WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid biochemical tests

  1. An evaluation of the Oxoid Biochemical Identification System Campy rapid screening test for Campylobacteraceae and Helicobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoosain, N; Lastovica, A J

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the Oxoid Biochemical Identification System (OBIS) Campy test (ID0800M) against Campylobacter; Arcobacter; and other micro-organisms, with similar colonial morphology, for the detection of l-alanine aminopeptidase (l-ALA). The KOH and l-ALA (OBIS and Fluka) tests were carried out on every isolate. The procedures were followed as indicated in the OBIS and Fluka kit instructions. A total of 146 strains of 19 species of Campylobacter, seven strains of Arcobacter butzleri, four Arcobacter butzleri-like strains, 42 strains of 10 species of Helicobacter, 96 Gram-negative and 49 Gram-positive clinical isolates were tested. As expected, Campylobacter and Arcobacter strains were negative, while other Gram-negative bacteria were positive for the l-ALA test. An unexpected finding was that Helicobacter strains, although Gram-negative, were all negative for the l-ALA tests suggesting the absence of l-ALA within this genus. This is a novel finding. The absence of l-ALA was confirmed upon comparison with the available full genomic sequences of Helicobacter on the NCBI database. The OBIS Campy (ID0800M) test kit proved to be rapid and accurate for the presumptive characterization of Campylobacter and Arcobacter. A novel finding was that Helicobacter species also did not have the l-ALA enzyme. The OBIS kit will be useful in diagnostic laboratories for the presumptive diagnosis of Campylobacter, Arcobacter and Helicobacter strains.

  2. Biochemical mediator demand--a novel rapid alternative for measuring biochemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, N; Baronian, K; Jeffries, C; Hay, J

    2000-05-01

    The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) test (BOD5) is a crucial environmental index for monitoring organic pollutants in waste water but is limited by the 5-day requirement for completing the test. We have optimised a rapid microbial technique for measuring the BOD of a standard BOD5 substrate (150 mg glucose/l, 150 mg glutamic acid/l) by quantifying an equivalent biochemical mediator demand in the absence of oxygen. Elevated concentrations of Escherichia coli were incubated with an excess of redox mediator, potassium hexacyanoferrate(III), and a known substrate for 1 h at 37 degrees C without oxygen. The addition of substrate increased the respiratory activity of the microorganisms and the accumulation of reduced mediator; the mediator was subsequently re-oxidised at a working electrode generating a current quantifiable by a coulometric transducer. Catabolic conversion efficiencies exceeding 75% were observed for the oxidation of the standard substrate. The inclusion of a mediator allowed a higher co-substrate concentration compared to oxygen and substantially reduced the incubation time from 5 days to 1 h. The technique replicates the traditional BOD5 method, except that a mediator is substituted for oxygen, and we aim to apply the principle to measure the BOD of real waste streams in future work.

  3. Biochemical thermodynamics and rapid-equilibrium enzyme kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberty, Robert A

    2010-12-30

    Biochemical thermodynamics is based on the chemical thermodynamics of aqueous solutions, but it is quite different because pH is used as an independent variable. A transformed Gibbs energy G' is used, and that leads to transformed enthalpies H' and transformed entropies S'. Equilibrium constants for enzyme-catalyzed reactions are referred to as apparent equilibrium constants K' to indicate that they are functions of pH in addition to temperature and ionic strength. Despite this, the most useful way to store basic thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions is to give standard Gibbs energies of formation, standard enthalpies of formation, electric charges, and numbers of hydrogen atoms in species of biochemical reactants like ATP. This makes it possible to calculate standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation, standard transformed enthalpies of formation of reactants (sums of species), and apparent equilibrium constants at desired temperatures, pHs, and ionic strengths. These calculations are complicated, and therefore, a mathematical application in a computer is needed. Rapid-equilibrium enzyme kinetics is based on biochemical thermodynamics because all reactions in the mechanism prior to the rate-determining reaction are at equilibrium. The expression for the equilibrium concentration of the enzyme-substrate complex that yields products can be derived by applying Solve in a computer to the expressions for the equilibrium constants in the mechanism and the conservation equation for enzymatic sites. In 1979, Duggleby pointed out that the minimum number of velocities of enzyme-catalyzed reactions required to estimate the values of the kinetic parameters is equal to the number of kinetic parameters. Solve can be used to do this with steady-state rate equations as well as rapid-equilibrium rate equations, provided that the rate equation is a polynomial. Rapid-equilibrium rate equations can be derived for complicated mechanisms that involve several reactants

  4. Rapid Discrimination Among Putative Mechanistic Models of Biochemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2016-08-31

    An overarching goal in molecular biology is to gain an understanding of the mechanistic basis underlying biochemical systems. Success is critical if we are to predict effectively the outcome of drug treatments and the development of abnormal phenotypes. However, data from most experimental studies is typically noisy and sparse. This allows multiple potential mechanisms to account for experimental observations, and often devising experiments to test each is not feasible. Here, we introduce a novel strategy that discriminates among putative models based on their repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes, without relying on knowledge of specific values for rate constants and binding constants. As an illustration, we apply this strategy to two synthetic gene circuits exhibiting anomalous behaviors. Our results show that the conventional models, based on their well-characterized components, cannot account for the experimental observations. We examine a total of 40 alternative hypotheses and show that only 5 have the potential to reproduce the experimental data, and one can do so with biologically relevant parameter values.

  5. Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: which test is best?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J.W.M.; Pacak, K.; Walther, M.M.; Linehan, W.M.; Mannelli, M.; Friberg, P.; Keiser, H.R.; Goldstein, D.S.; Eisenhofer, G.

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma depends on biochemical evidence of catecholamine production by the tumor. However, the best test to establish the diagnosis has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: To determine the biochemical test or combination of tests that provides the best method for diagnosis

  6. Rapid Testing of Fresh Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    Subsequent determination of the water content of the alcohol extract was possible using the Karl Fischer tltration. The use of such a technique...method Is specified in ASTM C 70 - 772 tor the rapid determination of the surface moisture in fine aggregate. Attempts have also been made to... moisture content, cement type, and length of mixing time on the water content determination ; and the effect of aggregate type and aggregate grading

  7. Rapid testing of pulse transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, J.

    1980-01-01

    Quality-control testing of pulse transformers is speeded up by method for determining rise time and droop. Instead of using oscilloscope and square-wave generator to measure these characteristics directly, method uses voltmeter and sine-wave generator to measure them indirectly in about one-tenth time. Droop and rise time are determined by measuring input/output voltage ratio at just four frequencies.

  8. Biochemical principle of Limulus test for detecting bacterial endotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanaga, Sadaaki

    2007-01-01

    A hemocyte lysate from horseshoe crab (Limulus) produced a gel, when exposed to Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins, lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This gelation reaction of the lysate, so-called Limulus test, has been widely employed as a simple and very sensitive assay method for endotoxins. Recent biochemical studies on the principle of Limulus test indicate that the hemocytes contain several serine protease zymogens, which constitute a coagulation cascade triggered by endotoxins, and that ther...

  9. Biochemical principle of Limulus test for detecting bacterial endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Sadaaki

    2007-05-01

    A hemocyte lysate from horseshoe crab (Limulus) produced a gel, when exposed to Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins, lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This gelation reaction of the lysate, so-called Limulus test, has been widely employed as a simple and very sensitive assay method for endotoxins. Recent biochemical studies on the principle of Limulus test indicate that the hemocytes contain several serine protease zymogens, which constitute a coagulation cascade triggered by endotoxins, and that there is a (1,3)-β-D-glucan-mediated coagulation pathway which also results in the formation of gel. Up to now, six protein components, designated coagulogen, proclotting enzyme, factor B, factor C, and factor G, all of which are closely associated with the endotoxin-mediated coagulation pathway, have been purified and biochemically characterized. The molecular structures of these proteins have also been elucidated. Moreover, the reconstitution experiments using the isolated clotting factors, factor C, factor B, proclotting enzyme and coagulogen in the presence of endotoxin, leads to the formation of coagulin gel. Here, I will focus on the biochemical principle of Limulus test for detecting bacterial endotoxins, and its activation and regulation mechanism on the LPS-mediated coagulation cascade.

  10. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests: Reducing test time by early parameter estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, C; Astals, S; Peces, M; Campos, J L; Guerrero, L

    2018-01-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) test is a key analytical technique to assess the implementation and optimisation of anaerobic biotechnologies. However, this technique is characterised by long testing times (from 20 to >100days), which is not suitable for waste utilities, consulting companies or plants operators whose decision-making processes cannot be held for such a long time. This study develops a statistically robust mathematical strategy using sensitivity functions for early prediction of BMP first-order model parameters, i.e. methane yield (B 0 ) and kinetic constant rate (k). The minimum testing time for early parameter estimation showed a potential correlation with the k value, where (i) slowly biodegradable substrates (k≤0.1d -1 ) have a minimum testing times of ≥15days, (ii) moderately biodegradable substrates (0.1testing times between 8 and 15 days, and (iii) rapidly biodegradable substrates (k≥0.2d -1 ) have testing times lower than 7days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. outcome of presumptive versus rapid diagnostic tests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2010-03-02

    Mar 2, 2010 ... diagnostic test in the management of children with this overlap, but this has not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of presumptive versus malaria rapid diagnostic test - ... the rain forest belt of Nigeria, an area with perennial malaria trans mission.

  12. Development of a rapid ferricyanide mediated assay for biochemical oxygen demand using a mixed microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterall, Kylie; Zhao, Huijun; Pasco, Neil; John, Richard

    2003-06-01

    Ferricyanide-mediated (FM) microbial reactions were used for the rapid determination of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of a range of synthetic and real wastewater samples. Four single-species microbial seeds and a synthetically prepared microbial consortium were compared. In all cases, the microbial consortium exhibited a greater extent and rate of biodegradation compared to the individual microbial seeds. Markedly improved correlation to the standard BOD5 method was also noted for the microbial consortium (compared to the single-species seeds). A linear dynamic range up to 200 mg BOD5 L(-1) was observed, which is considerably greater than the linear range of the standard BOD5 assay and most other rapid BOD assays reported. In addition, biodegradation efficiencies comparable to the 5-day BOD5 assay (and much greater than other rapid BOD assays) were observed in 3 h. A highly significant correlation (R = 0.935, p = 0.000, n = 30) between the FM-BOD method and the standard BOD5 method was found for a wide diversity of real wastewater samples. The results indicate that the FM-BOD assay is a promising, rapid, alternative to the standard 5-day BOD5 assay.

  13. Immobilized multi-species based biosensor for rapid biochemical oxygen demand measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyu; Ma, Chao; Yu, Dengbin; Jia, Jianbo; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Bailin; Dong, Shaojun

    2011-01-15

    To improve the practicability of rapid biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) method, we proposed a stable BOD sensor based on immobilizing multi-species BODseed for wastewater monitoring in the flow system. The activation time of the biofilm was greatly shortened for the biofilm prepared by BODseed in the organic-inorganic hybrid material. Some influence factors such as temperature, pH, and concentration of phosphate buffer solution (PBS) were investigated in detail in which high tolerance to environment was validated for the BOD sensor permitted a wide pH and PBS concentration ranges. The minimum detectable BOD was around 0.5 mg/l BOD under the optimized 1.0 mg/ml BODseed immobilized concentration. The as-prepared BOD sensor exhibited excellent stability and reproducibility for different samples. Furthermore, the as-prepared BOD biosensor displayed a notable advantage in indiscriminate biodegradation to different organic compounds and their mixture, similar to the character of conventional BOD(5) results. The results of the BOD sensor method are well agreed with those obtained from conventional BOD(5) method for wastewater samples. The proposed rapid BOD sensor method should be promising in practical application of wastewater monitoring. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. MICREDOX--development of a ferricyanide-mediated rapid biochemical oxygen demand method using an immobilised Proteus vulgaris biocomponent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Neil; Baronian, Keith; Jeffries, Cy; Webber, Judith; Hay, Joanne

    2004-10-15

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an international regulatory environmental index for monitoring organic pollutants in wastewater and the current legislated standard test for BOD monitoring requires 5 days to complete (BOD5 test). We are developing a rapid microbial technique, MICREDOX, for measuring BOD by eliminating oxygen and, instead, quantifying an equivalent biochemical co-substrate demand, the co-substrate being a redox mediator. Elevated concentrations of Proteus vulgaris, either as free cells or immobilised in Lentikat disks, were incubated with an excess of redox mediator (potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)) and organic substrate for 1h at 37 degrees C without oxygen. The addition of substrate increased the catabolic activity of the microorganisms and the accumulation of reduced mediator, which was subsequently re-oxidised at a working electrode generating a current quantifiable by a coulometric transducer. The recorded currents were converted to their BOD5 equivalent with the only assumption being a fixed conversion of substrate and known stoichiometry. Measurements are reported both for the BOD5 calibration standard solution (150 mg l(-1) glucose, 150 mg l(-1) glutamic acid) and for filtered effluent sampled from a wastewater treatment plant. The inclusion of a highly soluble mediator in place of oxygen facilitated a high ferricyanide concentration in the incubation, which in turn permitted increased concentrations of microorganisms to be used. This substantially reduced the incubation time, from 5 days to 1h, for the biological oxidation of substrates equivalent to those observed using the standard BOD5 test. Stoichiometric conversion efficiencies for the oxidation of the standard substrate by P. vulgaris were typically 60% for free cells and 35-50% for immobilised cells.

  15. A novel biosensor for the rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Song; Zhang, Li-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Long

    2007-02-01

    To investigate the function of a novel biosensor used for the rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) which is developed by our research group based on suspended immobilized microbial cell system in a completely mixed determining chamber as a substitute of the traditional membrane system. Activated sludge was immobilized by PVA gel and used as a bio-sensing element. The novel biosensor was used to measure the short time BOD value and the conventional cultivation method was used for BOD5 measurement. A linear relationship was observed for the difference between the current and the concentration of glucose-glutamic acid (GGA) solution below 200 mg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. The optimal response of the sensor was obtained at pH 7.0 and 30 degrees C. The sensor response was within 15 min and was reproducible within +/- 5% of the mean in a series of eight samples containing 75 mg/L BOD using standard GGA solution. The novel sensor response was found to be fairly constant over a period of 30 days, with +/- 5% fluctuations. A relatively good agreement is found between BOD estimated by the novel BOD biosensor and that determined by the conventional 5-day BOD method. This novel BOD biosensor has good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility.

  16. Rapid Weight Loss Elicits Harmful Biochemical and Hormonal Responses in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coswig, Victor Silveira; Fukuda, David Hideyoshi; Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare biochemical and hormonal responses between mixed martial arts (MMA) competitors with minimal prefight weight loss and those undergoing rapid weight loss (RWL). Blood samples were taken from 17 MMA athletes (Mean± SD; age: 27.4 ±5.3yr; body mass: 76.2 ± 12.4kg; height: 1.71 ± 0.05m and training experience: 39.4 ± 25 months) before and after each match, according to the official events rules. The no rapid weight loss (NWL, n = 12) group weighed in on the day of the event (~30 min prior fight) and athletes declared not having used RWL strategies, while the RWL group (n = 5) weighed in 24 hr before the event and the athletes claimed to have lost 7.4 ± 1.1kg, approximately 10% of their body mass in the week preceding the event. Results showed significant (p < .05) increases following fights, regardless of group, in lactate, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, and cortisol for all athletes. With regard to group differences, NWL had significantly (p < .05) greater creatinine levels (Mean± SD; pre to post) (NWL= 101.6 ± 15-142.3 ± 22.9μmol/L and RWL= 68.9 ± 10.6-79.5 ± 15.9μmol/L), while RWL had higher LDH (median [interquartile range]; pre to post) (NWL= 211.5[183-236] to 231[203-258]U/L and RWL= 390[370.5-443.5] to 488[463.5-540.5]U/L) and AST (NWL= 30[22-37] to 32[22-41]U/L and 39[32.5-76.5] to 72[38.5-112.5] U/L) values (NWL versus RWL, p < .05). Post hoc analysis showed that AST significantly increased in only the RWL group, while creatinine increased in only the NWL group. The practice of rapid weight loss showed a negative impact on energy availability and increased both muscle damage markers and catabolic expression in MMA fighters.

  17. Use of predefined biochemical admission profiles does not reduce the number of tests or total cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Haidl, Felix; Folkestad, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate whether the use of predefined biochemical profiles as an alternative to individually ordered blood tests by the treating physicians resulted in fewer tests or a lower total cost....

  18. The use of microorganisms with broad range substrate utilisation for the ferricyanide-mediated rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterall, K; Morris, K; Gladman, C; Zhao, H; Pasco, N; John, R

    2001-12-24

    The feasibility of replacing oxygen with a synthetic electron acceptor in microbial catabolism was investigated as a rapid method for the determination of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Microorganisms known for their broad range organic substrate utilisation were investigated. It was shown that Trichosporon cutaneum, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus licheniformis could utilize the ferricyanide ion as an alternative electron acceptor, in place of oxygen, for the catabolic oxidation of a range of simple organic compounds. The biochemical reactions were monitored by measuring the amount of microbially produced ferrocyanide using amperometry at a Pt disk microelectrode. Catabolic degradation efficiencies approaching those of the conventional 5-day assay were achieved in 1 h. BOD(5) equivalent values for a range of simple organic solutions were determined for each of the microorganisms. The effect of increased incubation time and the choice of appropriate calibration standards for rapid BOD assays were also considered.

  19. A simplified headspace biochemical oxygen demand test protocol based on oxygen measurements using a fiber optic probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Booki; Kohler, David; Logan, Bruce E

    2004-01-01

    Batch respirometric tests have many advantages over the conventional biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) method for analysis of wastewaters, including the use of nondiluted samples, a more rapid exertion of oxygen demand, and reduced sample preparation time. The headspace biochemical oxygen demand (HBOD) test can be used to obtain oxygen demands in 2 or 3 days that can predict 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) results. The main disadvantage of the HBOD and other respirometric tests has been the lack of a simple and direct method to measure oxygen concentrations in the gas phase. The recent commercial production of a new type of fiber optic oxygen probe, however, provides a method to eliminate this disadvantage. This fiber optic probe, referred to here as the HBOD probe, was tested to see if it could be used in HBOD tests. Gas-phase oxygen measurements made with the HBOD probe took only a few seconds and were not significantly different from those made using a gas chromatograph (t test: n = 15, R2 = 0.9995, p biochemical oxygen demand measurements on UAJA primary clarifier effluent were 59.9 +/- 2.4% after 2 days (HBOD2) and 73.0 +/- 3.1% after 3 days (HBOD) of BOD, values, indicating that BOD5 values could be predicted by multiplying HBOD2 values by 1.67 +/- 0.07 or HBOD3 by 1.37 +/- 0.06. Similarly, tests using PSU wastewater samples could be used to provide BOD5 estimates by multiplying the HBOD2 by 1.24 +/- 0.04 or by multiplying the HBOD3 by 0.97 +/- 0.03. These results indicate that the HBOD fiber optic probe can be used to obtain reliable oxygen demands in batch respirometric tests such as the HBOD test.

  20. A comparison of rapid diagnostic testing (by plasmodium lactate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold ...

  1. Rapid pile load tests in the geotechnical centrifuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.; Huy, N.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Centrifiige experiments were carried out to gain insight into the factors that affect the mobilized resistance during rapid load testing on piles in sand. The influence of generated pore water pressure during rapid load tests is shidied, and its effect on the commonly used unloadmg point method to

  2. Rapid Bacterial Testing for Spacecraft Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John T.; Pyle, Barry H.; McFeters, Gordon A.

    1996-01-01

    Evaluations of the fluorogenic stains and probes will continue. E. coli 0157:H7 will be used as the reference strain for optimizing protocols. We anticipate the continued use of the fluorescent antibodies (TRITC and FITC labeled) in conjunction with CTC, Rhl23, DiBAC4(3), DAPI and acridine orange. Chemunex, the manufacturer of the ChemScan analyzer system, also makes a fluorogenic probe, Chemchrome B, which will be incorporated into the suite of probes to evaluate once their system is on site. Regardless of the combination of stains and probes all will be evaluated on membrane filters. Development of a FISH protocol that will be applicable to our conditions will be continued. Complimentary 16s rRNA probes to Ps. aeruginosa and currently in our laboratory will be evaluated first. Once this protocol has been adequately optimized other probes will be ordered for u a select number of other species. Currently, protocols to evaluate the effects of disinfection and the resulting lethality, injury on stain and/or probe specificity and reliability are being developed. E. coli 0157:H7 is the reference strain and chlorine the disinfectant the reference protocol is being developed around. Upon completion of this work, the resulting protocol will be extended to other species and disinfectants (e.g., iodine). Similar disinfectant experiments will then be conducted on the same species after starvation to evaluate the effects of starvation on disinfection resistance and the applicability of the stains and probes. Development of the immunomagnetic separation system will continue. Combined with the rapid methods described above, with enumeration by the ChemScan, we anticipate that this will provide a highly sensitive technique for the detection of specific, active bacteria.

  3. Rapid biochemical methane potential prediction of urban organic waste with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Triolo, Jin Mi; Boldrin, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    The anaerobic digestibility of various biomass feedstocks in biogas plants is determined with biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays. However, experimental BMP analysis is time-consuming, costly and challenging to optimise stock management and feeding to achieve improved biogas production....... The aim of the present study is to develop a fast and reliable model based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the BMP prediction of urban organic waste (UOW). The model comprised 87 UOW samples. Additionally, 88 plant biomass samples were included, to develop a combined model predicting...

  4. Glucose tolerance test and some biochemical effect of Phyllanthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of total cholesterol was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced for all the concentrations; the reduction was found to be dose dependant. The atherogenic index Log (TG/HDL-CH) of the animals showed no significant differences between tests and control. These findings may be of clinical importance to individuals ...

  5. Modified TB rapid test by proteinase K for rapid diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Shamsi; Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Alireza; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Fateh, Abolfazl; Yari, Fatemeh; Bahrmand, Ahmadreza

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis continues to be a challenge due to the low sensitivity of traditional diagnostic methods. Better and more rapid tests are needed for diagnosis of pleural TB. In this study, pleural fluids were tested with rapid test to determine Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB antigen). Affinity chromatography was used to purify specific polyclonal antibodies against MTB antigen. Pleural samples after decontamination were treated with proteinase K. Rapid test for pleural fluids was prepared by specific antibody. Rapid test was performed on 85 pleural fluid patients. The patients had a mean age of 46.55 ± 15.96 years and 38 were men. The performance of rapid test, using proteinase K, was found to be the most impressive: sensitivity 93%, specificity 94%, PPV 90%, and NPV 96% compared with adenosine deaminase test (ADA), PCR, smear, and culture. The present study did demonstrate that modified TB rapid test can substantially improve the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Metabologenomics of Phaeochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: An Integrated Approach for Personalised Biochemical and Genetic Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhofer, Graeme; Klink, Barbara; Richter, Susan; Lenders, Jacques Wm; Robledo, Mercedes

    2017-04-01

    The tremendous advances over the past two decades in both clinical genetics and biochemical testing of chromaffin cell tumours have led to new considerations about how these aspects of laboratory medicine can be integrated to improve diagnosis and management of affected patients. With germline mutations in 15 genes now identified to be responsible for over a third of all cases of phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, these tumours are recognised to have one of the richest hereditary backgrounds among all neoplasms. Depending on the mutation, tumours show distinct differences in metabolic pathways that relate to or even directly impact clinical presentation. At the same time, there has been improved understanding about how catecholamines are synthesised, stored, secreted and metabolised by chromaffin cell tumours. Although the tumours may not always secrete catecholamines it has become clear that almost all continuously produce and metabolise catecholamines. This has not only fuelled changes in laboratory medicine, but has also assisted in recognition of genotype-biochemical phenotype relationships important for diagnostics and clinical care. In particular, differences in catecholamine and energy pathway metabolomes can guide genetic testing, assist with test interpretation and provide predictions about the nature, behaviour and imaging characteristics of the tumours. Conversely, results of genetic testing are important for guiding how routine biochemical testing should be employed and interpreted in surveillance programmes for at-risk patients. In these ways there are emerging needs for modern laboratory medicine to seamlessly integrate biochemical and genetic testing into the diagnosis and management of patients with chromaffin cell tumours.

  7. Rapid Aminoglycoside NP Test for Rapid Detection of Multiple Aminoglycoside Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Patrice; Jayol, Aurélie; Dobias, Jan; Poirel, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    The rapid aminoglycoside NP (Nordmann/Poirel) test was developed to rapidly identify multiple aminoglycoside (AG) resistance in Enterobacteriaceae It is based on the detection of the glucose metabolism related to enterobacterial growth in the presence of a defined concentration of amikacin plus gentamicin. Formation of acid metabolites was evidenced by a color change (orange to yellow) of the red phenol pH indicator. The rapid aminoglycoside NP test was evaluated by using bacterial colonies of 18 AG-resistant isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases, 20 AG-resistant isolates expressing AG-modifying enzymes (acetyl-, adenyl-, and phosphotransferases), and 10 isolates susceptible to AG. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 97%, respectively, compared to the broth dilution method, which was taken as the gold standard for determining aminoglycoside resistance. The test is inexpensive, rapid (<2 h), and implementable worldwide. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Trichomonas spp. in pigeons: detection by OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Petr; Kunca, Tomas; Langrova, Iva; Hartlova, Helena; Brozova, Adela; Jankovska, Ivana; Kudrnacova, Marie; Sloup, Vladislav

    2013-12-01

    The efficacy of the OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test (developed for rapid diagnosis of human Trichomonas vaginalis) in detection of Trichomonas spp. in pigeons (Columba livia) was investigated. Two oral cavity swabs were taken from 50 farm pigeons. Cultivation in Diamond Trichomonas medium was used as a reference method. According to a morphological determination, Trichomonas gallinae was the only protozoan found; however, no further molecular analysis was conducted. The OSOM Trichomonas test was positive in 39 oral swabs. In comparison with the cultivation method three samples were identified as false negative and one as false positive. Test specificity and sensitivity were established as 93% and 90%, respectively. Using Cohen's Kappa, the concordance between the two testing methods was found to be strong (kappa = 0.7506, 95% CI = 0.5162-0.9850). The OSOM Trichomonas test is not able to distinguish between Trichomonas species; however, results suggest that the test is suitable for the rapid detection of Trichomonas spp. infection in pigeons.

  9. Rapid biochemical methane potential prediction of urban organic waste with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitamo, T; Triolo, J M; Boldrin, A; Scheutz, C

    2017-08-01

    The anaerobic digestibility of various biomass feedstocks in biogas plants is determined with biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays. However, experimental BMP analysis is time-consuming, costly and challenging to optimise stock management and feeding to achieve improved biogas production. The aim of the present study is to develop a fast and reliable model based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the BMP prediction of urban organic waste (UOW). The model comprised 87 UOW samples. Additionally, 88 plant biomass samples were included, to develop a combined model predicting BMP. The coefficient of determination (R 2 ) and root mean square error in prediction (RMSE P ) of the UOW model were 0.88 and 44 mL CH 4 /g VS, while the combined model was 0.89 and 50 mL CH 4 /g VS. Improved model performance was obtained for the two individual models compared to the combined version. The BMP prediction with NIRS was satisfactory and moderately successful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A retrospective evaluation of proficiency testing, and rapid HIV test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Proficiency testing (PT) has been implemented as a form of External Quality Assurance (EQA) by the National HIV Reference Laboratory in Kenya since 2007 in order to monitor and improve on the quality of HIV testing and counselling HTC services. Objective: To compare concordance between National HIV ...

  11. Study on Biochemical Indices of Liver Function Tests of Albino Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on Biochemical Indices of Liver Function Tests of Albino Rats Supplemented with Three. Sources of Vegetable Oils. 1K.E. Imafidon and *2L.O. Okunrobo. 1Biochemistry Department, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State. 2 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City ...

  12. Comparison of Rapid Malaria Test and Laboratory Microscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: Blood samples collected from 272 volunteers in two communities of Bayelsa State in the Niger. Delta area were investigated for falciparum malaria parasite using the rapid test based on the detection of soluble antigen and laboratory microscopy test. The data showed that out of the 272 samples collected, ...

  13. Outcome of Presumptive Versus Rapid Diagnostic Tests-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First, 50 children with malaria-pneumonia symptom overlap were consecutively enrolled and treated presumptively with antibiotics and antimalarials irrespective of malaria test result (control arm).Then, another 50 eligible children were enrolled and treated with antibiotics with/out antimalarials based on rapid diagnostic test ...

  14. Coagulation Tests and Selected Biochemical Analytes in Dairy Cows with Hepatic Lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    S. Padilla-Arellanes; F. Constantino-Casas; L. Núnez-Ochoa; J. Doubek; C. Vega-Murguia; J. Bouda

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the values and changes in conventional and optimised clotting tests, as well as in selected biochemical analytes during hepatic lipidosis in postpartum dairy cows. Ten healthy and ten Holstein cows with hepatic lipidosis were selected based upon clinical history, clinical examination, liver biopsy, flotation test and histological analysis of hepatic tissue. Prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were determined in non-diluted and dil...

  15. Testing of Materials for Rapid Prototyping Fused Deposition Modelling Technology

    OpenAIRE

    L. Novakova-Marcincinova; J. Novak-Marcincin

    2012-01-01

    Paper presents knowledge about types of test in area of materials properties of selected methods of rapid prototyping technologies. In today used rapid prototyping technologies for production of models and final parts are used materials in initial state as solid, liquid or powder material structure. In solid state are used various forms such as pellets, wire or laminates. Basic range materials include paper, nylon, wax, resins, metals and ceramics. In Fused Deposition Mod...

  16. Rapid slide agglutination test for Lancefield grouping of streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damask, L J; Montoya, O; Axelrod, J L

    1979-08-01

    A rapid slide agglutination test (the Phadebact [PB] Streptococcus test) was compared with the standard autoclave extraction method of Lancefield and presumptive clinical laboratory tests for grouping of streptococci (bacitracin disk sensitivity for group A and sodium hippurate hydrolysis for group B). Identification of group A streptococci by the PB kit was statistically as accurate as by the Lancefield method, whereas bacitracin grouping was significantly less accurate than the Lancefield method (P = less than .02). With regard to group B, there was no statistically significant difference between the PB test and the sodium hippurate test. The PB test correctly identified all group C and G streptococci. The PB kit provides a rapid and reliable method for Lancefield grouping of streptococci.

  17. Comparative evaluation of two rapid field tests for malaria diagnosis: Partec Rapid Malaria Test® and Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel Ek; Ibrahim, Lukeman; May, Juergen; Brattig, Norbert; Tannich, Egbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Huenger, Frank

    2011-05-23

    About 90% of all malaria deaths in sub-Saharan Africa occur in children under five years. Fast and reliable diagnosis of malaria requires confirmation of the presence of malaria parasites in the blood of patients with fever or history suggestive of malaria; hence a prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to effective disease management. Confirmation of malaria infection requires the availability of a rapid, sensitive, and specific testing at an affordable cost. We compared two recent methods (the novel Partec Rapid Malaria Test® (PT) and the Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (BN RDT) with the conventional Giemsa stain microscopy (GM) for the diagnosis of malaria among children in a clinical laboratory of a hospital in a rural endemic area of Ghana. Blood samples were collected from 263 children admitted with fever or a history of fever to the pediatric clinic of the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. The three different test methods PT, BN RDT and GM were performed independently by well trained and competent laboratory staff to assess the presence of malaria parasites. Results were analyzed and compared using GM as the reference standard. In 107 (40.7%) of 263 study participants, Plasmodium sp. was detected by GM. PT and BN RDT showed positive results in 111 (42.2%) and 114 (43.4%), respectively. Compared to GM reference standard, the sensitivities of the PT and BN RDT were 100% (95% CI: 96.6-100) and 97.2% (95% CI: 92.0-99.4), respectively, specificities were 97.4% (95% CI: 93.6-99.3) and 93.6% (95% CI: 88.5-96.9), respectively. There was a strong agreement (kappa) between the applied test methods (GM vs PT: 0.97; p < 0.001 and GM vs BN RDT: 0.90; p < 0.001). The average turnaround time per tests was 17 minutes. In this study two rapid malaria tests, PT and BN RDT, demonstrated a good quality of their performance compared to conventional GM. Both methods require little training, have short turnaround times, are applicable as well as affordable and

  18. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara V. Nibhanipudi MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. Methods: All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Results: Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+; for rapid strep== 84(- and16 (+; For LE== 80(- and 20(+ Statistics: From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don’t seem to be a random (independent assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (P<.0.0001 reject Null Hypothesis and Conclude Alternative Conclusions: Leukocyte esterase on throat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children.

  19. Development of biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test for sulfidogenic biotechnology application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Tsui, To-Hung; Ekama, George A; Mackey, Hamish R; Hao, Tianwei; Chen, Guanghao

    2018-05-15

    The determination of organics biodegradability and corresponding biodegradation kinetics provides valuable information on the optimal design and operation of anaerobic biotechnology especially for sulfidogenesis. This study proposes a deterministic method, i.e. a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test, and compares it to the conventional biochemical methane potential (BMP) test in terms of their ability to characterize sulfate-laden organic waste biodegradability. It demonstrated 1.48 times higher degradation of volatile suspended solids (VSS) and 2.60 times more chemical oxygen demand (COD) conversion in its major metabolites than the BMP test. Moreover, it required only four days to complete, compared to the 35 days required by the BMP test. Through the two-substrate first-order hydrolysis model, it was revealed that the shortened time was attributed to the enhanced degradation rates from both readily (eight times) and slowly (nearly 10 times) biodegradable organic substrates in the BSP test compared with the BMP test for the same sulfate-laden organic waste. The findings highlight the inappropriateness of the BMP test to sulfidogenic applications due to the underestimated predictions of organic waste biodegradability and excessive time requirements. Furthermore, the ability of the BSP test to identify the average elemental composition (C x H y O z N a P b S c ) of substrate biodegradable particulate organics (BPO) is explored and verified using a casein-based validation test. Using BPO elemental composition as the input variable, a BSP biochemical kinetic model is thereby developed to predict BSR performance and possible dynamic process control. Overall, this study demonstrates the applicability and advantages of the BSP test in sulfidogenic applications for characterization of organics biodegradability and identification of BPO average elemental composition, furthermore develops a process model utilizing the derived BPO average elemental composition to

  20. A rapid ultrasound particle agglutination method for HIV antibody detection: Comparison with conventional rapid HIV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystryak, Simon; Ossina, Natalya

    2017-11-01

    We present the results of the feasibility and preliminary studies on analytical performance of a rapid test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in human serum or plasma that is an important advance in detecting HIV infection. Current methods for rapid testing of antibodies against HIV are qualitative and exhibit poor sensitivity (limit of detection). In this paper, we describe an ultrasound particle agglutination (UPA) method that leads to a significant increase of the sensitivity of conventional latex agglutination tests for HIV antibody detection in human serum or plasma. The UPA method is based on the use of: 1) a dual mode ultrasound, wherein a first single-frequency mode is used to accelerate the latex agglutination process, and then a second swept-frequency mode of sonication is used to disintegrate non-specifically bound aggregates; and 2) a numerical assessment of results of the agglutination process. The numerical assessment is carried out by optical detection and analysis of moving patterns in the resonator cell during the swept-frequency mode. The single-step UPA method is rapid and more sensitive than the three commercial rapid HIV test kits analyzed in the study: analytical sensitivity of the new UPA method was found to be 510-, 115-, and 80-fold higher than that for Capillus™, Multispot™ and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen HIV antibody rapid test kits, respectively. The newly developed UPA method opens up additional possibilities for detection of a number of clinically significant markers in point-of-care settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid Biochemical Analysis on the International Space Station (ISS): Preparing for Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, J.; Morris, Heather; Monaco, L.; Steele, A.; Wainwright, N.

    2008-01-01

    The Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development - Portable Test System, known as LOCAD-PTS, was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-116) on December 9th,2006. Since that time, it has remained onboard ISS and has been operated by the crew on 10 separate occasions LOCAD-PTS is a handheld device for rapid biochemical analysis; it consists of a spectrophotometer, a series of interchangeable cartridges, a pipette and several clean/sterilized swabbing kits to obtain samples from ISS surfaces. Sampling, quantitative analysis and data retrieval is performed onboard, therefore reducing the need to return samples to Earth. Less than 20 minutes are required from sampling to data, significantly faster than existing culture-based methods on ISS, which require 3-5 days. Different cartridges are available for the detection of different target molecules (simply by changing the formulation within each cartridge), thereby maximizing the benefit and applications addressed by a single instrument. Initial tests on ISS have focused on the detection of the bact.erial macromolecule endotoxin, a component of bacterial cell walls. LOCAD-PTS detects endotoxin with a cartridge that contains a formulation known as Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. LAL is derived from blood of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, and detects enodotoxin with an enzyme cascade that triggers generation Of a yellow colored dye, p-nitroanaline. The more p-nitroanaline product, the more endotoxin is in the original sample. To enable quantitative analysis, the absorbance of this color is measured by LOCAD-PTS through a 395 nm filter and compared with an internal calibration curve, to provide a reading on the LED display that ranges from 0.05 Endotoxin Units (EU)/ml to 5 EU/ml. Several surface sites were analyzed within ISS between March 2007 and February 2008, including multiple locations in the US Laboratory Destiny, Node 1 Unity, AMock, and Service Module Zvezda

  2. Field evaluation of a malaria rapid diagnostic test (ICT Pf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (MRDTs) are quick and easy to perform and useful for diagnosing malaria in primary health care settings. In South Africa most malaria infections are due to Plasmodium falciparum, and HRPII-based MRDTs have been used since 2001. Previous studies in Africa showed variability ...

  3. Evaluation of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests in screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Infection of individual is through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. This study evaluated the performance of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in diagnosing malaria. A total of 400 clinically suspected malaria ...

  4. Simple and rapid field tests for brucellosis in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoel, Theresia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Cardoso, Regina; Smits, Henk L.

    2008-01-01

    Four simple and rapid field tests for the serodiagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, goat, sheep and swine were developed. The performance of the assays was investigated using serum samples collected in Portugal from animals originating from herds with a defined sanitary status with respect to the

  5. Use of rapid carbohydrate utilisation test for identifying "Streptococcus milleri group".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, J M; Ross, P W; Poxton, I R

    1991-01-01

    A short series of biochemical and serological tests were developed for the rapid presumptive identification of "Streptococcus milleri group" isolates. One hundred and seventy seven streptococcal isolates were recovered from the mouths of 10 out of 12 healthy adult volunteers by use of a simple sampling procedure and a single selective medium. In all, 127 oral "S milleri group" isolates were identified by biochemical and serological tests, confirming the indigenous nature of these streptococci in the mouth. Most (70.1%) of "S milleri group" isolates were non-haemolytic, 26% were alpha-haemolytic, and 3.9% beta-haemolytic. Fifty four (42.5%) were serologically typable, of which 46 were Lancefield group F, suggesting that the mouth is an important source of Lancefield group F streptococci. A collection of group F streptococci from a range of sources was indistinguishable from a collection of oral "S milleri group" isolates on the basis of the tests used, supporting the general synonymity of group F streptococcus with the broader "S milleri group". The battery of tests was cheap and simple to perform, and was capable of identifying "S milleri group" isolates from a range of sources, including variants with wide sugar fermentation patterns. PMID:2030154

  6. Rapid screening for lipid storage disorders using biochemical markers. Expert center data and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorink-Moret, M; Goorden, S M I; van Kuilenburg, A B P; Wijburg, F A; Ghauharali-van der Vlugt, J M M; Beers-Stet, F S; Zoetekouw, A; Kulik, W; Hollak, C E M; Vaz, F M

    2018-02-01

    In patients suspected of a lipid storage disorder (sphingolipidoses, lipidoses), confirmation of the diagnosis relies predominantly on the measurement of specific enzymatic activities and genetic studies. New UPLC-MS/MS methods have been developed to measure lysosphingolipids and oxysterols, which, combined with chitotriosidase activity may represent a rapid first tier screening for lipid storage disorders. A lysosphingolipid panel consisting of lysoglobotriaosylceramide (LysoGb3), lysohexosylceramide (LysoHexCer: both lysoglucosylceramide and lysogalactosylceramide), lysosphingomyelin (LysoSM) and its carboxylated analogue lysosphingomyelin-509 (LysoSM-509) was measured in control subjects and plasma samples of predominantly untreated patients affected with lipid storage disorders (n=74). In addition, the oxysterols cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol and 7-ketocholesterol were measured in a subset of these patients (n=36) as well as chitotriosidase activity (n=43). A systematic review of the literature was performed to assess the usefulness of these biochemical markers. Specific elevations of metabolites, i.e. without overlap between controls and other lipid storage disorders, were found for several lysosomal storage diseases: increased LysoSM levels in acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (Niemann-Pick disease type A/B), LysoGb3 levels in males with classical phenotype Fabry disease and LysoHexCer (i.e. lysoglucosylceramide/lysogalactosylceramide) in Gaucher and Krabbe diseases. While elevated levels of LysoSM-509 and cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol did not discriminate between Niemann Pick disease type C and acid sphingomyelinase deficiency, LysoSM-509/LysoSM ratio was specifically elevated in Niemann-Pick disease type C. In Gaucher disease type I, mild increases in several lysosphingolipids were found including LysoGb3 with levels in the range of non-classical Fabry males and females. Chitotriosidase showed specific elevations in symptomatic Gaucher disease, and was mildly

  7. Rapid Visual Tests: Fast and Reliable Detection of Ochratoxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lopez-Ferber

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the early detection strategies that have been employed for the rapid monitoring of ochratoxin A (OTA contamination of food. OTA, a mycotoxin mainly produced by some Aspergillus and Penicillium species, is found in cereals, coffee, wine, pork and grapes. To minimize the entry of this mycotoxin into the food chain, rapid diagnostic tools are required. To this end, the potential use of lateral flow devices has also been developed. In this study, we analyze the robustness of test strips using published methods for colorimetric detection. Different test formats are discussed, and challenges in the development of lateral flow devices for on-site determination of OTA, with requirements such as robustness, speed, and cost-effectiveness, are discussed.

  8. Rapid field estimation of biochemical oxygen demand in a subtropical eutrophic urban lake with chlorophyll a fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Xu, Y Jun

    2015-01-01

    Development of a technique for rapid field estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is necessary for cost-effective monitoring and management of urban lakes. While several studies reported the usefulness of laboratory tryptophan-like fluorescence technique in predicting 5-day BOD (BOD₅) of wastewater and leachates, little is known about the predictability of field chlorophyll fluorescence measurements for BOD of urban lake waters that are constantly exposed to the mixture of chemical compounds. This study was conducted to develop a numeric relationship between chlorophyll a fluorescence and BOD for a eutrophic urban lake that is widely representative of lake water conditions in the subtropical southern USA. From October 2012 to September 2013, in situ measurements at the studied lake were made every 2 weeks on chlorophyll a fluorescence and other water quality parameters including water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductivity. Water samples were taken for 5-day BOD and 10-day BOD (BOD₁₀) analysis with and without incubation. The results showed a clear seasonal trend of both BOD measurements being high during the summer and low during the winter. There was a linear, positive relationship between chlorophyll a fluorescence and BOD, and the relationship appeared to be stronger with the 10-day BOD (r(2) = 0.83) than with the 5-day BOD (r(2) = 0.76). BOD dropped each day with declining chlorophyll a fluorescence, suggesting that die-off of phytoplankton has been the main consumption of oxygen in the studied lake. Ambient conditions such as rainfall and water temperature may have partially affected BOD variation.

  9. Pyruvate carboxylase from Mycobacterium smegmatis: stabilization, rapid purification, molecular and biochemical characterization and regulation of the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, B; Purwantini, E

    2000-07-26

    This is the first report on the purification and characterization of an anaplerotic enzyme from a Mycobacterium. The anaplerotic reactions play important roles in the biochemical differentiation of mycobacteria into non-replicating stages. We have purified and characterized a pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) from Mycobacterium smegmatis and cloned and sequenced its gene. We have developed a very rapid and efficient purification protocol that provided PYC with very high specific activities (up to 150 U/mg) that remained essentially unchanged over a month. The enzyme was found to be a homomultimer of 121 kDa subunits, mildly thermophilic, absolutely dependent on acyl-CoAs for activity and inhibited by ADP, by excess Mg(2+), Co(2+), and Mn(2+), by aspartate, but not by glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Supplementation of minimal growth medium with aspartate did not lower the cellular PYC level, rather doubled it; with glutamate the level remained unchanged. These observations would not fit the idea that the M. smegmatis enzyme fulfills a straightforward anaplerotic function; in a closely related organism, Corynebacterium glutamicum, PYC is the major anaplerotic enzyme. Growth on glucose provided 2-fold higher cellular PYC level than that observed with glycerol. The PYCs of M. smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were highly homologous to each other. In M. smegmatis, M. tuberculosis and M. lepra, pyc was flanked by a putative methylase and a putative integral membrane protein genes in an identical operon-like arrangement. Thus, M. smegmatis could serve as a model for studying PYC-related physiological aspects of mycobacteria. Also, the ease of purification and the extraordinary stability could make the M. smegmatis enzyme a model for studying the structure-function relationships of PYCs in general. It should be noted that no crystal structure is available for this enzyme of paramount importance in all three domains of life, archaea, bacteria, and eukarya.

  10. Costs of Expanded Rapid HIV Testing in Four Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schackman, Bruce R; Eggman, Ashley A; Leff, Jared A; Braunlin, Megan; Felsen, Uriel R; Fitzpatrick, Lisa; Telzak, Edward E; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Branson, Bernard M

    2016-01-01

    The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 065 trial sought to expand HIV screening of emergency department (ED) patients in Bronx, New York, and Washington, D.C. This study assessed the testing costs associated with different expansion processes and compared them with costs of a hypothetical optimized process. Micro-costing studies were conducted in two participating EDs in each city that switched from point-of-care (POC) to rapid-result laboratory testing. In three EDs, laboratory HIV testing was only conducted for patients having blood drawn for clinical reasons; in the other ED, all HIV testing was conducted with laboratory testing. Costs were estimated through direct observation and interviews to document process flows, time estimates, and labor and materials costs. A hypothetical optimized process flow used minimum time estimates for each process step. National wage and fringe rates and local reagent costs were used to determine the average cost (excluding overhead) per completed nonreactive and reactive test in 2013 U.S. dollars. Laboratory HIV testing costs in the EDs ranged from $17.00 to $23.83 per completed nonreactive test, and POC testing costs ranged from $17.64 to $37.60; cost per completed reactive test ranged from $89.29 to $123.17. Costs of hypothetical optimized HIV testing with automated process steps were approximately 45% lower for nonreactive tests and 20% lower for reactive tests. The cost per ED visit to conduct expanded HIV testing in each hospital ranged from $1.21 to $3.96. An optimized process could achieve additional cost savings but would require an investment in electronic system interfaces to further automate testing processes.

  11. [Rapid test for detection of susceptibility to cefotaxime in Enterobacteriaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Guerra, Gemma; Hoyos-Mallecot, Yannik; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; Navarro-Marí, José María; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José

    In this work an "in house" rapid test based on the change in pH that is due to hydrolysis for detecting Enterobacteriaceae susceptible to cefotaxime is evaluated. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae from 1947 urine cultures were assessed using MicroScan panels and the "in house" test. This rapid test includes red phenol solution and cefotaxime. Using MicroScan panels, 499 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were evaluated, which included 27 isolates of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), 16 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL and 1 isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca ESBL. The "in house" test offers the following values: sensitivity 98% and specificity 97%, with negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 78%. The "in house" test based on the change of pH is useful in our area for detecting presumptively cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Test plan for demonstration of Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This plan describes tests to demonstrate the capability of the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) to monitor airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides and analyze soil, smear, and filter samples for alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides under field conditions. The RTML will be tested during June 1993 at a site adjacent to the Cold Test Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Measurement systems installed in the RTML that will be demonstrated include two large-area ionization chamber alpha spectrometers, an x-ray/gamma-ray spectrometer, and four alpha continuous air monitors. Test objectives, requirements for data quality, experimental apparatus and procedures, and safety and logistics issues are described.

  13. Test plan for demonstration of Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This plan describes tests to demonstrate the capability of the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) to monitor airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides and analyze soil, smear, and filter samples for alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides under field conditions. The RTML will be tested during June 1993 at a site adjacent to the Cold Test Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Measurement systems installed in the RTML that will be demonstrated include two large-area ionization chamber alpha spectrometers, an x-ray/gamma-ray spectrometer, and four alpha continuous air monitors. Test objectives, requirements for data quality, experimental apparatus and procedures, and safety and logistics issues are described

  14. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  15. Rapid estimation of the biochemical methane potential of plant biomasses using Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Triolo, Jin M; Peltre, Clément; Pedersen, Lene; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

    2015-12-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) is a very important characteristic of a given feedstock for optimisation of its use in biogas production. However, the long digestion time needed to determine BMP is the main limitation for the use of this assay during the operation of anaerobic digesters to produce biogas. Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was used to predict the BMP of 87 plant biomasses. The developed calibration model was able to explain 81% of the variance in the measured BMP of a selected test set with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 40NLCH4kg(-1) of volatile solids (VS) and a ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) of 2.38. The interpretation of the regression coefficients used in the calibration revealed a positive correlation of BMP with easily degradable compounds (amorphous cellulose, hemicellulose and aliphatic compounds) and a negative correlation with inhibitors of cellulose hydrolysis (lignin, hemicellulose). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A reduced-order adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model as a software sensor for rapid estimation of five-day biochemical oxygen demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Roohollah; Safavi, Salman; Nateghi Shahrokni, Seyyed Afshin

    2013-07-01

    The five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) is one of the key parameters in water quality management. In this study, a novel approach, i.e., reduced-order adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ROANFIS) model was developed for rapid estimation of BOD5. In addition, an uncertainty analysis of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and ROANFIS models was carried out based on Monte-Carlo simulation. Accuracy analysis of ANFIS and ROANFIS models based on both developed discrepancy ratio and threshold statistics revealed that the selected ROANFIS model was superior. Pearson correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error for the best fitted ROANFIS model were 0.96 and 7.12, respectively. Furthermore, uncertainty analysis of the developed models indicated that the selected ROANFIS had less uncertainty than the ANFIS model and accurately forecasted BOD5 in the Sefidrood River Basin. Besides, the uncertainty analysis also showed that bracketed predictions by 95% confidence bound and d-factor in the testing steps for the selected ROANFIS model were 94% and 0.83, respectively.

  17. Improving prescribing practices with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burchett, Helen E D; Leurent, Baptiste; Baiden, Frank

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The overuse of antimalarial drugs is widespread. Effective methods to improve prescribing practice remain unclear. We evaluated the impact of 10 interventions that introduced rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) on the use of tests and adherence to results in different contexts....... DESIGN: A comparative case study approach, analysing variation in outcomes across different settings. SETTING: Studies from the ACT Consortium evaluating mRDTs with a range of supporting interventions in 6 malaria endemic countries. Providers were governmental or non-governmental healthcare workers...... characteristics fitted with their own priorities. Goodness of fit of mRDTs with existing consultation and diagnostic practices appeared crucial to maximising the impact of mRDTs on care, as did prior familiarity with malaria testing; adequate human resources and supplies; possible alternative treatments for m...

  18. The effects of surface treatments on rapid chloride permeability tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2012-08-01

    Surface treatments are commonly applied to improve the chloride resistance of concrete structures exposed to saline environments. Information on chloride ingress to surface-treated concrete is mostly provided by application of the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT); this test is short in duration and provides rapid results. This study presents a numerical formulation, based on the extended Nernst-Plank/Poisson (NPP) equation, to model the effect of the surface treatment on a sample tested by RCPT. Predictions of the model are compared to experimental measurements. The simulations show that the results from RCPT, in terms of ionic profiles and measurement of the electric field, are dependent on the effectiveness of surface treatments. During RCPT, highly effective surface treatments cause both cations and anions to flocculate at the interface between the surface treatment and the concrete, creating a local electric field. Our numerical model includes these phenomena and presents a methodology to obtain more accurate diffusivities of the surface-treated- concrete from RCPT. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and characterization of a novel immobilized microbial membrane for rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand load in industrial waste-waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Shikha; Kumar, Anil; Mehra, N K; Makhijani, S D; Manoharan, A; Gangal, V; Kumar, Rita

    2003-01-01

    The rapid determination of waste-water quality of waste-water treatment plants in terms of pollutional strength, i.e. biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is difficult or even impossible using the chemical determination method. The present study reports the determination of BOD within minutes using microbial BOD sensors, as compared to the 5-day determination using the conventional method. Multiple criteria establish the basis for the development of a BOD biosensor useful for rapid and reliable BOD estimation in industrial waste-waters. Of these, preparation of a suitable novel immobilized microbial membrane used in conjunction with an apt transducer is discussed. As a result, a microbial biosensor based on a formulated, synergistic, pre-tested microbial consortium has been developed for the measurement of BOD load of various industrial waste-waters. The sensor showed maximum response in terms of current difference, when a cell concentration of 2.25 x 10(10) CFU, harvested in their log phase of growth were utilized for microbial membrane construction. The sensor showed a stability of 180 days when the prepared membranes were stored at a temperature of 4 degrees C in 50 mM phosphate buffer of pH 6.8. The reusability of the immobilized membranes was up to 200 cycles without appreciable loss of their response characteristics. A linear relationship between the current change and a glucose-glutamic acid (GAA) concentration up to 60 mg l(-1) was observed (r=0.999). The lower detection limit was 1.0 mg l(-1) BOD. The sensor response was reproducible within +/-5% of the mean in a series of ten samples having 44 mg l(-1) BOD using standard a GGA solution. When used for the BOD estimation of industrial waste-waters, a relatively good agreement was found between the two methods, i.e. 5-day BOD and that measured by the developed microbial sensor.

  20. Rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedoru, Lalith; Mallett, Sue; Parry, Christopher M

    2017-05-26

    Differentiating both typhoid (Salmonella Typhi) and paratyphoid (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infection from other causes of fever in endemic areas is a diagnostic challenge. Although commercial point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for enteric fever are available as alternatives to the current reference standard test of blood or bone marrow culture, or to the widely used Widal Test, their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. If accurate, they could potentially replace blood culture as the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended main diagnostic test for enteric fever. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of commercially available rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and prototypes for detecting Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi A infection in symptomatic persons living in endemic areas. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index, IndMED, African Index Medicus, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) up to 4 March 2016. We manually searched WHO reports, and papers from international conferences on Salmonella infections. We also contacted test manufacturers to identify studies. We included diagnostic accuracy studies of enteric fever RDTs in patients with fever or with symptoms suggestive of enteric fever living in endemic areas. We classified the reference standard used as either Grade 1 (result from a blood culture and a bone marrow culture) or Grade 2 (result from blood culture and blood polymerase chain reaction, or from blood culture alone). Two review authors independently extracted the test result data. We used a modified QUADAS-2 extraction form to assess methodological quality. We performed a meta-analysis when there were sufficient studies for the test and heterogeneity was reasonable. Thirty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria and included a total of 5080 participants (range 50 to 1732). Enteric fever prevalence

  1. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baveewo Steven

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Results Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold. However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2% were HIV negative. Conclusion Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.

  2. Comparison of avian biochemical test results with Abaxis VetScan and Hitachi 911 analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenacre, Cheryl B; Flatland, Bente; Souza, Marcy J; Fry, Michael M

    2008-12-01

    To compare results of clinical biochemical analysis using an Abaxis VetScan bench-top analyzer with reagents specifically marketed for avian use and a Hitachi 911 analyzer, plasma (both methods) and whole blood (VetScan method) samples from 20 clinically healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) were analyzed. Correlation between methods was very high (r = 0.9-1.0) for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), calcium, glucose, and uric acid; high (r = 0.7-0.89) for creatine kinase (CK), phosphorus, potassium, and total protein; moderate (r = 0.5-0.69) for globulin; and low (r = 0.3-0.49) for albumin and sodium. VetScan analyzer results for globulin, sodium, and uric acid had a constant negative bias (values below those from the Hitachi method). Based on difference plot analysis, results for AST, calcium, CK, and glucose are comparable. Because 16 of 20 values fell below the lower detection limit of the VetScan analyzer, bile acid data were excluded from analysis. By using a relatively small sample size (0.1 ml whole blood or plasma), the VetScan analyzer offers rapid in-house results, compact size, and ease of operation. For 4 of the most clinically relevant biochemical analytes used in avian medicine (AST, calcium, CK, glucose), it offers reliable values. For an additional 4 analytes (phosphorous, potassium, total protein, uric acid), establishing analyzer-specific reference intervals is recommended. Neither the VetScan nor the Hitachi method is recommended to assess albumin and globulin concentrations.

  3. Laboratory and On-Site Tests for Rapid Runway Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Leonelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The attention to rapid pavement repair has grown fast in recent decades: this topic is strategic for the airport management process for civil purposes and peacekeeping missions. This work presents the results of laboratory and on-site tests for rapid runway repair, in order to analyse and compare technical and mechanical performances of 12 different materials currently used in airport. The study focuses on site repairs, a technique adopted most frequently than repairs with modular elements. After describing mechanical and physical properties of the examined materials (2 bituminous emulsions, 5 cement mortars, 4 cold bituminous mixtures and 1 expanding resin, the study presents the results of carried out mechanical tests. The results demonstrate that the best performing material is a one-component fast setting and hardening cement mortar with graded aggregates. This material allows the runway reopening 6 h after the work. A cold bituminous mixture (bicomponent premixed cold asphalt with water as catalyst and the ordinary cement concrete allow the reopening to traffic after 18 h, but both ensure a lower service life (1000 coverages than the cement mortar (10,000 coverages. The obtained results include important information both laboratory level and field, and they could be used by airport management bodies and road agencies when scheduling and evaluating pavement repairs.

  4. A flow injection analysis system with encapsulated high-density Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells for rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyo Seong; Choo, Kwang Ho; Chang, Ho Nam; Park, Joong Kon

    2009-05-01

    The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) determination was studied using a novel flow injection analysis (FIA) system with encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and an oxygen electrode and was compared with conventional 5-day BOD tests. S. cerevisiae cells were packed in a calcium alginate capsule at a dry cell weight of 250 g/l of capsule core. The level of dissolved oxygen (DO) was reduced due to the enhanced respiratory activity of the microbial cells when the injected nutrient passed through the bioreactor. The decrease in DO (DeltaDO) was intensified with the amount of microbial cells packed in the bioreactor. However, the specific DeltaDO decreased as the amount of cells loaded in the bioreactor increased. The DeltaDO value was dependent on the pH and temperature of the mobile phase and reached its maximum value at 35 degrees C and pH 7-8. Also, DeltaDO became larger at longer response times as the flow rate of the mobile phase decreased. The measurement of DeltaDO was repeated more than six times consecutively using a 20-ppm standard glucose and glutamic acid solution, which confirmed the reproducibility with a standard deviation of 0.95%. A strong linear correlation between DeltaDO and BOD was also observed. The 5-day BOD values of actual water and wastewater samples were in accordance with the BOD values obtained by this FIA method using encapsulated S. cerevisiae cells. Unlike the cell-immobilized bead system, there was no contamination of the bioreactor resulting from any leak of yeast cells from the sensor capsules during BOD measurements.

  5. Integrated rapid-diagnostic-test reader platform on a cellphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudanyali, Onur; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Sikora, Uzair; Padmanabhan, Swati; Navruz, Isa; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-08-07

    We demonstrate a cellphone-based rapid-diagnostic-test (RDT) reader platform that can work with various lateral flow immuno-chromatographic assays and similar tests to sense the presence of a target analyte in a sample. This compact and cost-effective digital RDT reader, weighing only ~65 g, mechanically attaches to the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where various types of RDTs can be inserted to be imaged in reflection or transmission modes under light-emitting diode (LED)-based illumination. Captured raw images of these tests are then digitally processed (within less than 0.2 s per image) through a smart application running on the cellphone for validation of the RDT, as well as for automated reading of its diagnostic result. The same smart application then transmits the resulting data, together with the RDT images and other related information (e.g., demographic data), to a central server, which presents the diagnostic results on a world map through geo-tagging. This dynamic spatio-temporal map of various RDT results can then be viewed and shared using internet browsers or through the same cellphone application. We tested this platform using malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV RDTs by installing it on both Android-based smartphones and an iPhone. Providing real-time spatio-temporal statistics for the prevalence of various infectious diseases, this smart RDT reader platform running on cellphones might assist healthcare professionals and policymakers to track emerging epidemics worldwide and help epidemic preparedness.

  6. Coagulation Tests and Selected Biochemical Analytes in Dairy Cows with Hepatic Lipidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Padilla-Arellanes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the values and changes in conventional and optimised clotting tests, as well as in selected biochemical analytes during hepatic lipidosis in postpartum dairy cows. Ten healthy and ten Holstein cows with hepatic lipidosis were selected based upon clinical history, clinical examination, liver biopsy, flotation test and histological analysis of hepatic tissue. Prothrombin time (PT and partial thromboplastin time (PTT were determined in non-diluted and diluted blood plasma samples. Clotting times determined in diluted plasma samples were prolonged in cows with hepatic lipidosis and there was a difference in the PT value at both 50% and 25% plasma dilutions between both groups of animals (P = 0.004 and P = 0.001. Significant differences between healthy animals and cows with hepatic lipidosis were observed in blood serum values for free fatty acids (FFA, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and triacyglycerols (P = 0.001, P = 0.007 and P = 0.044, respectively. FFA and liver biopsy are better diagnostic indicators for hepatic lipidosis than coagulation tests. The optimised PT is prolonged in cows with hepatic lipidosis and can detect this alteration that cannot be appreciated using conventional PT test.

  7. Evaluation of a New and Rapid Serologic Test for Detecting Brucellosis: Brucella Coombs Gel Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanci, Hayrunisa; Igan, Hakan; Uyanik, Muhammet Hamidullah

    2017-01-01

    Many serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. A new serological method is identified as Brucella Coombs gel test based on the principle of centrifugation gel system similar to the gel system used in blood group determination. In this system, if Brucella antibodies were present in the serum, antigen and antibody would remain as a pink complex on the gel. Otherwise, the pink Brucella antigens would precipitate at the bottom of the gel card system. In this study, we aimed to compare the Brucella Coombs gel test, a new, rapid screen and titration method for detection of non-agglutinating IgG with the Brucella Coombs test. For this study, a total of 88 serum samples were obtained from 45 healthy persons and 43 individuals who had clinical signs and symptoms of brucellosis. For each specimen, Rose Bengal test, standard agglutination test, Coombs test and Brucella Coombs gel test were carried out. Sensitivity and specificity of Brucella Coombs gel test were found as 100.0 and 82.2%, respectively. Brucella Coombs gel test can be used as a screening test with high sensitivity. By the help of pink Brucella antigen precipitation, the tests' evaluation is simple and objective. In addition, determination of Brucella antibody by rapid titration offers another important advantage.

  8. Rapid drug susceptibility test of mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Xu, Shunqing; Chen, Zifei; Zhou, Yikai

    2001-09-01

    With the persisting increase of drug-resistant stains of M. Tuberculosis around the world, rapid and sensitive detection of antibiotic of M. Tuberculosis is becoming more and more important. In the present study, drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis were detected by recombination mycobacteriophage combined with bioluminescence sensor. It is based on the use of recombination mycobacteriophage which can express firefly luciferase when it infects viable mycobacteria, and can effectively produce quantifiable photon. Meanwhile, in mycobacterium cells treated with active antibiotic, no light is observed. The emitted light is recorded by a bioluminscence sensor, so the result of drug-resistant test can be determined by the naked eye. 159 stains of M. tuberculosis were applied to this test on their resistant to rifampin, streptomycin and isoniazid. It is found that the agreement of this assay with Liewenstein- Jensen slat is: rifampin 95.60 percent, isoniazid 91.82 percent, streptomycin 88.68 percent, which showed that it is a fast and practical method to scene and detect drug resistant of mycobacterium stains.

