.com [ToxStrategies, Mission Viejo, CA 92692 (United States); Proctor, Deborah M., E-mail: dproctor@toxstrategies.com [ToxStrategies, Mission Viejo, CA 92692 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of the reducing capacity of human gastric fluid from healthy individuals, under fasted and fed conditions, is critical for assessing the cancer hazard posed by ingested hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and for developing quantitative physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models used in risk assessment. In the present study, the patterns of Cr(VI) reduction were evaluated in 16 paired pre- and post-meal gastric fluid samples collected from 8 healthy volunteers. Human gastric fluid was effective both in reducing Cr(VI), as measured by using the s-diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method, and in attenuating mutagenicity in the Ames test. The mean (± SE) Cr(VI)-reducing ability of post-meal samples (20.4 ± 2.6 μg Cr(VI)/mL gastric fluid) was significantly higher than that of pre-meal samples (10.2 ± 2.3 μg Cr(VI)/mL gastric fluid). When using the mutagenicity assay, the decrease of mutagenicity produced by pre-meal and post-meal samples corresponded to reduction of 13.3 ± 1.9 and 25.6 ± 2.8 μg Cr(VI)/mL gastric fluid, respectively. These data are comparable to parallel results conducted by using speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Cr(VI) reduction was rapid, with > 70% of total reduction occurring within 1 min and 98% of reduction is achieved within 30 min with post-meal gastric fluid at pH 2.0. pH dependence was observed with decreasing Cr(VI) reducing capacity at higher pH. Attenuation of the mutagenic response is consistent with the lack of DNA damage observed in the gastrointestinal tract of rodents following administration of ≤ 180 ppm Cr(VI) for up to 90 days in drinking water. Quantifying Cr(VI) reduction kinetics in the human gastrointestinal tract is necessary for assessing the potential hazards posed by Cr(VI) in drinking water. - Highlights: • Cr(VI) reduction capacity was greater in post-meal than paired pre-meal samples. • Cr(VI) reduction was rapid, pH dependent, and due to heat stable components. • Gastric fluid attenuates

  13. Degeneration of rapid eye movement sleep circuitry underlies rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John

    2017-05-01

    During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and

  14. A scoping review of rapid review methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Antony, Jesmin; Zarin, Wasifa; Strifler, Lisa; Ghassemi, Marco; Ivory, John; Perrier, Laure; Hutton, Brian; Moher, David; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-09-16

    Rapid reviews are a form of knowledge synthesis in which components of the systematic review process are simplified or omitted to produce information in a timely manner. Although numerous centers are conducting rapid reviews internationally, few studies have examined the methodological characteristics of rapid reviews. We aimed to examine articles, books, and reports that evaluated, compared, used or described rapid reviews or methods through a scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, internet websites of rapid review producers, and reference lists were searched to identify articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened literature search results and abstracted data from included studies. Descriptive analysis was conducted. We included 100 articles plus one companion report that were published between 1997 and 2013. The studies were categorized as 84 application papers, seven development papers, six impact papers, and four comparison papers (one was included in two categories). The rapid reviews were conducted between 1 and 12 months, predominantly in Europe (58 %) and North America (20 %). The included studies failed to report 6 % to 73 % of the specific systematic review steps examined. Fifty unique rapid review methods were identified; 16 methods occurred more than once. Streamlined methods that were used in the 82 rapid reviews included limiting the literature search to published literature (24 %) or one database (2 %), limiting inclusion criteria by date (68 %) or language (49 %), having one person screen and another verify or screen excluded studies (6 %), having one person abstract data and another verify (23 %), not conducting risk of bias/quality appraisal (7 %) or having only one reviewer conduct the quality appraisal (7 %), and presenting results as a narrative summary (78 %). Four case studies were identified that compared the results of rapid reviews to systematic reviews. Three studies found that the conclusions between

  15. Economic analyses of rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, N

    1989-01-01

    "Discussion of the macroeconomic consequences of rapid population growth is organized into three schools: pessimists, optimists, and the recent revisionists. For the revisionists, differing views are presented about the pervasiveness and relevance of market failures, such as the negative externalities of childbearing, and about the ability of families and institutions to adjust rapidly to changes brought on by rapid population growth. A welfare economics approach is used to review the merits of various public policies to reduce fertility, including public financing of family planning services and taxes and incentives associated with childbearing." The focus is on developing countries. excerpt

  16. Cation distributions on rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The cation distributions in two rapidly solidified cobalt ferrites have been determined using Moessbauer spectroscopy at 4.2 K in an 8-T magnetic field. The samples were obtained by gas atomization of a Co0-Fe2O3-P2O5 melt. The degree of cation disorder in both cases was greater than is obtainable by cooling unmelted cobalt ferrite. The more rapidly cooled sample exhibited a smaller departure from the equilibrium cation distribution than did the more slowly cooled sample. This result is explained on the basis of two competing effects of rapid solidification: high cooling rate of the solid, and large undercooling.

  17. [Rapid prototyping: a very promising method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverman, T M; Karagozoglu, K H; Prins, H-J; Schulten, E A J M; Forouzanfar, T

    2013-03-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization, laminated object manufacturing, three-dimensional printing, three-dimensional plotting, polyjet inkjet technology,fused deposition modelling, vacuum casting and milling. The various methods currently being used in the biomedical sector differ in production, materials and properties of the three-dimensional model which is produced. Rapid prototyping is mainly usedforpreoperative planning, simulation, education, and research into and development of bioengineering possibilities.

