WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid auditory processing

  1. Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS Shapes the Processing of Rapidly Changing Auditory Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina S. Rufener

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS has been demonstrated to specifically increase gamma oscillation in the human auditory cortex. However, neither the physiological mechanisms of tRNS nor the behavioral consequences of this intervention are completely understood. In the present study we stimulated the human auditory cortex bilaterally with tRNS while EEG was continuously measured. Modulations in the participants’ temporal and spectral resolution ability were investigated by means of a gap detection task and a pitch discrimination task. Compared to sham, auditory tRNS increased the detection rate for near-threshold stimuli in the temporal domain only, while no such effect was present for the discrimination of spectral features. Behavioral findings were paralleled by reduced peak latencies of the P50 and N1 component of the auditory event-related potentials (ERP indicating an impact on early sensory processing. The facilitating effect of tRNS was limited to the processing of near-threshold stimuli while stimuli clearly below and above the individual perception threshold were not affected by tRNS. This non-linear relationship between the signal-to-noise level of the presented stimuli and the effect of stimulation further qualifies stochastic resonance (SR as the underlying mechanism of tRNS on auditory processing. Our results demonstrate a tRNS related improvement in acoustic perception of time critical auditory information and, thus, provide further indices that auditory tRNS can amplify the resonance frequency of the auditory system.

  2. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luisa eLorusso; Chiara eCantiani; Massimo eMolteni

    2014-01-01

    The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP) deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of non-verbal tone sequences. Participants were 46 childre...

  3. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa eLorusso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of nonverbal tone sequences.Participants were 46 children aged 8 - 14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia. Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length, and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children’s performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children’s difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs long tones and for long vs short ISIs predict nonword and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness.In conclusion, the relationship between nonverbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with

  4. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cantiani, Chiara; Molteni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP) deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of non-verbal tone sequences. Participants were 46 children aged 8-14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia). Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ) (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length), and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children's performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children's difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older) children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs. short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs. long tones and for long vs. short ISIs predict non-word and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness. In conclusion, the relationship between non-verbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with subgroup

  5. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role. Auditory cohesion problems: This is when higher-level listening tasks are difficult. Auditory cohesion skills — drawing inferences from conversations, understanding riddles, or comprehending verbal math problems — require heightened auditory processing and language levels. ...

  6. The auditory brainstem is a barometer of rapid auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoe, E; Krizman, J; Spitzer, E; Kraus, N

    2013-07-23

    To capture patterns in the environment, neurons in the auditory brainstem rapidly alter their firing based on the statistical properties of the soundscape. How this neural sensitivity relates to behavior is unclear. We tackled this question by combining neural and behavioral measures of statistical learning, a general-purpose learning mechanism governing many complex behaviors including language acquisition. We recorded complex auditory brainstem responses (cABRs) while human adults implicitly learned to segment patterns embedded in an uninterrupted sound sequence based on their statistical characteristics. The brainstem's sensitivity to statistical structure was measured as the change in the cABR between a patterned and a pseudo-randomized sequence composed from the same set of sounds but differing in their sound-to-sound probabilities. Using this methodology, we provide the first demonstration that behavioral-indices of rapid learning relate to individual differences in brainstem physiology. We found that neural sensitivity to statistical structure manifested along a continuum, from adaptation to enhancement, where cABR enhancement (patterned>pseudo-random) tracked with greater rapid statistical learning than adaptation. Short- and long-term auditory experiences (days to years) are known to promote brainstem plasticity and here we provide a conceptual advance by showing that the brainstem is also integral to rapid learning occurring over minutes. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Auditory Temporal Processing as a Specific Deficit among Dyslexic Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostick, Leah; Bar-El, Sharona; Ram-Tsur, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on examining the hypothesis that auditory temporal perception deficit is a basic cause for reading disabilities among dyslexics. This hypothesis maintains that reading impairment is caused by a fundamental perceptual deficit in processing rapid auditory or visual stimuli. Since the auditory perception involves a number of…

  8. Early gamma oscillations during rapid auditory processing in children with a language-learning impairment: changes in neural mass activity after training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Sabine; Keil, Andreas; Choudhury, Naseem; Thomas Friedman, Jennifer; Benasich, April A

    2013-04-01

    Children with language-learning impairment (LLI) have consistently shown difficulty with tasks requiring precise, rapid auditory processing. Remediation based on neural plasticity assumes that the temporal precision of neural coding can be improved by intensive training protocols. Here, we examined the extent to which early oscillatory responses in auditory cortex change after audio-visual training, using combined source modeling and time-frequency analysis of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). Twenty-one elementary school students diagnosed with LLI underwent the intervention for an average of 32 days. Pre- and post-training assessments included standardized language/literacy tests and EEG recordings in response to fast-rate tone doublets. Twelve children with typical language development were also tested twice, with no intervention given. Behaviorally, improvements on measures of language were observed in the LLI group following completion of training. During the first EEG assessment, we found reduced amplitude and phase-locking of early (45-75 ms) oscillations in the gamma-band range (29-52 Hz), specifically in the LLI group, for the second stimulus of the tone doublet. Amplitude reduction for the second tone was no longer evident for the LLI children post-intervention, although these children still exhibited attenuated phase-locking. Our findings suggest that specific aspects of inefficient sensory cortical processing in LLI are ameliorated after training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Auditory Processing Training in Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Nívea Franklin Chaves Martins; Hipólito Virgílio Magalhães Jr

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to promote a reflection about the importance of speech-therapy for stimulation a person with learning disability associated to language and auditory processing disorders. Data analysis considered the auditory abilities deficits identified in the first auditory processing test, held on April 30,2002 compared with the new auditory processing test done on May 13,2003,after one year of therapy directed to acoustic stimulation of auditory abilities disorders,in acco...

  10. Auditory processing models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...

  11. [Auditory processing in specific language disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idiazábal-Aletxa, M A; Saperas-Rodríguez, M

    2008-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child has difficulty in producing or understanding spoken language for no apparent reason. The diagnosis in made when language development is out of keeping with other aspects of development, and possible explanatory causes have been excluded. During the last years neurosciences have approached to the study of SLI. The ability to process two or more rapidly presented, successive, auditory stimuli is believed to underlie successful language acquisition. It has been proposed that SLI is the consequence of low-level abnormalities in auditory perception. Too, children with SLI show a specific deficit in automatic discrimination of syllables. Electrophysiological methods may reveal underlying immaturity or other abnormality of auditory processing even when behavioural thresholds look normal. There is much controversy about the role of such deficits in causing their language problems, and it has been difficult to establish solid, replicable findings in this area because of the heterogeneity in the population and because insufficient attention has been paid to maturational aspects of auditory processing.

  12. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... APD is common in older adults, particularly when hearing loss is present. It is likely that many processes and problems contribute to APD in children. In adults, neurological disorders such as stroke, tumors, degenerative disease (such as ...

  13. Are auditory and visual processing deficits related to developmental dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K; Papadopoulos, Timothy C; Zarouna, Elena; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if children with dyslexia learning to read a consistent orthography (Greek) experience auditory and visual processing deficits and if these deficits are associated with phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and orthographic processing. We administered measures of general cognitive ability, phonological awareness, orthographic processing, short-term memory, rapid automatized naming, auditory and visual processing, and reading fluency to 21 Grade 6 children with dyslexia, 21 chronological age-matched controls and 20 Grade 3 reading age-matched controls. The results indicated that the children with dyslexia did not experience auditory processing deficits, but about half of them showed visual processing deficits. Both orthographic processing and rapid automatized naming deficits were associated with dyslexia in our sample, but it is less clear that they were associated with visual processing deficits. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Comparing cortical auditory processing in children with typical and atypical benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes: Electrophysiologic evidence of the role of non-rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Melissa; Boni, Antonella; Giannotta, Melania; Pini, Antonella; Russo, Angelo; Musti, Muriel Assunta; Guerra, Angelo; Lassonde, Maryse; Gobbi, Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) is an objective measure of central auditory discrimination. MMN alterations have been shown in children with language and/or developmental disorders. In benign focal epilepsies, neuropsychological disorders are often reported and linked to interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. There are few studies reporting MMN in children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) and sleep IEDs. Moreover, no MMN recording has yet been reported in atypical BECTS children with continuous spike-and-wave during sleep (CSWS). We retrospectively compared MMN in typical and atypical BECTS children, particularly addressing the impact of NREM sleep IEDs on auditory discrimination. Moreover, we attempted a neuropsychological characterization of patients. The MMN was recorded in 9 normal controls and 23 patients (14 typical BECTS and 9 atypical BECTS) in an oddball paradigm with syllable stimuli. MMN, sleep electroencephalography (EEG) and neuropsychological evaluation were realized in the same testing session. Measurable MMN responses to speech stimuli were identified in both the control and patient groups. A significant difference between control and atypical BECTS children was found with respect to amplitude (p = 0.0061). Atypical BECTS also showed a lower MMN amplitude with respect to typical BECTS, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.0545). Statistical comparisons between groups revealed no differences in latency. Among the neuropsychological variables, academic difficulties were significantly more prominent in the patients with atypical BECTS (p = 0.04). CSWS EEG pattern affects auditory discrimination and may have a long-lasting impact on academic skills acquisition, whereas in typical BECTS children with a lower degree of IED NREM sleep, plastic brain reorganization or the preservation of participating networks may prevent such difficulty. Early

  15. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  16. [Symptoms and diagnosis of auditory processing disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilmann, A; Läßig, A K; Nospes, S

    2013-08-01

    The definition of an auditory processing disorder (APD) is based on impairments of auditory functions. APDs are disturbances in processes central to hearing that cannot be explained by comorbidities such as attention deficit or language comprehension disorders. Symptoms include difficulties in differentiation and identification of changes in time, structure, frequency and intensity of sounds; problems with sound localization and lateralization, as well as poor speech comprehension in adverse listening environments and dichotic situations. According to the German definition of APD (as opposed to central auditory processing disorder, CAPD), peripheral hearing loss or cognitive impairment also exclude APD. The diagnostic methodology comprises auditory function tests and the required diagnosis of exclusion. APD is diagnosed if a patient's performance is two standard deviations below the normal mean in at least two areas of auditory processing. The treatment approach for an APD depends on the patient's particular deficits. Training, compensatory strategies and improvement of the listening conditions can all be effective.

  17. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Speech and Language Developmental Milestones What Is Voice? What Is Speech? What Is Language? ... communication provides better outcomes for children with cochlear implants University of Texas at Dallas ...

  18. Auditory Processing Disorders (APD): a distinct clinical disorder or not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen de Wit

    2015-01-01

    Presentatie CPLOL congres Florence In this systematic review, six electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies using the key words auditory processing, auditory diseases, central [Mesh], and auditory perceptual. Two reviewers independently assessed relevant studies by inclusion

  19. Hemispheric asymmetry in the auditory facilitation effect in dual-stream rapid serial visual presentation tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Takeshima

    Full Text Available Even though auditory stimuli do not directly convey information related to visual stimuli, they often improve visual detection and identification performance. Auditory stimuli often alter visual perception depending on the reliability of the sensory input, with visual and auditory information reciprocally compensating for ambiguity in the other sensory domain. Perceptual processing is characterized by hemispheric asymmetry. While the left hemisphere is more involved in linguistic processing, the right hemisphere dominates spatial processing. In this context, we hypothesized that an auditory facilitation effect in the right visual field for the target identification task, and a similar effect would be observed in the left visual field for the target localization task. In the present study, we conducted target identification and localization tasks using a dual-stream rapid serial visual presentation. When two targets are embedded in a rapid serial visual presentation stream, the target detection or discrimination performance for the second target is generally lower than for the first target; this deficit is well known as attentional blink. Our results indicate that auditory stimuli improved target identification performance for the second target within the stream when visual stimuli were presented in the right, but not the left visual field. In contrast, auditory stimuli improved second target localization performance when visual stimuli were presented in the left visual field. An auditory facilitation effect was observed in perceptual processing, depending on the hemispheric specialization. Our results demonstrate a dissociation between the lateral visual hemifield in which a stimulus is projected and the kind of visual judgment that may benefit from the presentation of an auditory cue.

  20. Rapid change in articulatory lip movement induced by preceding auditory feedback during production of bilabial plosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Takemi; Gomi, Hiroaki; Kashino, Makio

    2010-11-08

    There has been plentiful evidence of kinesthetically induced rapid compensation for unanticipated perturbation in speech articulatory movements. However, the role of auditory information in stabilizing articulation has been little studied except for the control of voice fundamental frequency, voice amplitude and vowel formant frequencies. Although the influence of auditory information on the articulatory control process is evident in unintended speech errors caused by delayed auditory feedback, the direct and immediate effect of auditory alteration on the movements of articulators has not been clarified. This work examined whether temporal changes in the auditory feedback of bilabial plosives immediately affects the subsequent lip movement. We conducted experiments with an auditory feedback alteration system that enabled us to replace or block speech sounds in real time. Participants were asked to produce the syllable /pa/ repeatedly at a constant rate. During the repetition, normal auditory feedback was interrupted, and one of three pre-recorded syllables /pa/, /Φa/, or /pi/, spoken by the same participant, was presented once at a different timing from the anticipated production onset, while no feedback was presented for subsequent repetitions. Comparisons of the labial distance trajectories under altered and normal feedback conditions indicated that the movement quickened during the short period immediately after the alteration onset, when /pa/ was presented 50 ms before the expected timing. Such change was not significant under other feedback conditions we tested. The earlier articulation rapidly induced by the progressive auditory input suggests that a compensatory mechanism helps to maintain a constant speech rate by detecting errors between the internally predicted and actually provided auditory information associated with self movement. The timing- and context-dependent effects of feedback alteration suggest that the sensory error detection works in a

  1. Rapid change in articulatory lip movement induced by preceding auditory feedback during production of bilabial plosives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takemi Mochida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been plentiful evidence of kinesthetically induced rapid compensation for unanticipated perturbation in speech articulatory movements. However, the role of auditory information in stabilizing articulation has been little studied except for the control of voice fundamental frequency, voice amplitude and vowel formant frequencies. Although the influence of auditory information on the articulatory control process is evident in unintended speech errors caused by delayed auditory feedback, the direct and immediate effect of auditory alteration on the movements of articulators has not been clarified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work examined whether temporal changes in the auditory feedback of bilabial plosives immediately affects the subsequent lip movement. We conducted experiments with an auditory feedback alteration system that enabled us to replace or block speech sounds in real time. Participants were asked to produce the syllable /pa/ repeatedly at a constant rate. During the repetition, normal auditory feedback was interrupted, and one of three pre-recorded syllables /pa/, /Φa/, or /pi/, spoken by the same participant, was presented once at a different timing from the anticipated production onset, while no feedback was presented for subsequent repetitions. Comparisons of the labial distance trajectories under altered and normal feedback conditions indicated that the movement quickened during the short period immediately after the alteration onset, when /pa/ was presented 50 ms before the expected timing. Such change was not significant under other feedback conditions we tested. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The earlier articulation rapidly induced by the progressive auditory input suggests that a compensatory mechanism helps to maintain a constant speech rate by detecting errors between the internally predicted and actually provided auditory information associated with self movement. The timing- and context

  2. The Central Auditory Processing Kit[TM]. Book 1: Auditory Memory [and] Book 2: Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Closure, and Auditory Synthesis [and] Book 3: Auditory Figure-Ground, Auditory Cohesion, Auditory Binaural Integration, and Compensatory Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhemar, Mary Ann

    This kit for assessing central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), in children in grades 1 through 8 includes 3 books, 14 full-color cards with picture scenes, and a card depicting a phone key pad, all contained in a sturdy carrying case. The units in each of the three books correspond with auditory skill areas most commonly addressed in…

  3. Auditory processing in autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaskamp, Chantal; Oranje, Bob; Madsen, Gitte Falcher

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show changes in (automatic) auditory processing. Electrophysiology provides a method to study auditory processing, by investigating event-related potentials such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a-amplitude. However, findings on MMN in autism...... a hyper-responsivity at the attentional level. In addition, as similar MMN deficits are found in schizophrenia, these MMN results may explain some of the frequently reported increased risk of children with ASD to develop schizophrenia later in life. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1857–1865....

  4. Binaural processing by the gecko auditory periphery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tang, Ye Zhong; Carr, Catherine E

    2011-01-01

    in the Tokay gecko with neurophysiological recordings from the auditory nerve. Laser vibrometry shows that their ear is a two-input system with approximately unity interaural transmission gain at the peak frequency (around 1.6 kHz). Median interaural delays are 260 μs, almost three times larger than predicted...... from gecko head size, suggesting interaural transmission may be boosted by resonances in the large, open mouth cavity (Vossen et al., 2010). Auditory nerve recordings are sensitive to both interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD), reflecting the acoustical interactions......Lizards have highly directional ears, owing to strong acoustical coupling of the eardrums and almost perfect sound transmission from the contralateral ear. To investigate the neural processing of this remarkable tympanic directionality, we combined biophysical measurements of eardrum motion...

  5. Hierarchical processing of auditory objects in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhbinder Kumar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the computational architecture used by the brain during the analysis of the spectral envelope of sounds, an important acoustic feature for defining auditory objects. Dynamic causal modelling and Bayesian model selection were used to evaluate a family of 16 network models explaining functional magnetic resonance imaging responses in the right temporal lobe during spectral envelope analysis. The models encode different hypotheses about the effective connectivity between Heschl's Gyrus (HG, containing the primary auditory cortex, planum temporale (PT, and superior temporal sulcus (STS, and the modulation of that coupling during spectral envelope analysis. In particular, we aimed to determine whether information processing during spectral envelope analysis takes place in a serial or parallel fashion. The analysis provides strong support for a serial architecture with connections from HG to PT and from PT to STS and an increase of the HG to PT connection during spectral envelope analysis. The work supports a computational model of auditory object processing, based on the abstraction of spectro-temporal "templates" in the PT before further analysis of the abstracted form in anterior temporal lobe areas.

  6. Should Children with Auditory Processing Disorders Receive Services in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucker, Jay R.

    2012-01-01

    Many children with problems learning in school can have educational deficits due to underlying auditory processing disorders (APD). For these children, they can be identified as having auditory learning disabilities. Furthermore, auditory learning disabilities is identified as a specific learning disability (SLD) in the IDEA. Educators and…

  7. Binaural processing by the gecko auditory periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tang, Yezhong; Carr, Catherine E

    2011-05-01

    Lizards have highly directional ears, owing to strong acoustical coupling of the eardrums and almost perfect sound transmission from the contralateral ear. To investigate the neural processing of this remarkable tympanic directionality, we combined biophysical measurements of eardrum motion in the Tokay gecko with neurophysiological recordings from the auditory nerve. Laser vibrometry shows that their ear is a two-input system with approximately unity interaural transmission gain at the peak frequency (∼ 1.6 kHz). Median interaural delays are 260 μs, almost three times larger than predicted from gecko head size, suggesting interaural transmission may be boosted by resonances in the large, open mouth cavity (Vossen et al. 2010). Auditory nerve recordings are sensitive to both interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD), reflecting the acoustical interactions of direct and indirect sound components at the eardrum. Best ITD and click delays match interaural transmission delays, with a range of 200-500 μs. Inserting a mold in the mouth cavity blocks ITD and ILD sensitivity. Thus the neural response accurately reflects tympanic directionality, and most neurons in the auditory pathway should be directional.

  8. Binaural processing by the gecko auditory periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tang, Yezhong

    2011-01-01

    Lizards have highly directional ears, owing to strong acoustical coupling of the eardrums and almost perfect sound transmission from the contralateral ear. To investigate the neural processing of this remarkable tympanic directionality, we combined biophysical measurements of eardrum motion in the Tokay gecko with neurophysiological recordings from the auditory nerve. Laser vibrometry shows that their ear is a two-input system with approximately unity interaural transmission gain at the peak frequency (∼1.6 kHz). Median interaural delays are 260 μs, almost three times larger than predicted from gecko head size, suggesting interaural transmission may be boosted by resonances in the large, open mouth cavity (Vossen et al. 2010). Auditory nerve recordings are sensitive to both interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD), reflecting the acoustical interactions of direct and indirect sound components at the eardrum. Best ITD and click delays match interaural transmission delays, with a range of 200–500 μs. Inserting a mold in the mouth cavity blocks ITD and ILD sensitivity. Thus the neural response accurately reflects tympanic directionality, and most neurons in the auditory pathway should be directional. PMID:21325679

  9. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Abdollahi, Farzaneh Zamiri; BAKHSHI, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim o...

  10. Application of Neural Network Modeling to Identify Auditory Processing Disorders in School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Krishnamurti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available P300 Auditory Event-Related Potentials (P3AERPs were recorded in nine school-age children with auditory processing disorders and nine age- and gender-matched controls in response to tone burst stimuli presented at varying rates (1/second or 3/second under varying levels of competing noise (0 dB, 40 dB, or 60 dB SPL. Neural network modeling results indicated that speed of information processing and task-related demands significantly influenced P3AERP latency in children with auditory processing disorders. Competing noise and rapid stimulus rates influenced P3AERP amplitude in both groups.

  11. [Disturbance in processing auditory impulses from the ears: auditory processing disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed-Nielsen, Birger; Andersen, Svend Erik Søgaard

    2007-04-30

    Over the last decade evidence on the existence of auditory processing disorder (APD) has increased. Therefore, it is now time to deal with the phenomenon in daily clinical work. This article gives information about APD, especially about problems with the definition of APD, diagnosing APD and the treatment.

  12. Comorbid auditory processing disorder in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Wayne M; Lombardino, Linda J; Crandell, Carl C; Leonard, Christiana M

    2003-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the extent of comorbid auditory processing disorder (APD) in a group of adults with developmental dyslexia. An additional objective was to compare performance on auditory tasks to results from standardized tests of reading in an attempt to generate a clinically useful profile of developmental dyslexics with comorbid APD. A group of eleven persons with developmental dyslexia and 14 age- and intelligence-matched controls participated in the study. Behavioral audiograms, 226-Hz tympanograms, and word recognition scores were obtained binaurally from all subjects. Both groups were administered the frequency-pattern test (FPT) and duration-pattern test (DPT) monaurally (30 items per ear) in both the left and right ear. Gap detection results were obtained in both groups (binaural presentation) using narrowband noise centered at 1 kHz in an adaptive two-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) paradigm. The FPT, DPT, and gap detection results were analyzed for interaural (where applicable), intergroup, and intragroup differences. Correlations between performance on the auditory tasks and the standardized tests of reading were examined. Additive logistic regression models were fit to the data to determine which auditory tests proved to be the best predictors of group membership. The persons with developmental dyslexia as a group performed significantly poorer than controls on both the FPT and DPT. Furthermore, the group differences were significant in both monaural conditions. On the FPT and DPT, five of the eleven participants with dyslexia performed below the widely used clinical criterion for APD of 70% correct in either ear. All five of these participants performed below criterion on the FPT, whereas four of the five additionally performed below 70% on the DPT. The data also were analyzed by fitting a series of stepwise logistic regression models, which indicated that gap detection did not significantly predict group

  13. Context-dependent modulation of auditory processing by serotonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, L.M.; Hall, I.C.

    2011-01-01

    Context-dependent plasticity in auditory processing is achieved in part by physiological mechanisms that link behavioral state to neural responses to sound. The neuromodulator serotonin has many characteristics suitable for such a role. Serotonergic neurons are extrinsic to the auditory system but send projections to most auditory regions. These projections release serotonin during particular behavioral contexts. Heightened levels of behavioral arousal and specific extrinsic events, including stressful or social events, increase serotonin availability in the auditory system. Although the release of serotonin is likely to be relatively diffuse, highly specific effects of serotonin on auditory neural circuitry are achieved through the localization of serotonergic projections, and through a large array of receptor types that are expressed by specific subsets of auditory neurons. Through this array, serotonin enacts plasticity in auditory processing in multiple ways. Serotonin changes the responses of auditory neurons to input through the alteration of intrinsic and synaptic properties, and alters both short- and long-term forms of plasticity. The infrastructure of the serotonergic system itself is also plastic, responding to age and cochlear trauma. These diverse findings support a view of serotonin as a widespread mechanism for behaviorally relevant plasticity in the regulation of auditory processing. This view also accommodates models of how the same regulatory mechanism can have pathological consequences for auditory processing. PMID:21187135

  14. Common Misconceptions Regarding Pediatric Auditory Processing Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Iliadou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric hearing evaluation based on pure tone audiometry does not always reflect how a child hears in everyday life. This practice is inappropriate when evaluating the difficulties children experiencing auditory processing disorder (APD in school or on the playground. Despite the marked increase in research on pediatric APD, there remains limited access to proper evaluation worldwide. This perspective article presents five common misconceptions of APD that contribute to inappropriate or limited management in children experiencing these deficits. The misconceptions discussed are (1 the disorder cannot be diagnosed due to the lack of a gold standard diagnostic test; (2 making generalizations based on profiles of children suspected of APD and not diagnosed with the disorder; (3 it is best to discard an APD diagnosis when another disorder is present; (4 arguing that the known link between auditory perception and higher cognition function precludes the validity of APD as a clinical entity; and (5 APD is not a clinical entity. These five misconceptions are described and rebutted using published data as well as critical thinking on current available knowledge on APD.

  15. [Assessment of the efficiency of the auditory training in children with dyslalia and auditory processing disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Szkiełkowska, Agata; Skarżyński, Henryk; Piłka, Adam

    2011-01-01

    To assess effectiveness of the auditory training in children with dyslalia and central auditory processing disorders. Material consisted of 50 children aged 7-9-years-old. Children with articulation disorders stayed under long-term speech therapy care in the Auditory and Phoniatrics Clinic. All children were examined by a laryngologist and a phoniatrician. Assessment included tonal and impedance audiometry and speech therapists' and psychologist's consultations. Additionally, a set of electrophysiological examinations was performed - registration of N2, P2, N2, P2, P300 waves and psychoacoustic test of central auditory functions: FPT - frequency pattern test. Next children took part in the regular auditory training and attended speech therapy. Speech assessment followed treatment and therapy, again psychoacoustic tests were performed and P300 cortical potentials were recorded. After that statistical analyses were performed. Analyses revealed that application of auditory training in patients with dyslalia and other central auditory disorders is very efficient. Auditory training may be a very efficient therapy supporting speech therapy in children suffering from dyslalia coexisting with articulation and central auditory disorders and in children with educational problems of audiogenic origin. Copyright © 2011 Polish Otolaryngology Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner (Poland). All rights reserved.

  16. Cleft Palate Children: Performance In Auditory Processing Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Boscariol M.; Andre K.D.; Feniman M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Many children with auditory processing disorders have a high prevalence of otitis media, a middle ear alterations greatly prevalent in children with palatine and lip clefts. Aim: to check the performance of children with palate cleft alone (PC) in auditory processing tests. Prospective study. Materials and Methods: twenty children (7 to 11 years) with CP were submitted to sound location tests (SL), memory for verbal sounds (MSSV) and non verbal sounds in sequence (MSSNV), Revised auditory fus...

  17. Auditory processing in autism spectrum disorder : Mismatch negativity deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, Chantal|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413985679; Oranje, Bob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217177409; Madsen, Gitte Falcher; Møllegaard Jepsen, Jens Richardt; Durston, Sarah|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/243083912; Cantio, Cathriona; Glenthøj, Birte; Bilenberg, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show changes in (automatic) auditory processing. Electrophysiology provides a method to study auditory processing, by investigating event-related potentials such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a-amplitude. However, findings on MMN in autism are

  18. Auditory Processing Theories of Language Disorders: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide information that will assist readers in understanding and interpreting research literature on the role of auditory processing in communication disorders. Method: A narrative review was used to summarize and synthesize the literature on auditory processing deficits in children with auditory…

  19. Strategy choice mediates the link between auditory processing and spelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tru E Kwong

    Full Text Available Relations among linguistic auditory processing, nonlinguistic auditory processing, spelling ability, and spelling strategy choice were examined. Sixty-three undergraduate students completed measures of auditory processing (one involving distinguishing similar tones, one involving distinguishing similar phonemes, and one involving selecting appropriate spellings for individual phonemes. Participants also completed a modified version of a standardized spelling test, and a secondary spelling test with retrospective strategy reports. Once testing was completed, participants were divided into phonological versus nonphonological spellers on the basis of the number of words they spelled using phonological strategies only. Results indicated a moderate to strong positive correlations among the different auditory processing tasks in terms of reaction time, but not accuracy levels, and b weak to moderate positive correlations between measures of linguistic auditory processing (phoneme distinction and phoneme spelling choice in the presence of foils and spelling ability for phonological spellers, but not for nonphonological spellers. These results suggest a possible explanation for past contradictory research on auditory processing and spelling, which has been divided in terms of whether or not disabled spellers seemed to have poorer auditory processing than did typically developing spellers, and suggest implications for teaching spelling to children with good versus poor auditory processing abilities.

  20. Strategy choice mediates the link between auditory processing and spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Tru E; Brachman, Kyle J

    2014-01-01

    Relations among linguistic auditory processing, nonlinguistic auditory processing, spelling ability, and spelling strategy choice were examined. Sixty-three undergraduate students completed measures of auditory processing (one involving distinguishing similar tones, one involving distinguishing similar phonemes, and one involving selecting appropriate spellings for individual phonemes). Participants also completed a modified version of a standardized spelling test, and a secondary spelling test with retrospective strategy reports. Once testing was completed, participants were divided into phonological versus nonphonological spellers on the basis of the number of words they spelled using phonological strategies only. Results indicated a) moderate to strong positive correlations among the different auditory processing tasks in terms of reaction time, but not accuracy levels, and b) weak to moderate positive correlations between measures of linguistic auditory processing (phoneme distinction and phoneme spelling choice in the presence of foils) and spelling ability for phonological spellers, but not for nonphonological spellers. These results suggest a possible explanation for past contradictory research on auditory processing and spelling, which has been divided in terms of whether or not disabled spellers seemed to have poorer auditory processing than did typically developing spellers, and suggest implications for teaching spelling to children with good versus poor auditory processing abilities.

  1. Severe auditory processing disorder secondary to viral meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillion, Joseph P; Shiffler, Dorothy E; Hoon, Alexander H; Lin, Doris D M

    2014-06-01

    To describe auditory function in an individual with bilateral damage to the temporal and parietal cortex. Case report. A previously healthy 17-year old male is described who sustained extensive cortical injury following an episode of viral meningoencephalitis. He developed status epilepticus and required intubation and multiple anticonvulsants. Serial brain MRIs showed bilateral temporoparietal signal changes reflecting extensive damage to language areas and the first transverse gyrus of Heschl on both sides. The patient was referred for assessment of auditory processing but was so severely impaired in speech processing that he was unable to complete any formal tests of his speech processing abilities. Audiological assessment utilizing objective measures of auditory function established the presence of normal peripheral auditory function and illustrates the importance of the use of objective measures of auditory function in patients with injuries to the auditory cortex. Use of objective measures of auditory function is essential in establishing the presence of normal peripheral auditory function in individuals with cortical damage who may not be able to cooperate sufficiently for assessment utilizing behavioral measures of auditory function.

  2. A virtual auditory environment for investigating the auditory signal processing of realistic sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    A loudspeaker-based virtual auditory environment (VAE) has been developed to provide a realistic versatile research environment for investigating the auditory signal processing in real environments, i.e., considering multiple sound sources and room reverberation. The VAE allows a full control...... of the acoustic scenario in order to systematically study the auditory processing of reverberant sounds. It is based on the ODEON software, which is state-of-the-art software for room acoustic simulations developed at Acoustic Technology, DTU. First, a MATLAB interface to the ODEON software has been developed...

  3. Auditory Alterations in Children Infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Verified Through Auditory Processing Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ana Carla Leite; Alfaya, Lívia Marangoni; Gonçales, Alina Sanches; Frizzo, Ana Claudia Figueiredo; Isaac, Myriam de Lima

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The auditory system of HIV-positive children may have deficits at various levels, such as the high incidence of problems in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss. Objective The objective of this study is to characterize the development of children infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the Simplified Auditory Processing Test (SAPT) and the Staggered Spondaic Word Test. Methods We performed behavioral tests composed of the Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW). The participants were 15 children infected by HIV, all using antiretroviral medication. Results The children had abnormal auditory processing verified by Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of SSW. In the Simplified Auditory Processing Test, 60% of the children presented hearing impairment. In the SAPT, the memory test for verbal sounds showed more errors (53.33%); whereas in SSW, 86.67% of the children showed deficiencies indicating deficit in figure-ground, attention, and memory auditory skills. Furthermore, there are more errors in conditions of background noise in both age groups, where most errors were in the left ear in the Group of 8-year-olds, with similar results for the group aged 9 years. Conclusion The high incidence of hearing loss in children with HIV and comorbidity with several biological and environmental factors indicate the need for: 1) familiar and professional awareness of the impact on auditory alteration on the developing and learning of the children with HIV, and 2) access to educational plans and follow-up with multidisciplinary teams as early as possible to minimize the damage caused by auditory deficits.

  4. Auditory information processing in rat genotypes with different dopaminergic properties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, N.M.W.J. de; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Cools, A.R.; Ellenbroek, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    RATIONALE: Auditory filtering disturbances, as measured in the sensory gating and prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigms, have been linked to aberrant auditory information processing and sensory overload in schizophrenic patients. In both paradigms, the response to the second stimulus (S2) is

  5. Auditory information processing in rat genotypes with different dopaminergic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, N.M.W.J. de; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Cools, A.R.; Ellenbroek, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Rationale: Auditory filtering disturbances, as measured in the sensory gating and prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigms, have been linked to aberrant auditory information processing and sensory overload in schizophrenic patients. In both paradigms, the response to the second stimulus (S2) is

  6. Characteristics of Auditory Processing Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Ellen; Visser-Bochane, Margot I.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Dijk, Pim; van der Schans, Cees P.; Luinge, Margreet R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review article is to describe characteristics of auditory processing disorders (APD) by evaluating the literature in which children with suspected or diagnosed APD were compared with typically developing children and to determine whether APD must be regarded as a deficit specific to the auditory modality or as a…

  7. Auditory Processing Learning Disability, Suicidal Ideation, and Transformational Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Frank S.; Yocum, Russell G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this personal experience as a narrative investigation is to describe how an auditory processing learning disability exacerbated--and how spirituality and religiosity relieved--suicidal ideation, through the lived experiences of an individual born and raised in the United States. The study addresses: (a) how an auditory processing…

  8. Auditory agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultanagnosia does not affect processes of auditory Gestalt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennig, Johannes; Bleyer, Anna Lena; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2017-05-01

    Simultanagnosia is a neuropsychological deficit of higher visual processes caused by temporo-parietal brain damage. It is characterized by a specific failure of recognition of a global visual Gestalt, like a visual scene or complex objects, consisting of local elements. In this study we investigated to what extend this deficit should be understood as a deficit related to specifically the visual domain or whether it should be seen as defective Gestalt processing per se. To examine if simultanagnosia occurs across sensory domains, we designed several auditory experiments sharing typical characteristics of visual tasks that are known to be particularly demanding for patients suffering from simultanagnosia. We also included control tasks for auditory working memory deficits and for auditory extinction. We tested four simultanagnosia patients who suffered from severe symptoms in the visual domain. Two of them indeed showed significant impairments in recognition of simultaneously presented sounds. However, the same two patients also suffered from severe auditory working memory deficits and from symptoms comparable to auditory extinction, both sufficiently explaining the impairments in simultaneous auditory perception. We thus conclude that deficits in auditory Gestalt perception do not appear to be characteristic for simultanagnosia and that the human brain obviously uses independent mechanisms for visual and for auditory Gestalt perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The relation between working memory capacity and auditory lateralization in children with auditory processing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moossavi, Abdollah; Mehrkian, Saiedeh; Lotfi, Yones; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; sajedi, Hamed

    2014-11-01

    Auditory processing disorder (APD) describes a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by poor speech perception, especially in noisy environments. APD may be responsible for a range of sensory processing deficits associated with learning difficulties. There is no general consensus about the nature of APD and how the disorder should be assessed or managed. This study assessed the effect of cognition abilities (working memory capacity) on sound lateralization in children with auditory processing disorders, in order to determine how "auditory cognition" interacts with APD. The participants in this cross-sectional comparative study were 20 typically developing and 17 children with a diagnosed auditory processing disorder (9-11 years old). Sound lateralization abilities investigated using inter-aural time (ITD) differences and inter-aural intensity (IID) differences with two stimuli (high pass and low pass noise) in nine perceived positions. Working memory capacity was evaluated using the non-word repetition, and forward and backward digits span tasks. Linear regression was employed to measure the degree of association between working memory capacity and localization tests between the two groups. Children in the APD group had consistently lower scores than typically developing subjects in lateralization and working memory capacity measures. The results showed working memory capacity had significantly negative correlation with ITD errors especially with high pass noise stimulus but not with IID errors in APD children. The study highlights the impact of working memory capacity on auditory lateralization. The finding of this research indicates that the extent to which working memory influences auditory processing depend on the type of auditory processing and the nature of stimulus/listening situation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Deficits in auditory processing contribute to impairments in vocal affect recognition in autism spectrum disorders: A MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Carly; Hopkins, Joyce; Kopald, Brandon E; Paulson, Kim; Doyle, Lauren; Andrews, Whitney E; Lewine, Jeffrey David

    2015-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between magnetoencephalography-based (MEG) indices of basic cortical auditory processing and vocal affect recognition (VAR) ability in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). MEG data were collected from 25 children/adolescents with ASD and 12 control participants using a paired-tone paradigm to measure quality of auditory physiology, sensory gating, and rapid auditory processing. Group differences were examined in auditory processing and vocal affect recognition ability. The relationship between differences in auditory processing and vocal affect recognition deficits was examined in the ASD group. Replicating prior studies, participants with ASD showed longer M1n latencies and impaired rapid processing compared with control participants. These variables were significantly related to VAR, with the linear combination of auditory processing variables accounting for approximately 30% of the variability after controlling for age and language skills in participants with ASD. VAR deficits in ASD are typically interpreted as part of a core, higher order dysfunction of the "social brain"; however, these results suggest they also may reflect basic deficits in auditory processing that compromise the extraction of socially relevant cues from the auditory environment. As such, they also suggest that therapeutic targeting of sensory dysfunction in ASD may have additional positive implications for other functional deficits. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Human Auditory Processing: Insights from Cortical Event-related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra P. Key

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human communication and language skills rely heavily on the ability to detect and process auditory inputs. This paper reviews possible applications of the event-related potential (ERP technique to the study of cortical mechanisms supporting human auditory processing, including speech stimuli. Following a brief introduction to the ERP methodology, the remaining sections focus on demonstrating how ERPs can be used in humans to address research questions related to cortical organization, maturation and plasticity, as well as the effects of sensory deprivation, and multisensory interactions. The review is intended to serve as a primer for researchers interested in using ERPs for the study of the human auditory system.

  13. Dopaminergic medication alters auditory distractor processing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Dejan; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Dreo, Jurij; Čuš, Anja; Pirtošek, Zvezdan; Repovš, Grega

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show signs of cognitive impairment, such as executive dysfunction, working memory problems and attentional disturbances, even in the early stages of the disease. Though motor symptoms of the disease are often successfully addressed by dopaminergic medication, it still remains unclear, how dopaminergic therapy affects cognitive function. The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of dopaminergic medication on visual and auditory attentional processing. 14 PD patients and 13 matched healthy controls performed a three-stimulus auditory and visual oddball task while their EEG was recorded. The patients performed the task twice, once on- and once off-medication. While the results showed no significant differences between PD patients and controls, they did reveal a significant increase in P3 amplitude on- vs. off-medication specific to processing of auditory distractors and no other stimuli. These results indicate significant effect of dopaminergic therapy on processing of distracting auditory stimuli. With a lack of between group differences the effect could reflect either 1) improved recruitment of attentional resources to auditory distractors; 2) reduced ability for cognitive inhibition of auditory distractors; 3) increased response to distractor stimuli resulting in impaired cognitive performance; or 4) hindered ability to discriminate between auditory distractors and targets. Further studies are needed to differentiate between these possibilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal Wilf

    Full Text Available Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations.

  15. Auditory Processing Testing: In the Booth versus Outside the Booth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucker, Jay R

    2017-09-01

    Many audiologists believe that auditory processing testing must be carried out in a soundproof booth. This expectation is especially a problem in places such as elementary schools. Research comparing pure-tone thresholds obtained in sound booths compared to quiet test environments outside of these booths does not support that belief. Auditory processing testing is generally carried out at above threshold levels, and therefore may be even less likely to require a soundproof booth. The present study was carried out to compare test results in soundproof booths versus quiet rooms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether auditory processing tests can be administered in a quiet test room rather than in the soundproof test suite. The outcomes would identify that audiologists can provide auditory processing testing for children under various test conditions including quiet rooms at their school. A battery of auditory processing tests was administered at a test level equivalent to 50 dB HL through headphones. The same equipment was used for testing in both locations. Twenty participants identified with normal hearing were included in this study, ten having no auditory processing concerns and ten exhibiting auditory processing problems. All participants underwent a battery of tests, both inside the test booth and outside the booth in a quiet room. Order of testing (inside versus outside) was counterbalanced. Participants were first determined to have normal hearing thresholds for tones and speech. Auditory processing tests were recorded and presented from an HP EliteBook laptop computer with noise-canceling headphones attached to a y-cord that not only presented the test stimuli to the participants but also allowed monitor headphones to be worn by the evaluator. The same equipment was used inside as well as outside the booth. No differences were found for each auditory processing measure as a function of the test setting or the order in which testing was done

  16. Screening Test for Auditory Processing (STAP): a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yathiraj, Asha; Maggu, Akshay Raj

    2013-10-01

    The presence of auditory processing disorder in school-age children has been documented (Katz and Wilde, 1985; Chermak and Musiek, 1997; Jerger and Musiek, 2000; Muthuselvi and Yathiraj, 2009). In order to identify these children early, there is a need for a screening test that is not very time-consuming. The present study aimed to evaluate the independence of four subsections of the Screening Test for Auditory Processing (STAP) developed by Yathiraj and Maggu (2012). The test was designed to address auditory separation/closure, binaural integration, temporal resolution, and auditory memory in school-age children. The study also aimed to examine the number of children who are at risk for different auditory processes. Factor analysis research design was used in the current study. Four hundred school-age children consisting of 218 males and 182 females were randomly selected from 2400 children attending three schools. The children, aged 8 to 13 yr, were in grade three to eight class placements. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSES: The children were evaluated on the four subsections of the STAP (speech perception in noise, dichotic consonant-vowel [CV], gap detection, and auditory memory) in a quiet room within their school. The responses were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In addition, the data were also analyzed to determine the number of children who were at risk for an auditory processing disorder (APD). Based on the PCA, three components with Eigen values greater than 1 were extracted. The orthogonal rotation of the variables using the Varimax technique revealed that component 1 consisted of binaural integration, component 2 consisted of temporal resolution, and component 3 was shared by auditory separation/closure and auditory memory. These findings were confirmed using CFA, where the predicted model displayed a good fit with or without the inclusion of the auditory memory subsection. It was determined that 16

  17. Temporal factors affecting somatosensory-auditory interactions in speech processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eIto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009. In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the event-related potential was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the event-related potential difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory-auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160-220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory-auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production.

  18. Auditory temporal processing skills in musicians with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Liebler, Paula; Welch, Graham; Huss, Martina; Thomson, Jennifer M; Goswami, Usha

    2014-08-01

    The core cognitive difficulty in developmental dyslexia involves phonological processing, but adults and children with dyslexia also have sensory impairments. Impairments in basic auditory processing show particular links with phonological impairments, and recent studies with dyslexic children across languages reveal a relationship between auditory temporal processing and sensitivity to rhythmic timing and speech rhythm. As rhythm is explicit in music, musical training might have a beneficial effect on the auditory perception of acoustic cues to rhythm in dyslexia. Here we took advantage of the presence of musicians with and without dyslexia in musical conservatoires, comparing their auditory temporal processing abilities with those of dyslexic non-musicians matched for cognitive ability. Musicians with dyslexia showed equivalent auditory sensitivity to musicians without dyslexia and also showed equivalent rhythm perception. The data support the view that extensive rhythmic experience initiated during childhood (here in the form of music training) can affect basic auditory processing skills which are found to be deficient in individuals with dyslexia. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Association between language development and auditory processing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Nunes Rocha-Muniz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is crucial to understand the complex processing of acoustic stimuli along the auditory pathway ;comprehension of this complex processing can facilitate our understanding of the processes that underlie normal and altered human communication. AIM: To investigate the performance and lateralization effects on auditory processing assessment in children with specific language impairment (SLI, relating these findings to those obtained in children with auditory processing disorder (APD and typical development (TD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study. Seventy-five children, aged 6-12 years, were separated in three groups: 25 children with SLI, 25 children with APD, and 25 children with TD. All went through the following tests: speech-in-noise test, Dichotic Digit test and Pitch Pattern Sequencing test. RESULTS: The effects of lateralization were observed only in the SLI group, with the left ear presenting much lower scores than those presented to the right ear. The inter-group analysis has shown that in all tests children from APD and SLI groups had significantly poorer performance compared to TD group. Moreover, SLI group presented worse results than APD group. CONCLUSION: This study has shown, in children with SLI, an inefficient processing of essential sound components and an effect of lateralization. These findings may indicate that neural processes (required for auditory processing are different between auditory processing and speech disorders.

  20. Auditory cortical processing in real-world listening: the auditory system going real.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelken, Israel; Bizley, Jennifer; Shamma, Shihab A; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2014-11-12

    The auditory sense of humans transforms intrinsically senseless pressure waveforms into spectacularly rich perceptual phenomena: the music of Bach or the Beatles, the poetry of Li Bai or Omar Khayyam, or more prosaically the sense of the world filled with objects emitting sounds that is so important for those of us lucky enough to have hearing. Whereas the early representations of sounds in the auditory system are based on their physical structure, higher auditory centers are thought to represent sounds in terms of their perceptual attributes. In this symposium, we will illustrate the current research into this process, using four case studies. We will illustrate how the spectral and temporal properties of sounds are used to bind together, segregate, categorize, and interpret sound patterns on their way to acquire meaning, with important lessons to other sensory systems as well. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415135-04$15.00/0.