  9. Towards eliminating systematic errors caused by the experimental conditions in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strömberg, Sten; Nistor, Mihaela; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The evaluated factors introduce significant systematic errors (10–38%) in BMP tests. • Ambient temperature (T) has the most substantial impact (∼10%) at low altitude. • Ambient pressure (p) has the most substantial impact (∼68%) at high altitude. • Continuous monitoring of T and p is not necessary for kinetic calculations. - Abstract: The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test is increasingly recognised as a tool for selecting and pricing biomass material for production of biogas. However, the results for the same substrate often differ between laboratories and much work to standardise such tests is still needed. In the current study, the effects from four environmental factors (i.e. ambient temperature and pressure, water vapour content and initial gas composition of the reactor headspace) on the degradation kinetics and the determined methane potential were evaluated with a 2 4 full factorial design. Four substrates, with different biodegradation profiles, were investigated and the ambient temperature was found to be the most significant contributor to errors in the methane potential. Concerning the kinetics of the process, the environmental factors’ impact on the calculated rate constants was negligible. The impact of the environmental factors on the kinetic parameters and methane potential from performing a BMP test at different geographical locations around the world was simulated by adjusting the data according to the ambient temperature and pressure of some chosen model sites. The largest effect on the methane potential was registered from tests performed at high altitudes due to a low ambient pressure. The results from this study illustrate the importance of considering the environmental factors’ influence on volumetric gas measurement in BMP tests. This is essential to achieve trustworthy and standardised results that can be used by researchers and end users from all over the world

  10. Rapid prototyping of replica knee implants for in vitro testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verjans Mark

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the complex biomechanics of the knee is a key for an optimal implant design. To easily investigate the influence of prosthetic designs on knee biomechanics a rapid prototyping workflow for knee implants has been developed and evaluated. Therefore, different manufacturing technologies and post-treatment methods have been examined and overall seven different replica knee implants were manufactured. For evaluation, the manufacturing properties such as surface accuracy and roughness were determined and kinematic behaviour was investigated in a novel knee testing rig. It was carried out that PolyJet-Modelling with a sanded surface resulted in changed kinematic patterns compared to a usual CoCr-UHMWPE implant. However, fused deposition modelling using ABS and subsequent surface smoothening with acetone vapor showed the lowest roughness of the manufactured implants and only minor kinematic differences. For this reason this method constitutes a promising approach towards an optimal implant design for improved patient-satisfaction and long lifetime of the implant. Finally the workflow is not only limited to the knee.

  11. Rapid microbiological testing: monitoring the development of bacterial stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zavizion

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to respond to adverse environments effectively along with the ability to reproduce are sine qua non conditions for all sustainable cellular forms of life. Given the availability of an appropriate sensing modality, the ubiquity and immediacy of the stress response could form the basis for a new approach for rapid biological testing. We have found that measuring the dielectric permittivity of a cellular suspension, an easily measurable electronic property, is an effective way to monitor the response of bacterial cells to adverse conditions continuously. The dielectric permittivity of susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, treated with gentamicin and vancomycin, were measured directly using differential impedance sensing methods and expressed as the Normalized Impedance Response (NIR. These same strains were also heat-shocked and chemically stressed with Triton X-100 or H(2O(2. The NIR profiles obtained for antibiotic-treated susceptible organisms showed a strong and continuous decrease in value. In addition, the intensity of the NIR value decrease for susceptible cells varied in proportion to the amount of antibiotic added. Qualitatively similar profiles were found for the chemically treated and heat-shocked bacteria. In contrast, antibiotic-resistant cells showed no change in the NIR values in the presence of the drug to which it is resistant. The data presented here show that changes in the dielectric permittivity of a cell suspension are directly correlated with the development of a stress response as well as bacterial recovery from stressful conditions. The availability of a practical sensing modality capable of monitoring changes in the dielectric properties of stressed cells could have wide applications in areas ranging from the detection of bacterial infections in clinical specimens to antibiotic susceptibility testing and drug discovery.

  12. Rapid paper disk test for identification of Helicobacter pylori in mixed cultures of gerbil gastric homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Juarez, Israel; Rangel-Vega, Adrian; Romero, Irma

    2010-10-01

    A method denominated rapid paper disk test (RPDT) was developed to identify H. pylori colonies in complex cultures obtained from gerbil gastric homogenates. Identification is based on a characteristic reaction pattern (RP) for H. pylori colonies given by the combination of the urease-oxidase activities on a paper disk. Compared to the RPs obtained from gerbil's intestinal tract isolated bacteria, H. pylori RP is completely distinguishable, even from those of bacteria that share one or both activities as are Aerococcus urinae, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus brevis, Corynebacterium pseudogenitalium, and Staphylococcus simulans, as well as from those produced by collection strains Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This method allows the practical quantification of H. pylori colonies in highly contaminated plates. RPDT has the following advantages over other methodologies that use indicators in the medium: it employs two of the three routinely used H. pylori biochemical identification tests, the reagents do not interfere with bacterial viability, there are no restrictions in relation to the medium used, and it is a simple, fast, and low-cost method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Persistent negative illness perceptions despite long-term biochemical control of acromegaly: novel application of the drawing test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Pereira, Alberto M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Kaptein, Adrian A.

    2015-01-01

    Context and objective: Patients with acromegaly have persistent complaints despite long-term biochemical control. Drawings can be used to assess patients' perceptions about their disease. We aimed to explore the utility of the drawing test and its relation to illness perceptions and quality of life

  14. Biochemical methane potential tests of different autoclaved and microwaved lignocellulosic organic fractions of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorini, Isabella; Baldi, Francesco; Carnevale, Ennio Antonio; Corti, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to enhance the anaerobic biodegradability and methane production of two synthetic Organic Fractions of Municipal Solid Waste with different lignocellulosic contents by assessing microwave and autoclave pre-treatments. Biochemical Methane Potential assays were performed for 21days. Changes in the soluble fractions of the organic matter (measured by soluble chemical oxygen demand, carbohydrates and proteins), the first order hydrolysis constant kh and the cumulated methane production at 21days were used to evaluate the efficiency of microwaving and autoclaving pretreatments on substrates solubilization and anaerobic digestion. Microwave treatment led to a methane production increase of 8.5% for both the tested organic fractions while autoclave treatment had an increase ranging from 1.0% to 4.4%. Results showed an increase of the soluble fraction after pre-treatments for both the synthetic organic fractions. Soluble chemical oxygen demand observed significant increases for pretreated substrates (up to 219.8%). In this regard, the mediocre results of methane's production led to the conclusion that autoclaving and microwaving resulted in the hydrolysis of a significant fraction of non-biodegradable organic substances recalcitrant to anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of headspace pressure on methane production in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, David; Montes, Jesús A; Rico, José Luis; Rico, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    The biochemical methane potential test is the most commonly applied method to determine methane production from organic wastes. One of the parameters measured is the volume of biogas produced which can be determined manometrically by keeping the volume constant and measuring increases in pressure. In the present study, the effect of pressure accumulation in the headspace of the reactors has been studied. Triplicate batch trials employing cocoa shell, waste coffee grounds and dairy manure as substrates have been performed under two headspace pressure conditions. The results obtained in the study showed that headspace overpressures higher than 600mbar affected methane production for waste coffee grounds. On the contrary, headspace overpressures within a range of 600-1000mbar did not affect methane production for cocoa shell and dairy manure. With the analyses performed in the present work it has not been possible to determine the reasons for the lower methane yield value obtained for the waste coffee grounds under high headspace pressures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. RAPID TEST METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF ANTIFREEZE ADDITIVE EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gushchin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Usage of chemical additives while executing concrete works at negative temperatures is considered as a convenient and economical method. Range of the used antifreeze additives is rather wide. A great number of new additives are advertised but their characteristics have not been practically studied. Evaluation of the antifreeze additive efficiency is unfortunately rather long process and it does not provide comprehensive data on concrete structure formation processes. Due to this development of rapid and comprehensive methodology for construction companies is urgently required.Freezing processes of antifreeze additive aqueous solutions and hardening of cement paste with them have been investigated in the paper. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of freezing point for aqueous solutions of chemical additives of various applications. Identity of  freezing point for a chemical additive aqueous solution and cement paste with an equal concentration of the additive in the paste pore fluid has been determined while taking  calcium nitrate and sodium formate additives as an example. The paper demonstrates the possibility to evaluate efficiency of antifreeze additive action on the basis of kinetics in temperature changes of the cement paste with additives by its consecutive freezing and defrosting.  A methodology for operational evaluation in the field of chemical additive application for concreting items at negative temperatures has been offered in the paper.  The methodology does not require  deficient and expensive test-equipment. It can be applied at ordinary construction companies and it is comprehensible for personnel of low-qualification.  The paper shows the possibility to develop an original methodology for designing concrete structure which is based on operating efficiency determinations  for single and integrated antifreeze additives.

  17. A Highly Sensitive Rapid Diagnostic Test for Chagas Disease That Utilizes a Recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, C. A.; Barney, R. S.; Crudder, C. H.; Wilmoth, J. L.; Stevens, D. S.; Mora-Garcia, S.; Yanovsky, M. J.; Weigl, B. H.; Yanovsky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Improved diagnostic tests for Chagas disease are urgently needed. A new lateral flow rapid test for Chagas disease is under development at PATH, in collaboration with Laboratorio Lemos of Argentina, which utilizes a recombinant antigen for detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. To evaluate the performance of this test, 375 earlier characterized serum specimens from a region where Chagas is endemic were tested using a reference test (the Ortho T. cruzi ELISA, Johnson & Johnson), a commercially available rapid test (Chagas STAT-PAK, Chembio), and the PATH–Lemos rapid test. Compared to the composite reference tests, the PATH–Lemos rapid test demonstrated an optimal sensitivity of 99.5% and specificity of 96.8%, while the Chagas STAT-PAK demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.3% and specificity of 99.5%. These results indicate that the PATH–Lemos rapid test shows promise as an improved and reliable tool for screening and diagnosis of Chagas disease. PMID:21342808

  18. Changes in biochemical and microbiological parameters during the period of rapid composting of dairy manure with rice chaff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongyang; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Hongsheng; Xu, Dabing; Tang, Zhu; Yu, Guanghui; Xu, Zhihui; Shen, Qirong

    2011-10-01

    Various parameters were measured during the period of composting of dairy manure and rice chaff in different ratios (dairy manure/rice chaff=V/V, pile 1: 75/25; pile 2: 80/20; pile 3: 85/15) to evaluate their suitability as indicators for the composting process. The temperature in pile 1 increased rapidly and remained above 60 °C for 30 days, while the temperature in pile 3 increased slowly relative to the other two piles. Furthermore, the degradation of organic substrates, as indicated by the reduction of C/N ratio, was rapid in pile 1 (below 20% 28 days after beginning of the composting). The major fluctuations of various water-soluble fractions in all piles were observed during the first 3 weeks, and the results in general showed that the highest microbial populations and enzymatic activities also appeared in this phase. Various parameters indicated that the rapid composting method was a feasible one for treating agricultural wastes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Microscopy for Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presumptive treatment of malaria results in significant overuse of antimalarials. This study compared the diagnostic accuracy of Histidine Rich Protein II and plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH)-based Rapid Kits( RDTs)and using expert microscopy as the gold standard for the detection of falciparum and ...

  20. Comparison of Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Microscopy for Malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Presumptive treatment of malaria results in significant overuse of antimalarials. This study compared the diagnostic accuracy of. Histidine Rich Protein II and plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH)-based Rapid Kits( RDTs)and using expert microscopy as the gold standard for the detection of falciparum and ...

  1. Evaluation of nine HIV rapid test kits to develop a national HIV testing algorithm in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orji Bassey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-cold chain-dependent HIV rapid testing has been adopted in many resource-constrained nations as a strategy for reaching out to populations. HIV rapid test kits (RTKs have the advantage of ease of use, low operational cost and short turnaround times. Before 2005, different RTKs had been used in Nigeria without formal evaluation. Between 2005 and 2007, a study was conducted to formally evaluate a number of RTKs and construct HIV testing algorithms. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess and select HIV RTKs and develop national testing algorithms. Method: Nine RTKs were evaluated using 528 well-characterised plasma samples. These comprised 198 HIV-positive specimens (37.5% and 330 HIV-negative specimens (62.5%, collected nationally. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with 95% confidence intervals for all nine RTKs singly and for serial and parallel combinations of six RTKs; and relative costs were estimated. Results: Six of the nine RTKs met the selection criteria, including minimum sensitivity and specificity (both ≥ 99.0% requirements. There were no significant differences in sensitivities or specificities of RTKs in the serial and parallel algorithms, but the cost of RTKs in parallel algorithms was twice that in serial algorithms. Consequently, three serial algorithms, comprising four test kits (BundiTM, DetermineTM, Stat-Pak® and Uni-GoldTM with 100.0% sensitivity and 99.1% – 100.0% specificity, were recommended and adopted as national interim testing algorithms in 2007. Conclusion: This evaluation provides the first evidence for reliable combinations of RTKs for HIV testing in Nigeria. However, these RTKs need further evaluation in the field (Phase II to re-validate their performance.

  2. Preparation of biofilm electrode with Xanthomonas sp. and carbon nanotubes and the application to rapid biochemical oxygen demand analysis in high-salt condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Yu, Zhiguo; Sun, Jinfeng; Jia, Jianbo; Li, Genxi

    2008-08-01

    A Xanthomonas sp. was isolated from the sludge on the drain outlet of a pharmaceutical factory. Then, the bacterium and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were co-attached to an oxygen electrode for rapid analysis of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The response current was linear with BOD values in the range 10 to 300 mg/L for standard BOD solution with a response time of 35 seconds (R = 0.9994) and 20 to 580 mg/L for pharmaceutical wastewater with a response time < or =200 seconds (R = 0.9985), which means that this modified electrode might be used for online BOD analysis of pharmaceutical wastewater. Further studies revealed that the modified electrode can be used for BOD measurement in a high-salt condition. Also, the bacterium/CNTs biofilm can maintain its activity and good performance, even after being sealed and stored at 4 degrees C for 50 days.

  3. Functional testing using rapid prototyped components and optical measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykes, Catherine; Buckberry, Clive; Dale, Martin; Reeves, Mark; Towers, David

    1999-11-01

    Rapid prototyping manufacturing methods such as stereo-lithography, fused deposition modelling, enable real parts to be produced very quickly from CAD models but because the parts are produced in materials which are different from the final component, these cannot readily be used for assessing structural integrity. Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) enables full-field measurement of surface displacements, both static and dynamic to be made rapidly. This paper proposes the use of these two techniques together to enable the response of parts to static and dynamic loading to be assessed early on in the design process. It should be possible to make a qualitative assessment by observing the form of the deformation or vibration pattern produced and it may also be possible to make quantitative measurement by developing suitable scaling methods. Some initial experiments have been made looking at the vibration of flat plates and further proposed work is outlined.

  4. Acceptability and feasibility of HIV testing in general medicine by ELISA or rapid test from finger-stick whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demorat, Hubert; Lopes, Amanda; Chopin, Dorothée; Delcey, Véronique; Clevenbergh, Philippe; Simoneau, Guy; Evans, John; Mouly, Stéphane; Bergmann, Jean-François; Sellier, Pierre

    2018-02-22

    Guidelines recommend routine universal HIV testing in adults to reduce the pool of infected patients unaware of their status, without specific recommendations concerning the method. We compared acceptability and feasibility of HIV testing by ELISA tests or rapid tests from finger-stick whole blood. Prospective randomized multi-center study comparing acceptability and feasibility of routine universal HIV testing by ELISA tests, with a charge, subsequently reimbursed by Social Security for affiliated patients, or rapid tests from finger-stick whole blood, without any charge from the patients or the general practitioner for the study. A single investigator performed all interventions. After consent, all adults (18-70 years old) consulting their general practitioner in Paris, France, unaware of their status, were enrolled. Testing was performed immediately for the patients in the rapid test arm; a prescription was given for testing in a lab for the patients in the ELISA arm. The primary endpoint was acceptability of each method. The secondary endpoint was feasibility of each method, assessed one month after the consultation. Two hundred and seventy patients were enrolled: 133 patients in the ELISA arm, 137 in the rapid test arm. Acceptability of the rapid test (92%) was higher than that of the ELISA (63.9%), Pacceptable and feasible than ELISA for routine universal HIV testing. A larger use of rapid tests, ideally free of charge, by general practitioners could reduce the pool of infected patients unaware of their status. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Development of molecular tests for rapid detection of enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavzori, M; Uriel, N; Porat, N; Dagan, R; Ambar, R; Shpilberg, O; Cohen, D

    2000-05-01

    Amplification of specific DNA sequences by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enables rapid, sensitive and direct, specific identification of pathogens at very low concentrations in clinical samples. Studies in recent years have reported identification of several enteropathogens directly from stool samples by PCR. The amplification process includes the use of primers complementary to the DNA sequences specific to the pathogen, thus relying on the pathogen's genotype, rather than its phenotype on which identification by the methods of classical microbiology were based. We have developed PCR protocols for the differential identification of enteropathogens resembling the normal flora (enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), E. coli O-157), Shigella spp, and the detection of enteropathogens that can not be grown on classic growth media (Norwalk virus). The amplification process is inhibited by several substrates present in fecal material (phenol, hemoglobin), limiting DNA extraction by phenol. The protocols we have developed for direct detection of Shigella spp and ETEC in stools circumvent inhibition of PCR by the use of a 4-hour pre-enrichment step in brain-heart infusion broth. Rapid and accurate identification of enteropathogens is important for prompt and focused intervention to stop the chain of transmission in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in military and civilian populations.

  6. Ship-borne measurements of microbial enzymatic activity: A rapid biochemical indicator for microbial water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Loken, Luke; Crawford, John; Schramm, Paul; Sorsa, Kirsti; Kuhn, Catherine; Savio, Domenico; Striegl, Rob; Butman, David; Stanley, Emily; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of aquatic ecosystems by human and animal wastes is a global concern for water quality. Disclosing fate and transport processes of fecal indicator organism (FIO) in large water bodies is a big challenge due to material intensive and time consuming methods used in microbiological water quality monitoring. In respect of utilization of large surface water resources there is a dearth of rapid microbiological methods that allow a near-real time health related water quality monitoring to be implemented into early warning systems. The detection of enzymatic activities has been proposed as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water and water resources (Cabral, 2010; Farnleitner et al., 2001, 2002). Methods such as the beta-D-Glucuronidase assay (GLUC), targeting FIO such as E. coli, were established. New automated enzymatic assays have been implemented during the last years into on-site monitoring stations, ranging from ground- to surface waters (Ryzinska-Paier et al., 2014; Stadler et al., 2017, 2016). While these automated enzymatic methods cannot completely replace assays for culture-based FIO enumeration, they yielded significant information on pollution events and temporal dynamics on a catchment specific basis, but were restricted to stationary measurements. For the first time we conducted ship-borne and automated measurements of enzymatic GLUC activity on large fresh water bodies, including the Columbia River, the Mississippi River and Lake Mendota. Not only are automated enzymatic assays technically feasible from a mobile vessel, but also can be used to localize point sources of potential microbial fecal contamination, such as tributaries or storm drainages. Spatial and temporal patterns of enzymatic activity were disclosed and the habitat specific correlation with microbiological standard assays for FIO determined due to reference samples. The integration of rapid and automated enzymatic assays into well-established systems

  7. Rapid ATP-Glow for Biological Decontamination Efficacy Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ho, Winston

    2003-01-01

    Report developed under STTR contract for topic "Army02-T016". A plate count method has been traditionally used to determine the effectiveness of anti-microbial agents in decontamination efficacy testing...

  8. Rapid Levothyroxine Absorption Testing: A Case Series of Nonadherent Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Balla, Mamtha; Jhingan, Ram M.; Rubin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nonadherence to levothyroxine therapy is one cause of persistent hypothyroidism. To distinguish nonadherence from malabsorption, a levothyroxine absorption test is required. Typically, this test measures the serum free thyroxine (FT4) response to 1000 mcg of oral levothyroxine over 4 to 24 hours. Published data indicate that serum levels of FT4 are at or near their peak 2 hours after levothyroxine ingestion. Objectives: We present the successful completion of 2-hour levothyroxine ...

  9. An Analysis of Test And Evaluation in Rapid Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Authority MDAP Major Defense Acquisition Program MIL-STD Military Standard MOE Measure of Effectiveness MOP Measure of Performance MOT Multi...University (DAU) efforts to educate the Acquisition Workforce. It is used to facilitate T&E course work, and in the field, to provide a better understanding...conducted Performance Qualification Testing, Logistics and Maintainability Demonstration (LMD), and Multiservice Operational Testing ( MOT ). DR SKO

  10. A rapid qualitative test for suspected ethylene glycol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Heather; Nelson, Lewis S; Hoffman, Robert S

    2008-07-01

    Many hospitals must send out ethylene glycol (EG) samples to a reference laboratory, and delays in diagnosis and treatment may occur. A qualitative colorimetric test (ethylene glycol test [EGT] kit), already in use by veterinarians, gives results in 30 minutes with little expertise or cost. The EGT reliably detects the presence of EG in spiked human serum samples. The objective of this study was to prospectively assess the sensitivity and specificity of the EGT kit in actual clinical samples submitted for EG testing by the criterion standard gas chromatography (GC). Blood samples from patients with suspected toxic alcohol poisoning submitted to a reference laboratory were tested by GC. An investigator blinded to the GC results tested the same sample with the EGT kit following the manufacturer's instructions and using the internal control. Three physicians also blinded to the GC results categorized the sample as positive for EG, negative, or inconclusive. Interrater reliability was assessed with a kappa statistic (kappa). Results of the EGT kit testing were then compared to those from GC testing. Data are reported on 24 samples submitted. By GC, 15 samples were confirmed for EG (range 27-281 mg/dL), 5 were confirmed for methanol (ME; range 64-101 mg/dL), and 4 were negative for both alcohols. The EGT was unanimously positive in all confirmed EG samples and negative in all ME samples. In one of the negative samples, an ambiguous result occurred and was counted as a false-positive. Interobserver agreement with the EGT was high (kappa = 0.909; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.735 to 1.0). Sensitivity and specificity were 100% (95% CI = 70% to 100%) and 88.8% (95% CI = 52% to 100%), respectively. The EGT appears to be a reliable qualitative test in cases of suspected human EG poisoning.

  11. Is Serial Testing Required to Diagnose Imported Malaria in the Era of Rapid Diagnostic Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Janet M.; Juneja, Surender; Manitta, Joseph; Whitehead, Susan; Maxwell, Ellen; Goh, Wai-Keong; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Eisen, Damon P.

    2013-01-01

    Exclusion of malaria traditionally requires three negative serial thick and thin blood films. However, many clinical laboratories now routinely perform rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in addition to blood films when malaria is suspected. We sought to determine whether serial testing is necessary in this setting. We examined 388 cases of malaria diagnosed during 1999–2010 at three laboratories in Melbourne, Australia. For each case, we ascertained whether the diagnosis was made on initial or follow-up testing. Nine cases (3.5%) were diagnosed after a negative initial blood film and RDT: 7 Plasmodium vivax, 1 P. ovale, and 1 P. falciparum. Of four case-patients with P. vivax in which clinical data were available, all had recent exposure to antimalarial medication. Our data suggest that among patients who have not received recent anti-malarial therapy, and when RDTs are performed and blood films are prepared, most malaria diagnoses are made by using the first set of tests. PMID:23208885

  12. Introducing rapid tests for malaria into the retail sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchinson, Eleanor; Hutchison, Coll; Lal, Sham

    2017-01-01

    RDTs) into drug shops is coming under increased scrutiny. Those in favour argue that it enables the harmonisation of policy around testing and treatment for malaria and maintains a focus on market-based solutions to healthcare. Despite the enthusiasm among many global health actors for this policy option...... in drug shops during a trial in Mukono District, Uganda. This paper reports the unintended consequences of their introduction. It describes how the test engendered trust in the professional competence of DSVs; was misconstrued by clients and providers as enabling a more definitive diagnosis of disease...

  13. Rapid determination of the hypoxanthine increase in ischemic exercise tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, P. A.; Zwart, R.; Bär, P. R.; de Visser, M.; van der Helm, H. J.

    1988-01-01

    After ischemic exercise tests, performed to detect glycogenoses or myoadenylate deaminase (EC 3.5.4.6) deficiency, the increases in serum lactate and ammonia usually are measured. Determination of hypoxanthine instead of ammonia can also be used to show myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, but HPLC of

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of rapid urease test for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The strong association of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with dyspepsia has caused a major paradigm shift in patients' management. It has been observed that histology is usually employed as the routine test for the diagnosing H. pylori in centres where Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) is available in ...

  15. Efficacy of a Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test (DRIT) For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabies is an acute, infectious disease mostly transmitted through bites from an infected animal. Dogs majorly transmit rabies to humans. Human rabies is not curable once clinical signs commence, but can be prevented. The aim of this study was to find an appropriate diagnostic test suitable for use in Nigeria and other ...

  16. Comparative analysis of two rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims at comparing the diagnostic efficiencies of two commercially available kits for detecting Plasmodium falciparum infection in urine and blood of febrile patients for malaria diagnosis. This was an observational study in which matched blood and urine from symptomatic patients were tested for malaria using two ...

  17. [HIV screening through rapid testing to pregnant women in the Family Medicine Unit 171].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Hernández, Gustavo; Uriostegui-Espíritu, Lizbeth Carlota; Delgado-Quiñones, Edna Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Coverage for HIV in our country through the rapid test has increased, from 8.2 % in 2006 to 59.8 % in 2012; however, it is still insufficient. The objective is to determine the prevalence of HIV screening through rapid testing to pregnant women in the Unidad de Medicina Familiar (UMF) 171. It was carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study with non-probability sampling that included pregnant women of any age who came to birth control in the UMF 171 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Review of medical records was applied as a tool to gather information on the rapid test. A sample of 85 patients was calculated and descriptive statistical analysis was performed. 85 patient records were reviewed in control pregnancy. Rapid testing for detection of antibodies to HIV was performed in 79 patients (93 %). In nine (10 %) of the patients who underwent the test, the result was not reported in their file. In six patients (7 %) of the total sample the rapid test was not requested or performed. The result of all rapid tests reported was HIV negative. There is an increase in the coverage of rapid HIV testing in pregnant women; however, not reporting and not requesting the test are still common problems in the early detection of HIV infection in pregnant women.

  18. Rapid Serological Tests Ineffectively Screen for HIV Exposure in HIV-Positive Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urick, Brittany; Fong, Youyi; Okiira, Christopher; Nabukeera-Barungi, Nicolette; Nansera, Denis; Ochola, Emmanuel; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Bigira, Victor; Ssewanyana, Isaac; Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Peter, Trevor; Ghadrshenas, Anisa; Vojnov, Lara; Kiyaga, Charles

    2018-03-01

    Data on the performance and utility of rapid serological tests in infants to determine HIV exposure are unclear and in some instances contradictory. This study sought to understand the performance of rapid serological tests in high HIV burden, high Option B+ coverage settings to be used as an HIV exposure screening tool. A total of 3600 infants up to 24 months of age at 4 regional hospitals in Uganda were systematically enrolled and tested simultaneously using both HIV rapid serological and nucleic acid-based tests. Only 58 of the 94 HIV-positive infants who received both rapid serological and nucleic acid-based tests were positive with the rapid serological test (sensitivity: 61.7%; 95% confidence interval: 51.1 to 71.5). Using rapid serological tests to screen infants for exposure to HIV and follow-up nucleic acid-based testing would have missed 38.3% (36 of 94) of HIV-positive infants. Finally, several HIV-positive infants who were negative by rapid serological test presented to well-child entry points and were considered healthy. All 3 HIV-positive infants presenting to outreach and immunization were negative by rapid serological testing and 73% (8 of 11) presenting to outpatient. These data suggest that the use of rapid serological tests may have inadequate performance as an indicator of exposure and potential HIV infection among infants presenting at both well-child (immunization and community outreach) and sick-infant (nutrition and inpatient) entry points. To improve the identification of HIV-positive infants, nucleic acid-based testing should instead be considered in infants aged younger than 18 months.

  19. Discordant rapid HIV tests: lessons from a low-resource community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, A A; Kuti, M A; Audu, R A; Muyibi, S A; Imhansoloeva, M; Mosuro, O A; Solanke, E A; Akpa, O M; Irabor, A E; Ladipo, Mma; Berzins, B; Robertson, K; Ogunniyi, A; Adewole, I F; Taiwo, B O

    2018-01-01

    HIV rapid antibody tests are widely used in Africa, but dual testing sometimes produces discordant results. It is not clear if discordant rapid HIV tests should always heighten suspicion by frontline health workers that early HIV infection is present. Some studies have reported that discordant rapid tests have value for identifying early HIV infection in high HIV prevalence populations. It is not known if rapid test performance influenced this conclusion, or if this observation will hold true for low HIV prevalence populations. We therefore explored the occurrence of discordant rapid HIV tests in a low-resource community. A cross-sectional sample of HIV status-unaware adults with recent exposure to unsafe sex was assessed using a validated risk-based tool (University of North Carolina (UNC)-Malawi Risk Screening Score) for acute HIV infection. Participants received rapid testing with Determine™ HIV 1/2 and Uni-Gold™ HIV assays, plus plasma HIV-1 antigen testing with the COBAS ® Ampliprep/COBAS ® Taqman ® HIV-1 assay, followed by western blot in those with detected HIV-1 antigen. Of 408 participants, 1.0% were confirmed to have established HIV infection. The discordance between rapid tests at initial screening was 2.45 and 2.94% when the two assays were used sequentially and simultaneously, respectively. Discordant rapid tests were strongly associated with risk scores > 2 [odds ratio (OR) 10.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.35-50.43], and with detected HIV-1 RNA (OR 26.06; 95% CI 3.91-173.60). When the sample occurrence of discordance between the first and second tests is below 5%, discordant rapid tests in an adult with sexual risk behaviour should trigger strong suspicion of early HIV infection in low HIV prevalence populations. © 2017 British HIV Association.

  20. The cost of implementing rapid HIV testing in sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggman, Ashley A; Feaster, Daniel J; Leff, Jared A; Golden, Matthew R; Castellon, Pedro C; Gooden, Lauren; Matheson, Tim; Colfax, Grant N; Metsch, Lisa R; Schackman, Bruce R

    2014-09-01

    Rapid HIV testing in high-risk populations can increase the number of persons who learn their HIV status and avoid spending clinic resources to locate persons identified as HIV infected. We determined the cost to sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics of point-of-care rapid HIV testing using data from 7 public clinics that participated in a randomized trial of rapid testing with and without brief patient-centered risk reduction counseling in 2010. Costs included counselor and trainer time, supplies, and clinic overhead. We applied national labor rates and test costs. We calculated median clinic start-up costs and mean cost per patient tested, and projected incremental annual costs of implementing universal rapid HIV testing compared with current testing practices. Criteria for offering rapid HIV testing and methods for delivering nonrapid test results varied among clinics before the trial. Rapid HIV testing cost an average of US $22/patient without brief risk reduction counseling and US $46/patient with counseling in these 7 clinics. Median start-up costs per clinic were US $1100 and US $16,100 without and with counseling, respectively. Estimated incremental annual costs per clinic of implementing universal rapid HIV testing varied by whether or not brief counseling is conducted and by current clinic testing practices, ranging from a savings of US $19,500 to a cost of US $40,700 without counseling and a cost of US $98,000 to US $153,900 with counseling. Universal rapid HIV testing in STD clinics with same-day results can be implemented at relatively low cost to STD clinics, if brief risk reduction counseling is not offered.

  1. [Methods for differentiation of streptococci: comparison of serological, biochemical methods, triple- and camp-test (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, U; Büsse, G

    1980-01-01

    Methods for group classification of beta-hemolytic streptococci were compared: biochemical versus serological techniques as well as Triple- and CAMP-Test. Attention was mainly put to the Phadebact streptococcus test, based on the co-agglutination principle which is intended to differentiate groups A, B, C and G. This test is easy to conduct and allows grouping within minutes. Classification was done with 50 strains of clinical isolates. Approximately 88% of the strains were identified as group A and B which are the most important in human streptococcal infections. The co-agglutination gave false results with 6 strains (8%), one of which was group A. The others turned out to be S. milleri, they could be identified only by the Lancefield precipitin test. In cases where several Phadebact antisera lead to an agglutination of one strain, the questionable result must be verified by conventional methods.

  2. A novel technique for detecting antibiotic-resistant typhoid from rapid diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Fhogartaigh, Caoimhe; Dance, David A B; Davong, Viengmon; Tann, Pisey; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Turner, Paul; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N

    2015-05-01

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant typhoid is increasing. An antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic test (RDT) can rapidly diagnose typhoid from blood cultures. A simple, inexpensive molecular technique performed with DNA from positive RDTs accurately identified gyrA mutations consistent with phenotypic susceptibility testing results. Field diagnosis combined with centralized molecular resistance testing could improve typhoid management and surveillance in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2015, Nic Fhogartaigh et al.

  3. Evaluation of accuracy of OraQuick ® rapid test in detecting HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The accuracy of OraQuick® rapid test in detecting HIV 1 & 2 antibodies in saliva is evaluated against the blood EIA benchmark tests with confirmatory testing, against which OraQuick® accuracy is determined. Method: Paired samples of saliva and blood from 281 Nigerians were tested for HIV antibodies, and ...

  4. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure... necessary. The test plate should be rocked from side to side a few times to mix the antigen and blood...

  5. Rapid high temperature field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcite scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    A test method is described which allows the rapid field testing of calcite scale inhibitors in high- temperature geothermal brines. Five commercial formulations, chosen on the basis of laboratory screening tests, were tested in brines with low total dissolved solids at ca 500 F. Four were found to be effective; of these, 2 were found to be capable of removing recently deposited scale. One chemical was tested in the full-flow brine line for 6 wks. It was shown to stop a severe surface scaling problem at the well's control valve, thus proving the viability of the rapid test method. (12 refs.)

  6. Rapid tests for diagnosis of leptospirosis: current tools and emerging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardeau, Mathieu; Bertherat, Eric; Jancloes, Michel; Skouloudis, Andreas N; Durski, Kara; Hartskeerl, Rudy A

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis with a worldwide distribution but is more commonly found in impoverished populations in developing countries and tropical regions with frequent flooding. The rapid detection of leptospirosis is a critical step to effectively manage the disease and to control outbreaks in both human and animal populations. Therefore, there is a need for accurate and rapid diagnostic tests and appropriate surveillance and alert systems to identify outbreaks. This review describes current in-house methods and commercialized tests for the rapid diagnosis of acute leptospirosis. It focuses on diagnostic tests that can be performed with minimal training and limited equipment in less-developed and newly industrialized countries, particularly in resource-limited settings and with results in minutes to less than 4 hours. We also describe recent technological advances in the field of diagnostic tests that could allow for the development of innovative rapid tests in the near future. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of rapid radiometric method for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Libonati, J.P.; Middlebrook, G.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 106 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were tested for drug susceptibility by the conventional 7H11 plate method and by a new rapid radiometric method using special 7H12 liquid medium with 14 C-labeled substrate. Results obtained by the two methods were compared for rapidity, sensitivity, and specificity of the new test method. There was 98% overall agreement between the results obtained by the two methods. Of a total of 424 drug tests, only 8 drug results did not agree, mostly in the case of streptomycin. This new procedure was found to be rapid, with 87% of the tests results reportable within 4 days and 98% reportable within 5 days as compared to the usual 3 weeks required with the conventional indirect susceptibility test method. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the rapid radiometric method seems to have the potential for routine laboratory use and merits further investigations

  8. The role of inoculum's origin on the methane yield of different substrates in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Konrad; Lippert, Thomas; Drewes, Jörg E

    2017-11-01

    The impact of the inoculum's origin on the methane yield in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests was investigated. The three most commonly applied inocula were chosen, originating from (i) a digester of a wastewater treatment plant, (ii) an agricultural biogas plant treating manure and energy crops, and (iii) a biowaste treatment plant. The performance of each inoculum was tested with four different substrates, namely sewage sludge, dried whole crop maize, food waste, and microcrystalline cellulose as a typical reference material. The results revealed that the choice of inoculum had no significant impact on the specific methane yield of the tested substrates except for cellulose. Still, the specific methane production rate was significantly influenced by the choice of the inoculum especially for sewage sludge, but also for food waste and cellulose, whereas it became clear that an inoculum adapted to a substrate is beneficial for a speedy digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Qualification Testing Versus Quantitative Reliability Testing of PV - Gaining Confidence in a Rapidly Changing Technology: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hacke, Peter L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitfield, Kent [Underwriters Laboratories; Phillips, Nancy [DuPont; Sample, Tony [European Commission; Monokroussos, Christos [TUV Rheinland; Hsi, Edward [Swiss RE; Wohlgemuth, John [PowerMark Corporation; Seidel, Peter [First Solar; Jahn, Ulrike [TUV Rheinland; Tanahashi, Tadanori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; Chen, Yingnan [China General Certification Center; Jaeckel, Bengt [Underwriters Laboratories; Yamamichi, Masaaki [RTS Corporation

    2017-10-05

    Continued growth of PV system deployment would be enhanced by quantitative, low-uncertainty predictions of the degradation and failure rates of PV modules and systems. The intended product lifetime (decades) far exceeds the product development cycle (months), limiting our ability to reduce the uncertainty of the predictions for this rapidly changing technology. Yet, business decisions (setting insurance rates, analyzing return on investment, etc.) require quantitative risk assessment. Moving toward more quantitative assessments requires consideration of many factors, including the intended application, consequence of a possible failure, variability in the manufacturing, installation, and operation, as well as uncertainty in the measured acceleration factors, which provide the basis for predictions based on accelerated tests. As the industry matures, it is useful to periodically assess the overall strategy for standards development and prioritization of research to provide a technical basis both for the standards and the analysis related to the application of those. To this end, this paper suggests a tiered approach to creating risk assessments. Recent and planned potential improvements in international standards are also summarized.

  10. Comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR and biochemical tests to characterize Lactococcus garvieae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ture, M; Altinok, I; Capkin, E

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical test, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) were used to compare 42 strains of Lactococcus garvieae isolated from different regions of Turkey, Italy, France and Spain. Twenty biotypes of L. garvieae were formed based on 54 biochemical tests. ERIC-PCR of genomic DNA from different L. garvieae strains resulted in amplification of multiple fragments of DNA in sizes ranging between 200 and 5000 bp with various band intensities. After cutting DNA with ApaI restriction enzyme and running on the PFGE, 11–22 resolvable bands ranging from 2 to 194 kb were observed. Turkish isolates were grouped into two clusters, and only A58 (Italy) strain was connected with Turkish isolates. Similarities between Turkish, Spanish, Italian and French isolates were Turkey, first lactococcosis occurred in Mugla, and then, it has been spread all over the country. Based on ERIC-PCR, Spanish and Italian strains of L. garvieae were related to Mugla strains. Therefore, after comparing PFGE profiles, ERIC-PCR profiles and phenotypic characteristics of 42 strains of L. garvieae, there were no relationships found between these three typing methods. PFGE method was more discriminative than the other methods. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. evaluation of a rapid test for hiv antibodies in saliva and blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . All the tests, rapid and diagnostic, were performed in the routine diagnOStic laboratory of the Department of Medical. Virology under strictly controlled conditions, and were carried out strictly according to the manufacturer's instructions and.

  12. Analysis of the theoretical model of the rapid chloride migration test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, P.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Fisher, Gregor; Geiker, Metta Rica; Hededal, Ole; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Stang, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Chloride ion diffusion coefficient in concrete is estimated very often by using electromigration tests, among which the Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test is becoming more and more popular. Nevertheless, this test receives much criticism due to lacks in its scientific background. In this paper the

  13. Evaluation of a rapid test for HIV antibodies in saliva and blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To test whole blood and saliva for HIV antibodies (anti-HIV) using a rapid test strip capillary flow . immunoassay, and to correlate the test strip results with blood specimen results obtained from routine diagnostic antiHIV assays. Design. A prospective pilot study of selected HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals ...

  14. Recommendations for reporting results of diagnostic genetic testing (biochemical, cytogenetic and molecular genetic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claustres, Mireille; Kozich, Viktor; Dequeker, Els; Fowler, Brain; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y.; Miller, Konstantin; Oosterwijk, Cor; Peterlin, Borut; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Zimmermann, Uwe; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Hastings, Ros J.; Barton, David E.

    Genetic test results can have considerable importance for patients, their parents and more remote family members. Clinical therapy and surveillance, reproductive decisions and genetic diagnostics in family members, including prenatal diagnosis, are based on these results. The genetic test report

  15. Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Laurinavichius, K S

    1998-01-01

    Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

  16. An Evaluation of Introduction of Rapid HIV Testing in a Perinatal Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Sarah; Tulloch, Karen; Maan, Evelyn J; van Schalkwyk, Julianne; Money, Deborah M

    2017-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the roll-out of rapid HIV testing as part of an emergency Prevention of Perinatal HIV Transmission Program. Specifically, HIV prevalence in this population, the reason(s) for performing the rapid HIV test, and compliance with recommendations for antiretroviral prophylaxis were assessed. Since November 2011, all women presenting to a tertiary labour and delivery unit with unknown HIV status or with ongoing risk of HIV infection since their last HIV test were offered rapid HIV testing. Through retrospective chart review, demographic data, HIV risk and prior testing history, and antiretroviral prophylaxis, data were collected and descriptive statistics were performed. One hundred fourteen rapid HIV tests were conducted and there were two preliminary reactive rapid results (one true positive, one false positive). None of the infants was HIV infected. Sixty-three percent of women had multiple risk factors for HIV acquisition, most commonly intravenous drug use (54%). Forty-four percent of women were within the 4-week seroconversion window at the time of delivery; 25% of these women and 52% of their infants received prophylactic drug therapy. Rapid HIV testing identified a high-risk cohort and enabled aggressive management of a newly diagnosed HIV-positive pregnancy, successfully preventing perinatal HIV transmission. Risk factors for HIV acquisition were ongoing within the seroconversion window for over half of the women, impacting the utility of the test in eliminating unnecessary antiretroviral prophylaxis in this population because prophylaxis is recommended despite a negative rapid HIV test in these cases. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Providing HIV results via SMS one day after testing: more popular than rapid point-of-care tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Stephen C; Koh, Andrew; Lindsay, Heather E; Fulton, Richard B; Fernando, Suran L

    2017-06-01

    An inner Sydney sexual health service introduced the option to gay and bisexual men of receiving a negative HIV result by SMS to mobile phone one business day after venipuncture (rapid SMS). Men could also choose one of the other options: a point-of-care-test (POCT), by phone, or in-person (clinicians could also require in-person). We followed-up patients choosing the rapid SMS method to ascertain their satisfaction. During 12 months, 473 men had 591 HIV tests. Of these tests, 5.4% were POCTs, 9.1% were in-person, 24% were by phone, and 62% were rapid SMS. HIV POCTs declined from being 22% of result methods in the pre-study period to 5.4% during the rapid SMS intervention period (odds ratio 0.20, 95% CI 0.13-0.32, P SMS was sent by the next business day in 95% of cases; 96% of men were satisfied; and 95% would choose this method for their next test. Of 77 men who previously had an HIV POCT, 56 (73%) elected a rapid SMS result rather than having another POCT. The higher accuracy of conventional serology was commonly expressed as the reason for choosing rapid SMS for results.

  18. The use of the rapid osmotic fragility test as an additional test to diagnose canine immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paes, Geert; Paepe, Dominique; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    fragility by using the COFT, the COFT and ROFT gave similar results. The ROFT does not require specialized equipment, is rapid and easy to perform and can be used easily in daily practice. Although, the ROFT cannot replace other diagnostic tests, it may be a valuable additional tool to diagnose canine IMHA........ Since the classic osmotic fragility test (COFT) is time-consuming and requires specialized equipment, an easy and less labour-intensive rapid osmotic fragility test (ROFT) has been used in some countries, but its diagnostic value has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to evaluate erythrocyte...

  19. UBC®Rapid Test for detection of carcinoma in situ for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Thorsten H; Weiß, Sarah; Stephan, Carsten; Hallmann, Steffen; Barski, Dimitri; Otto, Thomas; Gerullis, Holger

    2017-05-01

    UBC ® Rapid Test is a test that detects fragments of cytokeratins 8 and 18 in urine. We present results of a multicentre study measuring UBC ® Rapid Test in bladder cancer patients and healthy controls with focus on carcinoma in situ (CIS) and high-grade bladder cancer. From our study with N = 452 patients, we made a stratified sub-analysis for carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder. Clinical urine samples were used from 87 patients with tumours of the urinary bladder (23 carcinoma in situ, 23 non-muscle-invasive low-grade tumours, 21 non-muscle-invasive high-grade tumours and 20 muscle-invasive high-grade tumours) and from 22 healthy controls. The cut-off value was defined at 10.0 µg/L. Urine samples were analysed by the UBC ® Rapid Test point-of-care system (concile Omega 100 POC reader). Pathological levels of UBC Rapid Test in urine are higher in patients with bladder cancer in comparison to the control group (p Rapid Test using the optimal threshold obtained by receiveroperated curve analysis was 0.75. Pathological values of UBC ® Rapid Test in urine are higher in patients with high-grade bladder cancer in comparison to low-grade tumours and the healthy control group. UBC ® Rapid Test has potential to be more sensitive and specific urinary protein biomarker for accurate detection of high-grade patients and could be added especially in the diagnostics for carcinoma in situ and non-muscle-invasive high-grade tumours of urinary bladder cancer.

  20. [14C]Aminopyrine breath analysis and conventional biochemical tests as predictors of survival in cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, D.A.; Kitchingman, G.; Langman, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with histologically confirmed cirrhosis were followed for up to 3.8 years after [ 14 C]aminopyrine breath analysis. Survival rates were calculated by life-table method and outcome analyzed by log rank test. A normal breath test score was associated with a higher probability of survival than a low score, although the difference was not statistically significant. A normal serum albumin was a better predictor of outcome. Survival curves constructed according to the results of breath analysis and serum albumin differed in that the former appeared to predict early survival and the latter late survival. For this reason, data were reanalyzed by subjects results for both tests. A normal breath test score and a normal serum albumin was associated with a significantly higher probability of survival than an abnormal result for either test

  1. Stressful point-of-care rapid testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Brocato, Jo; van Otterloo, Lucy; Khahlil, Khaloud; Huckabay, Loucine

    2017-09-01

    Even with technological advances in point-of-care rapid testing for HIV, hepatitis, and syphilis, individuals may still find the experience of submitting to testing, and receiving results, to be stressful. Participants completed the rapid test experience questionnaires to assess stress both prior to and after the specimen collection. Participants completed the risk behavior assessment, the coping strategies indicator, and the Barratt impulsivity scale. Participants chose which rapid tests they wanted using a list administered via computer. Logistic regression analysis was used to model self-reported stress prior to testing and after testing. A total of 1097 individuals completed testing. Individuals who scored high on avoidance reported a stressful experience at pretest (OR = 1.15, CI = 1.04, 1.26) while higher educational attainment was associated with no stress at both time points. Injection drug users, avoidant, and impulsive individuals experience stress either before or after rapid testing. Education appears to be protective against stressful testing.

  2. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal...... incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein....... The changes in heart rate, potassium levels, and haematocrit during the exercise test were similar in the two groups. The maximal obtained lactate concentration was 4.2 mmol l-1 (3.5-5.6) in the patients as compared to 4.9 mmol l-1 (3.9-5.9) in the controls (NS). The estimated anaerobic threshold of 2 mmol l...

  3. The diagnostic sensitivity of dengue rapid test assays is significantly enhanced by using a combined antigen and antibody testing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Fry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serological tests for IgM and IgG are routinely used in clinical laboratories for the rapid diagnosis of dengue and can differentiate between primary and secondary infections. Dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has been identified as an early marker for acute dengue, and is typically present between days 1-9 post-onset of illness but following seroconversion it can be difficult to detect in serum. AIMS: To evaluate the performance of a newly developed Panbio® Dengue Early Rapid test for NS1 and determine if it can improve diagnostic sensitivity when used in combination with a commercial IgM/IgG rapid test. METHODOLOGY: The clinical performance of the Dengue Early Rapid was evaluated in a retrospective study in Vietnam with 198 acute laboratory-confirmed positive and 100 negative samples. The performance of the Dengue Early Rapid in combination with the IgM/IgG Rapid test was also evaluated in Malaysia with 263 laboratory-confirmed positive and 30 negative samples. KEY RESULTS: In Vietnam the sensitivity and specificity of the test was 69.2% (95% CI: 62.8% to 75.6% and 96% (95% CI: 92.2% to 99.8 respectively. In Malaysia the performance was similar with 68.9% sensitivity (95% CI: 61.8% to 76.1% and 96.7% specificity (95% CI: 82.8% to 99.9% compared to RT-PCR. Importantly, when the Dengue Early Rapid test was used in combination with the IgM/IgG test the sensitivity increased to 93.0%. When the two tests were compared at each day post-onset of illness there was clear differentiation between the antigen and antibody markers. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that using dengue NS1 antigen detection in combination with anti-glycoprotein E IgM and IgG serology can significantly increase the sensitivity of acute dengue diagnosis and extends the possible window of detection to include very early acute samples and enhances the clinical utility of rapid immunochromatographic testing for dengue.

  4. Rapid HIV Testing and Counselling in Labour in a Northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between April and August 2004, all pregnant women in labour at JUTH, were offered rapid HIV testing and counseling with opportunity to decline testing. HIV positive women were offered the standard nevirapine mono-therapy prophylaxis regimen (HIVNET 012). Four hundred and thirty (99.8%) of the 431 pregnant women ...

  5. Assessing Arsenic Removal by Metal (Hydr)Oxide Adsorptive Media Using Rapid Small Scale Column Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) was use to evaluate the the performance of eight commercially available adsorptive media for the removal of arsenic. Side-by-side tests were conducted using RSSCTs and pilot/full-scale systems either in the field or in the laboratory. ...

  6. Evaluation of a rapid screening test for rifampicin resistance in re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study was done comparing performance of the rapid phage test with conventional culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) in AFB-positive TB patients. Setting. Five primary health clinics and one TB referral centre in the Port Elizabeth Metropolitan area, Eastern Cape. Outcome measures. Sensitivity ...

  7. Rapid Influenza Antigen Test for Diagnosis of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, Janice K.; Guevara, Hugo; Boston, Erica; Dahlke, Melissa; Nevarez, Maria; Kong, Tong; Schechter, Robert; Glaser, Carol A.; Schnurr, David P.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the QuickVue Influenza test with PCR for diagnosing pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in 404 persons with influenza-like illness. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 66%, 84%, 84%, and 64%, respectively. Rapid test results should be interpreted cautiously when pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus is suspected.

  8. The quality of rapid HIV testing in South Africa: an assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of rapid HIV testing in South Africa. Method: A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select HCT sites in eight provinces of South Africa. The study employed both semi-structured interviews with HIV testers and observation of testing sessions as a means of ...

  9. Vaginal swab specimen processing methods influence performance of rapid semen detection tests: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Marcia M; Steiner, Markus J; Rich, Kimberly D; Gallo, Maria F; Warner, Lee; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2010-09-01

    Detection of semen biomarkers in vaginal fluid can be used to assess women's recent exposure to semen. Quantitative tests for detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) perform well, but are expensive and require specialized equipment. We assessed two rapid immunochromatographic strip tests for identification of semen in vaginal swabs. We tested 581 vaginal swabs collected from 492 women. Vaginal secretions were eluted into saline, and PSA was measured using the quantitative IMx (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA) assay. Specimens were also tested using the ABAcard p30 test (Abacus Diagnostics, West Hills, CA, USA) for detection of PSA and RSID-Semen test (Independent Forensics, Hillside, IL, USA) for detection of semenogelin (Sg). Vaginal swab extraction using saline was compatible with direct assessment of vaginal swab eluates using ABAcard for PSA detection, but not for Sg detection using RSID. The rapid PSA test detected 91% of specimens containing semen compared to 74% by the rapid Sg test. Investigators are urged to optimize vaginal swab specimen preparation methods for performance of RSID or other tests to detect semen components other than PSA. Previously described methods for PSA testing are not uniformly applicable to other tests. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal...... incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein......-1 was reached at a heart rate of 124 min-1 in the patients with fibromyalgia as compared to 140 min-1 in the controls (P = 0.02). In relation to workload, the patients scored higher on a Borg scale for perceived exertion during exercise, but if the Borg score was related to lactate no significant...

  11. Mobile Image Ratiometry: A New Method for Instantaneous Analysis of Rapid Test Strips

    OpenAIRE

    Donald C. Cooper; Bryan Callahan; Phil Callahan; Lee Burnett

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe Mobile Image Ratiometry (MIR), a new method for the automated quantification of standardized rapid immunoassay strips using consumer-based mobile smartphone and tablet cameras. To demonstrate MIR we developed a standardized method using rapid immunotest strips directed against cocaine (COC) and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE). We performed image analysis of three brands of commercially available dye-conjugated anti-COC/BE antibody test strips in response to three d...

  12. Oxygen mass-transfer coefficients for different sample containers used in the headspace biochemical oxygen demand test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, B E; Kohler, D

    2001-01-01

    To accurately measure the oxygen demand of a wastewater sample in a headspace biochemical oxygen demand (HBOD) or other respirometric test, the rate of oxygen transfer to the aqueous phase must be greater than the oxygen exertion rate by the sample. Oxygen mass-transfer coefficients (Kawa) measured for 28-, 55-, and 160-mL, partially full (18 to 89%) containers placed on their sides on a shaker table and mixed at 200 r/min averaged 8.0 h-1 (range 5.4 to 9.9 h-1). For this mass-transfer coefficient, HBOD values as great as 1340 mg/L.d are possible at the start of an HBOD test, although the maximum daily HBOD declines to 192 mg/L.d at the end of the test because of oxygen depletion in the sample headspace. Mass-transfer coefficients for shaken samples decreased only at low shaking speeds (Oxygen mass-transfer coefficients for shaken samples were always larger than those (average of 1.8 h-1) measured for samples in a 250-mL bottle mixed with a stir bar on a stir plate. These mass-transfer coefficients indicate that the oxygen demand of typical full-strength municipal wastewaters can be measured in HBOD tests without oxygen transfer limiting the reaction rate.

  13. Physiological and biochemical basis of clinical liver function tests: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Lisette T.; de Graaf, Wilmar; Nibourg, Geert A. A.; Heger, Michal; Bennink, Roelof J.; Stieger, Bruno; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    To review the literature on the most clinically relevant and novel liver function tests used for the assessment of hepatic function before liver surgery. Postoperative liver failure is the major cause of mortality and morbidity after partial liver resection and develops as a result of insufficient

  14. Community-based rapid oral human immunodeficiency virus testing for tuberculosis patients in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Adrianne K; Caldas, Adolfo; Sebastian, Jose Luis; Muñoz, Maribel; Bonilla, Cesear; Yamanija, Jose; Jave, Oswaldo; Magan, Christina; Saldivar, Judith; Espiritu, Betty; Rosell, Gustavo; Bayona, Jaime; Shin, Sonya

    2012-09-01

    Among tuberculosis patients, timely diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and early antiretroviral treatment are crucial, but are hampered by a myriad of individual and structural barriers. Community-based models to provide counseling and rapid HIV testing are few but offer promise. During November 2009-April 2010, community health workers offered and performed HIV counseling and testing by using the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test to new tuberculosis cases in 22 Ministry of Health establishments and their household contacts (n = 130) in Lima, Peru. Refusal of HIV testing or study participation was low (4.7%). Intervention strengths included community-based approach with participant preference for testing site, use of a rapid, non-invasive test, and accompaniment to facilitate HIV care and family disclosure. We will expand the intervention under programmatic auspices for rapid community-based testing for new tuberculosis cases in high incidence establishments. Other potential target populations include contacts of HIV-positive persons and pregnant women.

  15. Sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care rapid combination syphilis-HIV-HCV tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L Hess

    Full Text Available New rapid point-of-care (POC tests are being developed that would offer the opportunity to increase screening and treatment of several infections, including syphilis. This study evaluated three of these new rapid POC tests at a site in Southern California.Participants were recruited from a testing center in Long Beach, California. A whole blood specimen was used to evaluate the performance of the Dual Path Platform (DPP Syphilis Screen & Confirm, DPP HIV-Syphilis, and DPP HIV-HCV-Syphilis rapid tests. The gold-standard comparisons were Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination (TPPA, rapid plasma reagin (RPR, HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA, and HIV-1/2 EIA.A total of 948 whole blood specimens were analyzed in this study. The sensitivity of the HIV tests ranged from 95.7-100% and the specificity was 99.7-100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the HCV test were 91.8% and 99.3%, respectively. The treponemal-test sensitivity when compared to TPPA ranged from 44.0-52.7% and specificity was 98.7-99.6%. The non-treponemal test sensitivity and specificity when compared to RPR was 47.8% and 98.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of the Screen & Confirm test improved to 90.0% when cases who were both treponemal and nontreponemal positive were compared to TPPA+/RPR ≥ 1 ∶ 8.The HIV and HCV on the multi-infection tests showed good performance, but the treponemal and nontreponemal tests had low sensitivity. These results could be due to a low prevalence of active syphilis in the sample population because the sensitivity improved when the gold standard was limited to those more likely to be active cases. Further evaluation of the new syphilis POC tests is required before implementation into testing programs.

  16. BIOCHEMICAL POLYMORPHISMS IN SHEEP AND THEIR POTENTIAL USE FOR PATERNITY TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernani Henkes

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability of 22 protein loci was investigated in two sheep flocks: 22 females Romney Marsh and 124 animals derived from crossbreeding between Romney Marsh and Merino Booroola, reared by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária -EMBRAPA, Bagé, RS, Brazil. Eight loci were polymorphic; the others showed no variation. The usefulness of the eight plymorphic systems (Cat, DIA I, EP-1, EsA, HbB, ME, Tf, and X Prot. in parentage tests was analyzed. The probability to find two random identical animals in each breed was estimated as 1:1000. The efficiency of these proteins for exclusion of one of two possible sires in parentage tests was about 77% both for Romney Marsh and Romney/ Booroola flocks. Although parentage tests in sheep have not been enforced in Brazil up to now, the establishment of this technique is important for the prevention of non-paternity on the excellent rams.

  17. Comparison of muscle/lean mass measurement methods: correlation with functional and biochemical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehring, B; Siglinsky, E; Krueger, D; Evans, W; Hellerstein, M; Yamada, Y; Binkley, N

    2018-03-01

    DXA-measured lean mass is often used to assess muscle mass but has limitations. Thus, we compared DXA lean mass with two novel methods-bioelectric impedance spectroscopy and creatine (methyl-d3) dilution. The examined methodologies did not measure lean mass similarly and the correlation with muscle biomarkers/function varied. Muscle function tests predict adverse health outcomes better than lean mass measurement. This may reflect limitations of current mass measurement methods. Newer approaches, e.g., bioelectric impedance spectroscopy (BIS) and creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-C), may more accurately assess muscle mass. We hypothesized that BIS and D3-C measured muscle mass would better correlate with function and bone/muscle biomarkers than DXA measured lean mass. Evaluations of muscle/lean mass, function, and serum biomarkers were obtained in older community-dwelling adults. Mass was assessed by DXA, BIS, and orally administered D3-C. Grip strength, timed up and go, and jump power were examined. Potential muscle/bone serum biomarkers were measured. Mass measurements were compared with functional and serum data using regression analyses; differences between techniques were determined by paired t tests. Mean (SD) age of the 112 (89F/23M) participants was 80.6 (6.0) years. The lean/muscle mass assessments were correlated (.57-.88) but differed (p Lean mass measures were unrelated to the serum biomarkers measured. These three methodologies do not similarly measure muscle/lean mass and should not be viewed as being equivalent. Functional tests assessing maximal muscle strength/power (grip strength and jump power) correlated with all mass measures whereas gait speed was not. None of the selected serum measures correlated with mass. Efforts to optimize muscle mass assessment and identify their relationships with health outcomes are needed.

  18. Does diurnal variation affect the first trimester fetal aneuploidy screening test biochemical parameters of fetuses with normal nuchal translucency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Mehmet Fatih; Cakmak, Bulent; Seckin, Kerem Doga; Akkas Yilmaz, Elif; Akgul, Gurcan; Togrul, Cihan; Kucukozkan, Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of diurnal variation on biochemical results of first trimester aneuploidy screening test. A total of 2725 singleton pregnant female, who had normal fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness, were included in the study during this period. Individuals were divided into two groups according to the sampling time (morning group: 09:00-11:00 am and afternoon group: 02:00-04:00 pm). Hormonal parameters (free-beta human chorionic gonadotropin [free β-hCG] and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A [PAPP-A] multiples of median [MoM] levels) of first trimester (11(+0)-13(+6) weeks) combined aneuploidy screening test were compared between morning and afternoon groups. PAPP-A MoM levels were significantly lower in the afternoon group when compared to the morning group (p = 0.001), whereas free β-hCG MoM levels were similar in the both groups (p = 0.392). Rate of high risk for Down syndrome (Combine risk >1/300) and amniocentesis ratio were found higher in the afternoon group than morning group, but there were no difference between groups for the number of fetuses with Down syndrome. Receiving the venous blood sample for first trimester aneuploidy screening test in the afternoon causes low PAPP-A MoM levels.

  19. Testing iOS apps with HadoopUnit rapid distributed GUI testing

    CERN Document Server

    Tilley, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Smartphone users have come to expect high-quality apps. This has increased the importance of software testing in mobile software development. Unfortunately, testing apps-particularly the GUI-can be very time-consuming. Exercising every user interface element and verifying transitions between different views of the app under test quickly becomes problematic. For example, execution of iOS GUI test suites using Apple's UI Automation framework can take an hour or more if the app's interface is complicated. The longer it takes to run a test, the less frequently the test can be run, which in turn re

  20. Rapid identification of mycoplasmas by indirect immunoperoxidase test using small square filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Y; Uchida, I; Hashimoto, K

    1987-01-01

    The indirect immunoperoxidase test using small, square filter paper was used for rapid identification of mycoplasmas. Colonies of type strains of 22 mycoplasma species, 3 acholeplasma species, and three Ureaplasma diversum serogroups were stained by this test with high sensitivity and specificity. All of 49 isolates from bovine materials and cell cultures were easily identified by this test, and the results agreed with those obtained by growth inhibition test. Use of filter paper made it possible to add different kinds of antisera or conjugates to the same agar plate simultaneously and also to save antiserum and conjugate. This test proved to be a simple and useful technique for rapid identification of many mycoplasma species grown on agar medium.