  18. Pathogen reduction of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Bjarte G

    2008-08-01

    Thanks to many blood safety interventions introduced in developed countries the risk of transfusion transmitted infections has become exceedingly small in these countries. However, emerging pathogens still represent a serious challenge, as demonstrated by West Nile virus in the US and more recently by Chikungunya virus in the Indian Ocean. In addition bacterial contamination, particularly in platelets, and protozoa transmitted by blood components still represent sizeable risks in developed countries. In developing countries the risk of all transfusion transmitted infections is still high due to insufficient funding and organisation of the health service. Pathogen reduction of pooled plasma products has virtually eliminated the risk of transfusion transmitted infections, without compromising the quality of the products significantly. Pathogen reduction of blood components has been much more challenging. Solvent detergent treatment which has been so successfully applied for plasma products dissolves cell membranes, and can, therefore, only be applied for plasma and not for cellular blood components. Targeting of nucleic acids has been another method for pathogen inactivation of plasma and the only approach possible for cellular blood products. As documented in more than 15 year's track record, solvent detergent treatment of pooled plasma can yield high quality plasma. The increased risk for contamination by unknown viruses due to pooling is out weighed by elimination of TRALI, significant reduction in allergic reactions and standardisation of the product. Recently, a promising method for solvent detergent treatment of single donor plasma units has been published. Methylene blue light treatment of single donor plasma units has a similar long track record as pooled solvent detergent treated plasma; but the method is less well documented and affects coagulation factor activity more. Psoralen light treated plasma has only recently been introduced (CE marked in Europe

  19. SELECTION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REDUCTANTS FOR SRAT PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.; Pickenheim, B.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-30

    Defense Waste Processing Facility - Engineering (DWPF-E) has requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform scoping evaluations of alternative flowsheets with the primary focus on alternatives to formic acid during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The reductants shown below were selected for testing during the evaluation of alternative reductants for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing. The reductants fall into two general categories: reducing acids and non-acidic reducing agents. Reducing acids were selected as direct replacements for formic acid to reduce mercury in the SRAT, to acidify the sludge, and to balance the melter REDuction/OXidation potential (REDOX). Non-acidic reductants were selected as melter reductants and would not be able to reduce mercury in the SRAT. Sugar was not tested during this scoping evaluation as previous work has already been conducted on the use of sugar with DWPF feeds. Based on the testing performed, the only viable short-term path to mitigating hydrogen generation in the CPC is replacement of formic acid with a mixture of glycolic and formic acids. An experiment using glycolic acid blended with formic on an 80:20 molar basis was able to reduce mercury, while also targeting a predicted REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) of 0.2 expressed as Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe. Based on this result, SRNL recommends performing a complete CPC demonstration of the glycolic/formic acid flowsheet followed by a design basis development and documentation. Of the options tested recently and in the past, nitric/glycolic/formic blended acids has the potential for near term implementation in the existing CPC equipment providing rapid throughput improvement. Use of a non-acidic reductant is recommended only if the processing constraints to remove mercury and acidify the sludge acidification are eliminated. The non-acidic reductants (e.g. sugar) will not reduce mercury during CPC processing and sludge acidification would

  20. Mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2002-01-01

    The mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide with iron was induced in a Fritsch P-6 planetary mill, using WC vial filled with argon and WC balls. Samples milled for specific intervals were analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Most of the reaction takes place during the first 10 min...... of milling and only FeS and Cu are found after 60 min. The main chemical process is accompanied by phase transformations of the sulfide phases as a result of milling. Djurleite partially transformed to chalcocite and a tetragonal copper sulfide phase before reduction. The cubic modification of FeS was formed...... first, transforming to hexagonal during the later stages of the process. The formation of off-stoichiometric phases and the release of some elemental sulfur by copper sulfide are also probable....

  1. Random walks on reductive groups

    CERN Document Server

    Benoist, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The classical theory of Random Walks describes the asymptotic behavior of sums of independent identically distributed random real variables. This book explains the generalization of this theory to products of independent identically distributed random matrices with real coefficients. Under the assumption that the action of the matrices is semisimple – or, equivalently, that the Zariski closure of the group generated by these matrices is reductive - and under suitable moment assumptions, it is shown that the norm of the products of such random matrices satisfies a number of classical probabilistic laws. This book includes necessary background on the theory of reductive algebraic groups, probability theory and operator theory, thereby providing a modern introduction to the topic.

  2. Reduction of LNG FOB cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ichizo; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi

    1997-01-01

    To achieve a competitive LNG price for the consumers against other energy sources, reduction of LNG FOB (Free on Board) cost i.e. LNG cost at LNG ship flange, will be the key item. It is necessary to perform a many optimization studies (or value engineering) for each stage of the LNG project. These stages are: Feasibility study; Conceptual design - FEED (Front End Engineering and Design); EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction); Operation and maintenance. Since the LNG plant forms one part of the LNG chain, starting from gas production to LNG receiving, and requires several billion US dollar of investment, the consequences of a plant shut down on the LNG chain are clear, it is, therefore, important to get high availability which will also contribute the reduction of LNG FOB cost. (au) 25 refs

  3. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing on...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  4. An alternative dimensional reduction prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelstein, J.D.; Giambiagi, J.J.; Nunez, C.; Schaposnik, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    We propose an alternative dimensional reduction prescription which in respect with Green functions corresponds to drop the extra spatial coordinate. From this, we construct the dimensionally reduced Lagrangians both for scalars and fermions, discussing bosonization and supersymmetry in the particular 2-dimensional case. We argue that our proposal is in some situations more physical in the sense that it maintains the form of the interactions between particles thus preserving the dynamics corresponding to the higher dimensional space. (author). 12 refs

  5. Precipitation-Static-Reduction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-03-31

    if» 85 z \\ PRECIPITATION-STATIC-REDUCTION RESEARCH study of the effects of flame length , flame spacing, and burner spacing on B shows that there...unod: Flame length *. The visual length of the flame from the burner tip to the flame tip when examined in a darkened room against a black background...Postlve and Negative Flames The use of the second flame-conduction coefficient, B, facilitates considerably the study of the effect of flame length , spacing

  6. CO2 reduction by dematerialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkert, M.P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2002-04-01

    Current policy for the reduction of greenhouse gases is mainly concerned with a number of types of solutions: energy saving, shifting to the use of low-carbon fuels and the implementation of sustainable energy technologies. Recent research has shown that a strategy directed at a more efficient use of materials could make a considerable contribution to reducing CO2 emissions. Moreover, the costs to society as a whole of such a measure appear to be very low.