  1. Selective and divided attention modulates auditory-vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Hu, Huijing; Jones, Jeffery A; Guo, Zhiqiang; Li, Weifeng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-08-01

    Speakers rapidly adjust their ongoing vocal productions to compensate for errors they hear in their auditory feedback. It is currently unclear what role attention plays in these vocal compensations. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the influence of selective and divided attention on the vocal and cortical responses to pitch errors heard in auditory feedback regarding ongoing vocalisations. During the production of a sustained vowel, participants briefly heard their vocal pitch shifted up two semitones while they actively attended to auditory or visual events (selective attention), or both auditory and visual events (divided attention), or were not told to attend to either modality (control condition). The behavioral results showed that attending to the pitch perturbations elicited larger vocal compensations than attending to the visual stimuli. Moreover, ERPs were likewise sensitive to the attentional manipulations: P2 responses to pitch perturbations were larger when participants attended to the auditory stimuli compared to when they attended to the visual stimuli, and compared to when they were not explicitly told to attend to either the visual or auditory stimuli. By contrast, dividing attention between the auditory and visual modalities caused suppressed P2 responses relative to all the other conditions and caused enhanced N1 responses relative to the control condition. These findings provide strong evidence for the influence of attention on the mechanisms underlying the auditory-vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors. In addition, selective attention and divided attention appear to modulate the neurobehavioral processing of pitch feedback errors in different ways. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Auditory processing maturation in children with and without learning difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivone, Ferreira Neves; Schochat, Eliane

    2005-01-01

    Auditory processing maturation in school children with and without learning difficulties. To verify response improvement with the increase in age of the auditory processing skills in school children with ages ranging from eight to ten years, with and without learning difficulties and to perform a comparative study. Eighty-nine children without learning complaints (Group 1) and 60 children with learning difficulties (Group II) were assessed. The used auditory processing tests were: Pediatric Speech Intelligibility (PSI), Speech in Noise, Dichotic Non-Verbal (DNV) and Staggered Spondaic Word (SSW). A better performance was observed for Group I between the ages of eight and ten in all of the used tests. However, the observed differences were statistically significant only for PSI and SSW. For Group II, a better performance was also observed with the increase in age, with statistically significant differences for all of the used tests. Comparing the results between Groups I and II, a better performance was verified for children with no learning difficulties, in the three age groups, in PSI, DNV and SSW. A statistically significant improvement was verified in the responses of the auditory processing with the increase in age, for the ages between eight and ten years, in children with and without learning difficulties. In the comparative study, it was verified that children with learning difficulties presented a lower performance in all of the used tests in the three age groups. This suggests, for this group, a delay in the maturation of the auditory processing skills.

  3. Auditory Temporal Processing Abilities in Early Azari-Persian Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Sanayi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Auditory temporal resolution and auditory temporal ordering are two major components of the auditory temporal processing abilities that contribute to speech perception and language development. Auditory temporal resolution and auditory temporal ordering can be evaluated by gap-in-noise (GIN and pitch-pattern-sequence (PPS tests, respectively. In this survey, the effect of bilingualism as a potential confounding factor on auditory temporal processing abilities was investigated in early Azari-Persian bilinguals.   Materials and Methods:                                     In this cross-sectional non-interventional study, GIN and PPS tests were performed on 24 (12 men and 12 women early Azari-Persian bilingual persons and 24 (12 men and 12 women Persian monolingual subjects in the age range of 18–30 years, with a mean age of 24.57 years in bilingual and 24.68 years in monolingual subjects. Data were analyzed with t-test using SPSS software version 16.   Results: There was no statistically significant difference between mean gap threshold and mean percentages of the correct response of the GIN test and average percentage of correct responses in the PPS test between early Azari-Persian bilinguals and Persian monolinguals (P≥0.05.   Conclusion:  According to the findings of this study, bilingualism did not have notable effect on auditory temporal processing abilities.

  4. The effects of aging on auditory processing and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Patricia A; Williams, Victoria A; Small, Brent J; Hafter, Ervin R

    2012-12-01

    To briefly summarize existing data on effects of aging on auditory processing and cognition. A narrative review summarized previously reported data on age-related changes in auditory processing and in cognitive processes with a focus on spoken language comprehension and memory. In addition, recent data on effects of lifestyle engagement on cognitive processes are reviewed. There is substantial evidence for age-related declines in both auditory processes and cognitive abilities. Accumulating evidence supports the idea that the perceptual burden associated with hearing loss impacts the processing resources available for good comprehension and memory for spoken language, particularly in older adults with limited resources. However, many language abilities are well preserved in old age, and there is considerable variability among individuals in cognitive performance across the life span. The authors discuss how lifestyle factors and socioemotional engagement can help to offset declining abilities. It is clear that spoken language processing in adulthood and old age is affected by changes in perceptual, cognitive, and socioemotional processes as well as by interactions among these changes. Recommendations for further research include studying speech comprehension in complex conditions, including meaningful-connection spoken language, and tailoring clinical interventions based on patients' auditory processing and cognitive abilities along with their individual socioemotional demands.

  5. Auditory Processing Training in Learning Disability - doi:10.5020/18061230.2006.p188

    OpenAIRE

    Nívea Franklin Chaves Martins; Hipólito Virgílio Magalhães Jr

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to promote a reflection about the importance of speechtherapy for stimulation a person with learning disability associated to language and auditory processing disorders. Data analysis considered the auditory abilities deficits identified in the first auditory processing test, held on April 30, 2002 compared with the new auditory processing test done on May 13, 2003, after one year of therapy directed to acoustic stimulation of auditory abilities disorders, in a...

  6. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E

    1997-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  7. Biomedical Simulation Models of Human Auditory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicak, Mehmet M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed acoustic engineering models that explore noise propagation mechanisms associated with noise attenuation and transmission paths created when using hearing protectors such as earplugs and headsets in high noise environments. Biomedical finite element (FE) models are developed based on volume Computed Tomography scan data which provides explicit external ear, ear canal, middle ear ossicular bones and cochlea geometry. Results from these studies have enabled a greater understanding of hearing protector to flesh dynamics as well as prioritizing noise propagation mechanisms. Prioritization of noise mechanisms can form an essential framework for exploration of new design principles and methods in both earplug and earcup applications. These models are currently being used in development of a novel hearing protection evaluation system that can provide experimentally correlated psychoacoustic noise attenuation. Moreover, these FE models can be used to simulate the effects of blast related impulse noise on human auditory mechanisms and brain tissue.

  8. Auditory processing of spectral modulations produced by early reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    that for very short reflection delays (8ms) the detectability of the test reflection is binaurally enhanced [Buchholz, JASA, 2005]. Considering the auditory processes underlying room reflection masking, increasing the reflection delay on the one hand changes the spectral and temporal characteristics...... of the stimulus and on the other hand produces an increasing forward fringe (i.e., a reflection-free direct sound interval). Throughout this study, it is investigated to what extent the auditory processes underlying simultaneous room reflection masking utilize the information provided by (a) the reflection...

  9. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Chr. eHansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty - a property of listeners’ prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure.Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex. Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty. We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty. Finally, we simulate listeners’ perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature.The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music.

  10. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Niels Chr; Pearce, Marcus T

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty-a property of listeners' prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure. Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex). Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty). We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty). Finally, we simulate listeners' perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature. The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music.

  11. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Pearce, Marcus T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty—a property of listeners' prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure. Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex). Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty). We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty). Finally, we simulate listeners' perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature. The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music. PMID:25295018

  12. Relationship between auditory processing and affective prosody in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahshan, Carol; Wynn, Jonathan K; Green, Michael F

    2013-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have well-established deficits in their ability to identify emotion from facial expression and tone of voice. In the visual modality, there is strong evidence that basic processing deficits contribute to impaired facial affect recognition in schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined the auditory modality for mechanisms underlying affective prosody identification. In this study, we explored links between different stages of auditory processing, using event-related potentials (ERPs), and affective prosody detection in schizophrenia. Thirty-six schizophrenia patients and 18 healthy control subjects received tasks of affective prosody, facial emotion identification, and tone matching, as well as two auditory oddball paradigms, one passive for mismatch negativity (MMN) and one active for P300. Patients had significantly reduced MMN and P300 amplitudes, impaired auditory and visual emotion recognition, and poorer tone matching performance, relative to healthy controls. Correlations between ERP and behavioral measures within the patient group revealed significant associations between affective prosody recognition and both MMN and P300 amplitudes. These relationships were modality specific, as MMN and P300 did not correlate with facial emotion recognition. The two ERP waves accounted for 49% of the variance in affective prosody in a regression analysis. Our results support previous suggestions of a relationship between basic auditory processing abnormalities and affective prosody dysfunction in schizophrenia, and indicate that both relatively automatic pre-attentive processes (MMN) and later attention-dependent processes (P300) are involved with accurate auditory emotion identification. These findings provide support for bottom-up (e.g., perceptually based) cognitive remediation approaches. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Neural dynamics of phonological processing in the dorsal auditory stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenthal, Einat; Sabri, Merav; Beardsley, Scott A; Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Desai, Anjali

    2013-09-25

    Neuroanatomical models hypothesize a role for the dorsal auditory pathway in phonological processing as a feedforward efferent system (Davis and Johnsrude, 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Hickok et al., 2011). But the functional organization of the pathway, in terms of time course of interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and motor regions, and the hemispheric lateralization pattern is largely unknown. Here, ambiguous duplex syllables, with elements presented dichotically at varying interaural asynchronies, were used to parametrically modulate phonological processing and associated neural activity in the human dorsal auditory stream. Subjects performed syllable and chirp identification tasks, while event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance images were concurrently collected. Joint independent component analysis was applied to fuse the neuroimaging data and study the neural dynamics of brain regions involved in phonological processing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results revealed a highly interactive neural network associated with phonological processing, composed of functional fields in posterior temporal gyrus (pSTG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and ventral central sulcus (vCS) that were engaged early and almost simultaneously (at 80-100 ms), consistent with a direct influence of articulatory somatomotor areas on phonemic perception. Left hemispheric lateralization was observed 250 ms earlier in IPL and vCS than pSTG, suggesting that functional specialization of somatomotor (and not auditory) areas determined lateralization in the dorsal auditory pathway. The temporal dynamics of the dorsal auditory pathway described here offer a new understanding of its functional organization and demonstrate that temporal information is essential to resolve neural circuits underlying complex behaviors.

  14. Screening for auditory processing performance in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Mona; Hassan, Mona; El-Banna, Manal; Asal, Samir; Hamza, Yasmeen

    2015-04-01

    A deficit in the processing of auditory information may underlie problems in understanding speech in the presence of background noise, degraded speech, and in following spoken instructions. Children with auditory processing disorders are challenged in the classroom because of ambient noise levels and maybe at risk for learning disabilities. 1) Set up and execute screening protocol for auditory processing performance (APP) in primary school children. 2) Construct database for APP in the classroom. 3) Set critical limits for deviant performance. Our hypothesis is that screening for APP in the classroom identifies pupils at risk for auditory processing disorders. Study consisted of two phases. Phase 1: 2,015 pupils were selected from fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-graders using stratified random sampling with the proportional allocation method. Male and female students were equally represented. Otoscopic examination, screening audiometery, and screening tests for auditory processing (AP) abilities (Pitch Pattern Sequence Test [PPST], speech perception in noise [SPIN] right, SPIN left, and Dichotic Digit Test) were conducted. A questionnaire emphasizing auditory listening behaviors (ALB) was answered by classroom teacher. Phase 2 included 69 pupils who were randomly selected based on percentile scores of phase 1. Students were examined for the corresponding full version AP tests in addition to Auditory Fusion Test-Revised and masking level difference. Intelligence quotient and learning disabilities were evaluated. Phase 1: Results are displayed in frequency polygons for10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles score for each AP test. Fourth-graders scored significantly lower than fifth- and sixth-graders on all tests. Males scored lower than females on PPST. A composite score was calculated to represent a summed score performance for PPST, SPIN right ear, SPIN left ear, and Dichotic Digit Test. Scores Auditory Fusion Test-Revised mean thresholds were statistically

  15. Sensorimotor impairment of speech auditory feedback processing in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Phillip, Lorelei; Johari, Karim; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris; Hickok, Gregory; Fridriksson, Julius

    2018-01-15

    We investigated the brain network involved in speech sensorimotor processing by studying patients with post-stroke aphasia using an altered auditory feedback (AAF) paradigm. We combined lesion-symptom-mapping analysis and behavioral testing to examine the pervasiveness of speech sensorimotor deficits and their relationship with cortical damage. Sixteen participants with aphasia and sixteen neurologically intact individuals completed a speech task under AAF. The task involved producing speech vowel sounds under the real-time pitch-shifted auditory feedback alteration. This task provided an objective measure for each individual's ability to compensate for mismatch (error) in speech auditory feedback. Results indicated that compensatory speech responses to AAF were significantly diminished in participants with aphasia compared with control. We observed that within the aphasic group, subjects with lower scores on the speech repetition task exhibited greater degree of diminished responses. Lesion-symptom-mapping analysis revealed that the onset phase (50-150 ms) of diminished AAF responses were predicted by damage to auditory cortical regions within the superior and middle temporal gyrus, whereas the rising phase (150-250 ms) and the peak (250-350 ms) of diminished AAF responses were predicted with damage to the inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus areas, respectively. These findings suggest that damage to the auditory, motor, and auditory-motor integration networks are associated with impaired sensorimotor function for speech error processing. We suggest that a sensorimotor integration network, as revealed by brain regions related to temporal specific components of AAF responses, is related to speech processing and specific aspects of speech impairment, notably repetition deficits, in individuals with aphasia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. English Language Teaching: phonetics, phonology and auditory processing contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Letícia Maria Martins; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Carvalho, Fernanda Ribeiro Pinto de; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    interrelation of phonetics, phonology and auditory processing in English Language Teaching. to determine whether prior contact with English phonetics favors general learning of this language (L2), i.e. second language, in Portuguese speakers; to verify performance of these individuals in an auditory processing test prior to and after being taught L2. participants of the study were eight college students who had only studied English in high school. These participants were divided into two groups: control group - were only enrolled in English classes; experimental group - were enrolled in English phonetic classes prior to their enrollment in English classes. Participants were submitted to an auditory processing test and to an oral test in English (Oral Test) prior to and after the classes. Data were analyzed in the same way, i.e. prior to and after the classes. these were expressed statistically by T-Student's test. Analyses indicated no difference in performance between groups. Scores indicated better performance of the control group for answering questions in English in the Oral Test. The experimental group had better performance in the auditory processing test after being enrolled to English phonetic classes and English course. prior basic knowledge of English did not enhance general learning (improvement in pronunciation) of the second language, however, it improved the ability of temporal processing in the used test.

  17. An examination of auditory processing and affective prosody in relatives of patients with auditory hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eTucker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs indicates that AVH schizophrenia patients show greater abnormalities on tasks requiring recognition of affective prosody (AP than non-AVH patients. Detecting AP requires accurate perception of manipulations in pitch, amplitude and duration. Schizophrenia patients with AVHs also experience difficulty detecting these acoustic manipulations; with a number of theorists speculating that difficulties in pitch, amplitude and duration discrimination underlie AP abnormalities. This study examined whether both AP and these aspects of auditory processing are also impaired in first degree relatives of persons with AVHs. It also examined whether pitch, amplitude and duration discrimination were related to AP, and to hallucination proneness. Unaffected relatives of AVH schizophrenia patients (N=19 and matched healthy controls (N=33 were compared using tone discrimination tasks, an AP task, and clinical measures. Relatives were slower at identifying emotions on the AP task (p =.002, with secondary analysis showing this was especially so for happy (p = .014 and neutral (p =.001 sentences. There was a significant interaction effect for pitch between tone deviation level and group (p = .019, and relatives performed worse than controls on amplitude discrimination and duration discrimination. AP performance for happy and neutral sentences was significantly correlated with amplitude perception. Lastly, AVH proneness in the entire sample was significantly correlated with pitch discrimination (r = .44 and pitch perception was shown to predict AVH proneness in the sample (p = .005. These results suggest basic impairments in auditory processing are present in relatives of AVH patients; they potentially underlie processing speed in AP tasks, and predict AVH proneness. This indicates auditory processing deficits may be a core feature of AVHs in schizophrenia, and are worthy of further study as a potential endophenotype for

  18. Auditory Training Effects on the Listening Skills of Children With Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Rosen, Stuart; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    2016-01-01

    Children with auditory processing disorder (APD) typically present with "listening difficulties,"' including problems understanding speech in noisy environments. The authors examined, in a group of such children, whether a 12-week computer-based auditory training program with speech material improved the perception of speech-in-noise test performance, and functional listening skills as assessed by parental and teacher listening and communication questionnaires. The authors hypothesized that after the intervention, (1) trained children would show greater improvements in speech-in-noise perception than untrained controls; (2) this improvement would correlate with improvements in observer-rated behaviors; and (3) the improvement would be maintained for at least 3 months after the end of training. This was a prospective randomized controlled trial of 39 children with normal nonverbal intelligence, ages 7 to 11 years, all diagnosed with APD. This diagnosis required a normal pure-tone audiogram and deficits in at least two clinical auditory processing tests. The APD children were randomly assigned to (1) a control group that received only the current standard treatment for children diagnosed with APD, employing various listening/educational strategies at school (N = 19); or (2) an intervention group that undertook a 3-month 5-day/week computer-based auditory training program at home, consisting of a wide variety of speech-based listening tasks with competing sounds, in addition to the current standard treatment. All 39 children were assessed for language and cognitive skills at baseline and on three outcome measures at baseline and immediate postintervention. Outcome measures were repeated 3 months postintervention in the intervention group only, to assess the sustainability of treatment effects. The outcome measures were (1) the mean speech reception threshold obtained from the four subtests of the listening in specialized noise test that assesses sentence perception in

  19. Characteristics of Auditory Processing Disorders: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, E. de; Visser-Bochane, M.I.; Steenbergen, B.; Dijk, P. van; Schans, C.P. van der; Luinge, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this review article is to describe characteristics of auditory processing disorders (APD) by evaluating the literature in which children with suspected or diagnosed APD were compared with typically developing children and to determine whether APD must be regarded as a deficit

  20. Characteristics of Auditory Processing Disorders : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Ellen; Visser-Bochane, Margot I.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Dijk, Pim; Schans, van der Cees P.; Luinge, Margreet R.

    Purpose: The purpose of this review article is to describe characteristics of auditory processing disorders (APD) by evaluating the literature in which children with suspected or diagnosed APD were compared with typically developing children and to determine whether APD must be regarded as a deficit

  1. Characteristics of auditory processing disorders: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, E. de; Visser-Bochane, M.I.; Steenbergen, B.; Dijk, P. van; Schans, C.P. van der; Luinge, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review article is to describe characteristics of auditory processing disorders (APD) by evaluating the literature in which children with suspected or diagnosed APD were compared with typically developing children and to determine whether APD must be regarded as a deficit

  2. Can Children with (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders Ignore Irrelevant Sounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Emily M.; Bhagat, Shaum P.; Lynn, Sharon D.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of irrelevant sounds on the serial recall performance of visually presented digits in a sample of children diagnosed with (central) auditory processing disorders [(C)APD] and age- and span-matched control groups. The irrelevant sounds used were samples of tones and speech. Memory performance was significantly…

  3. Auditory steady state cortical responses indicate deviant phonemic-rate processing in adults with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelmans, Hanne; Luts, Heleen; Vandermosten, Maaike; Boets, Bart; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Speech intelligibility is strongly influenced by the ability to process temporal modulations. It is hypothesized that in dyslexia, deficient processing of rapidly changing auditory information underlies a deficient development of phonological representations, causing reading and spelling problems. Low-frequency modulations between 4 and 20 Hz correspond to the processing rate of important phonological segments (syllables and phonemes, respectively) in speech and therefore provide a bridge between low-level auditory and phonological processing. In the present study, temporal modulation processing was investigated by auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) in normal-reading and dyslexic adults. Multichannel ASSRs were recorded in normal-reading and dyslexic adults in response to speech-weighted noise stimuli amplitude modulated at 80, 20, and 4 Hz. The 80 Hz modulation is known to be primarily generated by the brainstem, whereas the 20 and 4 Hz modulations are mainly generated in the cortex. Furthermore, the 20 and 4 Hz modulations provide an objective auditory performance measure related to phonemic- and syllabic-rate processing. In addition to neurophysiological measures, psychophysical tests of speech-in-noise perception and phonological awareness were assessed. On the basis of response strength and phase coherence measures, normal-reading and dyslexic participants showed similar processing at the brainstem level. At the cortical level of the auditory system, dyslexic subjects demonstrated deviant phonemic-rate responses compared with normal readers, whereas no group differences were found for the syllabic rate. Furthermore, a relationship between phonemic-rate ASSRs and psychophysical tests of speech-in-noise perception and phonological awareness was obtained. The results suggest reduced cortical processing for phonemic-rate modulations in dyslexic adults, presumably resulting in limited integration of temporal information in the dorsal phonological pathway.

  4. Furnace for rapid thermal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Duine, P.A.; Sluis, P. van der

    2001-01-01

    A Method (1) for Rapid Thermal Processing of a wafer (7), wherein the wafer (7) is heated by lamps (9), and the heat radiation is reflected by an optical switching device (15,17) which is in the reflecting state during the heating stage. During the cooling stage of the wafer (7), the heat is

  5. Degraded auditory processing in a rat model of autism limits the speech representation in non-primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, C T; Centanni, T M; Im, K W; Borland, M S; Moreno, N A; Carraway, R S; Wilson, L G; Kilgard, M P

    2014-10-01

    Although individuals with autism are known to have significant communication problems, the cellular mechanisms responsible for impaired communication are poorly understood. Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsant that is a known risk factor for autism in prenatally exposed children. Prenatal VPA exposure in rats causes numerous neural and behavioral abnormalities that mimic autism. We predicted that VPA exposure may lead to auditory processing impairments which may contribute to the deficits in communication observed in individuals with autism. In this study, we document auditory cortex responses in rats prenatally exposed to VPA. We recorded local field potentials and multiunit responses to speech sounds in primary auditory cortex, anterior auditory field, ventral auditory field. and posterior auditory field in VPA exposed and control rats. Prenatal VPA exposure severely degrades the precise spatiotemporal patterns evoked by speech sounds in secondary, but not primary auditory cortex. This result parallels findings in humans and suggests that secondary auditory fields may be more sensitive to environmental disturbances and may provide insight into possible mechanisms related to auditory deficits in individuals with autism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Evidence for the auditory P3a reflecting an automatic process: elicitation during highly-focused continuous visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Macdonald, Margaret; Schröger, Erich; Sculthorpe, Lauren; Campbell, Kenneth

    2007-09-19

    The P3a is an event-related potential (ERP) component believed to reflect an attention-switch to task-irrelevant stimuli or stimulus information. The present study concerns the automaticity of the processes underlying the auditory P3a. More specifically, we investigated whether the auditory P3a is an attention-independent component, that is, whether it can still be elicited under highly-focused selective attention to a different (visual) channel. Furthermore, we examined whether the auditory P3a can be modulated by the demands of the visual diversion task. Subjects performed a continuous visual tracking task that varied in difficulty, based on the number of objects to-be-tracked. Task-irrelevant auditory stimuli were presented at very rapid and random rates concurrently to the visual task. The auditory sequence included rare increments (+10 dB) and decrements (-20 dB) in intensity relative to the frequently-presented standard stimulus. Importantly, the auditory deviant stimuli elicited a significant P3a during the most difficult visual task, when conditions were optimised to prevent attentional slippage to the auditory channel. This finding suggests that the elicitation of the auditory P3a does not require available central capacity, and confirms the automatic nature of the processes underlying this ERP component. Moreover, the difficulty of the visual task did not modulate either the mismatch negativity (MMN) or the P3a but did have an effect on a late (350-400 ms) negativity, an ERP deflection perhaps related to a subsequent evaluation of the auditory change. Together, these results imply that the auditory P3a could reflect a strongly-automatic process, one that does not require and is not modulated by attention.

  7. Do dyslexics have auditory input processing difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether...

  8. A computational model of human auditory signal processing and perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve; Ewert, Stephan D.; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    A model of computational auditory signal-processing and perception that accounts for various aspects of simultaneous and nonsimultaneous masking in human listeners is presented. The model is based on the modulation filterbank model described by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892 (1997......)] but includes major changes at the peripheral and more central stages of processing. The model contains outer- and middle-ear transformations, a nonlinear basilar-membrane processing stage, a hair-cell transduction stage, a squaring expansion, an adaptation stage, a 150-Hz lowpass modulation filter, a bandpass...... modulation filterbank, a constant-variance internal noise, and an optimal detector stage. The model was evaluated in experimental conditions that reflect, to a different degree, effects of compression as well as spectral and temporal resolution in auditory processing. The experiments include intensity...

  9. A systematic review of electrophysiological outcomes following auditory training in school-age children with auditory processing deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wayne J; Arnott, Wendy; Henning, Caroline

    2013-11-01

    To systematically review the peer-reviewed literature on electrophysiological outcomes following auditory training (AT) in school-age children with (central) auditory processing disorder ([C]APD). A systematic review. Searches of 16 electronic databases yielded four studies involving school-aged children whose auditory processing deficits had been confirmed in a manner consistent with ASHA (2005) and AAA (2010) and compared to a treated and/or an untreated control group before and after AT. A further three studies were identified with one lacking a control group and two measuring auditory processing in a manner not consistent with ASHA (2005) and AAA (2010). There is limited evidence that AT leads to measurable electrophysiological changes in children with auditory processing deficits. The evidence base is too small and weak to provide clear guidance on the use of electrophysiological outcomes as a measure of AT outcomes in children with auditory processing problems. The currently limited data can only be used to suggest that click-evoked AMLR and tone-burst evoked auditory P300 might be more likely to detect such outcomes in children diagnosed with (C)APD, and that speech-evoked ALLR might be more likely to detect phonological processing changes in children without a specific diagnosis of (C)APD.

  10. Central auditory processing assessment: a French-speaking battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanez, L; Dony-Closon, B; Lhonneux-Ledoux, E; Demanez, J P

    2003-01-01

    Based on the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Consensus Statement on central auditory processing and models for their exploration, a battery of audiological tests (Bilan Auditif Central--BAC) has been designed in French. The BAC consists of four types of psycho-acoustic tests: a speech-in-noise test, a dichotic test, a temporal processing test and a binaural interaction test. We briefly describe the rationale of these tests. The BAC is available in digital format. Descriptive statistics were computed on data obtained from 668 subjects divided into 15 age-groups ranging from 5 to 85 years old or over. All subjects had no complaints regarding hearing loss, normal tonal audiometry, and normal intelligence. Tests scores of the speech-in-noise test, the dichotic test and the binaural interaction test showed a normal distribution. Test scores of the temporal processing test did not follow a normal distribution. Effects of maturation and involution were clearly visible for all tests. The low correlation between scores obtained from the four tests pointed to the need for a battery of several tests to assess central auditory processing. We claim that the reported scores represent standard norms for the normal French-speaking population, and believe that the tests will be useful for evaluation of central auditory processing.

  11. Delays in auditory processing identified in preschool children with FASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Julia M; Kodituwakku, Piyadasa W; Kodituwakku, Elizabeth L; Romero, Lucinda; Peters, Amanda M; Sharadamma, Nirupama M; Caprihan, Arvind; Coffman, Brian A

    2012-10-01

    Both sensory and cognitive deficits have been associated with prenatal exposure to alcohol; however, very few studies have focused on sensory deficits in preschool-aged children. As sensory skills develop early, characterization of sensory deficits using novel imaging methods may reveal important neural markers of prenatal alcohol exposure. Participants in this study were 10 children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and 15 healthy control (HC) children aged 3 to 6 years. All participants had normal hearing as determined by clinical screens. We measured their neurophysiological responses to auditory stimuli (1,000 Hz, 72 dB tone) using magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a multidipole spatio-temporal modeling technique to identify the location and timecourse of cortical activity in response to the auditory tones. The timing and amplitude of the left and right superior temporal gyrus sources associated with activation of left and right primary/secondary auditory cortices were compared across groups. There was a significant delay in M100 and M200 latencies for the FASD children relative to the HC children (p = 0.01), when including age as a covariate. The within-subjects effect of hemisphere was not significant. A comparable delay in M100 and M200 latencies was observed in children across the FASD subtypes. Auditory delay revealed by MEG in children with FASDs may prove to be a useful neural marker of information processing difficulties in young children with prenatal alcohol exposure. The fact that delayed auditory responses were observed across the FASD spectrum suggests that it may be a sensitive measure of alcohol-induced brain damage. Therefore, this measure in conjunction with other clinical tools may prove useful for early identification of alcohol affected children, particularly those without dysmorphia. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Dynamic auditory processing, musical experience and language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallal, Paula; Gaab, Nadine

    2006-07-01

    Children with language-learning impairments (LLI) form a heterogeneous population with the majority having both spoken and written language deficits as well as sensorimotor deficits, specifically those related to dynamic processing. Research has focused on whether or not sensorimotor deficits, specifically auditory spectrotemporal processing deficits, cause phonological deficit, leading to language and reading impairments. New trends aimed at resolving this question include prospective longitudinal studies of genetically at-risk infants, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies, and studies aimed at evaluating the effects of auditory training (including musical training) on brain organization for language. Better understanding of the origins of developmental LLI will advance our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying individual differences in language development and lead to more effective educational and intervention strategies. This review is part of the INMED/TINS special issue "Nature and nurture in brain development and neurological disorders", based on presentations at the annual INMED/TINS symposium (http://inmednet.com/).

  13. Fragile Spectral and Temporal Auditory Processing in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Early Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boets, Bart; Verhoeven, Judith; Wouters, Jan; Steyaert, Jean

    2015-01-01

    We investigated low-level auditory spectral and temporal processing in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and early language delay compared to matched typically developing controls. Auditory measures were designed to target right versus left auditory cortex processing (i.e. frequency discrimination and slow amplitude modulation (AM)…

  14. Processing Temporal Modulations in Binaural and Monaural Auditory Stimuli by Neurons in the Inferior Colliculus and Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Douglas C.; Roberts, Jason M.; Kuwada, Shigeyuki; Kim, Duck O.; Filipovic, Blagoje

    2009-01-01

    Processing dynamic changes in the stimulus stream is a major task for sensory systems. In the auditory system, an increase in the temporal integration window between the inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex is well known for monaural signals such as amplitude modulation, but a similar increase with binaural signals has not been demonstrated. To examine the limits of binaural temporal processing at these brain levels, we used the binaural beat stimulus, which causes a fluctuating inter...

  15. Binaural processing in the synthesis of auditory spatial receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, José Luis

    2003-11-01

    The owl's auditory system computes interaural time (ITD) and interaural level (ILD) differences to create a two-dimensional map of auditory space. Space-specific neurons are selective for combinations of ITD and ILD, which define, respectively, the horizontal and vertical dimensions of their receptive fields. ITD curves for postsynaptic potentials indicate that ICx neurons integrate the results of binaural cross correlation in different frequency bands. However, the difference between the main and side peaks is slight. ICx neurons further enhance this difference in the process of converting membrane potentials to impulse rates. Comparison of subthreshold postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) and spike output for the same neurons showed that receptive fields measured in PSPs were much larger than those measured in spikes in both ITD and ILD dimensions. A multiplication of separate postsynaptic potentials tuned to ITD and ILD can account for the combination sensitivity of these neurons to ITD-ILD pairs.

  16. Stability of Auditory Discrimination and Novelty Processing in Physiological Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Raggi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex higher-order cognitive functions and their possible changes with aging are mandatory objectives of cognitive neuroscience. Event-related potentials (ERPs allow investigators to probe the earliest stages of information processing. N100, Mismatch negativity (MMN and P3a are auditory ERP components that reflect automatic sensory discrimination. The aim of the present study was to determine if N100, MMN and P3a parameters are stable in healthy aged subjects, compared to those of normal young adults. Normal young adults and older participants were assessed using standardized cognitive functional instruments and their ERPs were obtained with an auditory stimulation at two different interstimulus intervals, during a passive paradigm. All individuals were within the normal range on cognitive tests. No significant differences were found for any ERP parameters obtained from the two age groups. This study shows that aging is characterized by a stability of the auditory discrimination and novelty processing. This is important for the arrangement of normative for the detection of subtle preclinical changes due to abnormal brain aging.

  17. Frontal and superior temporal auditory processing abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Edgar, J Christopher; Huang, Mingxiong; Hunter, Michael A; Epstein, Emerson; Howell, Breannan; Lu, Brett Y; Bustillo, Juan; Miller, Gregory A; Cañive, José M

    2013-01-01

    Although magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies show superior temporal gyrus (STG) auditory processing abnormalities in schizophrenia at 50 and 100 ms, EEG and corticography studies suggest involvement of additional brain areas (e.g., frontal areas) during this interval. Study goals were to identify 30 to 130 ms auditory encoding processes in schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC) and group differences throughout the cortex. The standard paired-click task was administered to 19 SZ and 21 HC subjects during MEG recording. Vector-based Spatial-temporal Analysis using L1-minimum-norm (VESTAL) provided 4D maps of activity from 30 to 130 ms. Within-group t-tests compared post-stimulus 50 ms and 100 ms activity to baseline. Between-group t-tests examined 50 and 100 ms group differences. Bilateral 50 and 100 ms STG activity was observed in both groups. HC had stronger bilateral 50 and 100 ms STG activity than SZ. In addition to the STG group difference, non-STG activity was also observed in both groups. For example, whereas HC had stronger left and right inferior frontal gyrus activity than SZ, SZ had stronger right superior frontal gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus activity than HC. Less STG activity was observed in SZ than HC, indicating encoding problems in SZ. Yet auditory encoding abnormalities are not specific to STG, as group differences were observed in frontal and SMG areas. Thus, present findings indicate that individuals with SZ show abnormalities in multiple nodes of a concurrently activated auditory network.

  18. Altered auditory and multisensory temporal processing in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie D Kwakye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are characterized by deficits in social reciprocity and communication, as well as repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Unusual responses to sensory input and disruptions in the processing of both unisensory and multisensory stimuli have also frequently been reported. However, the specific aspects of sensory processing that are disrupted in ASD have yet to be fully elucidated. Recent published work has shown that children with ASD can integrate low-level audiovisual stimuli, but do so over an extended range of time when compared with typically-developing (TD children. However, the possible contributions of altered unisensory temporal processes to the demonstrated changes in multisensory function are yet unknown. In the current study, unisensory temporal acuity was measured by determining individual thresholds on visual and auditory temporal order judgment (TOJ tasks, and multisensory temporal function was assessed through a cross-modal version of the TOJ task. Whereas no differences in thresholds for the visual TOJ task were seen between children with ASD and TD, thresholds were higher in ASD on the auditory TOJ task, providing preliminary evidence for impairment in auditory temporal processing. On the multisensory TOJ task, children with ASD showed performance improvements over a wider range of temporal intervals than TD children, reinforcing prior work showing an extended temporal window of multisensory integration in ASD. These findings contribute to a better understanding of basic sensory processing differences, which may be critical for understanding more complex social and cognitive deficits in ASD, and ultimately may contribute to more effective diagnostic and interventional strategies.

  19. Altered Auditory and Multisensory Temporal Processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakye, Leslie D.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Cascio, Carissa J.; Stone, Wendy L.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by deficits in social reciprocity and communication, as well as by repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Unusual responses to sensory input and disruptions in the processing of both unisensory and multisensory stimuli also have been reported frequently. However, the specific aspects of sensory processing that are disrupted in ASD have yet to be fully elucidated. Recent published work has shown that children with ASD can integrate low-level audiovisual stimuli, but do so over an extended range of time when compared with typically developing (TD) children. However, the possible contributions of altered unisensory temporal processes to the demonstrated changes in multisensory function are yet unknown. In the current study, unisensory temporal acuity was measured by determining individual thresholds on visual and auditory temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks, and multisensory temporal function was assessed through a cross-modal version of the TOJ task. Whereas no differences in thresholds for the visual TOJ task were seen between children with ASD and TD, thresholds were higher in ASD on the auditory TOJ task, providing preliminary evidence for impairment in auditory temporal processing. On the multisensory TOJ task, children with ASD showed performance improvements over a wider range of temporal intervals than TD children, reinforcing prior work showing an extended temporal window of multisensory integration in ASD. These findings contribute to a better understanding of basic sensory processing differences, which may be critical for understanding more complex social and cognitive deficits in ASD, and ultimately may contribute to more effective diagnostic and interventional strategies. PMID:21258617

  20. Auditory temporal processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavasani, Azam Navaei; Mohammadkhani, Ghassem; Motamedi, Mahmoud; Karimi, Leyla Jalilvand; Jalaei, Shohreh; Shojaei, Fereshteh Sadat; Danesh, Ali; Azimi, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    Auditory temporal processing is the main feature of speech processing ability. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, despite their normal hearing sensitivity, may present speech recognition disorders. The present study was carried out to evaluate the auditory temporal processing in patients with unilateral TLE. The present study was carried out on 25 patients with epilepsy: 11 patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy and 14 with left temporal lobe epilepsy with a mean age of 31.1years and 18 control participants with a mean age of 29.4years. The two experimental and control groups were evaluated via gap-in-noise and duration pattern sequence tests. One-way ANOVA was run to analyze the data. The mean of the threshold of the GIN test in the control group was observed to be better than that in participants with LTLE and RTLE. Also, it was observed that the percentage of correct responses on the DPS test in the control group and in participants with RTLE was better than that in participants with LTLE. Patients with TLE have difficulties in temporal processing. Difficulties are more significant in patients with LTLE, likely because the left temporal lobe is specialized for the processing of temporal information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Rapid Temporal Processing and Its Impact on Literacy Skills in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrink, Claudia; Zimmer, Karin; Lachmann, Thomas; Dirichs, Martin; Kammer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study, auditory and visual temporal order thresholds (TOTs) were investigated in primary school children (N = 236; mean age at first data point = 6;7) at the beginning of Grade 1 and the end of Grade 2 to test whether rapid temporal processing abilities predict reading and spelling at the end of Grades 1 and 2. Auditory and…

  2. Auditory processing, plasticity, and learning in the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Jose L; DeBello, William M

    2010-01-01

    The human brain has accumulated many useful building blocks over its evolutionary history, and the best knowledge of these has often derived from experiments performed in animal species that display finely honed abilities. In this article we review a model system at the forefront of investigation into the neural bases of information processing, plasticity, and learning: the barn owl auditory localization pathway. In addition to the broadly applicable principles gleaned from three decades of work in this system, there are good reasons to believe that continued exploration of the owl brain will be invaluable for further advances in understanding of how neuronal networks give rise to behavior.

  3. Early neural disruption and auditory processing outcomes in rodent models: Implications for developmental language disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn Holly Fitch

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Most researchers in the field of neural plasticity are familiar with the Kennard Principle," which purports a positive relationship between age at brain injury and severity of subsequent deficits (plateauing in adulthood. As an example, a child with left hemispherectomy can recover seemingly normal language, while an adult with focal injury to sub-regions of left temporal and/or frontal cortex can suffer dramatic and permanent language loss. Here we present data regarding the impact of early brain injury in rat models as a function of type and timing, measuring long-term behavioral outcomes via auditory discrimination tasks varying in temporal demand. These tasks were created to model (in rodents aspects of human sensory processing that may correlate – both developmentally and functionally – with typical and atypical language. We found that bilateral focal lesions to the cortical plate in rats during active neuronal migration led to worse auditory outcomes than comparable lesions induced after cortical migration was complete. Conversely, unilateral hypoxic-ischemic injuries (similar to those seen in premature infants and term infants with birth complications led to permanent auditory processing deficits when induced at a neurodevelopmental point comparable to human "term," but only transient deficits (undetectable in adulthood when induced in a "preterm" window. Convergent evidence suggests that regardless of when or how disruption of early neural development occurs, the consequences may be particularly deleterious to rapid auditory processing outcomes when they trigger developmental alterations that extend into subcortical structures (i.e., lower sensory processing stations. Collective findings hold implications for the study of behavioral outcomes following early brain injury as well as genetic/environmental disruption, and are relevant to our understanding of the neurologic risk factors underlying developmental language disability in

  4. Early neural disruption and auditory processing outcomes in rodent models: implications for developmental language disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, R Holy; Alexander, Michelle L; Threlkeld, Steven W

    2013-10-21

    Most researchers in the field of neural plasticity are familiar with the "Kennard Principle," which purports a positive relationship between age at brain injury and severity of subsequent deficits (plateauing in adulthood). As an example, a child with left hemispherectomy can recover seemingly normal language, while an adult with focal injury to sub-regions of left temporal and/or frontal cortex can suffer dramatic and permanent language loss. Here we present data regarding the impact of early brain injury in rat models as a function of type and timing, measuring long-term behavioral outcomes via auditory discrimination tasks varying in temporal demand. These tasks were created to model (in rodents) aspects of human sensory processing that may correlate-both developmentally and functionally-with typical and atypical language. We found that bilateral focal lesions to the cortical plate in rats during active neuronal migration led to worse auditory outcomes than comparable lesions induced after cortical migration was complete. Conversely, unilateral hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injuries (similar to those seen in premature infants and term infants with birth complications) led to permanent auditory processing deficits when induced at a neurodevelopmental point comparable to human "term," but only transient deficits (undetectable in adulthood) when induced in a "preterm" window. Convergent evidence suggests that regardless of when or how disruption of early neural development occurs, the consequences may be particularly deleterious to rapid auditory processing (RAP) outcomes when they trigger developmental alterations that extend into subcortical structures (i.e., lower sensory processing stations). Collective findings hold implications for the study of behavioral outcomes following early brain injury as well as genetic/environmental disruption, and are relevant to our understanding of the neurologic risk factors underlying developmental language disability in human

  5. Auditory Streaming as an Online Classification Process with Evidence Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniv, Dana; Nelken, Israel

    2015-01-01

    When human subjects hear a sequence of two alternating pure tones, they often perceive it in one of two ways: as one integrated sequence (a single "stream" consisting of the two tones), or as two segregated sequences, one sequence of low tones perceived separately from another sequence of high tones (two "streams"). Perception of this stimulus is thus bistable. Moreover, subjects report on-going switching between the two percepts: unless the frequency separation is large, initial perception tends to be of integration, followed by toggling between integration and segregation phases. The process of stream formation is loosely named "auditory streaming". Auditory streaming is believed to be a manifestation of human ability to analyze an auditory scene, i.e. to attribute portions of the incoming sound sequence to distinct sound generating entities. Previous studies suggested that the durations of the successive integration and segregation phases are statistically independent. This independence plays an important role in current models of bistability. Contrary to this, we show here, by analyzing a large set of data, that subsequent phase durations are positively correlated. To account together for bistability and positive correlation between subsequent durations, we suggest that streaming is a consequence of an evidence accumulation process. Evidence for segregation is accumulated during the integration phase and vice versa; a switch to the opposite percept occurs stochastically based on this evidence. During a long phase, a large amount of evidence for the opposite percept is accumulated, resulting in a long subsequent phase. In contrast, a short phase is followed by another short phase. We implement these concepts using a probabilistic model that shows both bistability and correlations similar to those observed experimentally.

  6. Auditory Streaming as an Online Classification Process with Evidence Accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Barniv

    Full Text Available When human subjects hear a sequence of two alternating pure tones, they often perceive it in one of two ways: as one integrated sequence (a single "stream" consisting of the two tones, or as two segregated sequences, one sequence of low tones perceived separately from another sequence of high tones (two "streams". Perception of this stimulus is thus bistable. Moreover, subjects report on-going switching between the two percepts: unless the frequency separation is large, initial perception tends to be of integration, followed by toggling between integration and segregation phases. The process of stream formation is loosely named "auditory streaming". Auditory streaming is believed to be a manifestation of human ability to analyze an auditory scene, i.e. to attribute portions of the incoming sound sequence to distinct sound generating entities. Previous studies suggested that the durations of the successive integration and segregation phases are statistically independent. This independence plays an important role in current models of bistability. Contrary to this, we show here, by analyzing a large set of data, that subsequent phase durations are positively correlated. To account together for bistability and positive correlation between subsequent durations, we suggest that streaming is a consequence of an evidence accumulation process. Evidence for segregation is accumulated during the integration phase and vice versa; a switch to the opposite percept occurs stochastically based on this evidence. During a long phase, a large amount of evidence for the opposite percept is accumulated, resulting in a long subsequent phase. In contrast, a short phase is followed by another short phase. We implement these concepts using a probabilistic model that shows both bistability and correlations similar to those observed experimentally.

  7. Auditory Streaming as an Online Classification Process with Evidence Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniv, Dana; Nelken, Israel

    2015-01-01

    When human subjects hear a sequence of two alternating pure tones, they often perceive it in one of two ways: as one integrated sequence (a single "stream" consisting of the two tones), or as two segregated sequences, one sequence of low tones perceived separately from another sequence of high tones (two "streams"). Perception of this stimulus is thus bistable. Moreover, subjects report on-going switching between the two percepts: unless the frequency separation is large, initial perception tends to be of integration, followed by toggling between integration and segregation phases. The process of stream formation is loosely named “auditory streaming”. Auditory streaming is believed to be a manifestation of human ability to analyze an auditory scene, i.e. to attribute portions of the incoming sound sequence to distinct sound generating entities. Previous studies suggested that the durations of the successive integration and segregation phases are statistically independent. This independence plays an important role in current models of bistability. Contrary to this, we show here, by analyzing a large set of data, that subsequent phase durations are positively correlated. To account together for bistability and positive correlation between subsequent durations, we suggest that streaming is a consequence of an evidence accumulation process. Evidence for segregation is accumulated during the integration phase and vice versa; a switch to the opposite percept occurs stochastically based on this evidence. During a long phase, a large amount of evidence for the opposite percept is accumulated, resulting in a long subsequent phase. In contrast, a short phase is followed by another short phase. We implement these concepts using a probabilistic model that shows both bistability and correlations similar to those observed experimentally. PMID:26671774

  8. Spoken Language Processing Model: Bridging Auditory and Language Processing to Guide Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medwetsky, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article outlines the author's conceptualization of the key mechanisms that are engaged in the processing of spoken language, referred to as the spoken language processing model. The act of processing what is heard is very complex and involves the successful intertwining of auditory, cognitive, and language mechanisms. Spoken language…

  9. Processing of complex auditory patterns in musicians and nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boh, Bastiaan; Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the capacity of the memory store underlying the mismatch negativity (MMN) response in musicians and nonmusicians for complex tone patterns. While previous studies have focused either on the kind of information that can be encoded or on the decay of the memory trace over time, we studied capacity in terms of the length of tone sequences, i.e., the number of individual tones that can be fully encoded and maintained. By means of magnetoencephalography (MEG) we recorded MMN responses to deviant tones that could occur at any position of standard tone patterns composed of four, six or eight tones during passive, distracted listening. Whereas there was a reliable MMN response to deviant tones in the four-tone pattern in both musicians and nonmusicians, only some individuals showed MMN responses to the longer patterns. This finding of a reliable capacity of the short-term auditory store underlying the MMN response is in line with estimates of a three to five item capacity of the short-term memory trace from behavioural studies, although pitch and contour complexity covaried with sequence length, which might have led to an understatement of the reported capacity. Whereas there was a tendency for an enhancement of the pattern MMN in musicians compared to nonmusicians, a strong advantage for musicians could be shown in an accompanying behavioural task of detecting the deviants while attending to the stimuli for all pattern lengths, indicating that long-term musical training differentially affects the memory capacity of auditory short-term memory for complex tone patterns with and without attention. Also, a left-hemispheric lateralization of MMN responses in the six-tone pattern suggests that additional networks that help structuring the patterns in the temporal domain might be recruited for demanding auditory processing in the pitch domain.