  1. ELISA and some biochemical tests of heterophyidae infection in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seify, Mahmoud A; El-Bahy, Nasr M; Desouky, Abdelrazek Y; Bazh, Eman K

    2012-02-01

    Heterophyiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis in Egypt, among the inhabitants living around brackish-water lakes especially fishermen, and it is a common human parasite in the Nile Delta. The experiment was done on two laboratory animals (rats and dogs), and the time of sample collection was done periodically at 6, 9, 15, 21, and 28 days post-infection to evaluate different tests required. Whole blood was collected with heparin or ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid as anticoagulant to help in the hematological studies such as red blood cells count (RBCs), white blood cells count, packed cell volume (PCV), and hemoglobin (Hb). Only marked increase in the total leuckocytic count was recorded while RBCs, PCV, and Hb were decreased in most of the results obtained. Total protein and globulin decreased while albumin and A/G ratio increased. Liver enzymes showing marked increase in aspartate aminotransferase and increase in alanine aminotransferase in dogs and rats denoting that liver has a role in the response to that infection. Kidney-function tests, urea, and creatinine showed slight increase at 6 days post-infection (d.p.i.). After preparation of different Ag (antigen) from different collected helminthes, the protein content of each was determined. The sera of infected animals were collected to find antibodies in their blood against the parasite using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and using crude heterophyid antigen collected from their intestines after scarification. The worms washed, homogenized, and then centrifuged to collect supernatant fluid as antigens. The results indicated that antibody starts to appear at 9 d.p.i. and increases till 21 and 28 d.p.i. and detection depends on antigen concentration.

  2. HIV Rapid Testing in a VA Emergency Department Setting: Cost Analysis at 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Herschel; Chan, Kee

    2015-07-01

    To conduct a comprehensive cost-minimization analysis to comprehend the financial attributes of the first 5 years of an implementation wherein emergency department (ED) registered nurses administered HIV oral rapid tests to patients. A health science research implementation team coordinated with ED stakeholders and staff to provide training, implementation guidelines, and support to launch ED registered nurse-administered HIV oral rapid testing. Deidentified quantitative data were gathered from the electronic medical records detailing quarterly HIV rapid test rates in the ED setting spanning the first 5 years. Comprehensive cost analyses were conducted to evaluate the financial impact of this implementation. At 5 years, a total of 2,620 tests were conducted with a quarterly mean of 131 ± 81. Despite quarterly variability in testing rates, regression analysis revealed an average increase of 3.58 tests per quarter. Over the course of this implementation, Veterans Health Administration policy transitioned from written to verbal consent for HIV testing, serving to reduce the time and cost(s) associated with the testing process. Our data indicated salient health outcome benefits for patients with respect to the potential for earlier detection, and associated long-run cost savings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Persistent negative illness perceptions despite long-term biochemical control of acromegaly: novel application of the drawing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Pereira, Alberto M; Romijn, Johannes A; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Biermasz, Nienke R; Kaptein, Adrian A

    2015-05-01

    Patients with acromegaly have persistent complaints despite long-term biochemical control. Drawings can be used to assess patients' perceptions about their disease. We aimed to explore the utility of the drawing test and its relation to illness perceptions and quality of life (QoL) in patients after long-term remission of acromegaly. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the utility of the drawing test. A total of 50 patients after long-term remission (mean±s.e.m., 16±1.2 years) of acromegaly were included in this study. Patients completed the drawing test (two retrospective drawings of their body perception before acromegaly and during the active phase of acromegaly, and one drawing on the current condition after long-term remission), Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised, Physical Symptom Checklist, EuroQoL-5D, and AcroQoL. Patients perceived a dramatic change in body size during the active state of the disease compared with the healthy state before the awareness of acromegaly. Patients reported that their body did not completely return to the original proportions after long-term remission. In addition, larger drawings indicated more negative consequences (Pdrawings also indicated more impaired QoL, especially disease-specific QoL (all Pdrawing test, illness perceptions, and QoL. The drawing test appears to be a novel and relatively easy tool to assess the perception of patients after long-term remission of acromegaly. The assessment of drawings may enable health care providers to appreciate the perceptions of patients with long-term remission of acromegaly, and enable discussion of symptoms and remission. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Rapid Bedside Inactivation of Ebola Virus for Safe Nucleic Acid Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstierne, Maiken Worsøe; Karlberg, Helen; Bragstad, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    Rapid bedside inactivation of Ebola virus would be a solution for the safety of medical and technical staff, risk containment, sample transport, and high-throughput or rapid diagnostic testing during an outbreak. We show that the commercially available Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer used...... for nucleic acid extraction inactivates Ebola virus. A rapid bedside inactivation method for nucleic acid tests is obtained by simply adding Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer directly into vacuum blood collection EDTA tubes using a thin needle and syringe prior to sampling. The ready-to-use inactivation vacuum...... tubes are stable for more than 4 months, and Ebola virus RNA is preserved in the Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer for at least 5 weeks independent of the storage temperature. We also show that Ebola virus RNA can be manually extracted from Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer-inactivated samples using...

  5. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates by digital time-lapse microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, M; Rosenvinge, F S; Spillum, E

    2015-01-01

    (168 antimicrobial agent-organism combinations) demonstrated 3.6 % minor, no major and 1.2 % very major errors of the oCelloScope system compared to conventional susceptibility testing, as well as a rapid and correct phenotypic detection of strains with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA......Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is essential for early and appropriate therapy. Methods with short detection time enabling same-day treatment optimisation are highly favourable. In this study, we evaluated the potential of a digital time-lapse microscope system, the o......CelloScope system, to perform rapid AST. The oCelloScope system demonstrated a very high accuracy (96 % overall agreement) when determining the resistance profiles of four reference strains, nine clinical isolates, including multi-drug-resistant isolates, and three positive blood cultures. AST of clinical isolates...

  6. [Efficient and rapid non-test tube cloning of Jatropha curcas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Yu; Lin, Jing-Ming; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2007-08-01

    To develop a new technique for efficient and rapid non-test tube cloning of the medicinal and energy- producing plant Jatropha curcas. Using the mini-stem fragment (2-3 cm) of Jatropha curcas with merely one axillary bud as the explant, the effect of an auxin IBA concentration on the plantlet regeneration was studied. When treated with 1 mg/LIBA for 1h, the explants showed the most rapid propagation. The mini-stem fragments high root regeneration ratio (96.7%), short root regeneration period (18.2-/+2.0 d), large number of new roots per explant (6.3-/+1.8), and long total root length (6.8-/+3.5 cm), demonstrating that this technique can be a simple and efficient method for rapid non-test tube cloning of Jatropha curcas of potential industrial value.

  7. Comparison of a New and Rapid Method: Brucella Coombs Gel Test With Other Diagnostic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalem, Fatma; Ergün, Ayşe Gül; Durmaz, Süleyman; Doğan, Metin; Ertuğrul, Ömür; Gündem, Seval

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to detect reliability of Brucella Coombs gel test (BCGT) by comparing with with ELISA (IgG + IgM), Standard agglutination test, and Brucella immunocapture agglutination methods in serological diagnosis of brucellosis. Brucella Coombs gel test (BCGT), Brucella ELISA (IgG + IgM), Standard agglutination test, and Brucella immunocapture agglutination tests of 78 patients with presumptive diagnosis of brucellosis which were sent to Microbiology Laboratory of Konya Numune Hospital from various regions of Konya were studied. Of 78 patients with ELISA IgG and IgM, STA, BICA and BCGT; 26, 21, 10, 12 and 12 were positive. When compared with BICA, the sensitivity and specifity of BCGT were 100% and 100%, respectively. According to results BCGT can be used as a diagnostic test in routine laboratories after more comprehensive studies in control groups and patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of an inhouse rapid ELISA test for detection of giardia in domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Hankenson, F Claire

    2010-11-01

    Sheep (Ovis aries) are increasingly used at our institution as models of human disease. Within the research environment, routine husbandry and handling of sheep has potential for transmission of zoonotic agents, including Giardia. The prevalence of Giardia in sheep may approach 68%. Classic diagnostic testing involves microscopic examination for fecal cysts or trophozoites; however, limitations of microscopy include time, labor, and potential false-negative results due to intermittent shedding. We wished to determine whether a commercial rapid ELISA used for Giardia detection in dogs and cats could be used in sheep. Fecal samples collected from sheep (n = 93) were tested with a combination of 6 methods: reference laboratory fecal flotation, reference laboratory ELISA, inhouse fecal flotation, and commercially available tests (enzyme immunoassay, direct fluorescence antibody assay, and rapid ELISA). Prevalence of Giardia infection in facility sheep was 11.8% (11 of 93 animals). Of the 11 samples considered positive, 3 were confirmed by multiple testing methods, and 5 were positive by microscopy alone. Inhouse fecal flotation for 8 samples was positive on only 1 of 2 consecutive testing days. The rapid ELISA test exhibited 0% sensitivity for sheep giardiasis. Overall, the examined methods had low sensitivities and low positive predictive values. Despite limitations, microscopic analysis of repeat fecal samples remained the most accurate diagnostic method for ovine giardiasis among the methods tested.

  9. Impact of introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on antibiotic prescribing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Heidi; Bruxvoort, Katia J; Cairns, Matthew E

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the impact of use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on prescribing of antimicrobials, specifically antibiotics, for acute febrile illness in Africa and Asia.Design Analysisof nine preselected linked and codesigned observational and randomised studies (eight cluster...... measures Proportions of patients for whom an antibiotic was prescribed in trial groups who had undergone rapid diagnostic testing compared with controls and in patients with negative test results compared with patients with positive results. A secondary aim compared classes of antibiotics prescribed...... in different settings.Results Antibiotics were prescribed to 127 052/238 797 (53%) patients in control groups and 167 714/283 683 (59%) patients in intervention groups. Antibiotics were prescribed to 40% (35 505/89 719) of patients with a positive test result for malaria and to 69% (39 400/57 080) of those...

  10. [Introduction of rapid syphilis and HIV testing in prenatal care in Colombia: qualitative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Manjarrés, María Teresa; Gaitán-Duarte, Hernando Guillermo; Caicedo, Sidia; Gómez, Berta; Pérez, Freddy

    2016-12-01

    Interpret perceptions of Colombian health professionals concerning factors that obstruct and facilitate the introduction of rapid syphilis and HIV testing in prenatal care services. A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews was carried out. A convenience sample was selected with 37 participants, who included health professionals involved in prenatal care services, programs for pregnant women, clinical laboratories, and directors of health care units or centers, as well as representatives from regional departments and the Ministry of Health. Colombia does not do widespread screening with rapid syphilis and HIV tests in prenatal care. The professionals interviewed stated they did not have prior experience in the use of rapid tests-except for laboratory staff-or in the course of action in response to a positive result. The insurance system hinders access to timely diagnosis and treatment. Health authorities perceive a need to review existing standards, strengthen the first level of care, and promote comprehensive prenatal care starting with contracts between insurers and health service institutional providers. Participants recommended staff training and integration between health-policymaking and academic entities for updating training programs. The market approach and the characteristics of the Colombian health system constitute the main barriers to implementation of rapid testing as a strategy for elimination of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis and HIV. Measures identified include making changes in contracts between insurers and health service institutional providers, adapting the timing and duration of prenatal care procedures, and training physicians and nurses involved in prenatal care.

  11. A Global Comparative Evaluation of Commercial Immunochromatographic Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Visceral Leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, Jane; Hasker, Epco; Das, Pradeep; El Safi, Sayda; Goto, Hiro; Mondal, Dinesh; Mbuchi, Margaret; Mukhtar, Maowia; Rabello, Ana; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Wasunna, Monique; Adams, Emily; Menten, Joris; Peeling, Rosanna; Boelaert, Marleen; Khanal, Basudha; Das, Murari; Oliveira, Edward; de Assis, Tália Machado; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Bhaskar, Khondaker Rifathassan; Huda, M. Mamun; Hassan, Mukidul; Abdoun, Asim Osman; Awad, Aymen; Osman, Mohamed; Prajapati, Dinesh Kumar; Gidwani, Kamlesh; Tiwary, Puja; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Celeste, Beatriz Julieta; Jacquet, Diane; Magiri, Charles; Muia, A.; Kesusu, J.; Ageed, Al Farazdag; Galal, Nuha; Osman, Osman Salih; Gupta, A. K.; Bimal, Afrad S.; Das, V. N. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Poor access to diagnosis stymies control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Antibody-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can be performed in peripheral health settings. However, there are many brands available and published reports of variable accuracy. Methods. Commercial VL RDTs

  12. Rapid prototyping of centrifugal microfluidic modules for point of care blood testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, Phophi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present modular centrifugal microfluidic devices that enable a series of blood tests to be performed towards a full blood count. The modular approach allows for rapid prototyping of device components in a generic format to complete different...

  13. [Childhood pharyngitis in Sfax (Tunisia): epidemiology and utility of a rapid streptococcal test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezghani Maalej, S; Rekik, M; Boudaouara, M; Jardak, N; Turki, S; Arous, R; Chouchane, S; Marrekchi, F; Kassis, M; Hammami, A

    2010-04-01

    The authors studied the epidemiology of pharyngitis in children and evaluated the contribution of a rapid streptococcal test. This prospective study was conducted from June 2007 to May 2008 in a primary health care institution (Policlinique de la Caisse Nationale de Sécurité Sociale) in Tunisia. Clinical findings were recorded; throat swabs were performed, and a rapid streptococcal test was made. Five hundred and four children were included in this study. The mean age was 5 years and 8 months. Culture was positive for group A streptococcus in 166 cases (32.9 %). Group A streptococcus was more frequently isolated in children aged 5 to 8 years. There was no difference in clinical features between groups of streptococcal and non-streptococcal pharyngitis. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were respectively 93.2 and 95.3 %. Pharyngitis was of bacterial origin in one third of cases; among these, group A streptococcus was the most frequent bacterium. The rapid test is a quick and reliable tool for the diagnosis of pharyngitis and hence an appropriate treatment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of rapid diagnostic tests in managing adults with pneumonia in low-resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Aston

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In well-resourced settings the systematic use of rapid diagnostics tests (e.g. pneumococcal urinary antigen test that define the causal pathogen to direct therapy has not resulted in significantly improved outcomes in adults with pneumonia. The management of pneumonia in many low-resource settings is complicated by a substantial burden of tuberculosis and HIV-associated opportunistic infections, in addition to the usual spectrum of pathogens seen in well-resourced settings. Clinical features alone do not reliably distinguish between these different aetiologies and physicians often have to treat empirically. Given the limitations in diagnostic laboratory capability present in most low-resource settings, rapid and point-of-care diagnostic tests could become valuable tools to guide treatment decisions. Pneumococcal and Legionella urinary antigen tests are specific and moderately sensitive, but their utility in low-resource settings is uncertain. The Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, USA platform and rapid assays for urinary lipoarabinomannan can substantially speed up tuberculosis diagnosis; the current challenge is to translate this into earlier treatment and hopefully improve patient outcome. In HIV-infected patients, 1-3-β-D-glucan is a serum marker of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection with excellent sensitivity. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of these rapid diagnostic assays when they are incorporated into treatment algorithms.

  15. The performance of an Histidine rich protein-2 rapid diagnostic test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality, thus there is need for quick, reliable inexpensive diagnostic tool to facilitate its prompt treatment especially in resource poor settings. Objectives: To compare the sensitivity of a locally available Histidinerich protein-2 based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) ...

  16. The use of microscopy and rapid diagnostic test in diagnosing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of microscopy and rapid diagnostic test in diagnosing the prevalence of malaria among women attending antenatal clinic in Dutsin Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria. ... Interviews were conducted and structured questionnaires administered to obtain information on the clinical and social aspects of malaria; of which the ...

  17. Cost-effectiveness of rapid susceptibility testing against second-line drugs for tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowdy, D. W.; van't Hoog, A.; Shah, M.; Cobelens, F.

    2014-01-01

    Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against second-line tuberculosis drugs (SLDs) is essential for improving outcomes among multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) cases. To evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of rapid DST for SLDs. We constructed a

  18. Comparison of blood smear microscopy to a rapid diagnostic test for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic performance of microscopy using Giemsastained thick and thin blood smears to a rapid malaria dipstick test (RDT) in detecting P. falciparum malaria in Kenyan school children. Design: Randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial from 1998-2001. Setting: Rural Embu district, Kenya ...

  19. Diagnosing dengue virus infection: rapid tests and the role of micro/nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bei; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette B; Nigo, Maurice Mutro; Weidmann, Manfred; Hunziker, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Due to the progressive spread of the dengue virus and a rising incidence of dengue disease, its rapid diagnosis is important for developing countries and of increasing relevance for countries in temperate climates. Recent advances in bioelectronics, micro- and nanofabrication technologies have led to new miniaturized point-of-care devices and analytical platforms suited for rapid detection of infections. Starting from the available tests for dengue diagnosis, this review examines emerging rapid, micro/nanotechnologies-based tools, including label-free biosensor methods, microarray and microfluidic platforms, which hold significant potential, but still need further development and evaluation. The epidemiological and clinical setting as key determinants for selecting the best analytical strategy in patients presenting with fever is then discussed. This review is aimed at the clinicians and microbiologists to deepen understanding and enhance application of dengue diagnostics, and also serves as knowledge base for researchers and test developers to overcome the challenges posed by this disease. Dengue disease remains a significant problem in many developing countries. Unfortunately rapid diagnosis with easy and low cost tests for this disease is currently still not realized. In this comprehensive review, the authors highlighted recent advances in nanotechnology which would enable development in this field, which would result in beneficial outcomes to the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid Immunization Scheme for Spouses of Individuals Estabilished as Hepatitis B Carriers during Premarital Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Tosun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to monitor the cases identified as hepatitis B carriers during premarital tests, to vaccinate their prospective spouses with a rapid vaccination scheme, and to compare the anti-HBs responses with the traditional vaccination scheme. Methods. Blood samples of 1250 couple spouses were tested for HBsAg and anti-HBs. HBsAg positive cases' fiancées which were found HBV negative were administered a rapid three-dose vaccination scheme on days 0, 7, and 21. Forty controls with similar age and gender were also were administered three doses of the same vaccine. Results. Out of 1250 cases (625 couples, 46 (3.6% were HBsAg positive, and 40 of them aged between 18 and 39 were admitted to the rapid vaccination program. Conclusion. Upon determination of HBsAg positivity in premarital tests, a rapid vaccination program provides early protection, but the 6th and 12th month vaccinations are also required. Anti-HBs response should be monitored.

  1. Exchange transfusion with entirely synthetic red-cell substitute albumin-heme into rats: physiological responses and blood biochemical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yubin; Komatsu, Teruyuki; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Kobayashi, Koichi; Tsuchida, Eishun

    2004-10-01

    Recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) incorporating 2-[8-[N-(2-methylimidazolyl)]octanoyloxymethyl]-5,10,15,20-[tetrakis[alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha-o-(1-methylcyclohexanoyl)amino]phenyl]porphinatoiron(II) [albumin-heme (rHSA-heme)] is an artificial hemoprotein which has the capability to transport O(2) in vitro and in vivo. A 20% exchange transfusion with rHSA-heme into anesthetized rats has been performed to evaluate its clinical safety by monitoring the circulation parameters and blood parameters for 6 h after the infusion. Time course changes in all parameters essentially showed the same features as those of the control group (without infusion) and rHSA group (with administration of the same amount of rHSA). Blood biochemical tests of the withdrawn plasma at 6 h after the exchange transfusion have also been carried out. No significant difference was found between the rHSA-heme and rHSA groups, suggesting the initial clinical safety of this entirely synthetic O(2)-carrier as a red-cell substitute.

  2. Pathogenic bacteria and heavy metals toxicity assessments in evaluating unpasteurized raw milk quality through biochemical tests collected from dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Iqbal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hygienic quality by determining the presence of predominant pathogenic microbial contaminants (contagious or environmental and indiscriminate heavy metals contained in unpasteurized milk samples collected from cattle specie of cow. Methods: Raw milk samples were collected in October, 2014 from different regions of District Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and cultured on the selective media plates according to the manufacturer instructions to observe pathogenic microbial flora and confirm it with relevant biochemical tests to specify bacterial specie. Results: Milk samples analyzed on MacConkey and nutrient agar media were found contaminated mostly with coliform, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus vulgaris. Similarly, result of the heavy metals analysis performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer flame photometry showed that raw milk contains heavy metals residues of lead and cadmium contents at higher levels while copper, zinc and chromium were observed lower than permissible limits whereas manganese within specified recommended values. Conclusions: Microbial contamination of milk and toxic metals is mainly accredited to the scrupulous unhygienic measures during processing of milk exhibiting a wide array of hazardous impacts on human health.

  3. Pathogenicity of novel ABCD1 variants: The need for biochemical testing in the era of advanced genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schackmann, Martin J A; Ofman, Rob; van Geel, Björn M; Dijkstra, Inge M E; van Engelen, Klaartje; Wanders, Ronald J A; Engelen, Marc; Kemp, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, is caused by mutations in ABCD1 and characterized by very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) accumulation. In male patients, an increased plasma VLCFA levels in combination with a pathogenic mutation in ABCD1 confirms the diagnosis. Recent studies have shown that many women with ALD also develop myelopathy. Correct diagnosis is important for management including genetic counseling. Diagnosis in women can only be confirmed when VLCFA levels are elevated or when a known pathogenic ABCD1 mutation is identified. However, in 15-20% of women with ALD VLCFA plasma levels are not elevated. Demonstration that a novel sequence variant is pathogenic can be a challenge when VLCFA levels are in the normal range. Here we report two women with a clinical presentation compatible with ALD, an ABCD1 variation (p.Arg17His and p.Ser358Pro) of unknown significance, but with normal VLCFA levels. We developed a diagnostic test that is based on generating clonal cell lines that express only one of the two alleles. Subsequent biochemical studies enabled us to show that the two sequence variants were not pathogenic, thereby excluding the diagnosis ALD in these women. We conclude that the clonal approach is an important addition to the existing diagnostic array. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Treponemal Antibody Test Comparing the Treponema Pallidum Particle Agglutination Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Han; Lim, Chae Seung; Lee, Min-Geol; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2015-09-01

    In addition to conventional tests, several methods for detection of treponema-specific antibodies in clinical settings have been recently introduced. We aim to comparatively evaluate a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) for Treponema pallidum specific antibody (SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0) and the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay. In all, 132 serum samples from 78 syphilis patients and 54 syphilis-negative controls were analyzed. SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0 test (Standard Diagnostic, Inc., Yongin, Korea) was evaluated and compared to Serodia TPPA assay (Fujirebio, Inc., Tokyo, Japan). All discrepant results between the two assays were repeatedly tested and evaluated by the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) assay. Test reproducibility and 95% limit of detection of SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0 were determined across three different lots for seven consecutive days in triplicate. Interference due to autoantibodies and pregnancy was also tested. Percent agreement between SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0 and TPPA assays was 99.2%. Sensitivity and specificity were 100%, respectively. In TPPA assay, test-to-test, day-to-day, and lot-to-lot variations were not identified until 1:320 titer (eightfold dilutions). There was no interference due to the presence of antinuclear antibodies or samples or pregnancy. Percent agreement of SD Syphilis 3.0 and TPPA was very good. Sensitivity and specificity were appropriate for T. pallidum antibody detection. Thus, a rapid ICT could be suitable for syphilis antibody detection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evaluation of three commercial rapid tests for detecting antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K P; Saw, T L; Baki, A; Kamarudin, R

    2003-08-01

    Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest are simple/rapid tests for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in human whole blood, serum and plasma samples. The assay is one step and the result is read visually within 15 minutes. Using 92 known HIV-1 reactive sera and 108 known HIV-1 negative sera, the 3 HIV tests correctly identified all the known HIV-1 reactive and negative samples. The results indicated that Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest HIV are as sensitive and specific (100% concordance) as Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay. The data indicated that these 3 HIV tests are effective testing systems for diagnosis of HIV infection in a situation when the conventional Enzyme Immunoassay is not suitable.

  6. Rapid tube CAMP test for identification of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, E A; Tapsall, J W; Smith, D D

    1980-01-01

    A rapid CAMP test for the presumptive identification of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B) is described. Sheep erythrocytes, sensitized by staphylococcal beta-lysin and suspended in phosphate-buffered saline, were used to determine the lytic capacity of the neutralized supernatant fluids of 4-h broth cultures of streptococci being tested. A total of 96.2% of 130 group B streptococci gave positive CAMP tests, that is, lysis of the sheep erythrocytes after 10 min of exposure of streptococcal supernatants, whereas none of 381 non-group B streptococci tested produced any lysis. The test described provides presumptive identification of group B streptococci within 4 h and eliminates problems of intermediate reactions so that a positive test is indicative only of CAMP factor production. PMID:7014603

  7. Acceptability of rapid oral fluid HIV testing among male injection drug users in Taiwan, 1997 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Shu-Yu; Morisky, Donald E; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Twu, Shiing-Jer; Peng, Eugene Yu-Chang; Malow, Robert M

    2011-04-01

    Rapid oral fluid HIV testing (rapid oral testing) is in the process of being adapted in Taiwan and elsewhere given its advantages over prior HIV testing methods. To guide this process, we examined the acceptability of rapid oral testing at two time points (i.e., 1997 and 2007) among one of the highest risk populations, male injection drug users (IDUs). For this purpose, an anonymous self-administered survey was completed by HIV-negative IDUs involved in the criminal justice system in 1997 (N (1)=137 parolees) and 2007 (N (2)=106 prisoners). A social marketing model helped guide the design of our questionnaire to assess the acceptability of rapid oral testing. This included assessing a new product, across four marketing dimensions: product, price, promotion, and place. Results revealed that in both 1997 and 2007, over 90% indicated that rapid oral testing would be highly acceptable, particularly if the cost was under US$6, and that a pharmacy would be the most appropriate and accessible venue for selling the rapid oral testing kits. The vast majority of survey respondents believed that the cost of rapid oral testing should be federally subsidized and that television and newspaper advertisements would be the most effective media to advertise for rapid oral testing. Both the 1997 and 2007 surveys suggested that rapid oral HIV testing would be particularly accepted in Taiwan by IDUs after release from the criminal justice system.

  8. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  9. Patho-TB test for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Alavi-Naini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Despite recent technologic improvements in identifying mycobacterium tuberculosis, we are still facing problems in rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to determine the diagnostic value of a new rapid screening test (Patho-TB™ for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
    • METHODS: Between September 2006 to August 2007, 178 patients were enrolled in the study who were finally classified into two groups; a group of documented pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 67 and a group of non-tuberculous pulmonary infection (n = 111. Patho-TB™ test, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture were done on all specimens.
    • RESULTS: Of all, 43 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were sputum smear positive for acid fast bacilli and the rest were smear negative. Mean age of the patients was 59.8 ± 16.1 years and 44% of them were men. The results of Patho- TB™ test were positive in 40 of smear positive and 20 of smear negative tuberculous patients and 33 cases of nontuberculous control group. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of Patho- TB™ test were estimated 89.5%, 70.2%, 64.5%, 91.7% and 77.5%, respectively.
    • CONCLUSIONS: According to the present study it would be suggested that Patho-TB™ test could be a rapid and inexpensive method for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, given by its high sensitivity and negative predictive value. Concerning the high number of false positive results, using a confirmatory diagnostic procedure is mandatory.
    • KEYWORDS: Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Rapid Diagnosis, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Antigens, Iran

  10. Biochemical and serological properties of Streptococcus uberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämmler, C

    1991-12-01

    The Strep-Zym identification system, a combination of 23 enzymatic tests, allowed a rapid biochemical characterization of Streptococcus uberis. The biochemical profiles of the S. uberis cultures clearly differed from those of S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae. Serological grouping of S. uberis revealed polysaccharide antigens of groups E, G, P and U. Some cultures of S. uberis demonstrated CAMP-like synergistic hemolytic activities on sheep blood agar and reacted specifically with the lectins of Helix pomatia and Dolichos biflorus. The occurrence of group polysaccharides, CAMP-like reactivities, and the lectin agglutination reactions were obviously not related to each other or to any of the biochemical properties. These reactions, possibly of importance as virulence factors, might serve as epidemiological markers.

  11. Relative merits of various rapid biopsy urease tests for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (Campylobacter pylori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, D K; Gupta, M M; Ayyagari, A; Singh, V; Roy, P; Malik, A K; Mehta, S K

    1990-09-01

    Three rapid urease tests, i.e., liquid urea broth containing phenol red as indicator, liquid urea broth containing bromothymol blue as indicator and CLO gel were compared in 109 patients of dyspepsia for the diagnosis of Campylobacter pylori (Helicobacter pylori) infection. Mean time taken for positive reaction in liquid broth with phenol was 3 minutes (range 0.6 to 5.3 minutes) with bromothymol blue was 3.5 minutes (range 0.4 to 5.5 minutes) while with CLO gel it was 101 minutes (range 11-261 minutes). There was no difference in results of liquid urea broth containing phenol red and bromothymol blue. The difference in timing of urea broth containing phenol red and bromothymol blue was statistically significant as compared to CLO gel (p less than 0.05). Rapid urease tests employing liquid urea broth are quick, simple and reliable for the diagnosis of Helicobacer pylori infection.

  12. The sensitivity and the specifity of rapid antigen test in streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurol, Yesim; Akan, Hulya; Izbirak, Guldal; Tekkanat, Zuhal Tazegun; Gunduz, Tehlile Silem; Hayran, Osman; Yilmaz, Gulden

    2010-06-01

    It is aimed to detect the sensitivity and specificity of rapid antigen detection of group A beta hemolytic streptococci from throat specimen compared with throat culture. The other goal of the study is to help in giving clinical decisions in upper respiratory tract infections according to the age group, by detection of sensitivity and positive predictive values of the rapid tests and throat cultures. Rapid antigen detection and throat culture results for group A beta hemolytic streptococci from outpatients attending to our university hospital between the first of November 2005 and 31st of December 2008 were evaluated retrospectively. Throat samples were obtained by swabs from the throat and transported in the Stuart medium and Quickvue Strep A [Quidel, San Diego, USA] cassette test was applied and for culture, specimen was inoculated on 5% blood sheep agar and identified according to bacitracin and trimethoprim-sulphametaxazole susceptibility from beta hemolytic colonies. During the dates between the first of November 2005 and 31st of December 2008, from 453 patients both rapid antigen detection and throat culture were evaluated. Rapid antigen detection sensitivity and specificity were found to be 64.6% and 96.79%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 80.95% whereas negative predictive value was 92.82%. Kappa index was 0.91. When the results were evaluated according to the age groups, the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of rapid antigen detection in children were 70%, 90.3% and in adults 59.4%, 70.4%. When bacterial infection is concerned to prevent unnecessary antibiotic use, rapid streptococcal antigen test (RSAT) is a reliable method to begin immediate treatment. To get the maximum sensitivity of RSAT, the specimen collection technique used and education of the health care workers is important. While giving clinical decision, it must be taken into consideration that the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of the RSAT is quite

  13. Does rapid HIV testing result in an early diagnosis and reduce the waiting time for patients to receive medical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Magaly Carvalho Vieira de; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Falcão, Ilka Veras; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of rapid HIV testing in Brazil began in 2006 for specific groups, and from 2009 was extended to the Counseling and Testing Centers (CTC) in certain Brazilian capitals. The aim of this study was to compare two groups of individuals: those diagnosed with HIV infection by conventional testing and those diagnosed with rapid testing, with respect to: the waiting time before receiving medical care, the time of the first laboratory tests and the virological, immune and clinical status. This is a cross-sectional study to compare a group with individuals diagnosed by conventional testing (2006-2008) and another with those diagnosed by rapid testing (2010-2011).The median time between blood collection and diagnosis of HIV in the conventional test group was 76 days, while in the rapid test group 94.2% of the subjects received their results on the same day of blood collection (p test group, the median period of time before the first consultation with an infectious disease specialist was 99 days, and for the rapid test group the time was 14 days (p test group (p test group (472) was higher than in the conventional test group (397) (p = 0.01). The introduction of rapid HIV testing as a diagnostic strategy has reduced the waiting times for medical care and laboratory tests and also allowed earlier diagnosis of HIV infection than with the conventional test.

  14. Multifrequency Excitation Method for Rapid and Accurate Dynamic Test of Micromachined Gyroscope Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Deng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and 600-Hz bandwidth was dramatically reduced from 10 min to 6 s. A multifrequency signal with an equal amplitude and initial linear-phase-difference distribution was generated to ensure test repeatability and accuracy. The current test system based on LabVIEW using the SFE method was modified to use the MFE method without any hardware changes. The experimental results verified that the MFE method can be an ideal solution for large-scale dynamic testing of gyroscope chips and gyroscopes.

  15. Implementation of broad screening with Ebola rapid diagnostic tests in Forécariah, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantz Jean Louis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory-enhanced surveillance is critical for rapidly detecting the potential re-emergence of Ebola virus disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for Ebola antigens could expand diagnostic capacity for Ebola virus disease. Objectives: The Guinean National Coordination for Ebola Response conducted a pilot implementation to determine the feasibility of broad screening of patients and corpses with the OraQuick® Ebola RDT. Methods: The implementation team developed protocols and trained healthcare workers to screen patients and corpses in Forécariah prefecture, Guinea, from 15 October to 30 November 2015. Data collected included number of consultations, number of fevers reported or measured, number of tests performed for patients or corpses and results of confirmatory RT-PCR testing. Data on malaria RDT results were collected for comparison. Feedback from Ebola RDT users was collected informally during supervision visits and forums. Results: There were 3738 consultations at the 15 selected healthcare facilities; 74.6% of consultations were for febrile illness. Among 2787 eligible febrile patients, 2633 were tested for malaria and 1628 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were performed. A total of 322 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were conducted on corpses. All Ebola tests on eligible patients were negative. Conclusions: Access to Ebola testing was expanded by the implementation of RDTs in an emergency situation. Feedback from Ebola RDT users and lessons learned will contribute to improving quality for RDT expansion.

  16. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis : Its utility in resource poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poojary A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the rapid colorimetric nitrate reductase based antibiotic susceptibility (CONRAS test performed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with the conventional method i.e., the proportion method. Methods: One hundred clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were tested for susceptibility to isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RIF by the conventional proportion method and CONRAS in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid medium enriched with growth supplements (MB7H9S. Results: The performance of the CONRAS test was evaluated using proportion method as the gold standard. The sensitivity (ability to detect true drug resistance and specificity (ability to detect true drug susceptibility of the CONRAS test to INH was 93.75 and 98.52% and for RIF it was 96.10 and 100% respectively. The mean time for reporting was 6.3 days and the test showed excellent reproducibility. The kappa (k value for INH was 0.92 and for RIF was 0.99, indicating excellent agreement between the two methods. Conclusions: CONRAS test is a rapid and reliable method of drug susceptibility for M. tuberculosis.

  17. Epidemiological analysis and use of rapid urease test in patients with perforated peptic ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Jairo Júnior; Franzon, Orli; Kruel, Nicolau Fernandes; Neves, Bruno Duarte

    2012-04-01

    To analyze the epidemiological profile of patients with gastroduodenal ulcer perforation and verify if the presence of H. pylori in the peritoneal and intraluminal secretions of these patients can be assessed by rapid urease test. We conducted a prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study with data from patients in a hospital at a regional level, in patients with peptic ulcer. During surgery, we collected peritoneal fluid samples (in the vicinity of the perforation) and intraluminal secretion, sending them for culture and rapid urease test. Fourteen patients were analyzed. The average age was 41.06 years, all men, Whites (71.4%), smokers (57.2%), BMI <30 (85.7%), with a history of dyspepsia (78.6%). Serology for H. pylori was positive in 84.6% of cases. The rapid urease test was positive in 78.6% of the samples of the digestive tract and 42.8% of samples from the peritoneal cavity; 41.6% were positive at both sites, 50% only in the digestive cavity and 8.4% only in the peritoneal cavity. Of the 11 patients with positive serology for H. pylori, 100% were positive in at least one of the sites surveyed. It was found that the incidence was lower than expected. There is significant association between infection with H. pylori and the occurrence of perforation. The presence of this pathogen can be assessed both by serology and by the realization of the rapid urease test from fluid collected in the peritoneal cavity and the gastric / duodenal lumen.

  18. A cluster randomised trial introducing rapid diagnostic tests into registered drug shops in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham

    2015-01-01

    the impact of introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) in registered drug shops in Uganda, with the aim to increase appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in patients seeking treatment for fever in drug shops. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial...... substantially improved appropriate treatment of malaria with ACT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01194557....

  19. Usefulness of rapid urease test samples for molecular analysis of clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, María R; Bucci, Pamela; Giani, Rita N; Giusti, Antonela; Tedeschi, Fabian A; Salvatierra, Emiliano; Barbaglia, Yanina; Jimenez, Félix; Zalazar, Fabian E

    2018-03-27

    Helicobacter pylori is a gastric pathogen that is widely recognized as a causative agent of gastric disease. Its eradication is variable, mainly due to increased resistance to clarithromycin. Our objective was: to evaluate (i) if the biopsy specimen used for the rapid urease test is a useful sample to detect resistance to clarithromycin by PCR-RFLP and (ii) the distribution of A2142G and A2143G point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, in relation to virulence factors in our region. Gastric specimens were collected from adult dyspeptic patients (n=141) and H. pylori was investigated by the rapid urease test, histopathological analysis and PCR for the hsp60 gene. Clarithromycin resistance was detected by PCR-RFLP in 62 H. pylori (+) paired biopsy specimens submitted to molecular analysis and the rapid urease test. H. pylori virulence factors were analyzed by multiplex PCR using specific primers for the cagA, vacA and babA2 genes. Thirteen out of 62 strains (20.9%) were resistant to clarithromycin: 6/13 (46.2%) harbored the A2143G mutation whereas 7/13 (53.8%) carried the A2142G point mutation. vacA m1s1 was the most frequent genotype among the resistant strains. In conclusion, the biopsy specimens used for the rapid urease test were suitable samples for clarithromycin resistance detection in patients infected with H. pylori, which became especially useful in cases where the number or size of the biopsies is limited. In addition, this is the first report of a molecular analysis for clarithromycin resistance performed directly from gastric biopsies in our region. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Field evaluation of a dual rapid diagnostic test for HIV infection and syphilis in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Claire C; Leon, Segundo R; Huang, Emily; Brown, Brandon J; Ramos, Lourdes B; Vargas, Silver K; Flores, Juan A; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-05-01

    Screening for HIV and syphilis in key populations is recommended by the WHO to reduce the morbidity, mortality and transmission associated with undiagnosed and untreated infections. Rapid point-of-care tests that can detect multiple infections with a single fingerprick whole blood specimen using a single device are gaining popularity. We evaluated the field performance of a rapid dual HIV and syphilis test in people at high risk of HIV and syphilis infections. Participants included men who have sex with men and transgender women recruited in Lima, Peru. Reference standard testing for detection of HIV and syphilis infections, conducted using blood samples from venipuncture, included Treponema pallidum particle agglutination and fourth-generation HIV enzyme immunoassay for which positive results had a confirmation HIV Western blot test. For the evaluation test, SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test (Standard Diagnostics, Korea), a fingerprick blood specimen was used. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and the exact binomial method was used to determine 95% CIs. A total of 415 participants were recruited for the study. The dual test sensitivity for detection of T. pallidum infection was 89.2% (95% CI 83.5% to 93.5%) and specificity 98.8% (95% CI 96.5% to 99.8%). For detection of HIV infection, the sensitivity of the dual test was 99.1% (95% CI 94.8% to 100%) and specificity 99.4% (95% CI 97.7% to 99.9%). This high performing dual test should be considered for the use in clinical settings to increase uptake of simultaneous testing of HIV and syphilis and accelerate time to treatment for those who need it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. GSMA: Gene Set Matrix Analysis, An Automated Method for Rapid Hypothesis Testing of Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Cheadle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microarray technology has become highly valuable for identifying complex global changes in gene expression patterns. The assignment of functional information to these complex patterns remains a challenging task in effectively interpreting data and correlating results from across experiments, projects and laboratories. Methods which allow the rapid and robust evaluation of multiple functional hypotheses increase the power of individual researchers to data mine gene expression data more efficiently.Results: We have developed (gene set matrix analysis GSMA as a useful method for the rapid testing of group-wise up- or downregulation of gene expression simultaneously for multiple lists of genes (gene sets against entire distributions of gene expression changes (datasets for single or multiple experiments. The utility of GSMA lies in its flexibility to rapidly poll gene sets related by known biological function or as designated solely by the end-user against large numbers of datasets simultaneously.Conclusions: GSMA provides a simple and straightforward method for hypothesis testing in which genes are tested by groups across multiple datasets for patterns of expression enrichment.

  2. Comparison of rapid diagnostic tests to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis disseminated infection in bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Tajbakhsh, Samaneh; Mosavari, Nader

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis in cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants. The presence of MAP in tissues other than intestines and associated lymph nodes, such as meat and liver, is a potential public health concern. In the present study, the relationship between the results of rapid diagnostic tests of the Johne's disease, such as serum ELISA, rectal scraping PCR, and acid-fast staining, and the presence of MAP in liver was evaluated. Blood, liver, and rectal scraping samples were collected from 200 slaughtered cattle with unknown Johne's disease status. ELISA was performed to determine the MAP antibody activity in the serum. Acid-fast staining was performed on rectal scraping samples, and PCR was performed on rectal scraping and liver samples. PCR-positive liver samples were used for mycobacterial culture. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that MAP can be detected and cultured from liver of slaughtered cattle and rapid diagnostic tests of Johne's disease have limited value in detecting cattle with MAP infection in liver. These findings show that the presence of MAP in liver tissue may occur in cows with negative results for rapid diagnostic tests and vice versa. Hence, liver might represent another possible risk of human exposure to MAP. Given concerns about a potential zoonotic role for MAP, these results show the necessity to find new methods for detecting cattle with MAP disseminated infection.

  3. Application tests of a new-type LNG rapid gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied natural gas (LNG is stored under low temperature and high pressure. It has to be gasified before it is used. Therefore, LNG gasification unit is essential and it is vital to the high-efficiency utilization of LNG. In this paper, a new-type LNG rapid gasification unit was developed. Adopted in this unit are some innovative technologies authorized with the national patent of invention, such as the umbrella-shape gas flow circle unit, the flue gas circulation system and the water feeding system, which help to guarantee its operation safety and increase its operation efficiency. After it was justified in lab test, the unit for industrial application was designed and manufactured and then tested to verify its design rationality. The results show that the new-type LNG rapid gasification unit meets the design requirements in the aspect of efficiency, exhaust gas loss, radiation loss and fuel gas consumption rate; at a load of 1800–2200 m3/h, its efficiency is over 95%; at a load of 1976.0 m3/h which is close to the design value of 2000 m3/h, its efficiency is 96.34% or even up to 2800 m3/h. This new-type LNG rapid gasification unit is adaptable to a large range of loads and can adapt to the rapid increase of external load. Its fuel gas consumption rate is only 1.5%, which is in the range of energy conservation. It presents the advantages of high heating efficiency, rapid startup, high gasification rate, compact structure, small land occupation and invulnerability to the environment, therefore, it is applicable to the middle and small independent regions which cannot be connected to the natural gas supply pipeline networks due to various reasons.

  4. Rapid tests for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in patients with suspected disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelaert, Marleen; Verdonck, Kristien; Menten, Joris; Sunyoto, Temmy; van Griensven, Johan; Chappuis, Francois; Rijal, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in patients with fever and a large spleen relies on showing Leishmania parasites in tissue samples and on serological tests. Parasitological techniques are invasive, require sophisticated laboratories, consume time, or lack accuracy. Recently, rapid diagnostic tests that are easy to perform have become available. Objectives To determine the diagnostic accuracy of rapid tests for diagnosing VL in patients with suspected disease presenting at health services in endemic areas. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CIDG SR, CENTRAL, SCI-expanded, Medion, Arif, CCT, and the WHO trials register on 3 December 2013, without applying language or date limits. Selection criteria This review includes original, phase III, diagnostic accuracy studies of rapid tests in patients clinically suspected to have VL. As reference standards, we accepted: (1) direct smear or culture of spleen aspirate; (2) composite reference standard based on one or more of the following: parasitology, serology, or response to treatment; and (3) latent class analysis. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed quality of included studies using the QUADAS-2 tool. Discrepancies were resolved by a third author. We carried out a meta-analysis to estimate sensitivity and specificity of rapid tests, using a bivariate normal model with a complementary log-log link function. We analysed each index test separately. As possible sources of heterogeneity, we explored: geographical area, commercial brand of index test, type of reference standard, disease prevalence, study size, and risk of bias (QUADAS-2). We also undertook a sensitivity analysis to assess the influence of imperfect reference standards. Main results Twenty-four studies containing information about five index tests (rK39 immunochromatographic test (ICT), KAtex latex agglutination test in urine, FAST agglutination test, rK26 ICT, and r

  5. Hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging in patients with liver disease: correlation of liver enhancement with biochemical liver function tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuk, Guido M.; Schaefer, Stephanie G.; Hadizadeh, Dariusch R.; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Fimmers, Rolf [University of Bonn, Department of Medical Biometry, Informatics and Epidemiology, Bonn (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Spengler, Ulrich [Department of Internal Medicine I, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Gd-EOB-DTPA in relation to various liver function tests in patients with liver disorders. Fifty-one patients with liver disease underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI. Based on region-of-interest (ROI) analysis, liver signal intensity was calculated using the spleen as reference tissue. Liver-spleen contrast ratio (LSCR) and relative liver enhancement (RLE) were calculated. Serum levels of total bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin level (AL), prothrombin time (PT), creatinine (CR) as well as international normalised ratio (INR) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score were tested for correlation with LSCR and RLE. Pre-contrast LSCR values correlated with total bilirubin (r = -0.39; p = 0.005), GGT (r = -0.37; p = 0.009), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), ALT (r = -0.29; p = 0.046), PT (r = 0.52; p < 0.001), GLDH (r = -0.55; p = 0.044), INR (r = -0.42; p = 0.003), and MELD Score (r = -0.53; p < 0.001). After administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA bilirubin (r = -0.45; p = 0.001), GGT (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), PT (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), AST (r = -0.46; p = 0.002), ALT (r = -0.31; p = 0.030), INR (r = -0.45; p = 0.001) and MELD Score (r = -0.56; p < 0.001) significantly correlated with LSCR. RLE correlated with bilirubin (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), PT (r = 0.42; p = 0.003), GGT (r = -0.33; p = 0.020), INR (r = -0.36; p = 0.011) and MELD Score (r = -0.43; p = 0.003). Liver-spleen contrast ratio and relative liver enhancement using Gd-EOB-DTPA correlate with a number of routinely used biochemical liver function tests, suggesting that hepatobiliary MRI may serve as a valuable biomarker for liver function. The strongest correlation with liver enhancement was found for the MELD Score. (orig.)

  6. Protective role of Tinospora cordifolia extract against radiation-induced qualitative, quantitative and biochemical alterations in testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Goyal, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    restoring almost normal structure at the end of experimentation. Furthermore, TCE administration inhibited radiation-induced elevation of lipid per-oxidation (LPO) and reduction of glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) levels in testes. These observations signify that the Tinospora cordifolia root extract can be used as an efficient radio- protector against radiation mediated qualitative, quantitative and biochemical alterations in testes. (author)

  7. Rapid, high-temperature, field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcium carbonate scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1986-09-01

    A new test method is described that allows the rapid field testing of calcium carbonate scale inhibitors at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). The method evolved from use of a full-flow test loop on a well with a mass flow rate of about 1 x 10/sup 6/ lbm/hr (126 kg/s). It is a simple, effective way to evaluate the effectiveness of inhibitors under field conditions. Five commercial formulations were chosen for field evaluation on the basis of nonflowing, laboratory screening tests at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). Four of these formulations from different suppliers controlled calcium carbonate scale deposition as measured by the test method. Two of these could dislodge recently deposited scale that had not age-hardened. Performance-profile diagrams, which were measured for these four effective inhibitors, show the concentration interrelationship between brine calcium and inhibitor concentrations at which the formulations will and will not stop scale formation in the test apparatus. With these diagrams, one formulation was chosen for testing on the full-flow brine line. The composition was tested for 6 weeks and showed a dramatic decrease in the scaling occurring at the flow-control valve. This scaling was about to force a shutdown of a major, long-term flow test being done for reservoir economic evaluations. The inhibitor stopped the scaling, and the test was performed without interruption.

  8. Evaluation of Rapid Stain IDentification (RSID™ Reader System for Analysis and Documentation of RSID™ Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravatchai W. Boonlayangoor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to detect the presence of body fluids is a crucial first step in documenting and processing forensic evidence. The Rapid Stain IDentification (RSID™ tests for blood, saliva, semen and urine are lateral flow immunochromatographic strip tests specifically designed for forensic use. Like most lateral flow strips, the membrane components of the test are enclosed in a molded plastic cassette with a sample well and an observation window. No specialized equipment is required to use these tests or to score the results seen in the observation window; however, the utility of these tests can be enhanced if an electronic record of the test results can be obtained, preferably by a small hand-held device that could be used in the field under low light conditions. Such a device should also be able to “read” the lateral flow strips and accurately record the results of the test as either positive, i.e., the body fluid was detected, or negative, i.e., the body fluid was not detected. Here we describe the RSID™ Reader System—a ruggedized strip test reader unit that allows analysis and documentation of RSID™ lateral flow strip tests using pre-configured settings, and show that the RSID™ Reader can accurately and reproducibly report and record correct results from RSID™ blood, saliva, semen, and urine tests.

  9. Making user-focused prototype : using design sprint to test, design and prototype mobile app rapidly

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Nian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine Google Venture Design Sprint (sprint) as a rapid design process and how it had helped to kick-start a design project in order to test, design and prototype for a mobile app in a large organisation. Based on the study, the objective of the practical project was to improve Vattenfall My Pages mobile app prototype based on the user test conducted during the sprint. The sprint was conducted at Vattenfall Digital Channels to redesign My Pages mobile app. O...

  10. Diagnosis Of Inherited Neurometabolic Disorders : A Biochemical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed a rapid increase in the knowledge of the inherited neurometabolic disorders. The precise diagnosis of these disorders which is a challenge to the physician can be best accomplished by biochemical methods. Screening of clinically selected patients with simple chemical urine tests and routine blood chemistry investigations followed by measurement of specific metabolites and assay of the relevant enzymes confirms the diagnosis in most cases. Biochemical diagnosis of inherited neurometabolic disorders although expensive is rapid and confirmatory and therefore aids in treatment and further prevention of these rare disorders.

  11. Cost and Impact on Patient Length of Stay of Rapid Molecular Testing for Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Bernadette; Rees, Eugene; Thomas, Ian; Ch'ng, Chin Lye; Isaac, Mike; Berry, Nidhika

    2014-12-01

    A study was performed to assess the cost of a rapid molecular assay (PCR) for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the impact of its routine use on patient length of stay (LOS) in comparison with cell culture cytotoxin neutralization assay (CCNA). From March 2011 to September 2011, Xpert(®) C. difficile (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) PCR was used on patients with suspicion of CDI in two acute care hospitals in Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board, Swansea, Wales, UK. Test results were used for patient management. LOS and time to reportable result were compared for negative and positive prospective patients tested by PCR and historic control patients tested by CCNA during March 2010 to September 2010. Tests were priced using micro-costing and a cost comparison analysis was undertaken. In total, 506 patients were included. Time to reportable result for PCR samples was 1.53 h compared to 46.54 h for CCNA negatives and 22.45 h for CCNA positives. Patients tested by CCNA stayed 4.88 days longer in hospital compared to PCR patients if they tested positive and 7.03 days if tests were negative. The mean reduction in LOS observed in our study has the potential to generate cost savings of up to £2,292.62 for every patient with suspected CDI, if samples were to be tested routinely with PCR instead of CCNA. A rapid molecular test for C. difficile in an acute hospital setting produced quick results that led to a decrease in LOS compared to historic CCNA control patients. This could result in considerable savings through reduced excess inpatient days.

  12. Easy-to-use rapid test for direct detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadl, M; Pölzler, T; Flekna, G; Thompson, L; Slaghuis, J; Köfer, J; Hein, I; Wagner, M

    2009-12-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is the leading cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in developed countries. One important source of infection is poultry. Results from the Dutch Campylobacter Risk Management and Assessment project indicate that meat from broiler flocks shedding >or=7 log CFU Campylobacter per g of feces poses the greatest risk of transmitting campylobacteriosis. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and rapid test that would identify chicken flocks shedding high numbers of Campylobacter. We used lateral flow technology as the alternative test method, and selected the culture method according to International Organization for Standardization guidelines. To evaluate the test under field conditions, we sampled either chicken droppings at farms or cecal contents at the slaughterhouse. PCR was used to confirm presumptive Campylobacter spp. colonies. Under laboratory conditions, chicken feces containing >or=6.7 log CFU/g Campylobacter jejuni or >or=7.1 log CFU/g Campylobacter coli were identified by the lateral flow test. Overall, 3 (33%) of 10, and 29 (85%) of 34 C. jejuni- or C. coli-positive chicken flocks were identified at farms and slaughterhouses, respectively, by using the lateral flow test. Fecal samples containing >or=7.3 log of C. jejuni or C. coli CFU/g as determined by plating were always positive when using the lateral flow test. A single person testing seven flocks at a time could obtain test results within 2 h of sampling. This simple and rapid lateral flow test may contribute significantly to the identification of chicken flocks shedding high numbers of Campylobacter.

  13. [Rapid microdose 14C-urea breath test for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A; Liang, Z; Tan, T; Chen, D; Ma, H; Si, K; Ouyang, Q

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a rapid microdose 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT) with a simplified protocol for detecting the infection of hilicobacter pylori (HP). 157 fasting patients who underwent endoscopy with histological examination and rapid urease test (RUT) were given a drink of 37 kBq of 14C-urea. Samples of breath carbon dioxide (1 mmol) were collected at baseline and 10, 20 and 30 min after administration by trapping in hyamine solution. 14C activity was measured by liquid scintillation counting. Results were expressed as cpm. Histolal examination and RUT were used as gold standard for the detection of HP infection. The cutoff value was selected as 200 cpm at 10 min. The results showed that the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 94.79%, 90.16%, 93.81%, 91.60% and 92.99% respectively. In this study, a 10 min, single sample, 37 kBq 14C-urea breath test for detection HP was developed. The test has good diagnostic accuracy with minimal radiation exposure and low cost. Thus, the authors considered the test to be reliable, safe, convenient and cost-effective to clinical use.

  14. Feasibility of utilizing the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 rapid test in onchocerciasis surveillance in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieye, Yakou; Storey, Helen L; Barrett, Kelsey L; Gerth-Guyette, Emily; Di Giorgio, Laura; Golden, Allison; Faulx, Dunia; Kalnoky, Michael; Ndiaye, Marie Khemesse Ngom; Sy, Ngayo; Mané, Malang; Faye, Babacar; Sarr, Mamadou; Dioukhane, Elhadji Mamadou; Peck, Roger B; Guinot, Philippe; de Los Santos, Tala

    2017-10-01

    As effective onchocerciasis control efforts in Africa transition to elimination efforts, different diagnostic tools are required to support country programs. Senegal, with its long standing, successful control program, is transitioning to using the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 (Ov16) rapid test over traditional skin snip microscopy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating the Ov16 rapid test into onchocerciasis surveillance activities in Senegal, based on the following attributes of acceptability, usability, and cost. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 13 villages in southeastern Senegal in May 2016. Individuals 5 years and older were invited to participate in a demographic questionnaire, an Ov16 rapid test, a skin snip biopsy, and an acceptability interview. Rapid test technicians were interviewed and a costing analysis was conducted. Of 1,173 participants, 1,169 (99.7%) agreed to the rapid test while 383 (32.7%) agreed to skin snip microscopy. The sero-positivity rate of the rapid test among those tested was 2.6% with zero positives 10 years and younger. None of the 383 skin snips were positive for Ov microfilaria. Community members appreciated that the rapid test was performed quickly, was not painful, and provided reliable results. The total costs for this surveillance activity was $22,272.83, with a cost per test conducted at $3.14 for rapid test, $7.58 for skin snip microscopy, and $13.43 for shared costs. If no participants had refused skin snip microscopy, the total cost per method with shared costs would have been around $16 per person tested. In this area with low onchocerciasis sero-positivity, there was high acceptability and perceived value of the rapid test by community members and technicians. This study provides evidence of the feasibility of implementing the Ov16 rapid test in Senegal and may be informative to other country programs transitioning to Ov16 serologic tools.

  15. Rapid susceptibility testing and microcolony analysis of Candida spp. cultured and imaged on porous aluminum oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Ingham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance to antifungal agents now supports the introduction of susceptibility testing for species-drug combinations for which this was previously thought unnecessary. For pathogenic yeasts, conventional phenotypic testing needs at least 24 h. Culture on a porous aluminum oxide (PAO support combined with microscopy offers a route to more rapid results. METHODS: Microcolonies of Candida species grown on PAO were stained with the fluorogenic dyes Fun-1 and Calcofluor White and then imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images were captured by a charge-coupled device camera and processed by publicly available software. By this method, the growth of yeasts could be detected and quantified within 2 h. Microcolony imaging was then used to assess the susceptibility of the yeasts to amphotericin B, anidulafungin and caspofungin (3.5 h culture, and voriconazole and itraconazole (7 h culture. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the results showed good agreement with EUCAST (86.5% agreement; n = 170 and E-test (85.9% agreement; n = 170. The closest agreement to standard tests was found when testing susceptibility to amphotericin B and echinocandins (88.2 to 91.2% and the least good for the triazoles (79.4 to 82.4%. Furthermore, large datasets on population variation could be rapidly obtained. An analysis of microcolonies revealed subtle effects of antimycotics on resistant strains and below the MIC of sensitive strains, particularly an increase in population heterogeneity and cell density-dependent effects of triazoles. Additionally, the method could be adapted to strain identification via germ tube extension. We suggest PAO culture is a rapid and versatile method that may be usefully adapted to clinical mycology and has research applications.

  16. Rapid diagnostic tests duo as alternative to conventional serological assays for conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina E Egüez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects several million people, mainly in Latin America, and severe cardiac and/or digestive complications occur in ~30% of the chronically infected patients. Disease acute stage is mostly asymptomatic and infection goes undiagnosed. In the chronic phase direct parasite detection is hampered due to its concealed presence and diagnosis is achieved by serological methods, like ELISA or indirect hemagglutination assays. Agreement in at least two tests must be obtained due to parasite wide antigenic variability. These techniques require equipped labs and trained personnel and are not available in distant regions. As a result, many infected people often remain undiagnosed until it is too late, as the two available chemotherapies show diminished efficacy in the advanced chronic stage. Easy-to-use rapid diagnostic tests have been developed to be implemented in remote areas as an alternative to conventional tests. They do not need electricity, nor cold chain, they can return results within an hour and some even work with whole blood as sample, like Chagas Stat-Pak (ChemBio Inc. and Chagas Detect Plus (InBIOS Inc.. Nonetheless, in order to qualify a rapidly diagnosed positive patient for treatment, conventional serological confirmation is obligatory, which might risk its start. In this study two rapid tests based on distinct antigen sets were used in parallel as a way to obtain a fast and conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis using whole blood samples. Chagas Stat-Pak and Chagas Detect Plus were validated by comparison with three conventional tests yielding 100% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity over 342 patients seeking Chagas disease diagnosis in a reference centre in Sucre (Bolivia. Combined used of RDTs in distant regions could substitute laborious conventional serology, allowing immediate treatment and favouring better adhesion to it.

  17. Rapid diagnostic tests duo as alternative to conventional serological assays for conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egüez, Karina E.; Terán, Carolina; Chipana, Zenobia; García, Wilson; Torrico, Faustino; Gascon, Joaquim; Lozano-Beltran, Daniel-Franz; Pinazo, María-Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects several million people, mainly in Latin America, and severe cardiac and/or digestive complications occur in ~30% of the chronically infected patients. Disease acute stage is mostly asymptomatic and infection goes undiagnosed. In the chronic phase direct parasite detection is hampered due to its concealed presence and diagnosis is achieved by serological methods, like ELISA or indirect hemagglutination assays. Agreement in at least two tests must be obtained due to parasite wide antigenic variability. These techniques require equipped labs and trained personnel and are not available in distant regions. As a result, many infected people often remain undiagnosed until it is too late, as the two available chemotherapies show diminished efficacy in the advanced chronic stage. Easy-to-use rapid diagnostic tests have been developed to be implemented in remote areas as an alternative to conventional tests. They do not need electricity, nor cold chain, they can return results within an hour and some even work with whole blood as sample, like Chagas Stat-Pak (ChemBio Inc.) and Chagas Detect Plus (InBIOS Inc.). Nonetheless, in order to qualify a rapidly diagnosed positive patient for treatment, conventional serological confirmation is obligatory, which might risk its start. In this study two rapid tests based on distinct antigen sets were used in parallel as a way to obtain a fast and conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis using whole blood samples. Chagas Stat-Pak and Chagas Detect Plus were validated by comparison with three conventional tests yielding 100% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity over 342 patients seeking Chagas disease diagnosis in a reference centre in Sucre (Bolivia). Combined used of RDTs in distant regions could substitute laborious conventional serology, allowing immediate treatment and favouring better adhesion to it. PMID:28369081

  18. Rapid diagnostic tests duo as alternative to conventional serological assays for conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egüez, Karina E; Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Terán, Carolina; Chipana, Zenobia; García, Wilson; Torrico, Faustino; Gascon, Joaquim; Lozano-Beltran, Daniel-Franz; Pinazo, María-Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects several million people, mainly in Latin America, and severe cardiac and/or digestive complications occur in ~30% of the chronically infected patients. Disease acute stage is mostly asymptomatic and infection goes undiagnosed. In the chronic phase direct parasite detection is hampered due to its concealed presence and diagnosis is achieved by serological methods, like ELISA or indirect hemagglutination assays. Agreement in at least two tests must be obtained due to parasite wide antigenic variability. These techniques require equipped labs and trained personnel and are not available in distant regions. As a result, many infected people often remain undiagnosed until it is too late, as the two available chemotherapies show diminished efficacy in the advanced chronic stage. Easy-to-use rapid diagnostic tests have been developed to be implemented in remote areas as an alternative to conventional tests. They do not need electricity, nor cold chain, they can return results within an hour and some even work with whole blood as sample, like Chagas Stat-Pak (ChemBio Inc.) and Chagas Detect Plus (InBIOS Inc.). Nonetheless, in order to qualify a rapidly diagnosed positive patient for treatment, conventional serological confirmation is obligatory, which might risk its start. In this study two rapid tests based on distinct antigen sets were used in parallel as a way to obtain a fast and conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis using whole blood samples. Chagas Stat-Pak and Chagas Detect Plus were validated by comparison with three conventional tests yielding 100% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity over 342 patients seeking Chagas disease diagnosis in a reference centre in Sucre (Bolivia). Combined used of RDTs in distant regions could substitute laborious conventional serology, allowing immediate treatment and favouring better adhesion to it.

  19. Diagnosis of rinderpest in Tanzania by a rapid chromatographic strip-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambura, P N; Moshy, D W; Mbise, A N; Mollel, G O; Taylor, W P; Anderson, J; Bruning, A

    2000-06-01

    A simple chromatographic strip-test based on Clearview technology, is under development as a pen-side test for the detection of rinderpest antigen in eye swabs taken from cattle in the field. An outbreak of rinderpest occurred in the northern zone of Tanzania from late February to June 1997. The affected cattle exhibited very mild clinical signs, which made clinical diagnosis difficult. One hundred and seven eye swabs were collected from cattle suspected of infection with rinderpest. These were tested in the field using a prototype of the pen-side test and 13 (12.15%) of the samples were found to be positive for the presence of rinderpest antigen. These were confirmed by ICE. The positive cases were predominantly found in the Ngorongoro district. This demonstrates the usefulness of such a simple, rapid pen-side diagnostic assay, particularly when clinically 'mild' strains of rinderpest are present.