  7. Asymmetry Reduction Theory of FDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first briefly introduce Moon & Roehl’s (1993, 2001) imbalance theory of FDI, then I identify its three deficiencies that may be responsible for the relative lack of impact of the potentially powerful imbalance logic, and then I propose an asymmetry reduction theory (ARC) of FDI...... and explain its aspiration-resource-control (ARC) framework. I conclude the paper with a brief discussion of the OLI framework being a special case of the ARC framework....

  8. Dimensional reduction in anomaly mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyda, Ed; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierce, Aaron

    2002-01-01

    We offer a guide to dimensional reduction in theories with anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Evanescent operators proportional to ε arise in the bare Lagrangian when it is reduced from d=4 to d=4-2ε dimensions. In the course of a detailed diagrammatic calculation, we show that inclusion of these operators is crucial. The evanescent operators conspire to drive the supersymmetry-breaking parameters along anomaly-mediation trajectories across heavy particle thresholds, guaranteeing the ultraviolet insensitivity

  9. Reduction of mesqa improvement costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Saad ElFetyany

    2017-10-01

    Results show that using the revised approach brings down the cost of mesqa improvement from nearly 10,000LE/fed at present to about 6000LE/fed. These reductions based on the analyses of different mesqa modelling through the adoption of certain parameters such as feasibility of the revised design, effective application of continuous flow for water distribution, and downsizing of the capacity of improved mesqas.

  10. Exposure reduction in panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapa, S.F.; Platin, E.

    1990-01-01

    Increased receptor speed in panoramic radiography is useful in reducing patient exposure if it doesn't substantially decrease the diagnostic quality of the resultant image. In a laboratory investigation four rare earth screen/film combinations were evaluated ranging in relative speed from 400 to 1200. The results indicated that an exposure reduction of approximately 15 percent can be achieved by substituting a 1200 speed system for a 400 speed system without significantly affecting the diagnostic quality of the image

  11. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  12. Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid nucleic acid-based detector for spaceflight water systems to enable simultaneous quantification of multiple...

  13. simple and rapid spectrophotometric assay of levocetirizine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Simple, rapid, selective and fairly sensitive method is described for the ... Determination of small amounts of LCTZ in pharmaceutical preparations is important for .... sodium hydroxide and extraction of HCl-free-amine into chloroform followed ...

  14. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  15. The Rapid Perceptual Impact of Emotional Distractors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana L Kennedy

    Full Text Available The brief presentation of an emotional distractor can temporarily impair perception of a subsequent, rapidly presented target, an effect known as emotion-induced blindness (EIB. How rapidly does this impairment unfold? To probe this question, we examined EIB for targets that immediately succeeded ("lag-1" emotional distractors in a rapid stream of items relative to EIB for targets at later serial positions. Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that emotional distractors interfere with items presented very soon after them, with impaired target perception emerging as early as lag-1. Experiment 3 included an exploratory examination of individual differences, which suggested that EIB onsets more rapidly among participants scoring high in measures linked to negative affect.

  16. Mars Sample Return Orbiter Rapid Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, A.; Johnson, M.; Stroud, C.

    2018-04-01

    An overview of rapid systems analysis (mass, risk, and schedule) on 1000s of MSRO configurations to understand key technologies and feasible options. Can we generate enough power? Can we aerobrake in time? Are some technology elements just too risky?

  17. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  18. A Rapid Coliform Detector, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E-coli with minimal...

  19. Lung volume reduction for emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pallav L; Herth, Felix J; van Geffen, Wouter H; Deslee, Gaetan; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2017-02-01

    Advanced emphysema is a lung disease in which alveolar capillary units are destroyed and supporting tissue is lost. The combined effect of reduced gas exchange and changes in airway dynamics impairs expiratory airflow and leads to progressive air trapping. Pharmacological therapies have limited effects. Surgical resection of the most destroyed sections of the lung can improve pulmonary function and exercise capacity but its benefit is tempered by significant morbidity. This issue stimulated a search for novel approaches to lung volume reduction. Alternative minimally invasive approaches using bronchoscopic techniques including valves, coils, vapour thermal ablation, and sclerosant agents have been at the forefront of these developments. Insertion of endobronchial valves in selected patients could have benefits that are comparable with lung volume reduction surgery. Endobronchial coils might have a role in the treatment of patients with emphysema with severe hyperinflation and less parenchymal destruction. Use of vapour thermal energy or a sclerosant might allow focal treatment but the unpredictability of the inflammatory response limits their current use. In this Review, we aim to summarise clinical trial evidence on lung volume reduction and provide guidance on patient selection for available therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Applications of the reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, W.

    1987-01-01

    A renoramalizable model of quantum field theory involving several independent coupling parameters, λ 0 , ..., λ n and a normalization mass K is considered. If the model involves massive particles a formulation of the renormalization group should be used in which the β-functions are independent of the masses. The aim of the reduction method is to reduce the model to a description in terms of a single coupling parameter. Although the reduction method does not work for the gauge couplings it leads to reasonable mass constraints if applied to the Yukawa and the Higgs couplings. The underlying idea is that - whatever the fundamental interaction if going to be - eventually there is only one coupling which determines all parameters of the standard model. However, one should be skeptical about numerical results in the standard model. For the standard model is only an effective theory, its β-functions are only approximate and change on their lowest order coefficients may have large effects on the reduction solutions

  1. Results Evaluation in Reduction Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arima, Lisandra Megumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Final results evaluation after rhinoplasty is a not a topic widely studied from the patient's viewpoint. Objective:Evaluate the satisfaction of the patients submitted to reduction rhinoplasty, from the questionnaire Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (ROE. Method: Longitudinal study, retrospective cut type, of the preoperative and postoperative satisfaction. The sample was composed by 28 patients who were submitted to rhinoplasty and answered the ROE questionnaire. Three variables were obtained: satisfaction note that the patient had with his/her image before the surgery; note of satisfaction with the current appearance; the difference of the average satisfaction notes between postoperative and preoperative approaches. Results: The postoperative note was higher than the preoperative in all patients. We noticed a difference between the average of the postoperative and preoperative of 48.3 (p75 considered to be an excellent outcome (67.9%. Conclusions: The ROE questionnaire is a helpful tool to show the satisfaction of the patient submitted to reduction rhinoplasty. About 92% of the patients submitted to reduction rhinoplasty consider the postoperative result to be good or excellent.