  10. Single-unit Analysis of Somatosensory Processing in Core Auditory Cortex of Hearing Ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, M. Alex; Allman, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    The recent findings in several species that primary auditory cortex processes non-auditory information have largely overlooked the possibility for somatosensory effects. Therefore, the present investigation examined the core auditory cortices (anterior – AAF, and primary auditory-- A1, fields) for tactile responsivity. Multiple single-unit recordings from anesthetized ferret cortex yielded histologically verified neurons (n=311) tested with electronically controlled auditory, visual and tactile stimuli and their combinations. Of the auditory neurons tested, a small proportion (17%) was influenced by visual cues, but a somewhat larger number (23%) was affected by tactile stimulation. Tactile effects rarely occurred alone and spiking responses were observed in bimodal auditory-tactile neurons. However, the broadest tactile effect that was observed, which occurred in all neuron types, was that of suppression of the response to a concurrent auditory cue. The presence of tactile effects in core auditory cortices was supported by a substantial anatomical projection from the rostral suprasylvian sulcal somatosensory area. Collectively, these results demonstrate that crossmodal effects in auditory cortex are not exclusively visual and that somatosensation plays a significant role in modulation of acoustic processing and indicate that crossmodal plasticity following deafness may unmask these existing non-auditory functions. PMID:25728185

  11. Altered top-down cognitive control and auditory processing in tinnitus: evidences from auditory and visual spatial stroop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneda, Rodrigo; De Volder, Anne G; Deggouj, Naïma; Philippot, Pierre; Heeren, Alexandre; Lacroix, Emilie; Decat, Monique; Rombaux, Philippe; Renier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of external stimulus. Currently, the pathophysiology of tinnitus is not fully understood, but recent studies indicate that alterations in the brain involve non-auditory areas, including the prefrontal cortex. Here, we hypothesize that these brain alterations affect top-down cognitive control mechanisms that play a role in the regulation of sensations, emotions and attention resources. The efficiency of the executive control as well as simple reaction speed and processing speed were evaluated in tinnitus participants (TP) and matched control subjects (CS) in both the auditory and the visual modalities using a spatial Stroop paradigm. TP were slower and less accurate than CS during both the auditory and the visual spatial Stroop tasks, while simple reaction speed and stimulus processing speed were affected in TP in the auditory modality only. Tinnitus is associated both with modality-specific deficits along the auditory processing system and an impairment of cognitive control mechanisms that are involved both in vision and audition (i.e. that are supra-modal). We postulate that this deficit in the top-down cognitive control is a key-factor in the development and maintenance of tinnitus and may also explain some of the cognitive difficulties reported by tinnitus sufferers.

  12. Large cross-sectional study of presbycusis reveals rapid progressive decline in auditory temporal acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmeral, Erol J; Eddins, Ann C; Frisina, D Robert; Eddins, David A

    2016-07-01

    The auditory system relies on extraordinarily precise timing cues for the accurate perception of speech, music, and object identification. Epidemiological research has documented the age-related progressive decline in hearing sensitivity that is known to be a major health concern for the elderly. Although smaller investigations indicate that auditory temporal processing also declines with age, such measures have not been included in larger studies. Temporal gap detection thresholds (TGDTs; an index of auditory temporal resolution) measured in 1071 listeners (aged 18-98 years) were shown to decline at a minimum rate of 1.05 ms (15%) per decade. Age was a significant predictor of TGDT when controlling for audibility (partial correlation) and when restricting analyses to persons with normal-hearing sensitivity (n = 434). The TGDTs were significantly better for males (3.5 ms; 51%) than females when averaged across the life span. These results highlight the need for indices of temporal processing in diagnostics, as treatment targets, and as factors in models of aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To avoid high tooling costs in product development, a rapid prototyping process chain has been established that enables rapid manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents from functional models to small lot series within a short time. This process chain combines the fast and inexpensive supply of master models by rapid ...

  14. The correlation between central auditory processing in autistic children and their language processing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azouz, Hanan Galal; Kozou, Hesham; Khalil, Mona; Abdou, Rania M; Sakr, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    To study the auditory profile at different levels of the auditory system in children with ASD and to verify the role of (Central) auditory processing disorder as an essential pathology of the autistic disorder or as an associated co-morbidity, and to establish the correlation between CAP findings and the language delay in these cases. The study included 30 children with definite autistic disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria and ADI-R among those attending the outpatient neuropsychiatry clinic of Alexandria University Children Hospital at El Shatby. An informed consent was taken from all patients in this part of the study. Confidentiality of the records was maintained. All cases were subjected to complete history taking and examination; special assessment to language skills and evoked potentials were done. The results concluded that (central) auditory processing disorder is an essential pathology of the autistic disorder. Autistic children possess a dysfunctioning or an immature central auditory nervous system at both the brainstem and cortical levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Across frequency processes involved in auditory detection of coloration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Kerketsos, P

    2008-01-01

    filterbank was designed to approximate auditory filter-shapes measured by Oxenham and Shera [JARO, 2003, 541-554], derived from forward masking data. The results of the present study demonstrate that a “purely” spectrum-based model approach can successfully describe auditory coloration detection even at high...... detection are investigated. Coloration detection thresholds were therefore measured as a function of reflection delay and stimulus bandwidth. In order to investigate the involved auditory mechanisms, an auditory model was employed that was conceptually similar to the peripheral weighting model [Yost, JASA...

  16. Temporally selective processing of communication signals by auditory midbrain neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliott, Taffeta M; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kelley, Darcy B

    2011-01-01

    of the rate of clicks in calls. The majority of neurons (85%) were selective for click rates, and this selectivity remained unchanged over sound levels 10 to 20 dB above threshold. Selective neurons give phasic, tonic, or adapting responses to tone bursts and click trains. Some algorithms that could compute...... of auditory neurons in the laminar nucleus of the torus semicircularis (TS) of X. laevis specializes in encoding vocalization click rates. We recorded single TS units while pure tones, natural calls, and synthetic clicks were presented directly to the tympanum via a vibration-stimulation probe. Synthesized...... click rates ranged from 4 to 50 Hz, the rate at which the clicks begin to overlap. Frequency selectivity and temporal processing were characterized using response-intensity curves, temporal-discharge patterns, and autocorrelations of reduplicated responses to click trains. Characteristic frequencies...

  17. Contribution of psychoacoustics and neuroaudiology in revealing correlation of mental disorders with central auditory processing disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadou, V; Iakovides, S

    2003-01-01

    Background Psychoacoustics is a fascinating developing field concerned with the evaluation of the hearing sensation as an outcome of a sound or speech stimulus. Neuroaudiology with electrophysiologic testing, records the electrical activity of the auditory pathways, extending from the 8th cranial nerve up to the cortical auditory centers as a result of external auditory stimuli. Central Auditory Processing Disorders may co-exist with mental disorders and complicate diagnosis and outcome. Design A MEDLINE search was conducted to search for papers concerning the association between Central Auditory Processing Disorders and mental disorders. The research focused on the diagnostic methods providing the inter-connection of various mental disorders and central auditory deficits. Measurements and Main Results The medline research revealed 564 papers when using the keywords 'auditory deficits' and 'mental disorders'. 79 papers were referring specifically to Central Auditory Processing Disorders in connection with mental disorders. 175 papers were related to Schizophrenia, 126 to learning disabilities, 29 to Parkinson's disease, 88 to dyslexia and 39 to Alzheimer's disease. Assessment of the Central Auditory System is carried out through a great variety of tests that fall into two main categories: psychoacoustic and electrophysiologic testing. Different specialties are involved in the diagnosis and management of Central Auditory Processing Disorders as well as the mental disorders that may co-exist with them. As a result it is essential that they are all aware of the possibilities in diagnostic procedures. Conclusions Considerable evidence exists that mental disorders may correlate with CAPD and this correlation could be revealed through psychoacoustics and neuroaudiology. Mental disorders that relate to Central Auditory Processing Disorders are: Schizophrenia, attention deficit disorders, Alzheimer's disease, learning disabilities, dyslexia, depression, auditory

  18. Auditory processing disorder in children diagnosed with nonverbal learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Warren D; Tillery, Kim L; McFadden, Sandra L

    2006-12-01

    To determine whether children with a nonverbal learning disability (NVLD) have a higher incidence of auditory processing disorder (APD), especially in the tolerance-fading memory type of APD, and what associations could be found between performance on neuropsychological, intellectual, memory, and academic measures and APD. Eighteen children with NVLD ranging in age from 6 to 18 years received a central auditory processing test battery to determine incidence and subtype of APD. Psychological measures for assessment of NVLD included the Wechsler Scales, Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test. Neuropsychological measures included the Category Test, Trails A and B, the Tactual Performance Test, Grooved Pegs, and the Speech Sounds Perception Test. Neuropsychological test scores of the NVLD+APD and NVLD groups were compared using analysis of covariance procedures, with Verbal IQ and Performance IQ as covariates. Sixty-one percent of the children were diagnosed with APD, primarily in the tolerance-fading memory subtype. The group of children with APD and NVLD had significantly lower scores on Verbal IQ, Digit Span, Sentence Memory, Block Design, and Speech Sounds Perception than children without APD. An ancillary finding was that the incidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder was significantly higher in children with NVLD (with and without APD) than in the general population. The results indicate that children with NVLD are at risk for APD and that there are several indicators on neuropsychological assessment suggestive of APD. Collaborative, interdisciplinary evaluation of children with learning disorders is needed in order to provide effective therapeutic interventions.

  19. Auditory processing in autism spectrum disorder: Mismatch negativity deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskamp, Chantal; Oranje, Bob; Madsen, Gitte Falcher; Møllegaard Jepsen, Jens Richardt; Durston, Sarah; Cantio, Cathriona; Glenthøj, Birte; Bilenberg, Niels

    2017-06-22

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show changes in (automatic) auditory processing. Electrophysiology provides a method to study auditory processing, by investigating event-related potentials such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a-amplitude. However, findings on MMN in autism are highly inconsistent, partly due to small sample sizes in the studies and differences in MMN paradigms. Therefore, in the current study, MMN and P3a amplitude were assessed in a relatively large sample of children with ASD, using a more extensive MMN paradigm and compared with that of typically developing children (TDC). Thirty-five children (aged 8-12 years) with ASD and 38 age and gender matched TDC were assessed with a MMN paradigm with three types of deviants, i.e., frequency, duration and a combination of these two. MMN elicited by duration and frequency-duration deviants was significantly reduced in the ASD group. P3a-amplitude elicited by duration deviants was significantly increased in the ASD group. Reduced MMN in children with ASD suggests that children with ASD may be less responsive to environmentally deviant stimuli at an early (sensory) level. P3a-amplitude was increased in ASD, implying a hyper-responsivity at the attentional level. In addition, as similar MMN deficits are found in schizophrenia, these MMN results may explain some of the frequently reported increased risk of children with ASD to develop schizophrenia later in life. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Auditory processing in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, C.A.M.; Beynon, A.J.; Snik, A.F.M.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Broek, P. van den

    2003-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: It is unclear whether Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, type 1A, causes auditory processing disorders. Therefore, auditory processing abilities were investigated in five CMT1A patients with normal hearing. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have failed to separate peripheral from central

  1. What Speech-Language Pathologists Need to Know about Auditory Processing Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To consider whether auditory processing disorder (APD) is truly a distinct clinical entity or whether auditory problems are more appropriately viewed as a processing deficit that may occur with various developmental disorders. Method: Theoretical and clinical factors associated with APD are critically evaluated. Results: There are…

  2. Influence of Eye Movements, Auditory Perception, and Phonemic Awareness in the Reading Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megino-Elvira, Laura; Martín-Lobo, Pilar; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to analyze the relationship of eye movements, auditory perception, and phonemic awareness with the reading process. The instruments used were the King-Devick Test (saccade eye movements), the PAF test (auditory perception), the PFC (phonemic awareness), the PROLEC-R (lexical process), the Canals reading speed test, and the…

  3. Principles of auditory processing differ between sensory and premotor structures of the songbird forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyman, Efe; Vicario, David S

    2017-03-01

    Sensory and motor brain structures work in collaboration during perception. To evaluate their respective contributions, the present study recorded neural responses to auditory stimulation at multiple sites simultaneously in both the higher-order auditory area NCM and the premotor area HVC of the songbird brain in awake zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Bird's own song (BOS) and various conspecific songs (CON) were presented in both blocked and shuffled sequences. Neural responses showed plasticity in the form of stimulus-specific adaptation, with markedly different dynamics between the two structures. In NCM, the response decrease with repetition of each stimulus was gradual and long-lasting and did not differ between the stimuli or the stimulus presentation sequences. In contrast, HVC responses to CON stimuli decreased much more rapidly in the blocked than in the shuffled sequence. Furthermore, this decrease was more transient in HVC than in NCM, as shown by differential dynamics in the shuffled sequence. Responses to BOS in HVC decreased more gradually than to CON stimuli. The quality of neural representations, computed as the mutual information between stimuli and neural activity, was higher in NCM than in HVC. Conversely, internal functional correlations, estimated as the coherence between recording sites, were greater in HVC than in NCM. The cross-coherence between the two structures was weak and limited to low frequencies. These findings suggest that auditory communication signals are processed according to very different but complementary principles in NCM and HVC, a contrast that may inform study of the auditory and motor pathways for human speech processing.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Neural responses to auditory stimulation in sensory area NCM and premotor area HVC of the songbird forebrain show plasticity in the form of stimulus-specific adaptation with markedly different dynamics. These two structures also differ in stimulus representations and internal

  4. The impact of educational level on performance on auditory processing tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina F.B. Murphy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor years of schooling was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills.

  5. Mismatch negativity in children with specific language impairment and auditory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Nunes Rocha-Muniz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mismatch negativity, an electrophysiological measure, evaluates the brain's capacity to discriminate sounds, regardless of attentional and behavioral capacity. Thus, this auditory event-related potential is promising in the study of the neurophysiological basis underlying auditory processing.OBJECTIVE: To investigate complex acoustic signals (speech encoded in the auditory nervous system of children with specific language impairment and compare with children with auditory processing disorders and typical development through the mismatch negativity paradigm.METHODS: It was a prospective study. 75 children (6-12 years participated in this study: 25 children with specific language impairment, 25 with auditory processing disorders, and 25 with typical development. Mismatch negativity was obtained by subtracting from the waves obtained by the stimuli /ga/ (frequent and /da/ (rare. Measures of mismatch negativity latency and two amplitude measures were analyzed.RESULTS: It was possible to verify an absence of mismatch negativity in 16% children with specific language impairment and 24% children with auditory processing disorders. In the comparative analysis, auditory processing disorders and specific language impairment showed higher latency values and lower amplitude values compared to typical development.CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate changes in the automatic discrimination of crucial acoustic components of speech sounds in children with specific language impairment and auditory processing disorders. It could indicate problems in physiological processes responsible for ensuring the discrimination of acoustic contrasts in pre-attentional and pre-conscious levels, contributing to poor perception.

  6. Mismatch negativity in children with specific language impairment and auditory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Befi-Lopes, Débora Maria; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Mismatch negativity, an electrophysiological measure, evaluates the brain's capacity to discriminate sounds, regardless of attentional and behavioral capacity. Thus, this auditory event-related potential is promising in the study of the neurophysiological basis underlying auditory processing. To investigate complex acoustic signals (speech) encoded in the auditory nervous system of children with specific language impairment and compare with children with auditory processing disorders and typical development through the mismatch negativity paradigm. It was a prospective study. 75 children (6-12 years) participated in this study: 25 children with specific language impairment, 25 with auditory processing disorders, and 25 with typical development. Mismatch negativity was obtained by subtracting from the waves obtained by the stimuli /ga/ (frequent) and /da/ (rare). Measures of mismatch negativity latency and two amplitude measures were analyzed. It was possible to verify an absence of mismatch negativity in 16% children with specific language impairment and 24% children with auditory processing disorders. In the comparative analysis, auditory processing disorders and specific language impairment showed higher latency values and lower amplitude values compared to typical development. These data demonstrate changes in the automatic discrimination of crucial acoustic components of speech sounds in children with specific language impairment and auditory processing disorders. It could indicate problems in physiological processes responsible for ensuring the discrimination of acoustic contrasts in pre-attentional and pre-conscious levels, contributing to poor perception. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Engagement with the auditory processing system during targeted auditory cognitive training mediates changes in cognitive outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagianti, Bruno; Fisher, Melissa; Neilands, Torsten B; Loewy, Rachel; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia who engage in targeted cognitive training (TCT) of the auditory system show generalized cognitive improvements. The high degree of variability in cognitive gains maybe due to individual differences in the level of engagement of the underlying neural system target. 131 individuals with schizophrenia underwent 40 hours of TCT. We identified target engagement of auditory system processing efficiency by modeling subject-specific trajectories of auditory processing speed (APS) over time. Lowess analysis, mixed models repeated measures analysis, and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine whether APS trajectories were moderated by age and illness duration, and mediated improvements in cognitive outcome measures. We observed significant improvements in APS from baseline to 20 hours of training (initial change), followed by a flat APS trajectory (plateau) at subsequent time-points. Participants showed interindividual variability in the steepness of the initial APS change and in the APS plateau achieved and sustained between 20 and 40 hours. We found that participants who achieved the fastest APS plateau, showed the greatest transfer effects to untrained cognitive domains. There is a significant association between an individual's ability to generate and sustain auditory processing efficiency and their degree of cognitive improvement after TCT, independent of baseline neurocognition. APS plateau may therefore represent a behavioral measure of target engagement mediating treatment response. Future studies should examine the optimal plateau of auditory processing efficiency required to induce significant cognitive improvements, in the context of interindividual differences in neural plasticity and sensory system efficiency that characterize schizophrenia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Neural Correlates of Auditory Processing, Learning and Memory Formation in Songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaud, R.; Terleph, T. A.; Wynne, R. D.; Tremere, L. A.

    Songbirds have emerged as powerful experimental models for the study of auditory processing of complex natural communication signals. Intact hearing is necessary for several behaviors in developing and adult animals including vocal learning, territorial defense, mate selection and individual recognition. These behaviors are thought to require the processing, discrimination and memorization of songs. Although much is known about the brain circuits that participate in sensorimotor (auditory-vocal) integration, especially the ``song-control" system, less is known about the anatomical and functional organization of central auditory pathways. Here we discuss findings associated with a telencephalic auditory area known as the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM). NCM has attracted significant interest as it exhibits functional properties that may support higher order auditory functions such as stimulus discrimination and the formation of auditory memories. NCM neurons are vigorously dr iven by auditory stimuli. Interestingly, these responses are selective to conspecific, relative to heterospecific songs and artificial stimuli. In addition, forms of experience-dependent plasticity occur in NCM and are song-specific. Finally, recent experiments employing high-throughput quantitative proteomics suggest that complex protein regulatory pathways are engaged in NCM as a result of auditory experience. These molecular cascades are likely central to experience-associated plasticity of NCM circuitry and may be part of a network of calcium-driven molecular events that support the formation of auditory memory traces.

  9. Auditory processing in children and adolescents in situations of risk and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Pontes, Fernanda; Stivanin, Luciene; Picoli, Erica; Schochat, Eliane

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents who live in situations of social vulnerability present a series of health problems. Nonetheless, affirmations that sensory and cognitive abnormalities are present are a matter of controversy. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects to auditory processing, through applying the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and behavioral auditory processing tests to children living on the streets, and comparison with a control group. Cross-sectional study in the Laboratory of Auditory Processing, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo. The auditory processing tests were applied to a group of 27 individuals, subdivided into 11 children (7 to 10 years old) and 16 adolescents (11 to 16 years old), of both sexes, in situations of social vulnerability, compared with an age-matched control group of 10 children and 11 adolescents without complaints. The BAEP test was also applied to investigate the integrity of the auditory pathway. For both children and adolescents, there were significant differences between the study and control groups in most of the tests applied, with significantly worse performance in the study group, except in the pediatric speech intelligibility test. Only one child had an abnormal result in the BAEP test. The results showed that the study group (children and adolescents) presented poor performance in the behavioral auditory processing tests, despite their unaltered auditory brainstem pathways, as shown by their normal results in the BAEP test.

  10. Auditory processing in children and adolescents in situations of risk and vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferraz Borges Murphy

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Children and adolescents who live in situations of social vulnerability present a series of health problems. Nonetheless, affirmations that sensory and cognitive abnormalities are present are a matter of controversy. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects to auditory processing, through applying the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP and behavioral auditory processing tests to children living on the streets, and comparison with a control group. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in the Laboratory of Auditory Processing, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: The auditory processing tests were applied to a group of 27 individuals, subdivided into 11 children (7 to 10 years old and 16 adolescents (11 to 16 years old, of both sexes, in situations of social vulnerability, compared with an age-matched control group of 10 children and 11 adolescents without complaints. The BAEP test was also applied to investigate the integrity of the auditory pathway. RESULTS: For both children and adolescents, there were significant differences between the study and control groups in most of the tests applied, with significantly worse performance in the study group, except in the pediatric speech intelligibility test. Only one child had an abnormal result in the BAEP test. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the study group (children and adolescents presented poor performance in the behavioral auditory processing tests, despite their unaltered auditory brainstem pathways, as shown by their normal results in the BAEP test.

  11. [Application of Brain-Boy Universal Professional in preliminary assessment of auditory processing disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Joanna; Łobaczuk-Sitnik, Anna; Kosztyła-Hojna, Bożena

    2017-09-29

    Increasing numbers of hearing pathology is auditory processing disorders. Auditory Processing Disorders (APD) are defined as difficulty in using auditory information to communicate and learn in the presence of normal peripheral hearing. It may be recognized as a problem with understanding of speech in noise and perception disorder of distorted speech. APD may accompany to articulation disorders, language problems and difficulties in reading and writing. The diagnosis of auditory processing disorders causes many difficulties primarily due to the lack of common testing procedures, precise criteria for qualification to the group of norm and pathology. The Brain-Boy Universal Professional (BUP) is one of diagnostics tools. It enables to assess the higher auditory functions. The aim of the study was preliminary assessment of hearing difficulties that may suggest the occurrence of auditory processing disorders in children. The questionnaire of hearing difficulties and BUP was used. Study includes 20 participants 2nd grade students of elementary school. The examination of the basic central functions was carried out with BUP. The parents and teacher complete the questionnaire to evaluate the hearing problems. Studies carried out indicate that the 40% schoolchild have hearing difficulties. The high percentage of deficits in auditory functions was confirmed with research results of medical device and the questionnaire for teacher. On the basis of the studies conducted may establish that the Warnke Method can serve as preliminary assessment of hearing difficulties that may suggest the occurrence of auditory processing disorders in children.

  12. A virtual auditory environment for investigating the auditory signal processing of realistic sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel; Buchholz, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    the VAE development, special care was taken in order to achieve a realistic auditory percept and to avoid “artifacts” such as unnatural coloration. The performance of the VAE has been evaluated and optimized on a 29 loudspeaker setup using both objective and subjective measurement techniques....

  13. Auditory Processing, Linguistic Prosody Awareness, and Word Reading in Mandarin-Speaking Children Learning English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Lun; Jarmulowicz, Linda; Bidelman, Gavin M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined language-specific links among auditory processing, linguistic prosody awareness, and Mandarin (L1) and English (L2) word reading in 61 Mandarin-speaking, English-learning children. Three auditory discrimination abilities were measured: pitch contour, pitch interval, and rise time (rate of intensity change at tone onset).…

  14. Auditory and Visual Memory Span: Cognitive Processing by TMR Individuals with Down Syndrome or Other Etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnhagen, Connie K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Auditory and visual memory span were examined with 13 Down Syndrome and 15 other trainable mentally retarded young adults. Although all subjects demonstrated relatively poor auditory memory span, Down Syndrome subjects were especially poor at long-term memory access for visual stimulus identification and short-term storage and processing of…

  15. Development of auditory processing in 6-12-year-old children: a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stollman, M.H.P.; Velzen, E.C. van; Simkens, H.M.F.; Snik, A.F.M.; Broek, P. van den

    2004-01-01

    The development of auditory processing in children was investigated in a longitudinal study. A group of 20 children with normal cognitive and language development underwent several auditory tests at the ages of 6, 7, 8, 10 and 12 years. At the age of 10 years, three subjects were lost to follow-up,

  16. Intact Spectral but Abnormal Temporal Processing of Auditory Stimuli in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Wouter B.; van Orsouw, Linda; ter Huurne, Niels; Swinkels, Sophie; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Zwiers, Marcel P.

    2009-01-01

    The perceptual pattern in autism has been related to either a specific localized processing deficit or a pathway-independent, complexity-specific anomaly. We examined auditory perception in autism using an auditory disembedding task that required spectral and temporal integration. 23 children with high-functioning-autism and 23 matched controls…

  17. Unconscious auditory information can prime visual word processing: a process-dissociation procedure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Dominique; Mudrik, Liad; Deouell, Leon Y

    2008-09-01

    Whether information perceived without awareness can affect overt performance, and whether such effects can cross sensory modalities, remains a matter of debate. Whereas influence of unconscious visual information on auditory perception has been documented, the reverse influence has not been reported. In addition, previous reports of unconscious cross-modal priming relied on procedures in which contamination of conscious processes could not be ruled out. We present the first report of unconscious cross-modal priming when the unaware prime is auditory and the test stimulus is visual. We used the process-dissociation procedure [Debner, J. A., & Jacoby, L. L. (1994). Unconscious perception: Attention, awareness and control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 304-317] which allowed us to assess the separate contributions of conscious and unconscious perception of a degraded prime (either seen or heard) to performance on a visual fragment-completion task. Unconscious cross-modal priming (auditory prime, visual fragment) was significant and of a magnitude similar to that of unconscious within-modality priming (visual prime, visual fragment). We conclude that cross-modal integration, at least between visual and auditory information, is more symmetrical than previously shown, and does not require conscious mediation.

  18. Cortical Auditory-Evoked Potential and Behavioral Evidence for Differences in Auditory Processing between Good and Poor Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Matthew D; Kuruvilla-Mathew, Abin; Purdy, Suzanne C

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between auditory processing (AP) and reading is thought to be significant; however our understanding of this relationship is somewhat limited. Previous studies have investigated the relation between certain electrophysiological and behavioral measures of AP and reading abilities in children. This study attempts to further understand that relation. Differences in AP between good and poor readers were investigated using electrophysiological and behavioral measures. Thirty-two children (15 female) aged 9-11 yr were placed in either a good reader group or poor reader group, based on the scores of a nationally normed reading test in New Zealand. Children were initially tested using an automated behavioral measuring system that runs through a tablet computer known as "Feather Squadron." Following the administration of Feather Squadron, cortical auditory-evoked potentials (CAEPs) were recorded using a speech stimulus (/m/) with the HEARLab(®) Cortical Auditory Evoked Potential Analyzer. The children were evaluated on eight subsections of the Feather Squadron, and CAEP waveform peaks were visually identified and averaged. Separate Kruskal-Wallis analyses were performed for the behavioral and electrophysiological variables, with group (good versus poor readers) serving as the between-group independent variable and scores from the Feather Squadron AP tasks as well as CAEP latencies and amplitudes as dependent variables. After the children's AP status was determined, the entire group was further divided into three groups: typically developing, auditory processing disorder + reading difficulty (APD + RD), and RDs only. Statistical analyses were repeated for these subgroups. Poorer readers showed significantly worse scores than the good readers for the Tonal Pattern 1, Tonal Pattern 2, and Word Double Dichotic Right tasks. CAEP differences observed across groups indicated comorbid effects of RD and AP difficulties. N2 amplitude was significantly smaller for

  19. Central Auditory Processing Disorders: Is It a Meaningful Construct or a Twentieth Century Unicorn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi, Alan G.; Beasley, Daniel S.

    1985-01-01

    The article demonstrates how professional and theoretical perspectives (including psycholinguistics, behaviorist, and information processing perspectives) significantly influence the manner in which central auditory processing is viewed, assessed, and remediated. (Author/CL)

  20. Medial efferent mechanisms in children with auditory processing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanta eMishra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Auditory processing disorder (APD affects about 2 to 5% of children. However, the nature of this disorder is poorly understood. Children with APD typically have difficulties in complex listening situations. One mechanism thought to aid in listening-in-noise is the medial olivocochlear (MOC inhibition. The purpose of this review was to critically analyze the published data on MOC inhibition in children with APD to determine whether the MOC efferents are involved in these individuals. The otoacoustic emission (OAE methods used to assay MOC reflex were examined in the context of the current understanding of OAE generation mechanisms. Relevant literature suggests critical differences in the study population and OAE methods. Variables currently known to influence MOC reflex measurements, for example, middle-ear muscle reflexes or OAE signal-to-noise ratio, were not controlled by most studies. The use of potentially weaker OAE methods and the remarkable heterogeneity across studies does not allow for a definite conclusion whether or not the MOC reflex is altered in children with APD. Further carefully designed studies are needed. Knowledge of efferent functioning in children with APD would be mechanistically and clinically beneficial.

  1. Degraded Auditory Processing in a Rat Model of Autism Limits the Speech Representation in Non-primary Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Engineer, C. T.; Centanni, T. M.; Im, K.W.; Borland, M.S.; Moreno, N.A.; Carraway, R. S.; Wilson, L. G.; Kilgard, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Although individuals with autism are known to have significant communication problems, the cellular mechanisms responsible for impaired communication are poorly understood. Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsant that is a known risk factor for autism in prenatally exposed children. Prenatal VPA exposure in rats causes numerous neural and behavioral abnormalities that mimic autism. We predicted that VPA exposure may lead to auditory processing impairments which may contribute to the deficits...

  2. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  3. Processing temporal modulations in binaural and monaural auditory stimuli by neurons in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Douglas C; Roberts, Jason M; Kuwada, Shigeyuki; Kim, Duck O; Filipovic, Blagoje

    2009-12-01

    Processing dynamic changes in the stimulus stream is a major task for sensory systems. In the auditory system, an increase in the temporal integration window between the inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex is well known for monaural signals such as amplitude modulation, but a similar increase with binaural signals has not been demonstrated. To examine the limits of binaural temporal processing at these brain levels, we used the binaural beat stimulus, which causes a fluctuating interaural phase difference, while recording from neurons in the unanesthetized rabbit. We found that the cutoff frequency for neural synchronization to the binaural beat frequency (BBF) decreased between the IC and auditory cortex, and that this decrease was associated with an increase in the group delay. These features indicate that there is an increased temporal integration window in the cortex compared to the IC, complementing that seen with monaural signals. Comparable measurements of responses to amplitude modulation showed that the monaural and binaural temporal integration windows at the cortical level were quantitatively as well as qualitatively similar, suggesting that intrinsic membrane properties and afferent synapses to the cortical neurons govern the dynamic processing. The upper limits of synchronization to the BBF and the band-pass tuning characteristics of cortical neurons are a close match to human psychophysics.

  4. Same or different: The overlap between children with auditory processing disorders and children with other developmental disorders: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, E. de; Dijk, P. van; Hanekamp, S.; Visser-Bochane, M.I.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der; Luinge, M.R.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Children diagnosed with auditory processing disorders (APD) experience difficulties in auditory functioning and with memory, attention, language, and reading tasks. However, it is not clear whether the behavioral characteristics of these children are distinctive from the behavioral

  5. Long latency auditory evoked potentials and central auditory processing in children with reading and writing alterations: Preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares, Aparecido José Couto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presently, it is admitted that individuals with reading and writing alterations may present delay in the development of listening skills, which may interfere in the learning process. The assessment of the listening skills can occur in a behavioral way, through central auditory processing (CAP tests, or by electrophysiological assessment highlighting the long latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEP. The use of the LLAEP as a means of complementary assessment of individuals with reading and writing alterations can become an important data both for further characterization of the alterations, as for the therapeutic guidance of this population. Objective: Characterize the CAP and the LLAEP in children with reading and writing alterations. Method: Research approved by the Institution's Ethic Commission under nº 305/10. The assessment of CAP and LLAEP was performed in 12 children aged between 8 and 12 years old (average of 10,6 years, with reading and writing alterations confirmed in specific evaluation. Results: The most altered CAP skills were temporal ordination and figure-ground for linguistic sounds. There were found altered results in P300 and in MMN. Conclusion: The individuals with reading and writing alterations performed below the expected on CAP tests. The MMN allowed a better characterization of the auditory function of this population. There was evidence of association between the CAP results and the alteration of the LLAEP.

  6. Multivoxel Patterns Reveal Functionally Differentiated Networks Underlying Auditory Feedback Processing of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zane Z.; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; MacDonald, Ewen N.

    2013-01-01

    The everyday act of speaking involves the complex processes of speech motor control. An important component of control is monitoring, detection, and processing of errors when auditory feedback does not correspond to the intended motor gesture. Here we show, using fMRI and converging operations...... presented as auditory concomitants of vocalization. A third network, showing a distinct functional pattern from the other two, appears to capture aspects of both neural response profiles. Together, our findings suggest that auditory feedback processing during speech motor control may rely on multiple...... within a multivoxel pattern analysis framework, that this sensorimotor process is supported by functionally differentiated brain networks. During scanning, a real-time speech-tracking system was used to deliver two acoustically different types of distorted auditory feedback or unaltered feedback while...

  7. Auditory Processing Factors in Language Disorders: The View From Procrustes' Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, Norma S.

    1973-01-01

    Reviewed is research which has investigated failure in auditory processing as a cause of language and learning disorders (including defective articulation, aphasia, dyslexia, and specific learning disability) in children and adults. (Author/LS)

  8. Auditory and visual novelty processing in normally-developing Kenyan children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Michael; Hogan, Alexandra M.; Newton, Charles R.; Garrashi, Harrun H.; Neville, Brian R.; de Haan, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the normative development of the electrophysiological response to auditory and visual novelty in children living in rural Kenya. Methods We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by novel auditory and visual stimuli in 178 normally-developing children aged 4–12 years (86 boys, mean 6.7 years, SD 1.8 years and 92 girls, mean 6.6 years, SD 1.5 years) who were living in rural Kenya. Results The latency of early components (auditory P1 and visual N170) decreased with age and their amplitudes also tended to decrease with age. The changes in longer-latency components (Auditory N2, P3a and visual Nc, P3a) were more modality-specific; the N2 amplitude to novel stimuli decreased with age and the auditory P3a increased in both latency and amplitude with age. The Nc amplitude decreased with age while visual P3a amplitude tended to increase, though not linearly. Conclusions The changes in the timing and magnitude of early-latency ERPs likely reflect brain maturational processes. The age-related changes to auditory stimuli generally occurred later than those to visual stimuli suggesting that visual processing matures faster than auditory processing. Significance ERPs may be used to assess children’s cognitive development in rural areas of Africa. PMID:20080442

  9. Auditory processing in children : a study of the effects of age, hearing impairment and language impairment on auditory abilities in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stollman, Martin Hubertus Petrus

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we tested the hypotheses that the auditory system of children continues to mature until at least the age of 12 years and that the development of auditory processing in hearing-impaired and language-impaired children is often delayed or even genuinely disturbed. Data from a

  10. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and auditory processing in autism: modifiable deficits of an integrated social engagement system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porges, Stephen W; Macellaio, Matthew; Stanfill, Shannon D; McCue, Kimberly; Lewis, Gregory F; Harden, Emily R; Handelman, Mika; Denver, John; Bazhenova, Olga V; Heilman, Keri J

    2013-06-01

    The current study evaluated processes underlying two common symptoms (i.e., state regulation problems and deficits in auditory processing) associated with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Although these symptoms have been treated in the literature as unrelated, when informed by the Polyvagal Theory, these symptoms may be viewed as the predictable consequences of depressed neural regulation of an integrated social engagement system, in which there is down regulation of neural influences to the heart (i.e., via the vagus) and to the middle ear muscles (i.e., via the facial and trigeminal cranial nerves). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and heart period were monitored to evaluate state regulation during a baseline and two auditory processing tasks (i.e., the SCAN tests for Filtered Words and Competing Words), which were used to evaluate auditory processing performance. Children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were contrasted with aged matched typically developing children. The current study identified three features that distinguished the ASD group from a group of typically developing children: 1) baseline RSA, 2) direction of RSA reactivity, and 3) auditory processing performance. In the ASD group, the pattern of change in RSA during the attention demanding SCAN tests moderated the relation between performance on the Competing Words test and IQ. In addition, in a subset of ASD participants, auditory processing performance improved and RSA increased following an intervention designed to improve auditory processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of (central auditory processing disorder in speech sound disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Faria Barrozo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Considering the importance of auditory information for the acquisition and organization of phonological rules, the assessment of (central auditory processing contributes to both the diagnosis and targeting of speech therapy in children with speech sound disorders. OBJECTIVE: To study phonological measures and (central auditory processing of children with speech sound disorder. METHODS: Clinical and experimental study, with 21 subjects with speech sound disorder aged between 7.0 and 9.11 years, divided into two groups according to their (central auditory processing disorder. The assessment comprised tests of phonology, speech inconsistency, and metalinguistic abilities. RESULTS: The group with (central auditory processing disorder demonstrated greater severity of speech sound disorder. The cutoff value obtained for the process density index was the one that best characterized the occurrence of phonological processes for children above 7 years of age. CONCLUSION: The comparison among the tests evaluated between the two groups showed differences in some phonological and metalinguistic abilities. Children with an index value above 0.54 demonstrated strong tendencies towards presenting a (central auditory processing disorder, and this measure was effective to indicate the need for evaluation in children with speech sound disorder.

  12. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberalesso Paulo Breno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP. Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse information. In the present study, thirty healthy adult volunteers (17 females and 13 males, aged 30.75 ± 7.14 years were subjected to a pure tone audiometry test, a speech recognition threshold test, a speech recognition task, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSWT, and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT. Baseline (BSL performance was compared to performance after 24 hours of being sleep deprived (24hSD using the Student’s t test. Results Mean RGDT score was elevated in the 24hSD condition (8.0 ± 2.9 ms relative to the BSL condition for the whole cohort (6.4 ± 2.8 ms; p = 0.0005, for males (p = 0.0066, and for females (p = 0.0208. Sleep deprivation reduced SSWT scores for the whole cohort in both ears [(right: BSL, 98.4 % ± 1.8 % vs. SD, 94.2 % ± 6.3 %. p = 0.0005(left: BSL, 96.7 % ± 3.1 % vs. SD, 92.1 % ± 6.1 %, p  Conclusion Sleep deprivation impairs RGDT and SSWT performance. These findings confirm that sleep deprivation has central effects that may impair performance in other areas of life.

  13. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberalesso, Paulo Breno Noronha; D'Andrea, Karlin Fabianne Klagenberg; Cordeiro, Mara L; Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Marques, Jair Mendes; Jurkiewicz, Ari Leon

    2012-07-23

    Sleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP). Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse information. In the present study, thirty healthy adult volunteers (17 females and 13 males, aged 30.75±7.14 years) were subjected to a pure tone audiometry test, a speech recognition threshold test, a speech recognition task, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSWT), and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT). Baseline (BSL) performance was compared to performance after 24 hours of being sleep deprived (24hSD) using the Student's t test. Mean RGDT score was elevated in the 24hSD condition (8.0±2.9 ms) relative to the BSL condition for the whole cohort (6.4±2.8 ms; p=0.0005), for males (p=0.0066), and for females (p=0.0208). Sleep deprivation reduced SSWT scores for the whole cohort in both ears [(right: BSL, 98.4%±1.8% vs. SD, 94.2%±6.3%. p=0.0005)(left: BSL, 96.7%±3.1% vs. SD, 92.1%±6.1%, peffects were evident within both gender subgroups [(right: males, p=0.0080; females, p=0.0143)(left: males, p=0.0076; females: p=0.0010). Sleep deprivation impairs RGDT and SSWT performance. These findings confirm that sleep deprivation has central effects that may impair performance in other areas of life.

  14. Attention fine-tunes auditory-motor processing of speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möttönen, Riikka; van de Ven, Gido M; Watkins, Kate E

    2014-03-12

    The earliest stages of cortical processing of speech sounds take place in the auditory cortex. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have provided evidence that the human articulatory motor cortex contributes also to speech processing. For example, stimulation of the motor lip representation influences specifically discrimination of lip-articulated speech sounds. However, the timing of the neural mechanisms underlying these articulator-specific motor contributions to speech processing is unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear whether they depend on attention. Here, we used magnetoencephalography and TMS to investigate the effect of attention on specificity and timing of interactions between the auditory and motor cortex during processing of speech sounds. We found that TMS-induced disruption of the motor lip representation modulated specifically the early auditory-cortex responses to lip-articulated speech sounds when they were attended. These articulator-specific modulations were left-lateralized and remarkably early, occurring 60-100 ms after sound onset. When speech sounds were ignored, the effect of this motor disruption on auditory-cortex responses was nonspecific and bilateral, and it started later, 170 ms after sound onset. The findings indicate that articulatory motor cortex can contribute to auditory processing of speech sounds even in the absence of behavioral tasks and when the sounds are not in the focus of attention. Importantly, the findings also show that attention can selectively facilitate the interaction of the auditory cortex with specific articulator representations during speech processing.

  15. Motion processing after sight restoration: No competition between visual recovery and auditory compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Davide; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Hense, Marlene; Troje, Nikolaus F; Sourav, Suddha; Röder, Brigitte

    2017-11-23

    The present study tested whether or not functional adaptations following congenital blindness are maintained in humans after sight-restoration and whether they interfere with visual recovery. In permanently congenital blind individuals both intramodal plasticity (e.g. changes in auditory cortex) as well as crossmodal plasticity (e.g. an activation of visual cortex by auditory stimuli) have been observed. Both phenomena were hypothesized to contribute to improved auditory functions. For example, it has been shown that early permanently blind individuals outperform sighted controls in auditory motion processing and that auditory motion stimuli elicit activity in typical visual motion areas. Yet it is unknown what happens to these behavioral adaptations and cortical reorganizations when sight is restored, that is, whether compensatory auditory changes are lost and to which degree visual motion processing is reinstalled. Here we employed a combined behavioral-electrophysiological approach in a group of sight-recovery individuals with a history of a transient phase of congenital blindness lasting for several months to several years. They, as well as two control groups, one with visual impairments, one normally sighted, were tested in a visual and an auditory motion discrimination experiment. Task difficulty was manipulated by varying the visual motion coherence and the signal to noise ratio, respectively. The congenital cataract-reversal individuals showed lower performance in the visual global motion task than both control groups. At the same time, they outperformed both control groups in auditory motion processing suggesting that at least some compensatory behavioral adaptation as a consequence of a complete blindness from birth was maintained. Alpha oscillatory activity during the visual task was significantly lower in congenital cataract reversal individuals and they did not show ERPs modulated by visual motion coherence as observed in both control groups. In

  16. When and where of auditory spatial processing in cortex: a novel approach using electrotomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Lewald

    Full Text Available The modulation of brain activity as a function of auditory location was investigated using electro-encephalography in combination with standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. Auditory stimuli were presented at various positions under anechoic conditions in free-field space, thus providing the complete set of natural spatial cues. Variation of electrical activity in cortical areas depending on sound location was analyzed by contrasts between sound locations at the time of the N1 and P2 responses of the auditory evoked potential. A clear-cut double dissociation with respect to the cortical locations and the points in time was found, indicating spatial processing (1 in the primary auditory cortex and posterodorsal auditory cortical pathway at the time of the N1, and (2 in the anteroventral pathway regions about 100 ms later at the time of the P2. Thus, it seems as if both auditory pathways are involved in spatial analysis but at different points in time. It is possible that the late processing in the anteroventral auditory network reflected the sharing of this region by analysis of object-feature information and spectral localization cues or even the integration of spatial and non-spatial sound features.

  17. Tuned with a tune: Talker normalization via general auditory processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika J C Laing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Voices have unique acoustic signatures, contributing to the acoustic variability listeners must contend with in perceiving speech, and it has long been proposed that listeners normalize speech perception to information extracted from a talker’s speech. Initial attempts to explain talker normalization relied on extraction of articulatory referents, but recent studies of context-dependent auditory perception suggest that general auditory referents such as the long-term average spectrum (LTAS of a talker’s speech similarly affect speech perception. The present study aimed to differentiate the contributions of articulatory/linguistic versus auditory referents for context-driven talker normalization effects and, more specifically, to identify the specific constraints under which such contexts impact speech perception. Synthesized sentences manipulated to sound like different talkers influenced categorization of a subsequent speech target only when differences in the sentences’ LTAS were in the frequency range of the acoustic cues relevant for the target phonemic contrast. This effect was true both for speech targets preceded by spoken sentence contexts and for targets preceded by nonspeech tone sequences that were LTAS-matched to the spoken sentence contexts. Specific LTAS characteristics, rather than perceived talker, predicted the results suggesting that general auditory mechanisms play an important role in effects considered to be instances of perceptual talker normalization.

  18. Auditory Distraction in Semantic Memory: A Process-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments demonstrate auditory-semantic distraction in tests of memory for semantic category-exemplars. The effects of irrelevant sound on category-exemplar recall are shown to be functionally distinct from those found in the context of serial short-term memory by showing sensitivity to: The lexical-semantic, rather than acoustic,…

  19. Interference by Process, Not Content, Determines Semantic Auditory Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2009-01-01

    Distraction by irrelevant background sound of visually-based cognitive tasks illustrates the vulnerability of attentional selectivity across modalities. Four experiments centred on auditory distraction during tests of memory for visually-presented semantic information. Meaningful irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic…

  20. Reading skills and auditory processing ability in children with chronic otitis media in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, C; Thornburg, J D

    1992-06-01

    The effect of recurrent middle ear disease during the first 2 years of life on auditory perceptual skills and reading ability was examined in two groups of 6- and 7-year-old children who were pair-matched by age, gender, socioeconomic status, and receptive vocabulary. Group 1 consisted of children with documented chronic otitis media at an early age, and group 2 had no history of middle ear problems. Tests of auditory perceptual skills and reading ability were administered. Significant differences in performance on all tests of auditory processing ability and reading ability were noted.