  20. CUSUM-Logistic Regression analysis for the rapid detection of errors in clinical laboratory test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Maureen L; Gounden, Verena; van Deventer, Hendrik E; Remaley, Alan T

    2016-02-01

    The main drawback of the periodic analysis of quality control (QC) material is that test performance is not monitored in time periods between QC analyses, potentially leading to the reporting of faulty test results. The objective of this study was to develop a patient based QC procedure for the more timely detection of test errors. Results from a Chem-14 panel measured on the Beckman LX20 analyzer were used to develop the model. Each test result was predicted from the other 13 members of the panel by multiple regression, which resulted in correlation coefficients between the predicted and measured result of >0.7 for 8 of the 14 tests. A logistic regression model, which utilized the measured test result, the predicted test result, the day of the week and time of day, was then developed for predicting test errors. The output of the logistic regression was tallied by a daily CUSUM approach and used to predict test errors, with a fixed specificity of 90%. The mean average run length (ARL) before error detection by CUSUM-Logistic Regression (CSLR) was 20 with a mean sensitivity of 97%, which was considerably shorter than the mean ARL of 53 (sensitivity 87.5%) for a simple prediction model that only used the measured result for error detection. A CUSUM-Logistic Regression analysis of patient laboratory data can be an effective approach for the rapid and sensitive detection of clinical laboratory errors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Improving the screening of blood donors with syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkodie, F.; Hassall, O.; Owusu-Dabo, E.

    2017-01-01

    reagin (RPR) test at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2014 to January 2015, 5 mL of venous blood samples were taken from 16 016 blood donors and tested with a treponemal RDT; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from 526 consenting initial syphilis sero...... of blood donors by combining syphilis RDT and RPR with relatively good PPV may provide a reasonable technology for LMIC that has a limited capacity for testing and can contribute to the improvement of blood safety with a minimal loss of donors.......BACKGROUND: Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma...

  2. Rapid identification of HPV 16 and 18 by multiplex nested PCR-immunochromatographic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yung-Bin; Li, Yi-Shuan; Chan, Err-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are known to be high-risk viruses that cause cervical cancer. An HPV rapid testing kit that could help physicians to make early and more informed decisions regarding patient care is needed urgently but not yet available. This study aimed to develop a multiplex nested polymerase chain reaction-immunochromatographic test (PCR-ICT) for the rapid identification of HPV 16 and 18. A multiplex nested PCR was constructed to amplify the HPV 16 and 18 genotype-specific L1 gene fragments and followed by ICT which coated with antibodies to identify rapidly the different PCR products. The type-specific gene regions of high-risk HPV 16 and 18 could be amplified successfully by multiplex nested PCR at molecular sizes of approximately 99 and 101bp, respectively. The capture antibodies raised specifically against the moleculars labeled on the PCR products could be detected simultaneously both HPV 16 and 18 in one strip. Under optimal conditions, this PCR-ICT assay had the capability to detect HPV in a sample with as low as 100 copies of HPV viral DNA. The PCR-ICT system has the advantage of direct and simultaneous detection of two high-risk HPV 16 and 18 DNA targets in one sample, which suggested a significant potential of this assay for clinical application. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Assessment of biochemical liver function tests in relation to age among steady state sickle cell anemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuyam, S A; Abubakar, A; Lawal, N; Yusuf, R; Aminu, S M; Hassan, A; Musa, A; Bello, A K; Yahaya, I A; Okafor, P A

    2017-11-01

    Multiorgan failure including liver dysfunction is a common finding in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients, the cause of which is multifactorial with advancing age said to be a major determinant. There is a paucity of data on liver function among SCA patients in relation to age in northern Nigerian hospitals, including Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria. This study was to assess the biochemical liver function tests (LFTs) as they relate to age among SCA patients in steady state, with a view to improving the overall monitoring of these patients. This study was carried out in ABUTH, Zaria, Northern Nigeria. LFTs were carried out in 100 SCA and 100 apparently healthy participants (controls). The SCA group was made up of fifty adults and fifty children diagnosed of SCA, whereas the control group was made up of fifty adults and fifty children who were apparently healthy and had hemoglobin AA. Paired two-tailed Student's t-test for matched samples and Pearson's linear correlation statistical methods were employed for the data analysis using Microsoft Office Excel 2007. A P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The serum concentrations of total bilirubin (TB), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and AST/ALT ratio were significantly higher in SCA patients compared to the controls (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.05, P = 0.05 and P = 0.001, respectively). Serum total protein (TP) and ALB were significantly lower (P = 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) in SCA patients compared with the controls. The levels of TB, ALT, AST, ALP, and AST/ALT were significantly lower in SCA adults compared to SCA children, whereas TP and ALB were higher in SCA adults compared to the SCA children. There were significant negative correlations between age and each of TB, ALT, AST, ALP, and AST/ALT, and significant positive correlations between age and each of TP and ALB in SCA patients. There are mild LFTs derangements

  4. Latex agglutination testing directly from throat swabs for rapid detection of beta-hemolytic streptococci from Lancefield serogroup C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, G F; Turner, J C; Kiselica, D; Dunn, M; Hendley, J O

    1992-01-01

    A latex agglutination method for the rapid detection of beta-hemolytic streptococci from Lancefield serogroup C in throat swabs from 403 university students with symptomatic pharyngitis was evaluated. Compared with culture, the rapid test was poorly sensitive (34.4%) but very specific (98.4%) in detecting group C beta-hemolytic streptococci. The sensitivity of the rapid test improved with an increasing quantity of growth on culture. PMID:1551989

  5. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, economic, and rapid manner. Our assay platform miniaturizes the standard broth microdilution method on a microfluidic device (20 × 20 mm that generates an antibiotic concentration gradient and delivers antibiotic-containing culture media to eight 30-nL chambers for cell culture. When tested with 20 μL samples of a model bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922 treated with ampicillin or streptomycin, our method allows for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with the microdilution test in three hours, which is almost a factor of ten more rapid than the standard method.

  6. Comparison of a Micro-Neutralization Test with the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for Measuring Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd G. Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT is routinely used in the United States to measure rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA. RFFIT has a long history of reproducible and reliable results. The test has been modified over the years to use smaller volumes of reagents and samples, but requires a 50 μL minimum volume of test serum. To conduct pathogenesis studies, small laboratory animals such as mice are regularly tested for rVNA, but the minimum volume for a standard RFFIT may be impossible to obtain, particularly in scenarios of repeated sampling. To address this problem, a micro-neutralization test was developed previously. In the current study, the micro-neutralization test was compared to the RFFIT using 129 mouse serum samples from rabies vaccine studies. Using a cut-off value of 0.1 IU/mL, the sensitivity, specificity, and concordance of the micro-neutralization test were 100%, 97.5%, and 98%, respectively. The geometric mean titer of all samples above the cut-off was 2.0 IU/mL using RFFIT and 3.4 IU/mL using the micro-neutralization test, indicating that titers determined using the micro-neutralization test are not equivalent to RFFIT titers. Based on four rVNA-positive hamster serum samples, the intra-assay coefficient of variability was 24% and inter-assay coefficient of variability was 30.4%. These results support continued use of the micro-neutralization test to determine rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers for low-volume serum samples.

  7. Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test based on simple surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ying; Han, Yin-Yi; Shih, Po-Han; Lian, Wei-Nan; Wang, Huai-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Hung; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin

    2016-03-01

    Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurement are important to help reduce the widespread misuse of antibiotics and alleviate the growing drug-resistance problem. We discovered that, when a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli is exposed to an antibiotic, the intensity of specific biomarkers in its surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra drops evidently in two hours. The discovery has been exploited for rapid AST and MIC determination of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and wild-type E. coli as well as clinical isolates. The results obtained by this SERS-AST method were consistent with that by the standard incubation-based method, indicating its high potential to supplement or replace existing time-consuming methods and help mitigate the challenge of drug resistance in clinical microbiology.

  8. HIV rapid testing in a Veterans Affairs hospital ED setting: a 5-year sustainability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Herschel; Hagedorn, Hildi; Anaya, Henry D

    2014-08-01

    Routine HIV testing in primary care settings is now recommended in the United States. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has increased the number of patients tested for HIV, but overall HIV testing rates in VA remain low. A proven strategy for increasing such testing involves nurse-initiated HIV rapid testing (HIV RT). The purpose of this work was to use a mixed methodology approach to evaluate the 5-year sustainability of an intervention that implemented HIV RT in a VA emergency department setting in a large, urban VA medical center to reduce missed diagnostic and treatment opportunities in this vulnerable patient population. In-person semistructured interviews were conducted with providers and stakeholders. Interview notes were qualitatively coded for emerging themes. Quarterly testing rates were evaluated for a 5-year time span starting from the launch in July 2008. Findings indicate that HIV RT was sustained by the enthusiasm of 2 clinical champions who oversaw the registered nurses responsible for conducting the testing. The departure of the clinical champions was correlated with a substantial drop-off in testing. Findings also indicate potential strategies for improving sustainability including engaging senior leadership in the project, engaging line staff in the implementation planning from the start to increase ownership over the innovation, incorporating information into initial training explaining the importance of the innovation to quality patient care, providing ongoing training to maintain skills, and providing routine progress reports to staff to demonstrate the ongoing impact of their efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Rapid slide coagglutination test for identifying and typing group B streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegaard, M K; Field, C R

    1977-09-01

    A Cowan I strain of Staphylococcus aureus was labeled with either group B streptococcal grouping or typing antiserum. These antibody-labeled reagent cells (ARC) were used in a slide coagglutination test to identify and type group B streptococci from blood agar plates. All streptococci were also identified by the standard Lancefield capillary precipitin test. In a blind study, all 141 group B streptococci were correctly identified by the coagglutination grouping test. None of the 148 non-group B streptococci caused agglutination of ARC. The coagglutination grouping test required an acid extract prepared from only four colonies and could be completed less than 30 min after colonies were removed from plates. The coagglutination typing test correctly identified 98.6% of the types of the 141 group B streptococcal strains tested. At least 88.6% of these streptococci could be typed directly from blood agar plates within 5 min by the coagglutination typing test. The remaining 11.4% of the group B streptococci were acid extracted (less than a 30-min procedure), and the extract was used for coagglutination typing. Coagglutination typing can be performed with only four colonies. The coagglutination grouping and typing tests are inexpensive, rapid, reliable, and easy to perform.

  10. Quantum dot-based immunochromatography test strip for rapid, quantitative and sensitive detection of alpha fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiuhua; Gong, Xiaoqun; Song, Tao; Yang, Jiumin; Zhu, Shengjiang; Li, Yunhong; Cui, Ye; Li, Yingxin; Zhang, Bingbo; Chang, Jin

    2011-12-15

    Rapid, quantitative detection of tumor markers with high sensitivity and specificity is critical to clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancer. We describe here a novel portable fluorescent biosensor that integrates quantum dot (QD) with an immunochromatography test strip (ICTS) and a home-made test strip reader for detection of tumor markers in human serum. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP), which is valuable for diagnosis of primary hepatic carcinoma, is used as a model tumor marker to demonstrate the performance of the proposed immunosensor. The principle of this sensor is on the basis of a sandwich immunoreaction that was performed on an ICTS. The fluorescence intensity of captured QD labels on the test line and control line served as signals was determined by the home-made test strip reader. The strong luminescence and robust photostability of QDs combined with the promising advantages of an ICTS and sensitive detection with the test strip reader result in good performance. Under optimal conditions, this biosensor is capable of detecting as low as 1 ng/mL AFP standard analyte in 10 min with only 50 μL sample volume. Furthermore, 1000 clinical human serum samples were tested by both the QD-based ICTS and a commercial electrochemiluminescence immunoassay AFP kit simultaneously to estimate the sensitivity, specificity and concordance of the assays. Results showed high consistency except for 24 false positive cases (false positive rate 3.92%) and 17 false negative cases (false negative rate 4.38%); the error rate was 4.10% in all. This demonstrates that the QD-based ICTS is capable of rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of AFP and shows a great promise for point-of-care testing of other tumor markers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Rapidly-Incremented Tethered-Swimming Test for Defining Domain-Specific Training Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessôa Filho Dalton M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a tethered-swimming incremental test comprising small increases in resistive force applied every 60 seconds could delineate the isocapnic region during rapidly-incremented exercise. Sixteen competitive swimmers (male, n = 11; female, n = 5 performed: (a a test to determine highest force during 30 seconds of all-out tethered swimming (Favg and the ΔF, which represented the difference between Favg and the force required to maintain body alignment (Fbase, and (b an incremental test beginning with 60 seconds of tethered swimming against a load that exceeded Fbase by 30% of ΔF followed by increments of 5% of ΔF every 60 seconds. This incremental test was continued until the limit of tolerance with pulmonary gas exchange (rates of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production and ventilatory (rate of minute ventilation data collected breath by breath. These data were subsequently analyzed to determine whether two breakpoints defining the isocapnic region (i.e., gas exchange threshold and respiratory compensation point were present. We also determined the peak rate of O2 uptake and exercise economy during the incremental test. The gas exchange threshold and respiratory compensation point were observed for each test such that the associated metabolic rates, which bound the heavy-intensity domain during constant-work-rate exercise, could be determined. Significant correlations (Spearman’s were observed for exercise economy along with (a peak rate of oxygen uptake (ρ = .562; p < 0.025, and (b metabolic rate at gas exchange threshold (ρ = −.759; p < 0.005. A rapidly-incremented tethered-swimming test allows for determination of the metabolic rates that define zones for domain-specific constant-work-rate training.

  12. Highly sensitive multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip for rapid chemiluminescent detection of ractopamine and salbutamol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hongfei; Han, Jing; Yang, Shijia; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Lin; Fu, Zhifeng, E-mail: fuzf@swu.edu.cn

    2014-08-11

    Graphical abstract: A multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the rapid detection of two β{sub 2}-agonists. Due to the application of chemiluminescent detection, this quantitative method shows much higher sensitivity. - Highlights: • An immunochromatographic test strip was developed for detection of multiple β{sub 2}-agonists. • The whole assay process can be completed within 20 min. • The proposed method shows much higher sensitivity due to the application of CL detection. • It is a portable analytical tool suitable for field analysis and rapid screening. - Abstract: A novel immunochromatographic assay (ICA) was proposed for rapid and multiple assay of β{sub 2}-agonists, by utilizing ractopamine (RAC) and salbutamol (SAL) as the models. Owing to the introduction of chemiluminescent (CL) approach, the proposed protocol shows much higher sensitivity. In this work, the described ICA was based on a competitive format, and horseradish peroxidase-tagged antibodies were used as highly sensitive CL probes. Quantitative analysis of β{sub 2}-agonists was achieved by recording the CL signals of the probes captured on the two test zones of the nitrocellulose membrane. Under the optimum conditions, RAC and SAL could be detected within the linear ranges of 0.50–40 and 0.10–50 ng mL{sup −1}, with the detection limits of 0.20 and 0.040 ng mL{sup −1} (S/N = 3), respectively. The whole process for multianalyte immunoassay of RAC and SAL can be completed within 20 min. Furthermore, the test strip was validated with spiked swine urine samples and the results showed that this method was reliable in measuring β{sub 2}-agonists in swine urine. This CL-based multianalyte test strip shows a series of advantages such as high sensitivity, ideal selectivity, simple manipulation, high assay efficiency and low cost. Thus, it opens up new pathway for rapid screening and field analysis, and shows a promising prospect in food safety.

  13. Rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing uncomplicated non-falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Katharine; Kirkham, Amanda J; Olliaro, Piero L; Deeks, Jonathan J; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul; Takwoingi, Yemisi

    2014-01-01

    Background In settings where both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection cause malaria, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) need to distinguish which species is causing the patients' symptoms, as different treatments are required. Older RDTs incorporated two test lines to distinguish malaria due to P. falciparum, from malaria due to any other Plasmodium species (non-falciparum). These RDTs can be classified according to which antibodies they use: Type 2 RDTs use HRP-2 (for P. falciparum) and aldolase (all species); Type 3 RDTs use HRP-2 (for P. falciparum) and pLDH (all species); Type 4 use pLDH (fromP. falciparum) and pLDH (all species). More recently, RDTs have been developed to distinguish P. vivax parasitaemia by utilizing a pLDH antibody specific to P. vivax. Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for detecting non-falciparum or P. vivax parasitaemia in people living in malaria-endemic areas who present to ambulatory healthcare facilities with symptoms suggestive of malaria, and to identify which types and brands of commercial test best detect non-falciparum and P. vivax malaria. Search methods We undertook a comprehensive search of the following databases up to 31 December 2013: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE; MEDION; Science Citation Index; Web of Knowledge; African Index Medicus; LILACS; and IndMED. Selection criteria Studies comparing RDTs with a reference standard (microscopy or polymerase chain reaction) in blood samples from a random or consecutive series of patients attending ambulatory health facilities with symptoms suggestive of malaria in non-falciparum endemic areas. Data collection and analysis For each study, two review authors independently extracted a standard set of data using a tailored data extraction form. We grouped comparisons by type of RDT (defined by the combinations of antibodies used), and combined in meta-analysis where appropriate. Average sensitivities and

  14. Field Testing of Rapid Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Control of Steel in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Henry E.; Alexander, Joshua B.; Kupwade-Patil,Kunal; Calle, Luz Marina

    2009-01-01

    This work field tested the use of electrokinetics for delivery of concrete sealing nanoparticles concurrent with the extraction of chlorides. Several cylinders of concrete were batched and placed in immersion at the Kennedy Space Center Beach Corrosion Test Site. The specimens were batched with steel reinforcement and a 4.5 wt.% (weight percent) content of sodium chloride. Upon arrival at Kennedy Space Center, the specimens were placed in the saltwater immersion pool at the Beach Corrosion Test Site. Following 30 days of saltwater exposure, the specimens were subjected to rapid chloride extraction concurrent with electrokinetic nanoparticle treatment. The treatments were operated at up to eight times the typical current density in order to complete the treatment in 7 days. The findings indicated that the short-term corrosion resistance of the concrete specimens was significantly enhanced as was the strength of the concrete.

  15. Rapid test for fecal calprotectin levels in children with crohn disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolho, K L; Turner, D; Veereman-Wauters, G

    2012-01-01

    , versus the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 134 stool samples from 56 pediatric patients with Crohn disease. The intraclass correlation coefficient analysis reflected good agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.97 [95% confidence interval 0.95-0.98]) but agreement was better......Assessment of fecal calprotectin, a surrogate marker of mucosal inflammation, is a promising means to monitor therapeutic response in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease, especially if the result is readily available. We tested the performance of a novel calprotectin rapid test, Quantum Blue...... in lower values, where dilutions were not required. Using a cutoff of 100 μg/g for normal values, the percentage agreement between the 2 tests was 87%. The optimal cutoff values to guide clinical decisions in the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease have yet to be determined....

  16. Rapid, label-free CD4 testing using a smartphone compatible device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakasabapathy, Manoj Kumar; Pandya, Hardik J; Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Chug, Manjyot Kaur; Sadasivam, Magesh; Kumar, Shreya; Etemad, Behzad; Yogesh, Vinish; Safavieh, Mohammadali; Asghar, Waseem; Li, Jonathan Z; Tsibris, Athe M; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Shafiee, Hadi

    2017-08-22

    The most recent guidelines have called for a significant shift towards viral load testing for HIV/AIDS management in developing countries; however point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing still remains an important component of disease staging in multiple developing countries. Advancements in micro/nanotechnologies and consumer electronics have paved the way for mobile healthcare technologies and the development of POC smartphone-based diagnostic assays for disease detection and treatment monitoring. Here, we report a simple, rapid (30 minutes) smartphone-based microfluidic chip for automated CD4 testing using a small volume (30 μL) of whole blood. The smartphone-based device includes an inexpensive (cell phone accessory and a functionalized disposable microfluidic device. We evaluated the performance of the device using spiked PBS samples and HIV-infected and uninfected whole blood, and compared the microfluidic chip results with the manual analysis and flow cytometry results. Through t-tests, Bland-Altman analyses, and regression tests, we have shown a good agreement between the smartphone-based test and the manual and FACS analysis for CD4 count. The presented technology could have a significant impact on HIV management in developing countries through providing a reliable and inexpensive POC CD4 testing.

  17. Incorporating Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Testing into Large-Scale Wildlife Rabies Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Middel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Following an incursion of the mid-Atlantic raccoon variant of the rabies virus into southern Ontario, Canada, in late 2015, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test for rabies (dRIT was employed on a large scale to establish the outbreak perimeter and to diagnose specific cases to inform rabies control management actions. In a 17-month period, 5800 wildlife carcasses were tested using the dRIT, of which 307 were identified as rabid. When compared with the gold standard fluorescent antibody test (FAT, the dRIT was found to have a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.2%. Positive and negative test agreement was shown to be 98.3% and 99.1%, respectively, with an overall test agreement of 98.8%. The average cost to test a sample was $3.13 CAD for materials, and hands-on technical time to complete the test is estimated at 0.55 h. The dRIT procedure was found to be accurate, fast, inexpensive, easy to learn and perform, and an excellent tool for monitoring the progression of a wildlife rabies incursion.

  18. Detection of chikungunya virus antigen by a novel rapid immunochromatographic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Tamaki; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Masrinoul, Promsin; Chantawat, Nantarat; Yoksan, Sutee; Nitatpattana, Narong; Chusri, Sarunyou; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Mulyantno, Kris Cahyo; Churrotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Sow, Abdourahmane; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Puiprom, Orapim; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Kurosu, Takeshi; Kato, Seiji; Kosaka, Mieko; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne disease of key public health importance in tropical and subtropical countries. Although severe joint pain is the most distinguishing feature of chikungunya fever, diagnosis remains difficult because the symptoms of chikungunya fever are shared by many pathogens, including dengue fever. The present study aimed to develop a new immunochromatographic diagnosis test for the detection of chikungunya virus antigen in serum. Mice were immunized with isolates from patients with Thai chikungunya fever, East/Central/South African genotype, to produce mouse monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus. Using these monoclonal antibodies, a new diagnostic test was developed and evaluated for the detection of chikungunya virus. The newly developed diagnostic test reacted with not only the East/Central/South African genotype but also with the Asian and West African genotypes of chikungunya virus. Testing of sera from patients suspected to have chikungunya fever in Thailand (n = 50), Laos (n = 54), Indonesia (n = 2), and Senegal (n = 6) revealed sensitivity, specificity, and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) agreement values of 89.4%, 94.4%, and 91.1%, respectively. In our study using serial samples, a new diagnostic test showed high agreement with the RT-PCR within the first 5 days after onset. A rapid diagnostic test was developed using mouse monoclonal antibodies that react with chikungunya virus envelope proteins. The diagnostic accuracy of our test is clinically acceptable for chikungunya fever in the acute phase. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Rapid testing and identification of actuator using dSPACE real-time emulator

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    Xie, Daocheng; Wang, Zhongwei; Zeng, Qinghua

    2011-10-01

    To solve the problem of model identification of actuator in control system design of aerocraft, testing system based on dSPACE emulator is established, sending testing signal and receiving feedback voltage are realized using dSPACE interactive cards, communication between signal generating equipment and feedback voltage acquisition equipment is synchronized. This paper introduces the hardware architecture and key technologies of the simulation system. Constructing, downloading and calculating of the testing model is finished using dSPACE emulator, D/A transfer of testing signal is realized using DS2103 card, DS2002 card transfer the feedback voltage to digital value. Filtering module is added to the signal acquisition, for reduction of noise interference in the A/D channel. Precision of time and voltage is improved by setting acquisition period 1ms. The data gathered is recorded and displayed with Controldesk tools. The response of four actuators under different frequency are tested, frequency-domain analysis is done using least square method, the model of actuator is identified, simulation data fits well with real response of the actuator. The testing system created with dSPACE emulator satisfies the rapid testing and identification of actuator.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakiyingi, Lydia; Moodley, V. Mischka; Manabe, Yukari C.; Nicol, Mark P.; Holshouser, Molly; Armstrong, Derek T.; Zemanay, Widaad; Sikhondze, Welile; Mbabazi, Olive; Nonyane, Bareng A.S.; Shah, Maunank; Joloba, Moses L.; Alland, David; Ellner, Jerrold J.; Dorman, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In settings of high HIV prevalence, tuberculosis control and patient management are hindered by lack of accurate, rapid tuberculosis diagnostic tests that can be performed at point-of-care. The Determine TB LAM Ag (‘TB LAM’) test is a lateral flow immunochromatographic test for detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine. Our objective was to determine sensitivity and specificity of the TB LAM test for tuberculosis diagnosis. Design Prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Setting Hospital and outpatient settings in Uganda and South Africa. Participants HIV-infected adults with tuberculosis symptoms and/or signs. Methods Participants provided a fresh urine specimen for TB LAM testing, blood for mycobacterial culture, and two respiratory specimens for smear microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Main outcome measures For the TB LAM test, sensitivity in participants with culture-positive tuberculosis and specificity in participants without tuberculosis. Results 1013 participants were enrolled. Among culture-positive tuberculosis patients, the TB LAM test identified 136/367 (37.1%) overall and 116/196 (59.2%) in the group with CD4≤100 cells/mm3. The test was specific in 559/573 (97.6%) of patients without tuberculosis. Sensitivity of the urine TB LAM test plus sputum smear microscopy was 197/367 (53.7%) overall and 133/196 (67.9%) among those with CD4≤100. CD4≤50 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 6.2, P<0.001) or 51–100 (AOR 7.1, P<0.001), mycobacteremia (AOR 6.1; P<0.01) and hospitalization (AOR 2.6, P=0.03) were independently associated with a positive TB LAM test. Conclusions In HIV-positive adults with CD4≤100, the TB LAM urine test detected over half of culture-positive tuberculosis patients, in less than 30 minutes and without the need for equipment or reagents. PMID:24675585

  1. Effect of sweet yeast bread formula on evaluating rapid mix test

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    Petra Dvořáková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to detect how different sweet yeast bread formulas influence results of rapid mix test and by the help of sensory analysis to discover consumer preferences and possible benefit and use in bakery industry. Applied raw materials (ground wheat flour T 530, yeast, sugar, salt, oil, egg, improver Hit along with basic formula were taken from the Varmužova bakery in Boršice by Buchlovice. The basic formula served as a standard (I, other six formulas were then determined (II–VII. In each formula, the rate of yeast, sugar or oil was altered in the range of ± 10% compared with the standard. Flour bread-making quality – Hagberg Falling number [s], Sedimentation index [ml], wet gluten [%], ash [%], moisture [%], binding capacity [%], granulation [%], alveographic energy [10−4J] and alveographic rate P/L – was measured. Rapid mix test and parameters like pastry weight, volume, shape, dough yield, pastry yield, baking loss, penetration and sensory analysis were determined. To establish yeast fermentation activity, Engelke fermentation test was applied. The most evident differences among the samples appeared in the volume and shape. The results of sensory analysis showed that the samples with higher rate of altered raw materials were evaluated as the best.

  2. Prospective Evaluation of Rapid Antigen Tests for Diagnosis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus Infections▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Zheng, Xiaotian; Li, Haijing; Tetreault, Janice; Ratkiewicz, Irene; Meng, Shufang; Hamilton, Pamela; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are two important viral pathogens that cause respiratory tract infections in the pediatric population. The rapid detection of these agents allows the prompt isolation and treatment of infected patients. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the performances of four rapid antigen detection assays, including a rapid chromatographic immunoassay (CIA) for RSV (Directigen EZ RSV; Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD), a direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) for RSV (Bartels; Trinity Biotech, Carlsbad, CA), and two DFAs for hMPV manufactured by Diagnostic Hybrids Inc. (DHI; Athens, OH) and Imagen (Oxoid Ltd., Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom). The clinical specimens tested comprised 515 nasopharyngeal aspirates submitted to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at Hartford Hospital from 1 November 2006 to 21 April 2007. Compared to the results of real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), the CIA had a sensitivity of 79.8% and a specificity of 89.5%. The RSV DFA with Bartels reagents showed a sensitivity of 94.1% and a specificity of 96.8%. For hMPV, the sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 99.8%, respectively, for the DHI DFA and 63.2% and 100%, respectively, for the Imagen DFA. The hands-on and test turnaround times for CIA were 10 and 30 to 60 min, respectively, and the hands-on and test turnaround times for the RSV and hMPV DFAs were 30 and 105 min, respectively. We conclude that while the RSV CIA is user-friendly, it lacks sensitivity and specificity, especially during off-peak months. In contrast, the RSV DFA is more sensitive and specific, but interpretation of its results is subjective and it demands technical time and expertise. Similarly, both hMPV DFAs are highly specific in comparison to the results of RT-PCR, but their sensitivities await further improvements. PMID:18337386

  3. Prospective evaluation of rapid antigen tests for diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Zheng, Xiaotian; Li, Haijing; Tetreault, Janice; Ratkiewicz, Irene; Meng, Shufang; Hamilton, Pamela; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2008-05-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are two important viral pathogens that cause respiratory tract infections in the pediatric population. The rapid detection of these agents allows the prompt isolation and treatment of infected patients. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the performances of four rapid antigen detection assays, including a rapid chromatographic immunoassay (CIA) for RSV (Directigen EZ RSV; Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD), a direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) for RSV (Bartels; Trinity Biotech, Carlsbad, CA), and two DFAs for hMPV manufactured by Diagnostic Hybrids Inc. (DHI; Athens, OH) and Imagen (Oxoid Ltd., Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom). The clinical specimens tested comprised 515 nasopharyngeal aspirates submitted to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at Hartford Hospital from 1 November 2006 to 21 April 2007. Compared to the results of real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), the CIA had a sensitivity of 79.8% and a specificity of 89.5%. The RSV DFA with Bartels reagents showed a sensitivity of 94.1% and a specificity of 96.8%. For hMPV, the sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 99.8%, respectively, for the DHI DFA and 63.2% and 100%, respectively, for the Imagen DFA. The hands-on and test turnaround times for CIA were 10 and 30 to 60 min, respectively, and the hands-on and test turnaround times for the RSV and hMPV DFAs were 30 and 105 min, respectively. We conclude that while the RSV CIA is user-friendly, it lacks sensitivity and specificity, especially during off-peak months. In contrast, the RSV DFA is more sensitive and specific, but interpretation of its results is subjective and it demands technical time and expertise. Similarly, both hMPV DFAs are highly specific in comparison to the results of RT-PCR, but their sensitivities await further improvements.

  4. A single-chamber microbial fuel cell for rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand using low-cost activated carbon as cathode catalyst.

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    Wang, Ying; Liu, Xianhua; Wang, Meiyu; Zhang, Pingping; Zong, Yanping; Zhang, Qiufeng

    2017-09-13

    The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is widely used for the evaluation of water and wastewater quality. However, the conventional method to measure BOD is time-consuming and requires complicated processes. In this study, a Microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based BOD sensor was developed by using low-cost activated carbon as the cathode catalyst. The sensor was calibrated with an aerated nutrient medium containing sodium acetate as the BOD source. When the sensor was operated with an external resistance of 1 K Ω, linear correlation (R 2  = 0.9965) was obtained for BOD concentrations ranging from 80 to 1280 mg/L in a reaction time of 50 h. Besides acetate, glucose/glutamic acid (GGA) and ethanol could also be analyzed by the sensor. In a low concentration range (200 mg/L), the relationship between GGA solution concentration and output voltage was in accord with Monod growth kinetics.

  5. Do we need readjustment of the biochemical parameters in first trimester combined aneuploidy screening test in women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Mehmet Fatih; Gultekin, Ismail Burak; Cakmak, Bulent; Yeral, Mahmut Ilkin; Seckin, Kerem Doga; Alt Nboga, Orhan; Kucukozkan, Tuncay

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects the biochemical components of first trimester combined aneuploidy screening test. A case-control study was performed at a tertiary referral hospital between years 2007-2013. Singleton pregnancies in the first trimester (11(+0) -13(+6) week) who had a history of PCOS and underwent first trimester combined aneuploidy screening test were included in the study. Three hundred and seventeen women met the criteria for inclusion. Control group was formed by 942 healthy pregnant women with similar gestational and maternal ages using a 1 : 3 ratio. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (fβ-hCG) and fetal nuchal translucency were compared between the study group and the controls. The biochemical components PAPP-A and fβ-hCG were significantly lower in the PCOS group compared with the control group (p = 0.001). There was no difference among groups with regard to the nuchal translucency measurements (p = 0.128). Our study shows that the levels of biochemical components of first trimester combined aneuploidy screening test (PAPP-A and fβ-hCG) are altered in pregnant women with PCOS. Future trials of larger scale are needed to asses any need for readjustment of the risk in the patient population with PCOS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Lateral flow test strip based on colloidal selenium immunoassay for rapid detection of melamine in milk, milk powder, and animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zhizeng Wang,1 Dejuan Zhi,2 Yang Zhao,1 Hailong Zhang,2 Xin Wang,2 Yi Ru,1 Hongyu Li1,2 1MOE Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Institute of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Although high melamine (MEL intake has been proven to cause serious health problems, MEL is sometimes illegally added to milk products and animal feed, arousing serious food safety concerns. A satisfactory method of detecting MEL in onsite or in-home testing is in urgent need of development. This work aimed to explore a rapid, convenient, and cost-effective method of identifying MEL in milk products or other food by colloidal selenium-based lateral flow immunoassay. Colloidal selenium was synthesized by L-ascorbic acid to reduce seleninic acid at room temperature. After conjugation with a monoclonal antibody anti-MEL, a test strip was successfully prepared. The detection limit of the test strip reached 150 µg/kg, 1,000 µg/kg, and 800 µg/kg in liquid milk, milk powder, and animal feed, respectively. No cross-reactions with homologues cyanuric acid, cyanurodiamide, or ammelide were found. Moreover, the MEL test strip can remain stable after storage for 1 year at room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the colloidal selenium MEL test strip can detect MEL in adulterated milk products or animal feed conveniently, rapidly, and sensitively. In contrast with a colloidal gold MEL test strip, the colloidal selenium MEL test strip was easy to prepare and more cost-efficient. Keywords: melamine, selenium nanoparticles, test strip, milk, animal feed, dairy food

  7. Cost-effectiveness of malaria microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests versus presumptive diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batwala, Vincent; Magnussen, Pascal; Hansen, Kristian Schultz

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Current Uganda National Malaria treatment guidelines recommend parasitological confirmation either by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (AL). However, the cost-effectiveness of these strategies has not been assessed...... departments were enrolled from March 2010 to February 2011. Of these, a random sample of 1,627 was selected to measure additional socio-economic characteristics. Costing was performed following the standard step-down cost allocation and the ingredients approach. Effectiveness was measured as the number...

  8. Lack of HIV infection among truck drivers in Iran using rapid HIV test

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    Hossain Jabbari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HIV infection in Iranian long distance truck drivers using rapid HIV test. Methods: The study included 400 consecutive participants in Bazargan city, north-west of Iran in the late 2008 and the early 2009. Results: No HIV infection was observed among these long distance truck drivers. Conclusions: Although results of this study is plausible compared to other similar studies, repeated surveys are necessary to know the trend of HIV infection in truckers in Iran.

  9. [The social marketing models and policy advices for HIV rapid testing initiated by non-govermental organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Cai, L P; Xue, H; Zhao, Y; Wu, D; Zhang, D P; Yin, W Y; Sun, J P

    2016-10-06

    Currently, a growing number of community-based organizations are providing rapid HIV testing service in various forms, some people with specific needs also purchase HIV rapid test papers through online sales channels, those imply that the demand of HIV self-test is in increasing year by year.In this paper, aims to understand the current situation of HIV rapid test led by CBOs and the approach, strategies and results of social marketing by means of expert interviews and site visits. Hope to illustrate the current situation, and make recommendations for future work.

  10. Scaling Up HIV Testing in an Academic Emergency Department: An Integrated Testing Model with Rapid Fourth-Generation and Point-of-Care Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signer, Danielle; Peterson, Stephen; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Haider, Somiya; Saheed, Mustapha; Neira, Paula; Wicken, Cassie; Rothman, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated two approaches for implementing routine HIV screening in an inner-city, academic emergency department (ED). These approaches differed by staffing model and type of HIV testing technology used. The programmatic outcomes assessed included the total number of tests performed, proportion of newly identified HIV-positive patients, and proportion of newly diagnosed individuals who were linked to care. This study examined specific outcomes for two distinct, successive approaches to implementing HIV screening in an inner-city, academic ED, from July 2012 through June 2013 (Program One), and from August 2013 through July 2014 (Program Two). Program One used a supplementary staff-only HIV testing model with point-of-care (POC) oral testing. Program Two used a triage-integrated, nurse-driven HIV testing model with fourth-generation blood and POC testing, and an expedited linkage-to-care process. During Program One, 6,832 eligible patients were tested for HIV with a rapid POC oral HIV test. Sixteen patients (0.2%) were newly diagnosed with HIV, of whom 13 were successfully linked to care. During Program Two, 8,233 eligible patients were tested for HIV, of whom 3,124 (38.0%) received a blood test and 5,109 (62.0%) received a rapid POC test. Of all patients tested in Program Two, 29 (0.4%) were newly diagnosed with HIV, four of whom had acute infections and 27 of whom were successfully linked to care. We found a statistically significant difference in the proportion of the eligible population tested-8,233 of 49,697 (16.6%) in Program Two and 6,832 of 46,818 (14.6%) in Program One. These differences from Program One to Program Two corresponded to increases in testing volume (n=1,401 tests), number of patients newly diagnosed with HIV (n=13), and proportion of patients successfully linked to care (from 81.0% to 93.0%). Integrating HIV screening into the standard triage workflow resulted in a higher proportion of ED patients being tested for HIV as compared with the

  11. False positive rate of rapid oral fluid HIV tests increases as kits near expiration date.

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    Shelley N Facente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because a recent cluster of false positive results on the OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test occurred in San Francisco on test kits close to their expiration date, we decided to assess the relationship between time to expiration and rate of false positive results from tests used with oral fluid. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed results of 20,904 tests with either an initial HIV-negative result (n = 20,828 or a preliminary positive result that was then negative on confirmatory tests (n = 76. We computed specificity for kits with time to expiration from or = 6 months, with exact binomial confidence intervals, then used logistic regression to estimate the independent association of time to expiration with false positive results, adjusting for site and technician effects. For 1,108 kits used in the last month before expiration, specificity was 98.83% (95% exact binomial confidence interval (CI 98.00%-99.37%; the upper bound is below the claimed specificity of 99.60%. After adjustment using regression standardization for the effects of site, test lot, and technician factors, adjusted specificity in the last month before expiration was 99.18% (95% bootstrap confidence interval 98.60-99.57%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that specificity of the OraQuick ADVANCE with oral fluid declined significantly with < or = 1 month remaining to expiration, leaving little margin for error from other sources.

  12. Predictors of readiness for oral rapid HIV testing by Chilean health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irarrázabal, Lisette P; Levy, Judith A; Norr, Kathleen F; Cianelli, Rosina; Issel, L Michele; Pérez, Carlos M; Hotton, Anna

    2016-11-01

    This study identified the personal characteristics that affect Chilean health care providers' readiness to adopt HIV Oral Rapid Testing (ORT) in Chile as a new clinical evidence-based practice (EBP). Using a cross-sectional research design, the study sampled 150 nurses, midwives, and physicians employed at four clinics within the Pontifícia Universidad Católica de Chile Health Network in Santiago. Participants completed a self-administered survey asking about their demographic background, EBP attitudes and experience, personal beliefs related to HIV, the importance of HIV testing, and perceived self-comfort in performing a rapid HIV test. Of the participants, 90% believed that incorporating ORT would make a positive difference in their practice and said that they would be willing to adopt the technology for that reason. Nonetheless, the providers reported a mean "readiness to implement ORT" score of 15.1 out of a possible value of 20, suggesting only moderate self-perceived readiness to adopt the EBP. Education, beliefs about evidence-based practice, perceived comfort in performing ORT, and perceived importance of HIV testing explained 43.6% of the variance in readiness to adopt ORT. The findings of this first ORT pre-implementation study in Chile can help guide policy makers and HIV stakeholders to prepare for and increase primary health care providers' readiness to successfully adopt this evidence-based technology. Successful adoption of ORT could increase Chile's capacity to reach HIV-vulnerable Chileans for testing and referral to care if infected, thus helping the country to reduce further transmission of the virus and its medical complications.

  13. Applications of a Rapid and Sensitive Dengue DUO Rapid Immunochromatographic Test Kit as a Diagnostic Strategy during a Dengue Type 2 Epidemic in an Urban City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsin-I; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Wu, Chi-Jung; Lin, Chih-Hao; Chang, Chia-Ming; Tu, Yi-Fang; Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Sung, Tzu-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Dengue infection is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. A prospective observational study in a university-affiliated hospital was conducted between August 2015 and September 2015. Patients who visited the emergency department (ED) with a presentation of any symptoms of dengue were eligible for the dengue non-structural protein 1 (NS1), IgM/IgG rapid immunochromatographic tests and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to evaluate the performance of the rapid tests. Considering the RT-PCR as the gold standard for the dengue diagnosis, the ideal primary results of sensitivity (80-100%), specificity (60-84%), positive predicted value(75%-95%), and negative predicted value (70-100%) suggested that the NS1-based test with or without a combination of IgM and IgG tests have good diagnostic performances in detecting dengue infections, even in the afebrile or elderly populations.

  14. Rapid prototyping compliant arterial phantoms for in-vitro studies and device testing

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    Biglino Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compliant vascular phantoms are desirable for in-vitro patient-specific experiments and device testing. TangoPlus FullCure 930® is a commercially available rubber-like material that can be used for PolyJet rapid prototyping. This work aims to gather preliminary data on the distensibility of this material, in order to assess the feasibility of its use in the context of experimental cardiovascular modelling. Methods The descending aorta anatomy of a volunteer was modelled in 3D from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR images and rapid prototyped using TangoPlus. The model was printed with a range of increasing wall thicknesses (0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mm, keeping the lumen of the vessel constant. Models were also printed in both vertical and horizontal orientations, thus resulting in a total of ten specimens. Compliance tests were performed by monitoring pressure variations while gradually increasing and decreasing internal volume. Knowledge of distensibility was thus derived and then implemented with CMR data to test two applications. Firstly, a patient-specific compliant model of hypoplastic aorta suitable for connection in a mock circulatory loop for in-vitro tests was manufactured. Secondly, the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT of a patient necessitating pulmonary valve replacement was printed in order to physically test device insertion and assess patient’s suitability for percutaneous pulmonary valve intervention. Results The distensibility of the material was identified in a range from 6.5 × 10-3 mmHg-1 for the 0.6 mm case, to 3.0 × 10-3 mmHg-1 for the 1.5 mm case. The models printed in the vertical orientation were always more compliant than their horizontal counterpart. Rapid prototyping of a compliant hypoplastic aorta and of a RVOT anatomical model were both feasible. Device insertion in the RVOT model was successful. Conclusion Values of distensibility, compared with literature data, show that Tango

  15. A Laboratory-Based Evaluation of Four Rapid Point-of-Care Tests for Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causer, Louise M.; Kaldor, John M.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Donovan, Basil; Karapanagiotidis, Theo; Leslie, David E.; Robertson, Peter W.; McNulty, Anna M.; Anderson, David; Wand, Handan; Conway, Damian P.; Denham, Ian; Ryan, Claire; Guy, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Syphilis point-of-care tests may reduce morbidity and ongoing transmission by increasing the proportion of people rapidly treated. Syphilis stage and co-infection with HIV may influence test performance. We evaluated four commercially available syphilis point-of-care devices in a head-to-head comparison using sera from laboratories in Australia. Methods Point-of-care tests were evaluated using sera stored at Sydney and Melbourne laboratories. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by standard methods, comparing point-of-care results to treponemal immunoassay (IA) reference test results. Additional analyses by clinical syphilis stage, HIV status, and non-treponemal antibody titre were performed. Non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals (CI) were considered statistically significant differences in estimates. Results In total 1203 specimens were tested (736 IA-reactive, 467 IA-nonreactive). Point-of-care test sensitivities were: Determine 97.3%(95%CI:95.8–98.3), Onsite 92.5%(90.3–94.3), DPP 89.8%(87.3–91.9) and Bioline 87.8%(85.1–90.0). Specificities were: Determine 96.4%(94.1–97.8), Onsite 92.5%(90.3–94.3), DPP 98.3%(96.5–99.2), and Bioline 98.5%(96.8–99.3). Sensitivity of the Determine test was 100% for primary and 100% for secondary syphilis. The three other tests had reduced sensitivity among primary (80.4–90.2%) compared to secondary syphilis (94.3–98.6%). No significant differences in sensitivity were observed by HIV status. Test sensitivities were significantly higher among high-RPR titre (RPR≥8) (range: 94.6–99.5%) than RPR non-reactive infections (range: 76.3–92.9%). Conclusions The Determine test had the highest sensitivity overall. All tests were most sensitive among high-RPR titre infections. Point-of-care tests have a role in syphilis control programs however in developed countries with established laboratory infrastructures, the lower sensitivities of some tests observed in primary syphilis suggest these would

  16. Comparative feasibility of implementing rapid diagnostic test and microscopy for parasitological diagnosis of malaria in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batwala, Vincent; Magnussen, Pascal; Nuwaha, Fred

    2011-01-01

    -based diagnosis for uncomplicated malaria in rural health centres (HCs) was investigated with a view to recommending measures for scaling up the policy. METHODS: Thirty HCs were randomized to implement parasite-based diagnosis based on rapid diagnostic tests [RDTs] (n=10), blood microscopy (n=10) and presumptive...... diagnosis (control arm) (n=10). Feasibility was assessed by comparing the proportion of patients who received parasite-based diagnosis; with a positive malaria parasite-based diagnosis who received artemether-lumefantrine (AL); with a negative malaria parasite-based diagnosis who received AL; and patient...... waiting time. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00565071. RESULTS: 102,087 outpatients were enrolled. Patients were more likely to be tested in the RDT 44,565 (96.6%) than in microscopy arm 19,545 (60.9%) [RR: 1.59]. RDTs reduced patient waiting time compared to microscopy and were more convenient to health workers...

  17. Fluoromycobacteriophages for Rapid, Specific, and Sensitive Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piuri, Mariana; Jacobs, William R.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of paramount importance as multiple- and extensively- drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis emerge and spread. We describe here a virus-based assay in which fluoromycobacteriophages are used to deliver a GFP or ZsYellow fluorescent marker gene to M. tuberculosis, which can then be monitored by fluorescent detection approaches including fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Pre-clinical evaluations show that addition of either Rifampicin or Streptomycin at the time of phage addition obliterates fluorescence in susceptible cells but not in isogenic resistant bacteria enabling drug sensitivity determination in less than 24 hours. Detection requires no substrate addition, fewer than 100 cells can be identified, and resistant bacteria can be detected within mixed populations. Fluorescence withstands fixation by paraformaldehyde providing enhanced biosafety for testing MDR-TB and XDR-TB infections. PMID:19300517

  18. Development of a PCR test for rapid diagnosis of contagious equine metritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, T; Eguchi, M; Sekizaki, T; Kamada, M; Yamamoto, K; Okuda, T

    1999-12-01

    In order to establish a rapid diagnostic method for contagious equine metritis (CEM), we developed and evaluated a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Species-specific PCR primer sets were derived from the DNA sequence of a cloned DNA fragment of Taylorella equigenitalis that did not hybridize with the genome of a taxomonically related species, Oligella urethralis. Single step PCR with primer set P1-N2 and two-step semi-nested PCR with primer sets P1-N2 and P2-N2 detected as low as 100 and 10 CFU of the bacteria, respectively. Single-step PCR detected T. equigenitalis from genital swabs of experimentally infected mares with sensitivity comparable to that of bacterial isolation. Furthermore, two-step PCR was more sensitive than the culture method. Upon examination of field samples, 12 out of 3,123 samples were positive by single-step PCR while only 2 were positive by bacterial culture. The 12 PCR-positive samples originated from 5 mares, of which 3 animals were considered to be carriers based on previous bacteriologic and serologic diagnoses for CEM. The PCR test described in this study would provide a specific and highly sensitive tool for the rapid diagnosis of CEM.

  19. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Quach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP, which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and -resistant (MRSA clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71 within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS S. aureus strains (n = 20 within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice.

  20. Test plan for preparing the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory for field deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1994-04-01

    This plan describes experimental work that will be performed during fiscal year 1994 to prepare the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) for routine field use by US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs. The RTML is a mobile, field-deployable laboratory developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) that provides a rapid, cost-effective means of characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste remediation sites for low-level radioactive contaminants. Analytical instruments currently installed in the RTML include an extended-range, germanium photon analysis spectrometer with an automatic sample changer; two, large-area, ionization chamber alpha spectrometers; and four alpha continuous air monitors. The RTML was field tested at the INEL during June 1993 in conjunction with the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration's remote retrieval demonstration. The major tasks described in this test plan are to (a) evaluate the beta detectors for use in screening soil samples for 90 Sr, (b) upgrade the alpha spectral analysis software programs, and (c) upgrade the photon spectral analysis software programs

  1. Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test for yaws infection in a community surveillance setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yaws is a non-venereal treponemal infection caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue. The WHO has launched a worldwide control programme, which aims to eradicate yaws by 2020. The development of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT for serological diagnosis in the isolated communities affected by yaws is a key requirement for the successful implementation of the WHO strategy. We conducted a study to evaluate the utility of the DPP test in screening for yaws, utilizing samples collected as part of a community prevalence survey conducted in the Solomon Islands. 415 serum samples were tested using both traditional syphilis serology (TPPA and quantitative RPR and the Chembio DPP Syphilis Screen and Confirm RDT. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the RDT as compared to gold standard serology. The sensitivity of the RDT against TPPA was 58.5% and the specificity was 97.6%. The sensitivity of the RDT against RPR was 41.7% and the specificity was 95.2%. The sensitivity of the DPP was strongly related to the RPR titre with a sensitivity of 92.0% for an RPR titre of >1/16. Wider access to DPP testing would improve our understanding of worldwide yaws case reporting and the test may play a key role in assessing patients presenting with yaws like lesions in a post-mass drug administration (MDA setting.

  2. Evaluation of a rapid IgM detection test for diagnosis of acute leptospirosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizer, J; Grahlmann, M; Hapke, H; Velineni, S; Lin, D; Kohn, B

    2017-05-27

    Recently, a lateral flow assay (LFA) for detection of Leptospira -specific IgM in canine sera became commercially available in Europe. The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of this assay using canine sera from a collection of diagnostic accessions. Diagnostic sensitivity was assessed by testing 37 acute-phase and 9 corresponding convalescent-phase sera from dogs with a confirmed diagnosis of leptospirosis. Specificity was determined by testing sera from sick dogs with non-leptospiral infections (n=15) and healthy dogs with incomplete history of vaccination (n=45). During acute phase of illness, LFA scored positive for 28/37 sera with a sensitivity of 75.7 per cent while only 9/37 (24.3 per cent) samples were positive on microscopic agglutination test. The specificity of the LFA was 98.3 per cent (59/60). This test showed 89.7 and 100 per cent overall agreements with clinical diagnosis for acute-phase and convalescent-phase sera, respectively. The impact of vaccination on the LFA was also determined and vaccine-stimulated IgM responses were negative in 19/25 (76 per cent) dogs at 12 weeks post vaccination. In conclusion, the LFA is a rapid and reliable test for early detection of Leptospira -specific IgM during acute phase of canine leptospirosis. However, interpretation of a positive result must be made in the context of clinical signs and vaccination history. British Veterinary Association.

  3. Ecosytem Services: A Rapid Assessment Method Tested at 35 Sites of the LTER-Europe Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Jan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of parameters to monitor the ecosystem services delivered at a site is fundamental to the concept’s adoption as a useful policy instrument at local, national and international scales. In this paper we (i describe the process of developing a rapid comprehensive ecosystem service assessment methodology and (ii test the applicability of the protocol at 35 long-term research (LTER sites across 14 countries in the LTER-Europe network (www.lter-europe.net including marine, urban, agricultural, forest, desert and conservation sites. An assessment of probability of occurrence with estimated confidence score using 83 ecosystem service parameters was tested. The parameters were either specific services like food production or proxies such as human activities which were considered surrogates for cultural diversity and economic activity. This initial test of the ecosystem service parameter list revealed that the parameters tested were relatively easy to score by site managers with a high level of certainty (92% scored as either occurring or not occurring at the site with certainty of over 90%. Based on this assessment, we concluded that (i this approach to operationalise the concept of ecosystem services is practical and applicable by many sectors of civil society as a first screen of the ecosystem services present at a site, (ii this study has direct relevance to land management and policy decision makers as a transparent vehicle to focus testing scenarios and target data gathering, but (iii further work beyond the scale investigated here is required to ensure global applicability.

  4. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kang, Go-Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man

    2016-01-01

    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA). When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96) of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146) of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  5. Oral rapid test: an alternative to traditional HIV screening in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Paola Irarrazábal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of an Oral Rapid Test (ORT to that of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA for HIV testing in Santiago, Chile; to track the number of study participants returning for ELISA testing results; and to analyze the participants' perceptions of the ORT compared to the ELISA. METHODS: A total of 497 people were recruited in Santiago, Chile: 153 had previously tested positive for HIV, and 344 were of unknown status. Participants were tested for HIV using both the ELISA and the ORT to examine and compare specificity and sensitivity. Qualitative data were collected from 22 participants to compare perceptions of the testing experience with ORT versus ELISA. RESULTS: The ELISA reported 184 (37% of the 497 participants as being "positive" for HIV antibodies; the ORT showed 181 (36.4% as being "reactive" for HIV. The ORT showed a sensitivity of 98.4% (95.7%-99.9%, 95% Confidence Interval and specificity of 100%. The Kappa test produced K = 0.983 (P < 0.0001. Of the 344 participants whose HIV status was unknown at the start of the study, 55 failed to return for their ELISA results. Participants positively perceived ORT as having reduced both waiting time and anxiety over obtaining their test results. ORT oral swabbing appeared more practical and less invasive than drawing blood for the ELISA. CONCLUSIONS: The ORT and ELISA were statistically equal in specificity and sensitivity. ORT provides quicker results, potentially ensuring that more people receive them, and does not require handling of or exposure to potentially hazardous blood products. Trial number: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01733927.

  6. A methodological approach to rapid assessment of a river flood in coastal waters. First test in the Po River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Alessandra; Bellafiore, Debora; Bensi, Manuel; Bignami, Francesco; Caccamo, Giuseppe; Celussi, Mauro; Del Negro, Paola; Ferrarin, Christian; Marini, Mauro; Paschini, Elio; Zaggia, Luca

    2014-05-01

    ) and high CDOM (20-22 ppb) values. These parameters showed a strong gradient from coast to offshore and from surface to the bottom. The fluorescence values were more variable since the phytoplankton growth is not quickly correlated with the load of riverborne materials. The higher fluorescence values (1.8-2 µg l-1) were, in fact, detected offshore and at bottom. A good correlation between salinity versus CDOM (R2=0.84) and salinity versus Spectral slope (SCDOM275-295; R2=0.86) were found. These features reveal the role of CDOM as tracer of the freshwater inputs. Chemical analysis of waters affected by the river plume display high concentration of organic carbon (100-160 µmol l-1) and nutrients strenghtening this zone as one of the most eutrophic area of the Mediterranean Sea (Campanelli et al. 2011, Marini et al. 2008). The synergy of actions applied in the test has proved useful to better analyze the variability of coastal water characteristics after a river flood. However, a similar methodological approach could be reasonably applied to the rapid assessment of different events (i.e. harmful phytoplankton growth, chemical spills) which can occur in the area or in areas with similar features. The definition of methodologies for rapid assessment of marine processes can be a useful tool for the future integrated management of coastal zone. References Campanelli, A., F. Grilli, E. Paschini, M. Marini, 2011. The influence of an exceptional Po River flood on the physical and chemical oceanographic properties of the Adriatic Sea. Dynam. Atmos. Oceans, 52: 284-297. Marini, M., B.H. Jones, A. Campanelli, F. Grilli & C.M. Lee. 2008. Seasonal variability and Po River plume influence on biochemical properties along western Adriatic coast. J. Geophys. Res., 113: C05S90, doi:10.1029/2007JC004370.

  7. Small Project Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) An Innovation Space for Small Projects Design, Development, Integration, and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ashley; Rackoczy, John; Heater, Daniel; Sanders, Devon; Tashakkor, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  8. Sensitivity of the STAT-VIEW rapid self-test and implications for use during acute HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukli, Narjis; Boyd, Anders; Wendremaire, Noémie; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Bottero, Julie; Morand-Joubert, Laurence

    2017-08-23

    HIV testing is an important step towards diminishing incident infections. Rapid self-tests whose use is becoming more common in France could help increase access to testing, yet could fail to diagnose HIV during acute HIV infection (AHI). The aim of the present study was to evaluate HIV-detection sensitivity of a commonly used rapid self-test (STAT-VIEW HIV1/2), compared with another point-of-care rapid test (INSTI), among patients presenting with AHI. Individuals tested at Saint-Antoine Hospital (Paris, France) with negative or indeterminate western blot (WB) results and detectable HIV-RNA were included. Rapid tests were performed retrospectively on stored serum. Patients with and without reactive rapid tests were compared, while probability of having a reactive test was modelled across infection duration using logistic regression. Of the 40 patients with AHI, 23 (57.5%) had a reactive STAT-VIEW rapid test. Patients with non-reactive versus reactive tests had a significantly shorter median time since infection (p=0.01), time since onset of symptoms (p=0.009), higher proportion with Fiebig stage III versus IV (p=0.003), negative WB results (p=0.007), higher HIV-RNA levels (p=0.001) and lower CD4+ and CD8+ cell count (p=0.03, prapid self-test when performed on serum samples. Considering that detection sensitivity increased substantially over infection time, individuals should not rely on a negative result to accurately exclude HIV infection within at least 5 weeks of potential HIV exposure. Notwithstanding strong recommendations against rapid test use during AHI, some utility in detecting HIV is observed 5-12 weeks after transmission. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Rapid Cooling Heat Transfer of Rod-shaped Test Specimen for Nuclear Reactor Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chi Young; Shin, Chang Hwan; Oh, Dong Seok; Chun, Tae Hyun; In, Wang Kee; Koo, Yang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Under a loss of coolant accident in pressured water nuclear reactor core, the reflood phase is associated with the emergency cooling, and in such a case, the fuel rods are quenched when water is being refilled in a reactor vessel. In the nuclear reactor core, zircaloy and SS (Stainless Steel) are widely and popularly used. Hence, the performance comparison of rapid cooling heat transfer between both materials can be meaningful. After the Fukushima accident, the hydrogen generation is considered to be one of critical issues for nuclear reactor safety. Hydrogen is generated by the corrosion reaction of zirconium alloys in nuclear reactor components. The corrosion reaction can become active with increasing the environmental temperature. Therefore, a decrease in high-temperature oxidation rate of nuclear fuel cladding should be achieved to decrease the amount of hydrogen generation under the accident condition. Recently, the researches on ATFC (Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding) developments have been highlighted, and the chromium-coated (Cr-coated) zircaloy cladding may be considered to be one of candidates for ATFC. Thus, the investigation on the behavior of Cr-coated surface during quenching should be performed. In this paper, transient boiling heat transfer behavior of rod-shaped zircaloy and SS test specimens is studied. In addition, commercially Cr-coated SS test specimen is prepared using the plating method, and preliminarily tested for ATFC application. In this paper, transient boiling heat transfer behavior was examined using rod-shaped test specimen. For reduction in quenching time, the test specimen with small size and small heat capacity was needed. In the Cr-coated SS test specimen prepared by commercial plating method, the cracked morphology was likely to be observed on the surface after repeated quenching tests. Therefore, the optimized coating technology for ATFC application should be proposed and developed.

  10. [Evaluation of a new and rapid antibiotic sensitivity method testing for Enterobacteriaceae responsible for urinary infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudat, P; Crouzier, C

    1997-05-01

    URIFAST Es et Es Plus (International Microbio, Signes, France) are rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing method in broth medium without using an automatic reader. A screening assay (URIFAST Quatro 1C ou URIFAST Twin 1C) is performed with a 4 or 9 antimicrobial agents with a concentration c' below the low critical concentration (c) defined by the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie (CA-SFM). When a bacterial strain is presumed resistant, an antimicrobial susceptibility test with the two critical concentrations (CA-SFM) can be performed with 5 or 10 antimicrobial agents antibiotiques (URIFAST Twin ABG ou URIFAST ABG). 140 strains of Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections; E. coli (n = 94), P. mirabilis (n = 13), K. pneumoniae (n = 4), K. oxytoca (n = 6), C. diversus (n = 3), P. vulgaris (n = 1), M. morganii (n = 3), C. freundii (n = 4), E. aerogenes (n = 2), E. cloacae (n = 5) and S. marcescens (n = 5); were isolated with CPS ID2 (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). URIFAST results were compared to Rapid ATB Ur et ATB Ur results obtained after reading with ATB expression (bioMerieux). For each discrepancy, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) by agar dilution was used as the reference method. Agreement obtained were 98.57% with Quatro 1C, 98.40% with Twin 1C, 98.14% with Twin ABG and 98.39% with ABG. 94% of beta-lactams susceptible Enterobacteriaceae were detected by the screening tray with the antimicrobial agent concentration c'. URIFAST Es et Es Plus are standardized and easy-to-use methods. Because of their good performances, the URIFAST methods can be used to test antimicrobial susceptibility for Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections.

  11. Incidental learning during rapid information processing on the symbol-digit modalities test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Douglas R; Hughes, Abbey J; Elliott, Jacquelyn K; Roth, Alexandra K; Lynch, Sharon G

    2015-06-01

    The Symbol--Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is widely used to assess processing speed in MS patients. We developed a computerized version of the SDMT (c-SDMT) that scored participants' performance during subintervals over the course of the usual 90-s time period and also added an incidental learning test (c-ILT) to assess how well participants learned the symbol-digit associations while completing the c-SDMT. Patients with MS (n = 65) achieved lower scores than healthy controls (n = 38) on both the c-SDMT and c-ILT, and the scores on the two tests were correlated. However, no increase in the rate of item completion occurred for either group over the course of the c-SDMT, and the difference between groups was the same during each subinterval. Therefore, it seems implausible that controls completed more items on the c-SDMT because they were more adept at learning the symbol-digit associations as the test ensued. Instead, MS patients' poorer incidental learning performance appears to reflect the greater attentional burden that tasks requiring rapid serial processing of information impose upon them. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Evaluation of a rapid latex agglutination test for identification of group D streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzo, S J; Washington, J A

    1984-09-01

    The SeroSTAT latex agglutination test (Scott Laboratories, Inc., Fiskesville, R.I.) for identification of group D streptococci was compared with bile-esculin agar and Lancefield grouping by using 110 clinical isolates of group D streptococci (S. faecalis, 74; S. bovis, 24; S. durans, 3; S. faecium, 9) and 65 viridans streptococci (S. anginosus-constellatus, 2; Streptococcus MG, 15; S. sanguis II, 14; S. mitis, 7; S. mutans, 5; S. salivarius, 8; S. sanguis I, 8; S. acidominimus, 1; S. morbillorum, 2; S. pneumoniae, 3). All strains of group D streptococci were bile-esculin positive. SeroSTAT reactions were falsely positive with 2 strains of S. sanguisII and 1 strain of Streptococcus MG (4.6% of all viridans streptococci tested) and falsely negative with 10 S. bovis, 8 S. faecalis, 1 S. durans, and 6 S. faecium strains (22.7% of all group D streptococci tested). When considered with colonial morphology and hemolytic reaction, SeroSTAT is a rapid (60-s) and useful test for recognition of group D streptococci.