  2. Rapid nitrous oxide cycling in the suboxic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbin, Andrew R.; Bianchi, Daniele; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B.

    2015-06-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a major cause of stratospheric ozone depletion, yet its sources and sinks remain poorly quantified in the oceans. We used isotope tracers to directly measure N2O reduction rates in the eastern tropical North Pacific. Because of incomplete denitrification, N2O cycling rates are an order of magnitude higher than predicted by current models in suboxic regions, and the spatial distribution suggests strong dependence on both organic carbon and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Furthermore, N2O turnover is 20 times higher than the net atmospheric efflux. The rapid rate of this cycling coupled to an expected expansion of suboxic ocean waters implies future increases in N2O emissions.

  3. Rapid charging of thermal energy storage materials through plasmonic heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tao, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hao; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Song, Chengyi; Chen, Zhaoping; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-09-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with volumetric ppm level of filler concentration demonstrated a faster heating rate, a higher heating temperature and a larger heating area than the conventional thermal diffusion based approach. With controlled dispersion, we further demonstrated that the light-to-heat conversion and thermal storage properties of the plasmonic nanocomposites can be fine-tuned by engineering the composition of the nanocomposites.

  4. Exploring data with RapidMiner

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial style using examples so that users of different levels will benefit from the facilities offered by RapidMiner.If you are a computer scientist or an engineer who has real data from which you want to extract value, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have at least a basic awareness of data mining techniques and some exposure to RapidMiner.

  5. Clan structure analysis and rapidity gap probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupia, S.; Giovannini, A.; Ugoccioni, R.

    1995-01-01

    Clan structure analysis in rapidity intervals is generalized from negative binomial multiplicity distribution to the wide class of compound Poisson distributions. The link of generalized clan structure analysis with correlation functions is also established. These theoretical results are then applied to minimum bias events and evidentiate new interesting features, which can be inspiring and useful in order to discuss data on rapidity gap probability at TEVATRON and HERA. (orig.)

  6. Clan structure analysis and rapidity gap probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupia, S. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Giovannini, A. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Ugoccioni, R. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    Clan structure analysis in rapidity intervals is generalized from negative binomial multiplicity distribution to the wide class of compound Poisson distributions. The link of generalized clan structure analysis with correlation functions is also established. These theoretical results are then applied to minimum bias events and evidentiate new interesting features, which can be inspiring and useful in order to discuss data on rapidity gap probability at TEVATRON and HERA. (orig.)

  7. Characterization of aluminium alloys rapidly solidified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discussed the investigation of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the aluminium alloys (3003; 7050; Al-9% Mg) rapidly solidified by melt spinning process (cooling rate 10 4 - 10 6 K/s). The rapidly solidification process of the studied aluminium alloys brought a microcrystallinity, a minimum presence of coarse precipitation and, also, better mechanical properties of them comparing to the same alloys using ingot process. (author) [pt

  8. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  9. Rapid modification of retroviruses using lipid conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Nimisha G; Le Doux, Joseph M; Andrew Lyon, L

    2009-01-01

    Methods are needed to manipulate natural nanoparticles. Viruses are particularly interesting because they can act as therapeutic cellular delivery agents. Here we examine a new method for rapidly modifying retroviruses that uses lipid conjugates composed of a lipid anchor (1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine), a polyethylene glycol chain, and biotin. The conjugates rapidly and stably modified retroviruses and enabled them to bind streptavidin. The implication of this work for modifying viruses for gene therapy and vaccination protocols is discussed.

  10. Review on CNC-Rapid Prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Nafis O Z; Nafrizuan M Y; Munira M A; Kartina J

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed developments of Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology in rapid prototyping process. Rapid prototyping (RP) can be classified into three major groups; subtractive, additive and virtual. CNC rapid prototyping is grouped under the subtractive category which involves material removal from the workpiece that is larger than the final part. Richard Wysk established the use of CNC machines for rapid prototyping using sets of 2½-D tool paths from various orientations about a rotary axis to machine parts without refixturing. Since then, there are few developments on this process mainly aimed to optimized the operation and increase the process capabilities to stand equal with common additive type of RP. These developments include the integration between machining and deposition process (hybrid RP), adoption of RP to the conventional machine and optimization of the CNC rapid prototyping process based on controlled parameters. The article ended by concluding that the CNC rapid prototyping research area has a vast space for improvement as in the conventional machining processes. Further developments and findings will enhance the usage of this method and minimize the limitation of current approach in building a prototype.

  11. Practical methods of dose reduction to the bladder wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.M.; Warner, G.G.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation dose to the bladder wall following the administration of radionuclides to patients can be reduced by a factor between 25 percent and 75 percent when the effective half-life for the radioactivity entering the urine is two hours or less. A significant but smaller reduction in dose to the gonads may also be achieved in situations where the major fraction of the administered activity is rapidly excreted in the urine. This reduction in dose is achieved by ensuring that the patient has between 50 and 150 ml of urine in his bladder when the radioactivity is injected, and is encouraged to void between one and two hours after the activity has been administered. The interrelationship of voiding schedule, effective half-life, initial urine volume, and demand urination has been analyzed in these studies. In addition, the significance of the rate of urine production and volume of urine in the bladder on the radiation dose to the bladder is demonstrated

  12. Automated multispectra alpha spectrometer and data reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1975-12-01

    A complete hardware and software package for the accumulation and rapid analysis of multiple alpha pulse height spectra has been developed. The system utilizes a 4096-channel analyzer capable of accepting up to sixteen inputs from solid-state surface barrier detectors via mixer-router modules. The analyzer is interfaced to a desk-top programmable calculator and thermal line printer. A chained software package including spectrum printout, peak analysis, plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 data reduction, and automatic energy calibration routines was written. With the chained program a complete printout, peak analysis, and plutonium data reduction of a 512-channel alpha spectrum are obtained in about three minutes with an accuracy within five percent of hand analyses

  13. Inhibition of bacterial U(VI) reduction by calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Scott C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Carroll, S. L.; Kennedy, David W.; Zachara, John M.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Kelly, S. D.; Kemner, K. M.; Fendorf, S.