  1. Auditory attention enhances processing of positive and negative words in inferior and superior prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyn, Martin; Herbert, Cornelia; Ethofer, Thomas; Flaisch, Tobias; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-11-01

    Visually presented emotional words are processed preferentially and effects of emotional content are similar to those of explicit attention deployment in that both amplify visual processing. However, auditory processing of emotional words is less well characterized and interactions between emotional content and task-induced attention have not been fully understood. Here, we investigate auditory processing of emotional words, focussing on how auditory attention to positive and negative words impacts their cerebral processing. A Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study manipulating word valence and attention allocation was performed. Participants heard negative, positive and neutral words to which they either listened passively or attended by counting negative or positive words, respectively. Regardless of valence, active processing compared to passive listening increased activity in primary auditory cortex, left intraparietal sulcus, and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG). The attended valence elicited stronger activity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left SFG, in line with these regions' role in semantic retrieval and evaluative processing. No evidence for valence-specific attentional modulation in auditory regions or distinct valence-specific regional activations (i.e., negative > positive or positive > negative) was obtained. Thus, allocation of auditory attention to positive and negative words can substantially increase their processing in higher-order language and evaluative brain areas without modulating early stages of auditory processing. Inferior and superior frontal brain structures mediate interactions between emotional content, attention, and working memory when prosodically neutral speech is processed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of memory, attention, IQ and age on auditory temporal processing tests: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Zachi, Elaine Cristina; Roque, Daniela Tsubota; Ventura, Dora Selma Fix; Schochat, Eliane

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the existence of correlations between the performance of children in auditory temporal tests (Frequency Pattern and Gaps in Noise--GIN) and IQ, attention, memory and age measurements. Fifteen typically developing individuals between the ages of 7 to 12 years and normal hearing participated in the study. Auditory temporal processing tests (GIN and Frequency Pattern), as well as a Memory test (Digit Span), Attention tests (auditory and visual modality) and intelligence tests (RAVEN test of Progressive Matrices) were applied. Significant and positive correlation between the Frequency Pattern test and age variable were found, which was considered good (ptest and the variables tested. Auditory temporal skills seem to be influenced by different factors: while the performance in temporal ordering skill seems to be influenced by maturational processes, the performance in temporal resolution was not influenced by any of the aspects investigated.

  3. Processing of Natural Sounds: Characterization of Multipeak Spectral Tuning in Human Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Moerel, Michelle; De Martino, Federico; Santoro, Roberta; Ugurbil, Kamil; Goebel, Rainer; Yacoub, Essa; Formisano, Elia

    2013-01-01

    We examine the mechanisms by which the human auditory cortex processes the frequency content of natural sounds. Through mathematical modeling of ultra-high field (7 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging responses to natural sounds, we derive frequency-tuning curves of cortical neuronal populations. With a data-driven analysis, we divide the auditory cortex into five spatially distributed clusters, each characterized by a spectral tuning profile. Beyond neuronal populations with simple sing...

  4. Auditory temporal processing deficits and language disorders in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Pollyanna Barros; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro; de Rezende, Nilton Alves

    2014-01-01

    Previous findings from a case report led to the argument of whether other patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) may have abnormal central auditory function, particularly auditory temporal processing. We hypothesized that it is associated with language and learning disabilities in this population. The aim of this study was to measure central auditory temporal function in NF1 patients and correlate it with the results of language evaluation tests. A descriptive/comparative study including 25 NF1 individuals and 22 healthy controls compared their performances on audiometric evaluation and auditory behavioral testing (Sequential Verbal Memory, Sequential Non-Verbal Memory, Frequency Pattern, Duration Pattern, and Gaps in Noise Tests). To assess language performance, two tests (phonological and syntactic awareness) were also conducted. The study showed that all participants had normal peripheral acoustic hearing. Differences were found between the NF1 and control groups in the temporal auditory processing tests [Sequential Verbal Memory (P=0.009), Sequential Non-Verbal Memory (P=0.028), Frequency Patterns (P=0.001), Duration Patterns (P=0.000), and Gaps in Noise (P=0.000)] and in language tests. The results of Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated the presence of positive correlations between the phonological awareness test and Frequency Patterns humming (r=0.560, P=0.001), Frequency Patterns labeling (r=0.415, P=0.022) and Duration Pattern humming (r=0.569, P=0.001). These results suggest that the neurofibromin deficiency found in NF1 patients is associated with auditory temporal processing deficits, which may contribute to the cognitive impairment, learning disabilities, and attention deficits that are common in this disorder. The reader will be able to: (1) describe the auditory temporal processing in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1; and (2) describe the impact of the auditory temporal deficits in language in this population. Copyright © 2014

  5. Differential diagnosis and management of central auditory processing disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermak, G D; Hall, J W; Musiek, F E

    1999-06-01

    Children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently present difficulties performing tasks that challenge the central auditory nervous system. The relationship between ADHD and central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is examined from the perspectives of cognitive neuroscience, audiology, and neuropsychology. The accumulating evidence provides a basis for the overlapping clinical profiles yet differentiates CAPD and ADHD as clinically distinct entities. Common and distinctive management strategies are outlined.

  6. Rapid Increase in Neural Conduction Time in the Adult Human Auditory Brainstem Following Sudden Unilateral Deafness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maslin, M R. D; Lloyd, S K; Rutherford, S; Freeman, S; King, A; Moore, D R; Munro, K J

    2015-01-01

    .... Click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to stimulation of the healthy ear were recorded from ten adults during the course of translabyrinthine surgery for the removal of a unilateral acoustic neuroma...

  7. Syntactic and auditory spatial processing in the human temporal cortex: an MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Björn; Maess, Burkhard; Hahne, Anja; Schröger, Erich; Friederici, Angela D

    2011-07-15

    Processing syntax is believed to be a higher cognitive function involving cortical regions outside sensory cortices. In particular, previous studies revealed that early syntactic processes at around 100-200 ms affect brain activations in anterior regions of the superior temporal gyrus (STG), while independent studies showed that pure auditory perceptual processing is related to sensory cortex activations. However, syntax-related modulations of sensory cortices were reported recently, thereby adding diverging findings to the previous studies. The goal of the present magnetoencephalography study was to localize the cortical regions underlying early syntactic processes and those underlying perceptual processes using a within-subject design. Sentences varying the factors syntax (correct vs. incorrect) and auditory space (standard vs. change of interaural time difference (ITD)) were auditorily presented. Both syntactic and auditory spatial anomalies led to very early activations (40-90 ms) in the STG. Around 135 ms after violation onset, differential effects were observed for syntax and auditory space, with syntactically incorrect sentences leading to activations in the anterior STG, whereas ITD changes elicited activations more posterior in the STG. Furthermore, our observations strongly indicate that the anterior and the posterior STG are activated simultaneously when a double violation is encountered. Thus, the present findings provide evidence of a dissociation of speech-related processes in the anterior STG and the processing of auditory spatial information in the posterior STG, compatible with the view of different processing streams in the temporal cortex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Practical Gammatone-Like Filters for Auditory Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Lyon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with continuous-time filter transfer functions that resemble tuning curves at particular set of places on the basilar membrane of the biological cochlea and that are suitable for practical VLSI implementations. The resulting filters can be used in a filterbank architecture to realize cochlea implants or auditory processors of increased biorealism. To put the reader into context, the paper starts with a short review on the gammatone filter and then exposes two of its variants, namely, the differentiated all-pole gammatone filter (DAPGF and one-zero gammatone filter (OZGF, filter responses that provide a robust foundation for modeling cochlea transfer functions. The DAPGF and OZGF responses are attractive because they exhibit certain characteristics suitable for modeling a variety of auditory data: level-dependent gain, linear tail for frequencies well below the center frequency, asymmetry, and so forth. In addition, their form suggests their implementation by means of cascades of N identical two-pole systems which render them as excellent candidates for efficient analog or digital VLSI realizations. We provide results that shed light on their characteristics and attributes and which can also serve as “design curves” for fitting these responses to frequency-domain physiological data. The DAPGF and OZGF responses are essentially a “missing link” between physiological, electrical, and mechanical models for auditory filtering.

  9. Sleep Disrupts High-Level Speech Parsing Despite Significant Basic Auditory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makov, Shiri; Sharon, Omer; Ding, Nai; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Nir, Yuval; Zion Golumbic, Elana

    2017-08-09

    The extent to which the sleeping brain processes sensory information remains unclear. This is particularly true for continuous and complex stimuli such as speech, in which information is organized into hierarchically embedded structures. Recently, novel metrics for assessing the neural representation of continuous speech have been developed using noninvasive brain recordings that have thus far only been tested during wakefulness. Here we investigated, for the first time, the sleeping brain's capacity to process continuous speech at different hierarchical levels using a newly developed Concurrent Hierarchical Tracking (CHT) approach that allows monitoring the neural representation and processing-depth of continuous speech online. Speech sequences were compiled with syllables, words, phrases, and sentences occurring at fixed time intervals such that different linguistic levels correspond to distinct frequencies. This enabled us to distinguish their neural signatures in brain activity. We compared the neural tracking of intelligible versus unintelligible (scrambled and foreign) speech across states of wakefulness and sleep using high-density EEG in humans. We found that neural tracking of stimulus acoustics was comparable across wakefulness and sleep and similar across all conditions regardless of speech intelligibility. In contrast, neural tracking of higher-order linguistic constructs (words, phrases, and sentences) was only observed for intelligible speech during wakefulness and could not be detected at all during nonrapid eye movement or rapid eye movement sleep. These results suggest that, whereas low-level auditory processing is relatively preserved during sleep, higher-level hierarchical linguistic parsing is severely disrupted, thereby revealing the capacity and limits of language processing during sleep.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite the persistence of some sensory processing during sleep, it is unclear whether high-level cognitive processes such as speech

  10. Auditory processing in children with language-based learning problems: a magnetencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedler, Jennifer; Pietz, Joachim; Brunner, Monika; Hornberger, Cornelia; Bast, Thomas; Rupp, André

    2009-06-17

    We examined basic auditory temporal processing in children with language-based learning problems (LPs) applying magnetencephalography. Auditory-evoked fields of 43 children (27 LP, 16 controls) were recorded while passively listening to 100-ms white noise bursts with temporal gaps of 3, 6, 10 and 30 ms inserted after 5 or 50 ms. The P1m was evaluated by spatio-temporal source analysis. Psychophysical gap-detection thresholds were obtained for the same participants. Thirty-two percent of the LP children were not able to perform the early gap psychoacoustic task. In addition, LP children displayed a significant delay of the P1m during the early gap task. These findings provide evidence for a diminished neuronal representation of short auditory stimuli in the primary auditory cortex of LP children.

  11. Auditory post-processing in a passive listening task is deficient in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Stephan; Bluschke, Annet; Dippel, Gabriel; Rupp, André; Weisbrod, Matthias; Thomas, Christine

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether automatic auditory post-processing is deficient in patients with Alzheimer's disease and is related to sensory gating. Event-related potentials were recorded during a passive listening task to examine the automatic transient storage of auditory information (short click pairs). Patients with Alzheimer's disease were compared to a healthy age-matched control group. A young healthy control group was included to assess effects of physiological aging. A bilateral frontal negativity in combination with deep temporal positivity occurring 500 ms after stimulus offset was reduced in patients with Alzheimer's disease, but was unaffected by physiological aging. Its amplitude correlated with short-term memory capacity, but was independent of sensory gating in healthy elderly controls. Source analysis revealed a dipole pair in the anterior temporal lobes. Results suggest that auditory post-processing is deficient in Alzheimer's disease, but is not typically related to sensory gating. The deficit could neither be explained by physiological aging nor by problems in earlier stages of auditory perception. Correlations with short-term memory capacity and executive control tasks suggested an association with memory encoding and/or overall cognitive control deficits. An auditory late negative wave could represent a marker of auditory working memory encoding deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Relationship between Central Auditory Processing, Language, and Cognition in Children Being Evaluated for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Lauren; Cash, Elizabeth; Chermak, Gail D; Guenette, Linda; Masters, Gay; Musiek, Frank E; Brown, Mallory; Ceruti, Julianne; Fitzegerald, Krista; Geissler, Kristin; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is frequently comorbid with other childhood disorders. However, few studies have examined the relationship between commonly used CAPD, language, and cognition tests within the same sample. The present study examined the relationship between diagnostic CAPD tests and "gold standard" measures of language and cognitive ability, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). A retrospective study. Twenty-seven patients referred for CAPD testing who scored average or better on the CELF and low average or better on the WISC were initially included. Seven children who scored below the CELF and/or WISC inclusion criteria were then added to the dataset for a second analysis, yielding a sample size of 34. Participants were administered a CAPD battery that included at least the following three CAPD tests: Frequency Patterns (FP), Dichotic Digits (DD), and Competing Sentences (CS). In addition, they were administered the CELF and WISC. Relationships between scores on CAPD, language (CELF), and cognition (WISC) tests were examined using correlation analysis. DD and FP showed significant correlations with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient, and the DD left ear and the DD interaural difference measures both showed significant correlations with working memory. However, ∼80% or more of the variance in these CAPD tests was unexplained by language and cognition measures. Language and cognition measures were more strongly correlated with each other than were the CAPD tests with any CELF or WISC scale. Additional correlations with the CAPD tests were revealed when patients who scored in the mild-moderate deficit range on the CELF and/or in the borderline low intellectual functioning range on the WISC were included in the analysis. While both the DD and FP tests showed significant correlations with one or more cognition measures, the majority of the variance in these

  13. Auditory N1 reveals planning and monitoring processes during music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Brian; Gehring, William J; Palmer, Caroline

    2017-02-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between planning processes and feedback monitoring during music performance, a complex task in which performers prepare upcoming events while monitoring their sensory outcomes. Theories of action planning in auditory-motor production tasks propose that the planning of future events co-occurs with the perception of auditory feedback. This study investigated the neural correlates of planning and feedback monitoring by manipulating the contents of auditory feedback during music performance. Pianists memorized and performed melodies at a cued tempo in a synchronization-continuation task while the EEG was recorded. During performance, auditory feedback associated with single melody tones was occasionally substituted with tones corresponding to future (next), present (current), or past (previous) melody tones. Only future-oriented altered feedback disrupted behavior: Future-oriented feedback caused pianists to slow down on the subsequent tone more than past-oriented feedback, and amplitudes of the auditory N1 potential elicited by the tone immediately following the altered feedback were larger for future-oriented than for past-oriented or noncontextual (unrelated) altered feedback; larger N1 amplitudes were associated with greater slowing following altered feedback in the future condition only. Feedback-related negativities were elicited in all altered feedback conditions. In sum, behavioral and neural evidence suggests that future-oriented feedback disrupts performance more than past-oriented feedback, consistent with planning theories that posit similarity-based interference between feedback and planning contents. Neural sensory processing of auditory feedback, reflected in the N1 ERP, may serve as a marker for temporal disruption caused by altered auditory feedback in auditory-motor production tasks. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Auditory processing under cross-modal visual load investigated with simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Regenbogen

    Full Text Available Cognitive task demands in one sensory modality (T1 can have beneficial effects on a secondary task (T2 in a different modality, due to reduced top-down control needed to inhibit the secondary task, as well as crossmodal spread of attention. This contrasts findings of cognitive load compromising a secondary modality's processing. We manipulated cognitive load within one modality (visual and studied the consequences of cognitive demands on secondary (auditory processing. 15 healthy participants underwent a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment. Data from 8 participants were obtained outside the scanner for validation purposes. The primary task (T1 was to respond to a visual working memory (WM task with four conditions, while the secondary task (T2 consisted of an auditory oddball stream, which participants were asked to ignore. The fMRI results revealed fronto-parietal WM network activations in response to T1 task manipulation. This was accompanied by significantly higher reaction times and lower hit rates with increasing task difficulty which confirmed successful manipulation of WM load. Amplitudes of auditory evoked potentials, representing fundamental auditory processing showed a continuous augmentation which demonstrated a systematic relation to cross-modal cognitive load. With increasing WM load, primary auditory cortices were increasingly deactivated while psychophysiological interaction results suggested the emergence of auditory cortices connectivity with visual WM regions. These results suggest differential effects of crossmodal attention on fundamental auditory processing. We suggest a continuous allocation of resources to brain regions processing primary tasks when challenging the central executive under high cognitive load.

  15. Magnetoencephalographic Imaging of Auditory and Somatosensory Cortical Responses in Children with Autism and Sensory Processing Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Demopoulos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compared magnetoencephalographic (MEG imaging-derived indices of auditory and somatosensory cortical processing in children aged 8–12 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 18, those with sensory processing dysfunction (SPD; N = 13 who do not meet ASD criteria, and typically developing control (TDC; N = 19 participants. The magnitude of responses to both auditory and tactile stimulation was comparable across all three groups; however, the M200 latency response from the left auditory cortex was significantly delayed in the ASD group relative to both the TDC and SPD groups, whereas the somatosensory response of the ASD group was only delayed relative to TDC participants. The SPD group did not significantly differ from either group in terms of somatosensory latency, suggesting that participants with SPD may have an intermediate phenotype between ASD and TDC with regard to somatosensory processing. For the ASD group, correlation analyses indicated that the left M200 latency delay was significantly associated with performance on the WISC-IV Verbal Comprehension Index as well as the DSTP Acoustic-Linguistic index. Further, these cortical auditory response delays were not associated with somatosensory cortical response delays or cognitive processing speed in the ASD group, suggesting that auditory delays in ASD are domain specific rather than associated with generalized processing delays. The specificity of these auditory delays to the ASD group, in addition to their correlation with verbal abilities, suggests that auditory sensory dysfunction may be implicated in communication symptoms in ASD, motivating further research aimed at understanding the impact of sensory dysfunction on the developing brain.

  16. Deficit of auditory temporal processing in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Tajik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory temporal processing reveals an important aspect of auditory performance, in which a deficit can prevent the child from speaking, language learning and reading. Temporal resolution, which is a subgroup of temporal processing, can be evaluated by gap-in-noise detection test. Regarding the relation of auditory temporal processing deficits and phonologic disorder of children with dyslexia-dysgraphia, the aim of this study was to evaluate these children with the gap-in-noise (GIN test.Methods: The gap-in-noise test was performed on 28 normal and 24 dyslexic-dysgraphic children, at the age of 11-12 years old. Mean approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers were compared between the groups.Results: The mean approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers of the right and left ear had no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. The mean approximate threshold of children with dyslexia-dysgraphia (6.97 ms, SD=1.09 was significantly (p<0.001 more than that of the normal group (5.05 ms, SD=0.92. The mean related frequency of corrected answers (58.05, SD=4.98% was less than normal group (69.97, SD=7.16% (p<0.001.Conclusion: Abnormal temporal resolution was found in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia based on gap-in-noise test. While the brainstem and auditory cortex are responsible for auditory temporal processing, probably the structural and functional differences of these areas in normal and dyslexic-dysgraphic children lead to abnormal coding of auditory temporal information. As a result, auditory temporal processing is inevitable.

  17. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    fast and inexpensive supply for polymer master models and a ceramic shaping method that enables the replication of the RP model into multiple ceramic materials within a short time. (Knitter et al 1999). 2. Rapid prototyping process chains. The manufacturing of ceramic microparts presented here set out with the 3D-CAD ...

  18. The Perception of Auditory Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  19. Phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in children with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haresabadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Specific language impairment (SLI, one variety of developmental language disorder, has attracted much interest in recent decades. Much research has been conducted to discover why some children have a specific language impairment. So far, research has failed to identify a reason for this linguistic deficiency. Some researchers believe language disorder causes defects in phonological working memory and affects auditory processing speed. Therefore, this study reviews the results of research investigating these two factors in children with specific language impairment.Recent Findings: Studies have shown that children with specific language impairment face constraints in phonological working memory capacity. Memory deficit is one possible cause of linguistic disorder in children with specific language impairment. However, in these children, disorder in information processing speed is observed, especially regarding the auditory aspect.Conclusion: Much more research is required to adequately explain the relationship between phonological working memory and auditory processing speed with language. However, given the role of phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in language acquisition, a focus should be placed on phonological working memory capacity and auditory processing speed in the assessment and treatment of children with a specific language impairment.

  20. A preliminary study on the relationship between central auditory processing and childhood primary headaches in the intercritical phase

    OpenAIRE

    Ciriaco, Antonella; Russo, Angelo; Monzani, Daniele; Genovese, Elisabetta; Benincasa, Paola; Caffo, Ernesto; Pini, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, an increasing number of articles have appeared on central auditory processing disorders, but in the literature there is only one study that evaluated the possible correlation between migraine in the critical phase and central auditory processing. The aim of our study was to assess the correlation between auditory processing information and childhood primary headaches in the intercritical phase. Methods This is an observational study. We enrolled 54 patients, 30 with prima...

  1. Testing Convergent Evolution in Auditory Processing Genes between Echolocating Mammals and the Aye-Aye, a Percussive-Foraging Primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Richard J; Jerjos, Michael; Hohman, Baily; Lauterbur, M Elise; Kistler, Logan; Perry, George H

    2017-07-01

    Several taxonomically distinct mammalian groups-certain microbats and cetaceans (e.g., dolphins)-share both morphological adaptations related to echolocation behavior and strong signatures of convergent evolution at the amino acid level across seven genes related to auditory processing. Aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) are nocturnal lemurs with a specialized auditory processing system. Aye-ayes tap rapidly along the surfaces of trees, listening to reverberations to identify the mines of wood-boring insect larvae; this behavior has been hypothesized to functionally mimic echolocation. Here we investigated whether there are signals of convergence in auditory processing genes between aye-ayes and known mammalian echolocators. We developed a computational pipeline (Basic Exon Assembly Tool) that produces consensus sequences for regions of interest from shotgun genomic sequencing data for nonmodel organisms without requiring de novo genome assembly. We reconstructed complete coding region sequences for the seven convergent echolocating bat-dolphin genes for aye-ayes and another lemur. We compared sequences from these two lemurs in a phylogenetic framework with those of bat and dolphin echolocators and appropriate nonecholocating outgroups. Our analysis reaffirms the existence of amino acid convergence at these loci among echolocating bats and dolphins; some methods also detected signals of convergence between echolocating bats and both mice and elephants. However, we observed no significant signal of amino acid convergence between aye-ayes and echolocating bats and dolphins, suggesting that aye-aye tap-foraging auditory adaptations represent distinct evolutionary innovations. These results are also consistent with a developing consensus that convergent behavioral ecology does not reliably predict convergent molecular evolution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadou, Vasiliki (Vivian); Ptok, Martin; Grech, Helen; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Brechmann, André; Deggouj, Naïma; Kiese-Himmel, Christiane; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Nickisch, Andreas; Demanez, Laurent; Veuillet, Evelyne; Thai-Van, Hung; Sirimanna, Tony; Callimachou, Marina; Santarelli, Rosamaria; Kuske, Sandra; Barajas, Jose; Hedjever, Mladen; Konukseven, Ozlem; Veraguth, Dorothy; Stokkereit Mattsson, Tone; Martins, Jorge Humberto; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    2017-01-01

    Current notions of “hearing impairment,” as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other more sophisticated audiometric tests such as speech audiometry in noise or complex non-speech sound perception. This disorder, defined as “Auditory Processing Disorder” (APD) or “Central Auditory Processing Disorder” is classified in the current tenth version of the International Classification of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order to further clarify the nature of APD and thus assist in optimum diagnosis and evidence-based management. This European consensus presents the main symptoms, conditions, and specific medical history elements that should lead to auditory processing evaluation. Consensus on definition of the disorder, optimum diagnostic pathway, and appropriate management are highlighted alongside a perspective on future research focus.

  3. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki (Vivian Iliadou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current notions of “hearing impairment,” as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other more sophisticated audiometric tests such as speech audiometry in noise or complex non-speech sound perception. This disorder, defined as “Auditory Processing Disorder” (APD or “Central Auditory Processing Disorder” is classified in the current tenth version of the International Classification of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order to further clarify the nature of APD and thus assist in optimum diagnosis and evidence-based management. This European consensus presents the main symptoms, conditions, and specific medical history elements that should lead to auditory processing evaluation. Consensus on definition of the disorder, optimum diagnostic pathway, and appropriate management are highlighted alongside a perspective on future research focus.

  4. Habilitation and management of auditory processing disorders: overview of selected procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiek, F

    1999-06-01

    This article describes three management approaches that can be used with children with auditory processing difficulties and learning disabilities. These approaches were selected because they can be applied in a variety of settings by a variety of professionals, as well as interested parents. The vocabulary building procedure is one that potentially can increase the ability to learn new words but also can provide training on contextual derivation of information, which is key to auditory closure processes. This procedure also helps increase language base, which can also enhance closure abilities. Auditory memory enhancement is a simple technique that involves many complex brain processes. This procedure reduces detailed information to a more gestalt representation and also integrates the motor and spatial processes of the brain. This, in turn, more fully uses working memory and helps in formulization and recall of important concepts of the sensory input. Finally, several informal auditory training techniques are discussed that can be readily employed in the school or home setting. These auditory training techniques are those that are most relevant to the kinds of deficits most often observed in our clinic.

  5. Temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Prestes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Stuttering is a speech fluency disorder, and may be associated with neuroaudiological factors linked to central auditory processing, including changes in auditory processing skills and temporal resolution. Objective: To characterize the temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers and to compare them with non-stutterers. Methods: The study included 41 right-handed subjects, aged 18-46 years, divided into two groups: stutterers (n = 20 and non-stutters (n = 21, compared according to age, education, and sex. All subjects were submitted to the duration pattern tests, random gap detection test, and long-latency auditory evoked potential. Results: Individuals who stutter showed poorer performance on Duration Pattern and Random Gap Detection tests when compared with fluent individuals. In the long-latency auditory evoked potential, there was a difference in the latency of N2 and P3 components; stutterers had higher latency values. Conclusion: Stutterers have poor performance in temporal processing and higher latency values for N2 and P3 components.

  6. Auditory, Visual and Audiovisual Speech Processing Streams in Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezia, Jonathan H; Vaden, Kenneth I; Rong, Feng; Maddox, Dale; Saberi, Kourosh; Hickok, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) is responsive to visual and auditory information, including sounds and facial cues during speech recognition. We investigated the functional organization of STS with respect to modality-specific and multimodal speech representations. Twenty younger adult participants were instructed to perform an oddball detection task and were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech stimuli, as well as auditory and visual nonspeech control stimuli in a block fMRI design. Consistent with a hypothesized anterior-posterior processing gradient in STS, auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli produced the largest BOLD effects in anterior, posterior and middle STS (mSTS), respectively, based on whole-brain, linear mixed effects and principal component analyses. Notably, the mSTS exhibited preferential responses to multisensory stimulation, as well as speech compared to nonspeech. Within the mid-posterior and mSTS regions, response preferences changed gradually from visual, to multisensory, to auditory moving posterior to anterior. Post hoc analysis of visual regions in the posterior STS revealed that a single subregion bordering the mSTS was insensitive to differences in low-level motion kinematics yet distinguished between visual speech and nonspeech based on multi-voxel activation patterns. These results suggest that auditory and visual speech representations are elaborated gradually within anterior and posterior processing streams, respectively, and may be integrated within the mSTS, which is sensitive to more abstract speech information within and across presentation modalities. The spatial organization of STS is consistent with processing streams that are hypothesized to synthesize perceptual speech representations from sensory signals that provide convergent information from visual and auditory modalities.

  7. Rapid thermal processing science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Fair, Richard B

    1993-01-01

    This is the first definitive book on rapid thermal processing (RTP), an essential namufacturing technology for single-wafer processing in highly controlled environments. Written and edited by nine experts in the field, this book covers a range of topics for academics and engineers alike, moving from basic theory to advanced technology for wafer manufacturing. The book also provides new information on the suitability or RTP for thin film deposition, junction formation, silicides, epitaxy, and in situ processing. Complete discussions on equipment designs and comparisons between RTP and other

  8. Computational themes of peripheral processing in the auditory pathway of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, K Jannis; Benda, Jan; Hennig, R Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Hearing in insects serves to gain information in the context of mate finding, predator avoidance or host localization. For these goals, the auditory pathways of insects represent the computational substrate for object recognition and localization. Before these higher level computations can be executed in more central parts of the nervous system, the signals need to be preprocessed in the auditory periphery. Here, we review peripheral preprocessing along four computational themes rather than discussing specific physiological mechanisms: (1) control of sensitivity by adaptation, (2) recoding of amplitude modulations of an acoustic signal into a labeled-line code (3) frequency processing and (4) conditioning for binaural processing. Along these lines, we review evidence for canonical computations carried out in the peripheral auditory pathway and show that despite the vast diversity of insect hearing, signal processing is governed by common computational motifs and principles.

  9. Loss of central auditory processing in a mouse model of Canavan disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg von Jonquieres

    Full Text Available Canavan Disease (CD is a leukodystrophy caused by homozygous null mutations in the gene encoding aspartoacylase (ASPA. ASPA-deficiency is characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, and excessive levels of the ASPA substrate N-acetylaspartate (NAA. ASPA is an oligodendrocyte marker and it is believed that CD has a central etiology. However, ASPA is also expressed by Schwann cells and ASPA-deficiency in the periphery might therefore contribute to the complex CD pathology. In this study, we assessed peripheral and central auditory function in the AspalacZ/lacZ rodent model of CD using auditory brainstem response (ABR. Increased ABR thresholds and the virtual loss of waveform peaks 4 and 5 from AspalacZ/lacZ mice, indicated altered central auditory processing in mutant mice compared with Aspawt/wt controls and altered central auditory processing. Analysis of ABR latencies recorded from AspalacZ/lacZ mice revealed that the speed of nerve conduction was unchanged in the peripheral part of the auditory pathway, and impaired in the CNS. Histological analyses confirmed that ASPA was expressed in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells of the auditory system. In keeping with our physiological results, the cellular organization of the cochlea, including the organ of Corti, was preserved and the spiral ganglion nerve fibres were normal in ASPA-deficient mice. In contrast, we detected substantial hypomyelination in the central auditory system of AspalacZ/lacZ mice. In summary, our data suggest that the lack of ASPA in the CNS is responsible for the observed hearing deficits, while ASPA-deficiency in the cochlear nerve fibres is tolerated both morphologically and functionally.

  10. Loss of central auditory processing in a mouse model of Canavan disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Jonquieres, Georg; Froud, Kristina E; Klugmann, Claudia B; Wong, Ann C Y; Housley, Gary D; Klugmann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Canavan Disease (CD) is a leukodystrophy caused by homozygous null mutations in the gene encoding aspartoacylase (ASPA). ASPA-deficiency is characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, and excessive levels of the ASPA substrate N-acetylaspartate (NAA). ASPA is an oligodendrocyte marker and it is believed that CD has a central etiology. However, ASPA is also expressed by Schwann cells and ASPA-deficiency in the periphery might therefore contribute to the complex CD pathology. In this study, we assessed peripheral and central auditory function in the AspalacZ/lacZ rodent model of CD using auditory brainstem response (ABR). Increased ABR thresholds and the virtual loss of waveform peaks 4 and 5 from AspalacZ/lacZ mice, indicated altered central auditory processing in mutant mice compared with Aspawt/wt controls and altered central auditory processing. Analysis of ABR latencies recorded from AspalacZ/lacZ mice revealed that the speed of nerve conduction was unchanged in the peripheral part of the auditory pathway, and impaired in the CNS. Histological analyses confirmed that ASPA was expressed in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells of the auditory system. In keeping with our physiological results, the cellular organization of the cochlea, including the organ of Corti, was preserved and the spiral ganglion nerve fibres were normal in ASPA-deficient mice. In contrast, we detected substantial hypomyelination in the central auditory system of AspalacZ/lacZ mice. In summary, our data suggest that the lack of ASPA in the CNS is responsible for the observed hearing deficits, while ASPA-deficiency in the cochlear nerve fibres is tolerated both morphologically and functionally.

  11. Auditory Processing in Infancy: Do Early Abnormalities Predict Disorders of Language and Cognitive Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetta, Francesco; Conti, Guido; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Increasing attention has been devoted to the maturation of sensory processing in the first year of life. While the development of cortical visual function has been thoroughly studied, much less information is available on auditory processing and its early disorders. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the assessment techniques for…

  12. Basic auditory processing is related to familial risk, not to reading fluency: An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, B.; van der Leij, A.; Maurits, N.; Maassen, B.; van Zuijen, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Less proficient basic auditory processing has been previously connected to dyslexia. However, it is unclear whether a low proficiency level is a correlate of having a familial risk for reading problems, or whether it causes dyslexia. In this study, children's processing of amplitude rise time (ART),

  13. Basic auditory processing is related to familial risk, not to reading fluency : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, Britt; van der Leij, Aryan; Maurits, Natasha; Maassen, Ben; van Zuijen, Titia L.

    Less proficient basic auditory processing has been previously connected to dyslexia. However, it is unclear whether a low proficiency level is a correlate of having a familial risk for reading problems, or whether it causes dyslexia. In this study, children's processing of amplitude rise time (ART),

  14. Modality Specificity as a Criterion for Diagnosing Central Auditory Processing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Cacace, Anthony T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the case for modality specificity as a criterion for improving the specificity of diagnosing central auditory processing disorders. Demonstrating the modality-specific nature of sensory processing deficits is seen as one way to rule out nonperceptual factors as explanations for observed dysfunction. (Author)

  15. Auditory Perception, Suprasegmental Speech Processing, and Vocabulary Development in Chinese Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan S; Chen, I-Chen; Chiang, Chun-Han; Lai, Ying-Hui; Tsao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the associations between basic auditory perception, speech prosodic processing, and vocabulary development in Chinese kindergartners, specifically, whether early basic auditory perception may be related to linguistic prosodic processing in Chinese Mandarin vocabulary acquisition. A series of language, auditory, and linguistic prosodic tests were given to 100 preschool children who had not yet learned how to read Chinese characters. The results suggested that lexical tone sensitivity and intonation production were significantly correlated with children's general vocabulary abilities. In particular, tone awareness was associated with comprehensive language development, whereas intonation production was associated with both comprehensive and expressive language development. Regression analyses revealed that tone sensitivity accounted for 36% of the unique variance in vocabulary development, whereas intonation production accounted for 6% of the variance in vocabulary development. Moreover, auditory frequency discrimination was significantly correlated with lexical tone sensitivity, syllable duration discrimination, and intonation production in Mandarin Chinese. Also it provided significant contributions to tone sensitivity and intonation production. Auditory frequency discrimination may indirectly affect early vocabulary development through Chinese speech prosody. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Age-related dissociation of sensory and decision-based auditory motion processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Annemarie Ludwig

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the maturation of auditory motion processing in children have yielded inconsistent reports. The present study combines subjective and objective measurements to investigate how the auditory perceptual abilities of children change during development and whether these changes are paralleled by changes in the event-related brain potential (ERP.We employed the mismatch negativity (MMN to determine maturational changes in the discrimination of interaural time differences (ITD that generate lateralized moving auditory percepts. MMNs were elicited in children, teenagers, and adults, using a small and a large ITD at stimulus offset with respect to each subject’s discrimination threshold. In adults and teenagers large deviants elicited prominent MMNs, whereas small deviants at the behavioral threshold elicited only a marginal or no MMN. In contrast, pronounced MMNs for both deviant sizes were found in children. Behaviourally, however, most of the children showed higher discrimination thresholds than teens and adults.Although automatic ITD detection is functional, active discrimination is still limited in children. The lack of MMN deviance dependency in children suggests that unlike in teenagers and adults, neural signatures of automatic auditory motion processing do not mirror discrimination abilities.The study critically accounts for advanced understanding of children’s central auditory development.

  17. The role of the auditory brainstem in processing musically-relevant pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin M. Bidelman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging work has shed light on the cerebral architecture involved in processing the melodic and harmonic aspects of music. Here, recent evidence is reviewed illustrating that subcortical auditory structures contribute to the early formation and processing of musically-relevant pitch. Electrophysiological recordings from the human brainstem and population responses from the auditory nerve reveal that nascent features of tonal music (e.g., consonance/dissonance, pitch salience, harmonic sonority are evident at early, subcortical levels of the auditory pathway. The salience and harmonicity of brainstem activity is strongly correlated with listeners’ perceptual preferences and perceived consonance for the tonal relationships of music. Moreover, the hierarchical ordering of pitch intervals/chords described by the Western music practice and their perceptual consonance is well-predicted by the salience with which pitch combinations are encoded in subcortical auditory structures. While the neural correlates of consonance can be tuned and exaggerated with musical training, they persist even in the absence of musicianship or long-term enculturation. As such, it is posited that the structural foundations of musical pitch might result from innate processing performed by the central auditory system. A neurobiological predisposition for consonant, pleasant sounding pitch relationships may be one reason why these pitch combinations have been favored by composers and listeners for centuries. It is suggested that important perceptual dimensions of music emerge well before the auditory signal reaches cerebral cortex and prior to attentional engagement. While cortical mechanisms are no doubt critical to the perception, production, and enjoyment of music, the contribution of subcortical structures implicates a more integrated, hierarchically organized network underlying music processing within the brain.

  18. The Role of the Auditory Brainstem in Processing Musically Relevant Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging work has shed light on the cerebral architecture involved in processing the melodic and harmonic aspects of music. Here, recent evidence is reviewed illustrating that subcortical auditory structures contribute to the early formation and processing of musically relevant pitch. Electrophysiological recordings from the human brainstem and population responses from the auditory nerve reveal that nascent features of tonal music (e.g., consonance/dissonance, pitch salience, harmonic sonority) are evident at early, subcortical levels of the auditory pathway. The salience and harmonicity of brainstem activity is strongly correlated with listeners’ perceptual preferences and perceived consonance for the tonal relationships of music. Moreover, the hierarchical ordering of pitch intervals/chords described by the Western music practice and their perceptual consonance is well-predicted by the salience with which pitch combinations are encoded in subcortical auditory structures. While the neural correlates of consonance can be tuned and exaggerated with musical training, they persist even in the absence of musicianship or long-term enculturation. As such, it is posited that the structural foundations of musical pitch might result from innate processing performed by the central auditory system. A neurobiological predisposition for consonant, pleasant sounding pitch relationships may be one reason why these pitch combinations have been favored by composers and listeners for centuries. It is suggested that important perceptual dimensions of music emerge well before the auditory signal reaches cerebral cortex and prior to attentional engagement. While cortical mechanisms are no doubt critical to the perception, production, and enjoyment of music, the contribution of subcortical structures implicates a more integrated, hierarchically organized network underlying music processing within the brain. PMID:23717294

  19. Auditory signal processing in communication: perception and performance of vocal sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Jonathan F

    2013-11-01

    Learning and maintaining the sounds we use in vocal communication require accurate perception of the sounds we hear performed by others and feedback-dependent imitation of those sounds to produce our own vocalizations. Understanding how the central nervous system integrates auditory and vocal-motor information to enable communication is a fundamental goal of systems neuroscience, and insights into the mechanisms of those processes will profoundly enhance clinical therapies for communication disorders. Gaining the high-resolution insight necessary to define the circuits and cellular mechanisms underlying human vocal communication is presently impractical. Songbirds are the best animal model of human speech, and this review highlights recent insights into the neural basis of auditory perception and feedback-dependent imitation in those animals. Neural correlates of song perception are present in auditory areas, and those correlates are preserved in the auditory responses of downstream neurons that are also active when the bird sings. Initial tests indicate that singing-related activity in those downstream neurons is associated with vocal-motor performance as opposed to the bird simply hearing itself sing. Therefore, action potentials related to auditory perception and action potentials related to vocal performance are co-localized in individual neurons. Conceptual models of song learning involve comparison of vocal commands and the associated auditory feedback to compute an error signal that is used to guide refinement of subsequent song performances, yet the sites of that comparison remain unknown. Convergence of sensory and motor activity onto individual neurons points to a possible mechanism through which auditory and vocal-motor signals may be linked to enable learning and maintenance of the sounds used in vocal communication. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives". Copyright © 2013

  20. Top-down modulation of visual and auditory cortical processing in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Maria J S; Eck, Judith; Moerel, Michelle; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Van Gerven, Pascal W M

    2015-02-01

    Age-related cognitive decline has been accounted for by an age-related deficit in top-down attentional modulation of sensory cortical processing. In light of recent behavioral findings showing that age-related differences in selective attention are modality dependent, our goal was to investigate the role of sensory modality in age-related differences in top-down modulation of sensory cortical processing. This question was addressed by testing younger and older individuals in several memory tasks while undergoing fMRI. Throughout these tasks, perceptual features were kept constant while attentional instructions were varied, allowing us to devise all combinations of relevant and irrelevant, visual and auditory information. We found no top-down modulation of auditory sensory cortical processing in either age group. In contrast, we found top-down modulation of visual cortical processing in both age groups, and this effect did not differ between age groups. That is, older adults enhanced cortical processing of relevant visual information and suppressed cortical processing of visual distractors during auditory attention to the same extent as younger adults. The present results indicate that older adults are capable of suppressing irrelevant visual information in the context of cross-modal auditory attention, and thereby challenge the view that age-related attentional and cognitive decline is due to a general deficits in the ability to suppress irrelevant information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Auditory rehabilitation after stroke: treatment of auditory processing disorders in stroke patients with personal frequency-modulated (FM) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohi, Nehzat; Vickers, Deborah; Chandrashekar, Hoskote; Tsang, Benjamin; Werring, David; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    2017-03-01

    Auditory disability due to impaired auditory processing (AP) despite normal pure-tone thresholds is common after stroke, and it leads to isolation, reduced quality of life and physical decline. There are currently no proven remedial interventions for AP deficits in stroke patients. This is the first study to investigate the benefits of personal frequency-modulated (FM) systems in stroke patients with disordered AP. Fifty stroke patients had baseline audiological assessments, AP tests and completed the (modified) Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly questionnaires. Nine out of these 50 patients were diagnosed with disordered AP based on severe deficits in understanding speech in background noise but with normal pure-tone thresholds. These nine patients underwent spatial speech-in-noise testing in a sound-attenuating chamber (the "crescent of sound") with and without FM systems. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for 50% correct speech recognition performance was measured with speech presented from 0° azimuth and competing babble from ±90° azimuth. Spatial release from masking (SRM) was defined as the difference between SNRs measured with co-located speech and babble and SNRs measured with spatially separated speech and babble. The SRM significantly improved when babble was spatially separated from target speech, while the patients had the FM systems in their ears compared to without the FM systems. Personal FM systems may substantially improve speech-in-noise deficits in stroke patients who are not eligible for conventional hearing aids. FMs are feasible in stroke patients and show promise to address impaired AP after stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation This is the first study to investigate the benefits of personal frequency-modulated (FM) systems in stroke patients with disordered AP. All cases significantly improved speech perception in noise with the FM systems, when noise was spatially separated from the

  2. Effects of auditory distraction on voluntary movements: exploring the underlying mechanisms associated with parallel processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; Karageorghis, Costas I; Nowicky, Alexander V; Wright, Michael J; Orgs, Guido

    2017-04-08

    Highly demanding cognitive-motor tasks can be negatively influenced by the presence of auditory stimuli. The human brain attempts to partially suppress the processing of potential distractors in order that motor tasks can be completed successfully. The present study sought to further understand the attentional neural systems that activate in response to potential distractors during the execution of movements. Nineteen participants (9 women and 10 men) were administered isometric ankle-dorsiflexion tasks for 10 s at a light intensity. Electroencephalography was used to assess the electrical activity in the brain, and a music excerpt was used to distract participants. Three conditions were administered: auditory distraction during the execution of movement (auditory distraction; AD), movement execution in the absence of auditory distraction (control; CO), and auditory distraction in the absence of movement (stimulus-only; SO). AD was compared with SO to identify the mechanisms underlying the attentional processing associated with attentional shifts from internal association (task-related) to external (task-unrelated) sensory cues. The results of the present study indicated that the EMG amplitude was not compromised when the auditory stimulus was administered. Accordingly, EEG activity was upregulated at 0.368 s in AD when compared to SO. Source reconstruction analysis indicated that right and central parietal regions of the cortex activated at 0.368 s in order to reduce the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli during the execution of movements. The brain mechanisms that underlie the control of potential distractors during exercise were possibly associated with the activity of the frontoparietal network.

  3. Auditory inhibition of rapid eye movements and dream recall from REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Katrina; Conduit, Russell

    2009-03-01

    There is debate in dream research as to whether ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves or cortical arousal during sleep underlie the biological mechanisms of dreaming. This study comprised 2 experiments. As eye movements (EMs) are currently considered the best noninvasive indicator of PGO burst activity in humans, the aim of the first experiment was to investigate the effect of low-intensity repeated auditory stimulation on EMs (and inferred PGO burst activity) during REM sleep. It was predicted that such auditory stimuli during REM sleep would have a suppressive effect on EMs. The aim of the second experiment was to examine the effects of this auditory stimulation on subsequent dream reporting on awakening. Repeated measures design with counterbalanced order of experimental and control conditions across participants. Sleep laboratory based polysomnography (PSG) PARTICIPANTS: Experiment 1 : 5 males and 10 females aged 18-35 years (M = 20.8, SD = 5.4). Experiment 2 : 7 males and 13 females aged 18-35 years (M = 23.3, SD = 5.5). Below-waking threshold tone presentations during REM sleep compared to control REM sleep conditions without tone presentations. PSG records were manually scored for sleep stages, EEG arousals, and EMs. Auditory stimulation during REM sleep was related to: (a) an increase in EEG arousal, (b) a decrease in the amplitude and frequency of EMs, and (c) a decrease in the frequency of visual imagery reports on awakening. The results of this study provide phenomenological support for PGO-based theories of dream reporting on awakening from sleep in humans.

  4. Early auditory processing in musicians and dancers during a contemporary dance piece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikonen, Hanna; Toiviainen, Petri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2016-09-09

    The neural responses to simple tones and short sound sequences have been studied extensively. However, in reality the sounds surrounding us are spectrally and temporally complex, dynamic and overlapping. Thus, research using natural sounds is crucial in understanding the operation of the brain in its natural environment. Music is an excellent example of natural stimulation which, in addition to sensory responses, elicits vast cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. Here we show that the preattentive P50 response evoked by rapid increases in timbral brightness during continuous music is enhanced in dancers when compared to musicians and laymen. In dance, fast changes in brightness are often emphasized with a significant change in movement. In addition, the auditory N100 and P200 responses are suppressed and sped up in dancers, musicians and laymen when music is accompanied with a dance choreography. These results were obtained with a novel event-related potential (ERP) method for natural music. They suggest that we can begin studying the brain with long pieces of natural music using the ERP method of electroencephalography (EEG) as has already been done with functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), these two brain imaging methods complementing each other.