  13. Rapid and quantitative detection of C-reactive protein using quantum dots and immunochromatographic test strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng X

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Xianglin Cheng,1,* Xu Pu,2,* Pen Jun,3 XiaoBo Zhu,3 Di Zhu,4 Ming Chen1 1Department of Laboratory Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Yangtze University, Jingzhou, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, RenMin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 3Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this study and share first authorship Background: Rapid immunochromatographic tests can detect disease markers in 10–15 minutes, which facilitates clinical diagnosis and treatment programs. However, most immunochromatographic tests employ gold nanoparticles as reporters, and these have only moderate sensitivity and act as qualitative methods for analyzing high biomarker concentrations. Methods: In this study, we introduce quantum dots (QDs as fluorescent probes and immunochromatographic strips to develop quantitative fluorescence point-of-care tests (QF-POCT to analyze C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Goat anti-rabbit IgG and rabbit IgG were used as control antibodies, and mouse monoclonal CRP antibody pairs were used for disease marker detection. One monoclonal CRP antibody was conjugated with QDs and served as a signal antibody, and the other monoclonal CRP antibody was dispensed onto the nitrocellulose membrane and served as a capturing antibody. In the presence of CRP, the fluorescence intensity of the monoclonal antibody-CRP-monoclonal antibody sandwich complex captured on the nitrocellulose membrane was determined using the fluorescence strip reader. Results: QF-POCT assays could quantitatively analyze the concentration of CRP in 15 minutes had a detection limit of 0.25 mg/L, and had a wide detection linearity range (0.5–300 mg/L. The intra-assay and interassay

  14. ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test kit for point-of-care and laboratory-based testing for Ebola virus disease: a field validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Mara Jana; Kelly, John Daniel; Miller, Ann; Semper, Amanda; Bailey, Daniel; Groppelli, Elisabetta; Simpson, Andrew; Brooks, Tim; Hula, Susan; Nyoni, Wilfred; Sankoh, Alhaji B; Kanu, Santigi; Jalloh, Alhaji; Ton, Quy; Sarchet, Nicholas; George, Peter; Perkins, Mark D; Wonderly, Betsy; Murray, Megan; Pollock, Nira R

    2015-08-29

    At present, diagnosis of Ebola virus disease requires transport of venepuncture blood to field biocontainment laboratories for testing by real-time RT-PCR, resulting in delays that complicate patient care and infection control efforts. Therefore, an urgent need exists for a point-of-care rapid diagnostic test for this disease. In this Article, we report the results of a field validation of the Corgenix ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test kit. We performed the rapid diagnostic test on fingerstick blood samples from 106 individuals with suspected Ebola virus disease presenting at two clinical centres in Sierra Leone. Adults and children who were able to provide verbal consent or assent were included; we excluded patients with haemodynamic instability and those who were unable to cooperate with fingerstick or venous blood draw. Two independent readers scored each rapid diagnostic test, with any disagreements resolved by a third. We compared point-of-care rapid diagnostic test results with clinical real-time RT-PCR results (RealStar Filovirus Screen RT-PCR kit 1·0; altona Diagnostics GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) for venepuncture plasma samples tested in a Public Health England field reference laboratory (Port Loko, Sierra Leone). Separately, we performed the rapid diagnostic test (on whole blood) and real-time RT-PCR (on plasma) on 284 specimens in the reference laboratory, which were submitted to the laboratory for testing from many clinical sites in Sierra Leone, including our two clinical centres. In point-of-care testing, all 28 patients who tested positive for Ebola virus disease by RT-PCR were also positive by fingerstick rapid diagnostic test (sensitivity 100% [95% CI 87·7-100]), and 71 of 77 patients who tested negative by RT-PCR were also negative by the rapid diagnostic test (specificity 92·2% [95% CI 83·8-97·1]). In laboratory testing, all 45 specimens that tested positive by RT-PCR were also positive by the rapid diagnostic test (sensitivity 100% [95% CI 92·1

  15. BRAF mutation testing with a rapid, fully integrated molecular diagnostics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Helen J.; Falchook, Gerald S.; Devogelaere, Benoit; Kockx, Mark; Bempt, Isabelle Vanden; Reijans, Martin; Naing, Aung; Fu, Siqing; Piha-Paul, Sarina A.; Hong, David S.; Holley, Veronica R.; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Stepanek, Vanda M.; Patel, Sapna P.; Kopetz, E. Scott; Subbiah, Vivek; Wheler, Jennifer J.; Zinner, Ralph G.; Karp, Daniel D.; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Sablon, Erwin; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Maertens, Geert; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-01-01

    Fast and accurate diagnostic systems are needed for further implementation of precision therapy of BRAF-mutant and other cancers. The novel IdyllaTM BRAF Mutation Test has high sensitivity and shorter turnaround times compared to other methods. We used Idylla to detect BRAF V600 mutations in archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples and compared these results with those obtained using the cobas 4800 BRAF V600 Mutation Test or MiSeq deep sequencing system and with those obtained by a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified laboratory employing polymerase chain reaction–based sequencing, mass spectrometric detection, or next-generation sequencing. In one set of 60 FFPE tumor samples (15 with BRAF mutations per Idylla), the Idylla and cobas results had an agreement of 97%. Idylla detected BRAF V600 mutations in two additional samples. The Idylla and MiSeq results had 100% concordance. In a separate set of 100 FFPE tumor samples (64 with BRAF mutation per Idylla), the Idylla and CLIA-certified laboratory results demonstrated an agreement of 96% even though the tests were not performed simultaneously and different FFPE blocks had to be used for 9 cases. The IdyllaTM BRAF Mutation Test produced results quickly (sample to results time was about 90 minutes with about 2 minutes of hands on time) and the closed nature of the cartridge eliminates the risk of PCR contamination. In conclusion, our observations demonstrate that the Idylla test is rapid and has high concordance with other routinely used but more complex BRAF mutation–detecting tests. PMID:26330075

  16. A Rapidly-Incremented Tethered-Swimming test for Defining Domain-Specific Training Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa Filho, Dalton M; Siqueira, Leandro O C; Simionato, Astor R; Espada, Mário A C; Pestana, Daniel S; DiMenna, Fred J

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a tethered-swimming incremental test comprising small increases in resistive force applied every 60 seconds could delineate the isocapnic region during rapidly-incremented exercise. Sixteen competitive swimmers (male, n = 11; female, n = 5) performed: (a) a test to determine highest force during 30 seconds of all-out tethered swimming (F avg ) and the ΔF, which represented the difference between F avg and the force required to maintain body alignment (F base ), and (b) an incremental test beginning with 60 seconds of tethered swimming against a load that exceeded F base by 30% of ΔF followed by increments of 5% of ΔF every 60 seconds. This incremental test was continued until the limit of tolerance with pulmonary gas exchange (rates of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production) and ventilatory (rate of minute ventilation) data collected breath by breath. These data were subsequently analyzed to determine whether two breakpoints defining the isocapnic region (i.e., gas exchange threshold and respiratory compensation point) were present. We also determined the peak rate of O 2 uptake and exercise economy during the incremental test. The gas exchange threshold and respiratory compensation point were observed for each test such that the associated metabolic rates, which bound the heavy-intensity domain during constant-work-rate exercise, could be determined. Significant correlations (Spearman's) were observed for exercise economy along with (a) peak rate of oxygen uptake (ρ = .562; p rate at gas exchange threshold (ρ = -.759; p rates that define zones for domain-specific constant-work-rate training.

  17. Prospective evaluation of three rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga G A Goris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of leptospirosis by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT or by culture is confined to specialized laboratories. Although ELISA techniques are more common, they still require laboratory facilities. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs can be used for easy point-of-care diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the RDTs LeptoTek Dri Dot, LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and Leptocheck-WB, prospectively. METHODOLOGY: During 2001 to 2012, one or two of the RDTs at the same time have been applied prior to routine diagnostics (MAT, ELISA and culture on serum specimens from participants sent in for leptospirosis diagnosis. The case definition was based on MAT, ELISA and culture results. Participants not fulfilling the case definition were considered not to have leptospirosis. The diagnostic accuracy was determined based on the 1(st submitted sample and paired samples, either in an overall analysis or stratified according to days post onset of illness. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity for the LeptoTek Dri Dot was 75% respectively 96%, for the LeptoTek Lateral Flow 78% respectively 95%, and for the Leptocheck-WB 78% respectively 98%. Based on the 1(st submitted sample the sensitivity was low (51% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 69% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 55% for Leptocheck-WB, but substantially increased when the results of paired samples were combined, although accompanied by a lower specificity (82% respectively 91% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 86% respectively 84% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 80% respectively 93% for Leptocheck-WB. CONCLUSIONS: All three tests present antibody tests contributing to the diagnosis of leptospirosis, thus supporting clinical suspicion and contributing to awareness. Since the overall sensitivity of the tested RDTs did not exceed 80%, one should be cautious to rely only on an RDT result, and confirmation by reference tests is strongly recommended.

  18. Operational evaluation of rapid diagnostic testing for Ebola Virus Disease in Guinean laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSteelandt, Amanda; Aho, Josephine; Franklin, Kristyn; Likofata, Jacques; Kamgang, Jean Baptiste; Keita, Sakoba; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Martel, Lise D; Dahourou, Anicet George

    2017-01-01

    Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) at the point of care have the potential to increase access and acceptability of EVD testing and the speed of patient isolation and secure burials for suspect cases. A pilot program for EVD RDTs in high risk areas of Guinea was introduced in October 2015. This paper presents concordance data between EVD RDTs and PCR testing in the field as well as an assessment of the acceptability, feasibility, and quality assurance of the RDT program. Concordance data were compiled from laboratory surveillance databases. The operational measures of the laboratory-based EVD RDT program were evaluated at all 34 sentinel sites in Guinea through: (1) a technical questionnaire filled by the lab technicians who performed the RDTs, (2) a checklist filled by the evaluator during the site visits, and (3) direct observation of the lab technicians performing the quality control test. Acceptability of the EVD RDT was good for technicians, patients, and families although many technicians (69.8%) expressed concern for their safety while performing the test. The feasibility of the program was good based on average technician knowledge scores (6.6 out of 8) but basic infrastructure, equipment, and supplies were lacking. There was much room for improvement in quality assurance of the program. The implementation of new diagnostics in weak laboratory systems requires general training in quality assurance, biosafety and communication with patients in addition to specific training for the new test. Corresponding capacity building in terms of basic equipment and a long-term commitment to transfer supervision and quality improvement to national public health staff are necessary for successful implementation.

  19. Good performance of rapid prostate-specific antigen test for detection of semen exposure in women: implications for qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Marcia M; Steiner, Markus J; Rich, Kimberly D; Gallo, Maria F; Alam, Anadil; Rahman, Motiur; Menezes, Prema; Chipato, Tsungai; Warner, Lee; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2009-08-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valid biomarker of semen exposure in women and has been used to assess reliability of self-reported sexual behavior as well as serve as a proxy measure for condom efficacy. Quantitative PSA tests are expensive and require specialized equipment. A simple, rapid, and inexpensive test for PSA would facilitate semen biomarker evaluation in a variety of research settings. This study evaluated the performance of a rapid PSA test compared with a quantitative assay to identify semen in vaginal swab specimens. We tested 581 vaginal swabs collected from 492 women participating in 2 separate research studies in Bangladesh and Zimbabwe. PSA in vaginal secretions was detected using the quantitative IMx (Abbott Laboratories) assay and the ABAcard p30 (Abacus Diagnostics) rapid immunochromatographic strip test. The ABAcard test was 100% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 98%-100%) and 96% specific (95% CI, 93%-97%) compared with the quantitative test in detecting >1.0 ng PSA/mL vaginal swab eluate. Rapid PSA results were semiquantitative and correlated well with PSA concentrations (kappa = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.85-0.90). Rapid PSA detection requires no instrumentation and can be performed easily and economically. Having rapid PSA results available immediately following interview provides opportunities to explore discrepancies between the objective marker of recent semen exposure and self-reported behaviors.

  20. India Ink Staining, a Rapid and Affordable Test for Diagnosis of Cryptococcal Meningitis

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    Masfiyah Masfiyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis incidence has increased along with an increase in incidence of HIV-AIDS. This infection causes increased morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV-AIDS. A rapid diagnosis plays an important role to ensure a prompt therapy of the disease. The cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen test for diagnosis of meningitis is rapid but relatively expensive while culture is time consuming. A 47-year man was admitted to hospital with a headache, fever, nausea, and vomiting and a HIV history for the last 6 months. On physical examination, he was compos mentis, meningeal’s stimuli signs (+, where as on examination of craniales nerves, motor and sensibility was in a normal range. Routine blood was normal, 60 CD4 cells/mm3. Laboratory finding included a clowdy/turbid Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, low glucose level (CSF glucose 43 mg / dl vs. blood glucose 293 mg / dl, elevated protein concentration (137.1 mg / dl, and polymorphonuclear pleocytosis. India ink stain showed encapsulated yeasts. Cryptococcus sp is the only encapsulated yeast, while C. neoformans is the most common cause of Cryptococcosis in patients with HIV-AIDS. The patient was diagnosed with Cryptococcal meningitis by indian ink staining, and immediately given anti-fungal theraphy.

  1. Usefulness of clinical data and rapid diagnostic tests to identify bacterial etiology in adult respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Toledano-Sierra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections are a common complaint and most of them, such as common cold and laryngitis, are viral in origin, so antibiotic use should be exceptional. However, there are other respiratory tract infections (sinusitis, pharyngitis, lower respiratory tract infections, and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease where a bacterial etiology is responsible for a non-negligible percentage, and antibiotics are often empirically indicated. The aim of the study is to identify the strength of the data obtained from the symptoms, physical examination and rapid diagnostic methods in respiratory infections in which antibiotic use is frequently proposed in order to improve diagnosis and influence the decision to prescribe these drugs. The review concludes that history, physical examination and rapid tests are useful to guide the need for antibiotic treatment in diseases such as acute sinusitis, acute pharyngitis, exacerbation of lower respiratory tract infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, no isolated data is accurate enough by itself to confirm or rule out the need for antibiotics. Therefore, clinical prediction rules bring together history and physical examination, thereby improving the accuracy of the decision to indicate or not antibiotics.

  2. Rapid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, L.E.; Hoffner, S.E.; Ansehn, S.

    1988-01-01

    Mycobacterial growth was monitored by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP. Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and of 25 clinical isolates of the same species were exposed to serial dilutions of ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin. A suppression of ATP, indicating growth inhibition, occurred for susceptible but not resistant strains within 5 to 7 days of incubation. Breakpoint concentrations between susceptibility and resistance were determined by comparing these results with those obtained by reference techniques. Full agreement was found in 99% of the assays with the resistance ratio method on Lowenstein-Jensen medium, and 98% of the assays were in full agreement with the radiometric system (BACTEC). A main advantage of the bioluminescence method is its rapidity, with results available as fast as with the radiometric system but at a lower cost and without the need for radioactive culture medium. The method provides kinetic data concerning drug effects within available in vivo drug concentrations and has great potential for both rapid routine susceptibility testing and research applications in studies of drug effects on mycobacteria

  3. PCR-based verification of positive rapid diagnostic tests for intestinal protozoa infections with variable test band intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sören L; Müller, Ivan; Mertens, Pascal; Herrmann, Mathias; Zondie, Leyli; Beyleveld, Lindsey; Gerber, Markus; du Randt, Rosa; Pühse, Uwe; Walter, Cheryl; Utzinger, Jürg

    2017-10-01

    Stool-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis) allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment in resource-constrained settings. Such RDTs can improve individual patient management and facilitate population-based screening programmes in areas without microbiological laboratories for confirmatory testing. However, RDTs are difficult to interpret in case of 'trace' results with faint test band intensities and little is known about whether such ambiguous results might indicate 'true' infections. In a longitudinal study conducted in poor neighbourhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa, a total of 1428 stool samples from two cohorts of schoolchildren were examined on the spot for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis using an RDT (Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip; Coris BioConcept). Overall, 121 samples were positive for G. intestinalis and the RDT suggested presence of cryptosporidiosis in 22 samples. After a storage period of 9-10 months in cohort 1 and 2-3 months in cohort 2, samples were subjected to multiplex PCR (BD Max™ Enteric Parasite Panel, Becton Dickinson). Ninety-three percent (112/121) of RDT-positive samples for G. intestinalis were confirmed by PCR, with a correlation between RDT test band intensity and quantitative pathogen load present in the sample. For Cryptosporidium spp., all positive RDTs had faintly visible lines and these were negative on PCR. The performance of the BD Max™ PCR was nearly identical in both cohorts, despite the prolonged storage at disrupted cold chain conditions in cohort 1. The Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip warrants further validation in communities with a high incidence of diarrhoea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Appropriate targeting of artemisinin-based combination therapy by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), used by community health workers (CHWs), on the proportion of children therapy (ACT), vs. presumptive treatment. METHODS: Cluster...

  5. Improving the screening of blood donors with syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkodie, F; Hassall, O; Owusu-Dabo, E; Owusu-Ofori, S; Bates, I; Bygbjerg, I C; Owusu-Ofori, A; Harritshøj, L H; Ullum, H

    2017-02-01

    Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. From February 2014 to January 2015, 5 mL of venous blood samples were taken from 16 016 blood donors and tested with a treponemal RDT; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from 526 consenting initial syphilis sero-reactive blood donors. These RDT reactive samples were confirmed with an algorithm, applying the Vitros ® /Abbott-Architect ® algorithm as gold standard. A total of 478 of 526 RDT reactive donors were confirmed positive for syphilis, making a PPV of 90·9%. Of the 172 (32·7%) donors who were also RPR positive, 167 were confirmed, resulting in a PPV of 97·1%. The PPV of the combined RDT and RPR (suspected active syphilis) testing algorithm was highest among donors at an enhanced risk of syphilis, family/replacement donors (99·9%), and among voluntary donors above 25 years (98·6%). Screening of blood donors by combining syphilis RDT and RPR with relatively good PPV may provide a reasonable technology for LMIC that has a limited capacity for testing and can contribute to the improvement of blood safety with a minimal loss of donors. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  6. ACCURACY OF RAPID TEST OF STORED ACUTE PHASE SERUM FOR DIAGNOSE JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Subanada

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Japanese encephalitis (JE is common viral encephalitis with high sequele and mortality. With some limitations, there are several diagnostic tool to diagnose of JE. The objecive of this study was to know the accuracy of rapid test of stored acute phase serum for diagnose of JE. We conducted diagnostic test of stored acute phase serum of encephalitis patients with MAC ELISA of cerebrospinal fluid as a gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value NPV, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, negative likelihood ratio (NLR, and post-test probability were calculated. This study found the prevalence of JE was 42.1%, sensitivity 15.7 % (95% CI 9.2 to 22.2%, specificity 95.7% (95% CI 92.1 to 99.3%, PPV 72.7% (95% CI 64.8 to 80.6%, NPV 60.9% (95% CI 52.2 to 69.6%, PLR 3.7, NLR 0.9, and post-test probability was 0.73. We concluded that rapid test of acute phase stored serum was insensitive but specific to diagnose of JE. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  7. Comparison of a full systematic review versus rapid review approaches to assess a newborn screening test for tyrosinemia type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Geppert, Julia; Stinton, Chris; Freeman, Karoline; Johnson, Samantha; Fraser, Hannah; Sutcliffe, Paul; Clarke, Aileen

    2017-12-01

    Rapid reviews are increasingly used to replace/complement systematic reviews to support evidence-based decision-making. Little is known about how this expedited process affects results. To assess differences between rapid and systematic review approaches for a case study of test accuracy of succinylacetone for detecting tyrosinemia type 1. Two reviewers conducted an "enhanced" rapid review then a systematic review. The enhanced rapid review involved narrower searches, a single reviewer checking 20% of titles/abstracts and data extraction, and quality assessment using an unadjusted QUADAS-2. Two reviewers performed the systematic review with a tailored QUADAS-2. Post hoc analysis examined rapid reviewing with a single reviewer (basic rapid review). Ten papers were included. Basic rapid reviews would have missed 1 or 4 of these (dependent on which reviewer). Enhanced rapid and systematic reviews identified all 10 papers; one paper was only identified in the rapid review through reference checking. Two thousand one hundred seventy-six fewer title/abstracts and 129 fewer full texts were screened during the enhanced rapid review than the systematic review. The unadjusted QUADAS-2 generated more "unclear" ratings than the adjusted QUADAS-2 [29/70 (41.4%) versus 16/70 (22.9%)], and fewer "high" ratings [22/70 (31.4%) versus 42/70 (60.0%)]. Basic rapid reviews contained important inaccuracies in data extraction, which were detected by a second reviewer in the enhanced rapid and systematic reviews. Enhanced rapid reviews with 20% checking by a second reviewer may be an appropriate tool for policymakers to expeditiously assess evidence. Basic rapid reviews (single reviewer) have higher risks of important inaccuracies and omissions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A rapid radioimmunoassay for insulin suitable for testing pancreatic tissue prior to transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besch, W.; Kohnert, K.-D.; Hahn, H.-J.; Ziegler, M.; Lorenz, D.

    1984-01-01

    One way of diabetes mellitus treatment is the transplantation of insulin-producing tissue. As islet or pancreas transplantation has made progress, testing of the tissue for its vitality, insulin content and insulin secretory response prior to transplantation became necessary. Apart from problems of rejection of allografted tissue, improvement of the patients metabolic control partly depends on the insulin content of the tissue transplanted. It was the aim of the present work to establish a radioimmunoassay which ensures rapid determination of immunoreactive insulin concentrations (IRI) either intracellularly-stored or released upon stimulation of human pancreas or islet with glucose, and to demonstrate the useful application of this assay for the assessment of transplantable tissue. (Auth.)

  9. Evaluation of a rapid radiometric differentiation test for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by selective inhibition with p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta-hydroxypropiophenone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, A.; Siddiqi, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of a rapid technique for the differentiation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from other mycobacteria, using p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta- hydroxypropiophenone (NAP) as a selective inhibitory agent. A total of 416 coded cultures, 234 cultures belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex and 182 cultures belonging to 35 other mycobacterial species, were tested in two laboratories for p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta- hydroxypropiophenone inhibition to concentrations of 5 and 10 micrograms of NAP per ml in Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Two testing modes were compared: the indirect, in which a large bacterial inoculum was used from an isolated culture on a solid medium, and the direct, which used a small inoculum from 7H12 medium. A decrease or no increase in daily 14 CO 2 output as measured by a BACTEC system was considered evidence of inhibition. The data presented show that a concentration of 5 micrograms of NAP per ml can effectively separate the M. tuberculosis complex from other mycobacterial species in 4 to 6 days. The direct test data show that, unlike other conventional biochemical tests, it does not require a heavy inoculum of mycobacteria and can therefore be performed soon after growth is detected by the radiometric method

  10. Economic analysis of rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction testing in the emergency department for influenza infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Richard E; Stockmann, Chris; Hersh, Adam L; Pavia, Andrew T; Korgenksi, Kent; Daly, Judy A; Couturier, Marc R; Ampofo, Krow; Thorell, Emily A; Doby, Elizabeth H; Robison, Jeff A; Blaschke, Anne J

    2015-06-01

    Rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays simultaneously detect several respiratory viral pathogens with high sensitivity. Maximizing detection of influenza at the point of care has the potential to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use, laboratory tests and hospitalizations. However, the cost-effectiveness of rapid multiplex PCR assays for influenza has not been compared with other diagnostic methods in children. For children presenting to the emergency department with influenza-like illness, we compared costs and outcomes using 4 different testing strategies for detection of influenza: (1) a rapid multiplex PCR platform (FilmArray); (2) traditional PCR; (3) direct-fluorescent antibody and (4) rapid antigen tests. Costs were assessed from the hospital perspective, and effectiveness was defined as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Input parameters were obtained from previous studies, and the model was run separately for children aged 3-36 months and 3-18 years. Rapid multiplex PCR testing was the most effective testing strategy for children in both age groups. The incremental cost-effectiveness when compared with rapid antigen tests was $115,556 per QALY for children aged 3-36 months and from $228,000 per QALY for children aged 3-18 years. The cost-effectiveness of rapid multiplex PCR was sensitive to estimates for influenza prevalence, the proportion of patients treated with antivirals and the cost per test. Our model identifies scenarios in which identification of influenza in the emergency department using rapid multiplex PCR testing is a cost-effective strategy for infants and children 3 months through 18 years. Including detection of other respiratory viruses in the analysis would further improve cost-effectiveness.

  11. Association between use of rapid antigen detection tests and adherence to antibiotics in suspected streptococcal pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llor, Carl; Hernández, Silvia; Sierra, Nuria; Moragas, Ana; Hernández, Marta; Bayona, Carolina

    2010-03-01

    Few studies have analysed adherence to antibiotic treatment in pharyngitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) and treatment adherence among patients 18 years of age or over with pharyngitis treated with different antibiotic regimens. Prospective study from 2003 to 2008. Office-based physician practices. Intervention. The adherence of patients prior to the use of RADTs - no test was available until mid-2006 - was compared with the adherence associated with the use of RADTs. Patients with suspected streptococcal pharyngitis. Patient adherence was assessed by electronic monitoring. The adherence outcomes considered were antibiotic-taking adherence, correct dosing, and good timing adherence during at least 80% of the antibiotic course. A total of 196 patients were recruited. The percentage of container openings was 77.9%+/-17.7%, being significantly higher for patients in whom the RADTs were performed compared with those in whom this test was not undertaken (80.1% vs. 70.8% for thrice-daily antibiotic regimens and 88.1% vs. 76.5% for twice-daily regimens; p pills (71.3% vs. 42.2%; p dosing was always greater when the patient had undergone an RADT. Adherence to antibiotic treatment is higher when an RADT is carried out at the consultation prior to administration of antibiotic treatment.

  12. Aptamer-Based Lateral Flow Test Strip for Rapid Detection of Zearalenone in Corn Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shijia; Liu, Lihong; Duan, Nuo; Li, Qian; Zhou, You; Wang, Zhouping

    2018-02-28

    An aptamer-based lateral flow test strip was developed for the detection of zearalenone (ZEN). This assay was based on the competition for the aptamer between ZEN and its complementary sequence. Several experimental conditions that could influence sensitivity have been investigated, including the concentration of aptamer and NaCl used in the probe preparation, the mole ratio of streptavidin and biotinylated DNA used in the preparation of test line and control line, and the loading quantity of gold nanoparticles-aptamer conjugates (AuNPs-Apt). Under the optimal experimental conditions, we successfully detected ZEN within a detection range of 5-200 ng/mL and the visual limit of detection of 20 ng/mL. This aptamer-based strip was successfully applied to the determination of ZEN in spiked corn samples, and the recoveries were from 93.4% to 114.2%. All detections can be achieved within 5 min. The results demonstrated that the developed aptamer-based lateral flow test strip is a potential alternative tool for the rapid and sensitive detection of ZEN.

  13. Comparison of amrad ICT test with microscopic examination for rapid diagnosis of malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, F.; Amin-ul-Haq; Jamal, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of an alternate and easy technique to diagnose malaria. Design: A prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of pathology, DHQ Hospital, Timergara District, Dir, North-west Frontier Province of Pakistan, from 19th September to 5th October 2000. Subjects and Methods: Smear positive 50 patients (27 males and 23 females, age ranging 2 years to 70 years) were included. Thick and thin smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and examined by the principal author. The ICT malaria test was performed according to the instruction sheet of the manufacturer. Results: on microscopy there were 29 cases of Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) and 21 of Plasmodiium vivax (P.v.). On ICT malaria P.f/P.v, there were 29 samples positive for P. Falciparum and 17 for P. vivax. These results demonstrated that the ICT malaria P.f/P.v test had sensitivity of 100% for P. falciparum and 81% for P. vivax and specificity of 100% for both, when compared to traditional blood films for the detection of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Conclusion: The ICT malaria P.f/P.v test is an effective tool for the rapid diagnosis of malaria and may be used as a first line diagnostic tool. (author)

  14. Rapid Isolation and Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using a New Solid Medium, LVW Agar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Paris, Daniel H.; Langla, Sayan; Thaipadunpanit, Janjira; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Smythe, Lee D.; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp., the causative agents of leptospirosis, are slow-growing Gram-negative spirochetes. Isolation of Leptospira from clinical samples and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility are difficult and time-consuming. Here, we describe the development of a new solid medium that facilitates more-rapid growth of Leptospira spp. and the use of this medium to evaluate the Etest's performance in determining antimicrobial MICs to drugs in common use for leptospirosis. The medium was developed by evaluating the effects of numerous factors on the growth rate of Leptospira interrogans strain NR-20157. These included the type of base agar, the concentration of rabbit serum (RS), and the concentration and duration of CO2 incubation during the initial period of culture. The highest growth rate of NR-20157 was achieved using a Noble agar base supplemented with 10% RS (named LVW agar), with an initial incubation at 30°C in 5% CO2 for 2 days prior to continuous culture in air at 30°C. These conditions were used to develop the Etest for three species, L. interrogans (NR-20161), L. kirschnerii (NR-20327), and L. borgpetersenii (NR-20151). The MICs were read on day 7 for all samples. The Etest was then performed on 109 isolates of pathogenic Leptospira spp. The MIC90 values for penicillin G, doxycycline, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol were 0.64 units/ml and 0.19, 0.047, 0.5, and 2 μg/ml, respectively. The use of LVW agar, which enables rapid growth, isolation of single colonies, and simple antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Leptospira spp., provides an opportunity for new areas of fundamental and applied research. PMID:23114772

  15. Clinical usefulness of multiplex PCR lateral flow in MRSA detection: a novel, rapid genetic testing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihonyanagi, Shin; Kanoh, Yuhsaku; Okada, Kiyomi; Uozumi, Toshiki; Kazuyama, Yukumasa; Yamaguchi, Tokiko; Nakazaki, Nobuhiko; Sakurai, Keizou; Hirata, Yasuyoshi; Munekata, Shinichi; Ohtani, Shinichi; Takemoto, Tsuyoshi; Bandoh, Yuki; Akahoshi, Tohru

    2012-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with exogenous cassette DNA containing the methicillin-resistant gene mecA (SCCmec) poses a problem as a drug-resistant bacterium responsible for hospital- and community-acquired infections. The frequency of MRSA detection has recently been increasing rapidly in Japan, and SCCmec has also been classified more diversely into types I-V. A rapid test is essential for early diagnosis and treatment of MRSA infections, but detection by conventional methods requires at least two days. The newly developed multiplex PCR lateral flow method allows specific amplification of femA to detect S. aureus, mecA to detect SCCmec, and kdpC to detect SCCmec type II; moreover, PCR products can be evaluated visually in about 3 h. In the present study, we developed a PCR lateral flow method for MRSA using this method and investigated its clinical usefulness in the detection of MRSA. The results showed a diagnostic concordance rate of 91.7% for MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus between bacteriological examination and PCR lateral flow, and a high level of specificity in PCR lateral flow. In addition, a higher detection rate for S. aureus using the same sample was observed for PCR lateral flow (70.2%) than for bacteriological tests (48.6%). The above results show that PCR lateral flow for MRSA detection has high sensitivity, specificity, and speed, and its clinical application as a method for early diagnosis of MRSA infections appears to be feasible.

  16. Rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing uncomplicated non-falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Katharine; Kirkham, Amanda J; Olliaro, Piero L; Deeks, Jonathan J; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul; Takwoingi, Yemisi

    2014-12-18

    In settings where both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection cause malaria, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) need to distinguish which species is causing the patients' symptoms, as different treatments are required. Older RDTs incorporated two test lines to distinguish malaria due to P. falciparum, from malaria due to any other Plasmodium species (non-falciparum). These RDTs can be classified according to which antibodies they use: Type 2 RDTs use HRP-2 (for P. falciparum) and aldolase (all species); Type 3 RDTs use HRP-2 (for P. falciparum) and pLDH (all species); Type 4 use pLDH (fromP. falciparum) and pLDH (all species).More recently, RDTs have been developed to distinguish P. vivax parasitaemia by utilizing a pLDH antibody specific to P. vivax. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for detecting non-falciparum or P. vivax parasitaemia in people living in malaria-endemic areas who present to ambulatory healthcare facilities with symptoms suggestive of malaria, and to identify which types and brands of commercial test best detect non-falciparum and P. vivax malaria. We undertook a comprehensive search of the following databases up to 31 December 2013: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE; MEDION; Science Citation Index; Web of Knowledge; African Index Medicus; LILACS; and IndMED. Studies comparing RDTs with a reference standard (microscopy or polymerase chain reaction) in blood samples from a random or consecutive series of patients attending ambulatory health facilities with symptoms suggestive of malaria in non-falciparum endemic areas. For each study, two review authors independently extracted a standard set of data using a tailored data extraction form. We grouped comparisons by type of RDT (defined by the combinations of antibodies used), and combined in meta-analysis where appropriate. Average sensitivities and specificities are presented alongside 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). We included 47 studies

  17. A standard screening test for the early and rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis

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    Chandrasekaran S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE : To perform dark field microscopy (DFM for detection of Leptospira and to validate the results using Leptospira IgM antibody SERION ELISA test. METHODS : After differential centrifugation of Ruys, DFM was done to demonstrate Leptospira in the blood and SERION ELISA was done for Leptospira IgM antibody in single or paired serum samples. One hundred and eleven cases (39 adults and 72 children of suspected leptospirosis were included in the study. RESULTS : Anicteric cases accounted for 66.7% (26/39 of adults and complications involving brain, liver, kidney and eyes were seen in 33.3% (13/39. In children, 90.3% (65/72 were anicteric and involvement of brain and liver was seen in 9.7% (7/72 cases. On testing 60 single samples of blood from 23 adults and 37 children, DFM exhibited greater sensitivity of 93.3% (56/60 than that of SERION ELISA for Leptospira IgM antibody (33.3%, 20/60. It was observed that the positivity of DFM decreased from 100% (15/15 to 90.9% (10/11 with increase in the duration of infection for more than one week. ELISA for Leptospira IgM, done on 51 paired blood samples, was positive in 64.7% (33/51 cases when both (first and second samples were tested while in 45.1% (23/51 cases was positive with first sample alone. 58.8%(30/51 cases were positive by testing second sample. DFM results on paired blood samples showed persistence of Leptospira in 92.9% of cases. CONCLUSION : This study shows the validation of DFM results by SERION ELISA for Leptospira IgM antibody, based on which we recommend that DFM can serve as a standard screening test for early and rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis.

  18. Buffer substitution in malaria rapid diagnostic tests causes false-positive results

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    Van den Ende Jef

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are kits that generally include 20 to 25 test strips or cassettes, but only a single buffer vial. In field settings, laboratory staff occasionally uses saline, distilled water (liquids for parenteral drugs dilution or tap water as substitutes for the RDT kit's buffer to compensate for the loss of a diluent bottle. The present study assessed the effect of buffer substitution on the RDT results. Methods Twenty-seven RDT brands were run with EDTA-blood samples of five malaria-free subjects, who were negative for rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies. Saline, distilled water and tap water were used as substitute liquids. RDTs were also run with distilled water, without adding blood. Results were compared to those obtained with the RDT kit's buffer and Plasmodium positive samples. Results Only eight cassettes (in four RDT brands showed no control line and were considered invalid. Visible test lines occurred for at least one malaria-free sample and one of the substitutes in 20/27 (74% RDT brands (saline: n = 16; distilled water: n = 17; and tap water: n = 20, and in 15 RDTs which were run with distilled water only. They occurred for all Plasmodium antigens and RDT formats (two-, three- and four-band RDTs. Clearance of the background of the strip was excellent except for saline. The aspects (colour, intensity and crispness of the control and the false-positive test lines were similar to those obtained with the RDT kits' buffer and Plasmodium positive samples. Conclusion Replacement of the RDT kit's dedicated buffer by saline, distilled water and tap water can cause false-positive test results.

  19. Monitoring people at risk of drinking by a rapid urinary ethyl glucuronide test

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    Fucci Nadia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and illicit drug abuse are major public health problems worldwide. Since alcohol is the predominant substance of choice in polydrug abusers, monitoring its use, along with urinary drug screening in patients in rehabilitation programs, appeared to be crucial in identifying patients at risk of alcohol disorders leading to impaired quality of life. Ethyl β-D-6-glucuronide, a non-oxidative, non-volatile, stable and minor direct ethanol metabolite, has a 6h to 4 day window of detection in urine after the last alcohol intake. Each of the 119 subjects (85 males, 34 females registered with the Public Health Service for Drug Dependence Treatment provided a urine sample for ethylglucoronide (EtG determination in an immunochemical test with a 500 ng/ml cutoff. All results were evaluated with confirmation criteria of a fully validated gas chromatography/mass spectrometry assay. The diagnostic performance of the EtG immunochemical test was assessed using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve analysis. The immunochemical test specificity was 100% for EtG urinary values above 500 ng/ml. No false positive results were found. With levels below 500 ng/ml, 12% of the samples were classified as negative. The average consumption of the incorrectly classified subjects was 171 ng/ml, with a misclassification error of 6.5% to 18.5%. High agreement between EtG as determined in an immunochemical test and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, suggests that the rapid EtG test is a reliable, cost-effective alcohol monitoring assay for patient management in many non-forensic settings, such as drug rehabilitation programs.

  20. Accuracy of individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis of gambiense sleeping sickness in West Africa.

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    Vincent Jamonneau

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis (RDT of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT are particularly suited for passive screening and surveillance. However, so far, no large scale evaluation of RDTs has been performed for diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT in West Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 2 commercial HAT-RDTs on stored plasma samples from West Africa.SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set were performed on 722 plasma samples originating from Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire, including 231 parasitologically confirmed HAT patients, 257 healthy controls, and 234 unconfirmed individuals whose blood tested antibody positive in the card agglutination test but negative by parasitological tests. Immune trypanolysis was performed as a reference test for trypanosome specific antibody presence. Sensitivities in HAT patients were respectively 99.6% for SD Bioline HAT, and 99.1% for HAT Sero-K-Set, specificities in healthy controls were respectively 87.9% and 88.3%. Considering combined positivity in both RDTs, increased the specificity significantly (p ≤ 0.0003 to 93.4%, while 98.7% sensitivity was maintained. Specificities in controls were 98.7-99.6% for the combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis, maintaining a sensitivity of at least 98.1%.The observed specificity of the single RDTs was relatively low. Serial application of SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set might offer superior specificity compared to a single RDT, maintaining high sensitivity. The combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis seems promising for HAT surveillance.

  1. Development of a rapid test method for asphalt concrete content determination in hot-mix paving mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, J. J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A rapid test method was developed for the determination of asphalt cement content in hot-mix bituminous paving mixtures. It is based on the extraction of asphalt cement from mixtures with trichloroethylene and subsequent measurement of the transmittance of light through the extracted solution. A good correlation was found between the results obtained using the rapid test and those obtained using the standard test (ASTM D-2172, Method E1) for samples tested in the field at asphalt mix plants. The test uses a portable spectrophotometer and a metal can for extraction. The asphalt content can be determined in less than ten minutes. The possibility of using the rapid test on materials containing emulsified asphalt, slag aggregate, unusually high amounts of fine material and recycled material was also studied.

  2. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  3. Comparative evaluation of blood and serum samples in rapid immunochromatographic tests for visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Kumar, Dinesh; Khanal, Basudha; Tiwary, Puja; Mudavath, Shyam Lal; Tiwary, Narendra K; Singh, Rupa; Koirala, Kanika; Boelaert, Marleen; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam

    2013-12-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on the detection of specific antibodies in serum are commonly used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Several commercial kits are available, and some of them allow the use of whole-blood samples instead of serum. An RDT is much more user-friendly for blood samples than for serum samples. In this study, we examined the sensitivities and specificities of six different commercially available immunochromatographic tests for their accuracy in detecting Leishmania infection in whole blood and serum of parasitologically confirmed VL cases. This study was performed in areas of India and Nepal where VL is endemic. A total of 177 confirmed VL cases, 208 healthy controls from areas of endemicity (EHCs), 26 malaria patients (MP), and 37 tuberculosis (TB) patients were enrolled. The reproducibilities of the blood and serum results and between-reader and between-laboratory results were tested. In India, the sensitivities of all the RDTs ranged between 94.7 and 100.0%, with no significant differences between whole blood and serum. The specificities ranged between 92.4 and 100.0%, except for the specificity of the Onsite Leishmania Ab RevB kit, which was lower (33.6 to 42.0%). No differences in specificities were observed for blood and serum. In Nepal, the sensitivities of all the test kits, for whole-blood as well as serum samples, ranged between 96.3 and 100.0%, and the specificities ranged between 90.1 and 96.1%, again with the exception of that of the Onsite Leishmania Ab RevB test, which was markedly lower (48.7 to 49.3%). The diagnostic accuracies of all the tests, except for one brand, were excellent for the whole-blood and serum samples. We conclude that whole blood is an adequate alternative for serum in RDTs for VL, with sensitivities and specificities comparable to those obtained in serum samples, provided that the test kit is of overall good quality.

  4. Test for the safety of irradiated food by analysing the variability of biochemical metabolism of escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhongliang

    1990-01-01

    This article mainly deals with the observation of the growth of Escherichia coli, which was used as an experimental model on a nutritional medium, which issued as a food-substitute and pretreated with a certain dosage of 60 Co irradiation. In the meantime, an Automicrobio system can be used to observe the variations of enzymic metabolism in contrast with the growth and generation-transference of the same bacterial strain on a non-irradiated medium. It is shown that either in terms of microbic morphology, strain character. antigenic structure (Serum type) or of biochemical metabolic type. The various results are all in perfect conformity with those of the original strain. This demonstrates that though given a certain dosage of 60 Co irradiation, the multi-nutritional medium does not affect the normal physiological metabolic function of the bacterial strain and induce mutagenesis in its further later generations

  5. Leveraging rapid community-based HIV testing campaigns for non-communicable diseases in rural Uganda.

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    Gabriel Chamie

    Full Text Available The high burden of undiagnosed HIV in sub-Saharan Africa limits treatment and prevention efforts. Community-based HIV testing campaigns can address this challenge and provide an untapped opportunity to identify non-communicable diseases (NCDs. We tested the feasibility and diagnostic yield of integrating NCD and communicable diseases into a rapid HIV testing and referral campaign for all residents of a rural Ugandan parish.A five-day, multi-disease campaign, offering diagnostic, preventive, treatment and referral services, was performed in May 2011. Services included point-of-care screening for HIV, malaria, TB, hypertension and diabetes. Finger-prick diagnostics eliminated the need for phlebotomy. HIV-infected adults met clinic staff and peer counselors on-site; those with CD4 ≤ 100/µL underwent intensive counseling and rapid referral for antiretroviral therapy (ART. Community participation, case-finding yield, and linkage to care three months post-campaign were analyzed.Of 6,300 residents, 2,323/3,150 (74% adults and 2,020/3,150 (69% children participated. An estimated 95% and 52% of adult female and male residents participated respectively. Adult HIV prevalence was 7.8%, with 46% of HIV-infected adults newly diagnosed. Thirty-nine percent of new HIV diagnoses linked to care. In a pilot subgroup with CD4 ≤ 100, 83% linked and started ART within 10 days. Malaria was identified in 10% of children, and hypertension and diabetes in 28% and 3.5% of adults screened, respectively. Sixty-five percent of hypertensives and 23% of diabetics were new diagnoses, of which 43% and 61% linked to care, respectively. Screening identified suspected TB in 87% of HIV-infected and 19% of HIV-uninfected adults; 52% percent of HIV-uninfected TB suspects linked to care.In an integrated campaign engaging 74% of adult residents, we identified a high burden of undiagnosed HIV, hypertension and diabetes. Improving male attendance and optimizing linkage to care

  6. Public health services and their relationship with rapid HIV test utilization and access for key populations in Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra-Hernández, Silvia Magali; Bernabé-Aranda, Jesús Israel; Conde-Glez, Carlos Jesús; Sánchez-Domínguez, Mario Salvador; Ortega-Altamirano, Doris Verónica

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, 4 749 rapid HIV tests were run in Morelos, Mexico, despite lacking evidence on their results. This article seeks to analyze how public health organization relates to utility of rapid HIV test among healthcare users. Joint study: comparison of differences in applied test and positive results for each group with the Bonferroni statistical tool, observational study in 34 health subsystems, and 11 interviews with public healthcare users. Each subsystem processes influenced the use and usefulness of screening; for instance, primary care centers test only pregnant women and exclude men who have sex with men (MSM). That group shows significant differences (pepidemiological evidence, the way public health services are organized impedes an efficient diagnosis in the group with higher risk, namely MSM. The distribution of rapid HIV tests was guided by stigmatization.

  7. Rapid identification of vibrio-cholerae O1 by coaglutination test using mono-specifis antibody

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    Bazargan SA

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In our investigation, rabbit hyper-immune serum to V.cholerae ogawa was absorbed with V.cholerae inaba whole-cells and vice versa. Applying ammonium sulphate precipitation method, mono-specific g globulins were purified and concentrated from the absorbed whole serum. These antibodies were fixed on staphylococcus cowan 1 NCTC-8325 whole-cells, using different chemical fixatives. It was observed that maximum fixation of g globulin to protein-A was achieved by 1-propanol 50% at 3 hours, which revealed through single radial immuno-diffusion techniqe. The rectal swab samples were cultured in an enrichment bile-peptons broth. After 5 hours 37°C while agitations, one drop of each sample was mixed with one drop of vibrio-cholerae bivalent mono-specific coagglutination reagent (VBCR. The results were read after 2 to 3 minutes. Finally though statistical analysis sensitivity and specificity of coagglutination test were calculated to be 95.1% and 99.2% respectively, when compared to positive & negative controls and conventional culture methods. Using VBCR, coagglutination test can be therefore considered as a simple, reliable and rapid method to detect V.cholerae O1 in the stool of patients in endemic area and less equipped laboratories

  8. Detecting Malaria Hotspots: A Comparison of Rapid Diagnostic Test, Microscopy, and Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogeni, Polycarp; Williams, Thomas N; Omedo, Irene; Kimani, Domtila; Ngoi, Joyce M; Mwacharo, Jedida; Morter, Richard; Nyundo, Christopher; Wambua, Juliana; Nyangweso, George; Kapulu, Melissa; Fegan, Gregory; Bejon, Philip

    2017-11-27

    Malaria control strategies need to respond to geographical hotspots of transmission. Detection of hotspots depends on the sensitivity of the diagnostic tool used. We conducted cross-sectional surveys in 3 sites within Kilifi County, Kenya, that had variable transmission intensities. Rapid diagnostic test (RDT), microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to detect asymptomatic parasitemia, and hotspots were detected using the spatial scan statistic. Eight thousand five hundred eighty-one study participants were surveyed in 3 sites. There were statistically significant malaria hotspots by RDT, microscopy, and PCR for all sites except by microscopy in 1 low transmission site. Pooled data analysis of hotspots by PCR overlapped with hotspots by microscopy at a moderate setting but not at 2 lower transmission settings. However, variations in degree of overlap were noted when data were analyzed by year. Hotspots by RDT were predictive of PCR/microscopy at the moderate setting, but not at the 2 low transmission settings. We observed long-term stability of hotspots by PCR and microscopy but not RDT. Malaria control programs may consider PCR testing to guide asymptomatic malaria hotspot detection once the prevalence of infection falls. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Radon testing in rapid access lung clinics: an opportunity for secondary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, R; Long, S; Wiseman, E; Sharpe, D; Breen, D; O'Regan, A

    2017-05-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas and a level 1 carcinogen. It acts synergistically with cigarette smoke to cause lung cancer. In Ireland, radon is estimated to be associated with 13 % of all lung cancers. Rapid access lung cancer clinics (RALC's) were established in the UK and Ireland to improve lung cancer management outcomes. There has been no attempt to date to provide advice on household radon exposure assessments in this setting. We performed a prospective feasibility study of radon assessment in our RALC to test the hypothesis that patients would avail of this service and that it would provide an opportunity for secondary prevention in at risk persons. We investigated household radon levels in consecutive patients who were newly referred with symptoms of lung cancer to the RALC in Galway University Hospital, Ireland over a 6-month period. Of 50 patients enrolled, 42 returned valid results. Overall 21 % of patients had radon levels recorded above the national reference level. Only 5 % of patients were aware of the association between radon gas and lung cancer. Smokers were significantly less likely to engage fully in radon testing. The development of RALC's offers a novel opportunity to integrate the concepts of radon exposure, cigarette smoking and the development of lung cancer, and to reinforce this message in the minds of at risk patients.

  10. Membrane filtration test for rapid presumptive differentiation of four Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauters, T G; Peleman, R; Moerman, M; Vermeersch, H; de Looze, D; Noens, L; Nelis, H J

    1999-05-01

    A rapid enzymatic two-step test for the presumptive differentiation of four Candida species commonly occurring in various clinical samples is described. The technique involves membrane filtration of a liquid sample, followed by preincubation of the membrane filter on Sabouraud glucose agar supplemented with ticarcillin-clavulanic acid to yield microcolonies. In a separate assay step, parts of the filter are placed on absorbent pads impregnated with fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferyl (4-MU) enzyme substrates (4-MU-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminide, 4-MU-phosphate, 4-MU-pyrophosphate, and 4-MU-beta-D-galactoside) in combination with 0.1% digitonin acting as a membrane permeabilizer. The membrane filter in contact with the assay medium is incubated to allow cleavage of the enzyme substrate, resulting in fluorescent microcolonies under long-wavelength UV light. This approach, tested on 301 clinical samples, is able to presumptively differentiate C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and to distinguish them from other Candida spp. in about 9 to 11 h. Overall agreement with the conventional methods of 94.4% (one Candida species present in the sample) to 83.8% (multiple Candida spp. present) was obtained. The false-negative rates with reference to identification by traditional methods were 1.3% (single species) and 3.8% (multiple species).

  11. Factors associated with willingness to accept oral fluid HIV rapid testing among most-at-risk populations in China.

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    Huanmiao Xun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The availability of oral fluid HIV rapid testing provides an approach that may have the potential to expand HIV testing in China, especially among most-a-risk populations. There are few investigations about the acceptability of oral fluid HIV testing among most-at-risk populations in China. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with men who have sex with men (MSM, female sex workers (FSW and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT clients was conducted in three cities of Shandong province, China from 2011 to 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face questionnaire. RESULTS: About 71% of participants were willing to accept the oral fluid HIV rapid testing, and home HIV testing was independently associated with acceptability of the new testing method among MSM, FSW and VCT clients (AOR of 4.46, 3.19 and 5.74, respectively. Independent predictors of oral fluid HIV rapid testing acceptability among MSM were having ever taken an oral fluid HIV rapid test (AOR= 15.25, having ever taken an HIV test (AOR= 2.07, and education level (AOR= 1.74. Engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors (AOR= 1.68 was an independent predictor of acceptability for FSW. Having taken an HIV test (AOR= 2.85 was an independent predictor of acceptability for VCT clients. The primary concern about the oral fluid HIV testing was accuracy. The median price they would pay for the testing ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 U.S. dollars. CONCLUSION: High acceptability of oral fluid HIV rapid testing was shown among most-at-risk populations. Findings provide support for oral rapid HIV testing as another HIV prevention tool, and provide a backdrop for the implementation of HIV home testing in the near future. Appropriate pricing and increased public education through awareness campaigns that address concerns about the accuracy and safety of the oral fluid HIV rapid testing may help increase acceptability and use among most-at-risk populations in China.

  12. Performance of rapid point-of-care and laboratory tests for acute and established HIV infection in San Francisco.

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    Christopher D Pilcher

    Full Text Available Current laboratory and point-of-care tests for HIV detect different analytes and use different sample types. Some have fast turnaround times (<1 hour. We investigated how HIV test choice could impact case finding by testing programs.We analyzed 21,234 consecutive HIV tests with venous blood obtained by San Francisco HIV testing programs from 2003 to 2008. For a subset, oral fluid (n = 6446 or fingerstick blood (n = 8127 samples were also obtained for rapid testing. In all cases, HIV status was determined using an HIV antibody-plus-RNA test algorithm. We assessed how the screening antibody tests performed individually versus the gold standard of the full algorithm. We then evaluated the potential ability of other tests (including new tests to detect more cases, by re-testing all specimens that had negative/discrepant antibody results on initial screening.The antibody-RNA algorithm identified 58 acute and 703 established HIV infection cases. 1(st-generation (Vironostika and 3(rd-generation (Genetic Systems immunoassays had 92 and 96 percent sensitivity, respectively. The Oraquick rapid test had clinical sensitivity of only 86 percent on oral fluid samples, but 92 percent on finger-stick blood. Newer 4(th-generation, antigen-antibody combo rapid immunoassay (ARCHITECT detected HIV in 87 percent of all the acute cases that had been missed by one of the previous screening assays. A point-of-care 4(th generation antigen-antibody combo rapid test (Determine detected about 54 percent of such acute cases.Our study suggests that some rapid antibody blood tests will give similar case detection to laboratory antibody tests, but that oral fluid testing greatly reduces ability to detect HIV. New 4(th-generation combo tests can detect the majority of acute infections detectable by HIV RNA but with rapid results. Using these tests as a primary screening assay in high-risk HIV testing programs could reduce or eliminate the need for HIV RNA testing.

  13. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of prototype rapid tests for human African trypanosomiasis.

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    Jeremy M Sternberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT remains a challenge both for active screening, which is critical in control of the disease, and in the point-of-care scenario where early and accurate diagnosis is essential. Recently, the first field deployment of a lateral flow rapid diagnostic test (RDT for HAT, "SD BIOLINE HAT" has taken place. In this study, we evaluated the performance of "SD BIOLINE HAT" and two new prototype RDTs.The performance of "SD BIOLINE HAT" and 2 prototype RDTs was tested using archived plasma from 250 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense patients, and 250 endemic controls. As well as comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of each device, the performance of individual antigens was assessed and the hypothetical performance of novel antigen combinations extrapolated. Neither of the prototype devices were inferior in sensitivity or specificity to "SD BIOLINE HAT" (sensitivity 0.82±0.01, specificity 0.97±0.01, 95% CI at the 5% margins, while one of the devices (BBI had significantly superior sensitivity (0.88±0.03. Analysis of the performance of individual antigens was used to model new antigen combinations to be explored in development of the next generation of HAT RDTs. The modelling showed that an RDT using two recombinant antigens (rLiTat1.5 and rISG65 would give a performance similar to the best devices in this study, and would also offer the most robust performance under deteriorating field conditions.Both "SD BIOLINE HAT" and the prototype devices performed comparably well to one another and also to the published performance range of the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis in sensitivity and specificity. The performance of individual antigens enabled us to predict that an all-recombinant antigen RDT can be developed with an accuracy equivalent to " SD BIOLINE HAT." Such an RDT would have advantages in simplified manufacture, lower unit cost and assured reproducibility.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests for cholera in Haiti.

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    Wilfredo R Matias

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for cholera are promising tools for detecting cholera in areas with limited laboratory infrastructure. However, evidence on the characteristics of the many available RDTs is scarce, and their use has been limited by suboptimal performance. We evaluated the performance characteristics of three cholera RDTs from Span Diagnostics, Artron Laboratories, and Standard Diagnostics in a regional laboratory in Haiti.We retrospectively reviewed records from May 2014 to October 2015 of a laboratory-based surveillance program for Vibrio cholerae at Hôpital Saint-Nicolas in Saint-Marc, Haiti. We compared the results of 511 Crystal VC, 129 Artron and 451 SD Bioline RDTs to bacterial culture as the gold standard. Of 905 cultures, 477 (52.7% were positive for V. cholerae O1, of which 27.7% were serotype Inaba. No cultures grew V. cholerae O139. Sensitivity and specificity of Crystal VC were 98.6% (95%CI: 96.5%-99.6% and 71.1% (95%CI: 64.7%-76.9%, respectively. Artron demonstrated a sensitivity of 98.6% (95%CI: 92.7%-100% and specificity of 69.1% (95%CI: 55.2%-80.9%. SD Bioline demonstrated a sensitivity of 81.1% (95%CI: 75.6%-85.8% and specificity of 92.8% (95%CI: 88.4%-95.9%. Crystal VC and Artron frequently showed false positive O139 bands, whereas none were seen with SD Bioline.There is significant variation in the performance of different cholera diagnostic RDTs. Artron and Crystal VC RDTs have high sensitivity and low specificity, while SD Bioline RDT has low to moderate sensitivity and high specificity when performed by laboratory technicians in Haiti. Study limitations included its retrospective design. The suboptimal characteristics of these tests limit their use as clinical point-of-care tests; however, they may be useful in outbreak response, surveillance, and research in resource-limited settings.

  15. Method and apparatus using selected superparamagnetic labels for rapid quantification of immunochromatographic tests

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    Mika PA Laitinen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mika PA Laitinen1, Jari Salmela2, Leona Gilbert1, Risto Kaivola1, Topi Tikkala2, Christian Oker-Blom1, Jukka Pekola3, Matti Vuento11Department of Biological and Environmental Science; 2Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland; 3Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, FinlandAbstract: A rapid method and instrumentation for quantification of immunochromatographic tests (ICT are described. The principle and performance of the method was demonstrated by measuring the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG present in urine. The test format was a sandwich assay using two distinct monoclonal antibodies directed against hCG. The first anti-hCG antibody was labeled with superparamagnetic particles whereas the second was immobilized as a narrow detection zone on a porous membrane. The human urine sample was mixed with superparamagnetic particles coated with the first anti-hCG antibody, and the mixture was allowed to migrate past the detection zone containing the second anti-hCG antibody. Capillary forces facilitated migration of the immune complexes along the porous membrane. The amount of superparamagnetic particle-labelled monoclonal anti-hCG bound to the detection zone was directly proportional to the amount of hCG present in the sample as detected by measuring magnetization in the detector coil. The method had a practical detection limit of 20 U/l (54 nM of hCG per 5 μl of human urine and a linear range of three decades from 20 U/l to 10 000 U/l. In addition, the analysis was completed within less than 10 minutes. Thus, the test format should be suitable for fast detection and monitoring of a large variety of clinically important parameters and analytes.Keywords: affinity, biosensor, hCG, immunochromatography, magnetization, superparamagnetic

  16. Evaluation of rapid alternative methods for drug susceptibility testing in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Mengatto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to compare the performance of a commercial method (MGIT and four inexpensive drug susceptibility methods: nitrate reductase assay (NRA, microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS assay, MTT test, and broth microdilution method (BMM. A total of 64 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were studied. The Lowenstein-Jensen proportion method (PM was used as gold standard. MGIT, NRA, MODS, and MTT results were available on an average of less than 10 days, whereas BMM results could be reported in about 20 days. Most of the evaluated tests showed excellent performance for isoniazid and rifampicin, with sensitivity and specificity values > 90%. With most of the assays, sensitivity for ethambutol was low (62-87% whereas for streptomycin, sensitivity values ranged from 84 to 100%; NRA-discrepancies were associated with cultures with a low proportion of EMB-resistant organisms while most discrepancies with quantitative tests (MMT and BMM were seen with isolates whose minimal inhibitory concentrations fell close the cutoff. MGIT is reliable but still expensive. NRA is the most inexpensive and easiest method to perform without changing the organization of the routine PM laboratory performance. While MODS, MTT, and BMM, have the disadvantage from the point of view of biosafety, they offer the possibility of detecting partial resistant strains. This study shows a very good level of agreement of the four low-cost methods compared to the PM for rapid detection of isoniazid, rifampicin and streptomycin resistance (Kappa values > 0.8; more standardization is needed for ethambutol.

  17. Rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Katharine; Deeks, Jonathan J; Olliaro, Piero; Naing, Cho-Min; Jackson, Sally M; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul

    2011-07-06

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for Plasmodium falciparum malaria use antibodies to detect either HRP-2 antigen or pLDH antigen, and can improve access to diagnostics in developing countries. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for detecting P. falciparum parasitaemia in persons living in endemic areas who present to ambulatory healthcare facilities with symptoms suggestive of malaria by type and brand. We undertook a comprehensive search of the following databases: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE; MEDION; Science Citation Index; Web of Knowledge; African Index Medicus; LILACS; IndMED; to January 14, 2010. Studies comparing RDTs with a reference standard (microscopy or polymerase chain reaction) in blood samples from a random or consecutive series of patients attending ambulatory health facilities with symptoms suggestive of malaria in P. falciparum endemic areas. For each study, a standard set of data was extracted independently by two authors, using a tailored data extraction form. Comparisons were grouped hierarchically by target antigen, and type and brand of RDT, and combined in meta-analysis where appropriate. We identified 74 unique studies as eligible for this review and categorized them according to the antigens they detected. Types 1 to 3 include HRP-2 (from P. falciparum) either by itself or with other antigens. Types 4 and 5 included pLDH (from P. falciparum) either by itself or with other antigens. In comparisons with microscopy, we identified 71 evaluations of Type 1 tests, eight evaluations of Type 2 tests and five evaluations of Type 3 tests. In meta-analyses, average sensitivities and specificities (95% CI) were 94.8% (93.1% to 96.1%) and 95.2% (93.2% to 96.7%) for Type 1 tests, 96.0% (94.0% to 97.3%) and 95.3% (87.3% to 98.3%) for Type 2 tests, and 99.5% (71.0% to 100.0%) and 90.6% (80.5% to 95.7%) for Type 3 tests, respectively. Overall for HRP-2, the meta-analytical average sensitivity and

  18. The Phantom Menace for Patients with Hepatobiliary Diseases: Shewanella haliotis, Often Misidentified as Shewanella algae in Biochemical Tests and MALDI-TOF Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jung-Hyun; Park, Hyunwoong; Kim, Sunjoo

    2017-03-24

    Although Shewanella algae has been known to have weak pathogenicity, case reports on infections with this species have been steadily increasing. S. algae and S. haliotis are difficult to distinguish from each other with conventional phenotypic methods. We reviewed the microbiological and clinical features of S. algae and S. haliotis infections at our institute. Bacterial culture and identification reports from patient samples from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed to screen the cases of Shewanella infections. In addition to conventional biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry were performed for 19 stored bacterial isolates. Medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics and laboratory findings. All isolates were identified as S. algae by using VITEK 2. MALDI-TOF also identified all isolates as S. algae with a 99.9 confidence value. In contrast, 16S rRNA analysis identified 10 isolates as S. algae and 9 isolates as S. haliotis. Both S. algae (60%) and S. haliotis (77%) infections were strongly associated with diseases of the hepatobiliary tract and pancreas. To distinguish between S. algae and S. haliotis, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis seems more accurate than biochemical tests or MALDI-TOF. Patients with underlying diseases in the hepatobiliary tract and pancreas seem to be susceptible to these marine pathogens.

  19. Randomised controlled trial of CRP rapid test as a guide to treatment of respiratory infections in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, H Z; Skamling, M; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2000-01-01

    To assess whether the frequency of antibiotic prescriptions to patients with respiratory infections is reduced when general practitioners (GPs) use a C-reactive protein (CRP) rapid test in support of their clinical assessment, and to study whether using the test will have any effect on the course...