    2003-01-01

    The rapid kinetics of bacterial U(VI) reduction and low solubility of uraninite (UO2,cr) make this process an attractive option for removing uranium from groundwater. Nevertheless, conditions that may promote or inhibit U(VI) reduction are not well-defined. Recent descriptions of Ca-UO2-CO3 complexes indicate that these species may dominate the aqueous speciation of U(VI) in many environments. We monitored the bacterial reduction of U(VI) in bicarbonate-buffered solution in the presence and absence of Ca. XAFS measurements confirmed the presence of a Ca-U(VI)-CO3 complex in the initial solutions containing calcium. Calcium, at millimolar concentrations (0.45-5 mM), caused a significant decrease in the rate and extent of bacterial U(VI) reduction. Both facultative (Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN32) and obligate (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Geobacter sulfurreducens) anaerobic bacteria were affected by the presence of calcium. Reduction of U(VI) ceased when the calculated system Eh re ached -0.046+/- 0.001 V, based on the Ca2UO2(CO3)(3) -- > UO2,cr couple. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that U is a less energetically favorable electron acceptor when the Ca-UO2-CO3 complexes are present. The results do not support Ca inhibition caused by direct interactions with the cells or with the electron donor as the reduction of fumarate or Tc(VII)O-4(-) under identical conditions was unaffected by the presence of Ca

  14. Aerojet Energy Conversion Company mobile volume reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past few years, rapidly increasing costs for the disposal of low level radioactive waste (LLW) have generated the need for utilities to volume-reduce their LLW prior to shipment and burial. Incineration systems have been selected by several utilities to fulfill this need for maximum volume reduction. Until recently, all of the incineration systems selected by utilities were designed to be housed and operated in a facility erected by the utility. Now, however, lack of capital and rising design/erection costs are causing utilities to reevaluate their plans for purchasing incineration systems to process their LLW. The result is a growing demand for incineration services. Once again, Commonwealth Edison Company (Com-Ed) is leading the industry with an ongoing program to utilize incineration services provided by Aerojet Energy Conversion Company (AECC) for the Dresden Quad Cities, LaSalle, and Zion Nuclear Stations. At the stations, combustible dry active waste and contaminated oil will be processed in a Mobile Volume Reduction System (MVRS) designed and fabricated by AECC. The MVRS is a totally self-contained system consisting of a controlled-air incinerator and a liquid offgas cleanup system. No buildings are required to house the system, and the MVRS achieves volume reduction factors similar to systems currently available for permanent in-plant installation. The result is an option for the utility having the benefits of volume reduction without the capital commitment normally required by the utility

  15. Microfluidic platform for studying the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Devin Talmage

    Diminishing supplies of conventional energy sources and growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions present significant challenges to supplying the world's rapidly increasing demand for energy. The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide has the potential to address many of these issues by providing a means of storing electricity in chemical form. Storing electrical energy as chemicals is beneficial for leveling the output of clean, but intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. Electrical energy stored as chemicals can also be used as carbon neutral fuels for portable applications allowing petroleum derived fuels in the transportation sector to be replaced by more environmentally friendly energy sources. However, to be a viable technology, the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide needs to have both high current densities and energetic efficiencies (Chapter 1). Although many researchers have studied the electrochemical reduction of CO2 including parameters such as catalysts, electrolytes and temperature, further investigation is needed to improve the understanding of this process and optimize the performance (Chapter 2). This dissertation reports the development and validation of a microfluidic reactor for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 (Chapter 3). The design uses a flowing liquid electrolyte instead of the typical polymer electrolyte membrane. In addition to other benefits, this flowing electrolyte gives the reactor great flexibility, allowing independent analysis of each electrode and the testing of a wide variety of conditions. In this work, the microfluidic reactor has been used in the following areas: • Comparison of different metal catalysts for the reduction of CO2 to formic acid and carbon monoxide (Chapter 4). • Investigation of the effects of the electrolyte pH on the reduction of CO2 to formic acid and carbon monoxide (Chapter 5). • Study of amine based electrolytes for lowering the overpotentials for CO2

  16. Profile of emissions reduction options in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetken, S.E.; Bertule, M.; Ipsen Hansen, J.; Karavai, M.; Sandbukt, S.; Staun, F.; Wieben, E.

    2013-06-15

    A second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol has just started. International climate negotiations consistently keep new market based approaches on the agenda. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions are rapidly rising as a new signature concept for a future climate treaty. In response to this momentum, many countries still find themselves in search of concrete emissions reduction options. UNEP Risoe, with the support of the UNFCCC Secretariat and the ACP-MEA Programme, has decided to assess the emissions reduction potential in 15 diverse countries. While most of these countries are not seen as obvious targets for emissions reduction activities, they are nevertheless likely to be involved in some form of future emissions reduction. Consequently, 15 country reports have been developed, from which this synthesis report gathers the main messages. The overall assessments of the potential emissions reduction in the 15 countries are presented. Sector details have been presented throughout the text, allowing an accumulation of overviews of the potentials in the 15 countries distributed across the 7 sectors of the economy around which the country reports have been structured. It is evident that the emissions reduction potential by far exceeds the current emissions reported by the UN, following calculations from the United States Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The reason for this is that these figures do not include the indirect emissions caused by current deforestation levels, as presented in the agro and forestry sections of the country reports. The intention behind including these figures is to illustrate that compared to these indirect emissions, almost any emissions reduction initiative, whether CDM or not - even those that may yield hundreds of thousands of tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents - are dwarfed by the main cause of emissions in these countries: deforestation. This source of emissions should be addressed with