  5. Psychometric Evaluation of Children with Auditory Processing Disorder (APD): Comparison with Normal-Hearing and Clinical Non-APD Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadou, Vasiliki; Bamiou, Doris Eva

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical utility of the Children's Auditory Processing Performance Scale (CHAPPS; Smoski, Brunt, & Tannahill, 1992) to evaluate listening ability in 12-year-old children referred for auditory processing assessment. Method: This was a prospective case control study of 97 children (age range = 11;4 [years;months] to…

  6. Entropical Aspects in Auditory Processes and Psychoacoustical Law of Weber-Fechner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, I.; Popescu, D. I.

    For hearing sense, the mechanoreceptors fire action potentials when their membranes are physically stretched. Based on the statistical physics, we analyzed the entropical aspects in auditory processes of hearing. We develop a model that connects the logarithm of relative intensity of sound (loudness) to the level of energy disorder within the system of cellular sensory system. The increasing of entropy and disorder in the system is connected to the free energy available to signal the production of action potentials in inner hair cells of the vestibulocochlear auditory organ.

  7. Categorization of Extremely Brief Auditory Stimuli: Domain-Specific or Domain-General Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Gérard, Yannick; Tillmann, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the minimum amount of auditory stimulation that allows differentiation of spoken voices, instrumental music, and environmental sounds. Three new findings were reported. 1) All stimuli were categorized above chance level with 50 ms-segments. 2) When a peak-level normalization was applied, music and voices started to be accurately categorized with 20 ms-segments. When the root-mean-square (RMS) energy of the stimuli was equalized, voice stimuli were better recognized than music and environmental sounds. 3) Further psychoacoustical analyses suggest that the categorization of extremely brief auditory stimuli depends on the variability of their spectral envelope in the used set. These last two findings challenge the interpretation of the voice superiority effect reported in previously published studies and propose a more parsimonious interpretation in terms of an emerging property of auditory categorization processes. PMID:22046436

  8. The cascaded nature of lexical selection and integration in auditory sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, D. van den; Brown, C.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2006-01-01

    An event-related brain potential experiment was carried out to investigate the temporal relationship between lexical selection and the semantic integration in auditory sentence processing. Participants were presented with spoken sentences that ended with a word that was either semantically congruent

  9. Spectral vs. Temporal Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment: A Developmental ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceponiene, R.; Cummings, A.; Wulfeck, B.; Ballantyne, A.; Townsend, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pre-linguistic sensory deficits, especially in "temporal" processing, have been implicated in developmental language impairment (LI). However, recent evidence has been equivocal with data suggesting problems in the spectral domain. The present study examined event-related potential (ERP) measures of auditory sensory temporal and spectral…

  10. Auditory Temporal Processing and Working Memory: Two Independent Deficits for Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostick, Leah; Bar-El, Sharona; Ram-Tsur, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    Dyslexia is a neuro-cognitive disorder with a strong genetic basis, characterized by a difficulty in acquiring reading skills. Several hypotheses have been suggested in an attempt to explain the origin of dyslexia, among which some have suggested that dyslexic readers might have a deficit in auditory temporal processing, while others hypothesized…

  11. What Is the deficit in Phonological Processing Deficits: Auditory Sensitivity, Masking, or Category Formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Shune, Samantha; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2011-01-01

    Although children with language impairments, including those associated with reading, usually demonstrate deficits in phonological processing, there is minimal agreement as to the source of those deficits. This study examined two problems hypothesized to be possible sources: either poor auditory sensitivity to speech-relevant acoustic properties,…

  12. The role of event-related brain potentials in assessing central auditory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain, Claude; Tremblay, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    The perception of complex acoustic signals such as speech and music depends on the interaction between peripheral and central auditory processing. As information travels from the cochlea to primary and associative auditory cortices, the incoming sound is subjected to increasingly more detailed and refined analysis. These various levels of analyses are thought to include low-level automatic processes that detect, discriminate and group sounds that are similar in physical attributes such as frequency, intensity, and location as well as higher-level schema-driven processes that reflect listeners' experience and knowledge of the auditory environment. In this review, we describe studies that have used event-related brain potentials in investigating the processing of complex acoustic signals (e.g., speech, music). In particular, we examine the role of hearing loss on the neural representation of sound and how cognitive factors and learning can help compensate for perceptual difficulties. The notion of auditory scene analysis is used as a conceptual framework for interpreting and studying the perception of sound.

  13. Peeling the Onion of Auditory Processing Disorder: A Language/Curricular-Based Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Geraldine P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article addresses auditory processing disorder (APD) from a language-based perspective. The author asks speech-language pathologists to evaluate the functionality (or not) of APD as a diagnostic category for children and adolescents with language-learning and academic difficulties. Suggestions are offered from a…

  14. Effect of Auditory Motion Velocity on Reaction Time and Cortical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzmann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the processing of sound motion, employing a psychophysical motion discrimination task in combination with electroencephalography. Following stationary auditory stimulation from a central space position, the onset of left- and rightward motion elicited a specific cortical response that was lateralized to the hemisphere…

  15. The Impact of a Subordinate L1 on L2 Auditory Processing in Adult Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Hoan, Minh; Taft, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    For bilinguals born in an English-speaking country or who arrive at a young age, English (L2) often becomes their dominant language by adulthood. This study examines whether such adult bilinguals show equivalent performance to monolingual English native speakers on three English auditory processing tasks: phonemic awareness, spelling-to-dictation…

  16. A twin study of auditory processing indicates that dichotic listening ability is a strongly heritable trait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morell, Robert J.; Brewer, Carmen C.; Ge, Dongliang; Snieder, Harold; Zalewski, Christopher K.; King, Kelly A.; Drayna, Dennis; Friedman, Thomas B.

    We administered tests commonly used in the diagnosis of auditory processing disorders (APDs) to twins recruited from the general population. We observed significant correlations in test scores between co-twins. Our analyses of test score correlations among 106 MZ and 33 DZ twin pairs indicate that

  17. The Impacts of Language Background and Language-Related Disorders in Auditory Processing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of language background and language-related disorders (LRDs--dyslexia and/or language impairment) on performance in English speech and nonspeech tests of auditory processing (AP) commonly used in the clinic. Method: A clinical database concerning 133 multilingual children (mostly with English as an additional…

  18. Short-Term Memory and Auditory Processing Disorders: Concurrent Validity and Clinical Diagnostic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerlender, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are of interest to educators and clinicians, as they impact school functioning. Little work has been completed to demonstrate how children with APDs perform on clinical tests. In a series of studies, standard clinical (psychometric) tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition…

  19. A Binaural Neuromorphic Auditory Sensor for FPGA: A Spike Signal Processing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Fernandez, Angel; Cerezuela-Escudero, Elena; Miro-Amarante, Lourdes; Dominguez-Moralse, Manuel Jesus; de Asis Gomez-Rodriguez, Francisco; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a new architecture, design flow, and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation analysis of a neuromorphic binaural auditory sensor, designed completely in the spike domain. Unlike digital cochleae that decompose audio signals using classical digital signal processing techniques, the model presented in this paper processes information directly encoded as spikes using pulse frequency modulation and provides a set of frequency-decomposed audio information using an address-event representation interface. In this case, a systematic approach to design led to a generic process for building, tuning, and implementing audio frequency decomposers with different features, facilitating synthesis with custom features. This allows researchers to implement their own parameterized neuromorphic auditory systems in a low-cost FPGA in order to study the audio processing and learning activity that takes place in the brain. In this paper, we present a 64-channel binaural neuromorphic auditory system implemented in a Virtex-5 FPGA using a commercial development board. The system was excited with a diverse set of audio signals in order to analyze its response and characterize its features. The neuromorphic auditory system response times and frequencies are reported. The experimental results of the proposed system implementation with 64-channel stereo are: a frequency range between 9.6 Hz and 14.6 kHz (adjustable), a maximum output event rate of 2.19 Mevents/s, a power consumption of 29.7 mW, the slices requirements of 11141, and a system clock frequency of 27 MHz.

  20. General Auditory Processing, Speech Perception and Phonological Awareness Skills in Chinese-English Biliteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the associations of general auditory processing, speech perception, phonological awareness and word reading in Cantonese-speaking children from Hong Kong learning to read both Chinese (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). Children in Grades 2--4 ("N" = 133) participated and were administered…

  1. Cellular mechanisms of auditory processing in the inferior colliculus: An in vivo patch clamp study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Tan

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, different aspects of central auditory processing in the inferior colliculus (IC) of young-adult mice and rats are described. With the “in vivo patch-clamp” technique we investigated the contribution of membrane properties and synaptic integration of excitatory and

  2. Speech-Processing Fatigue in Children: Auditory Event-Related Potential and Behavioral Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Alexandra P.; Gustafson, Samantha J.; Rentmeester, Lindsey; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.; Bess, Fred H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Fatigue related to speech processing is an understudied area that may have significant negative effects, especially in children who spend the majority of their school days listening to classroom instruction. Method: This study examined the feasibility of using auditory P300 responses and behavioral indices (lapses of attention and…

  3. Performance on Tests of Central Auditory Processing by Individuals Exposed to High-Intensity Blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Processing and Sound Localization Temporal precision of neural firing is also involved in binaural processing and localization of sound in space. The...posttraumatic stress disorder, Quick- SIN = Quick Speech-In-Noise, SD = standard deviation, SNR = signal-to-noise ratio, SPL = sound pressure level...to assess several important and potentially vulnerable aspects of auditory processing of complex sounds . These functions include the precise cod

  4. Enhanced Excitatory Connectivity and Disturbed Sound Processing in the Auditory Brainstem of Fragile X Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pino, Elisabet; Gessele, Nikodemus; Koch, Ursula

    2017-08-02

    Hypersensitivity to sounds is one of the prevalent symptoms in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS). It manifests behaviorally early during development and is often used as a landmark for treatment efficacy. However, the physiological mechanisms and circuit-level alterations underlying this aberrant behavior remain poorly understood. Using the mouse model of FXS ( Fmr1 KO ), we demonstrate that functional maturation of auditory brainstem synapses is impaired in FXS. Fmr1 KO mice showed a greatly enhanced excitatory synaptic input strength in neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO), a prominent auditory brainstem nucleus, which integrates ipsilateral excitation and contralateral inhibition to compute interaural level differences. Conversely, the glycinergic, inhibitory input properties remained unaffected. The enhanced excitation was the result of an increased number of cochlear nucleus fibers converging onto one LSO neuron, without changing individual synapse properties. Concomitantly, immunolabeling of excitatory ending markers revealed an increase in the immunolabeled area, supporting abnormally elevated excitatory input numbers. Intrinsic firing properties were only slightly enhanced. In line with the disturbed development of LSO circuitry, auditory processing was also affected in adult Fmr1 KO mice as shown with single-unit recordings of LSO neurons. These processing deficits manifested as an increase in firing rate, a broadening of the frequency response area, and a shift in the interaural level difference function of LSO neurons. Our results suggest that this aberrant synaptic development of auditory brainstem circuits might be a major underlying cause of the auditory processing deficits in FXS. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common inheritable form of intellectual impairment, including autism. A core symptom of FXS is extreme sensitivity to loud sounds. This is one reason why individuals with FXS tend to avoid social

  5. Audiometric thresholds and auditory processing in children with early malnutrition: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Aparecida Zuanetti

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition is one of the causes of changes in cell metabolism. The inner ear has few energy reserves and high metabolism. The aim of this study was to analyze whether malnutrition at an early age is related to impairment of auditory processing abilities and hearing abnormalities.DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary public hospital.METHODS: 45 children participated, divided as follows: G1, children diagnosed with malnutrition in their first two years of life; G2, children without history of malnutrition but with learning difficulties; G3, children without history of malnutrition and without learning difficulties. Tympanometry, pure-tone audiometry and the Staggered Spondaic Word (SSW test (auditory processing were performed. Statistical inferences were made using the Kruskal-Wallis test (α = 5% and the test of equality of proportions between two samples (α = 1.7%.RESULTS: None of the 45 children participating in this study presented hearing deficiencies. However, at six of the eight frequencies analyzed, the children in G1 presented hearing thresholds lower than those of the other groups. In the auditory processing evaluation test, it was observed that 100% of the children in G1 presented abnormal auditory processing and that G1 and G2 had similar proportions of abnormalities (P-values: G1/G2 = 0.1; G1/G3 > 0.001; G2/G3 = 0.008.CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition at an early age caused lowering of the hearing levels, although this impairment could not be considered to be a hearing deficiency. Every child in this group presented abnormalities in auditory processing abilities.

  6. Tracking cortical entrainment in neural activity: Auditory processes in human temporal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eThwaites

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A primary objective for cognitive neuroscience is to identify how features of the sensory environment are encoded in neural activity. Current auditory models of loudness perception can be used to make detailed predictions about the neural activity of the cortex as an individual listens to speech. We used two such models (loudness-sones and loudness-phons, varying in their psychophysiological realism, to predict the instantaneous loudness contours produced by 480 isolated words. These two sets of 480 contours were used to search for electrophysiological evidence of loudness processing in whole-brain recordings of electro- and magneto-encephalographic (EMEG activity, recorded while subjects listened to the words. The technique identified a bilateral sequence of loudness processes, predicted by the more realistic loudness-sones model, that begin in auditory cortex at ~80 ms and subsequently reappear, tracking progressively down the superior temporal sulcus (STS at lags from 230 to 330 ms. The technique was then extended to search for regions sensitive to the fundamental frequency (F0 of the voiced parts of the speech. It identified a bilateral F0 process in auditory cortex at a lag of ~90 ms, which was not followed by activity in STS. The results suggest that loudness information is being used to guide the analysis of the speech stream as it proceeds beyond auditory cortex down STS towards the temporal pole.

  7. Brainstem Evoked Potential Indices of Subcortical Auditory Processing After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Werff, Kathy R; Rieger, Brian

    The primary aim of this study was to assess subcortical auditory processing in individuals with chronic symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) by measuring auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to standard click and complex speech stimuli. Consistent with reports in the literature of auditory problems after mTBI (despite normal-hearing thresholds), it was hypothesized that individuals with mTBI would have evidence of impaired neural encoding in the auditory brainstem compared to noninjured controls, as evidenced by delayed latencies and reduced amplitudes of ABR components. We further hypothesized that the speech-evoked ABR would be more sensitive than the click-evoked ABR to group differences because of its complex nature, particularly when recorded in a background noise condition. Click- and speech-ABRs were collected in 32 individuals diagnosed with mTBI in the past 3 to 18 months. All mTBI participants were experiencing ongoing injury symptoms for which they were seeking rehabilitation through a brain injury rehabilitation management program. The same data were collected in a group of 32 age- and gender-matched controls with no history of head injury. ABRs were recorded in both left and right ears for all participants in all conditions. Speech-ABRs were collected in both quiet and in a background of continuous 20-talker babble ipsilateral noise. Peak latencies and amplitudes were compared between groups and across subgroups of mTBI participants categorized by their behavioral auditory test performance. Click-ABR results were not significantly different between the mTBI and control groups. However, when comparing the control group to only those mTBI subjects with measurably decreased performance on auditory behavioral tests, small differences emerged, including delayed latencies for waves I, III, and V. Similarly, few significant group differences were observed for peak amplitudes and latencies of the speech-ABR when comparing at the whole group level

  8. Rapid thermal processing and beyond applications in semiconductor processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lerch, W

    2008-01-01

    Heat-treatment and thermal annealing are very common processing steps which have been employed during semiconductor manufacturing right from the beginning of integrated circuit technology. In order to minimize undesired diffusion, and other thermal budget-dependent effects, the trend has been to reduce the annealing time sharply by switching from standard furnace batch-processing (involving several hours or even days), to rapid thermal processing involving soaking times of just a few seconds. This transition from thermal equilibrium, to highly non-equilibrium, processing was very challenging a

  9. Structural and functional correlates for language efficiency in auditory word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, JeYoung; Kim, Sunmi; Cho, Hyesuk; Nam, Kichun

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to provide convergent understanding of the neural basis of auditory word processing efficiency using a multimodal imaging. We investigated the structural and functional correlates of word processing efficiency in healthy individuals. We acquired two structural imaging (T1-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during auditory word processing (phonological and semantic tasks). Our results showed that better phonological performance was predicted by the greater thalamus activity. In contrary, better semantic performance was associated with the less activation in the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), supporting the neural efficiency hypothesis that better task performance requires less brain activation. Furthermore, our network analysis revealed the semantic network including the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and pMTG was correlated with the semantic efficiency. Especially, this network acted as a neural efficient manner during auditory word processing. Structurally, DLPFC and cingulum contributed to the word processing efficiency. Also, the parietal cortex showed a significate association with the word processing efficiency. Our results demonstrated that two features of word processing efficiency, phonology and semantics, can be supported in different brain regions and, importantly, the way serving it in each region was different according to the feature of word processing. Our findings suggest that word processing efficiency can be achieved by in collaboration of multiple brain regions involved in language and general cognitive function structurally and functionally.

  10. Spatio-temporal source cluster analysis reveals fronto-temporal auditory change processing differences within a shared autistic and schizotypal trait phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha C. Ford

    2017-01-01

    These data demonstrate a deficit in right fronto-temporal processing of an auditory change for those with more of the shared SD phenotype, indicating that right fronto-temporal auditory processing may be associated with psychosocial functioning.

  11. Attention, memory, and auditory processing in 10- to 15-year-old children with listening difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mridula; Dhamani, Imran; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine attention, memory, and auditory processing in children with reported listening difficulty in noise (LDN) despite having clinically normal hearing. Twenty-one children with LDN and 15 children with no listening concerns (controls) participated. The clinically normed auditory processing tests included the Frequency/Pitch Pattern Test (FPT; Musiek, 2002), the Dichotic Digits Test (Musiek, 1983), the Listening in Spatialized Noise-Sentences (LiSN-S) test (Dillon, Cameron, Glyde, Wilson, & Tomlin, 2012), gap detection in noise (Baker, Jayewardene, Sayle, & Saeed, 2008), and masking level difference (MLD; Wilson, Moncrieff, Townsend, & Pillion, 2003). Also included were research-based psychoacoustic tasks, such as auditory stream segregation, localization, sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM), and fine structure perception. All were also evaluated on attention and memory test batteries. The LDN group was significantly slower switching their auditory attention and had poorer inhibitory control. Additionally, the group mean results showed significantly poorer performance on FPT, MLD, 4-Hz SAM, and memory tests. Close inspection of the individual data revealed that only 5 participants (out of 21) in the LDN group showed significantly poor performance on FPT compared with clinical norms. Further testing revealed the frequency discrimination of these 5 children to be significantly impaired. Thus, the LDN group showed deficits in attention switching and inhibitory control, whereas only a subset of these participants demonstrated an additional frequency resolution deficit.

  12. Hemispheric laterality assessment with dichotic digits testing in dyslexia and auditory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadou, Vassiliki; Kaprinis, Stergios; Kandylis, Dimitrios; Kaprinis, George St

    2010-03-01

    One of the widely used tests to evaluate functional asymmetry of cerebral hemispheres is the dichotic listening test with the usually prevailing right ear advantage. The current study aims at assessing hemispheric laterality in an adult sample of individuals with dyslexia, with auditory processing disorder (APD), and adults experiencing comorbidity of the two mentioned disorders against a control group with normal hearing and absence of learning disabilities. Results exhibit a right hemispheric dominance for the control and APD group, a left hemispheric dominance for the group diagnosed with both dyslexia and APD, and absence of dominance for the dyslexia group. Assessment of laterality was repeatable and produced stable results, indicating a true deficit. A component of auditory processing, specifically the auditory performance in competing acoustic signals, seems to be deficient in all three groups, and laterality of hemispheric functions influenced at least for auditory-language stimuli in the two of the three groups, one being adults with dyslexia and the other being adults with comorbidity of dyslexia and APD.

  13. Eye movement preparation causes spatially-specific modulation of auditory processing: new evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherri, Elena; Driver, Jon; Eimer, Martin

    2008-08-11

    To investigate whether saccade preparation can modulate processing of auditory stimuli in a spatially-specific fashion, ERPs were recorded for a Saccade task, in which the direction of a prepared saccade was cued, prior to an imperative auditory stimulus indicating whether to execute or withhold that saccade. For comparison, we also ran a conventional Covert Attention task, where the same cue now indicated the direction for a covert endogenous attentional shift prior to an auditory target-nontarget discrimination. Lateralised components previously observed during cued shifts of attention (ADAN, LDAP) did not differ significantly across tasks, indicating commonalities between auditory spatial attention and oculomotor control. Moreover, in both tasks, spatially-specific modulation of auditory processing was subsequently found, with enhanced negativity for lateral auditory nontarget stimuli at cued versus uncued locations. This modulation started earlier and was more pronounced for the Covert Attention task, but was also reliably present in the Saccade task, demonstrating that the effects of covert saccade preparation on auditory processing can be similar to effects of endogenous covert attentional orienting, albeit smaller. These findings provide new evidence for similarities but also some differences between oculomotor preparation and shifts of endogenous spatial attention. They also show that saccade preparation can affect not just vision, but also sensory processing of auditory events.

  14. Cholinergic modulation of auditory processing, sensory gating and novelty detection in human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenberg, Inge; Blokland, Arjan; Riedel, Wim J; Sambeth, Anke

    2013-02-01

    Suppression of redundant auditory information and facilitation of deviant, novel, or salient sounds can be assessed with paired-click and oddball tasks, respectively. Electrophysiological correlates of perturbed auditory processing found in these paradigms are likely to be a trait marker or candidate endophenotype for schizophrenia. This is the first study to investigate the effects of the muscarinic M1 antagonist biperiden and the cholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine on auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs), sensory gating, and mismatch negativity (MMN) in young, healthy volunteers. Biperiden increased P50 amplitude and prolonged N100 and P200 latency in the paired-click task but did not affect sensory gating. Rivastigmine was able to reverse the effects of biperiden on N100 and P200 latency. Biperiden increased P50 latency in the novelty oddball task, which was reversed by concurrent administration of rivastigmine. Rivastigmine shortened N100 latency and enhanced P3a amplitude in the novelty oddball paradigm, both of which were reversed by biperiden. The muscarinic M1 receptor appears to be involved in preattentive processing of auditory information in the paired-click task. Additional effects of biperiden versus rivastigmine were reversed by a combination treatment, which renders attribution of these findings to muscarinic M1 versus muscarinic M2-M5 or nicotinic receptors much more difficult. It remains to be seen whether the effects of cholinergic drugs on AEPs are specifically related to the abnormalities found in schizophrenia. Alternatively, aberrant auditory processing could also be indicative of a general disturbance in neural functioning shared by several neuropsychiatric disorders and/or neurodegenerative changes seen in aging.

  15. Auditory-visual object recognition time suggests specific processing for animal sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Suied

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recognizing an object requires binding together several cues, which may be distributed across different sensory modalities, and ignoring competing information originating from other objects. In addition, knowledge of the semantic category of an object is fundamental to determine how we should react to it. Here we investigate the role of semantic categories in the processing of auditory-visual objects. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We used an auditory-visual object-recognition task (go/no-go paradigm. We compared recognition times for two categories: a biologically relevant one (animals and a non-biologically relevant one (means of transport. Participants were asked to react as fast as possible to target objects, presented in the visual and/or the auditory modality, and to withhold their response for distractor objects. A first main finding was that, when participants were presented with unimodal or bimodal congruent stimuli (an image and a sound from the same object, similar reaction times were observed for all object categories. Thus, there was no advantage in the speed of recognition for biologically relevant compared to non-biologically relevant objects. A second finding was that, in the presence of a biologically relevant auditory distractor, the processing of a target object was slowed down, whether or not it was itself biologically relevant. It seems impossible to effectively ignore an animal sound, even when it is irrelevant to the task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest a specific and mandatory processing of animal sounds, possibly due to phylogenetic memory and consistent with the idea that hearing is particularly efficient as an alerting sense. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the auditory modality when investigating the way object concepts of biologically relevant categories are stored and retrieved.

  16. Developmental trends in auditory processing can provide early predictions of language acquisition in young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Tardif, Twila; Mai, Xiaoqin; Xu, Lin; Li, Mingyan; Kaciroti, Niko; Kileny, Paul R; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2013-03-01

    Auditory processing capabilities at the subcortical level have been hypothesized to impact an individual's development of both language and reading abilities. The present study examined whether auditory processing capabilities relate to language development in healthy 9-month-old infants. Participants were 71 infants (31 boys and 40 girls) with both Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and language assessments. At 6 weeks and/or 9 months of age, the infants underwent ABR testing using both a standard hearing screening protocol with 30 dB clicks and a second protocol using click pairs separated by 8, 16, and 64-ms intervals presented at 80 dB. We evaluated the effects of interval duration on ABR latency and amplitude elicited by the second click. At 9 months, language development was assessed via parent report on the Chinese Communicative Development Inventory - Putonghua version (CCDI-P). Wave V latency z-scores of the 64-ms condition at 6 weeks showed strong direct relationships with Wave V latency in the same condition at 9 months. More importantly, shorter Wave V latencies at 9 months showed strong relationships with the CCDI-P composite consisting of phrases understood, gestures, and words produced. Likewise, infants who had greater decreases in Wave V latencies from 6 weeks to 9 months had higher CCDI-P composite scores. Females had higher language development scores and shorter Wave V latencies at both ages than males. Interestingly, when the ABR Wave V latencies at both ages were taken into account, the direct effects of gender on language disappeared. In conclusion, these results support the importance of low-level auditory processing capabilities for early language acquisition in a population of typically developing young infants. Moreover, the auditory brainstem response in this paradigm shows promise as an electrophysiological marker to predict individual differences in language development in young children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. A hierarchy of event-related potential markers of auditory processing in disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Beukema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging of covert perceptual and cognitive processes can inform the diagnoses and prognoses of patients with disorders of consciousness, such as the vegetative and minimally conscious states (VS;MCS. Here we report an event-related potential (ERP paradigm for detecting a hierarchy of auditory processes in a group of healthy individuals and patients with disorders of consciousness. Simple cortical responses to sounds were observed in all 16 patients; 7/16 (44% patients exhibited markers of the differential processing of speech and noise; and 1 patient produced evidence of the semantic processing of speech (i.e. the N400 effect. In several patients, the level of auditory processing that was evident from ERPs was higher than the abilities that were evident from behavioural assessment, indicating a greater sensitivity of ERPs in some cases. However, there were no differences in auditory processing between VS and MCS patient groups, indicating a lack of diagnostic specificity for this paradigm. Reliably detecting semantic processing by means of the N400 effect in passively listening single-subjects is a challenge. Multiple assessment methods are needed in order to fully characterise the abilities of patients with disorders of consciousness.

  18. Cognitive representation of "musical fractals": Processing hierarchy and recursion in the auditory domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mauricio Dias; Gingras, Bruno; Puig-Waldmueller, Estela; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-04-01

    The human ability to process hierarchical structures has been a longstanding research topic. However, the nature of the cognitive machinery underlying this faculty remains controversial. Recursion, the ability to embed structures within structures of the same kind, has been proposed as a key component of our ability to parse and generate complex hierarchies. Here, we investigated the cognitive representation of both recursive and iterative processes in the auditory domain. The experiment used a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm: participants were exposed to three-step processes in which pure-tone sequences were built either through recursive or iterative processes, and had to choose the correct completion. Foils were constructed according to generative processes that did not match the previous steps. Both musicians and non-musicians were able to represent recursion in the auditory domain, although musicians performed better. We also observed that general 'musical' aptitudes played a role in both recursion and iteration, although the influence of musical training was somehow independent from melodic memory. Moreover, unlike iteration, recursion in audition was well correlated with its non-auditory (recursive) analogues in the visual and action sequencing domains. These results suggest that the cognitive machinery involved in establishing recursive representations is domain-general, even though this machinery requires access to information resulting from domain-specific processes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of (central) auditory processing disorder on the severity of speech-sound disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Nadia; Barrozo, Tatiane Faria; Pagan-Neves, Luciana de Oliveira; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede

    2016-02-01

    To identify a cutoff value based on the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index that could indicate the likelihood of a child with a speech-sound disorder also having a (central) auditory processing disorder . Language, audiological and (central) auditory processing evaluations were administered. The participants were 27 subjects with speech-sound disorders aged 7 to 10 years and 11 months who were divided into two different groups according to their (central) auditory processing evaluation results. When a (central) auditory processing disorder was present in association with a speech disorder, the children tended to have lower scores on phonological assessments. A greater severity of speech disorder was related to a greater probability of the child having a (central) auditory processing disorder. The use of a cutoff value for the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index successfully distinguished between children with and without a (central) auditory processing disorder. The severity of speech-sound disorder in children was influenced by the presence of (central) auditory processing disorder. The attempt to identify a cutoff value based on a severity index was successful.

  20. The influence of (central auditory processing disorder on the severity of speech-sound disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vilela

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify a cutoff value based on the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index that could indicate the likelihood of a child with a speech-sound disorder also having a (central auditory processing disorder. METHODS: Language, audiological and (central auditory processing evaluations were administered. The participants were 27 subjects with speech-sound disorders aged 7 to 10 years and 11 months who were divided into two different groups according to their (central auditory processing evaluation results. RESULTS: When a (central auditory processing disorder was present in association with a speech disorder, the children tended to have lower scores on phonological assessments. A greater severity of speech disorder was related to a greater probability of the child having a (central auditory processing disorder. The use of a cutoff value for the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index successfully distinguished between children with and without a (central auditory processing disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of speech-sound disorder in children was influenced by the presence of (central auditory processing disorder. The attempt to identify a cutoff value based on a severity index was successful.

  1. Unconscious auditory information-processing during general anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jelicic (Marko)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation aims to examine the possibility of cognitive processing and memory storage in anaesthesia. It consists of four parts. The first section provides a brief outline of unconscious mental processes in psychological research. Next, a review of the experimental studies of

  2. Processing of natural sounds: characterization of multipeak spectral tuning in human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerel, Michelle; De Martino, Federico; Santoro, Roberta; Ugurbil, Kamil; Goebel, Rainer; Yacoub, Essa; Formisano, Elia

    2013-07-17

    We examine the mechanisms by which the human auditory cortex processes the frequency content of natural sounds. Through mathematical modeling of ultra-high field (7 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging responses to natural sounds, we derive frequency-tuning curves of cortical neuronal populations. With a data-driven analysis, we divide the auditory cortex into five spatially distributed clusters, each characterized by a spectral tuning profile. Beyond neuronal populations with simple single-peaked spectral tuning (grouped into two clusters), we observe that ∼60% of auditory populations are sensitive to multiple frequency bands. Specifically, we observe sensitivity to multiple frequency bands (1) at exactly one octave distance from each other, (2) at multiple harmonically related frequency intervals, and (3) with no apparent relationship to each other. We propose that beyond the well known cortical tonotopic organization, multipeaked spectral tuning amplifies selected combinations of frequency bands. Such selective amplification might serve to detect behaviorally relevant and complex sound features, aid in segregating auditory scenes, and explain prominent perceptual phenomena such as octave invariance.

  3. Harmonic template neurons in primate auditory cortex underlying complex sound processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2017-01-31

    Harmonicity is a fundamental element of music, speech, and animal vocalizations. How the auditory system extracts harmonic structures embedded in complex sounds and uses them to form a coherent unitary entity is not fully understood. Despite the prevalence of sounds rich in harmonic structures in our everyday hearing environment, it has remained largely unknown what neural mechanisms are used by the primate auditory cortex to extract these biologically important acoustic structures. In this study, we discovered a unique class of harmonic template neurons in the core region of auditory cortex of a highly vocal New World primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), across the entire hearing frequency range. Marmosets have a rich vocal repertoire and a similar hearing range to that of humans. Responses of these neurons show nonlinear facilitation to harmonic complex sounds over inharmonic sounds, selectivity for particular harmonic structures beyond two-tone combinations, and sensitivity to harmonic number and spectral regularity. Our findings suggest that the harmonic template neurons in auditory cortex may play an important role in processing sounds with harmonic structures, such as animal vocalizations, human speech, and music.

  4. Modulation of auditory processing during speech movement planning is limited in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliri, Ayoub; Max, Ludo

    2015-04-01

    Stuttering is associated with atypical structural and functional connectivity in sensorimotor brain areas, in particular premotor, motor, and auditory regions. It remains unknown, however, which specific mechanisms of speech planning and execution are affected by these neurological abnormalities. To investigate pre-movement sensory modulation, we recorded 12 stuttering and 12 nonstuttering adults' auditory evoked potentials in response to probe tones presented prior to speech onset in a delayed-response speaking condition vs. no-speaking control conditions (silent reading; seeing nonlinguistic symbols). Findings indicate that, during speech movement planning, the nonstuttering group showed a statistically significant modulation of auditory processing (reduced N1 amplitude) that was not observed in the stuttering group. Thus, the obtained results provide electrophysiological evidence in support of the hypothesis that stuttering is associated with deficiencies in modulating the cortical auditory system during speech movement planning. This specific sensorimotor integration deficiency may contribute to inefficient feedback monitoring and, consequently, speech dysfluencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A rapid appraisal of traffic policemen about auditory effects of traffic noise pollution from Ambala city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Traffic policemen are at an increased risk of suffering from hazards of noise pollution because they are engaged in controlling traffic noise, particularly at heavy traffic junctions. The effect is more in this subgroup because they are continuously exposed to it. Aim: The present study was aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices of traffic policemen regarding auditory effects of traffic noise pollution in Ambala city. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional workplace survey. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was carried out in different traffic zones of Ambala city during April-June 2013. The study population consisted of 100 traffic policemen working in different traffic intersections of Ambala city. Statistical Analysis Used: Structured interview schedule was used to collect the data. SPSS version 17.0 was used for analysis. Interpretation of data was performed using percentages and proportions. Results: Majority (75% of the study subjects were exposed to traffic noise pollution for more than 5 years. Of the total subjects, 5% of respondents reported below-average hearing on self-assessment of hearing ability. Seventeen percent of the study population accepted that while hearing over phone they do miss some conversation. Most (98% of the traffic police did not use any personal protective equipment (PPEs like earplugs/earmuffs, and the non-availability of these PPEs (90% is the common reason for the hearing loss. Conclusions: The study concludes that traffic policemen are not much aware regarding impending auditory effects of traffic noise pollution. Duty rotation, duty scheduling and other forms of preventive modalities for exposure limitation are suggested.

  6. Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT) performance of individuals with central auditory processing disorders from 5 to 25 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Karin Ziliotto; Jutras, Benoît; Acrani, Isabela Olszanski; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the auditory temporal resolution ability in individuals with central auditory processing disorders, to examine the maturation effect and to investigate the relationship between the performance on a temporal resolution test with the performance on other central auditory tests. Participants were divided in two groups: 131 with Central Auditory Processing Disorder and 94 with normal auditory processing. They had pure-tone air-conduction thresholds no poorer than 15 dB HL bilaterally, normal admittance measures and presence of acoustic reflexes. Also, they were assessed with a central auditory test battery. Participants who failed at least one or more tests were included in the Central Auditory Processing Disorder group and those in the control group obtained normal performance on all tests. Following the auditory processing assessment, the Random Gap Detection Test was administered to the participants. A three-way ANOVA was performed. Correlation analyses were also done between the four Random Gap Detection Test subtests data as well as between Random Gap Detection Test data and the other auditory processing test results. There was a significant difference between the age-group performances in children with and without Central Auditory Processing Disorder. Also, 48% of children with Central Auditory Processing Disorder failed the Random Gap Detection Test and the percentage decreased as a function of age. The highest percentage (86%) was found in the 5-6 year-old children. Furthermore, results revealed a strong significant correlation between the four Random Gap Detection Test subtests. There was a modest correlation between the Random Gap Detection Test results and the dichotic listening tests. No significant correlation was observed between the Random Gap Detection Test data and the results of the other tests in the battery. Random Gap Detection Test should not be administered to children younger than 7 years old because

  7. Multitasking: Effects of processing multiple auditory feature patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tova; Chen, Sufen; Lee, Wei Wei; Sussman, Elyse S

    2015-09-01

    ERPs and behavioral responses were measured to assess how task-irrelevant sounds interact with task processing demands and affect the ability to monitor and track multiple sound events. Participants listened to four-tone sequential frequency patterns, and responded to frequency pattern deviants (reversals of the pattern). Irrelevant tone feature patterns (duration and intensity) and respective pattern deviants were presented together with frequency patterns and frequency pattern deviants in separate conditions. Responses to task-relevant and task-irrelevant feature pattern deviants were used to test processing demands for irrelevant sound input. Behavioral performance was significantly better when there were no distracting feature patterns. Errors primarily occurred in response to the to-be-ignored feature pattern deviants. Task-irrelevant elicitation of ERP components was consistent with the error analysis, indicating a level of processing for the irrelevant features. Task-relevant elicitation of ERP components was consistent with behavioral performance, demonstrating a "cost" of performance when there were two feature patterns presented simultaneously. These results provide evidence that the brain tracked the irrelevant duration and intensity feature patterns, affecting behavioral performance. Overall, our results demonstrate that irrelevant informational streams are processed at a cost, which may be considered a type of multitasking that is an ongoing, automatic processing of task-irrelevant sensory events. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Cognitive components of regularity processing in the auditory domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Koelsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Music-syntactic irregularities often co-occur with the processing of physical irregularities. In this study we constructed chord-sequences such that perceived differences in the cognitive processing between regular and irregular chords could not be due to the sensory processing of acoustic factors like pitch repetition or pitch commonality (the major component of 'sensory dissonance'. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two groups of subjects (musicians and nonmusicians were investigated with electroencephalography (EEG. Irregular chords elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs. The ERAN had a latency of around 180 ms after the onset of the music-syntactically irregular chords, and had maximum amplitude values over right anterior electrode sites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because irregular chords were hardly detectable based on acoustical factors (such as pitch repetition and sensory dissonance, this ERAN effect reflects for the most part cognitive (not sensory components of regularity-based, music-syntactic processing. Our study represents a methodological advance compared to previous ERP-studies investigating the neural processing of music-syntactically irregular chords.

  9. The multi-level impact of chronic intermittent hypoxia on central auditory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eddie; Yang, Bin; Du, Lida; Ho, Wai Hong; Lau, Condon; Ke, Ya; Chan, Ying Shing; Yung, Wing Ho; Wu, Ed X

    2017-08-01

    During hypoxia, the tissues do not obtain adequate oxygen. Chronic hypoxia can lead to many health problems. A relatively common cause of chronic hypoxia is sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is a sleep breathing disorder that affects 3-7% of the population. During sleep, the patient's breathing starts and stops. This can lead to hypertension, attention deficits, and hearing disorders. In this study, we apply an established chronic intermittent hypoxemia (CIH) model of sleep apnea to study its impact on auditory processing. Adult rats were reared for seven days during sleeping hours in a gas chamber with oxygen level cycled between 10% and 21% (normal atmosphere) every 90s. During awake hours, the subjects were housed in standard conditions with normal atmosphere. CIH treatment significantly reduces arterial oxygen partial pressure and oxygen saturation during sleeping hours (relative to controls). After treatment, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with broadband sound stimulation. Responses are observed in major auditory centers in all subjects, including the auditory cortex (AC) and auditory midbrain. fMRI signals from the AC are statistically significantly increased after CIH by 0.13% in the contralateral hemisphere and 0.10% in the ipsilateral hemisphere. In contrast, signals from the lateral lemniscus of the midbrain are significantly reduced by 0.39%. Signals from the neighboring inferior colliculus of the midbrain are relatively unaffected. Chronic hypoxia affects multiple levels of the auditory system and these changes are likely related to hearing disorders associated with sleep apnea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sequential grouping constraints on across-channel auditory processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenham, Andrew J.; Dau, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    , 1958–1965 (1985)]. Søren explained this surprising result in terms of the spread of masker excitation and across-channel processing of envelope fluctuations. A later study [S. Buus and C. Pan, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1445–1457 (1994)] pioneered the use of the same stimuli in tasks where across...

  11. Right cerebral hemisphere and central auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Ruiz, Paulina C; Peñaloza-López, Yolanda R; García-Pedroza, Felipe; Poblano, Adrián

    2013-11-01

    We hypothesized that if the right hemisphere auditory processing abilities can be altered in children with developmental dyslexia (DD), we can detect dysfunction using specific tests. We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. We studied 20 right-handed children with DD and 20 healthy right-handed control subjects (CS). Children in both groups were age, gender, and school-grade matched. Focusing on the right hemisphere's contribution, we utilized tests to measure alterations in central auditory processing (CAP), such as determination of frequency patterns; sound duration; music pitch recognition; and identification of environmental sounds. We compared results among the two groups. Children with DD showed lower performance than CS in all CAP subtests, including those that preferentially engaged the cerebral right hemisphere. Our data suggests a significant contribution of the right hemisphere in alterations of CAP in children with DD. Thus, right hemisphere CAP must be considered for examination and rehabilitation of children with DD.

  12. The utility of visual analogs of central auditory tests in the differential diagnosis of (central) auditory processing disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Teri James; Billiet, Cassie; Ross, Jody

    2011-09-01

    Cacace and McFarland (2005) have suggested that the addition of cross-modal analogs will improve the diagnostic specificity of (C)APD (central auditory processing disorder) by ensuring that deficits observed are due to the auditory nature of the stimulus and not to supra-modal or other confounds. Others (e.g., Musiek et al, 2005) have expressed concern about the use of such analogs in diagnosing (C)APD given the uncertainty as to the degree to which cross-modal measures truly are analogous and emphasize the nonmodularity of the CANs (central auditory nervous system) and its function, which precludes modality specificity of (C)APD. To date, no studies have examined the clinical utility of cross-modal (e.g., visual) analogs of central auditory tests in the differential diagnosis of (C)APD. This study investigated performance of children diagnosed with (C)APD, children diagnosed with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), and typically developing children on three diagnostic tests of central auditory function and their corresponding visual analogs. The study sought to determine whether deficits observed in the (C)APD group were restricted to the auditory modality and the degree to which the addition of visual analogs aids in the ability to differentiate among groups. An experimental repeated measures design was employed. Participants consisted of three groups of right-handed children (normal control, n=10; ADHD, n=10; (C)APD, n=7) with normal and symmetrical hearing sensitivity, normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no family or personal history of disorders unrelated to their primary diagnosis. Participants in Groups 2 and 3 met current diagnostic criteria for ADHD and (C)APD. Visual analogs of three tests in common clinical use for the diagnosis of (C)APD were used (Dichotic Digits [Musiek, 1983]; Frequency Patterns [Pinheiro and Ptacek, 1971]; and Duration Patterns [Pinheiro and Musiek, 1985]). Participants underwent two 1 hr test sessions

  13. Peripheral auditory processing and speech reception in impaired hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strelcyk, Olaf

    One of the most common complaints of people with impaired hearing concerns their difficulty with understanding speech. Particularly in the presence of background noise, hearing-impaired people often encounter great difficulties with speech communication. In most cases, the problem persists even...... if reduced audibility has been compensated for by hearing aids. It has been hypothesized that part of the difficulty arises from changes in the perception of sounds that are well above hearing threshold, such as reduced frequency selectivity and deficits in the processing of temporal fine structure (TFS......) at the output of the inner-ear (cochlear) filters. The purpose of this work was to investigate these aspects in detail. One chapter studies relations between frequency selectivity, TFS processing, and speech reception in listeners with normal and impaired hearing, using behavioral listening experiments. While...

  14. Right cerebral hemisphere and central auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina C. Murphy-Ruiz; Yolanda R. Penaloza-Lopez; Felipe Garcia-Pedroza; Adrian Poblano

    2013-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that if the right hemisphere auditory processing abilities can be altered in children with developmental dyslexia (DD), we can detect dysfunction using specific tests. Method We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. We studied 20 right-handed children with DD and 20 healthy right-handed control subjects (CS). Children in both groups were age, gender, and school-grade matched. Focusing on the right hemisphere’s contribution, we utilized te...

  15. Auditory Processing in Noise: A Preschool Biomarker for Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Travis White-Schwoch; Kali Woodruff Carr; Thompson, Elaine C.; Samira Anderson; Trent Nicol; Bradlow, Ann R.; Zecker, Steven G.; Nina Kraus

    2015-01-01

    Learning to read is a fundamental developmental milestone, and achieving reading competency has lifelong consequences. Although literacy development proceeds smoothly for many children, a subset struggle with this learning process, creating a need to identify reliable biomarkers of a child's future literacy that could facilitate early diagnosis and access to crucial early interventions. Neural markers of reading skills have been identified in school-aged children and adults; many pertain to t...

  16. Auditory Processing in Noise: A Preschool Biomarker for Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Woodruff Carr, Kali; Thompson, Elaine C; Anderson, Samira; Nicol, Trent; Bradlow, Ann R; Zecker, Steven G; Kraus, Nina

    2015-07-01

    Learning to read is a fundamental developmental milestone, and achieving reading competency has lifelong consequences. Although literacy development proceeds smoothly for many children, a subset struggle with this learning process, creating a need to identify reliable biomarkers of a child's future literacy that could facilitate early diagnosis and access to crucial early interventions. Neural markers of reading skills have been identified in school-aged children and adults; many pertain to the precision of information processing in noise, but it is unknown whether these markers are present in pre-reading children. Here, in a series of experiments in 112 children (ages 3-14 y), we show brain-behavior relationships between the integrity of the neural coding of speech in noise and phonology. We harness these findings into a predictive model of preliteracy, revealing that a 30-min neurophysiological assessment predicts performance on multiple pre-reading tests and, one year later, predicts preschoolers' performance across multiple domains of emergent literacy. This same neural coding model predicts literacy and diagnosis of a learning disability in school-aged children. These findings offer new insight into the biological constraints on preliteracy during early childhood, suggesting that neural processing of consonants in noise is fundamental for language and reading development. Pragmatically, these findings open doors to early identification of children at risk for language learning problems; this early identification may in turn facilitate access to early interventions that could prevent a life spent struggling to read.