  20. Evaluation of SD BIOLINEH. pyloriAg rapid test against double ELISA with SDH. pyloriAg ELISA and EZ-STEPH. pyloriAg ELISA tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Markos; Kassu, Afework; Amare, Bemnet; Yismaw, Gizachew; Moges, Beyene

    2018-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori antibody titters fall very slowly even after successful treatment. Therefore, tests detecting H. pylori antibody lack specificity and sensitivity. On the other hand, H. pylori stool antigen tests are reported as an alternative assay because of their reliability and simplicity. However, the comparative performance of H. pylori stool antigen tests for detecting the presence of the bacterium in clinical specimens in the study area is not assessed. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test with reference to the commercially available EZ- STEP ELISA and SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag ELISA tests. Stool samples were collected to analyse the diagnostic performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test kit using SD H. pylori Ag ELISA kit and EZ- STEP ELISA tests as a gold standard. Serum samples were also collected from each patient to test for the presence of H. pylori antibodies using dBest H. pylori Test Disk. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and kappa value are assessed. P values rapid test were: 95.6% (95% CI, 88.8-98.8), 92.5% (95%CI, 89-94.1%), 86.7% (95% CI, 80.5-89.6), and 97.6% (95% CI, 993.9-99.3) respectively. The performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test was better than the currently available antibody test in study area. Therefore, the SD BIOLINE Ag rapid stool test could replace and be used to diagnose active H. pylori infection before the commencement of therapy among dyspeptic patients.

  1. The cost-effectiveness of rapid HIV testing in substance abuse treatment: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schackman, Bruce R; Metsch, Lisa R; Colfax, Grant N; Leff, Jared A; Wong, Angela; Scott, Callie A; Feaster, Daniel J; Gooden, Lauren; Matheson, Tim; Haynes, Louise F; Paltiel, A David; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2013-02-01

    The President's National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for coupling HIV screening and prevention services with substance abuse treatment programs. Fewer than half of US community-based substance abuse treatment programs make HIV testing available on-site or through referral. We measured the cost-effectiveness of three HIV testing strategies evaluated in a randomized trial conducted in 12 community-based substance abuse treatment programs in 2009: off-site testing referral, on-site rapid testing with information only, on-site rapid testing with risk-reduction counseling. Data from the trial included patient demographics, prior testing history, test acceptance and receipt of results, undiagnosed HIV prevalence (0.4%) and program costs. The Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC) computer simulation model was used to project life expectancy, lifetime costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for HIV-infected individuals. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (2009 US $/QALY) were calculated after adding costs of testing HIV-uninfected individuals; costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. Referral for off-site testing is less efficient (dominated) compared to offering on-site testing with information only. The cost-effectiveness ratio for on-site testing with information is $60,300/QALY in the base case, or $76,300/QALY with 0.1% undiagnosed HIV prevalence. HIV risk-reduction counseling costs $36 per person more without additional benefit. A strategy of on-site rapid HIV testing offer with information only in substance abuse treatment programs increases life expectancy at a cost-effectiveness ratio substance abuse treatment leaders should seek funding to implement on-site rapid HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs for those not recently tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baik Fred

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Methods Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. Results There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. Conclusion None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind.

  3. Isolation, amplification and characterization of foodborne pathogen disease bacteria gene for rapid kit test development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjayadi, M.; Santoso, I.; Kartika, I. R.; Kurniadewi, F.; Saamia, V.; Sofihan, W.; Nurkhasanah, D.

    2017-07-01

    There is a lot of public concern over food safety. Food-safety cases recently, including many food poisoning cases in both the developed and developing countries, considered to be the national security threats which involved police investigation. Quick and accurate detection methods are needed to handle the food poisoning cases with a big number of sufferers at the same time. Therefore, the research is aimed to develop a specific, sensitive, and rapid result molecular detection tool for foodborne pathogen bacteria. We, thus, propose genomic level approach with Polymerase Chain Reaction. The research has successfully produced a specific primer to perform amplification to fim-C S. typhi, E. coli, and pef Salmonella typhimurium genes. The electrophoresis result shows that amplification products are 95 base pairs, 121 base pairs, and 139 base pairs; and all three genes are in accordance with the size of the in silico to third genes bacteria. In conclusion, the research has been successfully designed a specific detection tool to three foodborne pathogen bacteria genes. Further stages test and the uses of Real-time PCR in the detection are still in the trial process for better detection method.

  4. The usefulness of rapid diagnostic tests in the new context of low malaria transmission in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakely, Delér; Elfving, Kristina; Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; Msellem, Mwinyi I; Morris, Ulrika; Omar, Rahila; Weiping, Xu; Petzold, Max; Greenhouse, Bryan; Baltzell, Kimberly A; Ali, Abdullah S; Björkman, Anders; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    We assessed if histidine-rich-protein-2 (HRP2) based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) remains an efficient tool for Plasmodium falciparum case detection among fever patients in Zanzibar and if primary health care workers continue to adhere to RDT results in the new epidemiological context of low malaria transmission. Further, we evaluated the performance of RDT within the newly adopted integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) algorithm in Zanzibar. We enrolled 3890 patients aged ≥ 2 months with uncomplicated febrile illness in this health facility based observational study conducted in 12 primary health care facilities in Zanzibar, between May-July 2010. One patient had an inconclusive RDT result. Overall 121/3889 (3.1%) patients were RDT positive. The highest RDT positivity rate, 32/528 (6.1%), was found in children aged 5-14 years. RDT sensitivity and specificity against PCR was 76.5% (95% CI 69.0-83.9%) and 99.9% (95% CI 99.7-100%), and against blood smear microscopy 78.6% (95% CI 70.8-85.1%) and 99.7% (95% CI 99.6-99.9%), respectively. All RDT positive, but only 3/3768 RDT negative patients received anti-malarial treatment. Adherence to RDT results was thus 3887/3889 (99.9%). RDT performed well in the IMCI algorithm with equally high adherence among children Zanzibar. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01002066.

  5. Rapid screening test for detection of oxytetracycline residues in milk using lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Laxmana; Sharma, Rajan; Mann, Bimlesh; Lata, Kiran; Rajput, Y S; Surendra Nath, B

    2017-03-15

    A rapid, semi-quantitative lateral flow assay (LFA) was developed to screen the oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotics residues in milk samples. In this study a competitive immuno-assay format was established. Colloidal gold nano-particles (GNP) were prepared and used as labelling material in LFA. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against OTC molecule (anti-OTC), purified and the quality was assessed by enzyme linked immuno sorbet assay. For the first time membrane components required for LFA in milk system was optimized. GNP and anti-OTC stable conjugate preparation method was standardized, and then these components were placed over the conjugate pad. OTC coupled with carrier protein was placed on test line; species specific secondary antibodies were placed on the control line of the membrane matrix. Assay was validated by spiking OTC to antibiotic free milk samples and results could be accomplished within 5min. without need of any equipment. The visual detection limit was 30ppb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid, Secure Drug Testing Using Fingerprint Development and Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Catia; Webb, Roger; Palitsin, Vladimir; Ismail, Mahado; de Puit, Marcel; Atkinson, Samuel; Bailey, Melanie J

    2017-11-01

    Paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) is a technique that has recently emerged and has shown excellent analytical sensitivity to a number of drugs in blood. As an alternative to blood, fingerprints have been shown to provide a noninvasive and traceable sampling matrix. Our goal was to validate the use of fingerprint samples to detect cocaine use. Samples were collected on triangular pieces (168 mm 2 ) of washed Whatman Grade I chromatography paper. Following application of internal standard, spray solvent and a voltage were applied to the paper before mass spectrometry detection. A fingerprint visualization step was incorporated into the analysis procedure by addition of silver nitrate solution and exposing the sample to ultraviolet light. Limits of detection for cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and methylecgonine were 1, 2, and 31 ng/mL respectively, with relative standard deviations fingerprint samples yielded a 99% true-positive rate and a 2.5% false-positive rate, based on the detection of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, or methylecgonine with use of a single fingerprint. The method offers a qualitative and noninvasive screening test for cocaine use. The analysis method developed is rapid (4 min/sample) and requires no sample preparation. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  7. Rapid radioimmunological test for HCG in normal and disturbed early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dericks-Tan, J.S.E.; Taubert, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    The clinical evaluation of a rapid radioimmunological test for HCG in serum showed that this method is as suitable as conventional radioimmunoassay or receptor methods in the diagnosis of normal and disturbed early pregnancy. Using a direct immunosorbent method total time requirements for the estimation could be reduced to half a working day. Sera of 314 women with normal pregnancies showed an exponential increase of HCG concentrations in serum during the first 8 weeks and thereafter steady levels for several weeks. As the anti-HCG serum used has only a slight cross reactivity with LH, false-positive results need hardly be expected in states if high LH levels in serum (menopause, polycystic ovaries, preovulatory LH peak). HCG concentrations in serum were clearly diminished in all pregnancies ending in abortion and in nearly all extrauterine pregnancies. Repeated estimations in early pregnancy enable a diagnosis of ectopic or disturbed intrauterine pregnancy to be made before symptoms of rupture, haemorrhage and similar complications occur. (orig.) [de

  8. Detailed analysis of the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test, revised version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Yasushi; Yoshino, Aihide; Muramatsu, Taro; Mimura, Masaru

    2017-11-01

    The number-transcoding task on the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test (RDST-J) requires mutual conversion between Arabic and Chinese numerals (209 to , 4054 to , to 681, to 2027). In this task, question and answer styles of Chinese numerals are written horizontally. We investigated the impact of changing the task so that Chinese numerals are written vertically. Subjects were 211 patients with very mild to severe Alzheimer's disease and 42 normal controls. Mini-Mental State Examination scores ranged from 26 to 12, and Clinical Dementia Rating scores ranged from 0.5 to 3. Scores of all four subtasks of the transcoding task significantly improved in the revised version compared with the original version. The sensitivity and specificity of total scores ≥9 on the RDST-J original and revised versions for discriminating between controls and subjects with Clinical Dementia Rating scores of 0.5 were 63.8% and 76.6% on the original and 60.1% and 85.8% on revised version. The revised RDST-J total score had low sensitivity and high specificity compared with the original RDST-J for discriminating subjects with Clinical Dementia Rating scores of 0.5 from controls. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  9. Factors for improving the diagnostic efficiency of the rapid urease test from the gastric corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jun-Hyung; Jeon, Seong Ran; Kim, Hyun Gun; Jin, So-Young; Park, Suyeon

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the optimal biopsy site for Helicobacter pylori detection by comparing the results of rapid urease test (RUT) between the gastric corpus and the antrum. A biopsy specimen from each subject was obtained from the corpus and from the antrum. For each subject, the two specimens were separately immersed in two different RUT kits. Positive reaction times were measured at 20 minutes and 1, 3, and 24 hours. If either of the two RUT kits showed a positive reaction, H. pylori infection was confirmed. A total of 310 H. pylori-infected subjects were eligible for study inclusion. Compared with the antrum, positive RUT reaction times in the corpus were shorter when the degree of gastric atrophy was moderate or severe (p = .001 and p corpus were age ≥50 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-3.08; p = .021) and severe gastric atrophy (OR = 2.41; 95% CI = 1.13-5.13; p = .023). Also, severe gastric atrophy was an independent factor associated with positive RUT reaction only in the corpus (OR = 5.12; 95% CI = 1.55-16.88; p = .007). In subjects aged ≥50 years or with severe gastric atrophy, biopsy of the corpus mucosa optimized the efficiency of H. pylori detection through a faster positive RUT reaction.

  10. Introducing malaria rapid diagnostic tests in private medicine retail outlets: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Theodoor; Bruxvoort, Katia; Maloney, Kathleen; Leslie, Toby; Barat, Lawrence M; Allan, Richard; Ansah, Evelyn K; Anyanti, Jennifer; Boulton, Ian; Clarke, Siân E; Cohen, Jessica L; Cohen, Justin M; Cutherell, Andrea; Dolkart, Caitlin; Eves, Katie; Fink, Günther; Goodman, Catherine; Hutchinson, Eleanor; Lal, Sham; Mbonye, Anthony; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Petty, Nora; Pontarollo, Julie; Poyer, Stephen; Schellenberg, David; Streat, Elizabeth; Ward, Abigail; Wiseman, Virginia; Whitty, Christopher J M; Yeung, Shunmay; Cunningham, Jane; Chandler, Clare I R

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with malaria-like symptoms seek treatment in private medicine retail outlets (PMR) that distribute malaria medicines but do not traditionally provide diagnostic services, potentially leading to overtreatment with antimalarial drugs. To achieve universal access to prompt parasite-based diagnosis, many malaria-endemic countries are considering scaling up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in these outlets, an intervention that may require legislative changes and major investments in supporting programs and infrastructures. This review identifies studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs and examines study outcomes and success factors to inform scale up decisions. Published and unpublished studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs were systematically identified and reviewed. Literature published before November 2016 was searched in six electronic databases, and unpublished studies were identified through personal contacts and stakeholder meetings. Outcomes were extracted from publications or provided by principal investigators. Six published and six unpublished studies were found. Most studies took place in sub-Saharan Africa and were small-scale pilots of RDT introduction in drug shops or pharmacies. None of the studies assessed large-scale implementation in PMRs. RDT uptake varied widely from 8%-100%. Provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for patients testing positive ranged from 30%-99%, and was more than 85% in five studies. Of those testing negative, provision of antimalarials varied from 2%-83% and was less than 20% in eight studies. Longer provider training, lower RDT retail prices and frequent supervision appeared to have a positive effect on RDT uptake and provider adherence to test results. Performance of RDTs by PMR vendors was generally good, but disposal of medical waste and referral of patients to public facilities were common challenges. Expanding services of PMRs to include malaria diagnostic services may hold

  11. Introducing malaria rapid diagnostic tests in private medicine retail outlets: A systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoor Visser

    Full Text Available Many patients with malaria-like symptoms seek treatment in private medicine retail outlets (PMR that distribute malaria medicines but do not traditionally provide diagnostic services, potentially leading to overtreatment with antimalarial drugs. To achieve universal access to prompt parasite-based diagnosis, many malaria-endemic countries are considering scaling up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs in these outlets, an intervention that may require legislative changes and major investments in supporting programs and infrastructures. This review identifies studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs and examines study outcomes and success factors to inform scale up decisions.Published and unpublished studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs were systematically identified and reviewed. Literature published before November 2016 was searched in six electronic databases, and unpublished studies were identified through personal contacts and stakeholder meetings. Outcomes were extracted from publications or provided by principal investigators.Six published and six unpublished studies were found. Most studies took place in sub-Saharan Africa and were small-scale pilots of RDT introduction in drug shops or pharmacies. None of the studies assessed large-scale implementation in PMRs. RDT uptake varied widely from 8%-100%. Provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for patients testing positive ranged from 30%-99%, and was more than 85% in five studies. Of those testing negative, provision of antimalarials varied from 2%-83% and was less than 20% in eight studies. Longer provider training, lower RDT retail prices and frequent supervision appeared to have a positive effect on RDT uptake and provider adherence to test results. Performance of RDTs by PMR vendors was generally good, but disposal of medical waste and referral of patients to public facilities were common challenges.Expanding services of PMRs to include malaria diagnostic

  12. Development of an ATP assay for rapid onboard testing to detect living microorganisms in ballast water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Bonggil; Cha, Hyung-Gon; Lee, Nayoung; Yum, Seungshic; Baek, Seung Ho; Shin, Kyoungsoon

    2018-03-01

    Ballast water is a principal pathway for the introduction of pathogens and non-indigenous species to ports worldwide. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the United States Coast Guard (USCG) have adopted ballast water management regulations that require, e.g., the installation of shipboard ballast water management systems (BWMS). Rapid and simple analytical methods are needed to monitor whether ballast water disinfection ensures compliance with the discharge standards. In this study laboratory and full scale land-based testing was used to investigate the suitability of an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay for quantifying living organisms (≥ 10 and < 50 μm minimum dimension) in ballast water. In laboratory experiments the ATP assay was highly sensitive, with a detection limit of < 5 cells 0.1 mL- 1. Diatom species (Chaetoceros simplex and Skeletonema costatum) had low ATP concentrations compared with dinoflagellate, Raphidophyceae, and Chrysophyceae species. This was because of differences in cell volume, as the ATP concentration increased exponentially with increasing cell volume. Using a regression model between ATP concentration and cell volume, an estimated the pass and fail ATP concentration in this study (788-98,610 pg mL- 1) was developed for the discharge of ballast water. In land-based testing the ATP assay also showed a good correlation with the presence of living natural plankton cells in control samples, but the ATP concentration (137 pg mL- 1) was much lower than the ATP guideline. The low ATP concentration in natural plankton cells may reflect a decline in their biological activity because of extended exposure to dark conditions. Although our results need further validation, the ATP assay is a suitable tool for monitoring compliance of ballast water treatment.

  13. Public health services and their relationship with rapid HIV test utilization and access for key populations in Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jesús Conde González

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In 2009, 4 749 rapid HIV tests were run in Morelos, Mexico, despite lacking evidence on their results. This article seeks to analyze how public health organization relates to utility of rapid HIV test among healthcare users. Materials and methods. Joint study: comparison of differences in applied test and positive results for each group with the Bonferroni statistical tool, observational study in 34 health subsystems, and 11 interviews with public healthcare users. Results. Each subsystem processes influenced the use and usefulness of screening; for instance, primary care centers test only pregnant women and exclude men who have sex with men (MSM. That group shows significant differences (p<0.007 in the HIV-positive test with respect to other groups. Conclusions. Despite the availability of rapid detection tests and epidemiological evidence, the way public health services are organized impedes an efficient diagnosis in the group with higher risk, namely MSM. The distribution of rapid HIV tests was guided by stigmatization.

  14. Counselling in STD/HIV/AIDS in the context of rapid test: Perception of users and health professionals at a counselling and testing centre in Porto Alegre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernanda T; Both, Nalu S; Alnoch, Edi M; Conz, Jaqueline; Rocha, Katia B

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the perceptions of professionals and users about counselling practices at a counselling and testing centre in Porto Alegre/RS based on interviews with 27 service users and 14 members of the staff. The following categories emerged from thematic analysis: professionals' perceptions on counselling, users' perceptions on counselling and changes in counselling due to the introduction of rapid test procedures. The results show that, although initially there were some imprecision and apparent contradictions in its use, rapid testing was considered an invitation to rethink practices, bringing service closer to users' needs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C

    2016-04-27

    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  16. Corrosion of metals in wood : comparing the results of a rapid test method with long-term exposure tests across six wood treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Donald S. Stone

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares two methods of measuring the corrosion of steel and galvanized steel in wood: a long-term exposure test in solid wood and a rapid test method where fasteners are electrochemically polarized in extracts of wood treated with six different treatments. For traditional wood preservatives, the electrochemical extract method correlates with solid wood...

  17. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests: a revolution and a challenge for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Febrile patients in malaria-endemic areas need rapid and accurate diagnosis to ensure prompt access to antimalarial treatment to avoid severe disease. As most fevers in malaria-endemic areas of South Africa are not caused by malaria, and symptom-based diagnosis is highly nonspecific, rapid demonstration of the ...

  18. Comparison of patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test fundamentals by information delivery format in an emergency department setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Melissa A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two trials were conducted to compare emergency department patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test information using different methods to deliver this information. Methods Patients were enrolled for these two trials at a US emergency department between February 2005 and January 2006. In Trial One, patients were randomized to a no pre-test information or an in-person discussion arm. In Trial Two, a separate group of patients were randomized to an in-person discussion arm or a Tablet PC-based video arm. The video, "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?", and the in-person discussion contained identical Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-suggested pre-test information components as well as information on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. Participants were compared by information arm on their comprehension of the pre-test information by their score on a 26-item questionnaire using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results In Trial One, 38 patients completed the no-information arm and 31 completed the in-person discussion arm. Of these 69 patients, 63.8% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 66.7% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the in-person discussion arm was higher than for the no information arm (18.7 vs. 13.3, p ≤ 0.0001. In Trial Two, 59 patients completed the in-person discussion and 55 completed the video arms. Of these 114 patients, 50.9% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 68.4% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the video arm was similar to the in-person discussion arm (20.0 vs. 19.2; p ≤ 0.33. Conclusion The video "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?" appears to be an acceptable substitute for an in-person pre-test discussion on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. In terms of adequately informing ED patients about rapid HIV testing, either form of pre-test information is preferable than for patients

  19. Comparison of patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test fundamentals by information delivery format in an emergency department setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Roland C; Gee, Erin M; Clark, Melissa A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Seage, George R; DeGruttola, Victor G

    2007-01-01

    Background Two trials were conducted to compare emergency department patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test information using different methods to deliver this information. Methods Patients were enrolled for these two trials at a US emergency department between February 2005 and January 2006. In Trial One, patients were randomized to a no pre-test information or an in-person discussion arm. In Trial Two, a separate group of patients were randomized to an in-person discussion arm or a Tablet PC-based video arm. The video, "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?", and the in-person discussion contained identical Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-suggested pre-test information components as well as information on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. Participants were compared by information arm on their comprehension of the pre-test information by their score on a 26-item questionnaire using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results In Trial One, 38 patients completed the no-information arm and 31 completed the in-person discussion arm. Of these 69 patients, 63.8% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 66.7% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the in-person discussion arm was higher than for the no information arm (18.7 vs. 13.3, p ≤ 0.0001). In Trial Two, 59 patients completed the in-person discussion and 55 completed the video arms. Of these 114 patients, 50.9% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 68.4% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the video arm was similar to the in-person discussion arm (20.0 vs. 19.2; p ≤ 0.33). Conclusion The video "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?" appears to be an acceptable substitute for an in-person pre-test discussion on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. In terms of adequately informing ED patients about rapid HIV testing, either form of pre-test information is preferable than for patients to receive no pre-test

  20. Accuracy of commercially available c-reactive protein rapid tests in the context of undifferentiated fevers in rural Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phommasone, Koukeo; Althaus, Thomas; Souvanthong, Phonesavanh; Phakhounthong, Khansoudaphone; Soyvienvong, Laxoy; Malapheth, Phatthaphone; Mayxay, Mayfong; Pavlicek, Rebecca L; Paris, Daniel H; Dance, David; Newton, Paul; Lubell, Yoel

    2016-02-04

    C-Reactive Protein (CRP) has been shown to be an accurate biomarker for discriminating bacterial from viral infections in febrile patients in Southeast Asia. Here we investigate the accuracy of existing rapid qualitative and semi-quantitative tests as compared with a quantitative reference test to assess their potential for use in remote tropical settings. Blood samples were obtained from consecutive patients recruited to a prospective fever study at three sites in rural Laos. At each site, one of three rapid qualitative or semi-quantitative tests was performed, as well as a corresponding quantitative NycoCard Reader II as a reference test. We estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the three tests against a threshold of 10 mg/L and kappa values for the agreement of the two semi-quantitative tests with the results of the reference test. All three tests showed high sensitivity, specificity and kappa values as compared with the NycoCard Reader II. With a threshold of 10 mg/L the sensitivity of the tests ranged from 87-98 % and the specificity from 91-98 %. The weighted kappa values for the semi-quantitative tests were 0.7 and 0.8. The use of CRP rapid tests could offer an inexpensive and effective approach to improve the targeting of antibiotics in remote settings where health facilities are basic and laboratories are absent. This study demonstrates that accurate CRP rapid tests are commercially available; evaluations of their clinical impact and cost-effectiveness at point of care is warranted.

  1. Motivation and satisfaction among community health workers administering rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Laura K; Lesser, Adriane; Menya, Diana; Baumgartner, Joy N; Kipkoech Kirui, Joseph; Saran, Indrani; Prudhomme-O'Meara, Wendy

    2018-06-01

    The continued success of community case management (CCM) programs in low-resource settings depends on the ability of these programs to retain the community health workers (CHWs), many of whom are volunteers, and maintain their high-quality performance. This study aims to identify factors related to the motivation and satisfaction of CHWs working in a malaria CCM program in two sub-counties in Western Kenya. We interviewed 70 CHWs who were trained to administer malaria rapid diagnostic tests as part of a broader study evaluating a malaria CCM program. We identified factors related to CHWs' motivation and their satisfaction with participation in the program, as well as the feasibility of program scale-up. We used principal components analysis to develop an overall CHW satisfaction score and assessed associations between this score and individual CHW characteristics as well as their experiences in the program. The majority of CHWs reported that they were motivated to perform their role in this malaria CCM program by a personal desire to help their community (69%). The most common challenge CHWs reported was a lack of community understanding about malaria diagnostic testing and CHWs' role in the program (39%). Most CHWs (89%) reported that their involvement in the diagnostic testing intervention had either a neutral or a net positive effect on their other CHW activities, including improving skills applicable to other tasks. CHWs who said they strongly agreed with the statement that their work with the malaria program was appreciated by the community had a 0.76 standard deviation (SD) increase in their overall satisfaction score (95% confidence interval CI = 0.10-1.24, P  = 0.03). Almost all CHWs (99%) strongly agreed that they wanted to continue their role in the malaria program. Overall, CHWs reported high satisfaction with their role in community-based malaria diagnosis, though they faced challenges primarily related to community understanding and

  2. Community acceptability of use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria by community health workers in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waiswa Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many malarious countries plan to introduce artemisinin combination therapy (ACT at community level using community health workers (CHWs for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Use of ACT with reliance on presumptive diagnosis may lead to excessive use, increased costs and rise of drug resistance. Use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs could address these challenges but only if the communities will accept their use by CHWs. This study assessed community acceptability of the use of RDTs by Ugandan CHWs, locally referred to as community medicine distributors (CMDs. Methods The study was conducted in Iganga district using 10 focus group discussions (FGDs with CMDs and caregivers of children under five years, and 10 key informant interviews (KIIs with health workers and community leaders. Pre-designed FGD and KII guides were used to collect data. Manifest content analysis was used to explore issues of trust and confidence in CMDs, stigma associated with drawing blood from children, community willingness for CMDs to use RDTs, and challenges anticipated to be faced by the CMDs. Results CMDs are trusted by their communities because of their commitment to voluntary service, access, and the perceived effectiveness of anti-malarial drugs they provide. Some community members expressed fear that the blood collected could be used for HIV testing, the procedure could infect children with HIV, and the blood samples could be used for witchcraft. Education level of CMDs is important in their acceptability by the community, who welcome the use of RDTs given that the CMDs are trained and supported. Anticipated challenges for CMDs included transport for patient follow-up and picking supplies, adults demanding to be tested, and caregivers insisting their children be treated instead of being referred. Conclusion Use of RDTs by CMDs is likely to be acceptable by community members given that CMDs are properly trained, and receive regular technical

  3. Comparison of two dengue NS1 rapid tests for sensitivity, specificity and relationship to viraemia and antibody responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrar Jeremy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Rapid and easy diagnosis of dengue can assist patient triage and care-management. The detection of DENV NS1 on rapid lateral flow tests offers a fast route to a presumptive dengue diagnosis but careful evaluations are urgently needed as more and more people use them. Methods The sensitivity and specificity of the Bio-Rad NS1 Ag Strip and SD Dengue Duo (NS1/IgM/IgG lateral flow rapid tests were evaluated in a panel of plasma samples from 245 Vietnamese patients with RT-PCR confirmed dengue and 47 with other febrile illnesses. Results The NS1 rapid tests had similar diagnostic sensitivities (respectively 61.6% and 62.4% in confirmed dengue cases but were 100% specific. When IgM/IgG results from the SD Dengue Duo were included in the test interpretation, the sensitivity improved significantly from 62.4% with NS1 alone to 75.5% when NS1 and/or IgM was positive and 83.7% when NS1 and/or IgM and/or IgG was positive. Both NS1 assays were significantly more sensitive for primary than secondary dengue. NS1 positivity was associated with the underlying viraemia as NS1-positive samples had a significantly higher viraemia than NS1-negative samples. Conclusions These data suggest that the NS1 test component of these assays are highly specific and have similar levels of sensitivity. The IgM parameter in the SD Duo test improved overall test sensitivity without compromising specificity. The SD Dengue Duo lateral flow rapid test deserves further prospective evaluation in dengue endemic settings.

  4. Preliminary Results of a Multicentre Study of the UBC Rapid Test for Detection of Urinary Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Thorsten H; Arndt, Christian; Stephan, Carsten; Hallmann, Steffen; Lux, Oliver; Otto, Thomas; Ruttloff, Jürgen; Gerullis, Holger

    2015-05-01

    UBC Rapid is a test detecting fragments of cytokeratins 8 and 18 in urine. These are cytokeratins frequently overexpressed in tumor cells. We present the first results of a multi-centre study using UBC Rapid in patients with bladder cancer and healthy controls. Clinical urine samples from 92 patients with tumors of the urinary bladder (45 low-grade and 47 high-grade tumors) and from 33 healthy controls were used. Urine samples were analyzed by the UBC Rapid point-of-care (POC) system and evaluated both visually and quantitatively using a concile Omega 100 POC reader. For visual evaluation, different thresholds of band intensity for considering a test as positive were applied. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated by contingency analyses. We found that pathological concentrations by UBC Rapid are detectable in urine of patients with bladder cancer. The calculated diagnostic sensitivity of UBC Rapid in urine was 68.1% for high-grade, but only 46.2% for low-grade tumors. The specificity was 90.9%. The area under the curve (AUC) after receiver-operated curve (ROC) analysis was 0.733. Pathological levels of UBC Rapid in urine are higher in patients with bladder cancer in comparison to the control group (pbladder cancer and controls. Further studies with a greater number of patients will show how valuable these results are. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Performance of Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Plasmodium ovale Malaria in Japanese Travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Ryutaro; Kato, Yasuyuki; Iwagami, Moritoshi; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Ujiie, Mugen; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kano, Shigeyuki; Ohmagari, Norio

    2014-12-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are used widely in the diagnosis of malaria. Although the effectiveness of RDTs for malaria has been described in many previous studies, the low performance of RDT particularly for Plasmodium ovale malaria in traveller has rarely been reported. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted on Japanese travellers diagnosed with malaria at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine between January 2004 and June 2013. The diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by microscopic examination, RDT, and polymerase chain reaction in all patients. The RDTs used in our study were Binax NOW Malaria (Binax Inc., Scarborough, Maine, USA) (BN) and SD Malaria Antigen Pf/Pan (Standard Diagnostics Inc., Korea) (SDMA). We compared the sensitivity of the RDTs to P. ovale malaria and Plasmodium vivax malaria. A total of 153 cases of malaria were observed, 113 of which were found among Japanese travellers. Nine patients with P. ovale malaria and 17 patients with P. vivax malaria undergoing RDTs were evaluated. The overall sensitivity of RDTs for P. ovale malaria and P. vivax malaria was 22.2% and 94.1%, respectively (P < 0.001). The sensitivity of SDMA for P. ovale malaria and P. vivax malaria was 50% and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity of BN for P. vivax malaria was 90.0%, but it was ineffective in detecting the cases of P. ovale malaria. The sensitivity of RDTs was not high enough to diagnose P. ovale malaria in our study. In order not to overlook P. ovale malaria, therefore, microscopic examination is indispensable.

  6. Rapid toxicity assessment of sediments from estuarine ecosystems: A new tandem in vitro testing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.T. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States); Long, E.R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency, Seattle, WA (United States). Coastal Monitoring and Bioeffects Assessment Div.

    1998-06-01

    Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign} were used to evaluate the acute toxicity and genotoxicity, respectively, of organic sediment extracts from Pensacola Bay and St. Andrew Bay, two estuaries that cover about 273 and 127 km{sup 2}, respectively, along the Gulf coast of Florida, USA. The sensitivity and selectivity of these two bioluminescent toxicity assays were demonstrated in validation studies with over 50 pesticides, genotoxins, and industrial pollutants, both as single compounds and in complex mixtures. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of insecticides, petroleum products, and polychlorinated biphenyls determined by Microtox all tended to group around the mean EC50 value of 1.2 (0.8) mg/L. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sensitivity of Mutatox was in general similar to that reported in the Ames test. Surficial sediment samples were collected, extracted with dichloromethane, evaporated and concentrated under nitrogen, dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, assayed for acute toxicity and genotoxicity, and compared with reference sediments. Samples with low EC50 values, and determined to be genotoxic, were detected in Massalina Bayou, Watson Bayou, East Bay, and St. Andrew Bay-East in St. Andrew Bay as well as Bayou Grande, Bayou Chico, and Bayou Texas in Pensacola Bay. An overview of these data sets analyzed by Spearman rank correlation showed a significant correlation between acute toxicity and genotoxicity. Microtox and Mutatox in tandem was a sensitive, cost-effective, and rapid screening tool that identified troublesome areas of pollution and assessed the potential sediment toxicity of lipophilic contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Development and evaluation of an enzyme-labeled antibody test for the rapid detection of hog cholera antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    A rapid enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microtechnique for the screening of swine for hog cholera antibodies was developed and evaluated with a blind study, using a 640-sample hog cholera serum bank. The total time to run a group of 22 samples was approximately 1 hour. The ELA test results correlated >99% with hog cholera serum-neutralization test results on the same serums. Test results also indicated that the ELA test shares with the hog cholera serum-neutralization test the problem of cross reactions between the antibodies of hog cholera and bovine viral diarrhea.

  8. Biochemical liver function test parameter levels in relation to treatment response in liver metastatic colorectal patients treated with FOLFOX4 with or without bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denić Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Combined use of bevacizumab and conventional anticancer drugs leads to a significant improvement of treatment response in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (CRC. Conventional treatment protocols exert undesired effects on the liver tissue. Hepatotoxic effects are manifested as a disturbance of liver function test parameters. The relation between clinical outcome and disorder of biochemical parameters has not been completely evaluated. Objective. The objective of our study was to examine whether clinical outcome in patients with liver metastatic CRC correlates with the level of liver function test parameters. Methods. The study included 96 patients with untreated liver metastatic CRC who received FOLFOX4 protocol with or without bevacizumab. Biochemical liver parameters were performed before and after the treatment completion. Treatment response was evaluated as disease regression, stable disease, and disease progression. The patients were divided into three groups according to the accomplished treatment response. Results. In the group of patients with disease regression the post-treatment levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and bilirubin were statistically significantly increased. In contrast to this, gamma-glutamyltransferase and protein post-treatment values were significantly lower in relation to initial values. In patients with stable disease, difference was found only in the level of proteins being lower after the treatment. In patients with disease progression, values of aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin were significantly increased after completed treatment. Conclusion. Treatment responses are not completely associated with the level of liver function test parameters. The only parameter which correlated with treatment response is gamma-glutamyltransferase. Its decrease is accompanied with disease regression.

  9. The evaluation of a rapid in situ HIV confirmation test in a programme with a high failure rate of the WHO HIV two-test diagnostic algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derryck B Klarkowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concerns about false-positive HIV results led to a review of testing procedures used in a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF HIV programme in Bukavu, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. In addition to the WHO HIV rapid diagnostic test algorithm (RDT (two positive RDTs alone for HIV diagnosis used in voluntary counselling and testing (VCT sites we evaluated in situ a practical field-based confirmation test against western blot WB. In addition, we aimed to determine the false-positive rate of the WHO two-test algorithm compared with our adapted protocol including confirmation testing, and whether weakly reactive compared with strongly reactive rapid test results were more likely to be false positives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 2864 clients presenting to MSF VCT centres in Bukavu during January to May 2006 were tested using Determine HIV-1/2 and UniGold HIV rapid tests in parallel by nurse counsellors. Plasma samples on 229 clients confirmed as double RDT positive by laboratory retesting were further tested using both WB and the Orgenics Immunocomb Combfirm HIV confirmation test (OIC-HIV. Of these, 24 samples were negative or indeterminate by WB representing a false-positive rate of the WHO two-test algorithm of 10.5% (95%CI 6.6-15.2. 17 of the 229 samples were weakly positive on rapid testing and all were negative or indeterminate by WB. The false-positive rate fell to 3.3% (95%CI 1.3-6.7 when only strong-positive rapid test results were considered. Agreement between OIC-HIV and WB was 99.1% (95%CI 96.9-99.9% with no false OIC-HIV positives if stringent criteria for positive OIC-HIV diagnoses were used. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO HIV two-test diagnostic algorithm produced an unacceptably high level of false-positive diagnoses in our setting, especially if results were weakly positive. The most probable causes of the false-positive results were serological cross-reactivity or non-specific immune reactivity. Our findings show that the OIC

  10. Pitfalls with rapid HIV antibody testing in HIV-infected children in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, M; van Zyl, G U; Korsman, S N J; Smit, L; Cotton, M F; Preiser, W

    2006-09-01

    Rapid HIV antibody tests are commonly used for HIV diagnosis in the developing world. These tests are generally reported as sensitive, despite paucity of evaluations in paediatric populations. We tested specimens of paediatric patients, known to be HIV-infected, to detect any false negative tests and determine associations with such an outcome. One hundred and fifty-three specimens, from 109 patients, recorded to be HIV-infected by standard testing, were tested on the Capillustrade mark HIV-1/HIV-2 test (Trinity Biotech, Ireland); 150 specimens also had sufficient volume to be tested on Abbott Determinetrade mark HIV1/2 assay (Abbott GmbH, Wiesbaden, Germany). Treatment information, CD4 counts and HIV-1 viral load measurements were obtained from patient files and laboratory databases. Twenty-one of 153 specimens tested negative on the Capillus (sensitivity 86.3%). False negative results by Capillus were associated with antiretroviral treatment (ART) (p=0.0018) and lower HIV-1 viral load (p=0.013). Serial dilutions of some of the specimens indicated that both rapid tests, and the Capillus in particular, became negative at lower dilutions than an HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The Capillus test had an unexpectedly low sensitivity in a South African population of HIV-infected children that had access to antiretroviral treatment, posing a risk of false negative HIV testing.

  11. Brief Report: Impact of Early Antiretroviral Therapy on the Performance of HIV Rapid Tests and HIV Incidence Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Jessica M; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Debevec, Barbara; Walsky, Tamara; Schlusser, Katherine; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Wilson, Ethan A; McCauley, Marybeth; Gamble, Theresa; Tegha, Gerald; Soko, Dean; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Chen, Ying Q; Cohen, Myron S; Eshleman, Susan H

    2017-08-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can downregulate antibody responses to HIV infection. We evaluated the impact of early vs. delayed ART on the performance of HIV diagnostic and incidence assays. Samples were obtained from 207 participants in the HPTN 052 trial, who were stably suppressed on ART for ≥4 years [Malawi sites; pre-ART CD4 cell count 350-550 cells/mm (early ART arm, N = 180) or ART arm, N = 27)]. Samples were tested with 2 HIV rapid tests and 2 HIV incidence assays; selected samples were also tested with two fourth-generation immunoassays and a Western blot (WB) assay. A pre-ART sample was analyzed if the follow-up sample had a false-negative or weakly-reactive rapid test result, or had an incidence assay result indicative of recent infection (false-recent result). Ten (4.8%) samples had a nonreactive or weakly-reactive rapid test result (7/180 early ART arm, 3/27 delayed ART arm, P = 0.13); one sample had nonreactive fourth-generation assay results and 3 had indeterminate WBs. Forty (18.9%) samples had a false-recent incidence assay result; 16 (7.8%) had false-recent results with both incidence assays. Baseline samples had stronger rapid test and WB bands, higher fourth-generation assay signal-to-cutoff values, and fewer HIV incidence assay results indicative of recent infection. False-negative/weakly-reactive HIV rapid tests and false-recent HIV incidence assay results were observed in virally-suppressed individuals, regardless of pre-ART CD4 cell count. Downregulation of the antibody response to HIV infection in the setting of ART may impact population-level surveys of HIV prevalence and incidence.

  12. Rapid Generation and Testing of a Lassa Fever Vaccine Using VaxCelerate Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-28

    12 Figure 5: : Lassa Vaccine Induces a Significant Increase in +IFN- γ+ from CD4+ T Cells in... influenza threats (see for example BARDA 2011), our nation’s capabilities to rapidly deploy vaccines in the face of rapidly-appearing pathogen targets...markers of vaccine protection concluded that “delineating the molecular mechanism underlying immunity induced by different types of vaccines poses a

  13. The Performance of a Rapid Diagnostic Test in Detecting Malaria Infection in Pregnant Women and the Impact of Missed Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, John E; Cairns, Matthew; Njie, Fanta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intermittent screening and treatment in pregnancy (ISTp) is a potential strategy for the control of malaria during pregnancy. However, the frequency and consequences of malaria infections missed by a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for malaria are a concern.METHODS: Primigravidae and secu...

  14. Development of a stable positive control to be used for quality assurance of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, Inge; Mens, Petra F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a simple, cheap, and stable positive control for the quality control and quality assurance (QA) of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for the diagnosis of malaria. Plasmodium falciparum in vitro culture of known parasite concentrations was dried on a

  15. Health workers' compliance to rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to guide malaria treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabaghe, Alinune N.; Visser, Benjamin J.; Spijker, Rene; Phiri, Kamija S.; Grobusch, Martin P.; van Vugt, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends malaria to be confirmed by either microscopy or a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before treatment. The correct use of RDTs in resource-limited settings facilitates basing treatment onto a confirmed diagnosis; contributes to speeding up considering a correct

  16. Developing and Validating a Rapid Small-Scale Column Test Procedure for GAC Selection using Reconstituted Lyophilized NOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost effective design and operation of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) facilities requires the selection of GAC that is optimal for a specific site. Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) are widely used for GAC assessment due to several advantages, including the ability to simu...

  17. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test for detection of distinct variants of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ana C; Gales, Ana C; Monteiro, Jussimara; Silbert, Suzane; Chagas-Neto, Thomás; Machado, Antonia M O; Carvalhaes, Cecilia G

    2017-11-01

    The rapid detection of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae by microbiology laboratories has been required for infectious control programs. Herein we evaluated the performance of a novel immunochromatographic test for detecting KPC-2-, KPC-3-, KPC-4-, KPC-6-, KPC-7-, KPC-8-, and KPC-11-producing isolates and the influence of different growth media on the test performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment guided by rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in Tanzanian children: safety and alternative bacterial diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sykes Alma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WHO guidelines for the treatment of young children with suspected malaria have recently changed from presumptive treatment to anti-malarial treatment guided by a blood slide or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT. However, there is limited evidence of the safety of this policy in routine outpatient settings in Africa. Methods Children 3-59 months of age with a non-severe febrile illness and no obvious cause were enrolled over a period of one year in a malaria endemic area of Tanzania. Treatment was determined by the results of a clinical examination and RDT result, and blood culture and serum lactate were also collected. RDT-negative children were followed up over 14 days. Results Over the course of one year, 965 children were enrolled; 158 (16.4% were RDT-positive and treated with artemether-lumefantrine and 807 (83.4% were RDT-negative and treated with non-anti-malarial medicines. Compared with RDT-positives, RDT-negative children were on average younger with a lower axillary temperature and more likely to have a history of cough or difficulty in breathing. Six (0.6% children became RDT-positive after enrolment, all of whom were PCR-negative for Plasmodium falciparum DNA at enrolment. In addition, 12 (1.2% children were admitted to hospital, one with possible malaria, none of whom died. A bacterial pathogen was identified in 9/965 (0.9% children, eight of whom were RDT-negative and one was RDT-positive, but slide-negative. Excluding three children with Salmonella typhi, all of the children with bacteraemia were ≤12 months of age. Compared to double-read research slide results RDTs had a sensitivity of 97.8% (95%CI 96.9-98.7 and specificity of 96.3% (95%CI 96.3-98.4. Conclusions Use of RDTs to direct the use of anti-malarial drugs in young children did not result in any missed diagnoses of malaria although new infections soon after a consultation with a negative RDT result may undermine confidence in results. Invasive

  19. Analysis of pfhrp2 genetic diversity in Senegal and implications for use of rapid diagnostic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Senegalese National Malaria Control Programme has recommended use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) that target the histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), specific to Plasmodium falciparum, to diagnose malaria cases. The target antigen has been shown to be polymorphic, which may explain the variability in HRP2-based RDT results reported in field studies. The genetic diversity of the pfhrp2 gene has not been investigated in depth in many African countries. The goal of this study is to determine the extent of polymorphism in pfhrp2 among Senegal, Mali and Uganda parasite populations, and discuss the implications of these findings on the utility of RDTs that are based on HRP2 detection. Methods Sequencing data from the pfhrp2 locus were used to analyze the genetic diversity of this gene among three populations, with different transmission dynamics and malaria parasite ecologies. Nucleotide diversity (π) and non-synonymous nucleotide diversity (πNS) were studied in the pfhrp2 gene from isolates obtained in Senegal. Amino acid repeat length polymorphisms in the PfHRP2 antigen were characterized and parameters of genetic diversity, such as frequency and correlation between repeats in these populations, were assessed. Results The diversity survey of the pfhrp2 gene identified 29 SNPs as well as insertion and deletion polymorphisms within a 918 bp region. The Senegal pfhrp2 exhibited a substantial level of diversity [π = 0.00559 and πNS = 0.014111 (πS = 0.0291627)], similar to several polymorphic genes, such as msp1, involved in immune responses, and the gene encoding the SURFIN polymorphic antigen, which are surface exposed parasite proteins. Extensive repeat length polymorphisms in PfHRP2, as well as similar patterns in the number, organization and the type of predicted amino acid repeats were observed among the three populations, characterized by an occurrence of Type 2, Type 4 and Type 7 repeats. Conclusions These results warrant deeper

  20. Evaluation of PDA Technical Report No 33. Statistical Testing Recommendations for a Rapid Microbiological Method Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas; Schwedock, Julie; Nguyen, Kham; Mills, Anna; Jones, David

    2015-01-01

    New recommendations for the validation of rapid microbiological methods have been included in the revised Technical Report 33 release from the PDA. The changes include a more comprehensive review of the statistical methods to be used to analyze data obtained during validation. This case study applies those statistical methods to accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and equivalence data obtained using a rapid microbiological methods system being evaluated for water bioburden testing. Results presented demonstrate that the statistical methods described in the PDA Technical Report 33 chapter can all be successfully applied to the rapid microbiological method data sets and gave the same interpretation for equivalence to the standard method. The rapid microbiological method was in general able to pass the requirements of PDA Technical Report 33, though the study shows that there can be occasional outlying results and that caution should be used when applying statistical methods to low average colony-forming unit values. Prior to use in a quality-controlled environment, any new method or technology has to be shown to work as designed by the manufacturer for the purpose required. For new rapid microbiological methods that detect and enumerate contaminating microorganisms, additional recommendations have been provided in the revised PDA Technical Report No. 33. The changes include a more comprehensive review of the statistical methods to be used to analyze data obtained during validation. This paper applies those statistical methods to analyze accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and equivalence data obtained using a rapid microbiological method system being validated for water bioburden testing. The case study demonstrates that the statistical methods described in the PDA Technical Report No. 33 chapter can be successfully applied to rapid microbiological method data sets and give the same comparability results for similarity or difference as the standard method. © PDA, Inc

  1. Rapid tests for diagnosis of leptospirosis: Current tools and emerging technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picardeau, Mathieu; Bertherat, Eric; Jancloes, Michel; Skouloudis, Andreas N.; Durski, Kara; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis with a worldwide distribution but is more commonly found in impoverished populations in developing countries and tropical regions with frequent flooding. The rapid detection of leptospirosis is a critical step to effectively manage the disease and to control

  2. Evaluation of a locally produced rapid urease test for the diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To validate our practice of reading the RUT immediately after endoscopy (RUT0), by comparing this with a reading at 24 hours (RUT24) and with histological analysis. Design. Ninety consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy over a 6-week period from October 2005 to November 2005, and in whom rapid urease ...

  3. Evaluation of the clinical utility of a rapid blood test for human leptospirosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eapen, C. K.; Sugathan, Sheela; Kuriakose, Mariamma; Abdoel, Theresia; Smits, Henk L.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid assay device for the detection of Leptospira-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies was applied on whole blood samples collected from a group of consecutive patients admitted with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis to a district hospital in Kerala, India. The hospital is located in an

  4. Reliable rapid blood test for the exclusion of venous thromboembolism in symptomatic outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, F.; van Beek, E. J.; ten Cate, J. W.; Büller, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    In this study we assessed the reliability of a rapid bed-side whole blood D-dimer assay prospectively in patients with clinically suspected venous thromboembolism, referred to the Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam. In consecutive outpatients with clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis or

  5. DEPIVIH 2: Use of three HIV testing methods in French primary care settings - ELISA laboratory screening versus two rapid point-of-care HIV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadima, D; Gauthier, R; Prévoteau du Clary, F; Bouée, S; Conort, G; Livrozet, J-M; Taulera, O; Wajsbrot, A; Majerholc, C; Peter, J-M; Aubert, J-P

    2018-03-01

    The primary endpoint was to evaluate the use of HIV testing methods by French primary care providers: Elisa laboratory screening, instant result HIV diagnostic test and rapid result HIV diagnostic test. The secondary endpoints were the population screening rate of unknown HIV status consulting during the study period, reasons for screening and for choosing the specific screening method, the investigators' satisfaction with the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and problems encountered. National prospective interventional study with French family physicians (FP) from December 2013 to December 2014. FPs enrolled all consenting adults consulting for an HIV screening test during a 6-month period: the choice was an Elisa laboratory test or one of the two RDTs. During the study period, 43 FPs included 981 patients. HIV screening was performed for the first time for 31.6% of patients; 767 (78.2%) Elisa laboratory test prescriptions and 214 (21.8%) RDTs were performed, leading to a screening rate of 1.3%. For 120 (15.7%) of the Elisa laboratory tests, the result was not reported and six RDTs were not valid. Nine patients were diagnosed as HIV-infected (0.9%): five with Elisa laboratory test and four with RDT. Almost 90% of FPs were willing to keep on using RDTs in their daily practice. In general practice, RDTs may be an important additional tool to traditional HIV screening. They could account for one in five tests prescribed in this context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. [Development of immunochromatographic test system for the rapid detection of lipopolysaccharide antigen and cells of causative agent of bovine brucellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byzova, N A; Zherdev, A V; Eskendirova, S Z; Baltin, K K; Unysheva, G B; Mukanov, K K; Ramankulov, E M; Dzantiev, B B

    2012-01-01

    A rapid method for detection of the surface lipopolysaccharide antigen and the cells of the causative agent of bovine brucellosis was developed. The method represents a sandwich format immunochromatographic assay. The contact between the sample and the test strip with immobilized immunoreagents initiates the fluid movement along the membrane components of the test strip, immunochemical reactions, and the formation of colored bands. The novel method requires 10 minutes to determine the lipopolysaccharide antigen of the cell wall of the brucellosis causative agent at concentrations down to 10 ng/mL and the Brucella abortus cells at concentrations down to 10(6) cells/mL (5 x 10(4) cells in the sample). The specificity of the immunodetection was confirmed. The designed test system can be used for the rapid field diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle.

  7. Integrating Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing into Agile System Development of Healthcare IT: A Methodological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    The development of more usable and effective healthcare information systems has become a critical issue. In the software industry methodologies such as agile and iterative development processes have emerged to lead to more effective and usable systems. These approaches highlight focusing on user needs and promoting iterative and flexible development practices. Evaluation and testing of iterative agile development cycles is considered an important part of the agile methodology and iterative processes for system design and re-design. However, the issue of how to effectively integrate usability testing methods into rapid and flexible agile design cycles has remained to be fully explored. In this paper we describe our application of an approach known as low-cost rapid usability testing as it has been applied within agile system development in healthcare. The advantages of the integrative approach are described, along with current methodological considerations.

  8. IL28B SNP screening and distribution in the French Canadian population using a rapid PCR-based test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélinas, Jean-François; Fabre, Thomas; Willems, Philippe; Leung, Reynold C; George, Jacob; Willems, Bernard; Bruneau, Julie; Shoukry, Naglaa H

    2013-06-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the proximity of the interleukin-28B (IL28B) gene can predict spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and response to interferon therapy. Screening for this polymorphism has become part of the standard criteria for the management of HCV-infected patients, hence the need for a rapid, cost-effective screening method. Here, we describe a rapid PCR-based test to screen for two IL28B SNPs (rs12979860 and rs8099917). We used this test to investigate IL28B polymorphism and prevalence in a cohort of French Canadian injection drug users who are part of a unique population known to have a strong genetic founder effect. This population had lower linkage disequilibrium between the two tested SNPs as compared to other cohorts (|d'| = 0.68, r = 0.59). The special genetic makeup should be considered in the management of HCV-infected patients within that population.

  9. Development of a simultaneous lateral flow strip test for the rapid and simple detection of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong-Yeol; Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Jeong-Sook; Chung, Duck-Hwa

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a 1-step simultaneous lateral flow strip test for the rapid and simple detection of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) in grains. Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against DON and ZEA were respectively conjugated with gold nanoparticles and used to develop a lateral flow strip test for a single toxin and multiple toxins. First, individual lateral flow strips for a single toxin were optimized, and their conditions were used to develop a simultaneous lateral flow strip for multiple toxins. Limits of detection of both lateral flow strip tests for DON and ZEA were the same (DON: 50 ng/mL, ZEA: 1 ng/mL). Both methods showed cross-reactivity for α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, but no cross-reaction to other mycotoxins. The results can be completed obtained within 15 min. The cut-off values of the simultaneous lateral flow strip for the spiked rice and corn were 500 and 10 ng/g for DON and ZEA, respectively. The results demonstrated that the developed simultaneous lateral flow strip test offers a rapid, easy-to-use, and portable analytical system and can be used as a convenient qualitative tool for the on-site detection of DON and ZEA in food and agricultural commodities. Simultaneous lateral strip test is useful for a rapid detection of DON and ZEA at a time in food and grain samples. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Use of a combination of routine hematologic and biochemical test results in a logistic regression model as a diagnostic aid for the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin-Crivellenti, Sofia; Garabed, Rebecca B; Moreno-Torres, Karla I; Wellman, Maxey L; Gilor, Chen

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the discriminatory value for corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase (CiALP) activity and other variables that can be measured routinely on a CBC and biochemical analysis for the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in dogs. SAMPLE Medical records of 57 dogs with confirmed hypoadrenocorticism and 57 control dogs in which hypoadrenocorticism was suspected but ruled out. PROCEDURES A retrospective case-control study was conducted. Dogs were included if a CBC and complete biochemical analysis had been performed. Dogs with iatrogenic hypoadrenocorticism and dogs treated previously with glucocorticoids were excluded. Cortisol concentration for dogs with hypoadrenocorticism was ≤ 2 μg/dL both before and after ACTH administration. Cortisol concentration for control dogs was > 4 μg/dL before or after ACTH administration. RESULTS Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for CiALP activity was low (0.646; 95% confidence interval, 0.494 to 0.798). Area under the ROC curve for a model that combined the CiALP activity, Na-to-K ratio, eosinophil count, activity of creatine kinase, and concentrations of SUN and albumin was high (0.994; 95% confidence interval, 0.982 to 1.000). Results for this model could be used to correctly classify all dogs, except for 1 dog with hypoadrenocorticism and no electrolyte abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CiALP activity alone cannot be used as a reliable diagnostic test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs. Combined results for CiALP activity, Na-to-K ratio, eosinophil count, creatine kinase activity, and concentrations of SUN and albumin provided an excellent means to discriminate between hypoadrenocorticism and diseases that mimic hypoadrenocorticism.

  11. The quality of rapid HIV testing in South Africa: an assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing; accuracy and reliability process control guide; finger prick blood collection guide; country approved testing ... The process of testing is mainly concerned with correct testing procedures, environment and test kits for ..... Pronyk PM, Kim JC, Makhubele MB, Hargreaves JR,. Mohlala R, Hausler HP: Introduction of voluntary ...

  12. Evaluation of Rapid stool antigen test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Khatun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Several diagnostic assays are used for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in suspected peptic ulcer cases. H. pylori stool antigen test is a non-invasive method for the detection of active infection. The present study has evaluated the efficacy of rapid stool antigen test to diagnose H. pylori infection in patients with dyspepsia. Materials and methods: Adult patients with complains of dyspepsia attending the Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases (GHPD of BIRDEM hospital for endoscopy were included. Gastric biopsy, blood and stool samples were obtained from each participant after informed written consent. Rapid urease test (RUT, serum H. pylori immunoglobulin A (IgA and IgG and rapid H. pylori stool antigen (HpSAg tests were performed. Only stool samples were obtained from 31 neonates aged 1 to 30 days as negative control for HpSAg test. Results: A total of 91 adult patients with complain of dyspepsia were included in the study. Out of 91 cases, 17 (18.7% and 74 (81.3% had peptic ulcer and erosion respectively. HpSAg was positive in 63.7% cases compared to 42.9% and 62.6% respectively by RUT and IgA. The rate of HpSAg positivity was significantly higher (p<0.05 in ulcer compared to erosion cases. HpSAg test was positive in all (100% RUT positive cases. Combination of HpSAg test and IgA yielded highest positive result in both ulcer (82.4% and erosion (84% cases. H. pylori IgG was positive in all cases. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated that HpSAg test is an effective and non-invasive diagnostic tool to detect active H. pylori infection in suspected dyspeptic patients. IMC J Med Sci 2016; 10(2: 39-44

  13. Optimized Design and Testing of a Prototype Military Bridge System for Rapid In-Theater Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    MLC 30 were applied to the system with multiple load cases for each axle, truck, and track loading. The load cases were applied sequentially to...flexural failure due to concrete crushing along the center of slab span. The failure was identified with center span cracking and associated concrete...Layer Prefabricated FRP Grids for Rapid Bridge Deck Construction: Case Study. ASCE Journal of Composites for Construction, 10, 201-121. Berg, A. C

  14. [Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou (Bénin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Agbayahoun-Chokki, F; Sissinto Savi de Tove, Y; Biokou Bankole, B; Adinsi de Souza, V; Assogba, M; Kinde-Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of the ImmunoComb® Toxo IgG and ImmunoComb® Toxo IgMassays (rapid diagnostic test) in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou. We interviewed 266 pregnant women, who first answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti T. gondii antibodies with the ImmunoComb toxo assays and with the ARCHITECT CIMA method. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated to determine the performance of the rapid test. The seroprevalences of IgG against T. gondii by CIMA technique and rapid test were respectively 48.9% and 48.5%. The prevalence increased with age. Performances for IgG were: sensitivity 97%, specificity 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 97.10%. For IgM, Sensitivity: 33.3% Specificity: 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 99.2%. Seroprevalence obtained shows that about half of the study population is not immune against T. gondii and requires regular serological monitoring until delivery. According to these results, and given the needs of toxoplasmosis diagnosis on the field characterized by an important decrease of immunized women, this test may be recommended in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in peripheral levels of the health pyramid.

  15. HIV rapid testing in the framework of an STI prevention project on a cohort of vulnerable Italians and immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccella, Ilaria; Petrelli, Alessio; Vescio, Maria Fenicia; De Carolis, Silvia; Fazioli, Cecilia; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Rezza, Gianni

    2017-08-01

    Uptake of HIV tests is a challenging issue in vulnerable populations including immigrants, normally using standard diagnostic tools. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of HIV rapid test; estimate the percentage of newly HIV diagnoses and evaluate knowledge, attitudes and perception (KAP) about HIV/AIDS and other STIs in a specific set of immigrants and vulnerable population in Rome (Italy). All immigrant and Italian people, aged 16-70 years, attending the infectious disease outpatient clinic of the National Institute for Health, Migration and Poverty (INMP) in Rome (Italy), during the period December 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled. HIV rapid testing was provided for free and patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire evaluating KAP about HIV/STIs. All patients with risky sexual behaviours or with a recent diagnosis of STIs were invited to come back after 3-6 months and a post-counselling questionnaire was offered. Out of the total sample, 99.2% (n = 825) accepted the "rapid test" and 10 new HIV diagnoses were found (1.22%; 95% CI 0.58%-2.22%). Three hundred and eighty-five participants (47%) answered the entry questionnaire and 58 (15%) completed the follow-up. Overall, we found high knowledge about HIV/AIDS; however, lower educational level and immigrant status were associated with poor knowledge about HIV, other STIs and prevention methods. Immigrants have lower perception of sexual risk and higher prejudice than Italians. Our study showed high acceptance of rapid test in this specific vulnerable population and this allowed to identify new HIV diagnoses in unaware people. Socioeconomic inequalities observed in the KAP questionnaire suggest the need for actions to support the reduction of cultural differences in knowledge of HIV/AIDS and for policies aimed at improving access to health services and preventions programmes of marginalized populations.

  16. Serodiagnosis of dengue infection using rapid immuno chromatography test in patients with probable dengue infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidwai, A.A.; Jamal, Q.; Mehrunnisa, S.; Farooqi, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of seropositive dengue infection using rapid immuno chromatographic assay in patients with probable dengue infection as per WHO criteria. Method: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi from July 2008 to January 2009. Patients presenting with acute febrile illness, rashes, bleeding tendencies, leucopenia and or thrombocytopenia were evaluated according to WHO criteria for probable dengue infection. Acute phase sera were collected after 5 days of the onset of fever as per WHO criteria. Serology was performed using rapid immuno chromatographic (ICT) assay with differential detection of IgM and IgG. A primary dengue infection was defined by a positive IgM band and a negative IgG band whereas secondary infection was defined by a positive IgG band with or without positive IgM band. Result: Among 599 patients who met the WHO criteria for dengue infection, 251(41.9%) were found to be ICT reactive among whom 42 (16.73%) had primary infection. Secondary infection was reported in 209 (83.26%). Acute phase sera of 348 (58.09%) were ICT non reactive. Four patients died because of dengue shock syndrome among which three had secondary infection. Conclusion: Early identification of secondary infection in acute phase sera using rapid ICT is valuable in terms of disease progression and mortality. However in highly suspected cases of dengue infection clinical management should not rely on negative serological results. (author)

  17. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  18. Evaluation du test rapide oral aware™ omt HIV 1/2 pour le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chaque participant a fourni un échantillon de fluide oral pour la réalisation du test Aware™ OMT HIV-1/2 et du sang testé suivant l'algorithme séquentiel de tests ELISAs Murex® HIV-1.2.0 (Laboratoires Abbott, Japon) et Test ELISA peptidique maison du CeDReS. Résultats : la sensibilité, la spécificité, la Valeur Prédictive ...