  17. Strain expansion-reduction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqersad, Javad; Bharadwaj, Kedar

    2018-02-01

    Validating numerical models are one of the main aspects of engineering design. However, correlating million degrees of freedom of numerical models to the few degrees of freedom of test models is challenging. Reduction/expansion approaches have been traditionally used to match these degrees of freedom. However, the conventional reduction/expansion approaches are only limited to displacement, velocity or acceleration data. While in many cases only strain data are accessible (e.g. when a structure is monitored using strain-gages), the conventional approaches are not capable of expanding strain data. To bridge this gap, the current paper outlines a reduction/expansion technique to reduce/expand strain data. In the proposed approach, strain mode shapes of a structure are extracted using the finite element method or the digital image correlation technique. The strain mode shapes are used to generate a transformation matrix that can expand the limited set of measurement data. The proposed approach can be used to correlate experimental and analytical strain data. Furthermore, the proposed technique can be used to expand real-time operating data for structural health monitoring (SHM). In order to verify the accuracy of the approach, the proposed technique was used to expand the limited set of real-time operating data in a numerical model of a cantilever beam subjected to various types of excitations. The proposed technique was also applied to expand real-time operating data measured using a few strain gages mounted to an aluminum beam. It was shown that the proposed approach can effectively expand the strain data at limited locations to accurately predict the strain at locations where no sensors were placed.

  18. Rapid prototyping of energy management charging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciulavu, Oana [Hella Electronics Romania, Timisoara (Romania); Starkmuth, Timo; Jesolowitz, Reinhard [Hella KGaA Hueck und Co., Lippstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an approach to develop charging strategies to support a vehicle energy management aiming for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and decreased fuel consumption by using the Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) environment. (orig.)

  19. Memory Reduction via Delayed Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Holtmann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We address a central (and classical issue in the theory of infinite games: the reduction of the memory size that is needed to implement winning strategies in regular infinite games (i.e., controllers that ensure correct behavior against actions of the environment, when the specification is a regular omega-language. We propose an approach which attacks this problem before the construction of a strategy, by first reducing the game graph that is obtained from the specification. For the cases of specifications represented by "request-response"-requirements and general "fairness" conditions, we show that an exponential gain in the size of memory is possible.

  20. Model reduction for circuit simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hinze, Michael; Maten, E Jan W Ter

    2011-01-01

    Simulation based on mathematical models plays a major role in computer aided design of integrated circuits (ICs). Decreasing structure sizes, increasing packing densities and driving frequencies require the use of refined mathematical models, and to take into account secondary, parasitic effects. This leads to very high dimensional problems which nowadays require simulation times too large for the short time-to-market demands in industry. Modern Model Order Reduction (MOR) techniques present a way out of this dilemma in providing surrogate models which keep the main characteristics of the devi

  1. Mechanisms and Reduction in Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Marie

    2017-01-01

    example of this kind of reorientation can be seen in the recent introduction of the Research Domain Criteria project (RDoC) by the U.S National Institute of Mental Health. The RDoC project is an attempt to introduce a new classification system based on brain circuits. The central idea behind the project...... factors to be found at the biological level. However, it is precisely such multilevel models that are necessary for progress in this fundamentally interdisciplinary science. This paper analyses the reductive nature of the RDoC project and investigates the potential for an interventionist account...

  2. Climate Change and Poverty Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Simon

    2011-08-15

    Climate change will make it increasingly difficult to achieve and sustain development goals. This is largely because climate effects on poverty remain poorly understood, and poverty reduction strategies do not adequately support climate resilience. Ensuring effective development in the face of climate change requires action on six fronts: investing in a stronger climate and poverty evidence base; applying the learning about development effectiveness to how we address adaptation needs; supporting nationally derived, integrated policies and programmes; including the climate-vulnerable poor in developing strategies; and identifying how mitigation strategies can also reduce poverty and enable adaptation.

  3. Cohomological reduction of sigma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candu, Constantin; Mitev, Vladimir; Schomerus, Volker [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Creutzig, Thomas [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2010-01-15

    This article studies some features of quantum field theories with internal supersymmetry, focusing mainly on 2-dimensional non-linear sigma models which take values in a coset superspace. It is discussed how BRST operators from the target space super- symmetry algebra can be used to identify subsectors which are often simpler than the original model and may allow for an explicit computation of correlation functions. After an extensive discussion of the general reduction scheme, we present a number of interesting examples, including symmetric superspaces G/G{sup Z{sub 2}} and coset superspaces of the form G/G{sup Z{sub 4}}. (orig.)

  4. Poor trends - The pace of poverty reduction after the Millennium Development Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluhm, R; de Crombrugghe, D.P.I.; Szirmai, A.

    2014-01-01

    We review the origins of the dollar-a-day poverty line, discuss historical poverty and inequality trends, and forecast poverty rates until 2030 using a new fractional response approach. Three findings stand out. First, global poverty reduction since 1981 has been rapid but regional trends are

  5. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2015-04-07

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid-Sequence Serial Sexual Homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Louis B; Ramirez, Stephanie; Tusa, Brittany; Jarvis, John P; Erdberg, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Serial sexual murderers have been described as committing homicides in a methodical manner, taking substantial time between offenses to elude the authorities. The results of our study of the temporal patterns (i.e., the length of time between homicides) of a nonrandom national sample of 44 serial sexual murderers and their 201 victims indicate that this representation may not always be accurate. Although 25 offenders (56.8%) killed with longer than a 14-day period between homicides, a sizeable subgroup was identified: 19 offenders (43.2%) who committed homicides in rapid-sequence fashion, with fewer than 14 days between all or some of the murders. Six offenders (13.6%) killed all their victims in one rapid-sequence, spree-like episode, with homicides just days apart or sometimes two murders in the same day. Thirteen offenders (29.5%) killed in one or two rapid-sequence clusters (i.e., more than one murder within a 14-day period, as well as additional homicides with greater than 14 days between each). The purpose of our study was to describe this subgroup of rapid-sequence offenders who have not been identified until now. These findings argue for accelerated forensic assessments of dangerousness and public safety when a sexual murder is detected. Psychiatric disorders with rapidly occurring symptom patterns, or even atypical mania or mood dysregulation, may serve as exemplars for understanding this extraordinary group of offenders. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  7. An Exponential Regulator for Rapidity Divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ye [Fermilab; Neill, Duff [MIT, Cambridge, CTP; Zhu, Hua Xing [MIT, Cambridge, CTP