  17. Auditory Processing in Noise: A Preschool Biomarker for Literacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis White-Schwoch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning to read is a fundamental developmental milestone, and achieving reading competency has lifelong consequences. Although literacy development proceeds smoothly for many children, a subset struggle with this learning process, creating a need to identify reliable biomarkers of a child's future literacy that could facilitate early diagnosis and access to crucial early interventions. Neural markers of reading skills have been identified in school-aged children and adults; many pertain to the precision of information processing in noise, but it is unknown whether these markers are present in pre-reading children. Here, in a series of experiments in 112 children (ages 3-14 y, we show brain-behavior relationships between the integrity of the neural coding of speech in noise and phonology. We harness these findings into a predictive model of preliteracy, revealing that a 30-min neurophysiological assessment predicts performance on multiple pre-reading tests and, one year later, predicts preschoolers' performance across multiple domains of emergent literacy. This same neural coding model predicts literacy and diagnosis of a learning disability in school-aged children. These findings offer new insight into the biological constraints on preliteracy during early childhood, suggesting that neural processing of consonants in noise is fundamental for language and reading development. Pragmatically, these findings open doors to early identification of children at risk for language learning problems; this early identification may in turn facilitate access to early interventions that could prevent a life spent struggling to read.

  18. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (△R/R of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost.

  19. Processing of spatial sounds in the impaired auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arweiler, Iris

    Understanding speech in complex acoustic environments presents a challenge for most hearing-impaired listeners. In conditions where normal-hearing listeners effortlessly utilize spatial cues to improve speech intelligibility, hearing-impaired listeners often struggle. In this thesis, the influence...... with an intelligibility-weighted “efficiency factor” which revealed that the spectral characteristics of the ER’s caused the reduced benefit. Hearing-impaired listeners were able to utilize the ER energy as effectively as normal-hearing listeners, most likely because binaural processing was not required...... that are binaurally linked can utilize the signals at both ears and preserve the ILD’s through co-ordinated compression. Hearing-impaired listeners received a small, but not significant advantage from linked compared to independent compression. It was concluded that, for speech intelligibility, the exact ILD...

  20. Commercial aspects of rapid thermal processing (RTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.G.; Huffman, D.R. [Ensyn Technologies Inc., Greely, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    In its broadest sense, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP{sup TM}) covers the conversion of all types of carbonaceous materials to liquid fuels, high quality fuel gases, and chemicals. Scientifically, it is based on the general premise that products which result from the extremely rapid application of heat to a given feedstock are inherently more valuable than those which are produced when heat is applied much more slowly over longer periods of processing time. Commercial RTP{sup TM} activities (including the actual implementation in the market as well as the short-term R and D initiatives) are much narrower in scope, and are focused on the production of high yields of light, non-tarry liquids (i.e. `bio-crude`) from biomass for fuel and chemical markets. Chemicals are of significant interest from an economical point of view since they typically have a higher value than fuel products. Liquid fuels are of interest for many reasons: (1) Liquid fuels do not have to be used immediately after production, such as is the case with hot combustion gases or combustible gases produced via gasification. This allows the decoupling of fuel production from the end-use (ie. the conversion of fuel to energy). (2) The higher energy density of liquid fuels vs. that of fuel gases and solid biomass results in a large reduction in the costs associated with storage and transportation. (3) The costs to retrofit an existing gas or oil fired combustion system are much lower than replacement with a solid fuel combustor. (4) In general, liquid fuel combustion is much more efficient, controllable, and cleaner than the combustion of solid fuels. (5) The production of liquid `bio-crude` permits the removal of ash from the biomass prior to combustion or other end-use applications. (6) Gas or liquid fuel-fired diesel or turbine engines cannot operate commercially on solid fuels. Although wood represents the biomass which is of principal commercial interest (including a vast array of wood residues

  1. White Matter Microstructure is Associated with Auditory and Tactile Processing in Children with and without Sensory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Shin; Gratiot, Mathilde; Owen, Julia P; Brandes-Aitken, Anne; Desai, Shivani S; Hill, Susanna S; Arnett, Anne B; Harris, Julia; Marco, Elysa J; Mukherjee, Pratik

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing disorders (SPDs) affect up to 16% of school-aged children, and contribute to cognitive and behavioral deficits impacting affected individuals and their families. While sensory processing differences are now widely recognized in children with autism, children with sensory-based dysfunction who do not meet autism criteria based on social communication deficits remain virtually unstudied. In a previous pilot diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study, we demonstrated that boys with SPD have altered white matter microstructure primarily affecting the posterior cerebral tracts, which subserve sensory processing and integration. This disrupted microstructural integrity, measured as reduced white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), correlated with parent report measures of atypical sensory behavior. In this present study, we investigate white matter microstructure as it relates to tactile and auditory function in depth with a larger, mixed-gender cohort of children 8-12 years of age. We continue to find robust alterations of posterior white matter microstructure in children with SPD relative to typically developing children (TDC), along with more spatially distributed alterations. We find strong correlations of FA with both parent report and direct measures of tactile and auditory processing across children, with the direct assessment measures of tactile and auditory processing showing a stronger and more continuous mapping to the underlying white matter integrity than the corresponding parent report measures. Based on these findings of microstructure as a neural correlate of sensory processing ability, diffusion MRI merits further investigation as a tool to find biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment response in children with SPD. To our knowledge, this work is the first to demonstrate associations of directly measured tactile and non-linguistic auditory function with white matter microstructural integrity - not just in children with SPD, but also

  2. White matter microstructure is associated with auditory and tactile processing in children with and without sensory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shin Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory processing disorders (SPD affect up to 16% of school-aged children, and contribute to cognitive and behavioral deficits impacting affected individuals and their families. While sensory processing differences are now widely recognized in children with autism, children with sensory-based dysfunction who do not meet autism criteria based on social communication deficits remain virtually unstudied. In a previous pilot diffusion tensor imaging (DTI study, we demonstrated that boys with SPD have altered white matter microstructure primarily affecting the posterior cerebral tracts, which subserve sensory processing and integration. This disrupted microstructural integrity, measured as reduced white matter fractional anisotropy (FA, correlated with parent report measures of atypical sensory behavior. In this present study, we investigate white matter microstructure as it relates to tactile and auditory function in depth with a larger, mixed-gender cohort of children 8 to 12 years of age. We continue to find robust alterations of posterior white matter microstructure in children with SPD relative to typically developing children, along with more spatially distributed alterations. We find strong correlations of FA with both parent report and direct measures of tactile and auditory processing across children, with the direct assessment measures of tactile and auditory processing showing a stronger and more continuous mapping to the underlying white matter integrity than the corresponding parent report measures. Based on these findings of microstructure as a neural correlate of sensory processing ability, diffusion MRI merits further investigation as a tool to find biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment response in children with SPD. To our knowledge, this work is the first to demonstrate associations of directly measured tactile and non-linguistic auditory function with white matter microstructural integrity -- not just in children with

  3. Auditory-prefrontal axonal connectivity in the macaque cortex: quantitative assessment of processing streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezgin, Gleb; Rybacki, Konrad; van Opstal, A John; Bakker, Rembrandt; Shen, Kelly; Vakorin, Vasily A; McIntosh, Anthony R; Kötter, Rolf

    2014-08-01

    Primate sensory systems subserve complex neurocomputational functions. Consequently, these systems are organised anatomically in a distributed fashion, commonly linking areas to form specialised processing streams. Each stream is related to a specific function, as evidenced from studies of the visual cortex, which features rather prominent segregation into spatial and non-spatial domains. It has been hypothesised that other sensory systems, including auditory, are organised in a similar way on the cortical level. Recent studies offer rich qualitative evidence for the dual stream hypothesis. Here we provide a new paradigm to quantitatively uncover these patterns in the auditory system, based on an analysis of multiple anatomical studies using multivariate techniques. As a test case, we also apply our assessment techniques to more ubiquitously-explored visual system. Importantly, the introduced framework opens the possibility for these techniques to be applied to other neural systems featuring a dichotomised organisation, such as language or music perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The process of auditory distraction: disrupted attention and impaired recall in a simulated lecture environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeamer, Charlotte; Fox Tree, Jean E

    2013-09-01

    Literature on auditory distraction has generally focused on the effects of particular kinds of sounds on attention to target stimuli. In support of extensive previous findings that have demonstrated the special role of language as an auditory distractor, we found that a concurrent speech stream impaired recall of a short lecture, especially for verbatim language. But impaired recall effects were also found with a variety of nonlinguistic noises, suggesting that neither type of noise nor amplitude and duration of noise are adequate predictors of distraction. Rather, distraction occurred when it was difficult for a listener to process sounds and assemble coherent, differentiable streams of input, one task-salient and attended and the other task-irrelevant and inhibited. In 3 experiments, the effects of auditory distractors during a short spoken lecture were tested. Participants recalled details of the lecture and also reported their opinions of the sound quality. Our findings suggest that distractors that are difficult to designate as either task related or environment related (and therefore irrelevant) draw cognitive processing resources away from a target speech stream during a listening task, impairing recall. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Hemispheric asymmetries for visual and auditory temporal processing: an evoked potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Michael E R; Gora, John; Stough, Con K K

    2002-04-01

    Lateralization for temporal processing was investigated using evoked potentials to an auditory and visual gap detection task in 12 dextral adults. The auditory stimuli consisted of 300-ms bursts of white noise, half of which contained an interruption lasting 4 or 6 ms. The visual stimuli consisted of 130-ms flashes of light, half of which contained a gap lasting 6 or 8 ms. The stimuli were presented bilaterally to both ears or both visual fields. Participants made a forced two-choice discrimination using a bimanual response. Manipulations of the task had no effect on the early evoked components. However, an effect was observed for a late positive component, which occurred approximately 300-400 ms following gap presentation. This component tended to be later and lower in amplitude for the more difficult stimulus conditions. An index of the capacity to discriminate gap from no-gap stimuli was gained by calculating the difference waveform between these conditions. The peak of the difference waveform was delayed for the short-gap stimuli relative to the long-gap stimuli, reflecting decreased levels of difficulty associated with the latter stimuli. Topographic maps of the difference waveforms revealed a prominence over the left hemisphere. The visual stimuli had an occipital parietal focus whereas the auditory stimuli were parietally centered. These results confirm the importance of the left hemisphere for temporal processing and demonstrate that it is not the result of a hemispatial attentional bias or a peripheral sensory asymmetry.

  6. Psychophysical Estimates of Frequency Discrimination: More than Just Limitations of Auditory Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Sabisch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient auditory processing is hypothesized to support language and literacy development. However, behavioral tasks used to assess this hypothesis need to be robust to non-auditory specific individual differences. This study compared frequency discrimination abilities in a heterogeneous sample of adults using two different psychoacoustic task designs, referred to here as: 2I_6A_X and 3I_2AFC designs. The role of individual differences in nonverbal IQ (NVIQ, socioeconomic status (SES and musical experience in predicting frequency discrimination thresholds on each task were assessed using multiple regression analyses. The 2I_6A_X task was more cognitively demanding and hence more susceptible to differences specifically in SES and musical training. Performance on this task did not, however, relate to nonword repetition ability (a measure of language learning capacity. The 3I_2AFC task, by contrast, was only susceptible to musical training. Moreover, thresholds measured using it predicted some variance in nonword repetition performance. This design thus seems suitable for use in studies addressing questions regarding the role of auditory processing in supporting language and literacy development.

  7. The influence of (central) auditory processing disorder on the severity of speech-sound disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Vilela; Tatiane Faria Barrozo; Luciana de Oliveira Pagan-Neves; Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi Sanches; Haydée Fiszbein Wertzner; Renata Mota Mamede Carvallo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify a cutoff value based on the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index that could indicate the likelihood of a child with a speech-sound disorder also having a (central) auditory processing disorder . METHODS: Language, audiological and (central) auditory processing evaluations were administered. The participants were 27 subjects with speech-sound disorders aged 7 to 10 years and 11 months who were divided into two different groups according to their (central) audi...

  8. Processing of natural sounds in human auditory cortex: tonotopy, spectral tuning, and relation to voice sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerel, Michelle; De Martino, Federico; Formisano, Elia

    2012-10-10

    Auditory cortical processing of complex meaningful sounds entails the transformation of sensory (tonotopic) representations of incoming acoustic waveforms into higher-level sound representations (e.g., their category). However, the precise neural mechanisms enabling such transformations remain largely unknown. In the present study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and natural sounds stimulation to examine these two levels of sound representation (and their relation) in the human auditory cortex. In a first experiment, we derive cortical maps of frequency preference (tonotopy) and selectivity (tuning width) by mathematical modeling of fMRI responses to natural sounds. The tuning width maps highlight a region of narrow tuning that follows the main axis of Heschl's gyrus and is flanked by regions of broader tuning. The narrowly tuned portion on Heschl's gyrus contains two mirror-symmetric frequency gradients, presumably defining two distinct primary auditory areas. In addition, our analysis indicates that spectral preference and selectivity (and their topographical organization) extend well beyond the primary regions and also cover higher-order and category-selective auditory regions. In particular, regions with preferential responses to human voice and speech occupy the low-frequency portions of the tonotopic map. We confirm this observation in a second experiment, where we find that speech/voice selective regions exhibit a response bias toward the low frequencies characteristic of human voice and speech, even when responding to simple tones. We propose that this frequency bias reflects the selective amplification of relevant and category-characteristic spectral bands, a useful processing step for transforming a sensory (tonotopic) sound image into higher level neural representations.

  9. Concurrent temporal channels for auditory processing: Oscillatory neural entrainment reveals segregation of function at different scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbin Teng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds convey perceptually relevant information over multiple timescales, and the necessary extraction of multi-timescale information requires the auditory system to work over distinct ranges. The simplest hypothesis suggests that temporal modulations are encoded in an equivalent manner within a reasonable intermediate range. We show that the human auditory system selectively and preferentially tracks acoustic dynamics concurrently at 2 timescales corresponding to the neurophysiological theta band (4-7 Hz and gamma band ranges (31-45 Hz but, contrary to expectation, not at the timescale corresponding to alpha (8-12 Hz, which has also been found to be related to auditory perception. Listeners heard synthetic acoustic stimuli with temporally modulated structures at 3 timescales (approximately 190-, approximately 100-, and approximately 30-ms modulation periods and identified the stimuli while undergoing magnetoencephalography recording. There was strong intertrial phase coherence in the theta band for stimuli of all modulation rates and in the gamma band for stimuli with corresponding modulation rates. The alpha band did not respond in a similar manner. Classification analyses also revealed that oscillatory phase reliably tracked temporal dynamics but not equivalently across rates. Finally, mutual information analyses quantifying the relation between phase and cochlear-scaled correlations also showed preferential processing in 2 distinct regimes, with the alpha range again yielding different patterns. The results support the hypothesis that the human auditory system employs (at least a 2-timescale processing mode, in which lower and higher perceptual sampling scales are segregated by an intermediate temporal regime in the alpha band that likely reflects different underlying computations.

  10. [(Central) Auditory Processing Disorders in Childhood--a Chimera or are Useful Clinical Diagnostic Tests Missing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiese-Himmel, C

    2008-11-01

    (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders (C)APD are becoming ever more diagnosed in children, though there is no agreement on diagnostic markers (gold standard for (C)APD diagnosis). In Germany, the diagnostics of (C)APD in the paediatric population is based on test measurements including phonological processing rather than on a valid theoretical model to guide clinicians. The evaluation of the clinical significance of central auditory functions as well as the number of the behavioural tests which should be performed are left to the diagnostician. The present study reviewed retrospectively test scores from a health care research database containing 167 children suspected of having a (C)APD. A total of 51 children participated in the study: 39 children identified with monosymptomatic (C)APD (on the basis of commonly used (C)APD tests with scores > or = 2 SDs below the mean on at least 2 tests) and 12 children who did not receive a (C)APD diagnosis (non-(C)APD). A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed with the five phonological measures of the psychological (C)APD-diagnostics in the German language: Nonword repetition by the Mottier-Test; the subtest "Recall of sentences" by the Heidelberger Sprachentwicklungstest for Language Development; "Digit Recall" by the German version of the K-ABC-subtest; "Auditory Closure" and "Sound Blending" by the subtests of the German version of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. Next the discriminant function of the model was examined. Performance in the normed tests (K-ABC Digit Recall: T-score 44.2, p = 0.0029; Sentence Recall: T-score 42.4, p = 0.0002; Auditory Closure: T-score 49.9, p = 0.0130; Sound Blending: T-score 47.2 p = 0.0121) and in nonword repetition (Mottier: 15.9 raw scores, p diagnostic instruments.

  11. A point process framework for modeling electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Jay T.; Shea-Brown, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Model-based studies of responses of auditory nerve fibers to electrical stimulation can provide insight into the functioning of cochlear implants. Ideally, these studies can identify limitations in sound processing strategies and lead to improved methods for providing sound information to cochlear implant users. To accomplish this, models must accurately describe spiking activity while avoiding excessive complexity that would preclude large-scale simulations of populations of auditory nerve fibers and obscure insight into the mechanisms that influence neural encoding of sound information. In this spirit, we develop a point process model of individual auditory nerve fibers that provides a compact and accurate description of neural responses to electric stimulation. Inspired by the framework of generalized linear models, the proposed model consists of a cascade of linear and nonlinear stages. We show how each of these stages can be associated with biophysical mechanisms and related to models of neuronal dynamics. Moreover, we derive a semianalytical procedure that uniquely determines each parameter in the model on the basis of fundamental statistics from recordings of single fiber responses to electric stimulation, including threshold, relative spread, jitter, and chronaxie. The model also accounts for refractory and summation effects that influence the responses of auditory nerve fibers to high pulse rate stimulation. Throughout, we compare model predictions to published physiological data of response to high and low pulse rate stimulation. We find that the model, although constructed to fit data from single and paired pulse experiments, can accurately predict responses to unmodulated and modulated pulse train stimuli. We close by performing an ideal observer analysis of simulated spike trains in response to sinusoidally amplitude modulated stimuli and find that carrier pulse rate does not affect modulation detection thresholds. PMID:22673331

  12. Spatial and Temporal High Processing of Visual and Auditory Stimuli in Cervical Dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillemi, Gaetana; Calamuneri, Alessandro; Morgante, Francesca; Terranova, Carmen; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Girlanda, Paolo; Ghilardi, Maria Felice; Quartarone, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of spatial and temporal cognitive processing in idiopathic cervical dystonia (CD) by means of specific tasks based on perception in time and space domains of visual and auditory stimuli. Previous psychophysiological studies have investigated temporal and spatial characteristics of neural processing of sensory stimuli (mainly somatosensorial and visual), whereas the definition of such processing at higher cognitive level has not been sufficiently addressed. The impairment of time and space processing is likely driven by basal ganglia dysfunction. However, other cortical and subcortical areas, including cerebellum, may also be involved. We tested 21 subjects with CD and 22 age-matched healthy controls with 4 recognition tasks exploring visuo-spatial, audio-spatial, visuo-temporal, and audio-temporal processing. Dystonic subjects were subdivided in three groups according to the head movement pattern type (lateral: Laterocollis, rotation: Torticollis) as well as the presence of tremor (Tremor). We found significant alteration of spatial processing in Laterocollis subgroup compared to controls, whereas impairment of temporal processing was observed in Torticollis subgroup compared to controls. Our results suggest that dystonia is associated with a dysfunction of temporal and spatial processing for visual and auditory stimuli that could underlie the well-known abnormalities in sequence learning. Moreover, we suggest that different movement pattern type might lead to different dysfunctions at cognitive level within dystonic population.

  13. Effects of Signal-to-Noise Ratio on Auditory Cortical Frequency Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschner, Magnus J; Seybold, Bryan A; Malone, Brian J; Hüning, Jana; Schreiner, Christoph E

    2016-03-02

    The neural mechanisms that support the robust processing of acoustic signals in the presence of background noise in the auditory system remain largely unresolved. Psychophysical experiments have shown that signal detection is influenced by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the overall stimulus level, but this relationship has not been fully characterized. We evaluated the neural representation of frequency in rat primary auditory cortex by constructing tonal frequency response areas (FRAs) in primary auditory cortex for different SNRs, tone levels, and noise levels. We show that response strength and selectivity for frequency and sound level depend on interactions between SNRs and tone levels. At low SNRs, jointly increasing the tone and noise levels reduced firing rates and narrowed FRA bandwidths; at higher SNRs, however, increasing the tone and noise levels increased firing rates and expanded bandwidths, as is usually seen for FRAs obtained without background noise. These changes in frequency and intensity tuning decreased tone level and tone frequency discriminability at low SNRs. By contrast, neither response onset latencies nor noise-driven steady-state firing rates meaningfully interacted with SNRs or overall sound levels. Speech detection performance in humans was also shown to depend on the interaction between overall sound level and SNR. Together, these results indicate that signal processing difficulties imposed by high noise levels are quite general and suggest that the neurophysiological changes we see for simple sounds generalize to more complex stimuli. Effective processing of sounds in background noise is an important feature of the mammalian auditory system and a necessary feature for successful hearing in many listening conditions. Even mild hearing loss strongly affects this ability in humans, seriously degrading the ability to communicate. The mechanisms involved in achieving high performance in background noise are not well understood. We

  14. Processing speech signal using auditory-like filterbank provides least uncertainty about articulatory gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prasanta Kumar; Goldstein, Louis M; Narayanan, Shrikanth S

    2011-06-01

    Understanding how the human speech production system is related to the human auditory system has been a perennial subject of inquiry. To investigate the production-perception link, in this paper, a computational analysis has been performed using the articulatory movement data obtained during speech production with concurrently recorded acoustic speech signals from multiple subjects in three different languages: English, Cantonese, and Georgian. The form of articulatory gestures during speech production varies across languages, and this variation is considered to be reflected in the articulatory position and kinematics. The auditory processing of the acoustic speech signal is modeled by a parametric representation of the cochlear filterbank which allows for realizing various candidate filterbank structures by changing the parameter value. Using mathematical communication theory, it is found that the uncertainty about the articulatory gestures in each language is maximally reduced when the acoustic speech signal is represented using the output of a filterbank similar to the empirically established cochlear filterbank in the human auditory system. Possible interpretations of this finding are discussed. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  15. Neural correlates of accelerated auditory processing in children engaged in music training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Assal; Cahn, B Rael; Damasio, Antonio; Damasio, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    Several studies comparing adult musicians and non-musicians have shown that music training is associated with brain differences. It is unknown, however, whether these differences result from lengthy musical training, from pre-existing biological traits, or from social factors favoring musicality. As part of an ongoing 5-year longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of a music training program on the auditory development of children, over the course of two years, beginning at age 6-7. The training was group-based and inspired by El-Sistema. We compared the children in the music group with two comparison groups of children of the same socio-economic background, one involved in sports training, another not involved in any systematic training. Prior to participating, children who began training in music did not differ from those in the comparison groups in any of the assessed measures. After two years, we now observe that children in the music group, but not in the two comparison groups, show an enhanced ability to detect changes in tonal environment and an accelerated maturity of auditory processing as measured by cortical auditory evoked potentials to musical notes. Our results suggest that music training may result in stimulus specific brain changes in school aged children. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Auditory processing disorder and speech perception problems in noise: finding the underlying origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagacé, Josée; Jutras, Benoît; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    A hallmark listening problem of individuals presenting with auditory processing disorder (APD) is their poor recognition of speech in noise. The underlying perceptual problem of the listening difficulties in unfavorable listening conditions is unknown. The objective of this article was to demonstrate theoretically how to determine whether the speech recognition problems are related to an auditory dysfunction, a language-based dysfunction, or a combination of both. Tests such as the Speech Perception in Noise (SPIN) test allow the exploration of the auditory and language-based functions involved in speech perception in noise, which is not possible with most other speech-in-noise tests. Psychometric functions illustrating results from hypothetical groups of individuals with APD on the SPIN test are presented. This approach makes it possible to postulate about the origin of the speech perception problems in noise. APD is a complex and heterogeneous disorder for which the underlying deficit is currently unclear. Because of their design, SPIN-like tests can potentially be used to identify the nature of the deficits underlying problems with speech perception in noise for this population. A better understanding of the difficulties with speech perception in noise experienced by many listeners with APD should lead to more efficient intervention programs.

  17. Neural correlates of accelerated auditory processing in children engaged in music training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assal Habibi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies comparing adult musicians and non-musicians have shown that music training is associated with brain differences. It is unknown, however, whether these differences result from lengthy musical training, from pre-existing biological traits, or from social factors favoring musicality. As part of an ongoing 5-year longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of a music training program on the auditory development of children, over the course of two years, beginning at age 6–7. The training was group-based and inspired by El-Sistema. We compared the children in the music group with two comparison groups of children of the same socio-economic background, one involved in sports training, another not involved in any systematic training. Prior to participating, children who began training in music did not differ from those in the comparison groups in any of the assessed measures. After two years, we now observe that children in the music group, but not in the two comparison groups, show an enhanced ability to detect changes in tonal environment and an accelerated maturity of auditory processing as measured by cortical auditory evoked potentials to musical notes. Our results suggest that music training may result in stimulus specific brain changes in school aged children.

  18. Sensorimotor nucleus NIf is necessary for auditory processing but not vocal motor output in the avian song system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Jessica A; Raksin, Jonathan N; Schmidt, Marc F

    2005-04-01

    Sensorimotor integration in the avian song system is crucial for both learning and maintenance of song, a vocal motor behavior. Although a number of song system areas demonstrate both sensory and motor characteristics, their exact roles in auditory and premotor processing are unclear. In particular, it is unknown whether input from the forebrain nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf), which exhibits both sensory and premotor activity, is necessary for both auditory and premotor processing in its target, HVC. Here we show that bilateral NIf lesions result in long-term loss of HVC auditory activity but do not impair song production. NIf is thus a major source of auditory input to HVC, but an intact NIf is not necessary for motor output in adult zebra finches.

  19. Electrophysiological assessment of auditory processing disorder in children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoran; McPherson, Bradley; Ma, Lian

    2016-01-01

    Cleft lip and/or palate is a common congenital craniofacial malformation found worldwide. A frequently associated disorder is conductive hearing loss, and this disorder has been thoroughly investigated in children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P). However, analysis of auditory processing function is rarely reported for this population, although this issue should not be ignored since abnormal auditory cortical structures have been found in populations with cleft disorders. The present study utilized electrophysiological tests to assess the auditory status of a large group of children with NSCL/P, and investigated whether this group had less robust central auditory processing abilities compared to craniofacially normal children. 146 children with NSCL/P who had normal peripheral hearing thresholds, and 60 craniofacially normal children aged from 6 to 15 years, were recruited. Electrophysiological tests, including auditory brainstem response (ABR), P1-N1-P2 complex, and P300 component recording, were conducted. ABR and N1 wave latencies were significantly prolonged in children with NSCL/P. An atypical developmental trend was found for long latency potentials in children with cleft compared to control group children. Children with unilateral cleft lip and palate showed a greater level of abnormal results compared with other cleft subgroups, whereas the cleft lip subgroup had the most robust responses for all tests. Children with NSCL/P may have slower than normal neural transmission times between the peripheral auditory nerve and brainstem. Possible delayed development of myelination and synaptogenesis may also influence auditory processing function in this population. Present research outcomes were consistent with previous, smaller sample size, electrophysiological studies on infants and children with cleft lip/palate disorders. In view of the these findings, and reports of educational disadvantage associated with cleft disorders, further research

  20. Electrophysiological assessment of auditory processing disorder in children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoran Ma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Cleft lip and/or palate is a common congenital craniofacial malformation found worldwide. A frequently associated disorder is conductive hearing loss, and this disorder has been thoroughly investigated in children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P. However, analysis of auditory processing function is rarely reported for this population, although this issue should not be ignored since abnormal auditory cortical structures have been found in populations with cleft disorders. The present study utilized electrophysiological tests to assess the auditory status of a large group of children with NSCL/P, and investigated whether this group had less robust central auditory processing abilities compared to craniofacially normal children. Methods 146 children with NSCL/P who had normal peripheral hearing thresholds, and 60 craniofacially normal children aged from 6 to 15 years, were recruited. Electrophysiological tests, including auditory brainstem response (ABR, P1-N1-P2 complex, and P300 component recording, were conducted. Results ABR and N1 wave latencies were significantly prolonged in children with NSCL/P. An atypical developmental trend was found for long latency potentials in children with cleft compared to control group children. Children with unilateral cleft lip and palate showed a greater level of abnormal results compared with other cleft subgroups, whereas the cleft lip subgroup had the most robust responses for all tests. Conclusion Children with NSCL/P may have slower than normal neural transmission times between the peripheral auditory nerve and brainstem. Possible delayed development of myelination and synaptogenesis may also influence auditory processing function in this population. Present research outcomes were consistent with previous, smaller sample size, electrophysiological studies on infants and children with cleft lip/palate disorders. In view of the these findings, and reports of educational

  1. Electrophysiological assessment of auditory processing disorder in children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoran Ma; Bradley McPherson; Lian Ma

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cleft lip and/or palate is a common congenital craniofacial malformation found worldwide. A frequently associated disorder is conductive hearing loss, and this disorder has been thoroughly investigated in children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P). However, analysis of auditory processing function is rarely reported for this population, although this issue should not be ignored since abnormal auditory cortical structures have been found in populations with cleft ...

  2. Basic auditory processing is related to familial risk, not to reading fluency: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakvoort, Britt; van der Leij, Aryan; Maurits, Natasha; Maassen, Ben; van Zuijen, Titia L

    2015-02-01

    Less proficient basic auditory processing has been previously connected to dyslexia. However, it is unclear whether a low proficiency level is a correlate of having a familial risk for reading problems, or whether it causes dyslexia. In this study, children's processing of amplitude rise time (ART), intensity and frequency differences was measured with event-related potentials (ERPs). ERP components of interest are components reflective of auditory change detection; the mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). All groups had an MMN to changes in ART and frequency, but not to intensity. Our results indicate that fluent readers at risk for dyslexia, poor readers at risk for dyslexia and fluent reading controls have an LDN to changes in ART and frequency, though the scalp activation of frequency processing was different for familial risk children. On intensity, only controls showed an LDN. Contrary to previous findings, our results suggest that neither ART nor frequency processing is related to reading fluency. Furthermore, our results imply that diminished sensitivity to changes in intensity and differential lateralization of frequency processing should be regarded as correlates of being at familial risk for dyslexia, that do not directly relate to reading fluency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hybrid fNIRS-EEG based classification of auditory and visual perception processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix ePutze

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For multimodal Human-Computer Interaction (HCI, it is very useful to identify the modalities on which the user is currently processing information. This would enable a system to select complementary output modalities to reduce the user's workload. In this paper, we develop a hybrid Brain-Computer Interface (BCI which uses Electroencephalography (EEG and functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS to discriminate and detect visual and auditory stimulus processing. We describe the experimental setup we used for collection of our data corpus with 12 subjects. We present cross validation evaluation results for different classification conditions. We show that our subject-dependent systems achieved a classification accuracy of 97.8% for discriminating visual and auditory perception processes from each other and a classification accuracy of up to 94.8% for detecting modality-specific processes independently of other cognitive activity. The same classification conditions could also be discriminated in a subject-independent fashion with accuracy of up to 94.6% and 86.7%, respectively. We also look at the contributions of the two signal types and show that the fusion of classifiers using different features significantly increases accuracy.

  4. Hybrid fNIRS-EEG based classification of auditory and visual perception processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putze, Felix; Hesslinger, Sebastian; Tse, Chun-Yu; Huang, YunYing; Herff, Christian; Guan, Cuntai; Schultz, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    For multimodal Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), it is very useful to identify the modalities on which the user is currently processing information. This would enable a system to select complementary output modalities to reduce the user's workload. In this paper, we develop a hybrid Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) which uses Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to discriminate and detect visual and auditory stimulus processing. We describe the experimental setup we used for collection of our data corpus with 12 subjects. On this data, we performed cross-validation evaluation, of which we report accuracy for different classification conditions. The results show that the subject-dependent systems achieved a classification accuracy of 97.8% for discriminating visual and auditory perception processes from each other and a classification accuracy of up to 94.8% for detecting modality-specific processes independently of other cognitive activity. The same classification conditions could also be discriminated in a subject-independent fashion with accuracy of up to 94.6 and 86.7%, respectively. We also look at the contributions of the two signal types and show that the fusion of classifiers using different features significantly increases accuracy. PMID:25477777

  5. Hybrid fNIRS-EEG based classification of auditory and visual perception processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putze, Felix; Hesslinger, Sebastian; Tse, Chun-Yu; Huang, YunYing; Herff, Christian; Guan, Cuntai; Schultz, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    For multimodal Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), it is very useful to identify the modalities on which the user is currently processing information. This would enable a system to select complementary output modalities to reduce the user's workload. In this paper, we develop a hybrid Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) which uses Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to discriminate and detect visual and auditory stimulus processing. We describe the experimental setup we used for collection of our data corpus with 12 subjects. On this data, we performed cross-validation evaluation, of which we report accuracy for different classification conditions. The results show that the subject-dependent systems achieved a classification accuracy of 97.8% for discriminating visual and auditory perception processes from each other and a classification accuracy of up to 94.8% for detecting modality-specific processes independently of other cognitive activity. The same classification conditions could also be discriminated in a subject-independent fashion with accuracy of up to 94.6 and 86.7%, respectively. We also look at the contributions of the two signal types and show that the fusion of classifiers using different features significantly increases accuracy.

  6. Early Auditory Sensory Processing Deficits in Mouse Mutants with Reduced NMDA Receptor Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bickel, Stephan; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Umbricht, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    .... These deficits are evident in the prepulse inhibition- (PPI) and habituation of the auditory startle response paradigm, the paired tone paradigm in the EEG, and the peak recovery function of auditory evoked potentials (AEP...

  7. Auditory Brain Stem Processing in Reptiles and Amphibians: Roles of Coupled Ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Katie L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Comparative approaches to the auditory system have yielded great insight into the evolution of sound localization circuits, particularly within the nonmammalian tetrapods. The fossil record demonstrates multiple appearances of tympanic hearing, and examination of the auditory brain stem of variou...

  8. Clear as mud: another look at autism, childhood apraxia of speech and auditory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Cheryl D; Kurtz, Marie; Souders, Heather

    2012-06-01

    Autism, childhood apraxia of speech and central auditory processing disorder are associated with significant disability. These conditions can be more difficult to diagnose. With significant controversy surrounding their definitions and most effective treatment options, understanding these conditions better may optimize outcomes. As earlier diagnosis and treatment become more commonplace, the type and intensity of intervention provided continue to be a topic of extensive interest and research. The protean nature of speech and language disorders requires careful consideration of several diagnostic causes. Problems with speech may reflect motor coordination or apraxia, problems with processing language may reflect an auditory processing disorder, whereas more profound delays may reflect cognitive disability or autism. Early consideration of different causes of delay will aid in the choice and application of appropriate therapies. Early identification and treatment of speech and language problems are known to result in better outcomes. By expanding one's differential diagnosis for speech and language disorders and understanding the link between early communication delay and later language learning, one hopes to mitigate the long-term effects these conditions have on children.

  9. Is conflict monitoring supramodal? Spatiotemporal dynamics of cognitive control processes in an auditory Stroop task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Sarah E.; Liotti, Mario; Perez, Rick; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2011-01-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of conflict processing and cognitive control have been well characterized for the visual modality in paradigms such as the Stroop task. Much less is known about corresponding processes in the auditory modality. Here, electroencephalographic recordings of brain activity were measured during an auditory Stroop task, using three different forms of behavioral response (Overt verbal, Covert verbal, and Manual), that closely paralleled our previous visual-Stroop study. As expected, behavioral responses were slower and less accurate for incongruent compared to congruent trials. Neurally, incongruent trials showed an enhanced fronto-central negative-polarity wave (Ninc), similar to the N450 in visual-Stroop tasks, with similar variations as a function of behavioral response mode, but peaking ~150 ms earlier, followed by an enhanced positive posterior wave. In addition, sequential behavioral and neural effects were observed that supported the conflict-monitoring and cognitive-adjustment hypothesis. Thus, while some aspects of the conflict detection processes, such as timing, may be modality-dependent, the general mechanisms would appear to be supramodal. PMID:21964643

  10. Results from a National Central Auditory Processing Disorder Service: A Real-World Assessment of Diagnostic Practices and Remediation for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Glyde, Helen; Dillon, Harvey; King, Alison; Gillies, Karin

    2015-11-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of a national service to diagnose and remediate central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Data were gathered from 38 participating Australian Hearing centers over an 18-month period from 666 individuals age 6, 0 (years, months) to 24, 8 (median 9, 0). A total of 408 clients were diagnosed with either a spatial processing disorder (n = 130), a verbal memory deficit (n = 174), or a binaural integration deficit (n = 104). A hierarchical test protocol was used so not all children were assessed on all tests in the battery. One hundred fifty clients decided to proceed with deficit-specific training (LiSN & Learn or Memory Booster) and/or be fitted with a frequency modulation system. Families were provided with communication strategies targeted to a child's specific listening difficulties and goals. Outcomes were measured using repeat assessment of the relevant diagnostic test, as well as the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement measure and Listening Inventories for Education teacher questionnaire. Group analyses revealed significant improvements postremediation for all training/management options. Individual posttraining performance and results of outcome measures also are discussed.

  11. Grapheme-color synesthetes show enhanced crossmodal processing between auditory and visual modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Williams, Lisa E; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2012-05-01

    Synesthesia is an involuntary experience in which stimulation of one sensory modality triggers additional, atypical sensory experiences. Strong multisensory processes are present in the general population, but the relationship between these 'normal' sensory interactions and synesthesia is currently unknown. Neuroimaging research suggests that some forms of synesthesia are caused by enhanced cross-activation between brain areas specialized for the processing of different sensory attributes, and finds evidence of increased white matter connections among regions known to be involved in typical crossmodal processes. Using two classic crossmodal integration tasks we show that grapheme-color synesthetes exhibit enhanced crossmodal interactions between auditory and visual modalities, suggesting that the experience of synesthesia in one modality generalizes to enhanced crossmodal processes with other modalities. This finding supports our conjecture that the atypical sensory experiences of synesthetes represent a selective expression of a more diffuse propensity toward 'typical' crossmodality interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  12. Hearing with Two Ears: Evidence for Cortical Binaural Interaction during Auditory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Yael; Yaar-Soffer, Yifat; Givon, Lihi; Hildesheimer, Minka

    2015-04-01

    Integration of information presented to the two ears has been shown to manifest in binaural interaction components (BICs) that occur along the ascending auditory pathways. In humans, BICs have been studied predominantly at the brainstem and thalamocortical levels; however, understanding of higher cortically driven mechanisms of binaural hearing is limited. To explore whether BICs are evident in auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) during the advanced perceptual and postperceptual stages of cortical processing. The AERPs N1, P3, and a late negative component (LNC) were recorded from multiple site electrodes while participants performed an oddball discrimination task that consisted of natural speech syllables (/ka/ vs. /ta/) that differed by place-of-articulation. Participants were instructed to respond to the target stimulus (/ta/) while performing the task in three listening conditions: monaural right, monaural left, and binaural. Fifteen (21-32 yr) young adults (6 females) with normal hearing sensitivity. By subtracting the response to target stimuli elicited in the binaural condition from the sum of responses elicited in the monaural right and left conditions, the BIC waveform was derived and the latencies and amplitudes of the components were measured. The maximal interaction was calculated by dividing BIC amplitude by the summed right and left response amplitudes. In addition, the latencies and amplitudes of the AERPs to target stimuli elicited in the monaural right, monaural left, and binaural listening conditions were measured and subjected to analysis of variance with repeated measures testing the effect of listening condition and laterality. Three consecutive BICs were identified at a mean latency of 129, 406, and 554 msec, and were labeled N1-BIC, P3-BIC, and LNC-BIC, respectively. Maximal interaction increased significantly with progression of auditory processing from perceptual to postperceptual stages and amounted to 51%, 55%, and 75% of the sum of

  13. Auditory processing and speech perception in children with specific language impairment: relations with oral language and literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquière, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated temporal auditory processing (frequency modulation and between-channel gap detection) and speech perception (speech-in-noise and categorical perception) in three groups of 6 years 3 months to 6 years 8 months-old children attending grade 1: (1) children with specific language impairment (SLI) and literacy delay (n = 8), (2) children with SLI and normal literacy (n = 10) and (3) typically developing children (n = 14). Moreover, the relations between these auditory processing and speech perception skills and oral language and literacy skills in grade 1 and grade 3 were analyzed. The SLI group with literacy delay scored significantly lower than both other groups on speech perception, but not on temporal auditory processing. Both normal reading groups did not differ in terms of speech perception or auditory processing. Speech perception was significantly related to reading and spelling in grades 1 and 3 and had a unique predictive contribution to reading growth in grade 3, even after controlling reading level, phonological ability, auditory processing and oral language skills in grade 1. These findings indicated that speech perception also had a unique direct impact upon reading development and not only through its relation with phonological awareness. Moreover, speech perception seemed to be more associated with the development of literacy skills and less with oral language ability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychometric profile of children with auditory processing disorder and children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Piers; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2010-06-01

    The aim was to address the controversy that exists over the extent to which auditory processing disorder (APD) is a separate diagnostic category with a distinctive psychometric profile, rather than a reflection of a more general learning disability. Children with an APD diagnosis (N=25) were compared with children with dyslexia (N=19) on a battery of standardised auditory processing, language, literacy and non-verbal intelligence quotient measures as well as parental report measures of communicative skill and listening behaviour. A follow-up of a subset of children included a parent report screening questionnaire for Asperger syndrome (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test). There were similarly high levels of attentional, reading and language problems in both groups. One peculiarity of the APD group was a discrepancy between parental report of poor communication and listening skill disproportionate to expectations based on standardised test performance. Follow-up assessment suggested high levels of previously unrecognised autistic features within the APD group. Children diagnosed by audiological experts as having APD are likely to have broader neurodevelopmental disorders and would benefit from evaluation by a multidisciplinary team.

  15. Right cerebral hemisphere and central auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina C. Murphy-Ruiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective We hypothesized that if the right hemisphere auditory processing abilities can be altered in children with developmental dyslexia (DD, we can detect dysfunction using specific tests. Method We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. We studied 20 right-handed children with DD and 20 healthy right-handed control subjects (CS. Children in both groups were age, gender, and school-grade matched. Focusing on the right hemisphere’s contribution, we utilized tests to measure alterations in central auditory processing (CAP, such as determination of frequency patterns; sound duration; music pitch recognition; and identification of environmental sounds. We compared results among the two groups. Results Children with DD showed lower performance than CS in all CAP subtests, including those that preferentially engaged the cerebral right hemisphere. Conclusion Our data suggests a significant contribution of the right hemisphere in alterations of CAP in children with DD. Thus, right hemisphere CAP must be considered for examination and rehabilitation of children with DD.

  16. The effects of early maternal deprivation on auditory information processing in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbroek, Bart A; de Bruin, Natasja M W J; van Den Kroonenburg, Peter T J M; van Luijtelaar, Egidius L J M; Cools, Alexander R

    2004-04-01

    There is now ample evidence that schizophrenia is due to an interaction between genetic and (early) environmental factors which disturbs normal development of the central nervous system and ultimately leads to the development of clinical symptoms. Recently, we showed that a single 24-hour period of maternal deprivation of rat pups at postnatal day 9 leads to a disturbance in prepulse inhibition, similar to what is seen in schizophrenia. The present set of experiments was designed to further characterize the information processing deficits of maternally deprived Wistar rats. Wistar rats were deprived from their mother for 24 hours on postnatal day 9. At adult age, rats were tested in the acoustic startle paradigm for prepulse inhibition and startle habituation. Rats were also tested in the evoked potentials paradigm for auditory sensory gating. The results show that maternal deprivation led to a reduction in acoustic startle habituation and auditory sensory gating in adult rats. Moreover, maternal deprivation disrupted prepulse inhibition but only when the prepulses were given shortly (50-100 milliseconds) before the startle stimulus. At longer intervals (250-1000 milliseconds), no effect was seen. The implications for the model and the development of disturbances in information processes are discussed.

  17. Assessment of auditory processing disorder in children using an adaptive filtered speech test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Natalie A; Heidtke, Uta J; O'Beirne, Greg A

    2013-10-01

    One type of test commonly used to assess auditory processing disorder (APD) is the 'filtered words test' (FWT), in which a monaural, low-redundancy speech sample is distorted by using filtering to modify its frequency content. One limitation of the various existing FWTs is that they are performed using a constant level of low-pass filtering, making them prone to ceiling and floor effects that compromise their efficiency and accuracy. A recently developed computer-based test, the University of Canterbury Adaptive Speech Test- Filtered Words (UCAST-FW), uses an adaptive procedure intended to improve the efficiency and sensitivity of the test over its constant-level counterparts. The UCAST-FW was administered to school-aged children to investigate the ability of the test to distinguish between children with and without APD. Fifteen children aged 7-13 diagnosed with APD, and an aged-matched control group of 10 children with no history of listening difficulties. Data obtained demonstrates a significant difference between the UCAST-FW results obtained by children with APD and those with normal auditory processing. These findings provide evidence that the UCAST-FW may discriminate between children with and without APD with greater sensitivity than its constant-level counterparts.

  18. Speech comprehension training and auditory and cognitive processing in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Levitt, Harry

    2012-12-01

    To provide a brief history of speech comprehension training systems and an overview of research on auditory and cognitive aging as background to recommendations for future directions for rehabilitation. Two distinct domains were reviewed: one concerning technological and the other concerning psychological aspects of training. Historical trends and advances in these 2 domains were interrelated to highlight converging trends and directions for future practice. Over the last century, technological advances have influenced both the design of hearing aids and training systems. Initially, training focused on children and those with severe loss for whom amplification was insufficient. Now the focus has shifted to older adults with relatively little loss but difficulties listening in noise. Evidence of brain plasticity from auditory and cognitive neuroscience provides new insights into how to facilitate perceptual (re-)learning by older adults. There is a new imperative to complement training to increase bottom-up processing of the signal with more ecologically valid training to boost top-down information processing based on knowledge of language and the world. Advances in digital technologies enable the development of increasingly sophisticated training systems incorporating complex meaningful materials such as music, audiovisual interactive displays, and conversation.