  19. Rapid and point-of-care tests for the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Charlotte A; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Pai, Nitika Pant; Kelly, Helen; Coltart, Cordelia; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2017-12-01

    Trichomonasvaginalis (TV) is a highly prevalent parasitic infection worldwide. It is associated with many adverse reproductive health outcomes. Many infections are asymptomatic and syndromic management leads to underdetection of TV. Traditional methods of TV detection such as wet preparation are insensitive. New rapid, point-of-care (POC) tests can enhance the diagnosis of trichomoniasis. The authors reviewed the literature and discuss older POC tests for TV detection, as well as the OSOM lateral flow test, the AmpliVue test, the Solana test and the GeneXpert test as well as the limitations of wet preparation and culture for detection of TV. The OSOM test is easy to perform, compared with other POC tests, and is Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-waived, equipment-free, has sensitivities of 83%-86% compared with nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and can be performed in 15 min. The AmpliVue and the Solana tests are not CLIA waived and require small pieces of equipment. They are molecular amplified assays and can be completed in TV test for women and men is a moderately complex test, requires a small platform and can be performed in women and one is available for detection of TV in men. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Development of a prototype for dissolved CO2 rapid measurement and preliminary tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Guo, Jinjia; Zhang, Zhihao; Luo, Zhao; Qin, Chuan; Zheng, Ronger

    2017-10-01

    The measurements of dissolved CO2 in seawater is of great significance for the study of global carbon cycle. At present, the commercial sensors used for dissolved CO2 measurements are mostly equipped with permeable membranes for the purpose of gas-liquid separation, with the advantages of easy operation, low cost, etc.. However, most of these devices measure CO2 after reaching gas equilibrium, so it takes a few minutes to respond, which limited its applications in rapid measurements. In this paper, a set of prototype was developed for the rapid measurements of dissolved CO2. The system was built basing the direct absorption TDLAS. To detect the CO2 absorption line located at 4991.26 cm-1 , a fiber-coupled DFB laser operating at 2004 nm was selected as the light source. A Herriott type multi-pass cavity with an effective optical path length of 10 m and an inner volume of 90 mL was used for absorption measurements. A detection limit of 26 μatm can be obtained with this compact cavity. To realize the rapid measurements of dissolved CO2, a degasser with high degassing rate was necessary. A hollow fiber membrane with a large permeable area used in this paper can achieve degassing rate up to 2.88 kPa/min. Benefitted from the high degassing rate of the degasser and high sensitivity of the compact TDLAS system, a rapid measurement of dissolved CO2 in water can be achieved within 1s time, and the response time of the prototype when the dissolved CO2 concentration changed abruptly in actual measurement was 15 s. To evaluate the performance of the prototype, comparison measurements were carried out with a commercial mass spectrometer. The dissolved CO2 in both seawater and tap-water was measured, and the experimental results showed good consistent trends with R2 of 0.973 and 0.931. The experimental results proved the feasibility of dissolved CO2 rapid measurement. In the near future, more system evaluation experiments will be carried out and the system will be further

  1. Indicadores bioquímicos y pruebas isométricas en fibromialgia Biochemical markers and isometric tests in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel López Espino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome fibromiálgico (SFM es una entidad clínica bien definida de tipo sistémico cuyos síntomas y signos exploratorios son crónicos y fluctuantes, observándose la interacción de diferentes factores de riesgo y los mecanismos periféricos y centrales, así como varios factores psicosociales asociados. No se conocen completamente los mecanismos etiopatogénicos implicados del síndrome fibromiálgico. El diagnóstico es clínico y tras la exclusión de otras patologías somáticas habitualmente se tarda demasiado tiempo para diagnosticar y tratar a las personas afectadas. Los estudios realizados se han orientado a analizar la existencia de lesiones musculares, alteraciones en el sistema inmunológico, anomalías psicológicas, problemas hormonales, trastornos del sueño, niveles bajos de algunas sustancias importantes en el sistema nervioso, pero en la actualidad no existe un test específico para poder realizar su diagnóstico preciso. En este trabajo adaptamos dos instrumentos de evaluación diagnóstica que son los indicadores bioquímicos y la isometría muscular, biomarcadores objetivos de diagnóstico que confirmen el SFM. Como enfermedad psicosomático y no como trastorno somatoforme. Nuestro estudio se planteó como un análisis prospectivo de un colectivo de 26 pacientes del género femenino con fibromialgia y una muestra poblacional de referencia que aceptaron ser sometidos a una serie de pruebas isométricas y a la obtención de muestras biológicas para medir un perfil bioquímico de estrés.Fibromyalgia is a well defined clinic entity which systemic symptoms and signs are chronic and fluctuating, in which we can see the interaction of different s etiopathogenic mechanisms, and associated psychosocial factors as well. There are not completely known the implicated etiopatogenic mechanisms. The diagnostic process is clinic and it usually takes too much time to diagnose and to treat people affected. In spite of numerous

  2. Evaluation of the OptiMAL Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Malaria | Ujah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The OptiMAL test was modified by using fingerprick instead of venepuncture and this simplifies the test both in terms of cost and trained personnel. There was no significant difference between the two methods (x2 = 1.513;P>0.05), but the OptiMAL test has the advantages of being faster, requires almost no specialized ...

  3. Changes in blood glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests and blood biochemical values in adult female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    The metabolic mechanisms to circannual changes in body mass of bears have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) has a metabolic mechanism that efficiently converts carbohydrates into body fat by altering insulin sensitivity during the hyperphagic stage before hibernation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in blood biochemical values and glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) during the active season (August, early and late November). Four, adult, female bears (5-17 years old) were anesthetized with 6 mg/kg TZ (tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl) in combination with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine maleate. The bears were injected intravenously with glucose (0.5 g/kg of body mass), and blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection. The basal triglycerides concentration decreased significantly with increase in body mass from August to November. Basal levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were not significantly different among groups. The results of IVGTT demonstrated the increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in early November. In contrast, peripheral insulin resistance was indicated by the exaggerated insulin response in late November. Our findings suggest that bears shift their glucose and lipid metabolism from the stage of normal activity to the hyperphagic stage in which they show lipogenic-predominant metabolism and accelerate glucose uptake by increasing the peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  4. Syphilis serology testing: a comparative study of Abbot Determine, Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) card test and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angue, Yakep; Yauieb, Appolonia; Mola, Glen; Duke, Trevor; Amoa, A B

    2005-01-01

    Blood from 2100 women attending the antenatal clinic of the Port Moresby General Hospital (PMGH) and the 9 Mile urban clinic of Port Moresby was tested for syphili using the laboratory-based Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) syphilis serology test and two clinic-based syphilis tests, Abbot Determine and Abbot Syfacard-RR (Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) card test). The Abbot Determine and the Syfacard-R tests were compared with the VDRL test, the gold standard in this study. The validation test results of Determine versus VDRL were as follows: sensitivity 92.0%; specificity 94.6%; the predictive value of a positive test 42.6%; and the predictive value of a negative test 99.6%. The validation tests for RPR versus VDRL were as follows: sensitivity 56.3% specificity 96.5%; predictive value of a positive test 41.2%; and the predictive value of a negative test 98.1%. The RPR test costs 3.5 kina (about one US dollar) a test, the VDRL less than 1 kina a test whilst the Determine test kit costs about 5 kina a test. When laboratory time, salaries and other supplies are costed the Determine test is expected to cost relatively much less. Our recommendation is that the Determine test be made available in areas of the country where VDRL is unavailable or where logistics do not allow for test results to be available early enough to make a difference to the care of th pregnant woman and her fetus.

  5. Value of rapid antigen test for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Murat; Gençpinar, Pinar; Ozbek, Ozgen Alpay; Ozdemir, Durgül; Sayiner, A Arzu

    2013-05-01

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza is the predominant influenza virus circulating in Turkey in 2009. Because of the clinical manifestations of influenza overlap with those attributable to other common respiratory illnesses of childhood, establishing a diagnosis of influenza requires confirmatory testing. The aim of our study was to define the predictive value of rapid influenza antigen detection test in children presenting to a pediatric emergency care department with influenza-like illness and to compare with clinical signs and symptoms. From October to November 2009, 3646 patients presented with influenza-like illness to the pediatric emergency department. Influenza-like illness is defined as fever with cough or sore throat in the absence of a known cause other than influenza. Enrollment criteria included fever and at least one of the following symptoms: coryza, cough, headache, sore throat, or myalgia. All 322 enrolled patients received a nasal wash for rapid influenza diagnostic tests, and the results were compared with clinical signs. Rapid influenza detection test result was found positive in 167 (51.9%) of 322 patients. Clinical findings included fever as the presenting complaint (100%), fever (≥38 °C) (93.4%), cough (91.3%), rhinorrhea (66.1%), sore throat (35.1%), vomiting-diarrhea (22.4%), myalgia (20.2%), headache (18%) and shortness of breath (12.1%). There were 211 patients (65.5%) at high risk for the development of complications of pandemic H1N1 influenza A such as chronic lung disease (asthma) (n = 103, 48.8%), age younger than 2 years (n = 78, 37%), and neurologic disease (n = 10, 4.7%). The positivity rate and sensitivity of the test increase up to 70% in patients, who had the high body temperature (≥39 °C). The rapid test achieved the highest sensitivity in patients, who have high fever (≥39 °C), myalgia, vomiting, and diarrhea. We found that if the patients have high fever (≥39 °C), myalgia, and vomiting-diarrhea together, the likelihood of

  6. A pilot study evaluating changes to haematological and biochemical tests after Flexible Ureterorenoscopy for the treatment of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Alyson Jayne; Lamb, Rebecca May; Ella-Tongwiis, Peter; Pushkaran, Anish; Ahmed, Issam; Shergill, Iqbal; Hughes, Stephen Fôn

    2017-01-01

    Currently there is limited research documenting the changes in blood parameters, following Flexible Ureterorenoscopy. This study aims to determine whether there are any changes in haematology and biochemistry parameters, following Flexible Ureterorenoscopy for the treatment of kidney stones. 40 consecutive patients aged between 27-87 years (median 49 years) undergoing Flexible Ureterorenoscopy for the treatment of kidney stones were recruited (26 male, 14 female). Blood samples were collected from each patient at four time points: baseline (pre-operatively) followed by 30 minutes, 120 minutes and 240 minutes post-operatively. On these samples, routine haematological and biochemistry tests were carried out. In addition to the assessment of clinical parameters prospectively from the medical notes. There was a significant decrease observed following Flexible Ureterorenoscopy in the following parameters: lymphocytes (p = 0.007), eosinophils (p = 0.001), basophils (p = 0.001), haemoglobin (p = 0.002), red blood cells (p = 0.001), platelet count (p = 0.001), fibrinogen concentration (p = 0.001), von Willebrand factor (p = 0.046), C reactive protein (p = 0.01), total protein (p = 0.001), albumin (p = 0.001), globulin (p = 0.001) and alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.001). In addition, there was a significant increase observed in the following parameters: white blood cells (p = 0.001), neutrophils (p = 0.001), activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.001), total bilirubin (p = 0.012), creatinine (p = 0.008), sodium (p = 0.002) and potassium (p = 0.001). Limiting factors for this study were the sample size, and restriction on the recruitment time points. Significant changes were noted to occur in haematology and biochemistry parameters following Flexible Ureterorenoscopy. Some of the data presented in this study may represent the 'normal' post-operative response following FURS, as no major complications occurred, in the majority of our patients. This data on the 'normal

  7. Evaluation of a rapid test for the diagnosis of cholera in the absence of a gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Anne-Laure; Alberti, Kathryn P; Mondonge, Vital; Rauzier, Jean; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Guerin, Philippe J

    2012-01-01

    Early detection and confirmation of cholera outbreaks are crucial for rapid implementation of control measures. Because cholera frequently affects regions with limited laboratory resources, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) designed for field conditions are important to enhance rapid response. Stool culture remains the "gold standard" for cholera diagnosis; however, its lack of sensitivity may lead to underestimation of test specificity. We evaluated the Crystal VC® immunochromatographic test (Span Diagnostics, India) for cholera diagnosis using a modified reference standard that combines culture-dependent and independent assays, or a Bayesian latent class model (LCM) analysis. The study was conducted during a cholera epidemic in 2008, in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Stools collected from 296 patients were used to perform the RDT on site and sent to Institut Pasteur, Paris, for bacterial culture. In comparison with culture as the gold standard, the RDT showed good sensitivity (92.2%; 95% CI: 86.8%-95.9%) but poor specificity when used by a trained laboratory technician (70.6%; 95% CI: 60.7%-79.2%) or by clinicians with no specific test training (60.4%, 95% CI: 50.2%-70.0%). The specificity of the test performed by the laboratory technician increased to 88.6% (95% CI: 78.7-94.9) when PCR was combined with culture results as the reference standard, and to 85.0% (95% CI: 70.4-99.2), when the Bayesian LCM analysis was used for performance evaluation. In both cases, the sensitivity remained high. Using an improved reference standard or appropriate statistical methods for diagnostic test evaluations in the absence of a gold standard, we report better performance of the Crystal VC® RDT than previously published. Our results confirm that this test can be used for early outbreak detection or epidemiological surveillance, key components of efficient global cholera control. Our analysis also highlights the importance of improving evaluations of RDT when no reliable

  8. "All-In-One Test"(AI1): A rapid and easily applicable approach to consumer product testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Frøst, Michael Bom; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2013-01-01

    by the Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) technique is reported. In this exploratory "All-In-One Test"(AI1), subjects (N = 160) filled out a questionnaire with demographic and psychographic variables, and appropriateness ratings for specific sensory descriptors of beer. Subsequently, subjects gave hedonic ratings...... between appropriateness and actual hedonic response. Overall, the AI1 test provided interpretable results concerning consumer perception (sensory/hedonic) of the beers, and revealed relations with consumers' background information. Initial results with AI1 test show that it is an efficient and versatile...

  9. Opinion of General Practitioners in the Ile de France area on the use of Rapid HIV Tests in consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Becam, Fatoumata

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, approximately 150,000 people were living with HIV in France, 20 % were unaware of their HIV status and were therefore potentially at risk of transmitting the virus. Given these findings, recommendations were made to improve HIV screening policy which included strengthening the role of general practitioners with, among other measures, the possible use of rapid HIV tests during consultation. In 2014, the aim of our study was to know the views of general practitioners in Ile de France o...

  10. Direct nitrate reductase assay versus microscopic observation drug susceptibility test for rapid detection of MDR-TB in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie Bwanga

    Full Text Available The most common method for detection of drug resistant (DR TB in resource-limited settings (RLSs is indirect susceptibility testing on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJ which is very time consuming with results available only after 2-3 months. Effective therapy of DR TB is therefore markedly delayed and patients can transmit resistant strains. Rapid and accurate tests suitable for RLSs in the diagnosis of DR TB are thus highly needed. In this study we compared two direct techniques--Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA and Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS for rapid detection of MDR-TB in a high burden RLS. The sensitivity, specificity, and proportion of interpretable results were studied. Smear positive sputum was collected from 245 consecutive re-treatment TB patients attending a TB clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Samples were processed at the national reference laboratory and tested for susceptibility to rifampicin and isoniazid with direct NRA, direct MODS and the indirect LJ proportion method as reference. A total of 229 specimens were confirmed as M. tuberculosis, of these interpretable results were obtained in 217 (95% with either the NRA or MODS. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa agreement for MDR-TB diagnosis was 97%, 98% and 0.93 with the NRA; and 87%, 95% and 0.78 with the MODS, respectively. The median time to results was 10, 7 and 64 days with NRA, MODS and the reference technique, respectively. The cost of laboratory supplies per sample was low, around 5 USD, for the rapid tests. The direct NRA and MODS offered rapid detection of resistance almost eight weeks earlier than with the reference method. In the study settings, the direct NRA was highly sensitive and specific. We consider it to have a strong potential for timely detection of MDR-TB in RLS.

  11. A Rapid Method to Test for Chloroplast DNA Involvement in Atrazine Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Sheila; Bettini, Priscilla; Sevignac, Mireille; Darmency, Henry; Gasquez, Jacques; Dron, Michel

    1987-01-01

    A point mutation in the chloroplast psbA gene at codon 264 resulting in an animo acid substitution (ser-gly) manifests itself as atrazine resistance in all recognized weed species studied to date. The single base substitution overlaps a highly conserved Mae1 restriction site which is present in susceptible but not in resistant plants. This restriction enzyme, recently commercialized, has been used to show that it is now possible to discriminate rapidly between the two biotypes without the need for DNA sequencing. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16665229

  12. Rapid diagnostic test and use of antibiotic against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in adult intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dureau, A-F; Duclos, G; Antonini, F; Boumaza, D; Cassir, N; Alingrin, J; Vigne, C; Hammad, E; Zieleskiewicz, L; Leone, M

    2017-02-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with excess mortality and costs. Molecular biology test allows rapid identification of MRSA in sputum with high negative predictive value. We hypothesized that use of a rapid diagnostic test in patients with suspected VAP was associated with reduced use of antibiotics directed against MRSA. This retrospective, observational study was conducted in a polyvalent intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital. We compared two periods: before (2007-2010) and after (2010-2015) the implementation of a rapid diagnostic test, which uses RT-PCR to detect pathogens in 60 minutes. The primary endpoint was the effect on the empirical use of anti-MRSA antibiotics. The second endpoint was the effect of this strategy on the cost regarding antibiotic treatment. The first group included 120 suspected VAP (88 patients) and the second group 121 suspected VAP (89 patients). Empirical use of vancomycin and linezolid decreased by 50 % between the two periods. Twenty-seven VAP (22 %) were treated with an anti-MRSA treatment between 2007 and 2010, and 13 (11 %) between 2010 and 2015 (p = 0.04). The mean cost of anti-MRSA treatment by patients in the first group was 63 ± 223 €, and 13 ± 52 € in the second group (p MRSA antibiotics in patients with suspected VAP. These results should be confirmed by further multicenter prospective studies.

  13. Structural identification of short/middle span bridges by rapid impact testing: theory and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Q. Q.; Guo, S. L.; Xu, D. W.; Wu, Z. S.

    2015-06-01

    A structural strain flexibility identification method by processing the multiple-reference impact testing data is proposed. First, a kind of novel long-gauge fiber optic sensor is developed for structural macro-strain monitoring. Second, the multiple-reference impact testing technology is employed, during which both the impacting force and structural strain responses are measured. The impact testing technology has unique merit because it is able to extract exact structural frequency response functions (FRFs), while other test methods, for instance ambient tests, can only output the FRFs with scaled magnitudes. Most importantly, the originality of the article is that a method of identifying the structural strain flexibility characteristic from the impact test data has been proposed, which is useful for structural static strain prediction and capacity evaluation. Examples of a six meter simple supported beam and a multiple-span continuous beam bridge have successfully verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Predictors of rapid HIV testing acceptance and successful nevirapine administration in Zambian labor wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megazzini, Karen M; Chintu, Namwinga; Vermund, Sten H; Redden, David T; Krebs, Daniel W; Simwenda, Maureen; Tambatamba, Bushimbwa; Sinkala, Moses; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

    2009-10-01

    Provision of HIV testing in labor provides an opportunity to reach susceptible women and infants. As part of a cluster randomized trial of labor ward-based prevention of mother-to-child transmission services in Lusaka, Zambia, we determined predictors of testing acceptance and nevirapine (NVP) administration in labor. HIV counseling and testing were offered to women unaware of their HIV status. NVP was administered to women who tested positive, and an inert (calcium) tablet was provided to women who tested negative, to avoid stigmatization. Among the 2435 women who presented in labor, 393 (16%) were unaware of their HIV status, of whom 278 (71%) met eligibility criteria. We offered counseling to 217 (78%) of eligible women: 146 (67%) agreed, 82 (56%) of those counseled were tested for HIV, and 23 (28%) were seropositive. Testing rates were higher among primigravida women [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1 to 2.1] and among those not offered HIV testing during their pregnancy (AOR 3.7; 95% CI: 2.8 to 5.1). Cervical dilation 1 hour (AOR 11.5; 95% CI: 4.5 to 29.2) and >2 hours (AOR 11.4; 95% CI: 4.7 to 27.5) before delivery. Labor ward HIV testing is feasible in this resource-limited setting.

  15. Comparison of two rapid tests for anti-phenolic glycolipid-I serology in Brazil and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Martins de Araújo Stefani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of leprosy continues to be based on clinical symptoms and early diagnosis and treatment are critical to preventing disability and transmission. Sensitive and specific laboratory tests are not available for diagnosing leprosy. Despite the limited applicability of anti-phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I serology for diagnosis, it has been suggested as an additional tool to classify leprosy patients (LPs for treatment purposes. Two formats of rapid tests to detect anti-PGL-I antibodies [ML immunochromatography assay (ICA and ML Flow] were compared in different groups, multibacillary patients, paucibacillary patients, household contacts and healthy controls in Brazil and Nepal. High ML Flow intra-test concordance was observed and low to moderate agreement between the results of ML ICA and ML Flow tests on the serum of LPs was observed. LPs were "seroclassified" according to the results of these tests and the seroclassification was compared to other currently used classification systems: the World Health Organization operational classification, the bacilloscopic index and the Ridley-Jopling classification. When analysing the usefulness of these tests in the operational classification of PB and MB leprosy for treatment and follow-up purposes, the ML Flow test was the best point-of-care test for subjects in Nepal and despite the need for sample dilution, the ML ICA test yielded better performance among Brazilian subjects. Our results identified possible ways to improve the performance of both tests.

  16. HIV Rapid Testing in Substance Abuse Treatment: Implementation Following a Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, L. F.; Korte, J. E.; Holmes, B. E.; Gooden, L.; Matheson, T.; Feaster, D. J.; Leff, J. A.; Wilson, L.; Metsch, L. R.; Schackman, B. R.

    2011-01-01

    The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration has promoted HIV testing and counseling as an evidence-based practice. Nevertheless, adoption of HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs has been slow. This article describes the experience of a substance abuse treatment agency where, following participation in a clinical trial,…

  17. Development of a Rapid Immunodiagnostic Test for Pork Components in Raw Beef and Chicken Meats: a Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Depamede

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid immunodiagnostic test that provides visual evidence of the presence of pork components in raw beef and chicken meats was developed. Colloidal gold was prepared and conjugated with anti-Swine IgG polyclonal antibody. Immunochromatographic test strips were produced, and then were used to test laboratory adulterated raw meat samples. The samples consisted adulteration meat, immunodiagnostic, pork, rapid test of pork-in-beef, or pork-in-chicken at 1/0; 1/100; 1/1,000; 1/5,000; 1/10,000 (w/w adulteration levels that were extracted in phosphate-buffered saline. Raw beef and chicken meats without pork were included as controls. Analysis was completed in 10 min. Detection limit was 1/5,000 (w/w, although 1/10,000 was also observed. This immunodiagnostic tests can be conveniently applied to detect low levels of pork components in raw beef and chicken meat products. For the commercial purposes, further studies need to be carried out.

  18. Elevation of urinary adipsin in preeclampsia: correlation with urine protein concentration and the potential use for a rapid diagnostic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Rong; Gao, Linbo; Wang, Yanyun; Song, Changping; Gong, Yunhui; Jia, Jin; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Li; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Huaizhong

    2014-10-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of preeclampsia are essential for prevention of seizure development and fetus maturation. Although various methods have been developed for predicting or monitoring the onset of preeclampsia, a simple assay that can be used as a home or point of care test remains unavailable. We attempted to find a urinary protein that could be used as a biomarker for developing such a test. Urinary samples were collected from 124 preeclampsia and 135 healthy pregnant women for screening using a protein array technology and quantification by ELISA. A urinary protein, adipsin, was found significantly increased, and the adipsin creatinine ratio was closely correlated with the urinary 24-hour protein in patients with preeclampsia. When combined with the increased diastolic blood pressure (≥90 mm Hg), the sensitivity was 90.3% and the specificity reached 100.0% for preeclampsia diagnosis. We then developed a laminar flow immunoassay for rapid diagnosis, and the sensitivity and specificity were 89.04% and 100%, respectively, when combined with increased diastolic blood pressure. Because of the easiness of sample collection, assay conduction, and result interpretation, this urine test can be potentially used as a home test for monitoring preeclampsia onset for high-risk pregnant women and as a rapid test for a preliminary diagnosis for emergency patients at hospitals. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Clinical chorioamnionitis at term VIII: a rapid MMP-8 test for the identification of intra-amniotic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyasit, Noppadol; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Docheva, Nikolina; Bhatti, Gaurav; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Dong, Zhong; Yeo, Lami; Pacora, Percy; Hassan, Sonia S; Erez, Offer

    2017-07-26

    Clinical chorioamnionitis is the most common infection/inflammatory process diagnosed in labor and delivery units worldwide. The condition is a syndrome that can be caused by (1) intra-amniotic infection, (2) intra-amniotic inflammation without demonstrable microorganisms (i.e. sterile intra-amniotic inflammation), and (3) maternal systemic inflammation that is not associated with intra-amniotic inflammation. The presence of intra-amniotic inflammation is a risk factor for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in a broad range of obstetrical syndromes that includes clinical chorioamnionitis at term. Although the diagnosis of intra-amniotic infection has relied on culture results, such information is not immediately available for patient management. Therefore, the diagnosis of intra-amniotic inflammation could be helpful as a proxy for intra-amniotic infection, while results of microbiologic studies are pending. A rapid test is now available for the diagnosis of intra-amniotic inflammation, based on the determination of neutrophil collagenase or matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8). The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the diagnostic indices of a rapid MMP-8 test for the identification of intra-amniotic inflammation/infection in patients with the diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis at term, and (2) to compare the diagnostic performance of a rapid MMP-8 test to that of a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) interleukin (IL)-6 test for patients with clinical chorioamnionitis at term. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. A transabdominal amniocentesis was performed in patients with clinical chorioamnionitis at term (n=44). Amniotic fluid was analyzed using cultivation techniques (for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as genital Mycoplasmas) and broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). Amniotic fluid IL-6 concentrations were determined by ELISA, and rapid

  20. Rapid HIV testing and obstetrical characteristics of women with unknown HIV serostatus at time of labor and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dola, Chi; Tran, Thuc; Duong, Can; Federico, Chris; DeNicola, Nathaniel; Maupin, Robert

    2010-12-01

    To describe the obstetrical characteristics of women without prenatal care and/or undocumented human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus who presented for delivery and to assess the usefulness of rapid HIV screening in these women. The study design was a retrospective analysis. Demographics, labor, delivery characteristics, and pregnancy outcomes of women without prenatal care and/or unknown HIV serostatus were reviewed. Three hundred fifty parturients met the inclusion criteria: 15.2% presented at complete cervical dilation, 48.6% with cervical dilation of at least 5 cm, and 43.1% with ruptured membranes. Twenty-two percent of parturients delivered within 1 hour of admission, 47.6% delivered within 4 hours of admission, and 5.5% delivered prior to arrival to the hospital. With the lengthy admission process and procurement of zidovudine from the pharmacy requiring at least 1 hour at best, 27.5% would not have the benefit of intrapartum zidovudine treatment. Single Use Diagnostic System HIV-1 rapid test was reactive and confirmed in 7 women (2.5%). Rapid HIV screening is a useful tool for guiding immediate obstetrical management and coordinated care for the neonate. In some circumstances, the full benefit of rapid HIV detection will not be realized due to advanced labor, ruptured members, or delivery prior to arrival.

  1. Simultaneous Quantitative Detection of Helicobacter Pylori Based on a Rapid and Sensitive Testing Platform using Quantum Dots-Labeled Immunochromatiographic Test Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Jingjing; Qin, Weijian; Yan, Xinyu; Shen, Guangxia; Gao, Guo; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-02-01

    Quantum dots-labeled urea-enzyme antibody-based rapid immunochromatographic test strips have been developed as quantitative fluorescence point-of-care tests (POCTs) to detect helicobacter pylori. Presented in this study is a new test strip reader designed to run on tablet personal computers (PCs), which is portable for outdoor detection even without an alternating current (AC) power supply. A Wi-Fi module was integrated into the reader to improve its portability. Patient information was loaded by a barcode scanner, and an application designed to run on tablet PCs was developed to handle the acquired images. A vision algorithm called Kmeans was used for picture processing. Different concentrations of various human blood samples were tested to evaluate the stability and accuracy of the fabricated device. Results demonstrate that the reader can provide an easy, rapid, simultaneous, quantitative detection for helicobacter pylori. The proposed test strip reader has a lighter weight than existing detection readers, and it can run for long durations without an AC power supply, thus verifying that it possesses advantages for outdoor detection. Given its fast detection speed and high accuracy, the proposed reader combined with quantum dots-labeled test strips is suitable for POCTs and owns great potential in applications such as screening patients with infection of helicobacter pylori, etc. in near future.

  2. Are participants in a street-based HIV testing program able to perform their own rapid test and interpret the results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis de la Fuente

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Availability of over-the-counter rapid HIV tests could improve access to testing those reluctant or unable to use current services. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of HIV self-testing using a finger-stick whole-blood rapid test (Determine™ HIV Combo to detect both antigen and antibody. METHODS: Before being tested, 313 participants in a street-based testing program were given adapted instructions and a test kit, and performed the self-test without supervision. These participants, together with another 207 who performed supervised self-testing, received additional instructions on how to interpret the test results shown in six colour photos and filled out a questionnaire. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: About 8.0% (95%CI:4.8%-11.2% obtained an invalid self-test. An invalid result was inversely associated with male participants who had sex with men (OR=0.3;95%CI:0.1-1.0. Of the 3111 photos interpreted,4.9% (95%CI:4.1-5.7 were incorrect. Only 1.1% (95%CI:0.3-1.8 of the positive results were interpreted as negative. Age 30 or older (OR=2.1; 95%CI:1.2-3.7, having been born in Latin America (OR=1.6; 95%CI:1.1-2.2,and not having university education (OR=2.1;95%CI:1.2-3.7 were associated with misinterpreting test results in the GEE. Participant's perceptions of both their proficiency when conducting the test and interpretation were related with actual outcomes. Most participants (83.9% were more motivated than before to use the self-test in the future, and 51.7% would pay >10 Euros for the test if it was sold in pharmacies. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study showing that blood-based self-testing with current technology is feasible in HIV-negative participants demanding the test and without prior training or supervision. Bearing in mind that it was conducted under difficult weather conditions and using a complex kit, over-the-counter tests could be a feasible

  3. Are Participants in a Street-Based HIV Testing Program Able to Perform Their Own Rapid Test and Interpret the Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Luis; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Hoyos, Juan; Pulido, José; Santos, Sara; Bravo, María José; Barrio, Gregorio; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; Belza, María José

    2012-01-01

    Objective Availability of over-the-counter rapid HIV tests could improve access to testing those reluctant or unable to use current services. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of HIV self-testing using a finger-stick whole-blood rapid test (Determine™ HIV Combo) to detect both antigen and antibody. Methods Before being tested, 313 participants in a street-based testing program were given adapted instructions and a test kit, and performed the self-test without supervision. These participants, together with another 207 who performed supervised self-testing, received additional instructions on how to interpret the test results shown in six colour photos and filled out a questionnaire. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used in the statistical analysis. Results About 8.0% (95%CI:4.8%–11.2%) obtained an invalid self-test. An invalid result was inversely associated with male participants who had sex with men (OR = 0.3;95%CI:0.1–1.0). Of the 3111 photos interpreted,4.9% (95%CI:4.1–5.7) were incorrect. Only 1.1% (95%CI:0.3–1.8) of the positive results were interpreted as negative. Age 30 or older (OR = 2.1; 95%CI:1.2–3.7), having been born in Latin America (OR = 1.6; 95%CI:1.1–2.2),and not having university education (OR = 2.1;95%CI:1.2–3.7) were associated with misinterpreting test results in the GEE. Participant's perceptions of both their proficiency when conducting the test and interpretation were related with actual outcomes. Most participants (83.9%) were more motivated than before to use the self-test in the future, and 51.7% would pay >10 Euros for the test if it was sold in pharmacies. Conclusions This is the first study showing that blood-based self-testing with current technology is feasible in HIV-negative participants demanding the test and without prior training or supervision. Bearing in mind that it was conducted under difficult weather conditions and using a complex kit, over

  4. Diagnostic accuracy and acceptability of rapid HIV oral testing among adults attending an urban public health facility in Kampala, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanita Nangendo

    Full Text Available The prevalence of HIV in Uganda is 7.3%, and yet nearly 40% of people living with HIV are unaware of their status. The current HIV testing policy which is strictly blood-based poses several challenges including: a need for high level laboratory skills, stringent waste disposal needs, and painful sample collection. It is envisaged that introduction of a rapid, painless HIV oral fluid test as a potential alternative is likely to increase the number of people testing. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy and acceptability of rapid HIV oral testing among adults attending Kisenyi Health Centre IV in Kampala.We conducted a cross-sectional study among 440 adults recruited consecutively at Kisenyi Health Centre IV from January to March 2016. The diagnostic accuracy of the HIV oral test was assessed by comparing to the national HIV serial testing algorithm. We also assessed for acceptability among patients and health care workers (HCWs by triangulating responses from a structured questionnaire, three focus group discussions and seven key informant interviews. Acceptability was defined as willingness to take the test at the time of the study and intention for future use of the test if it was availed. The prevalence of HIV infection among study participants was 14.8%. The HIV oral fluid test was highly accurate with sensitivity of 100% (95% CI; 94.5-100.0, specificity of 100% (95% CI; 99.0-100.0, positive predictive value (PPV of 100% (95% CI; 94.5-100.0 and negative predictive value (NPV of 100% (95% CI; 99.0-100.0. Acceptability of HIV oral testing was also high at 87.0% (95% CI; 83.6-89.9. Participants preferred HIV oral testing because it was: pain free (91%, n = 399 and did not require blood draw (82%, n = 360.The HIV oral fluid test has high diagnostic accuracy and acceptability. HIV oral testing is a suitable addition to the national HIV testing strategies with the potential of increasing access to HIV testing services in

  5. Multicenter evaluation of plasma N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP) as a biochemical screening test for asymptomatic (occult) cardiomyopathy in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P R; Rush, J E; Reynolds, C A; Defrancesco, T C; Keene, B W; Atkins, C E; Gordon, S G; Schober, K E; Bonagura, J D; Stepien, R L; Kellihan, H B; Macdonald, K A; Lehmkuhl, L B; Nguyenba, T P; Sydney Moise, N; Lefbom, B K; Hogan, D F; Oyama, M A

    2011-01-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations reliably distinguish between cardiac and respiratory causes of dyspnea, but its utility to detect asymptomatic cats with occult cardiomyopathy (OCM) is unresolved. Determine whether plasma N terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration can discriminate asymptomatic cats with OCM from normal cats, and whether NT-proBNP concentration correlates with clinical, biochemical, and echocardiographic parameters. One hundred and fourteen normal, healthy cats; 113 OCM cats. Prospective, multicenter, case-controlled study. NT-proBNP was prospectively measured and cardiac status was determined from history, physical examination, and M-mode/2D/Doppler echocardiography. Optimal cut-off values were derived using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. NT-proBNP was higher (median, interquartile range [25th and 75th percentiles]) in (1) OCM (186 pmol/L; 79, 478 pmol/L) versus normal (24 pmol/L; 24, 32 pmol/L) (P LVs (ρ = 0.33; P 46 pmol/L cut-off distinguished normal from OCM (91.2% specificity, 85.8% sensitivity); >99 pmol/L cut-off was 100% specific, 70.8% sensitive. Plasma NT-proBNP concentration reliably discriminated normal from OCM cats, and was associated with several echocardiographic markers of disease severity. Further studies are needed to assess test performance in unselected, general feline populations, and evaluate relationships between NT-proBNP concentrations and disease progression. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Malaria diagnosis and treatment practices following introduction of rapid diagnostic tests in Kibaha District, Coast Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubi, Marycelina; Kakoko, Deodatus; Ngasala, Billy; Premji, Zul; Peterson, Stefan; Björkman, Anders; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2013-08-26

    The success of the universal parasite-based malaria testing policy for fever patients attending primary health care (PHC) facilities in Tanzania will depend highly on health workers' perceptions and practices. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the present use of malaria diagnostics (rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and microscopy), prescription behaviour and factors affecting adherence to test results at PHC facilities in Kibaha District, Coast Region, Tanzania. Exit interviews were conducted with fever patients at PHC facilities and information on diagnostic test performed and treatment prescribed were recorded. Interviews with prescribers to assess their understanding, perceptions and practices related to RDTs were conducted, and health facility inventory performed to assess availability of staff, diagnostics and anti-malarial drugs. The survey was undertaken at ten governmental PHC facilities, eight of which had functional diagnostics. Twenty health workers were interviewed and 195 exit interviews were conducted with patients at the PHC facilities. Of the 168 patients seen at facilities with available diagnostics, 105 (63%) were tested for malaria, 31 (30%) of whom tested positive. Anti-malarial drugs were prescribed to all patients with positive test results, 14% of patients with negative results and 28% of patients not tested for malaria. Antibiotics were more likely to be prescribed to patients with negative test results compared to patients with positive results (81 vs 39%, p malaria (84 vs 69%, p = 0.01). Stock-outs of RDTs and staff shortage accounted for the low testing rate, and health worker perceptions were the main reason for non-adherence to test results. Anti-malarial prescription to patients with negative test results and those not tested is still practiced in Tanzania despite the universal malaria testing policy of fever patients. The use of malaria diagnostics was also associated with higher prescription of antibiotics among

  7. The interpretation of forensic biochemical expert test made in human body fluids: scientific - legal analysis in the research on sexual offenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves Carballo, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The contributions of science and technology have covered the whole of human life, and relationships of coexistence are even found in the various disciplines of knowledge through legal forensics. Therefore, it is increasingly imperative that the law enforcement agents are interdisciplinary professionals, with knowledge beyond the legal knowledge to enable them make the most of the scientific knowledge in judicial proceedings. Among the natural sciences applied to right, forensic biochemistry has contributed an extremely relevant test for the investigation of various sexual offenses, much has been so, that the Organismo de Investigacion Judicial of Costa Rica has in its Departamento de Laboratorios de Ciencias Forenses with specialized sections in this discipline. A diversity of skills are performed of presumptive and confirmatory character for the presence of biological fluids, sexually transmitted diseases and identification of DNA by genetic markers. Updated information is given with respect to the correct interpretation of forensic biochemical expertises achievable for identification of semen, blood and human saliva in the investigation of sexual offenses. A scientific and legal language is used allowing the most of this information in the criminal process. The main objective has been to interpret, legal and scientifically, forensic biochemical expert evidence performed in human body fluids during the investigation of sexual offenses. A legal, doctrinal and scientific review is presented with compilation of related jurisprudence and criminology reports analysis of Seccion de Bioquimica of the Departamento de Laboratorios Forenses of the Organismo de Investigacion Juridica issued during the investigation of sexual offenses. Two types of attainable skills have existed for the identification of biological fluids, each with a different binding. In addition, it has been clear, due to the lexicon employed when making a forensic biochemist opinion, that to make a proper

  8. Follow-On Vapor Containment Tests of the Rapid Response System Glovebox

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arca, Victor

    1997-01-01

    ...) glovebox in April 1996. The tests were conducted by generating a cloud of the simulant methyl salicylate inside the glovebox and measuring the concentration of any simulant that permeated to the operator workspace...

  9. Performance of BVBlue Rapid Test in Detecting Bacterial Vaginosis among Women in Mysore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnima Madhivanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in reproductive age women. It is associated with increased susceptibility to HIV/STI and adverse birth outcomes. Diagnosis of BV in resource-poor settings like India is challenging. With little laboratory infrastructure there is a need for objective point-of-care diagnostic tests. Vaginal swabs were collected from women 18 years and older, with a vaginal pH > 4.5 attending a reproductive health clinic. BV was diagnosed with Amsel’s criteria, Nugent scores, and the OSOM BVBlue test. Study personnel were blinded to test results. There were 347 participants enrolled between August 2009 and January 2010. BV prevalence was 45.1% (95% confidence interval (CI: 41.5%–52.8% according to Nugent score. When compared with Nugent score, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value for Amsel’s criteria and BVBlue were 61.9%, 88.3%, 81.5%, 73.7% and 38.1%, 92.7%, 82.1%, 63.9%, respectively. Combined with a “whiff” test, the performance of BVBlue increased sensitivity to 64.4% and negative predictive value to 73.8%. Despite the good specificity, poor sensitivity limits the usefulness of the BVBlue as a screening test in this population. There is a need to examine the usefulness of this test in other Indian populations.

  10. Rapid voluntary testing and counseling for HIV. Acceptability and feasibility in Zambian antenatal care clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, J P; McKenna, S; Myrick, A; Mwinga, K; Bhat, G J; Allen, S

    2000-11-01

    Voluntary testing and counseling (VTC) for HIV/AIDS is now widely accepted as an effective HIV prevention and control strategy among heterosexual couples in sub-Saharan Africa. The most appropriate format and venue for VTC remains a topic of debate among clinicians and public health professionals. Our research done in Lusaka, Zambia, took a tripartite approach to exploring the most acceptable format and venue for VTC: a community survey of attitudes towards VTC, a pre- and postcounseling knowledge survey, and a pilot study of same-day VTC in urban antenatal care clinics. A community survey of 181 individuals was conducted in July-August 1996 based on a structured questionnaire. A pre- and post-VTC intervention knowledge survey was conducted during the same period among 82 couples attending the Zambia-UAB HIV Research Project (ZUHRP) HIV VTC center in Lusaka. Finally, same-day HIV VTC was pilot tested in six antenatal clinic locations during February-May 1997 and June-August 1998. The community survey revealed that 98% of participants support promotion of HIV VTC in the community and 83.8% prefer the same-day testing format. The knowledge survey revealed misconceptions about discordance within a couple and perinatal transmission of HIV. Pilot testing in antenatal clinics was well received, with 84% of pregnant women requesting testing and 25% having positive HIV serologies. Women with primary school or less education, those seeking antenatal care in local clinics, and those seen before the third trimester of pregnancy were more likely to request HIV testing. Testing and counseling for HIV were shown to be feasible and effective in the antenatal clinic setting. Implementation of same-day HIV VTC in antenatal clinics is an effective strategy to prevent vertical transmission and should be expanded to include couples to leverage a decrease in heterosexual transmission as well.

  11. Rapid and quantitative detection of prostate specific antigen with a quantum dot nanobeads-based immunochromatography test strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Li, Wenbin; Yang, Qiuhua; Gong, Xiaoqun; Guo, Weisheng; Dong, Chunhong; Liu, Junqing; Xuan, Lixue; Chang, Jin

    2014-05-14

    Convenient and fast testing using an immunochromatography test strip (ICTS) enables rapid yes/no decisions regarding a disease to be made. However, the fundamental limitations of an ICTS, such as a lack of quantitative and sensitive analysis, severely hampers its application in reliable medical testing for the early detection of cancer. Herein, we overcame these limitations by integrating an ICTS with quantum dot nanobeads (QD nanobeads), which were fabricated by encapsulating QDs within modified poly(tert-butyl acrylate-co-ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) and served as a robust signal-generating reagent for the ICTS. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was used as a model analyte to demonstrate the performance of the QD nanobeads-based ICTS platform. Under optimized conditions, the concentration of PSA could be determined within 15 min with high sensitivity and specificity using only 40 μL of sample. The detection limit was enhanced by ∼12-fold compared with that of an ICTS that used QDs encapsulated by commercial 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (QDs@MUA) as the signal-generating reagent. At the same time, the possible clinical utility of this approach was demonstrated by measurements recorded from PSA-positive patient specimens. Our data suggest that the QD nanobeads-based ICTS platform is not only rapid and low-cost but also highly sensitive and specific for use in quantitative point-of-care diagnostics; thus, it holds promise for becoming a part of routine medical testing for the early cancer of detection.

  12. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangmei; Luo, Pengjie; Tang, Shusheng; Beier, Ross C; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Lili; Li, Yanwei; Xiao, Xilong

    2011-06-08

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 μg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line on the strip test completely disappeared at this concentration. The limit of detection was 2 μg/mL (or 2 μg/g) for milk drinks, yogurt, condensed milk, cheese, and animal feed and 1 μg/g for milk powder. Sample pretreatment was simple and rapid, and the results can be obtained within 3-10 min. A parallel analysis of MEL in 52 blind raw milk samples conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. The results demonstrate that the developed method is suitable for the onsite determination of MEL residues in a large number of samples.

  13. A comparative study of rapid test and routine methods for the measurement of cardiac markers in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gholamreza Shahsavari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The present results showed that the rapid cTnI test is very specific but not sensitive for AMI diagnosis while rapid CK-MB test is neither sensitive nor specific for AMI dignosis in patients with acute chest pain.

  14. Impact of Rapid Susceptibility Testing and Antibiotic Selection Strategy on the Emergence and Spread of Antibiotic Resistance in Gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Ashleigh R; Gift, Thomas L; Chesson, Harrell W; Hsu, Katherine; Salomon, Joshua A; Grad, Yonatan H

    2017-11-27

    Increasing antibiotic resistance limits treatment options for gonorrhea. We examined the impact of a hypothetical point-of-care (POC) test reporting antibiotic susceptibility profiles on slowing resistance spread. A mathematical model describing gonorrhea transmission incorporated resistance emergence probabilities and fitness costs associated with resistance based on characteristics of ciprofloxacin (A), azithromycin (B), and ceftriaxone (C). We evaluated time to 1% and 5% prevalence of resistant strains among all isolates with the following: (1) empiric treatment (B and C), and treatment guided by POC tests determining susceptibility to (2) A only and (3) all 3 antibiotics. Continued empiric treatment without POC testing was projected to result in >5% of isolates being resistant to both B and C within 15 years. Use of either POC test in 10% of identified cases delayed this by 5 years. The 3 antibiotic POC test delayed the time to reach 1% prevalence of triply-resistant strains by 6 years, whereas the A-only test resulted in no delay. Results were less sensitive to assumptions about fitness costs and test characteristics with increasing test uptake. Rapid diagnostics reporting antibiotic susceptibility may extend the usefulness of existing antibiotics for gonorrhea treatment, but ongoing monitoring of resistance patterns will be critical. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  15. Usefulness of a rapid faecal calprotectin test to predict relapse in Crohn's disease patients on maintenance treatment with adalimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Iglesias, Rocio; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; Lorenzo-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Dominguez-Muñoz, Juan Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Predicting relapse in Crohn's disease (CD) patients by measuring non-invasive biomarkers could allow for early changes of treatment. Data are scarce regarding the utility of monitoring calprotectin to predict relapse. The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive value of a rapid test of faecal calprotectin (FC) to predict for flares in CD patients on maintenance treatment with adalimumab (ADA). A prospective, observational cohort study was designed. Inclusion criteria were CD patients in clinical remission on a standard dose of ADA therapy. Fresh FC was measured using a rapid test. Thirty patients were included (median age 38 years, 56.7% female). After the 4 months follow-up, 70.0% patients remained in clinical remission and 30.0% had a relapse. FC concentration at inclusion was significantly higher in those patients who relapsed during the follow-up (625 μg/g) compared to those who stayed in remission (45 μg/g). The optimal cut-off for FC to predict relapse was 204 μg/g. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.968. Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive value of FC to predict relapse were 100%, 85.7%, 74.1%, and 100%, respectively. In CD patients on ADA maintenance therapy, FC levels measured with a rapid test allow relapse over the following months to be predicted with high accuracy. Low FC levels exclude relapse within at least 4 months after testing, whereas high levels are associated with relapse in three out of every four patients.

  16. The modified total body rotation test: a rapid, reliable assessment of physical function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanziano, Damian C; Signorile, Joseph F; Mow, Sara; Davidson, Erin E; Ouslander, Joseph G; Roos, Bernard A

    2010-10-01

    To describe a quick, modified measure of total body rotation with performance rankings for elderly persons and to highlight the importance of total body rotational ability for overall physical performance. Scores were collected during the same testing session and were compared with other measures using a Pearson correlation. Community-based senior centers. One hundred forty-five participants aged 79.6±7.2 were recruited using flyers distributed at health fairs, senior centers, and lifelong learning programs. The modified total body rotation test (MTBR), the back-scratch test, the modified sit-and-reach test, the 30-second chair-stand test, the Short Physical Performance Battery, and the short version of the Continuous-Scale Physical Functional Performance Test. The MBTR significantly correlated to all standard measures of physical performance. Norms are reported for all participants, and reliability analyses were conducted using data from 18 participants. Data were divided into quintiles to create cutoffs for physical performance rankings that can be used when reporting results to the general public. Many evaluations measure isolated components of physical performance, but few examine whole body movements that allow all components necessary for independence and function to work in harmony as needed considering the task and the individual's movement strategy. The current study offers the MTBR as a quick, easy, and cost-effective evaluation method to quantify the degree of impairment or injury and the rate of improvement with treatment or training. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. BRAF mutation testing with a rapid, fully integrated molecular diagnostics system

    OpenAIRE

    Janku, Filip; Claes, Bart; Huang, Helen J.; Falchook, Gerald S.; Devogelaere, Benoit; Kockx, Mark; Bempt, Isabelle Vanden; Reijans, Martin; Naing, Aung; Fu, Siqing; Piha-Paul, Sarina A.; Hong, David S.; Holley, Veronica R.; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Stepanek, Vanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Fast and accurate diagnostic systems are needed for further implementation of precision therapy of BRAF-mutant and other cancers. The novel IdyllaTM BRAF Mutation Test has high sensitivity and shorter turnaround times compared to other methods. We used Idylla to detect BRAF V600 mutations in archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples and compared these results with those obtained using the cobas 4800 BRAF V600 Mutation Test or MiSeq deep sequencing system and with those ob...

  18. Technology Assessment and Strategy for Development of a Rapid Field Water Microbiology Test Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Review of Medical Microbiology , 70th ed. Jawetz, E, J.L. Melnick , and E.A. Adelberg, eds. Appleton and Lang Co., Los Altos, CA. 539-571. 3. Biddeick, C.J...to develop improved methods to detect microbiological and chemical parameters’ in water. The title of this O&O Pl1n is "A Family of Medical Water...to the field water microbiological test kit are as follows. Access Medical Systems, Inc. (Branford, CT) recently introduced the Colilert test for total

  19. Clean fog rapid procedure test of artificially and naturally polluted HVDC porcelain barrel insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlastos, A.E. (Univ. of Technology, Gothenberg (SE))

    1992-07-01

    The first question asked in this paper refers to the variation of the peak leakage current prior to the flashover and the variation of the time prior to flashover in the test of artificially polluted insulators when using the up-and-down method. To answer this question sums up the test procedure used in the up-and-down method. For each trial represented the insulator was again polluted artificially and then dried following the procedure described in the paper. Then the insulator was transported into the fog chamber and the voltage and fog was switched on simultaneously. In these experiments a low fog injection rate was used.

  20. Diversity in Biochemical Characteristics and Antibiotics Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, biochemical and antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out on one hundred and fifty poultry isolates of Escherichia coli using Microscan® Dried Gram-negative Breakpoint Combo Pannels. The microscan panel analysed bacterial isolates for 24 biochemical tests and 23 to 25 antimicrobial agents following ...

  1. Rapid and simple IgG specific test for the exclusion of heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolde, Hans-Jürgen; Dostatni, Ralf; Mauracher, Susanne

    2011-08-29

    The exclusion of heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is required for selecting the most appropriate anticoagulation therapy in affected patients. It requires the combination of clinical data with the detection of antibodies directed against platelet factor 4 (PF4) in complex with polyanions (PA) such as heparin. We developed a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for PF4/PA complex specific IgG antibodies based on gold nanoparticles. Unlike most other assays, the initial immune reaction takes place in the liquid phase. The sensitivity of the assay has been adjusted with clinical samples aiming in the reliable detection of sera which are positive in a functional platelet activation assay. Sera from 60 patients with suspected HIT were investigated. LFIA identified correctly all samples (n=20) which were positive in a functional assay (HIPA) and an IgG specific ELISA. It correlated with ELISA, but false positive results were less frequent (7 samples were negative with LFIA and HIPA but positive with ELISA). The LFIA may be a suitable tool for the rapid exclusion of HIT within 10 min.

  2. Lextale-Esp: A Test to Rapidly and Efficiently Assess the Spanish Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izura, Cristina; Cuetos, Fernando; Brysbaert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The methods to measure vocabulary size vary across disciplines. This heterogeneity hinders direct comparisons between studies and slows down the understanding of research findings. A quick, free and efficient test of English language proficiency, LexTALE, was recently developed to remedy this problem. LexTALE has been validated and shown to be an…

  3. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A.; Russell, Robin E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2014-01-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  4. Rapid, high sensitivity, point-of-care test for cardiac troponin based on optomagnetic biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittmer, W.U.; Evers, T.H.; Hardeman, W.M.; Huijnen-Keur, W.M.; Kamps, R.; De Kievit, P.; Neijzen, J.H.M.; Sijbers, M.J.J.; Nieuwenhuis, J.H.; Hefti, M.H.; Dekkers, D.; Martens, M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present a handheld integrated device based on a novel magnetic-optical technology for the sensitive detection of cardiactroponin I, a biomarker for the positive diagnosis of myocardial infarct, in a finger-prick blood sample. The test can be performed with a turn-around time of 5

  5. Lumped Parameter Modeling for Rapid Vibration Response Prototyping and Test Correlation for Electronic Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Present preliminary work using lumped parameter models to approximate dynamic response of electronic units to random vibration; Derive a general N-DOF model for application to electronic units; Illustrate parametric influence of model parameters; Implication of coupled dynamics for unit/board design; Demonstrate use of model to infer printed wiring board (PWB) dynamics from external chassis test measurement.

  6. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A; Russell, Robin E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2014-04-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  7. Observer and biological variation of a rapid whole blood D-dimer test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, F.; van Beek, E. J.; Büller, H. R.

    1998-01-01

    In consecutive patients with suspected venous thromboembolism the interobserver variability of the SimpliRED D-dimer test was evaluated by two observers who independently scored one plate, the between assay variation was performed simultaneously by a third independent observer, who assessed a second

  8. A method for rapid testing of the photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of herbicides by leaf disk infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Bielecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for rapid detection of photosynthesis inhibitors in low concentration (0.25-1.25 ppm was developed. The experiments were performed on disks cut from young bean leaves. The disks were infiltrated with solutions of the tested compounds and placed at the bottom of a crystallizer containing an acidic sodium carbonate solution and then illuminated. The toxicity of the tested substance was measured as the number of disks corning to the surface. It was found that linuron, monolinuron, metoksuron, atrazine and prometrine inhibited floating of the disks, whereas 2,4,5-T, MCPA and chlorpropham gave no effect. This confirms the specificity of the test which is appropriate for determining the phytotoxicity of typical photosynthesis inhibitors.

  9. A rapid diagnostic test and mobile "lab in a suitcase" platform for detecting Ceratocystis spp. responsible for Rapid ‘Ōhi‘a Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Watcher-Weatherwax, William; Roy, Kylle; Heller, Wade P; Keith, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    We describe a field compatible molecular diagnostic test for two new species of Ceratocystis that infect `ōhi`a (Metrosideros polymorpha) and cause the disease commonly known as Rapid `Ōhi`a Death. The diagnostic is based on amplification of a DNA locus within the internal transcribed spacer region that separates fungal 5.8S ribosomal genes. The assay uses forward and reverse primers, recombinase polymerase, and a fluorescent probe that allows isothermal (40oC) amplification and simultaneous quantification of a 115 base pair product with a battery operated fluorometer. DNA extractions are field compatible and can be done by heating wood drill shavings to 100oC in Instagene® solution containing Chelex® resin to bind potential amplification inhibitors. The initial heat treatment is followed by a short bead beating step with steel ball bearings and zirconium beads to release DNA. DNA is subsequently purified with a magnetic bead based extraction method that does not require silica columns or centrifugation. The assay is designed around a portable “lab-in-a-suitcase” platform that includes a portable fluorometer, miniature centrifuge, and heat block that operate off either 120V AC power sources or a 12 volt battery with a portable inverter, a magnetic rack designed for 1.5 ml tubes and magnetic bead DNA purification, pipettes and consumable reagents and tubes. The entire assay from DNA extraction to results can be performed in less than 90 minutes on up to six independent samples plus a positive and negative control. Sensitivity based on suspensions of Ceratocystis endoconidia (spores) that were added to wood shavings and processed under field conditions by Instagene® magnetic bead DNA extraction was up to 163 spores/mg wood for Species A and 55 spores/mg wood for Species B in 95% of replicates as determined by probit analysis. Sensitivity increased 5–10 fold to 19 spores/mg wood for Species A and 9 spores/mg wood for Species B when extractions were

  10. Development of field-applicable tests for rapid and sensitive detection of Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambua, Lillian; Schneider, Bernd; Okwaro, Allan; Wanga, Joseph Odhiambo; Imali, Olive; Wambua, Peninah Nduku; Agutu, Lavender; Olds, Cassandra; Jones, Chris Stephen; Masiga, Daniel; Midega, Charles; Khan, Zeyaur; Jores, Joerg; Fischer, Anne

    2017-10-01

    Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD) is a severe disease of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) in Eastern Africa, caused by the leafhopper-transmitted bacterium Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae. The pathogen severely impairs the growth of Napier grass, the major fodder for dairy cattle in Eastern Africa. NSD is associated with biomass losses of up to 70% of infected plants. Diagnosis of NSD is done by nested PCR targeting the phytoplasma DNA, which is difficult to perform in developing countries with little infrastructure. We report the development of an easy to use, rapid, sensitive and specific molecular assay for field diagnosis of NSD. The procedure is based on recombinase polymerase amplification and targets the imp gene encoding a pathogen-specific immunodominant membrane protein. Therefore we followed a two-step process. First we developed an isothermal DNA amplification method for real time fluorescence application and then transferred this assay to a lateral flow format. The limit of detection for both procedures was estimated to be 10 organisms. We simplified the template preparation procedure by using freshly squeezed phloem sap from Napier grass. Additionally, we developed a laboratory serological assay with the potential to be converted to a lateral flow assay. Two murine monoclonal antibodies with high affinity and specificity to the immunodominant membrane protein IMP of Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae were generated. Both antibodies specifically reacted with the denatured or native 17 kDa IMP protein. In dot blot experiments of extracts from infected plant, phytoplasmas were detected in as little as 12,5 μg of fresh plant material. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF RAPIDLY-GROWING MYCOBACTERIA FROM GRASSLAND SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kyselková

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics and the ability to grow at 37°C and 42°C. Since isolation of RGM from soil is a challenge, a conventional decontamination method (NaOH/malachite green/cycloheximide and a recent method based on olive oil/SDS demulsification were compared. The olive oil/SDS method was less efficient, mainly because of the emulsion instability and plate overgrowing with other bacteria. Altogether, 44 isolates were obtained and 23 representatives of different RGM genotypes were screened. The number of isolates per soil decreased with increasing soil pH, consistently with previous findings that mycobacteria were more abundant in low pH soils. Most of the isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The majority of isolates was resistant to 2-4 antibiotics. Multiresistant strains occurred also in a control soil that has a long history without the exposure to antibiotic-containing manure. Seven isolates grew at 37°C, including the species M. septicum and M. fortuitum known for infections in humans. This study shows that multiresistant RGM close to known human pathogens occur in grassland soils regardless the soil history of manuring.

  12. Comparative Study of Malaria Prevalence among Travellers in Nigeria (West Africa Using Slide Microscopy and a Rapid Diagnosis Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Dougnon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a major disease in Africa and leads to various public health problems. A study was carried out at the Aviation Medical Clinic Laboratory, Murtala Mohammed Airport, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria, in 2014. The work aimed to determine the prevalence of malaria among patients attending the laboratory. Blood samples were therefore collected from 51 patients and subjected to both blood smear microscopy and a rapid immunochromatographic diagnostic test (SD BIOLINE Malaria Ag for detection of, respectively, malaria parasites and antigens. At the end of the study, 22% of the patients were detected positive by the microscopic examination while 9.8% were tested positive when using SD BIOLINE Malaria Ag. The outcomes of the study show a high prevalence of malaria at the airport. This represents a serious risk factor leading to a high likelihood of spread and occurrence of malaria in other countries including Western countries whereby the disease is nonendemic. It also pointed out that the blood smear microscopy seems to be better than Rapid Diagnosis Test (RDT for malaria diagnosis.

  13. Impedimetric test for rapid determination of performic acid (PFA) biocidal activity toward Echerichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Lasik; Renata Dobrucka; Piotr Konieczny

    2013-01-01

      Background. Performic acid has recently become available on a commercial scale for potential use in waste-water disinfection and can become an innovative biocide for various purposes in food processing. The aim of our study was: 1) to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of performic acid as high active and non toxic chemical disinfectant against Escherichi coli (hygiene indicator test  microorganism used in industrial micro- biology) and 2) to evaluate the electrical impedanc...

  14. Development and field testing of a rapid and ultra-stable atmospheric carbon dioxide spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    B. Xiang; D. D. Nelson; J. B. McManus; M. S. Zahniser; R. Wehr; S. C. Wofsy

    2014-01-01

    We present field test results for a new spectroscopic instrument to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision (0.02 ppm at 1 Hz) and demonstrate high stability (within 0.1 ppm over more than 8 months), without the need for hourly, daily, or even monthly calibration against high-pressure gas cylinders. The technical novelty of this instrument (ABsolute Carbon dioxide, ABC) is the spectral null method using an internal quartz reference cell with known...

  15. New method for rapid Susceptibility Testing on blood culture with HB&L system: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood culture, although represents the gold standard in detecting the ethiological agent of sepsis, is rather rarely required in relation to the real diagnostic importance. The result of this test depends in fact on many factors (sample volume, time of collection, accuracy, antibiotic therapy, contamination, number of drawings, drawing site, interpretation difficulties, etc. that are often considered by many clinicians so limited as to doubt about their actual value. The disadvantages are therefore represented by the lack of standardization but also by the low sensitivity and above all by the technical times too long for the clinical needs. Blood culture begins with the drawing of samples from the “septic” patient followed incubation of the bottles in automatic thermostated systems. In case of positive result (36 hours, the culture is Gram stained and streaked on solid media in order to obtain isolated colonies for the identification and the susceptibility testing (48 hours from positive result. The long time required for pathogen identification and susceptibility testing involves empirical broad spectrum antibiotic therapy that can promote the increase of bacterial resistance but also patient management costs. A clinically useful report should be available on short notice in order to guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate antibiotic. The microbiologist has therefore the hard work of reviewing the organization and the management of the procedures.We have therefore started to consider the possibility of treating the blood as an biological liquid in order to quickly determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

  16. Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing: Its Application in Both Product Development and System Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable discussion around the need for certification and regulation of healthcare information technology (IT). In particular, the usability of the products being developed needs to be evaluated. This has included the application of standards designed to ensure the process of system development is user-centered and takes usability into consideration while a product is being developed. In addition to this, in healthcare, organizations in the United States and Europe have also addressed the need and requirement for product certification. However, despite these efforts there are continued reports of unusable and unsafe implementations. In this paper we discuss the need to not only include (and require) usability testing in the one-time development process of health IT products (such as EHRs), but we also argue for the need to additionally develop specific usability standards and requirements for usability testing during the implementation of vendor products (i.e. post product development) in healthcare settings. It is further argued that health IT products that may have been certified regarding their development process will still require application of usability testing in the process of implementing them in real hospital settings in order to ensure usability and safety. This is needed in order to ensure that the final result of both product development and implementation processes take into account and apply the latest usability principles and methods.

  17. Rapid point-of-care breath test for biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported volatile organic compounds (VOCs in breath as biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms, apparently resulting from increased oxidative stress and cytochrome p450 induction. We evaluated a six-minute point-of-care breath test for VOC biomarkers in women screened for breast cancer at centers in the USA and the Netherlands. METHODS: 244 women had a screening mammogram (93/37 normal/abnormal or a breast biopsy (cancer/no cancer 35/79. A mobile point-of-care system collected and concentrated breath and air VOCs for analysis with gas chromatography and surface acoustic wave detection. Chromatograms were segmented into a time series of alveolar gradients (breath minus room air. Segmental alveolar gradients were ranked as candidate biomarkers by C-statistic value (area under curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve. Multivariate predictive algorithms were constructed employing significant biomarkers identified with multiple Monte Carlo simulations and cross validated with a leave-one-out (LOO procedure. RESULTS: Performance of breath biomarker algorithms was determined in three groups: breast cancer on biopsy versus normal screening mammograms (81.8% sensitivity, 70.0% specificity, accuracy 79% (73% on LOO [C-statistic value], negative predictive value 99.9%; normal versus abnormal screening mammograms (86.5% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, accuracy 83%, 62% on LOO; and cancer versus no cancer on breast biopsy (75.8% sensitivity, 74.0% specificity, accuracy 78%, 67% on LOO. CONCLUSIONS: A pilot study of a six-minute point-of-care breath test for volatile biomarkers accurately identified women with breast cancer and with abnormal mammograms. Breath testing could potentially reduce the number of needless mammograms without loss of diagnostic sensitivity.