    2016-04-01

    Finding an efficient and compelling regularization of soft and collinear degrees of freedom at the same invariant mass scale, but separated in rapidity is a persistent problem in high-energy factorization. In the course of a calculation, one encounters divergences unregulated by dimensional regularization, often called rapidity divergences. Once regulated, a general framework exists for their renormalization, the rapidity renormalization group (RRG), leading to fully resummed calculations of transverse momentum (to the jet axis) sensitive quantities. We examine how this regularization can be implemented via a multi-differential factorization of the soft-collinear phase-space, leading to an (in principle) alternative non-perturbative regularization of rapidity divergences. As an example, we examine the fully-differential factorization of a color singlet's momentum spectrum in a hadron-hadron collision at threshold. We show how this factorization acts as a mother theory to both traditional threshold and transverse momentum resummation, recovering the classical results for both resummations. Examining the refactorization of the transverse momentum beam functions in the threshold region, we show that one can directly calculate the rapidity renormalized function, while shedding light on the structure of joint resummation. Finally, we show how using modern bootstrap techniques, the transverse momentum spectrum is determined by an expansion about the threshold factorization, leading to a viable higher loop scheme for calculating the relevant anomalous dimensions for the transverse momentum spectrum.

  8. Rapid penetration into granular media visualizing the fundamental physics of rapid earth penetration

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magued

    2015-01-01

    Rapid Penetration into Granular Media: Visualizing the Fundamental Physics of Rapid Earth Penetration introduces readers to the variety of methods and techniques used to visualize, observe, and model the rapid penetration of natural and man-made projectiles into earth materials. It provides seasoned practitioners with a standard reference that showcases the topic's most recent developments in research and application. The text compiles the findings of new research developments on the subject, outlines the fundamental physics of rapid penetration into granular media, and assembles a com

  9. Decision making regarding multifetal reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maifeld, Michelle; Hahn, Sandra; Titler, Marita G; Mullen, Meredithe

    2003-01-01

    To identify salient variables that influence decision making regarding multifetal reduction (MFR) and describe their effect on individuals over time. Prospective, exploratory, descriptive design, using qualitative and quantitative methods. Midwestern tertiary care center. A convenience sample of 11 consecutive consenting couples with triplet or higher-order pregnancies who elected to undergo MFR. Semistructured audiotaped telephone interviews at three points: (a) 2 weeks postreduction, (b) 6 weeks postpartum, and (c) 6 months postpartum; a demographic and marital adjustment questionnaire. Themes identified by content analysis and compared via matrix analysis between males and females and at three points in time; trends in marital adjustment. Dominant variables influencing MFR decision making were risks associated with higher-order pregnancies and preservation of infants' and mothers' health. Most participants identified emotional issues, including moral and ethical dilemmas, as the most difficult aspect of reduction. Over time, participants reported feeling more positive about their decision; nonetheless, negative feelings emerged progressively. Risk aversion favored MFR decision making. Yet, both making and living with the decision were emotionally difficult for this sample. Interventions are needed to assist couples with this decision and its consequences.

  10. Chemical model reduction under uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Malpica Galassi, Riccardo

    2017-03-06

    A general strategy for analysis and reduction of uncertain chemical kinetic models is presented, and its utility is illustrated in the context of ignition of hydrocarbon fuel–air mixtures. The strategy is based on a deterministic analysis and reduction method which employs computational singular perturbation analysis to generate simplified kinetic mechanisms, starting from a detailed reference mechanism. We model uncertain quantities in the reference mechanism, namely the Arrhenius rate parameters, as random variables with prescribed uncertainty factors. We propagate this uncertainty to obtain the probability of inclusion of each reaction in the simplified mechanism. We propose probabilistic error measures to compare predictions from the uncertain reference and simplified models, based on the comparison of the uncertain dynamics of the state variables, where the mixture entropy is chosen as progress variable. We employ the construction for the simplification of an uncertain mechanism in an n-butane–air mixture homogeneous ignition case, where a 176-species, 1111-reactions detailed kinetic model for the oxidation of n-butane is used with uncertainty factors assigned to each Arrhenius rate pre-exponential coefficient. This illustration is employed to highlight the utility of the construction, and the performance of a family of simplified models produced depending on chosen thresholds on importance and marginal probabilities of the reactions.

  11. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Quantum noise and stochastic reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, Dorje C; Hughston, Lane P

    2006-01-01

    In standard nonrelativistic quantum mechanics the expectation of the energy is a conserved quantity. It is possible to extend the dynamical law associated with the evolution of a quantum state consistently to include a nonlinear stochastic component, while respecting the conservation law. According to the dynamics thus obtained, referred to as the energy-based stochastic Schroedinger equation, an arbitrary initial state collapses spontaneously to one of the energy eigenstates, thus describing the phenomenon of quantum state reduction. In this paper, two such models are investigated: one that achieves state reduction in infinite time and the other in finite time. The properties of the associated energy expectation process and the energy variance process are worked out in detail. By use of a novel application of a nonlinear filtering method, closed-form solutions-algebraic in character and involving no integration-are obtained of both these models. In each case, the solution is expressed in terms of a random variable representing the terminal energy of the system and an independent noise process. With these solutions at hand it is possible to simulate explicitly the dynamics of the quantum states of complicated physical systems

  13. Reduction of robot base parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandanjon, P O [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes et Systemes Avances; Gautier, M [Nantes Univ., 44 (France)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a new step in the search of minimum dynamic parameters of robots. In spite of planing exciting trajectories and using base parameters, some parameters remain not identifiable due to the perturbation effects. In this paper, we propose methods to reduce the set of base parameters in order to get an essential set of parameters. This new set defines a simplified identification model witch improves the noise immunity of the estimation process. It contributes also in reducing the computation burden of a simplified dynamic model. Different methods are proposed and are classified in two parts: methods, witch perform reduction and identification together, come from statistical field and methods, witch reduces the model before the identification thanks to a priori information, come from numerical field like the QR factorization. Statistical tools and QR reduction are shown to be efficient and adapted to determine the essential parameters. They can be applied to open-loop, or graph structured rigid robot, as well as flexible-link robot. Application for the PUMA 560 robot is given. (authors). 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Concrete waste reduction of 50%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, R.M. de; Van der Wagt, K.M.; Van der Kruk, E.; Meeussen, H.W.