  19. Auditory Processing Assessment in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: An Open Study Examining Methylphenidate Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzetta-Valdo, Bianca Pinheiro; Oliveira, Giselle Alves de; Ferreira, Jane Tagarro Correa; Palacios, Ester Miyuki Nakamura

    2017-01-01

    Introduction  Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can present Auditory Processing (AP) Disorder. Objective  The study examined the AP in ADHD children compared with non-ADHD children, and before and after 3 and 6 months of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in ADHD children. Methods  Drug-naive children diagnosed with ADHD combined subtype aging between 7 and 11 years, coming from public and private outpatient service or public and private school, and age-gender-matched non-ADHD children, participated in an open, non-randomized study from February 2013 to December 2013. They were submitted to a behavioral battery of AP tests comprising Speech with white Noise, Dichotic Digits (DD), and Pitch Pattern Sequence (PPS) and were compared with non-ADHD children. They were followed for 3 and 6 months of MPH treatment (0.5 mg/kg/day). Results  ADHD children presented larger number of errors in DD ( p  < 0.01), and less correct responses in the PPS ( p  < 0.0001) and in the SN ( p  < 0.05) tests when compared with non-ADHD children. The treatment with MPH, especially along 6 months, significantly decreased the mean errors in the DD ( p  < 0.01) and increased the correct response in the PPS ( p  < 0.001) and SN ( p  < 0.01) tests when compared with the performance before MPH treatment. Conclusions  ADHD children show inefficient AP in selected behavioral auditory battery suggesting impaired in auditory closure, binaural integration, and temporal ordering. Treatment with MPH gradually improved these deficiencies and completely reversed them by reaching a performance similar to non-ADHD children at 6 months of treatment.

  20. Cortical substrates and functional correlates of auditory deviance processing deficits in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Rissling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although sensory processing abnormalities contribute to widespread cognitive and psychosocial impairments in schizophrenia (SZ patients, scalp-channel measures of averaged event-related potentials (ERPs mix contributions from distinct cortical source-area generators, diluting the functional relevance of channel-based ERP measures. SZ patients (n = 42 and non-psychiatric comparison subjects (n = 47 participated in a passive auditory duration oddball paradigm, eliciting a triphasic (Deviant−Standard tone ERP difference complex, here termed the auditory deviance response (ADR, comprised of a mid-frontal mismatch negativity (MMN, P3a positivity, and re-orienting negativity (RON peak sequence. To identify its cortical sources and to assess possible relationships between their response contributions and clinical SZ measures, we applied independent component analysis to the continuous 68-channel EEG data and clustered the resulting independent components (ICs across subjects on spectral, ERP, and topographic similarities. Six IC clusters centered in right superior temporal, right inferior frontal, ventral mid-cingulate, anterior cingulate, medial orbitofrontal, and dorsal mid-cingulate cortex each made triphasic response contributions. Although correlations between measures of SZ clinical, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning and standard (Fz scalp-channel ADR peak measures were weak or absent, for at least four IC clusters one or more significant correlations emerged. In particular, differences in MMN peak amplitude in the right superior temporal IC cluster accounted for 48% of the variance in SZ-subject performance on tasks necessary for real-world functioning and medial orbitofrontal cluster P3a amplitude accounted for 40%/54% of SZ-subject variance in positive/negative symptoms. Thus, source-resolved auditory deviance response measures including MMN may be highly sensitive to SZ clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics.

  1. Rapid neutron capture process in supernovae and chemical element formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baruah, Rulee; Duorah, Kalpana; Duorah, H. L.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid neutron capture process (r-process) is one of the major nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the synthesis of heavy nuclei beyond iron. Isotopes beyond Fe are most exclusively formed in neutron capture processes and more heavier ones are produced by the r-process. Approximately half

  2. Altered white matter microstructure underlies listening difficulties in children suspected of auditory processing disorders: a DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Rola; Schmithorst, Vincent J; Keith, Robert W; Holland, Scott K

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify biomarkers of listening difficulties by investigating white matter microstructure in children suspected of auditory processing disorder (APD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Behavioral studies have suggested that impaired cognitive and/or attention abilities rather than a pure sensory processing deficit underlie listening difficulties and auditory processing disorder (APD) in children. However, the neural signature of listening difficulties has not been investigated. Twelve children with listening difficulties and atypical left ear advantage (LEA) in dichotic listening and twelve age- and gender-matched typically developing children with typical right ear advantage (REA) were tested. Using voxel-based analysis, fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean, axial and radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD) maps were computed and contrasted between the groups. Listening difficulties were associated with altered white matter microstructure, reflected by decreased FA in frontal multifocal white matter regions centered in prefrontal cortex bilaterally and left anterior cingulate. Increased RD and decreased AD accounted for the decreased FA, suggesting delayed myelination in frontal white matter tracts and disrupted fiber organization in the LEA group. Furthermore, listening difficulties were associated with increased MD (with increase in both RD and AD) in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (sublenticular part) at the auditory radiations where auditory input is transmitted between the thalamus and the auditory cortex. Our results provide direct evidence that listening difficulties in children are associated with altered white matter microstructure and that both sensory and supramodal deficits underlie the differences between the groups.

  3. AUX: a scripting language for auditory signal processing and software packages for psychoacoustic experiments and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bomjun J

    2012-06-01

    This article introduces AUX (AUditory syntaX), a scripting syntax specifically designed to describe auditory signals and processing, to the members of the behavioral research community. The syntax is based on descriptive function names and intuitive operators suitable for researchers and students without substantial training in programming, who wish to generate and examine sound signals using a written script. In this article, the essence of AUX is discussed and practical examples of AUX scripts specifying various signals are illustrated. Additionally, two accompanying Windows-based programs and development libraries are described. AUX Viewer is a program that generates, visualizes, and plays sounds specified in AUX. AUX Viewer can also be used for class demonstrations or presentations. Another program, Psycon, allows a wide range of sound signals to be used as stimuli in common psychophysical testing paradigms, such as the adaptive procedure, the method of constant stimuli, and the method of adjustment. AUX Library is also provided, so that researchers can develop their own programs utilizing AUX. The philosophical basis of AUX is to separate signal generation from the user interface needed for experiments. AUX scripts are portable and reusable; they can be shared by other researchers, regardless of differences in actual AUX-based programs, and reused for future experiments. In short, the use of AUX can be potentially beneficial to all members of the research community-both those with programming backgrounds and those without.

  4. Behavioral Signs of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder in Children With Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate: A Parental Questionnaire Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoran; McPherson, Bradley; Ma, Lian

    2016-03-01

    Objective Children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate often have a high prevalence of middle ear dysfunction. However, there are also indications that they may have a higher prevalence of (central) auditory processing disorder. This study used Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist for caregivers to determine whether children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate have potentially more auditory processing difficulties compared with craniofacially normal children. Methods Caregivers of 147 school-aged children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate were recruited for the study. This group was divided into three subgroups: cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate. Caregivers of 60 craniofacially normal children were recruited as a control group. Hearing health tests were conducted to evaluate peripheral hearing. Caregivers of children who passed this assessment battery completed Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist, which contains 25 questions related to behaviors linked to (central) auditory processing disorder. Results Children with cleft palate showed the lowest scores on the Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist questionnaire, consistent with a higher index of suspicion for (central) auditory processing disorder. There was a significant difference in the manifestation of (central) auditory processing disorder-linked behaviors between the cleft palate and the control groups. The most common behaviors reported in the nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate group were short attention span and reduced learning motivation, along with hearing difficulties in noise. Conclusion A higher occurrence of (central) auditory processing disorder-linked behaviors were found in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, particularly cleft palate. Auditory processing abilities should not be ignored in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, and it is necessary to consider assessment tests for (central) auditory processing disorder when an

  5. Task-switching, inhibition and the processing of unattended auditory stimuli in music trained and non-trained adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mannermaa, Kristiina

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has linked music training to enhanced processing of unattended auditory stimuli as indexed by such auditory event-related potential (ERP) responses as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a. Music training has also been linked with enhanced cognitive abilities more generally, and executive functions have been proposed to mediate this link. The current study concentrates on the processing of unattended auditory stimuli and how this relates to two aspects of executive functions: ta...

  6. Developmental Dyslexia: Exploring How Much Phonological and Visual Attention Span Disorders Are Linked to Simultaneous Auditory Processing Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallier, Marie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    The simultaneous auditory processing skills of 17 dyslexic children and 17 skilled readers were measured using a dichotic listening task. Results showed that the dyslexic children exhibited difficulties reporting syllabic material when presented simultaneously. As a measure of simultaneous visual processing, visual attention span skills were…

  7. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    Rapid prototyping and the human factors • • engineering process David Beevis* and Gaetan St Denist *Senior Human Factors Engineer, Defence and...qr-..2. 9 Rapid prototyping or ’virtual prototyping ’ of human-machine interfaces offers the possibility of putting the human operator ’in the loop...8217 without the effort and cost associated with conventional man-in-the-loop simulation. Advocates suggest that rapid prototyping is compatible with

  8. Assessment of Functional Hearing in Greek-Speaking Children Diagnosed with Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiras, Chris; Iliadou, Vasiliki Vivian; Chermak, Gail D; Nimatoudis, Ioannis

    2016-05-01

    Including speech recognition in noise testing in audiological evaluations may reveal functional hearing deficits that may otherwise remain undetected. The current study explored the potential utility of the Speech-in-Babble (SinB) test in the assessment of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) in young children for whom diagnosis is challenging. A cross-sectional analysis. Forty-one Greek children 4-13 yr of age diagnosed with CAPD and exhibiting listening and academic problems (clinical group) and 20 age-matched controls with no listening or academic problems participated in the study. All participants' auditory processing was assessed using the same tests and instrumentation in a sound-treated room. Two equivalent lists of the SinB test, developed at the Psychoacoustic Laboratory of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, were administered monaurally in a counterbalanced order. SinB consists of lists of 50 phonetically balanced disyllabic words presented in background multitalker babble. Five signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were used in a fixed order. The children were instructed to repeat the word after each presentation. The SNR at which the child achieved 50% correct word identification served as the dependent variable or outcome measure, with higher SinB scores (measured in SNR dB) corresponding to poorer performance. SinB performance was better (lower SNR) for the normal control group versus the clinical group [F(1,35) = 43.03, p children with CAPD with and without comorbid conditions revealed no significant differences between groups [F(1,38) = 0.149, p > 0.05]. This study offers the first detailed presentation of the performance of Greek children on a Greek language SinB test. The main finding is that SinB scores improved as a function of age in a constant manner as represented by the slope of the linear regression line for both CAPD and control groups. Results suggest that this speech recognition in competition test holds promise for differentiating

  9. Syllabic (~2-5 Hz) and fluctuation (~1-10 Hz) ranges in speech and auditory processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erik; Chang, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Given recent interest in syllabic rates (~2-5 Hz) for speech processing, we review the perception of “fluctuation” range (~1-10 Hz) modulations during listening to speech and technical auditory stimuli (AM and FM tones and noises, and ripple sounds). We find evidence that the temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) of human auditory perception is not simply low-pass in nature, but rather exhibits a peak in sensitivity in the syllabic range (~2-5 Hz). We also address human and animal neurophysiological evidence, and argue that this bandpass tuning arises at the thalamocortical level and is more associated with non-primary regions than primary regions of cortex. The bandpass rather than low-pass TMTF has implications for modeling auditory central physiology and speech processing: this implicates temporal contrast rather than simple temporal integration, with contrast enhancement for dynamic stimuli in the fluctuation range. PMID:24035819

  10. Propofol disrupts functional interactions between sensory and high-order processing of auditory verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Lauer, Kathryn K; Ward, Barney D; Rao, Stephen M; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hudetz, Anthony G

    2012-10-01

    Current theories suggest that disrupting cortical information integration may account for the mechanism of general anesthesia in suppressing consciousness. Human cognitive operations take place in hierarchically structured neural organizations in the brain. The process of low-order neural representation of sensory stimuli becoming integrated in high-order cortices is also known as cognitive binding. Combining neuroimaging, cognitive neuroscience, and anesthetic manipulation, we examined how cognitive networks involved in auditory verbal memory are maintained in wakefulness, disrupted in propofol-induced deep sedation, and re-established in recovery. Inspired by the notion of cognitive binding, an functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided connectivity analysis was utilized to assess the integrity of functional interactions within and between different levels of the task-defined brain regions. Task-related responses persisted in the primary auditory cortex (PAC), but vanished in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and premotor areas in deep sedation. For connectivity analysis, seed regions representing sensory and high-order processing of the memory task were identified in the PAC and IFG. Propofol disrupted connections from the PAC seed to the frontal regions and thalamus, but not the connections from the IFG seed to a set of widely distributed brain regions in the temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes (with exception of the PAC). These later regions have been implicated in mediating verbal comprehension and memory. These results suggest that propofol disrupts cognition by blocking the projection of sensory information to high-order processing networks and thus preventing information integration. Such findings contribute to our understanding of anesthetic mechanisms as related to information and integration in the brain. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. At the interface of the auditory and vocal motor systems: NIf and its role in vocal processing, production and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Brian; Vyssotski, Alexei; Hahnloser, Richard H R; Schmidt, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Communication between auditory and vocal motor nuclei is essential for vocal learning. In songbirds, the nucleus interfacialis of the nidopallium (NIf) is part of a sensorimotor loop, along with auditory nucleus avalanche (Av) and song system nucleus HVC, that links the auditory and song systems. Most of the auditory information comes through this sensorimotor loop, with the projection from NIf to HVC representing the largest single source of auditory information to the song system. In addition to providing the majority of HVC's auditory input, NIf is also the primary driver of spontaneous activity and premotor-like bursting during sleep in HVC. Like HVC and RA, two nuclei critical for song learning and production, NIf exhibits behavioral-state dependent auditory responses and strong motor bursts that precede song output. NIf also exhibits extended periods of fast gamma oscillations following vocal production. Based on the converging evidence from studies of physiology and functional connectivity it would be reasonable to expect NIf to play an important role in the learning, maintenance, and production of song. Surprisingly, however, lesions of NIf in adult zebra finches have no effect on song production or maintenance. Only the plastic song produced by juvenile zebra finches during the sensorimotor phase of song learning is affected by NIf lesions. In this review, we carefully examine what is known about NIf at the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral levels. We reexamine conclusions drawn from previous studies in the light of our current understanding of the song system, and establish what can be said with certainty about NIf's involvement in song learning, maintenance, and production. Finally, we review recent theories of song learning integrating possible roles for NIf within these frameworks and suggest possible parallels between NIf and sensorimotor areas that form part of the neural circuitry for speech processing in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  12. Processing of speech temporal and spectral information by users of auditory brainstem implants and cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadpour, Mahan; McKay, Colette M

    2014-01-01

    Auditory brainstem implants (ABI) use the same processing strategy as was developed for cochlear implants (CI). However, the cochlear nucleus (CN), the stimulation site of ABIs, is anatomically and physiologically more complex than the auditory nerve and consists of neurons with differing roles in auditory processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypotheses that ABI users are less able than CI users to access speech spectro-temporal information delivered by the existing strategies and that the sites stimulated by different locations of CI and ABI electrode arrays differ in encoding of temporal patterns in the stimulation. Six CI users and four ABI users of Nucleus implants with ACE processing strategy participated in this study. Closed-set perception of aCa syllables (16 consonants) and bVd words (11 vowels) was evaluated via experimental processing strategies that activated one, two, or four of the electrodes of the array in a CIS manner as well as subjects' clinical strategies. Three single-channel strategies presented the overall temporal envelope variations of the signal on a single-implant electrode located at the high-, medium-, and low-frequency regions of the array. Implantees' ability to discriminate within electrode temporal patterns of stimulation for phoneme perception and their ability to make use of spectral information presented by increased number of active electrodes were assessed in the single- and multiple-channel strategies, respectively. Overall percentages and information transmission of phonetic features were obtained for each experimental program. Phoneme perception performance of three ABI users was within the range of CI users in most of the experimental strategies and improved as the number of active electrodes increased. One ABI user performed close to chance with all the single and multiple electrode strategies. There was no significant difference between apical, basal, and middle CI electrodes in transmitting speech

  13. Auditory processing in high-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie R DePape

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a pervasive developmental disorder including abnormalities in perceptual processing. We measure perception in a battery of tests across speech (filtering, phoneme categorization, multisensory integration and music (pitch memory, meter categorization, harmonic priming. We found that compared to controls, the ASD group showed poorer filtering, less audio-visual integration, less specialization for native phonemic and metrical categories, and a higher instance of absolute pitch. No group differences were found in harmonic priming. Our results are discussed in a developmental framework where culture-specific knowledge acquired early compared to late in development is most impaired, perhaps because of early-accelerated brain growth in ASD. These results suggest that early auditory remediation is needed for good communication and social functioning.

  14. Relationship between central auditory processing and reading skills: preliminary observations in Hebrew speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationships between central auditory processing (CAP) of sinusoidally modulated speech-like and non-speech acoustic signals and reading skills in shallow (pointed) and deep (unpointed) Hebrew orthographies. Twenty unselected fifth-grade Hebrew speakers performed a rate change detection (RCD) task using the aforementioned acoustic signals. They also performed reading and general ability (IQ) tests. After controlling for general ability, RCD tasks contributed a significant unique variance to the decoding skills. In addition, there was a fairly strong correlation between the score on the RCD with the speech-like stimuli and the unpointed text reading score. CAP abilities may affect reading skills, depending on the nature of orthography (deep vs shallow), at least in the Hebrew language.

  15. The influence of semantic top-down processing in auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daalman, Kirstin; Verkooijen, Sanne; Derks, Eske M; Aleman, André; Sommer, Iris E C

    2012-08-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are one of the most prominent symptoms of schizophrenia but have also been reported in the general population. Several cognitive models have tried to elucidate the mechanism behind auditory verbal hallucinations, among which a top-down model. According to this model, perception is biased towards top-down information (e.g., expectations), reducing the influence of bottom-up information coming from the sense organs. This bias predisposes to false perceptions, i.e., hallucinations. The current study investigated this hypothesis in non-psychotic individuals with frequent AVH, psychotic patients with AVH and healthy control subjects by applying a semantic top-down task. In this task, top-down processes are manipulated through the semantic context of a sentence. In addition, the association between hallucination proneness and semantic top-down errors was investigated. Non-psychotic individuals with AVH made significantly more top-down errors compared to healthy controls, while overall accuracy was similar. The number of top-down errors, corrected for overall accuracy, in the patient group was in between those of the other two groups and did not differ significantly from either the non-psychotic individuals with AVH or the healthy controls. The severity of hallucination proneness correlated with the number of top-down errors. These findings confirm that non-psychotic individuals with AVH are stronger influenced by top-down processing (i.e., perceptual expectations) than healthy controls. In contrast, our data suggest that in psychotic patients semantic expectations do not play a role in the etiology of AVH. This finding may point towards different cognitive mechanisms for pathological and nonpathological hallucinations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of mild-to-moderate hearing loss on auditory and emotion processing networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima T Husain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of hearing loss on emotional processing using task- and rest-based functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two age-matched groups of middle-aged participants were recruited: one with bilateral high-frequency hearing loss (HL and a control group with normal hearing (NH. During the task-based portion of the experiment, participants were instructed to rate affective stimuli from the International Affective Digital Sounds database as pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral. In the resting state experiment, participants were told to fixate on a '+' sign on a screen for five minutes. The results of both the task-based and resting state studies suggest that NH and HL patients differ in their emotional response. Specifically, in the task-based study, we found slower response to affective but not neutral sounds by the HL group compared to the NH group. This was reflected in the brain activation patterns, with the NH group employing the expected limbic and auditory regions including the left amygdala, left parahippocampus, right middle temporal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus to a greater extent in processing affective stimuli when compared to the HL group. In the resting state study, we observed no significant differences in connectivity of the auditory network between the groups. In the dorsal attention network, HL patients exhibited decreased connectivity between seed regions and left insula and left postcentral gyrus compared to controls. The default mode network was also altered, showing increased connectivity between seeds and left middle frontal gyrus in the HL group. Further targeted analysis revealed increased intrinsic connectivity between the right middle temporal gyrus and the right precentral gyrus. The results from both studies suggest neuronal reorganization as a consequence of hearing loss, most notably in networks responding to emotional sounds.

  17. Subjective loudness and reality of auditory verbal hallucinations and activation of the inner speech processing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercammen, Ans; Knegtering, Henderikus; Bruggeman, Richard; Aleman, André

    2011-09-01

    One of the most influential cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) suggests that a failure to adequately monitor the production of one's own inner speech leads to verbal thought being misidentified as an alien voice. However, it is unclear whether this theory can explain the phenomenological complexity of AVH. We aimed to assess whether subjective perceptual and experiential characteristics may be linked to neural activation in the inner speech processing network. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia and AVH underwent a 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, while performing a metrical stress evaluation task, which has been shown to activate both inner speech production and perception regions. Regions of interest (ROIs) comprising the putative inner speech network were defined using the Anatomical Automatic Labeling system. Correlations were calculated between scores on the "loudness" and "reality" subscales of the Auditory Hallucination Rating Scale (AHRS) and activation in these ROIs. Second, the AHRS subscales, and general AVH severity, indexed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, were correlated with a language lateralization index. Louder AVH were associated with reduced task-related activity in bilateral angular gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, left insula, and left temporal cortex. This could potentially be due to a competition for shared neural resources. Reality on the other hand was found to be associated with reduced language lateralization. Strong activation of the inner speech processing network may contribute to the subjective loudness of AVH. However, a relatively increased contribution from right hemisphere language areas may be responsible for the more complex experiential characteristics, such as the nonself source or how real AVH are.

  18. Plasticity in bilateral superior temporal cortex: Effects of deafness and cochlear implantation on auditory and visual speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carly A; Lazard, Diane S; Hartley, Douglas E H

    2017-01-01

    While many individuals can benefit substantially from cochlear implantation, the ability to perceive and understand auditory speech with a cochlear implant (CI) remains highly variable amongst adult recipients. Importantly, auditory performance with a CI cannot be reliably predicted based solely on routinely obtained information regarding clinical characteristics of the CI candidate. This review argues that central factors, notably cortical function and plasticity, should also be considered as important contributors to the observed individual variability in CI outcome. Superior temporal cortex (STC), including auditory association areas, plays a crucial role in the processing of auditory and visual speech information. The current review considers evidence of cortical plasticity within bilateral STC, and how these effects may explain variability in CI outcome. Furthermore, evidence of audio-visual interactions in temporal and occipital cortices is examined, and relation to CI outcome is discussed. To date, longitudinal examination of changes in cortical function and plasticity over the period of rehabilitation with a CI has been restricted by methodological challenges. The application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in studying cortical function in CI users is becoming increasingly recognised as a potential solution to these problems. Here we suggest that fNIRS offers a powerful neuroimaging tool to elucidate the relationship between audio-visual interactions, cortical plasticity during deafness and following cochlear implantation, and individual variability in auditory performance with a CI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Contribution of bioanthropology to the reconstruction of prehistoric productive processes. The external auditory exostoses in the prehispanic population of Gran Canaria

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Vázquez, Javier; Martín Rodríguez, Ernesto; González Reimers, Emilio; Arnay de la Rosa, Matilde; Betancor Rodríguez, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is an approach to the role of bioanthropological studies in the reconstruction of the productive processes of past societies. This objective is obtained starting from the survey and valuation of the prevalence of bone exostoses in the auditory canal among the prehistoric inhabitants of Gran Canaria. The auditory exostose is a bone wound well documented through clinical and experimental studies, closely related to the exposure of the auditory canal to cold water. The esti...

  20. Independent or integrated processing of interaural time and level differences in human auditory cortex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Christian F; Terada, Satoshi; Kashino, Makio; Goto, Kazuhiro; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Furukawa, Shigeto

    2014-06-01

    Sound localization in the horizontal plane is mainly determined by interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD). Both cues result in an estimate of sound source location and in many real-life situations these two cues are roughly congruent. When stimulating listeners with headphones it is possible to counterbalance the two cues, so called ITD/ILD trading. This phenomenon speaks for integrated ITD/ILD processing at the behavioral level. However, it is unclear at what stages of the auditory processing stream ITD and ILD cues are integrated to provide a unified percept of sound lateralization. Therefore, we set out to test with human electroencephalography for integrated versus independent ITD/ILD processing at the level of preattentive cortical processing by measuring the mismatch negativity (MMN) to changes in sound lateralization. We presented a series of diotic standards (perceived at a midline position) that were interrupted by deviants that entailed either a change in a) ITD only, b) ILD only, c) congruent ITD and ILD, or d) counterbalanced ITD/ILD (ITD/ILD trading). The sound stimuli were either i) pure tones with a frequency of 500 Hz, or ii) amplitude modulated tones with a carrier frequency of 4000 Hz and a modulation frequency of 125 Hz. We observed significant MMN for the ITD/ILD traded deviants in case of the 500 Hz pure tones, and for the 4000 Hz amplitude-modulated tone. This speaks for independent processing of ITD and ILD at the level of the MMN within auditory cortex. However, the combined ITD/ILD cues elicited smaller MMN than the sum of the MMN induced in response to ITD and ILD cues presented in isolation for 500 Hz, but not 4000 Hz, suggesting independent processing for the higher frequency only. Thus, the two markers for independent processing - additivity and cue-conflict - resulted in contradicting conclusions with a dissociation between the lower (500 Hz) and higher frequency (4000 Hz) bands. Copyright © 2014

  1. Assessment of auditory sensory processing in a neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia-Gating of auditory-evoked potentials and prepulse inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Oranje, Bob; Yding, Birte

    2010-01-01

    of sensory information processing seen in schizophrenia patients, can be assessed by highly homologues methods in both humans and rodents, evident by the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory startle response and the P50 (termed P1 here) suppression paradigms. Treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist...... (AEP), specifically by an increased P1 amplitude and reduced P2 (P200 in humans) gating. However, the treatment neither disrupted normal P1 gating nor reduced N1 (N100 in humans) amplitude, representing two phenomena that are usually found to be disturbed in schizophrenia. In conclusion, the current...... findings confirm measures of early information processing to show high resemblance between rodents and humans, and indicate that early postnatal PCP-treated rats show deficits in pre-attentional processing, which are distinct from those observed in schizophrenia patients....

  2. Neural Correlates of Temporal Auditory Processing in Developmental Dyslexia during German Vowel Length Discrimination: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrink, Claudia; Groth, Katarina; Lachmann, Thomas; Riecker, Axel

    2012-01-01

    This fMRI study investigated phonological vs. auditory temporal processing in developmental dyslexia by means of a German vowel length discrimination paradigm (Groth, Lachmann, Riecker, Muthmann, & Steinbrink, 2011). Behavioral and fMRI data were collected from dyslexics and controls while performing same-different judgments of vowel duration in…

  3. Basic Auditory Processing Deficits in Dyslexia: Systematic Review of the Behavioral and Event-Related Potential/Field Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A.; Salminen, Hanne K.; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2013-01-01

    A review of research that uses behavioral, electroencephalographic, and/or magnetoencephalographic methods to investigate auditory processing deficits in individuals with dyslexia is presented. Findings show that measures of frequency, rise time, and duration discrimination as well as amplitude modulation and frequency modulation detection were…

  4. Hearing, Auditory Processing, and Language Skills of Male Youth Offenders and Remandees in Youth Justice Residences in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lount, Sarah A.; Purdy, Suzanne C.; Hand, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: International evidence suggests youth offenders have greater difficulties with oral language than their nonoffending peers. This study examined the hearing, auditory processing, and language skills of male youth offenders and remandees (YORs) in New Zealand. Method: Thirty-three male YORs, aged 14-17 years, were recruited from 2 youth…

  5. Psychometric evaluation of children with auditory processing disorder (APD): comparison with normal-hearing and clinical non-APD groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadou, Vasiliki; Bamiou, Doris Eva

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the clinical utility of the Children's Auditory Processing Performance Scale (CHAPPS; Smoski, Brunt, & Tannahill, 1992) to evaluate listening ability in 12-year-old children referred for auditory processing assessment. This was a prospective case control study of 97 children (age range = 11;4 [years;months] to 12;7). Auditory processing disorder (APD) was diagnosed based on findings of deficits on at least 1 nonverbal test and on at least 2 tests of an auditory processing test battery. Clinically referred children were grouped as APD (n = 38) or non-APD (n = 20). The study found that (a) the APD group performed lower than the non-APD group on the Quiet, Ideal, Memory (p hearing on the Noise, Multiple Inputs, and Attention subscales (p .04) between Dichotic Digits, Duration Pattern tests, and the CHAPPS Attention, Memory, and total scores. The CHAPPS may be a clinically useful tool to evaluate listening ability in 12-year-old children suspected of having APD. Restricting use of the CHAPPS to older children may help address its limitations as reported by other studies.

  6. Communication, Listening, Cognitive and Speech Perception Skills in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Melanie A.; Hall, Rebecca L.; Riley, Alison; Moore, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Parental reports of communication, listening, and behavior in children receiving a clinical diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) or auditory processing disorder (APD) were compared with direct tests of intelligence, memory, language, phonology, literacy, and speech intelligibility. The primary aim was to identify whether there…

  7. Auditory Processing and Speech Perception in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Relations with Oral Language and Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated temporal auditory processing (frequency modulation and between-channel gap detection) and speech perception (speech-in-noise and categorical perception) in three groups of 6 years 3 months to 6 years 8 months-old children attending grade 1: (1) children with specific language impairment (SLI) and literacy delay…

  8. Auditory Processing Disorder in Relation to Developmental Disorders of Language, Communication and Attention: A Review and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Piers; Bishop, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    Background: Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) does not feature in mainstream diagnostic classifications such as the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition" (DSM-IV), but is frequently diagnosed in the United States, Australia and New Zealand, and is becoming more frequently diagnosed in the United Kingdom. Aims: To…

  9. Modulation spectra of natural sounds and ethological theories of auditory processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nandini C.; Theunissen, Frédéric E.

    2003-12-01

    The modulation statistics of natural sound ensembles were analyzed by calculating the probability distributions of the amplitude envelope of the sounds and their time-frequency correlations given by the modulation spectra. These modulation spectra were obtained by calculating the two-dimensional Fourier transform of the autocorrelation matrix of the sound stimulus in its spectrographic representation. Since temporal bandwidth and spectral bandwidth are conjugate variables, it is shown that the joint modulation spectrum of sound occupies a restricted space: sounds cannot have rapid temporal and spectral modulations simultaneously. Within this restricted space, it is shown that natural sounds have a characteristic signature. Natural sounds, in general, are low-passed, showing most of their modulation energy for low temporal and spectral modulations. Animal vocalizations and human speech are further characterized by the fact that most of the spectral modulation power is found only for low temporal modulation. Similarly, the distribution of the amplitude envelopes also exhibits characteristic shapes for natural sounds, reflecting the high probability of epochs with no sound, systematic differences across frequencies, and a relatively uniform distribution for the log of the amplitudes for vocalizations. It is postulated that the auditory system as well as engineering applications may exploit these statistical properties to obtain an efficient representation of behaviorally relevant sounds. To test such a hypothesis we show how to create synthetic sounds with first and second order envelope statistics identical to those found in natural sounds.

  10. BioMARK as electrophysiological tool for assessing children at risk for (central) auditory processing disorders without reading deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prawin; Singh, Niraj Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Biological Marker of auditory processing (BioMARK) is an electrophysiological test tool widely known as Speech-evoked ABR. Several previous investigations have shown the utility of speech-evoked ABR in the diagnosis of language based processing deficits like learning disability and specific language impairment; however missing from literature is a study that has ruled out the existence of comorbidity of such conditions and carefully delineated the efficacy of speech-evoked ABR in children with children with auditory processing disorders sans reading deficits. Hence, the present study aimed at investigating Speech-evoked ABR in children with auditory processing disorders without reading problems. A total of 336 school going children in the age range of 8-12 years were screened for presence of central auditory processing deficits. Among the 51 children who were identified as at risk, 15 were randomly selected and served as experimental group. The control group comprised of fifteen age matched children. The inter-group comparison was done using MANOVA, which revealed significant prolongations of latencies of waves V and A (p = 0.001) along with marginal reductions in V/A slope (p = 0.052) and amplitude of responses to first formant (p = 0.065). The responses to higher frequencies did not differ between the groups. Speech-evoked ABR are affected in children who are at risk of central auditory processing disorders sans reading deficits which probably indicates the presence of abnormal brainstem encoding of speech signal in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Relationship between Auditory Processing and Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargas, Niko; López, Beatriz; Reddy, Vasudevi; Morris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Current views suggest that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterised by enhanced low-level auditory discrimination abilities. Little is known, however, about whether enhanced abilities are universal in ASD and how they relate to symptomatology. We tested auditory discrimination for intensity, frequency and duration in 21 adults with ASD…

  12. Auditory processing in the brainstem and audiovisual integration in humans studied with fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slabu, Lavinia Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a powerful technique because of the high spatial resolution and the noninvasiveness. The applications of the fMRI to the auditory pathway remain a challenge due to the intense acoustic scanner noise of approximately 110 dB SPL. The auditory system

  13. The influence of semantic top-down processing in auditory verbal hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalman, Kirstin; Verkooijen, Sanne; Derks, Eske M.; Aleman, André; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are one of the most prominent symptoms of schizophrenia but have also been reported in the general population. Several cognitive models have tried to elucidate the mechanism behind auditory verbal hallucinations, among which a top-down model.

  14. ERP Correlates of Language-Specific Processing of Auditory Pitch Feedback during Self-Vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaocong; Liu, Peng; Wang, Emily Q.; Larson, Charles R.; Huang, Dongfeng; Liu, Hanjun

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the neural correlates for auditory feedback control of vocal pitch can be shaped by tone language experience. Event-related potentials (P2/N1) were recorded from adult native speakers of Mandarin and Cantonese who heard their voice auditory feedback shifted in pitch by -50, -100, -200, or -500 cents when they…

  15. Bilateral Capacity for Speech Sound Processing in Auditory Comprehension: Evidence from Wada Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, G.; Okada, K.; Barr, W.; Pa, J.; Rogalsky, C.; Donnelly, K.; Barde, L.; Grant, A.

    2008-01-01

    Data from lesion studies suggest that the ability to perceive speech sounds, as measured by auditory comprehension tasks, is supported by temporal lobe systems in both the left and right hemisphere. For example, patients with left temporal lobe damage and auditory comprehension deficits (i.e., Wernicke's aphasics), nonetheless comprehend isolated…

  16. The Process of Auditory Distraction: Disrupted Attention and Impaired Recall in a Simulated Lecture Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeamer, Charlotte; Fox Tree, Jean E.

    2013-01-01

    Literature on auditory distraction has generally focused on the effects of particular kinds of sounds on attention to target stimuli. In support of extensive previous findings that have demonstrated the special role of language as an auditory distractor, we found that a concurrent speech stream impaired recall of a short lecture, especially for…

  17. Dynamic oscillatory processes governing cued orienting and allocation of auditory attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahveninen, Jyrki; Huang, Samantha; Belliveau, John W.; Chang, Wei-Tang; Hämäläinen, Matti

    2013-01-01

    In everyday listening situations, we need to constantly switch between alternative sound sources and engage attention according to cues that match our goals and expectations. The exact neuronal bases of these processes are poorly understood. We investigated oscillatory brain networks controlling auditory attention using cortically constrained fMRI-weighted magnetoencephalography/ electroencephalography (MEG/EEG) source estimates. During consecutive trials, subjects were instructed to shift attention based on a cue, presented in the ear where a target was likely to follow. To promote audiospatial attention effects, the targets were embedded in streams of dichotically presented standard tones. Occasionally, an unexpected novel sound occurred opposite to the cued ear, to trigger involuntary orienting. According to our cortical power correlation analyses, increased frontoparietal/temporal 30–100 Hz gamma activity at 200–1400 ms after cued orienting predicted fast and accurate discrimination of subsequent targets. This sustained correlation effect, possibly reflecting voluntary engagement of attention after the initial cue-driven orienting, spread from the temporoparietal junction, anterior insula, and inferior frontal (IFC) cortices to the right frontal eye fields. Engagement of attention to one ear resulted in a significantly stronger increase of 7.5–15 Hz alpha in the ipsilateral than contralateral parieto-occipital cortices 200–600 ms after the cue onset, possibly reflecting crossmodal modulation of the dorsal visual pathway during audiospatial attention. Comparisons of cortical power patterns also revealed significant increases of sustained right medial frontal cortex theta power, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior insula/IFC beta power, and medial parietal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex gamma activity after cued vs. novelty-triggered orienting (600–1400 ms). Our results reveal sustained oscillatory patterns associated with voluntary

  18. Frequency processing at consecutive levels in the auditory system of bush crickets (tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Tim Daniel; Stumpner, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    We asked how processing of male signals in the auditory pathway of the bush cricket Ancistrura nigrovittata (Phaneropterinae, Tettigoniidae) changes from the ear to the brain. From 37 sensory neurons in the crista acustica single elements (cells 8 or 9) have frequency tuning corresponding closely to the behavioral tuning of the females. Nevertheless, one-quarter of sensory neurons (approximately cells 9 to 18) excite the ascending neuron 1 (AN1), which is best tuned to the male's song carrier frequency. AN1 receives frequency-dependent inhibition, reducing sensitivity especially in the ultrasound. When recorded in the brain, AN1 shows slightly lower overall activity than when recorded in the prothoracic ganglion close to the spike-generating zone. This difference is significant in the ultrasonic range. The first identified local brain neuron in a bush cricket (LBN1) is described. Its dendrites overlap with some of AN1-terminations in the brain. Its frequency tuning and intensity dependence strongly suggest a direct postsynaptic connection to AN1. Spiking in LBN1 is only elicited after summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by individual AN1-action potentials. This serves a filtering mechanism that reduces the sensitivity of LBN1 and also its responsiveness to ultrasound as compared to AN1. Consequently, spike latencies of LBN1 are long (>30 ms) despite its being a second-order interneuron. Additionally, LBN1 receives frequency-specific inhibition, most likely further reducing its responses to ultrasound. This demonstrates that frequency-specific inhibition is redundant in two directly connected interneurons on subsequent levels in the auditory system. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. On Diagnostic Accuracy in Audiology: Central Site of Lesion and Central Auditory Processing Disorder Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermiglio, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    In the field of audiology a test protocol (index test) is used to determine the presence or absence of a target condition. The value of an index test rests in its diagnostic accuracy. Results from an index test must be verified through the use of a reference standard. The clinician and researcher should determine the quality and applicability of diagnostic accuracy studies. The Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement was published in response to the low quality of research conducted across many fields of study. It provides guidelines for the development and interpretation of diagnostic accuracy studies. The primary purpose of this article is to assess the degree to which the main principles of diagnostic accuracy studies are used for the detection of central auditory nervous system lesions and a central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The secondary purpose is to compare the design of these studies to select key guidelines from the STARD statement. The third purpose of this article is to present an argument against the reassignment of diagnostic accuracy values of a particular index test for one target condition (e.g., a central site of lesion) to a different target condition (e.g., a CAPD). A review of diagnostic accuracy literature on the detection of a central site of lesion reveals the use of a reference standard for the independent verification of the index test results. However, diagnostic accuracy studies involving index tests for the detection of a CAPD show that independent verification of index test results is nonexistent or at best questionable. For a particular index test, while the diagnostic accuracy for detection of a central site of lesion may have been determined appropriately, it is inappropriate to reassign these diagnostic accuracy values to a different diagnostic target such as a CAPD. American Academy of Audiology.

  20. Haptic and visual information speed up the neural processing of auditory speech in live dyadic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treille, Avril; Cordeboeuf, Camille; Vilain, Coriandre; Sato, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Speech can be perceived not only by the ear and by the eye but also by the hand, with speech gestures felt from manual tactile contact with the speaker׳s face. In the present electro-encephalographic study, early cross-modal interactions were investigated by comparing auditory evoked potentials during auditory, audio-visual and audio-haptic speech perception in dyadic interactions between a listener and a speaker. In line with previous studies, early auditory evoked responses were attenuated and speeded up during audio-visual compared to auditory speech perception. Crucially, shortened latencies of early auditory evoked potentials were also observed during audio-haptic speech perception. Altogether, these results suggest early bimodal interactions during live face-to-face and hand-to-face speech perception in dyadic interactions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Rhythmic auditory stimulation influences syntactic processing in children with developmental language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Lauranne; Bedoin, Nathalie; Krifi-Papoz, Sonia; Herbillon, Vania; Roch, Didier; Léculier, Laure; Kotz, Sonja A; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be impaired not only in language processing (including syntax), but also in rhythm and meter perception. Our study tested the influence of external rhythmic auditory stimulation (i.e., musical rhythm) on syntax processing in children with specific language impairment (SLI; Experiment 1A) and dyslexia (Experiment 1B). Children listened to either regular or irregular musical prime sequences followed by blocks of grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Performance of all children (SLI, dyslexia, and controls) in the grammaticality judgments was better after regular prime sequences than after irregular prime sequences, as shown by d' data. The benefit of the regular prime was stronger for SLI children (partial η2 = .34) than for dyslexic children (partial η2 = .14), who reached higher performance levels. Together with previous findings on deficits in temporal processing and sequencing, as well as with the recent proposition of a temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (U. A. Goswami, 2011, Temporal sampling framework for developmental dyslexia, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 15, pp. 3-10), our results point to potential avenues in using rhythmic structures (even in nonverbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing.

  2. Auditory processing following infantile spasms: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosi, Tangunu; Werner, Klaus; Boyd, Stewart G; De Haan, Michelle; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G

    2017-05-01

    To investigate acoustic auditory processing in patients with recent infantile spasms (IS). Patients (n = 22; 12 female; median age 8 months; range 5-11 months) had normal preceding development, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neurometabolic testing (West syndrome of unknown cause, uWS). Controls were healthy babies (n = 22; 11 female; median age 6 months; range 3-12 months). Event-related potentials (ERPs) and psychometry (Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, BSID-II) took place at a month following IS remission. Following a repeated pure tone, uWS patients showed less suppression of the N100 at the mid-temporal electrodes (p = 0.006), and a prolonged response latency (p = 0.019). Their novelty P300 amplitude over the mid-temporal electrodes was halved (p = 0.001). The peak of the novelty P300 to environmental broadband sounds emerged later over the left temporal lobe in patients (p = 0.015), the lag correlating with duration of spasms (r = 0.547, p = 0.015). BSID-II scores were lower in patients (p < 0.001), with no correlation to ERP. Complex acoustic information is processed poorly following IS. This would impair language. Treatment did not reverse this phenomenon, but may have limited its severity. The data are most consistent with altered connectivity of the cortical acoustic processing areas induced by IS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Evidence for distinct human auditory cortex regions for sound location versus identity processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahveninen, Jyrki; Huang, Samantha; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Belliveau, John W; Hung, An-Yi; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Rauschecker, Josef P; Rossi, Stephanie; Tiitinen, Hannu; Raij, Tommi

    2013-01-01

    Neurophysiological animal models suggest that anterior auditory cortex (AC) areas process sound identity information, whereas posterior ACs specialize in sound location processing. In humans, inconsistent neuroimaging results and insufficient causal evidence have challenged the existence of such parallel AC organization. Here we transiently inhibit bilateral anterior or posterior AC areas using MRI-guided paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while subjects listen to Reference/Probe sound pairs and perform either sound location or identity discrimination tasks. The targeting of TMS pulses, delivered 55-145 ms after Probes, is confirmed with individual-level cortical electric-field estimates. Our data show that TMS to posterior AC regions delays reaction times (RT) significantly more during sound location than identity discrimination, whereas TMS to anterior AC regions delays RTs significantly more during sound identity than location discrimination. This double dissociation provides direct causal support for parallel processing of sound identity features in anterior AC and sound location in posterior AC.

  4. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...... auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display....

  5. Statistical learning and auditory processing in children with music training: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandikal Vasuki, Pragati Rao; Sharma, Mridula; Ibrahim, Ronny; Arciuli, Joanne

    2017-07-01

    The question whether musical training is associated with enhanced auditory and cognitive abilities in children is of considerable interest. In the present study, we compared children with music training versus those without music training across a range of auditory and cognitive measures, including the ability to detect implicitly statistical regularities in input (statistical learning). Statistical learning of regularities embedded in auditory and visual stimuli was measured in musically trained and age-matched untrained children between the ages of 9-11years. In addition to collecting behavioural measures, we recorded electrophysiological measures to obtain an online measure of segmentation during the statistical learning tasks. Musically trained children showed better performance on melody discrimination, rhythm discrimination, frequency discrimination, and auditory statistical learning. Furthermore, grand-averaged ERPs showed that triplet onset (initial stimulus) elicited larger responses in the musically trained children during both auditory and visual statistical learning tasks. In addition, children's music skills were associated with performance on auditory and visual behavioural statistical learning tasks. Our data suggests that individual differences in musical skills are associated with children's ability to detect regularities. The ERP data suggest that musical training is associated with better encoding of both auditory and visual stimuli. Although causality must be explored in further research, these results may have implications for developing music-based remediation strategies for children with learning impairments. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Shared and Divergent Auditory and Tactile Processing in Children with Autism and Children with Sensory Processing Dysfunction Relative to Typically Developing Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Carly; Brandes-Aitken, Annie N; Desai, Shivani S; Hill, Susanna S; Antovich, Ashley D; Harris, Julia; Marco, Elysa J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare sensory processing in typically developing children (TDC), children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and those with sensory processing dysfunction (SPD) in the absence of an ASD. Performance-based measures of auditory and tactile processing were compared between male children ages 8-12 years assigned to an ASD (N=20), SPD (N=15), or TDC group (N=19). Both the SPD and ASD groups were impaired relative to the TDC group on a performance-based measure of tactile processing (right-handed graphesthesia). In contrast, only the ASD group showed significant impairment on an auditory processing index assessing dichotic listening, temporal patterning, and auditory discrimination. Furthermore, this impaired auditory processing was associated with parent-rated communication skills for both the ASD group and the combined study sample. No significant group differences were detected on measures of left-handed graphesthesia, tactile sensitivity, or form discrimination; however, more participants in the SPD group demonstrated a higher tactile detection threshold (60%) compared to the TDC (26.7%) and ASD groups (35%). This study provides support for use of performance-based measures in the assessment of children with ASD and SPD and highlights the need to better understand how sensory processing affects the higher order cognitive abilities associated with ASD, such as verbal and non-verbal communication, regardless of diagnostic classification.

  7. The auditory cortex hosts network nodes influential for emotion processing: An fMRI study on music-evoked fear and joy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Skouras, Stavros; Lohmann, Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    Sound is a potent elicitor of emotions. Auditory core, belt and parabelt regions have anatomical connections to a large array of limbic and paralimbic structures which are involved in the generation of affective activity. However, little is known about the functional role of auditory cortical regions in emotion processing. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and music stimuli that evoke joy or fear, our study reveals that anterior and posterior regions of auditory association cortex have emotion-characteristic functional connectivity with limbic/paralimbic (insula, cingulate cortex, and striatum), somatosensory, visual, motor-related, and attentional structures. We found that these regions have remarkably high emotion-characteristic eigenvector centrality, revealing that they have influential positions within emotion-processing brain networks with "small-world" properties. By contrast, primary auditory fields showed surprisingly strong emotion-characteristic functional connectivity with intra-auditory regions. Our findings demonstrate that the auditory cortex hosts regions that are influential within networks underlying the affective processing of auditory information. We anticipate our results to incite research specifying the role of the auditory cortex-and sensory systems in general-in emotion processing, beyond the traditional view that sensory cortices have merely perceptual functions.