  18. An immunologic model for rapid vaccine assessment -- a clinical trial in a test tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Russell G; Byers, Anthony M; Dhir, Vipra; Drake, Donald; Fahlenkamp, Heather G; Gangur, Jyoti; Kachurin, Anatoly; Kachurina, Olga; Leistritz, Del; Ma, Yifan; Mehta, Riyaz; Mishkin, Eric; Moser, Janice; Mosquera, Luis; Nguyen, Mike; Parkhill, Robert; Pawar, Santosh; Poisson, Louis; Sanchez-Schmitz, Guzman; Schanen, Brian; Singh, Inderpal; Song, Haifeng; Tapia, Tenekua; Warren, William; Wittman, Vaughan

    2009-09-01

    While the duration and size of human clinical trials may be difficult to reduce, there are several parameters in pre-clinical vaccine development that may be possible to further optimise. By increasing the accuracy of the models used for pre-clinical vaccine testing, it should be possible to increase the probability that any particular vaccine candidate will be successful in human trials. In addition, an improved model will allow the collection of increasingly more-informative data in pre-clinical tests, thus aiding the rational design and formulation of candidates entered into clinical evaluation. An acceleration and increase in sophistication of pre-clinical vaccine development will thus require the advent of more physiologically-accurate models of the human immune system, coupled with substantial advances in the mechanistic understanding of vaccine efficacy, achieved by using this model. We believe the best viable option available is to use human cells and/or tissues in a functional in vitro model of human physiology. Not only will this more accurately model human diseases, it will also eliminate any ethical, moral and scientific issues involved with use of live humans and animals. An in vitro model, termed "MIMIC" (Modular IMmune In vitro Construct), was designed and developed to reflect the human immune system in a well-based format. The MIMIC System is a laboratory-based methodology that replicates the human immune system response. It is highly automated, and can be used to simulate a clinical trial for a diverse population, without putting human subjects at risk. The MIMIC System uses the circulating immune cells of individual donors to recapitulate each individual human immune response by maintaining the autonomy of the donor. Thus, an in vitro test system has been created that is functionally equivalent to the donor's own immune system and is designed to respond in a similar manner to the in vivo response. 2009 FRAME.

  19. Development and field testing of a rapid and ultra-stable atmospheric carbon dioxide spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    B. Xiang; D. D. Nelson; J. B. McManus; M. S. Zahniser; R. A. Wehr; S. C. Wofsy

    2014-01-01

    We present field test results for a new spectroscopic instrument to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision (0.02 μmol mol−1, or ppm at 1 Hz) and demonstrate high stability (within 0.1 ppm over more than 8 months), without the need for hourly, daily, or even monthly calibration against high-pressure gas cylinders. The technical novelty of this instrument (ABsolute Carbon dioxide, ABC) is the spectral null method using an internal quartz reference cell wi...

  20. Neuro magnetic resonance spectroscopy using wavelet decomposition and statistical testing identifies biochemical changes in people with spinal cord injury and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanwell, Peter; Siddall, Philip; Keshava, Nirmal; Cocuzzo, Daniel; Ramadan, Saadallah; Lin, Alexander; Herbert, David; Craig, Ashley; Tran, Yvonne; Middleton, James; Gautam, Shiva; Cousins, Michael; Mountford, Carolyn

    2010-11-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can be accompanied by chronic pain, the mechanisms for which are poorly understood. Here we report that magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements from the brain, collected at 3T, and processed using wavelet-based feature extraction and classification algorithms, can identify biochemical changes that distinguish control subjects from subjects with SCI as well as subdividing the SCI group into those with and without chronic pain. The results from control subjects (n=10) were compared to those with SCI (n=10). The SCI cohort was made up of subjects with chronic neuropathic pain (n=5) and those without chronic pain (n=5). The wavelet-based decomposition of frequency domain MRS signals employs statistical significance testing to identify features best suited to discriminate different classes. Moreover, the features benefit from careful attention to the post-processing of the spectroscopy data prior to the comparison of the three cohorts. The spectroscopy data, from the thalamus, best distinguished control subjects without SCI from those with SCI with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.9 (Percentage of Correct Classification). The spectroscopy data obtained from the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex both distinguished between SCI subjects with chronic neuropathic pain and those without pain with a sensitivity and specificity of 1.0. In this study, where two underlying mechanisms co-exist (i.e. SCI and pain), the thalamic changes appear to be linked more strongly to SCI, while the anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal cortex changes appear to be specifically linked to the presence of pain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Kim, Youn-Jung; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae; Shin, Woongghi; Han, Taejun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on Chl a fluorescence and the movement parameters of Euglena agilis. • Phenol significantly reduced F v /F m of PS II and rETRmax with EC50 values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. • Among the movement parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. • The EC50 values for F v /F m , motility, and velocity appear to overlap the environmental permissible levels of phenol. - Abstract: Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (F v /F m ) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR max ) with median effective concentration (EC 50 ) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC 50 of 3.17 mM. The EC 50 values for F v /F m , motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents

  2. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test for specific and rapid detection of Brucella abortus in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, K; Rathore, Rajesh; Thomas, Prasad; Arun, T R; Viswas, K N; Agarwal, R K; Manjunathachar, H V; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2014-01-01

    Brucella abortus, the major causative agent of abortion in cattle and a zoonotic pathogen, needs to be diagnosed at an early stage. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test is easy to perform and also promising to be adapted at field level. To develop a LAMP assay for specific and rapid detection of B. abortus from clinical samples of cattle. LAMP primers were designed targeting BruAb2_0168 region using specific software tool and LAMP was optimized. The developed LAMP was tested for its specificity with 3 Brucella spp. and 11 other non-Brucella spp. Sensitivity of the developed LAMP was also carried out with known quantity of DNA. Cattle whole blood samples and aborted fetal stomach contents were collected and used for testing with developed LAMP assay and results were compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The developed LAMP assay works at 61 °C for 60 min and the detection limit was observed to be 100-fold more than the conventional PCR that is commonly used for diagnosis of B. abortus. Clinical sensitivity and specificity of the developed LAMP assay was 100% when compared with Rose Bengal plate test and standard tube agglutination test. SYB® green dye I was used to visualize the result with naked eye. The novelty of the developed LAMP assay for specifically detecting B. abortus infection in cattle along with its inherent rapidness and high sensitivity can be employed for detecting this economically important pathogen of cattle at field level as well be exploited for screening of human infections.

  3. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn-Jung [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Woongghi [Department of Biology, Chungnam University, Daejeon 306 764 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Taejun, E-mail: hanalgae@hanmail.net [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on Chl a fluorescence and the movement parameters of Euglena agilis. • Phenol significantly reduced F{sub v}/F{sub m} of PS II and rETRmax with EC50 values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. • Among the movement parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. • The EC50 values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the environmental permissible levels of phenol. - Abstract: Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR{sub max}) with median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC{sub 50} of 3.17 mM. The EC{sub 50} values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents.

  4. Development and field testing of a rapid and ultra-stable atmospheric carbon dioxide spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, B.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Zahniser, M. S.; Wehr, R. A.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    We present field test results for a new spectroscopic instrument to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision (0.02 μmol mol-1, or ppm at 1 Hz) and demonstrate high stability (within 0.1 ppm over more than 8 months), without the need for hourly, daily, or even monthly calibration against high-pressure gas cylinders. The technical novelty of this instrument (ABsolute Carbon dioxide, ABC) is the spectral null method using an internal quartz reference cell with known CO2 column density. Compared to a previously described prototype, the field instrument has better stability and benefits from more precise thermal control of the optics and more accurate pressure measurements in the sample cell (at the mTorr level). The instrument has been deployed at a long-term ecological research site (the Harvard Forest, USA), where it has measured for 8 months without on-site calibration and with minimal maintenance, showing drift bounds of less than 0.1 ppm. Field measurements agree well with those of a commercially available cavity ring-down CO2 instrument (Picarro G2301) run with a standard calibration protocol. This field test demonstrates that ABC is capable of performing high-accuracy, unattended, continuous field measurements with minimal use of reference gas cylinders.

  5. A Highly Sensitive Immunochromatographic Strip Test for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Saikosaponin d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative lateral-flow immunoassay using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs conjugated with a monoclonal antibody (MAb against saikosaponin d (SSd was developed for the analysis of SSd. The AuNPs were prepared in our laboratory. The AuNPs were polyhedral, with an average diameter of approximately 18 nm. We used the conjugation between AuNPs and MAbs against SSd to prepare immunochromatographic strips (ICSs. For the quantitative experiment, the strips with the test results were scanned using a membrane strip reader, and a detection curve (regression equation, y = −0.113ln(x + 1.5451, R2 = 0.983, representing the averages of the scanned data, was obtained. This curve was linear from 96 ng/mL to 150 μg/mL, and the IC50 value was 10.39 μg/mL. In this study, we bring the concept of POCT (point-of-care testing to the measurement of TCM compounds, and this is the first report of quantitative detection of SSd by an ICS.

  6. Effects of rapid versus standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing on receipt rate of HIV test results: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Lu, Wenli

    2015-03-01

    Rapid HIV voluntary counselling and testing (RVCT) is an alternative method of standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing (SVCT). Less is known about whether RVCT improves the receipt rate of HIV test results among clients who seek HIV counselling and testing. We aimed to evaluate effectiveness of RVCT on result receipt rate. We conducted a comprehensive search of databases containing Medline, EBSCO, Web of science, and Cochrane library to identify studies published up to August 2012. Reviewers extracted information independently. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing study quality. Five randomised controlled trials were included and analysed for the result receipt rate using a random-effects model. The pooled receipt rate of HIV test results in the RVCT was significantly higher than in the SVCT (RR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.47-2.07). Our results suggest RVCT as a favourable method to increase the receipt of HIV test results. Only two included studies assessed the modification of risk behaviour after HIV-CT in a different manner; also, the sample size was small in the current meta-analysis. In future research, it is necessary to confirm the effect of RVCT on disinhibition of post-test risk behaviour. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Evaluation of the Becton Dickinson Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests in Outpatients in Germany during Seven Influenza Seasons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Eggers

    Full Text Available An extensive retrospective study spanning several seasons was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the BD rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT in comparison with the RT-PCR assay.A total of 2,179 respiratory samples were tested in parallel by in-house RT-PCR and the RIDT. During the 2003-2004, 2006-2007, 2007-2008, and 2008-2009 (n=1671 seasons, the BD Directigen Flu A+B test was used, and during the 2010-2011, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 (n=508 seasons, the BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B test b was used.The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for the BD Directigen Flu A+B test calculated for types A and B together were 39%, 99%, 98%, and 56%, respectively. For the BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B test, these values were 47%, 100%, 100%, 55%, respectively. The sensitivity of the BD Directigen Flu A+B test did not differ significantly from season to season or between types A (44% and B (37%. The sensitivity of the BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B test calculated for type A only was 59%, which was considerably higher than the sensitivity of this test for type B (23%. The sensitivity of the RIDT was approximately 40-50% in children and teenagers, but it was only 18.% in adults aged 20 years and older. The specificity of both RIDTs was very high (>99% during all seasons.Due to their rapid turnaround time, RIDTs can help guide decisions about the clinical management of influenza. Because of the high specificity, a positive result can be interpreted as a true positive, and antiviral therapy as well as appropriate measures to prevent the transmission of influenza can be initiated. The best sensitivity of the RIDT is achieved in children. However, even in this group, the RIDT will only recognize influenza infection in approximately half of the cases, and influenza should still be considered in patients with negative results; negative RIDT results must be confirmed by PCR.

  8. Kato-Katz and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test to evaluate helminth prevalence in the setting of a school-based deworming program

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Martha; Morales, Maria Luisa; Konana, Monisha; Hoyer, Paige; Pineda-Reyes, Roberto; White, Arthur Clinton; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Lescano, Andres Guillermo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test is suboptimal for the evaluation of intestinal helminth prevalence. Moreover, during mass deworming, as helminth egg burden decreases, the sensitivity is likely to decrease. The Lumbreras rapid sedimentation (Lumbreras) is a low-cost non-quantitative test, but may provide useful information in low burden areas. We compared the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections assessed by the Kato-Katz and the Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test on 3 stool speci...

  9. Screening for transfusion transmissible infections using rapid diagnostic tests in Africa: a potential hazard to blood safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugger, C.; Laperche, S.; Murphy, E. L.; Bloch, E. M.; Kaidarova, Z.; Tafflet, M.; Lefrère, J.-J.; Jouven, X.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are routinely used in African blood centres. We analysed data from two cross-sectional studies representing 95 blood centres in 29 African countries. Standardized panels of sera containing varying concentrations of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies (Ab), hepatitis B virus antigen (HBsAg) and antihepatitis C virus (HCV) Ab were screened using routine operational testing procedures at the centres. Sensitivity of detection using RDTs was high for HIV Ab-positive samples, but low for intermediately HBsAg (51·5%) and HCV Ab (40·6%)-positive samples. These findings suggest that current RDT use in Africa could pose a hazard to blood safety. PMID:26646317

  10. BEAP profiles as rapid test system for status analysis and early detection of process incidents in biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Sarah; Berger, Stefanie; Wassmann, Kati; Hecht, Melanie; Dickhaus, Thomas; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    A method was developed to quantify the performance of microorganisms involved in different digestion levels in biogas plants. The test system was based on the addition of butyrate (BCON), ethanol (ECON), acetate (ACON) or propionate (PCON) to biogas sludge samples and the subsequent analysis of CH 4 formation in comparison to control samples. The combination of the four values was referred to as BEAP profile. Determination of BEAP profiles enabled rapid testing of a biogas plant's metabolic state within 24 h and an accurate mapping of all degradation levels in a lab-scale experimental setup. Furthermore, it was possible to distinguish between specific BEAP profiles for standard biogas plants and for biogas reactors with process incidents (beginning of NH 4 + -N inhibition, start of acidification, insufficient hydrolysis and potential mycotoxin effects). Finally, BEAP profiles also functioned as a warning system for the early prediction of critical NH 4 + -N concentrations leading to a drop of CH 4 formation.

  11. Prevalence of Four Enteropathogens with Immunochromatographic Rapid Test in the Feces of Diarrheic Calves in East and Southeast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Içen1, Neval Berrin Arserim2, Nurettin IŞIK3, Cumali Özkan4* and Abdullah Kaya4

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fecal specimens taken from 192 diarrheic and 14 healthy calves (2-40 days old were examined for the presence of bacterial and parasitic agents. Fecal samples from diarrheic calves with the four immunochromatographic rapid tests were 92.7% positive for four enteropathogens. The individual prevalence was 25, 21.8, 9.4 and 2.1% for Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum, E. coli K99 and Coronavirus, respectively. Concomitant infections caused by two agents were 15.6% for Rotavirus+Cryptosporidium, 1.0% for Rotavirus+Coronavirus, 5.2 % for Cryptosporidium+E. coli K99, and 7.3% for Rotavirus+E. coli K99. Besides concomitant infections caused by three agents were 3.1% for Cryptosporidium +Rotavirus+E.coli K99 and 1.0%, Cryptosporidium+Rotavirus+Coronavirus. In addition one calf (1.0% was infected by combination of four agents as Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, Coronavirus, and E. coli K99. The calculated individual prevalence was 56.9% for Rotavirus, 47.8% for C. parvum, 26.0% for E. coli K99 and 5.2% for Coronavirus. However, 88 samples were positive in smear detection for Cryptosporidium while 92 were positive in rapid test. As a result of this study it can be concluded that multiple etiologies of diarrhea can be seen and this can help in the development of a specific treatment and preventative measures for practitioners in east and southeast of Turkey.

  12. Economic impact of rapid diagnostic methods in Clinical Microbiology: Price of the test or overall clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Elia

    2017-12-01

    The need to reduce the time it takes to establish a microbiological diagnosis and the emergence of new molecular microbiology and proteomic technologies has fuelled the development of rapid and point-of-care techniques, as well as the so-called point-of-care laboratories. These laboratories are responsible for conducting both techniques partially to response to the outsourcing of the conventional hospital laboratories. Their introduction has not always been accompanied with economic studies that address their cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit and cost-utility, but rather tend to be limited to the unit price of the test. The latter, influenced by the purchase procedure, does not usually have a regulated reference value in the same way that medicines do. The cost-effectiveness studies that have recently been conducted on mass spectrometry in the diagnosis of bacteraemia and the use of antimicrobials have had the greatest clinical impact and may act as a model for future economic studies on rapid and point-of-care tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Use and limitations of malaria rapid diagnostic testing by community health workers in war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuva Jean

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate and practical malaria diagnostics, such as immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs, have the potential to avert unnecessary treatments and save lives. Volunteer community health workers (CHWs represent a potentially valuable human resource for expanding this technology to where it is most needed, remote rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa with limited health facilities and personnel. This study reports on a training programme for CHWs to incorporate RDTs into their management strategy for febrile children in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a tropical African setting ravaged by human conflict. Methods Prospective cohort study, satisfaction questionnaire and decision analysis. Results Twelve CHWs were trained to safely and accurately perform and interpret RDTs, then successfully implemented rapid diagnostic testing in their remote community in a cohort of 357 febrile children. CHWs were uniformly positive in evaluating RDTs for their utility and ease of use. However, high malaria prevalence in this cohort (93% by RDTs, 88% by light microscopy limited the cost-effectiveness of RDTs compared to presumptive treatment of all febrile children, as evidenced by findings from a simplified decision analysis. Conclusions CHWs can safely and effectively use RDTs in their management of febrile children; however, cost-effectiveness of RDTs is limited in zones of high malaria prevalence.

  14. Use and limitations of malaria rapid diagnostic testing by community health workers in war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Michael; Katsuva, Jean Paul; Masumbuko, Claude K

    2009-12-23

    Accurate and practical malaria diagnostics, such as immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), have the potential to avert unnecessary treatments and save lives. Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) represent a potentially valuable human resource for expanding this technology to where it is most needed, remote rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa with limited health facilities and personnel. This study reports on a training programme for CHWs to incorporate RDTs into their management strategy for febrile children in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a tropical African setting ravaged by human conflict. Prospective cohort study, satisfaction questionnaire and decision analysis. Twelve CHWs were trained to safely and accurately perform and interpret RDTs, then successfully implemented rapid diagnostic testing in their remote community in a cohort of 357 febrile children. CHWs were uniformly positive in evaluating RDTs for their utility and ease of use. However, high malaria prevalence in this cohort (93% by RDTs, 88% by light microscopy) limited the cost-effectiveness of RDTs compared to presumptive treatment of all febrile children, as evidenced by findings from a simplified decision analysis. CHWs can safely and effectively use RDTs in their management of febrile children; however, cost-effectiveness of RDTs is limited in zones of high malaria prevalence.

  15. Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME): Using a Multiplexed Miniature Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor Solution for Rapid Process Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Wheeler, Raymond; Hummerick, Mary; Birmele, Michele; Richards, Jeffrey; Coutts, Janelle; Koss, Lawrence; Spencer, Lashelle.; Johnsey, Marissa; Ellis, Ronald

    Bioreactor research, even today, is mostly limited to continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs). These are not an option for microgravity applications due to the lack of a gravity gradient to drive aeration as described by the Archimedes principle. This has led to testing of Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors (HFMBs) for microgravity applications, including possible use for wastewater treatment systems for the International Space Station (ISS). Bioreactors and filtration systems for treating wastewater could avoid the need for harsh pretreatment chemicals and improve overall water recovery. However, the construction of these reactors is difficult and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) versions do not exist in small sizes. We have used 1-L modular HFMBs in the past, but the need to perform rapid testing has led us to consider even smaller systems. To address this, we designed and built 125-mL, rectangular reactors, which we have called the Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME) system. A polycarbonate rack of four square modules was developed with each module containing removable hollow fibers. Each FAME reactor is self-contained and can be easily plumbed with peristaltic and syringe pumps for continuous recycling of fluids and feeding, as well as fitted with sensors for monitoring pH, dissolved oxygen, and gas measurements similar to their larger counterparts. The first application tested in the FAME racks allowed analysis of over a dozen fiber surface treatments and three inoculation sources to achieve rapid reactor startup and biofilm attachment (based on carbon oxidation and nitrification of wastewater). With these miniature FAME reactors, data for this multi-factorial test were collected in duplicate over a six-month period; this greatly compressed time period required for gathering data needed to study and improve bioreactor performance.

  16. The diagnostic accuracy of three rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid fever at Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Rapeephan R; de Jong, Hanna K; Wijedoru, Lalith; Fukushima, Masako; Ghose, Aniruddha; Samad, Rasheda; Hossain, Mohammed Amir; Karim, Mohammed Rezaul; Faiz, Mohammed Abul; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of three rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for typhoid fever in febrile hospitalised patients in Bangladesh. Febrile adults and children admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh, were investigated with Bact/Alert(®) blood cultures and real-time PCR to detect Salmonella enterica Typhi and Paratyphi A and assays for Rickettsia, leptospirosis and dengue fever. Acute serum samples were examined with the LifeAssay (LA) Test-it™ Typhoid IgM lateral flow assay detecting IgM antibodies against S. Typhi O antigen, CTKBiotech Onsite Typhoid IgG/IgM Combo Rapid-test cassette lateral flow assay detecting IgG and IgM antibodies against S. Typhi O and H antigens and SD Bioline line assay for IgG and IgM antibodies against S. Typhi proteins. In 300 malaria smear-negative febrile patients [median (IQR) age of 13.5 (5-31) years], 34 (11.3%) had confirmed typhoid fever: 19 positive by blood culture for S. Typhi (three blood PCR positive) and 15 blood culture negative but PCR positive for S. Typhi in blood. The respective sensitivity and specificity of the three RDTs in patients using a composite reference standard of blood culture and/or PCR-confirmed typhoid fever were 59% and 61% for LifeAssay, 59% and 74% for the CTK IgM and/or IgG, and 24% and 96% for the SD Bioline RDT IgM and/or IgG. The LifeAssay RDT had a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 91% when modified with a positive cut-off of ≥2+ and analysed using a Bayesian latent class model. These typhoid RDTs demonstrated moderate diagnostic accuracies, and better tests are needed. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Do rapid 'superbug' tests pay off? Balance the costs and benefits of leading-edge technology. Interview by Alan Joch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Margie Ann

    2009-02-01

    As hospitals become increasingly sensitive to the health and financial consequences of health care-associated infections (HAIs), a new generation of molecular-based testing technologies promises to significantly shorten the time required to identify "superbugs" and other bacterial infections. The leading-edge techniques promise to reduce costs by helping hospitals quickly determine which patients to isolate because they carry active methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, for example, or which ones to release from prophylactic isolation because they ultimately tested negative for a dangerous infection. But diagnostic speed comes at a price--the costs to perform molecular tests are significantly higher than conventional methods. This challenges hospitals to balance health care expenses with medical efficacy, says molecular testing veteran Margie Morgan, Ph.D., scientific director at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles. "The rapid methods can be extreme time savers and possibly help a great deal with the isolation of patients. But some of the tests may cost five times what manual methods might be, so there is a price for seeing so much of a reduction in time," she says.

  18. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test for the detection of low burden Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Marco; Mangia, Carlo; Ferrari, Nicola; Loukeri, Sofia

    2018-01-01

    The performance of a rapid immunochromatographic test for the detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigens (Speed Diro™; BVT-Virbac, France) was assessed in 49 experimentally infected dogs and in 244 naturally infected animals; 142 dogs and 102 cats. In experimentally infected dogs, Speed Diro™ showed a sensitivity of 90.9% in dogs infected with one adult female worm and 100% in dogs infected with more than one female worm. Specificity was 100%. For naturally infected dogs, the Knott test and PetChek ® HTWM PF served as reference methods for microfilaremia and antigenemia, respectively. All microfilaemic dogs (55/142) were positive with Speed Diro™. Importantly, none of the 21 dogs infected with D. repens were positive. The results of Speed Diro™ for the detection of antigenemia were compared with two in-house tests, SNAP ® HTWM and Witness ® Dirofilaria, and all three tests were 100% specific and sensitive in comparison to PetChek ® HTWM PF. For the evaluation of feline samples, 102 cats were examined by echocardiography. Sera from 87 heartworm-infected cats were tested by Speed Diro™ and SNAP ® HTWM. The results of Speed Diro™ were equivalent to SNAP ® HTWM, with a sensitivity of 98.9% and a specificity of 100%.

  19. Detection of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori by polymerase chain reaction using residual samples from rapid urease test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sik Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, which corresponds to a high infection rate. Furthermore, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori has increased with the recent rise in use of antibiotics for H. pylori elimination, suggesting growing treatment failures. Aim: The study was aimed to assess the use of residual samples from rapid urease test (RUT for biomolecular testing as an effective and accurate method to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Settings and Design: This study was a retrospective study performed using data obtained from medical records of previously isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: RUT was conducted for 5440 biopsy samples from individuals who underwent health examination in South Korea. Subsequently, 469 RUT residual samples were randomly selected and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test was used to analyse categorical data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed a concordance between the results of PCR and conventional RUT in 450 of 469 samples, suggesting that the H. pylori PCR test is a time- and cost-effective detection method. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that PCR test can aid physicians to prescribe the appropriate antibiotics at the time of diagnosis, thus preventing the reduction in H. pylori eradication due to antibiotic resistance, averting progression to serious diseases and increasing the treatment success rate.

  20. Correlation between rapid HIV testing and fourth-generation ELISA results for HIV detection among pregnant patients in the delivery room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, Alejandro G; Mendoza-Flores, Lidia; Sánchez-López, Luis A; Palau-Dávila, Laura A; Padilla-Orozco, Magaly; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián

    2017-04-01

    To analyze the usefulness of rapid HIV testing in pregnant patients in the delivery room. This prospective study compared a rapid test and a fourth-generation enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for HIV screening among pregnant patients admitted in labor with an unknown HIV status at a university hospital in Mexico between July 2015 and February 2016. Pearson correlation analysis was performed, and the diagnostic accuracy of the two tests was assessed with HIV RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference method. Overall, 534 patients were included. With a signal-to-cutoff (S/CO) value of 1.0 or more as a diagnostic criterion, 6 (1.1%) patients had a positive ELISA result. Three had a negative rapid test and three had a positive test (r=0.705). With an S/CO value of 2.0 or more as cutoff, 4 (0.7%) patients had a positive ELISA result. Three had a positive rapid test and one had a negative test (r=0.865). Only three of six patients with an S/CO of 1.0 or more were confirmed to have HIV by RNA PCR. The rapid test showed a strong correlation with the fourth-generation ELISA. Therefore, rapid testing is a useful tool in the delivery room for patients with unknown HIV status. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  1. Rapid lymphocyte immunoreactivity test utilizing [3H]uridine in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pienkowski, M.M.; Lyerly, M.M.; Miller, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    A microculture assay utilizing [ 3 H]uridine incorporation was developed to test murine spleen lymphocyte immunoreactivity in vitro. Parameters of the culture technique which included cell density, doses of LPS, Con A, PHA, [ 3 H]uridine levels, and length of culture time were investigated. Responses were detectable at 4 h for all 3 mitogens, with labelling ranging up to 180% of the control value. By 8 h there was a 200-350% increase in mitogen-induced incorporation of radioactivity. Similar increases were observed in a serum-free system. The responses were the result of increased incorporation of label by stimulated cultures rather than decreased labeling of non-mitogen treated cultures over time. The [ 3 H]uridine incorporation was demonstrated to be the selective response of T or B cell populations when stimulated with appropriate lectins. This assay detects early RNA synthesis, as supported by experimental observations in which accumulation of radioactivity in stimulated lymphocytes was TCA precipitable, resistant to SDS treatment, and inhibited by actinomycin D. (Auth.)

  2. Evaluation of rapid diagnostic test kits for feline leukemia virus infection using samples from naturally infected cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayou Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Feline leukemia virus (FeLV is a potentially life-threatening oncogenic retrovirus. The p27 viral core protein is produced by the virus in infected feline cells, is found in the cytoplasm in several blood cells and can be free in the serum and plasma. ELISA or particle-based immunoassay are commonly used to detect the presence of the p27 core protein in samples obtained from blood. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of several in-clinic tests: the SNAP Feline Triple Test (IDEXX Laboratories, the WITNESS FeLV-FIV Test (Zoetis and the VetScan Feline FeLV/FIV Rapid Test (Abaxis. Methods The sample population (100 positive, 105 negative samples consisted of serum and plasma samples submitted to IDEXX’s worldwide reference laboratory for feline retrovirus testing. Virus isolation and reverse transcriptase PCR results were not available and so samples were judged to be positive or negative based on the results of the ViraCHEK FeLV (Zoetis microtiter plate assay. Results The percentage of samples positive and negative for FeLV p27 antigen using the three in-clinic tests compared with the ViraCHEK method were as follows: IDEXX Feline Triple (positive 98.0%, negative 100%; Zoetis WITNESS (positive 79.0%, negative 97.1%; Abaxis VetScan (positive 73.0%, negative 97.1%. Conclusions and relevance The SNAP Feline Triple Test demonstrated a high level of agreement for FeLV-positive and FeLV-negative samples when assessed in this model. Results of FeLV assays can vary among tests.

  3. Rapid diagnostic tests as a source of DNA for Plasmodium species-specific real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Esbroeck Marjan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs as a source of DNA for Plasmodium species-specific real-time PCR. Methods First, the best method to recover DNA from RDTs was investigated and then the applicability of this DNA extraction method was assessed on 12 different RDT brands. Finally, two RDT brands (OptiMAL Rapid Malaria Test and SDFK60 malaria Ag Plasmodium falciparum/Pan test were comprehensively evaluated on a panel of clinical samples submitted for routine malaria diagnosis at ITM. DNA amplification was done with the 18S rRNA real-time PCR targeting the four Plasmodium species. Results of PCR on RDT were compared to those obtained by PCR on whole blood samples. Results Best results were obtained by isolating DNA from the proximal part of the nitrocellulose component of the RDT strip with a simple DNA elution method. The PCR on RDT showed a detection limit of 0.02 asexual parasites/μl, which was identical to the same PCR on whole blood. For all 12 RDT brands tested, DNA was detected except for one brand when a low parasite density sample was applied. In RDTs with a plastic seal covering the nitrocellulose strip, DNA extraction was hampered. PCR analysis on clinical RDT samples demonstrated correct identification for single species infections for all RDT samples with asexual parasites of P. falciparum (n = 60, Plasmodium vivax (n = 10, Plasmodium ovale (n = 10 and Plasmodium malariae (n = 10. Samples with only gametocytes were detected in all OptiMAL and in 10 of the 11 SDFK60 tests. None of the negative samples (n = 20 gave a signal by PCR on RDT. With PCR on RDT, higher Ct-values were observed than with PCR on whole blood, with a mean difference of 2.68 for OptiMAL and 3.53 for SDFK60. Mixed infections were correctly identified with PCR on RDT in 4/5 OptiMAL tests and 2/5 SDFK60 tests. Conclusions RDTs are a reliable source of DNA for Plasmodium real-time PCR. This study demonstrates the

  4. Biosensors and bioelectronics on smartphone for portable biochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Diming; Liu, Qingjun

    2016-01-15

    Smartphone has been widely integrated with sensors, such as test strips, sensor chips, and hand-held detectors, for biochemical detections due to its portability and ubiquitous availability. Utilizing built-in function modules, smartphone is often employed as controller, analyzer, and displayer for rapid, real-time, and point-of-care monitoring, which can significantly simplify design and reduce cost of the detecting systems. This paper presents a review of biosensors and bioelectronics on smartphone for portable biochemical detections. The biosensors and bioelectronics based on smartphone can mainly be classified into biosensors using optics, surface plasmon resonance, electrochemistry, and near-field communication. The developments of these biosensors and bioelectronics on smartphone are reviewed along with typical biochemical detecting cases. Sensor strategies, detector attachments, and coupling methods are highlighted to show designs of the compact, lightweight, and low-cost sensor systems. The performances and advantages of these designs are introduced with their applications in healthcare diagnosis, environment monitoring, and food evaluation. With advances in micro-manufacture, sensor technology, and miniaturized electronics, biosensor and bioelectronic devices on smartphone can be used to perform biochemical detections as common and convenient as electronic tag readout in foreseeable future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers with a rapid and sensitive multicolor quantum dots based immunochromatographic test strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunying; Hou, Fei; Ma, Yicai

    2015-06-15

    A novel multicolor quantum dots (QDs) based immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) was developed for simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers, by utilizing alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as models. The immunosensor could realize simultaneous quantitative detection of tumor markers with only one test line and one control line on the nitrocellulose membrane (NC membrane) due to the introduction of multicolor QDs. In this method, a mixture of mouse anti-AFP McAb and mouse anti-CEA McAb was coated on NC membrane as test line and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody was coated as control line. Anti-AFP McAb-QDs546 conjugates and anti-CEA McAb-QDs620 conjugates were mixed and applied to the conjugate pad. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers was achieved by detecting the fluorescence intensity of captured QDs labels on test line and control line using a test strip reader. Under the optimum conditions, AFP and CEA could be detected as low as 3 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL in 15 min with a sample volume of 80 μL, and no obvious cross-reactivity was observed. The immunosensor was validated with 130 clinical samples and in which it exhibited high sensitivity (93% for AFP and 87% for CEA) and specificity (94% for AFP and 97% for CEA). The immunosensor also demonstrated high recoveries (87.5-113% for AFP and 90-97.3% for CEA) and low relative standard deviations (RSDs) (2.8-6.2% for AFP and 4.9-9.6% for CEA) when testing spiked human serum. This novel multicolor QDs based ICTS provides an easy and rapid, simultaneous quantitative detecting strategy for point-of-care testing of tumor markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of three rapid oral fluid test devices on the screening of multiple drugs of abuse including ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Magdalene H Y; Ching, C K; Poon, Simon; Chan, Suzanne S S; Ng, W Y; Lam, M; Wong, C K; Pao, Ronnie; Lau, Angus; Mak, Tony W L

    2018-05-01

    Rapid oral fluid testing (ROFT) devices have been extensively evaluated for their ability to detect common drugs of abuse; however, the performance of such devices on simultaneous screening for ketamine has been scarcely investigated. The present study evaluated three ROFT devices (DrugWipe ® 6S, Ora-Check ® and SalivaScreen ® ) on the detection of ketamine, opiates, methamphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and MDMA. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay was firstly established and validated for confirmation analysis of the six types of drugs and/or their metabolites. In the field test, the three ROFT devices were tested on subjects recruited from substance abuse clinics/rehabilitation centre. Oral fluid was also collected using Quantisal ® for confirmation analysis. A total of 549 samples were collected in the study. LCMS analysis on 491 samples revealed the following drugs: codeine (55%), morphine (49%), heroin (40%), methamphetamine (35%), THC (8%), ketamine (4%) and cocaine (2%). No MDMA-positive cases were observed. Results showed that the overall specificity and accuracy were satisfactory and met the DRUID standard of >80% for all 3 devices. Ora-Check ® had poor sensitivities (ketamine 36%, methamphetamine 63%, opiates 53%, cocaine 60%, THC 0%). DrugWipe ® 6S showed good sensitivities in the methamphetamine (83%) and opiates (93%) tests but performed relatively poorly for ketamine (41%), cocaine (43%) and THC (22%). SalivaScreen ® also demonstrated good sensitivities in the methamphetamine (83%) and opiates (100%) tests, and had the highest sensitivity for ketamine (76%) and cocaine (71%); however, it failed to detect any of the 28 THC-positive cases. The test completion rate (proportion of tests completed with quality control passed) were: 52% (Ora-Check ® ), 78% (SalivaScreen ® ) and 99% (DrugWipe ® 6S). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of rapid immunofluorescence procedure with TestPack RSV and Directigen FLU-A for diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, S J; Minnich, L; Waner, J L

    1995-01-01

    A rapid immunofluorescence format requiring 20 min for completion was as effective as conventional indirect and direct immunofluorescence procedures for detecting respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus antigens in clinical specimens. Rapid immunofluorescence was more sensitive than TestPack RSV and comparable to Directigen FLU-A immunosorbent assays, which require 20 min for completion.

  8. The role and reliability of rapid bedside diagnostic test in early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Debata, Pradeep Kumar; Ranjan, Amitabh; Gaind, Rajani

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the role and reliability of rapid bedside diagnostic test in early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis in children using reagent strips. This prospective, single blinded study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi in collaboration with the Department of Microbiology of VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, over a period of 15 mo (August 2009 to Nov 2010). Seventy-five children aged 3 mo to 12 y admitted in the pediatric ward with suspected diagnosis of acute meningitis were included. All enroled patients underwent lumbar puncture. CSF samples were taken and divided in 2 parts for laboratory evaluation and rapid strip analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and the negative predictive values of the reagent strips for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis were calculated. Accuracy of the reagent strips was established using kappa statistics. Latex agglutination for antigen detection and microbiological culture were also done. Highly significant association was observed between CSF examination in routine laboratory method and dipstick method. The number of laboratory values that correlated were- for cells 71(94.63%), for protein 68 (90.67%), for glucose 68(90.67%) out of total 75 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of reagent strip in diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis were 96.7% and 97.8% respectively. The positive predictive and negative predictive values of reagent strip in diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis were 96.7% and 97.8% respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most common organism isolated (50%). Thus reagent strip analysis is a very rapid, reliable and effective method for diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in children. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism isolated.

  9. Viral hepatitis and rapid diagnostic test based screening for HBsAg in HIV-infected patients in rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian C Franzeck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV is highly prevalent in people living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. Screening for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg before initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART is recommended. However, it is not part of diagnostic routines in HIV programs in many resource-limited countries although patients could benefit from optimized antiretroviral therapy covering both infections. Screening could be facilitated by rapid diagnostic tests for HBsAg. Operating experience with these point of care devices in HIV-positive patients in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely lacking. We determined the prevalence of HBV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection as well as the diagnostic accuracy of the rapid test device Determine HBsAg in an HIV cohort in rural Tanzania. METHODS: Prospectively collected blood samples from adult, HIV-1 positive and antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients in the Kilombero and Ulanga antiretroviral cohort (KIULARCO in rural Tanzania were analyzed at the point of care with Determine HBsAg, a reference HBsAg EIA and an anti-HCV EIA. RESULTS: Samples of 272 patients were included. Median age was 38 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-47, 169/272 (63% subjects were females and median CD4+ count was 250 cells/µL (IQR 97-439. HBsAg was detected in 25/272 (9.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2-13.0% subjects. Of these, 7/25 (28% were positive for HBeAg. Sensitivity of Determine HBsAg was rated at 96% (95% CI 82.8-99.6% and specificity at 100% (95% CI, 98.9-100%. Antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV were found in 10/272 (3.7%, 95% CI 2.0-6.4% of patients. CONCLUSION: This study reports a high prevalence of HBV in HIV-positive patients in a rural Tanzanian setting. The rapid diagnostic test Determine HBsAg is an accurate assay for screening for HBsAg in HIV-1 infected patients at the point of care and may further help to guide cART in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. Analytical Validation of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test for Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W.; Boisen, Matthew L.; Millett, Molly M.; Nelson, Diana S.; Oottamasathien, Darin; Hartnett, Jessica N.; Jones, Abigal B.; Goba, Augustine; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohamed; Bornholdt, Zachary A.; Fusco, Marnie L.; Abelson, Dafna M.; Oda, Shunichiro; Brown, Bethany L.; Pham, Ha; Rowland, Megan M.; Agans, Krystle N.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Heinrich, Megan L.; Kulakosky, Peter C.; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Schieffelin, John S.; Kargbo, Brima; Gbetuwa, Momoh; Gevao, Sahr M.; Wilson, Russell B.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Pitts, Kelly R.; Khan, Sheik Humarr; Grant, Donald S.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Branco, Luis M.; Garry, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe viral illness caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). The 2013–2016 EVD outbreak in West Africa is the largest recorded, with >11 000 deaths. Development of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test (ReEBOV RDT) was expedited to provide a point-of-care test for suspected EVD cases. Methods. Recombinant EBOV viral protein 40 antigen was used to derive polyclonal antibodies for RDT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development. ReEBOV RDT limits of detection (LOD), specificity, and interference were analytically validated on the basis of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance. Results. The ReEBOV RDT specificity estimate was 95% for donor serum panels and 97% for donor whole-blood specimens. The RDT demonstrated sensitivity to 3 species of Ebolavirus (Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Bundibugyo ebolavirus) associated with human disease, with no cross-reactivity by pathogens associated with non-EBOV febrile illness, including malaria parasites. Interference testing exhibited no reactivity by medications in common use. The LOD for antigen was 4.7 ng/test in serum and 9.4 ng/test in whole blood. Quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction testing of nonhuman primate samples determined the range to be equivalent to 3.0 × 105–9.0 × 108 genomes/mL. Conclusions. The analytical validation presented here contributed to the ReEBOV RDT being the first antigen-based assay to receive FDA and World Health Organization emergency use authorization for this EVD outbreak, in February 2015. PMID:27587634

  11. Self-diagnosis of malaria by travelers and expatriates: assessment of malaria rapid diagnostic tests available on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltha, Jessica; Gillet, Philippe; Heutmekers, Marloes; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Van Gompel, Alfons; Jacobs, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In the past malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for self-diagnosis by travelers were considered suboptimal due to poor performance. Nowadays RDTs for self-diagnosis are marketed and available through the internet. The present study assessed RDT products marketed for self-diagnosis for diagnostic accuracy and quality of labeling, content and instructions for use (IFU). Diagnostic accuracy of eight RDT products was assessed with a panel of stored whole blood samples comprising the four Plasmodium species (n = 90) as well as Plasmodium negative samples (n = 10). IFUs were assessed for quality of description of procedure and interpretation and for lay-out and readability level. Errors in packaging and content were recorded. Two products gave false-positive test lines in 70% and 80% of Plasmodium negative samples, precluding their use. Of the remaining products, 4/6 had good to excellent sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum (98.2%-100.0%) and Plasmodium vivax (93.3%-100.0%). Sensitivity for Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae diagnosis was poor (6.7%-80.0%). All but one product yielded false-positive test lines after reading beyond the recommended reading time. Problems with labeling (not specifying target antigens (n = 3), and content (desiccant with no humidity indicator (n = 6)) were observed. IFUs had major shortcomings in description of test procedure and interpretation, poor readability and lay-out and user-unfriendly typography. Strategic issues (e.g. the need for repeat testing and reasons for false-negative tests) were not addressed in any of the IFUs. Diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for self-diagnosis was variable, with only 4/8 RDT products being reliable for the diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax, and none for P. ovale and P. malariae. RDTs for self-diagnosis need improvements in IFUs (content and user-friendliness), labeling and content before they can be considered for self-diagnosis by the traveler.

  12. A rapid nuclear staining test using cationic dyes contributes to efficient STR analysis of telogen hair roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Ha, Eun-Ju; Woo, Seung-Kyun; Lee, So-Min; Lim, Kyung-Hee; Eom, Yong-Bin

    2017-07-01

    Telogen hairs presented in the crime scene are commonly encountered as trace evidence. However, short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of the hairs currently have low and limited use due to poor success rate. To increase the success rate of STR profiling of telogen hairs, we developed a rapid and cost-effective method to estimate the number of nuclei in the hair roots. Five cationic dyes, Methyl green (MG), Harris hematoxylin (HH), Methylene blue (MB), Toluidine blue (TB), and Safranin O (SO) were evaluated in this study. We conducted a screening test based on microscopy and the percentage of loss with nuclear DNA, in order to select the best dye. MG was selected based on its specific nuclei staining and low adverse effect on the hair-associated nuclear DNA. We examined 330 scalp and 100 pubic telogen hairs with MG. Stained hairs were classified into five groups and analyzed by STR. The fast staining method revealed 70% (head hair) and 33.4% (pubic hair) of full (30 alleles) and high partial (18-29 alleles) STR profiling proportion from the lowest nuclei count group (one to ten nuclei). The results of this study demonstrated a rapid, specific, nondestructive, and high yield DNA profiling method applicable for screening telogen hairs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Pen-on-paper strategy for point-of-care testing: Rapid prototyping of fully written microfluidic biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zedong; Li, Fei; Xing, Yue; Liu, Zhi; You, Minli; Li, Yingchun; Wen, Ting; Qu, Zhiguo; Ling Li, Xiao; Xu, Feng

    2017-12-15

    Paper-based microfluidic biosensors have recently attracted increasing attentions in point-of-care testing (POCT) territories benefiting from their affordable, accessible and eco-friendly features, where technologies for fabricating such biosensors are preferred to be equipment free, easy-to-operate and capable of rapid prototyping. In this work, we developed a pen-on-paper (PoP) strategy based on two custom-made pens, i.e., a wax pen and a conductive-ink pen, to fully write paper-based microfluidic biosensors through directly writing both microfluidic channels and electrodes. Particularly, the proposed wax pen is competent to realize one-step fabrication of wax channels on paper, as the melted wax penetrates into paper during writing process without any post-treatments. The practical applications of the fabricated paper-based microfluidic biosensors are demonstrated by both colorimetric detection of Salmonella typhimurium DNA with detection limit of 1nM and electrochemical measurement of glucose with detection limit of 1mM. The developed PoP strategy for making microfluidic biosensors on paper characterized by true simplicity, prominent portability and excellent capability for rapid prototyping shows promising prospect in POCT applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tests of models of color reconnection and a search for glueballs using gluon jets with a rapidity gap

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2004-01-01

    Gluon jets with a mean energy of 22 GeV and purity of 95% are selected from hadronic Z0 decay events produced in e+e- annihilations. A subsample of these jets is identified which exhibits a large gap in the rapidity distribution of particles within the jet. After imposing the requirement of a rapidity gap, the gluon jet purity is 86%. These jets are observed to demonstrate a high degree of sensitivity to the presence of color reconnection, i.e. higher order QCD processes affecting the underlying color structure. We use our data to test three QCD models which include a simulation of color reconnection: one in the Ariadne Monte Carlo, one in the Herwig Monte Carlo, and the other by Rathsman in the Pythia Monte Carlo. We find the Rathsman and Ariadne color reconnection models can describe our gluon jet measurements only if very large values are used for the cutoff parameters which serve to terminate the parton showers, and that the description of inclusive Z0 data is significantly degraded in this case. We concl...

  15. Development of monoclonal antibodies and immunochromatographic lateral flow device for rapid test of alanine aminotransferase isoenzyme 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaomei; Cheng, Shiliang; Liu, Xinfeng; Li, Jie; Zheng, Wen; Lu, Gang; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) has been used as a sensitive marker for liver injury in people and in preclinical toxicity studies. But measurement of ALT isoenzymes, ALT1 and ALT2, was reported to be of more diagnostic value. The aim of this study is to develop an ideal pair of anti-ALT1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of high specificity and affinity, and subsequently prepare a Immunochromatographic lateral flow device (LFD) for rapid test of ALT1 in human serums. The complete coding sequence of ALT1 gene (1500 bp) was cloned from human hepatoma G2 cells (HepG2) and inserted into the expression vector pET-32a(+). ALT1 recombinant protein was routinely prepared by E. coli BL21 (DE3) expression and Ni(2+) affinity purification. Balb/c mice were immunized with purified ALT1 and the splenocytes were fused with Sp2/0 myeloma cells. The positive clones, verified by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using purified ALT1, were subcloned to single clones by limiting dilution process. A MAb pair was selected from the obtained MAbs according the sandwich ELISA pairing results and then used for lateral flow device (LFD) production. After evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity, the LFD strips were employed to test human serum samples with known ALT activity levels. ALT1 recombinant protein was expectedly prepared by expression and purification. A total of 8 stable clones that produced antibodies specifically recognizing ALT1 protein were developed. After sandwich ELISA pairing, an ideal pair of anti-ALT1 MAbs, designated as BD7 and DG3, were selected and proved to be of high specificity, titer and affinity. Based on the MAb pair, LFD strips specifically for ALT1 rapid test were subsequently prepared. The detection threshold of the LFD strips was 12 U/L. No cross reaction was found. The ALT1 LFD with high sensitivity and specificity was successfully developed. It is valuable for testing ALT1 protein in human sera and can be a beneficial complement for

  16. Meningitis Dipstick Rapid Test: Evaluating Diagnostic Performance during an Urban Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup A Outbreak, Burkina Faso, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Angela M. C.; Mueller, Judith E.; Gerstl, Sibylle; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Page, Anne-Laure; Nicolas, Pierre; Traoré, Ramata Ouédraogo; Caugant, Dominique A.; Guerin, Philippe J.

    2010-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis outbreaks occur every year during the dry season in the “meningitis belt” of sub-Saharan Africa. Identification of the causative strain is crucial before launching mass vaccination campaigns, to assure use of the correct vaccine. Rapid agglutination (latex) tests are most commonly available in district-level laboratories at the beginning of the epidemic season; limitations include a short shelf-life and the need for refrigeration and good technical skills. Recently, a new dipstick rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was developed to identify and differentiate disease caused by meningococcal serogroups A, W135, C and Y. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of this dipstick RDT during an urban outbreak of meningitis caused by N. meningitidis serogroup A in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; first against an in-country reference standard of culture and/or multiplex PCR; and second against culture and/or a highly sensitive nested PCR technique performed in Oslo, Norway. We included 267 patients with suspected acute bacterial meningitis. Using the in-country reference standard, 50 samples (19%) were positive. Dipstick RDT sensitivity (N = 265) was 70% (95%CI 55–82) and specificity 97% (95%CI 93–99). Using culture and/or nested PCR, 126/259 (49%) samples were positive; dipstick RDT sensitivity (N = 257) was 32% (95%CI 24–41), and specificity was 99% (95%CI 95–100). We found dipstick RDT sensitivity lower than values reported from (i) assessments under ideal laboratory conditions (>90%), and (ii) a prior field evaluation in Niger [89% (95%CI 80–95)]. Specificity, however, was similar to (i), and higher than (ii) [62% (95%CI 48–75)]. At this stage in development, therefore, other tests (e.g., latex) might be preferred for use in peripheral health centres. We highlight the value of field evaluations for new diagnostic tests, and note relatively low sensitivity of a reference standard using multiplex vs. nested PCR. Although the former is

  17. Meningitis dipstick rapid test: evaluating diagnostic performance during an urban Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A outbreak, Burkina Faso, 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M C Rose

    Full Text Available Meningococcal meningitis outbreaks occur every year during the dry season in the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. Identification of the causative strain is crucial before launching mass vaccination campaigns, to assure use of the correct vaccine. Rapid agglutination (latex tests are most commonly available in district-level laboratories at the beginning of the epidemic season; limitations include a short shelf-life and the need for refrigeration and good technical skills. Recently, a new dipstick rapid diagnostic test (RDT was developed to identify and differentiate disease caused by meningococcal serogroups A, W135, C and Y. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of this dipstick RDT during an urban outbreak of meningitis caused by N. meningitidis serogroup A in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; first against an in-country reference standard of culture and/or multiplex PCR; and second against culture and/or a highly sensitive nested PCR technique performed in Oslo, Norway. We included 267 patients with suspected acute bacterial meningitis. Using the in-country reference standard, 50 samples (19% were positive. Dipstick RDT sensitivity (N = 265 was 70% (95%CI 55-82 and specificity 97% (95%CI 93-99. Using culture and/or nested PCR, 126/259 (49% samples were positive; dipstick RDT sensitivity (N = 257 was 32% (95%CI 24-41, and specificity was 99% (95%CI 95-100. We found dipstick RDT sensitivity lower than values reported from (i assessments under ideal laboratory conditions (>90%, and (ii a prior field evaluation in Niger [89% (95%CI 80-95]. Specificity, however, was similar to (i, and higher than (ii [62% (95%CI 48-75]. At this stage in development, therefore, other tests (e.g., latex might be preferred for use in peripheral health centres. We highlight the value of field evaluations for new diagnostic tests, and note relatively low sensitivity of a reference standard using multiplex vs. nested PCR. Although the former is the current standard

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of malaria rapid diagnostic tests for appropriate treatment of malaria at the community level in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian S; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    was a cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) performed by CHWs in two areas of moderate-to-high and low malaria transmission in rural Uganda. CHWs were trained to perform mRDTs and treat children with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT......In Sub-Saharan Africa, malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5, due to lack of access to prompt and appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Many countries have scaled-up community health workers (CHWs) as a strategy towards improving access. The present study......) in the intervention arm while CHWs offered treatment based on presumptive diagnosis in the control arm. Data on the proportion of children with fever 'appropriately treated for malaria with ACT' were captured from a randomised trial. Health sector costs included: training of CHWs, community sensitisation, supervision...

  19. Rapid test for lung maturity, based on spectroscopy of gastric aspirate, predicted respiratory distress syndrome with high sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verder, Henrik; Heiring, Christian; Clark, Howard

    2017-01-01

    : An L/S algorithm was developed based on 89 aspirates. Subsequently, gastric aspirates were sampled in 136 infants of 24-31 weeks of gestation and 61 (45%) developed RDS. The cut-off value of L/S was 2.2, sensitivity was 92%, and specificity was 73%. In 59 cases, the oropharyngeal secretions had less...... aspirates were analysed with mid-infrared spectroscopy. Subsequently, L/S was measured in gastric aspirates and oropharyngeal secretions from another group of premature infants using spectroscopy and the results were compared with RDS development. The 10-minute analysis required 10 μL of aspirate. RESULTS...... valid L/S than gastric aspirate results. CONCLUSION: Our rapid test for lung maturity, based on spectroscopy of gastric aspirate, predicted RDS with high sensitivity....

  20. Use of a Rapid Test for Diagnosis of Dengue during Suspected Dengue Outbreaks in Resource-Limited Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Sharp, Tyler M; Lalita, Paul; Tikomaidraubuta, Kini; Cardoso, Yolanda Rebello; Naivalu, Taina; Khan, Aalisha Sahu; Marfel, Maria; Hancock, W Thane; Tomashek, Kay M; Margolis, Harold S

    2016-08-01

    Dengue is major public health problem, globally. Timely verification of suspected dengue outbreaks allows for public health response, leading to the initiation of appropriate clinical care. Because the clinical presentation of dengue is nonspecific, dengue diagnosis would benefit from a sensitive rapid diagnostic test (RDT). We evaluated the diagnostic performance of an RDT that detects dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) and anti-DENV IgM during suspected acute febrile illness (AFI) outbreaks in four countries. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR and anti-DENV IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to verify RDT results. Anti-DENV IgM RDT sensitivity and specificity ranged from 55.3 to 91.7% and 85.3 to 98.5%, respectively, and NS1 sensitivity and specificity ranged from 49.7 to 92.9% and 22.2 to 89.0%, respectively. Sensitivity varied by timing of specimen collection and DENV serotype. Combined test results moderately improved the sensitivity. The use of RDTs identified dengue as the cause of AFI outbreaks where reference diagnostic testing was limited or unavailable. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Kim, Youn-Jung; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae; Shin, Woongghi; Han, Taejun

    2014-10-01

    Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETRmax) with median effective concentration (EC50) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. The EC50 values for Fv/Fm, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Field performance of malaria rapid diagnostic test for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum infection in Odisha State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have become an essential surveillance tool in the malaria control programme in India. The current study aimed to assess the performance of ParaHIT-f, a rapid test in diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection through detecting its specific antigen, histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP-2, in Odisha State, India. Methods: The study was undertaken in eight falciparum malaria endemic southern districts of Odisha State. Febrile patients included through active case detection, were diagnosed by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs for P. falciparum infection using the RDT, ParaHIT-f. The performance of ParaHIT-f was evaluated using microscopy as the gold standard. Results: A total of 1030 febrile patients were screened by both microscopy and the RDT for P. falciparum infection. The sensitivity of ParaHIT-f was 63.6% (95% CI: 56.0-70.6 and specificity was 98.9% (95% CI: 97.9-99.5, with positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV of 92.6% (95% CI: 86.0-96.3 and 93.0% (95% CI: 91.0-94.5, respectively. When related to parasitaemia, the RDT sensitivity was 47.8% at the low parasitaemia of 4 to 40 parasites/µl of blood. Interpretation & conclusions: The results showed that the performance of the RDT, ParaHIT-f, was not as sensitive as microscopy in detecting true falciparum infections; a high specificity presented a low frequency of false-positive RDT results. t0 he sensitivity of ParaHIT-f was around 60 per cent. It is, therefore, essential to improve the efficiency (sensitivity of the kit so that the true falciparum infections will not be missed especially in areas where P. falciparum has been the predominant species causing cerebral malaria.

  3. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health ...

  4. Comparison of direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for rapid analysis of bronchial secretion samples in ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopidou, Flora; Galani, Irene; Panagea, Theofano; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Souli, Maria; Paramythiotou, Elisabeth; Koukos, George; Karadani, Irene; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Giamarellou, Helen

    2011-08-01

    Two hundred and fifty tracheal aspirates were subjected to direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion, Etest and inoculation on antibiotic-enriched MacConkey agar plates. Results were compared with those obtained using an automated system on microorganisms recovered from standard quantitative culture. A total of 255 microorganisms were isolated from 194 positive samples by the standard quantitative procedure. A total of 85.1%, 82.5% and 72.5% agreement between direct disk diffusion, Etest and antibiotic-enriched MacConkey agar plates, respectively, and the standard procedure was observed in 64 microorganisms obtained from monomicrobial cultures that corresponded to 240 individual microorganism-antimicrobial agent combinations. Three (1.3%) and four (1.7%) very major errors for direct disk diffusion and Etest methods were observed, respectively. The antibiotic-enriched MacConkey agar plate method compared with the standard procedure demonstrated an unacceptable rate of very major (6.7%) and major errors (14.2%). Clinical evaluation of direct susceptibility tests based on the speculative impact on clinical practice by guiding patient's early treatment, if all positive cultures corresponded to infection, was correct in 79.9% for the direct disk diffusion test, 77.8% for the direct Etest method and 68.0% for antibiotic-enriched MacConkey agar plates. Direct diffusion tests (Etest or disk diffusion) applied on respiratory samples are rapid techniques that provide results comparable with standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing in <24 h. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  5. SMS messages increase adherence to rapid diagnostic test results among malaria patients: results from a pilot study in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrek, Sepideh; Schatzkin, Eric; De La Cruz, Anna; Isiguzo, Chinwoke; Nwokolo, Ernest; Anyanti, Jennifer; Ujuju, Chinazo; Montagu, Dominic; Liu, Jenny

    2014-02-25

    The World Health Organization now recommends parasitological confirmation for malaria case management. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are an accurate and simple diagnostic to confirm parasite presence in blood. However, where they have been deployed, adherence to RDT results has been poor, especially when the test result is negative. Few studies have examined adherence to RDTs distributed or purchased through the private sector. The Rapid Examination of Malaria and Evaluation of Diagnostic Information (REMEDI) study assessed the acceptability of and adherence to RDT results for patients seeking care from private sector drug retailers in two cities in Oyo State in south-west Nigeria. In total, 465 adult participants were enrolled upon exit from a participating drug shop having purchased anti-malaria drugs for themselves. Participants were given a free RDT and the appropriate treatment advice based on their RDT result. Short Message Service (SMS) text messages reiterating the treatment advice were sent to a randomly selected half of the participants one day after being tested. Participants were contacted via phone four days after the RDT was conducted to assess adherence to the RDT information and treatment advice. Adherence to RDT results was 14.3 percentage points (P-val <0.001) higher in the treatment group who were sent the SMS. The higher adherence in the treatment group was robust to several specification tests and the estimated difference in adherence ranged from 9.7 to 16.1 percentage points. Further, the higher adherence to the treatment advice was specific to the treatment advice for anti-malarial drugs and not other drugs purchased to treat malaria symptoms in the RDT-negative participants who bought both anti-malarial and symptom drugs. There was no difference in adherence for the RDT-positive participants who were sent the SMS. SMS text messages substantially increased adherence to RDT results for patients seeking care for malaria from

  6. SMS messages increase adherence to rapid diagnostic test results among malaria patients: results from a pilot study in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization now recommends parasitological confirmation for malaria case management. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are an accurate and simple diagnostic to confirm parasite presence in blood. However, where they have been deployed, adherence to RDT results has been poor, especially when the test result is negative. Few studies have examined adherence to RDTs distributed or purchased through the private sector. Methods The Rapid Examination of Malaria and Evaluation of Diagnostic Information (REMEDI) study assessed the acceptability of and adherence to RDT results for patients seeking care from private sector drug retailers in two cities in Oyo State in south-west Nigeria. In total, 465 adult participants were enrolled upon exit from a participating drug shop having purchased anti-malaria drugs for themselves. Participants were given a free RDT and the appropriate treatment advice based on their RDT result. Short Message Service (SMS) text messages reiterating the treatment advice were sent to a randomly selected half of the participants one day after being tested. Participants were contacted via phone four days after the RDT was conducted to assess adherence to the RDT information and treatment advice. Results Adherence to RDT results was 14.3 percentage points (P-val SMS. The higher adherence in the treatment group was robust to several specification tests and the estimated difference in adherence ranged from 9.7 to 16.1 percentage points. Further, the higher adherence to the treatment advice was specific to the treatment advice for anti-malarial drugs and not other drugs purchased to treat malaria symptoms in the RDT-negative participants who bought both anti-malarial and symptom drugs. There was no difference in adherence for the RDT-positive participants who were sent the SMS. Conclusions SMS text messages substantially increased adherence to RDT results for patients seeking care for malaria from privately owned drug

  7. Analysis of False-Negative Human Immunodeficiency Virus Rapid Tests Performed on Oral Fluid in 3 International Clinical Research Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlin, Marcel E; Gvetadze, Roman; Leelawiwat, Wanna; Martin, Michael; Rose, Charles; Niska, Richard W; Segolodi, Tebogo M; Choopanya, Kachit; Tongtoyai, Jaray; Holtz, Timothy H; Samandari, Taraz; McNicholl, Janet M

    2017-06-15

    The OraQuick Advance Rapid HIV-1/2 Test is a point-of-care test capable of detecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibodies in blood and oral fluid. To understand test performance and factors contributing to false-negative results in longitudinal studies, we examined results of participants enrolled in the Botswana TDF/FTC Oral HIV Prophylaxis Trial, the Bangkok Tenofovir Study, and the Bangkok MSM Cohort Study, 3 separate clinical studies of high-risk, HIV-negative persons conducted in Botswana and Thailand. In a retrospective observational analysis, we compared oral fluid OraQuick (OFOQ) results among participants becoming HIV infected to results obtained retrospectively using enzyme immunoassay and nucleic acid amplification tests on stored specimens. We categorized negative OFOQ results as true-negative or false-negative relative to nucleic acid amplification test and/or enzyme immunoassay, and determined the delay in OFOQ conversion relative to the estimated time of infection. We used log-binomial regression and generalized estimating equations to examine the association between false-negative results and participant, clinical, and testing-site factors. Two-hundred thirty-three false-negative OFOQ results occurred in 80 of 287 seroconverting individuals. Estimated OFOQ conversion delay ranged from 14.5 to 547.5 (median, 98.5) days. Delayed OFOQ conversion was associated with clinical site and test operator (P < .05), preexposure prophylaxis (P = .01), low plasma viral load (P < .02), and time to kit expiration (P < .01). Participant age, sex, and HIV subtype were not associated with false-negative results. Long OFOQ conversion delay time was associated with antiretroviral exposure and low plasma viral load. Failure of OFOQ to detect HIV-1 infection was frequent and multifactorial in origin. In longitudinal trials, negative oral fluid results should be confirmed via testing of blood samples. Published by Oxford University Press for the

  8. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus rapid tests underestimate hepatitis prevalence among