    2016-01-01

    During decommissioning quite a volume of concrete waste is produced. The degree of activation of the waste can range from clearly activated material to slightly activated or contaminated concrete. The degree of activation influences the applicable waste management processes that can be applied. The subsequent waste management processes can be identified for concrete waste are; disposal, segregation, re-use, conditional release and release. With each of these steps, the footprint of radioactive decommissioning waste is reduced. Future developments for concrete waste reduction can be achieved by applying smart materials in new build facilities (i.e. fast decaying materials). NRG (Nuclear Research and consultancy Group) has investigated distinctive waste management processes to reduce the foot-print of concrete waste streams resulting from decommissioning. We have investigated which processes can be applied in the Netherlands, both under current legislation and with small changes in legislation. We have also investigated the separation process in more detail. Pilot tests with a newly patented process have been started in 2015. We expect that our separation methods will reduce the footprint reduction of concrete waste by approximately 50% due to release or re-use in the nuclear sector or in the conventional industry. (authors)

  15. Reduction of robot base parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandanjon, P.O.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a new step in the search of minimum dynamic parameters of robots. In spite of planing exciting trajectories and using base parameters, some parameters remain not identifiable due to the perturbation effects. In this paper, we propose methods to reduce the set of base parameters in order to get an essential set of parameters. This new set defines a simplified identification model witch improves the noise immunity of the estimation process. It contributes also in reducing the computation burden of a simplified dynamic model. Different methods are proposed and are classified in two parts: methods, witch perform reduction and identification together, come from statistical field and methods, witch reduces the model before the identification thanks to a priori information, come from numerical field like the QR factorization. Statistical tools and QR reduction are shown to be efficient and adapted to determine the essential parameters. They can be applied to open-loop, or graph structured rigid robot, as well as flexible-link robot. Application for the PUMA 560 robot is given. (authors). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  16. LDRD report nonlinear model reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, D.; Heinstein, M.

    1997-09-01

    The very general problem of model reduction of nonlinear systems was made tractable by focusing on the very large subclass consisting of linear subsystems connected by nonlinear interfaces. Such problems constitute a large part of the nonlinear structural problems encountered in addressing the Sandia missions. A synthesis approach to this class of problems was developed consisting of: detailed modeling of the interface mechanics; collapsing the interface simulation results into simple nonlinear interface models; constructing system models by assembling model approximations of the linear subsystems and the nonlinear interface models. These system models, though nonlinear, would have very few degrees of freedom. A paradigm problem, that of machine tool vibration, was selected for application of the reduction approach outlined above. Research results achieved along the way as well as the overall modeling of a specific machine tool have been very encouraging. In order to confirm the interface models resulting from simulation, it was necessary to develop techniques to deduce interface mechanics from experimental data collected from the overall nonlinear structure. A program to develop such techniques was also pursued with good success.

  17. From Outermost Reduction Semantics to Abstract Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    to transform a reduction-based normalization function into a reduction-free one where the reduction sequence is not enumerated. This reduction-free normalization function takes the form of an abstract machine that navigates from one redex site to the next without systematically detouring via the root...... of a redex. In this article, we consider such an outermost reduction semantics with backward-overlapping rules, and we investigate how to apply refocusing to still obtain a reduction-free normalization function in the form of an abstract machine....

  18. Rapidity gap survival in enhanced Pomeron scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostapchenko, Sergey [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Moscow State University, D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe-Universitat, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    We apply the phenomenological Reggeon field theory framework to investigate rapidity gap survival (RGS) probability for diffractive dijet production in proton-proton collisions. In particular, we study in some detail rapidity gap suppression due to elastic rescatterings of intermediate partons in the underlying parton cascades, described by enhanced (Pomeron-Pomeron interaction) diagrams. We demonstrate that such contributions play a subdominant role, compared to the usual, so-called ''eikonal'', rapidity gap suppression due to elastic rescatterings of constituent partons of the colliding protons. On the other hand, the overall RGS factor proves to be sensitive to color fluctuations in the proton. Hence, experimental data on diffractive dijet production can be used to constrain the respective model approaches. (orig.)

  19. Rapid Quench in an Electrostatic Levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Matson, Douglas M.

    2016-01-01

    The Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Laboratory at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The ESL laboratory's main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy, as a quench medium. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to eight quench vessels can be loaded into a wheel inside the chamber that is indexed with control software. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and a silicon-cobalt alloy. This new rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and some initial results are presented.

  20. Market Analysis of Soundproof and Noise Reduction Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Heyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the reform and opening up, China has a booming economy development, transportation industry as an important part of the economic processes has made a considerable progress, and continue to promote the rapid economic development. At the end of 2012, China's highway mileage has reached 4.238 million km and highway mileage ranks first in the world. Transportation in promoting rapid economic development, but also brings the traffic noise which has a tremendous influence on residents’ daily life, and this influence has gradually deepening and widening, in this situation the production of noise reduction panel gradually emerged. In this paper, a noise barriers manufacturer’ business model in Beijing Daxing District and analyze existing data will be analyzed, it will give much guidance and reference for a new noise reduction factory. The study has shown that plant will target all levels of government departments in charge of roads and the property of management department of residence as our customer groups, increasing technological innovation and improving product quality to establish a more extensive business relationships, and gradually formed noise barriers market competitiveness.