  8. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eBigand

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, it has been argued that 1 music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and 2 that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds.

  9. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds.

  10. Lateralization of Music Processing with Noises in the Auditory Cortex: An fNIRS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik eSantosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is to determine the effects of background noise on the hemispheric lateralization in music processing by exposing fourteen subjects to four different auditory environments: music segments only, noise segments only, music+noise segments, and the entire music interfered by noise segments. The hemodynamic responses in both hemispheres caused by the perception of music in 10 different conditions were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. As a feature to distinguish stimulus-evoked hemodynamics, the difference between the mean and the minimum value of the hemodynamic response for a given stimulus was used. The right-hemispheric lateralization in music processing was about 75% (instead of continuous music, only music segments were heard. If the stimuli were only noises, the lateralization was about 65%. But, if the music was mixed with noises, the right-hemispheric lateralization has increased. Particularly, if the noise was a little bit lower than the music (i.e., music level 10~15%, noise level 10%, the entire subjects showed the right-hemispheric lateralization: This is due to the subjects’ effort to hear the music in the presence of noises. However, too much noise has reduced the subjects’ discerning efforts.

  11. Interhemispheric connectivity influences the degree of modulation of TMS-induced effects during auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila eAndoh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive TMS (rTMS has been shown to interfere with many components of language processing, including semantic, syntactic and phonologic. However, not much is known about its effects on primary auditory processing, especially its action on Heschl’s gyrus (HG. We aimed to investigate the behavioural and neural basis of rTMS during a melody processing task, while targeting the left HG, the right HG and the Vertex as a control site. Response Times (RT were normalized relative to the baseline-rTMS (Vertex and expressed as percentage change from baseline (%RT change. We also looked at sex differences in rTMS-induced response as well as in functional connectivity during melody processing using rTMS and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI.Functional MRI results showed an increase in the right HG compared with the left HG during the melody task, as well as sex differences in functional connectivity indicating a greater interhemispheric connectivity between left and right HG in females compared with males. TMS results showed that 10Hz-rTMS targeting the right HG induced differential effects according to sex, with a facilitation of performance in females and an impairment of performance in males. We also found a differential correlation between the %RT change after 10Hz-rTMS targeting the right HG and the interhemispheric functional connectivity between right and left HG, indicating that an increase in interhemispheric functional connectivity was associated with a facilitation of performance. This is the first study to report a differential rTMS-induced interference with melody processing depending on sex. In addition, we showed a relationship between the interference induced by rTMS on behavioral performance and the neural activity in the network connecting left and right HG, suggesting that the interhemispheric functional connectivity could determine the degree of modulation of behavioral performance.

  12. Auditory-prosodic processing in bipolar disorder; from sensory perception to emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Rossell, Susan L

    2013-12-01

    Accurate emotion processing is critical to understanding the social world. Despite growing evidence of facial emotion processing impairments in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), comprehensive investigations of emotional prosodic processing is limited. The existing (albeit sparse) literature is inconsistent at best, and confounded by failures to control for the effects of gender or low level sensory-perceptual impairments. The present study sought to address this paucity of research by utilizing a novel behavioural battery to comprehensively investigate the auditory-prosodic profile of BD. Fifty BD patients and 52 healthy controls completed tasks assessing emotional and linguistic prosody, and sensitivity for discriminating tones that deviate in amplitude, duration and pitch. BD patients were less sensitive than their control counterparts in discriminating amplitude and durational cues but not pitch cues or linguistic prosody. They also demonstrated impaired ability to recognize happy intonations; although this was specific to male's with the disorder. The recognition of happy in the patient group was correlated with pitch and amplitude sensitivity in female patients only. The small sample size of patients after stratification by current mood state prevented us from conducting subgroup comparisons between symptomatic, euthymic and control participants to explicitly examine the effects of mood. Our findings indicate the existence of a female advantage for the processing of emotional prosody in BD, specifically for the processing of happy. Although male BD patients were impaired in their ability to recognize happy prosody, this was unrelated to reduced tone discrimination sensitivity. This study indicates the importance of examining both gender and low order sensory perceptual capacity when examining emotional prosody. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid Prototyping of wax foundry models in an incremental process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kozik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis incremental methods of creating wax founding models. There are two methods of Rapid Prototypingof wax models in an incremental process which are more and more often used in industrial practice and in scientific research.Applying Rapid Prototyping methods in the process of making casts allows for acceleration of work on preparing prototypes. It isespecially important in case of element having complicated shapes. The time of making a wax model depending on the size and the appliedRP method may vary from several to a few dozen hours.

  14. Auditory object salience: Human cortical processing of non-biological action sounds and their acoustic signal attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Lewis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether viewed or heard, an object in action can be segmented from a background scene based on a number of different sensory cues. In the visual system, salient low-level attributes of an image are processed along parallel hierarchies, and involve intermediate stages, such as the lateral occipital cortices, wherein gross-level object form features are extracted prior to stages that show object specificity (e.g. for faces, buildings, or tools. In the auditory system, though relying on a rather different set of low-level signal attributes, a distinct acoustic event or auditory object can also be readily extracted from a background acoustic scene. However, it remains unclear whether cortical processing strategies used by the auditory system similarly extract gross-level aspects of acoustic object form that may be inherent to many real-world sounds. Examining mechanical and environmental action sounds, representing two distinct categories of non-biological and non-vocalization sounds, we had participants assess the degree to which each sound was perceived as a distinct object versus an acoustic scene. Using two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI task paradigms, we revealed bilateral foci along the superior temporal gyri (STG showing sensitivity to the object-ness ratings of action sounds, independent of the category of sound and independent of task demands. Moreover, for both categories of sounds these regions also showed parametric sensitivity to spectral structure variations—a measure of change in entropy in the acoustic signals over time (acoustic form—while only the environmental sounds showed parametric sensitivity to mean entropy measures. Thus, similar to the visual system, the auditory system appears to include intermediate feature extraction stages that are sensitive to the acoustic form of action sounds, and may serve as a stage that begins to dissociate different categories of real-world auditory objects.

  15. Neural sensitivity to statistical regularities as a fundamental biological process that underlies auditory learning: the role of musical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Schön, Daniele

    2014-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that humans and other nonhuman mammals are sensitive to the statistical structure of auditory input. Indeed, neural sensitivity to statistical regularities seems to be a fundamental biological property underlying auditory learning. In the case of speech, statistical regularities play a crucial role in the acquisition of several linguistic features, from phonotactic to more complex rules such as morphosyntactic rules. Interestingly, a similar sensitivity has been shown with non-speech streams: sequences of sounds changing in frequency or timbre can be segmented on the sole basis of conditional probabilities between adjacent sounds. We recently ran a set of cross-sectional and longitudinal experiments showing that merging music and speech information in song facilitates stream segmentation and, further, that musical practice enhances sensitivity to statistical regularities in speech at both neural and behavioral levels. Based on recent findings showing the involvement of a fronto-temporal network in speech segmentation, we defend the idea that enhanced auditory learning observed in musicians originates via at least three distinct pathways: enhanced low-level auditory processing, enhanced phono-articulatory mapping via the left Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Pre-Motor cortex and increased functional connectivity within the audio-motor network. Finally, we discuss how these data predict a beneficial use of music for optimizing speech acquisition in both normal and impaired populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dysfunctional information processing during an auditory event-related potential task in individuals with Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M; Choi, J-S; Park, S M; Lee, J-Y; Jung, H Y; Sohn, B K; Kim, S N; Kim, D J; Kwon, J S

    2016-01-26

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) leading to serious impairments in cognitive, psychological and social functions has gradually been increasing. However, very few studies conducted to date have addressed issues related to the event-related potential (ERP) patterns in IGD. Identifying the neurobiological characteristics of IGD is important to elucidate the pathophysiology of this condition. P300 is a useful ERP component for investigating electrophysiological features of the brain. The aims of the present study were to investigate differences between patients with IGD and healthy controls (HCs), with regard to the P300 component of the ERP during an auditory oddball task, and to examine the relationship of this component to the severity of IGD symptoms in identifying the relevant neurophysiological features of IGD. Twenty-six patients diagnosed with IGD and 23 age-, sex-, education- and intelligence quotient-matched HCs participated in this study. During an auditory oddball task, participants had to respond to the rare, deviant tones presented in a sequence of frequent, standard tones. The IGD group exhibited a significant reduction in response to deviant tones compared with the HC group in the P300 amplitudes at the midline centro-parietal electrode regions. We also found a negative correlation between the severity of IGD and P300 amplitudes. The reduced amplitude of the P300 component in an auditory oddball task may reflect dysfunction in auditory information processing and cognitive capabilities in IGD. These findings suggest that reduced P300 amplitudes may be candidate neurobiological marker for IGD.

  17. Event-related delta, theta, alpha and gamma correlates to auditory oddball processing during Vipassana meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Arnaud; Polich, John

    2013-01-01

    Long-term Vipassana meditators sat in meditation vs. a control (instructed mind wandering) states for 25 min, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and condition order counterbalanced. For the last 4 min, a three-stimulus auditory oddball series was presented during both meditation and control periods through headphones and no task imposed. Time-frequency analysis demonstrated that meditation relative to the control condition evinced decreased evoked delta (2–4 Hz) power to distracter stimuli concomitantly with a greater event-related reduction of late (500–900 ms) alpha-1 (8–10 Hz) activity, which indexed altered dynamics of attentional engagement to distracters. Additionally, standard stimuli were associated with increased early event-related alpha phase synchrony (inter-trial coherence) and evoked theta (4–8 Hz) phase synchrony, suggesting enhanced processing of the habituated standard background stimuli. Finally, during meditation, there was a greater differential early-evoked gamma power to the different stimulus classes. Correlation analysis indicated that this effect stemmed from a meditation state-related increase in early distracter-evoked gamma power and phase synchrony specific to longer-term expert practitioners. The findings suggest that Vipassana meditation evokes a brain state of enhanced perceptual clarity and decreased automated reactivity. PMID:22648958

  18. Pre-attentive auditory processing of non-scale pitch in absolute pitch possessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ayasa; Hara, Keiko; Watanabe, Satsuki; Matsuura, Masato; Ohta, Katsuya; Matsushima, Eisuke

    2013-08-26

    Absolute pitch (AP) refers to the ability to identify the pitch of sound without reference. To clarify the neurophysiological characteristics of AP, we compared mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by scale and non-scale notes between AP possessors and non-AP individuals. Eight individuals who were able to identify pitch with perfect accuracy were defined as AP possessors. Eighteen participants who failed to achieve perfect accuracy were included in the non-AP group. We presented participants with two tone pairs, in a scale condition and a non-scale condition. The frequency ratios of the two pairs were the same. MMN over the frontal region in the non-scale condition was larger in the AP group than the non-AP group. In contrast, no such difference was observed between the two groups in the scale condition. The results suggest that pre-attentive processing of non-scale note sounds in the auditory cortex is a salient neurophysiological characteristic of AP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural correlates of rapid spectrotemporal processing in musicians and nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaab, N; Tallal, P; Kim, H; Lakshminarayanan, K; Archie, J J; Glover, G H; Gabrieli, J D E

    2005-12-01

    Our results suggest that musical training alters the functional anatomy of rapid spectrotemporal processing, resulting in improved behavioral performance along with a more efficient functional network primarily involving traditional language regions. This finding may have important implications for improving language/reading skills, especially in children struggling with dyslexia.

  20. Avaliação do processamento auditivo na Neurofibromatose tipo 1 Auditory processing evaluation in Neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Barros Batista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo apresentar os resultados obtidos na avaliação do processamento auditivo de um paciente com Neurofibromatose tipo 1. Embora a audição periférica estivesse normal nos testes realizados, foram observadas alterações importantes no processamento auditivo em várias habilidades. Este achado, descrito pela primeira vez na neurofibromatose, pode contribuir para explicar os distúrbios cognitivos e da aprendizagem já amplamente descritos nesta enfermidade genética comum.The aim of this study was to present the results obtained in the auditory processing evaluation of a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1. Although the patient presented normal peripheral hearing, auditory processing deficits were identified in several abilities. This finding, described for the first time in neurofibromatosis, might help to explain the cognitive and learning disabilities broadly described for this common genetic disorder.

  1. Participação do cerebelo no processamento auditivo Participation of the cerebellum in auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Maria Sens

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O cerebelo era tradicionalmente visto como um órgão coordenador da motricidade, entretanto é atualmente considerado como um importante centro de integração de sensibilidades e coordenação de várias fases do processo cognitivo. OBJETIVO: é sistematizar as informações da literatura quanto à participação do cerebelo na percepção auditiva. MÉTODOS: foram selecionados na literatura trabalhos em animais sobre a fisiologia e anatomia das vias auditivas do cerebelo, além de trabalhos em humanos sobre diversas funções do cerebelo na percepção auditiva. Foram discutidos os achados da literatura, que há evidências que o cerebelo participa das seguintes funções cognitivas relacionadas à audição: geração verbal; processamento auditivo; atenção auditiva; memória auditiva; raciocínio abstrato; timing; solução de problemas; discriminação sensorial; informação sensorial; processamento da linguagem; operações lingüísticas. CONCLUSÃO: Foi constatado que são incompletas as informações sobre as estruturas, funções e vias auditivas do cerebelo.The cerebellum, traditionally conceived as a controlling organ of motricity, it is today considered an all-important integration center for both sensitivity and coordination of the various phases of the cognitive process. AIM: This paper aims at gather and sort literature information on the cerebellum’s role in the auditory perception. METHODS: We have selected animal studies of both the physiology and the anatomy of the cerebellum auditory pathway, as well as papers on humans discussing several functions of the cerebellum in auditory perception. As for the literature, it has been discussed and concluded that there is evidence that the cerebellum participates in many cognitive functions related to hearing: speech generation, auditory processing, auditory memory, abstract reasoning, timing, solution of problems, sensorial discrimination, sensorial information, language

  2. Processamento auditivo em indivíduos com epilepsia de lobo temporal Auditory processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Meneguello

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A epilepsia do lobo temporal ocasiona descargas elétricas excessivas onde a via auditiva tem sua estação final. É uma das formas mais comuns e de mais difícil controle da doença. O correto processamento dos estímulos auditivos necessita da integridade anatômica e funcional de todas as estruturas envolvidas na via auditiva. OBJETIVO: Verificar o Processamento Auditivo de pacientes portadores de epilepsia do lobo temporal quanto aos mecanismos de discriminação de sons em seqüência e de padrões tonais, discriminação da direção da fonte sonora e atenção seletiva para sons verbais e não-verbais. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados oito indivíduos com epilepsia do lobo temporal confirmada e com foco restrito a essa região, através dos testes auditivos especiais: Teste de Localização Sonora, Teste de Padrão de Duração, Teste Dicótico de Dígitos e Teste Dicótico Não-Verbal. O seu desempenho foi comparado ao de indivíduos sem alteração neurológica (estudo caso-controle. RESULTADO: Os sujeitos com epilepsia do lobo temporal apresentaram desempenho semelhante aos do grupo controle quanto ao mecanismo de discriminação da direção da fonte sonora e desempenho inferior quanto aos demais mecanismos avaliados. CONCLUSÃO: Indivíduos com epilepsia do lobo temporal apresentaram maior prejuízo no processamento auditivo que os sem danos corticais, de idades semelhantes.Temporal epilepsy, one of the most common presentation of this pathology, causes excessive electrical discharges in the area where we have the final station of the auditory pathway. Both the anatomical and functional integrity of the auditory pathway structures are essential for the correct processing of auditory stimuli. AIM: to check the Auditory Processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy regarding the auditory mechanisms of discrimination from sequential sounds and tone patterns, discrimination of the sound source direction and selective attention to verbal

  3. Functional role of delta and theta band oscillations for auditory feedback processing during vocal pitch motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Ibrahim, Nadine; Korzyukov, Oleg; Robin, Donald A; Larson, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    The answer to the question of how the brain incorporates sensory feedback and links it with motor function to achieve goal-directed movement during vocalization remains unclear. We investigated the mechanisms of voice pitch motor control by examining the spectro-temporal dynamics of EEG signals when non-musicians (NM), relative pitch (RP), and absolute pitch (AP) musicians maintained vocalizations of a vowel sound and received randomized ± 100 cents pitch-shift stimuli in their auditory feedback. We identified a phase-synchronized (evoked) fronto-central activation within the theta band (5-8 Hz) that temporally overlapped with compensatory vocal responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback and was significantly stronger in RP and AP musicians compared with non-musicians. A second component involved a non-phase-synchronized (induced) frontal activation within the delta band (1-4 Hz) that emerged at approximately 1 s after the stimulus onset. The delta activation was significantly stronger in the NM compared with RP and AP groups and correlated with the pitch rebound error (PRE), indicating the degree to which subjects failed to re-adjust their voice pitch to baseline after the stimulus offset. We propose that the evoked theta is a neurophysiological marker of enhanced pitch processing in musicians and reflects mechanisms by which humans incorporate auditory feedback to control their voice pitch. We also suggest that the delta activation reflects adaptive neural processes by which vocal production errors are monitored and used to update the state of sensory-motor networks for driving subsequent vocal behaviors. This notion is corroborated by our findings showing that larger PREs were associated with greater delta band activity in the NM compared with RP and AP groups. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of auditory feedback processing for vocal pitch motor control.

  4. Atypical Bilateral Brain Synchronization in the Early Stage of Human Voice Auditory Processing in Young Children with Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiharu Kurita

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been postulated to involve impaired neuronal cooperation in large-scale neural networks, including cortico-cortical interhemispheric circuitry. In the context of ASD, alterations in both peripheral and central auditory processes have also attracted a great deal of interest because these changes appear to represent pathophysiological processes; therefore, many prior studies have focused on atypical auditory responses in ASD. The auditory evoked field (AEF, recorded by magnetoencephalography, and the synchronization of these processes between right and left hemispheres was recently suggested to reflect various cognitive abilities in children. However, to date, no previous study has focused on AEF synchronization in ASD subjects. To assess global coordination across spatially distributed brain regions, the analysis of Omega complexity from multichannel neurophysiological data was proposed. Using Omega complexity analysis, we investigated the global coordination of AEFs in 3-8-year-old typically developing (TD children (n = 50 and children with ASD (n = 50 in 50-ms time-windows. Children with ASD displayed significantly higher Omega complexities compared with TD children in the time-window of 0-50 ms, suggesting lower whole brain synchronization in the early stage of the P1m component. When we analyzed the left and right hemispheres separately, no significant differences in any time-windows were observed. These results suggest lower right-left hemispheric synchronization in children with ASD compared with TD children. Our study provides new evidence of aberrant neural synchronization in young children with ASD by investigating auditory evoked neural responses to the human voice.

  5. Functional role of delta and theta band oscillations for auditory feedback processing during vocal pitch motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh eBehroozmand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The answer to the question of how the brain incorporates sensory feedback and links it with motor function to achieve goal-directed movement during vocalization remains unclear. We investigated the mechanisms of voice pitch motor control by examining the spectro-temporal dynamics of EEG signals when non-musicians (NM, relative pitch (RP and absolute pitch (AP musicians maintained vocalizations of a vowel sound and received randomized ±100 cents pitch-shift stimuli in their auditory feedback. We identified a phase-synchronized (evoked fronto-central activation within the theta band (5-8 Hz that temporally overlapped with compensatory vocal responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback and was significantly stronger in RP and AP musicians compared with non-musicians. A second component involved a non-phase-synchronized (induced frontal activation within the delta band (1-4 Hz that emerged at approximately 1 second after the stimulus onset. The delta activation was significantly stronger in the NM compared with RP and AP groups and correlated with the pitch rebound error (PRE, indicating the degree to which subjects failed to re-adjust their voice pitch to baseline after the stimulus offset. We propose that the evoked theta is a neurophysiological marker of enhanced pitch processing in musicians and reflects mechanisms by which humans incorporate auditory feedback to control their voice pitch. We also suggest that the delta activation reflects adaptive neural processes by which vocal production errors are monitored and used to update the state of sensory-motor networks for driving subsequent vocal behaviors. This notion is corroborated by our findings showing that larger PREs were associated with greater delta band activity in the NM compared with RP and AP groups. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of auditory feedback processing for vocal pitch motor control.

  6. Age-related differences in auditory evoked potentials as a function of task modulation during speech-nonspeech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufener, Katharina Simone; Liem, Franziskus; Meyer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Healthy aging is typically associated with impairment in various cognitive abilities such as memory, selective attention or executive functions. Less well observed is the fact that also language functions in general and speech processing in particular seems to be affected by age. This impairment is partly caused by pathologies of the peripheral auditory nervous system and central auditory decline and in some part also by a cognitive decay. This cross-sectional electroencephalography (EEG) study investigates temporally early electrophysiological correlates of auditory related selective attention in young (20-32 years) and older (60-74 years) healthy adults. In two independent tasks, we systematically modulate the subjects' focus of attention by presenting words and pseudowords as targets and white noise stimuli as distractors. Behavioral data showed no difference in task accuracy between the two age samples irrespective of the modulation of attention. However, our work is the first to show that the N1-and the P2 component evoked by speech and nonspeech stimuli are specifically modulated in older adults and young adults depending on the subjects' focus of attention. This finding is particularly interesting in that the age-related differences in AEPs may be reflecting levels of processing that are not mirrored by the behavioral measurements.

  7. The practices, challenges and recommendations of South African audiologists regarding managing children with auditory processing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Fouché-Copley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Audiologists managing children with auditory processing disorders (APD encounter challenges that include conflicting definitions, several classification profiles, problems with differential diagnosis and a lack of standardised guidelines. The heterogeneity of the disorder and its concomitant childhood disorders makes diagnosis difficult. Linguistic and cultural issues are additional challenges faced by South African audiologists. The study aimed to describe the practices, challenges and recommendations of South African audiologists managing children with APD. A quantitative, non-experimental descriptive survey was used to obtain data from 156 audiologists registered with the Health Professions of South Africa. Findings revealed that 67% screened for APD, 42% assessed while 43% provided intervention. A variety of screening and assessment procedures were being administered, with no standard test battery identified. A range of intervention strategies being used are discussed. When the relationship between the number of years of experience and the audiologists’ level of preparedness to practice in the field of APD was compared, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.049 was seen in that participants with more than 10 years of experience were more prepared to practice in this area. Those participants having qualified as speech-language therapists and audiologists were significantly more prepared (p = 0.03 to practice than the audiologists who comprised the sample. Challenges experienced by the participants included the lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate screening and assessment tools and limited normative data. Recommendations included reviewing the undergraduate audiology training programmes, reinstituting the South African APD Taskforce, developing linguistically and culturally appropriate normative data, creating awareness among educators and involving them in the multidisciplinary team. Keywords: Screening; assessment

  8. The practices, challenges and recommendations of South African audiologists regarding managing children with auditory processing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Fouché-Copley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Audiologists managing children with auditory processing disorders (APD encounter challenges that include conflicting definitions, several classification profiles, problems with differential diagnosis and a lack of standardised guidelines. The heterogeneity of the disorder and its concomitant childhood disorders makes diagnosis difficult. Linguistic and cultural issues are additional challenges faced by South African audiologists. The study aimed to describe the practices, challenges and recommendations of South African audiologists managing children with APD. A quantitative, non-experimental descriptive survey was used to obtain data from 156 audiologists registered with the Health Professions of South Africa. Findings revealed that 67% screened for APD, 42% assessed while 43% provided intervention. A variety of screening and assessment procedures were being administered, with no standard test battery identified. A range of intervention strategies being used are discussed. When the relationship between the number of years of experience and the audiologists’ level of preparedness to practice in the field of APD was compared, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.049 was seen in that participants with more than 10 years of experience were more prepared to practice in this area. Those participants having qualified as speech-language therapists and audiologists were significantly more prepared (p = 0.03 to practice than the audiologists who comprised the sample. Challenges experienced by the participants included the lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate screening and assessment tools and limited normative data. Recommendations included reviewing the undergraduate audiology training programmes, reinstituting the South African APD Taskforce, developing linguistically and culturally appropriate normative data, creating awareness among educators and involving them in the multidisciplinary team.Keywords: Screening; assessment

  9. Behavioral assessment of auditory processing disorder in children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoran; McPherson, Bradley; Ma, Lian

    2015-03-01

    Peripheral hearing disorders have been frequently described in children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P). However, auditory processing problems are rarely considered for children with NSCL/P despite their poor academic performance in general compared to their craniofacially normal peers. This study aimed to compare auditory processing skills, using behavioral assessment techniques, in school age children with and without NSCL/P. One hundred and forty one Mandarin-speaking children with NSCL/P aged from 6.00 to 15.67 years, and 60 age-matched, craniofacially normal children, were recruited. Standard hearing health tests were conducted to evaluate peripheral hearing. Behavioral auditory processing assessment included adaptive tests of temporal resolution (ATTR), and the Mandarin pediatric lexical tone and disyllabic-word picture identification test in noise (MAPPID-N). Age effects were found in children with cleft disorder but not in the control group for gap detection thresholds with ATTR narrow band noise in the across-channel stimuli condition, with a significant difference in test performance between the 6 to 8 year group and 12 to 15 year group of children with NSCL/P. For MAPPID-N, the bilateral cleft lip and palate subgroup showed significantly poorer SNR-50% scores than the control group in the condition where speech was spatially separated from noise. Also, the cleft palate participants showed a significantly smaller spatial separation advantage for speech recognition in noise compared to the control group children. ATTR gap detection test results indicated that maturation for temporal resolution abilities was not achieved in children with NSCL/P until approximately 8 years of age compared to approximately 6 years for craniofacially normal children. For speech recognition in noisy environments, poorer abilities to use timing and intensity cues were found in children with cleft palate and children with bilateral cleft lip and palate

  10. Sensory Symptoms and Processing of Nonverbal Auditory and Visual Stimuli in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Claire R.; Sanchez, Sandra S.; Grenesko, Emily L.; Brown, Christine M.; Chen, Colleen P.; Keehn, Brandon; Velasquez, Francisco; Lincoln, Alan J.; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2016-01-01

    Atypical sensory responses are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While evidence suggests impaired auditory-visual integration for verbal information, findings for nonverbal stimuli are inconsistent. We tested for sensory symptoms in children with ASD (using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile) and examined unisensory and bisensory…

  11. Asymmetric excitatory synaptic dynamics underlie interaural time difference processing in the auditory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo E Jercog

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-frequency sound localization depends on the neural computation of interaural time differences (ITD and relies on neurons in the auditory brain stem that integrate synaptic inputs delivered by the ipsi- and contralateral auditory pathways that start at the two ears. The first auditory neurons that respond selectively to ITD are found in the medial superior olivary nucleus (MSO. We identified a new mechanism for ITD coding using a brain slice preparation that preserves the binaural inputs to the MSO. There was an internal latency difference for the two excitatory pathways that would, if left uncompensated, position the ITD response function too far outside the physiological range to be useful for estimating ITD. We demonstrate, and support using a biophysically based computational model, that a bilateral asymmetry in excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP slopes provides a robust compensatory delay mechanism due to differential activation of low threshold potassium conductance on these inputs and permits MSO neurons to encode physiological ITDs. We suggest, more generally, that the dependence of spike probability on rate of depolarization, as in these auditory neurons, provides a mechanism for temporal order discrimination between EPSPs.

  12. Subjective Loudness and Reality of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Activation of the Inner Speech Processing Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercammen, Ans; Knegtering, Henderikus; Bruggeman, Richard; Aleman, Andre

    Background: One of the most influential cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) suggests that a failure to adequately monitor the production of one's own inner speech leads to verbal thought being misidentified as an alien voice. However, it is unclear whether this theory can

  13. Imperceptibly rapid contrast modulations processed in cortex: Evidence from psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconbridge, Michael; Ware, Adam; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2010-07-01

    Rapid fluctuations in contrast are common in our modern visual environment. They arise, for example, in a room lit by a fluorescent light, when viewing a CRT computer monitor and when watching a movie in a cinema. As we are unconscious of the rapid changes, it has been assumed that they do not affect the operation of our visual systems. By periodically reversing the contrast of a fixed pattern at a rapid rate we render the pattern itself, as well as the modulations, invisible to observers. We show that exposure to these rapidly contrast-modulated patterns alters the way subsequent stationary patterns are processed; patterns similar to the contrast-modulated pattern require more contrast to be detected than dissimilar patterns. We present evidence that the changes are cortically mediated. Taken together, our findings suggest that cortical stages of the visual system respond to the individual frames of a contrast-reversed sequence, even at rates as high as 160 frames per second.

  14. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cantiani, Chiara; Molteni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    .... Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity...

  15. Phonetic detail and lateralization of reading-related inner speech and of auditory and somatosensory feedback processing during overt reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Christian A; Darquea, Maritza; Behrens, Marion; Cordani, Lorenzo; Keller, Christian; Fuchs, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Phonetic detail and lateralization of inner speech during covert sentence reading as well as overt reading in 32 right-handed healthy participants undergoing 3T fMRI were investigated. The number of voiceless and voiced consonants in the processed sentences was systematically varied. Participants listened to sentences, read them covertly, silently mouthed them while reading, and read them overtly. Condition comparisons allowed for the study of effects of externally versus self-generated auditory input and of somatosensory feedback related to or independent of voicing. In every condition, increased voicing modulated bilateral voice-selective regions in the superior temporal sulcus without any lateralization. The enhanced temporal modulation and/or higher spectral frequencies of sentences rich in voiceless consonants induced left-lateralized activation of phonological regions in the posterior temporal lobe, regardless of condition. These results provide evidence that inner speech during reading codes detail as fine as consonant voicing. Our findings suggest that the fronto-temporal internal loops underlying inner speech target different temporal regions. These regions differ in their sensitivity to inner or overt acoustic speech features. More slowly varying acoustic parameters are represented more anteriorly and bilaterally in the temporal lobe while quickly changing acoustic features are processed in more posterior left temporal cortices. Furthermore, processing of external auditory feedback during overt sentence reading was sensitive to consonant voicing only in the left superior temporal cortex. Voicing did not modulate left-lateralized processing of somatosensory feedback during articulation or bilateral motor processing. This suggests voicing is primarily monitored in the auditory rather than in the somatosensory feedback channel. Hum Brain Mapp 38:493-508, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Avaliação do processamento auditivo em operadores de telemarketing Assessment of auditory processing on telemarketing operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Barros da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o processamento auditivo (PA dos operadores de telemarketing quanto à decodificação auditiva. Método: foram avaliados 20 sujeitos com idade entre 18 e 35 anos, de ambos os gêneros , com jornada de trabalho de seis horas diárias, e até cinco anos de tempo de serviço na função, usuários de headset monoauricular e sem exposição prévia a ruído ocupacional. O grupo estudado apresenta limiares auditivos dentro dos padrões de normalidade, timpanometria tipo A e reflexos acústicos presentes. Foi aplicado um questionário com objetivo de colher dados quanto às queixas, hábitos e sensações auditivas e foram realizados os testes de processamento de fala filtrada, Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT e Masking Level Difference (MLD. RESULTADOS: a análise do estudo foi descritiva, por meio de porcentagem onde observou-se que todos os indivíduos (com idade média entre 20 e 32 anos apresentaram queixas características das desordens do processamento auditivo. Nos testes aplicados foram observadas 45% de alterações no RGDT e 25% no MLD, havendo uma associação entre os testes de MLD alterados e o perfil de atuação no trabalho. CONCLUSÃO: este estudo sugere que o profissional, operador de telemarketing pode apresentar desordens do processamento auditivo, com provável comprometimento da habilidade de interação binaural e resolução temporal as quais mostraram-se alteradas em considerável parte destes indivíduos.PURPOSE: to evaluate the auditory processing on telemarketing operators towards their auditory decodification. METHODS: there were evaluated 20 subjects from 18 to 35 years old, both genders, with six hours a day work journey, and until five years as an operator, users of monoauricular headsets and without previous exposition to occupational noise. This group shows auditory thresholds in normal pattern, type A timpanometry, and auditory reflect. A questionnaire was applied to collect some data related to

  17. What and Where in auditory sensory processing: A high-density electrical mapping study of distinct neural processes underlying sound object recognition and sound localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M Leavitt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Functionally distinct dorsal and ventral auditory pathways for sound localization (where and sound object recognition (what have been described in non-human primates. A handful of studies have explored differential processing within these streams in humans, with highly inconsistent findings. Stimuli employed have included simple tones, noise bursts and speech sounds, with simulated left-right spatial manipulations, and in some cases participants were not required to actively discriminate the stimuli. Our contention is that these paradigms were not well suited to dissociating processing within the two streams. Our aim here was to determine how early in processing we could find evidence for dissociable pathways using better titrated what and where task conditions. The use of more compelling tasks should allow us to amplify differential processing within the dorsal and ventral pathways. We employed high-density electrical mapping using a relatively large and environmentally realistic stimulus set (seven animal calls delivered from seven free-field spatial locations; with stimulus configuration identical across the where and what tasks. Topographic analysis revealed distinct dorsal and ventral auditory processing networks during the where and what tasks with the earliest point of divergence seen during the N1 component of the auditory evoked response, beginning at approximately 100 ms. While this difference occurred during the N1 timeframe, it was not a simple modulation of N1 amplitude as it displayed a wholly different topographic distribution to that of the N1. Global dissimilarity measures using topographic modulation analysis confirmed that this difference between tasks was driven by a shift in the underlying generator configuration. Minimum norm source reconstruction revealed distinct activations that corresponded well with activity within putative dorsal and ventral auditory structures.

  18. The Use of Music and Other Forms of Organized Sound as a Therapeutic Intervention for Students with Auditory Processing Disorder: Providing the Best Auditory Experience for Children with Learning Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faronii-Butler, Kishasha O.

    2013-01-01

    This auto-ethnographical inquiry used vignettes and interviews to examine the therapeutic use of music and other forms of organized sound in the learning environment of individuals with Central Auditory Processing Disorders. It is an investigation of the traditions of healing with sound vibrations, from its earliest cultural roots in shamanism and…

  19. Cortical gamma activity during auditory tone omission provides evidence for the involvement of oscillatory activity in top-down processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtubay, I G; Alegre, M; Valencia, M; Artieda, J

    2006-11-01

    Perception is an active process in which our brains use top-down influences to modulate afferent information. To determine whether this modulation might be based on oscillatory activity, we asked seven subjects to detect a silence that appeared randomly in a rhythmic auditory sequence, counting the number of omissions ("count" task), or responding to each omission with a right index finger extension ("move" task). Despite the absence of physical stimuli, these tasks induced a 'non-phase-locked' gamma oscillation in temporal-parietal areas, providing evidence of intrinsically generated oscillatory activity during top-down processing. This oscillation is probably related to the local neural activation that takes place during the process of stimulus detection, involving the functional comparison between the tones and the absence of stimuli as well as the auditory echoic memory processes. The amplitude of the gamma oscillations was reduced with the repetition of the tasks. Moreover, it correlated positively with the number of correctly detected omissions and negatively with the reaction time. These findings indicate that these oscillations, like others described, may be modulated by attentional processes. In summary, our findings support the active and adaptive concept of brain function that has emerged over recent years, suggesting that the match of sensory information with memory contents generates gamma oscillations.

  20. Auditory processing deficits are sometimes necessary and sometimes sufficient for language difficulties in children: Evidence from mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Lorna F; Tuomainen, Outi; Rosen, Stuart

    2017-09-01

    There is a general consensus that many children and adults with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment display deficits in auditory processing. However, how these deficits are related to developmental disorders of language is uncertain, and at least four categories of model have been proposed: single distal cause models, risk factor models, association models, and consequence models. This study used children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL) to investigate the link between auditory processing deficits and language disorders. We examined the auditory processing and language skills of 46, 8-16year-old children with MMHL and 44 age-matched typically developing controls. Auditory processing abilities were assessed using child-friendly psychophysical techniques in order to obtain discrimination thresholds. Stimuli incorporated three different timescales (µs, ms, s) and three different levels of complexity (simple nonspeech tones, complex nonspeech sounds, speech sounds), and tasks required discrimination of frequency or amplitude cues. Language abilities were assessed using a battery of standardised assessments of phonological processing, reading, vocabulary, and grammar. We found evidence that three different auditory processing abilities showed different relationships with language: Deficits in a general auditory processing component were necessary but not sufficient for language difficulties, and were consistent with a risk factor model; Deficits in slow-rate amplitude modulation (envelope) detection were sufficient but not necessary for language difficulties, and were consistent with either a single distal cause or a consequence model; And deficits in the discrimination of a single speech contrast (/bɑ/ vs /dɑ/) were neither necessary nor sufficient for language difficulties, and were consistent with an association model. Our findings suggest that different auditory processing deficits may constitute distinct and independent routes to

  1. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L.; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians’ subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model by which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in auditory function in humans. PMID:23988583

  2. Linear Stimulus-Invariant Processing and Spectrotemporal Reverse Correlation in Primary Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    zebra finch auditory forebrain in response to random tone sequences and bird songs, and used the STRF from one stimulus to predict the responses to the...response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing...and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information

  3. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  4. The Frequency of Rapid Pupil Dilations as a Measure of Linguistic Processing Difficulty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Demberg

    Full Text Available While it has long been known that the pupil reacts to cognitive load, pupil size has received little attention in cognitive research because of its long latency and the difficulty of separating effects of cognitive load from the light reflex or effects due to eye movements. A novel measure, the Index of Cognitive Activity (ICA, relates cognitive effort to the frequency of small rapid dilations of the pupil. We report here on a total of seven experiments which test whether the ICA reliably indexes linguistically induced cognitive load: three experiments in reading (a manipulation of grammatical gender match/mismatch, an experiment of semantic fit, and an experiment comparing locally ambiguous subject versus object relative clauses, all in German, three dual-task experiments with simultaneous driving and spoken language comprehension (using the same manipulations as in the single-task reading experiments, and a visual world experiment comparing the processing of causal versus concessive discourse markers. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect and time course of the ICA in language processing. All of our experiments support the idea that the ICA indexes linguistic processing difficulty. The effects of our linguistic manipulations on the ICA are consistent for reading and auditory presentation. Furthermore, our experiments show that the ICA allows for usage within a multi-task paradigm. Its robustness with respect to eye movements means that it is a valid measure of processing difficulty for usage within the visual world paradigm, which will allow researchers to assess both visual attention and processing difficulty at the same time, using an eye-tracker. We argue that the ICA is indicative of activity in the locus caeruleus area of the brain stem, which has recently also been linked to P600 effects observed in psycholinguistic EEG experiments.

  5. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Frequency Modulation Devices in Improving Academic Outcomes in Children With Auditory Processing Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Stacey; Miller Kuhaneck, Heather; Pfeiffer, Beth

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review describes the published evidence related to the effectiveness of frequency modulation (FM) devices in improving academic outcomes in children with auditory processing difficulties. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standards were used to identify articles published between January 2003 and March 2014. The Cochrane Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome, Study Design approach and the American Occupational Therapy Association process forms were used to guide the article selection and evaluation process. Of the 83 articles screened, 7 matched the systematic review inclusion criteria. Findings were consistently positive, although limitations were identified. Results of this review indicate moderate support for the use of FM devices to improve children's ability to listen and attend in the classroom and mixed evidence to improve specific academic performance areas. FM technology should be considered for school-age children with auditory processing impairments who are receiving occupational therapy services to improve functioning in the school setting. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  6. Differential bilateral involvement of the parietal gyrus during predicative metaphor processing: an auditory fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, Alexandre; Gierski, Fabien; Calmus, Arnaud; Portefaix, Christophe; Declercq, Christelle; Pierot, Laurent; Caillies, Stéphanie

    2014-10-01

    Despite the growing literature on figurative language processing, there is still debate as to which cognitive processes and neural bases are involved. Furthermore, most studies have focused on nominal metaphor processing without any context, and very few have used auditory presentation. We therefore investigated the neural bases of the comprehension of predicative metaphors presented in a brief context, in an auditory, ecological way. The comprehension of their literal counterparts served as a control condition. We also investigated the link between working memory and verbal skills and regional activation. Comparisons of metaphorical and literal conditions revealed bilateral activation of parietal areas including the left angular (lAG) and right inferior parietal gyri (rIPG) and right precuneus. Only verbal skills were associated with lAG (but not rIPG) activation. These results indicated that predicative metaphor comprehension share common activations with other metaphors. Furthermore, individual verbal skills could have an impact on figurative language processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Missile signal processing common computer architecture for rapid technology upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinkin, Daniel V.; Rutledge, Edward; Monticciolo, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Interceptor missiles process IR images to locate an intended target and guide the interceptor towards it. Signal processing requirements have increased as the sensor bandwidth increases and interceptors operate against more sophisticated targets. A typical interceptor signal processing chain is comprised of two parts. Front-end video processing operates on all pixels of the image and performs such operations as non-uniformity correction (NUC), image stabilization, frame integration and detection. Back-end target processing, which tracks and classifies targets detected in the image, performs such algorithms as Kalman tracking, spectral feature extraction and target discrimination. In the past, video processing was implemented using ASIC components or FPGAs because computation requirements exceeded the throughput of general-purpose processors. Target processing was performed using hybrid architectures that included ASICs, DSPs and general-purpose processors. The resulting systems tended to be function-specific, and required custom software development. They were developed using non-integrated toolsets and test equipment was developed along with the processor platform. The lifespan of a system utilizing the signal processing platform often spans decades, while the specialized nature of processor hardware and software makes it difficult and costly to upgrade. As a result, the signal processing systems often run on outdated technology, algorithms are difficult to update, and system effectiveness is impaired by the inability to rapidly respond to new threats. A new design approach is made possible three developments; Moore's Law - driven improvement in computational throughput; a newly introduced vector computing capability in general purpose processors; and a modern set of open interface software standards. Today's multiprocessor commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) platforms have sufficient throughput to support interceptor signal processing requirements. This application

  8. Reversible long-term changes in auditory processing in mature auditory cortex in the absence of hearing loss induced by passive, moderate-level sound exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienkowski, Martin; Eggermont, Jos J

    2012-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that even occasional exposure to loud sounds in occupational or recreational settings can cause irreversible damage to the hair cells of the cochlea and the auditory nerve fibers, even if the resulting partial loss of hearing sensitivity, usually accompanied by tinnitus, disappears within hours or days of the exposure. Such exposure may explain at least some cases of poor speech intelligibility in noise in the face of a normal or near-normal audiogram. Recent findings from our laboratory suggest that long-term changes to auditory brain function-potentially leading to problems with speech intelligibility-can be effected by persistent, passive exposure to more moderate levels of noise (in the 70 dB SPL range) in the apparent absence of damage to the auditory periphery (as reflected in normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses). Specifically, passive exposure of adult cats to moderate levels of band-pass-filtered noise, or to band-limited ensembles of dense, random tone pips, can lead to a profound decrease of neural activity in the auditory cortex roughly in the exposure frequency range, and to an increase of activity outside that range. This can progress to an apparent reorganization of the cortical tonotopic map, which is reminiscent of the reorganization resulting from hearing loss restricted to a part of the hearing frequency range, although again, no hearing loss was apparent after our moderate-level sound exposure. Here, we review this work focusing specifically on the potential hearing problems that may arise despite a normally functioning auditory periphery.

  9. Rapid process for manufacturing of aluminum nitride powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, A.W.; Cochran, G.A.; Eisman, G.A.; Henley, J.P.; Hook, B.D.; Mills, L.K. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States). Ceramics and Advanced Materials Research; Guiton, T.A.; Knudsen, A.K.; Nicholas, R.N.; Volmering, J.E.; Moore, W.G. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States). Advanced Ceramics Lab.

    1994-01-01

    A rapid, direct nitridation process for the manufacture of sinterable aluminum nitride (AIN) powder was developed at the pilot scale. Atomized aluminum metal and nitrogen gas were heated and reacted rapidly to synthesize AIN while they passed through the reaction zone of a transport flow reactor. The heated walls of the reactor simultaneously initiated the reaction and removed the generated heat to control the exotherm. Several variations of the process were required to achieve high conversion and reduce wall deposition of the product. The fine AIN powder produced did not require a postreaction grinding step to reduce particle size. However, a secondary heat treatment, following a mild milling step to expose fresh surface, was necessary to ensure complete conversion of the aluminum. In some instances, a final air classification step to remove large particles was necessary to promote densification by pressure less sintering. The AIN powder produced was pressure less sintered with 3 wt% yttria to fabricate fully dense parts which exhibited high thermal conductivity. The powder was shown to be less sinterable than commercially available carbothermally produced powders

  10. Sensory Processing: Advances in Understanding Structure and Function of Pitch-Shifted Auditory Feedback in Voice Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Larson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The pitch-shift paradigm has become a widely used method for studying the role of voice pitch auditory feedback in voice control. This paradigm introduces small, brief pitch shifts in voice auditory feedback to vocalizing subjects. The perturbations trigger a reflexive mechanism that counteracts the change in pitch. The underlying mechanisms of the vocal responses are thought to reflect a negative feedback control system that is similar to constructs developed to explain other forms of motor control. Another use of this technique requires subjects to voluntarily change the pitch of their voice when they hear a pitch shift stimulus. Under these conditions, short latency responses are produced that change voice pitch to match that of the stimulus. The pitch-shift technique has been used with magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG recordings, and has shown that at vocal onset there is normally a suppression of neural activity related to vocalization. However, if a pitch-shift is also presented at voice onset, there is a cancellation of this suppression, which has been interpreted to mean that one way in which a person distinguishes self-vocalization from vocalization of others is by a comparison of the intended voice and the actual voice. Studies of the pitch shift reflex in the fMRI environment show that the superior temporal gyrus (STG plays an important role in the process of controlling voice F0 based on auditory feedback. Additional studies using fMRI for effective connectivity modeling show that the left and right STG play critical roles in correcting for an error in voice production. While both the left and right STG are involved in this process, a feedback loop develops between left and right STG during perturbations, in which the left to right connection becomes stronger, and a new negative right to left connection emerges along with the emergence of other feedback loops within the cortical network tested.

  11. Development of an adaptive low-pass filtered speech test for the identification of auditory processing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, Greg A; McGaffin, Andrew J; Rickard, Natalie A

    2012-06-01

    One type of test commonly used to examine auditory processing disorders (APD) is the low-pass filtered speech test (LPFST), of which there are various versions. In LPFSTs, a monaural, low-redundancy speech sample is distorted by using filtering to modify its frequency content. Due to the richness of the neural pathways in the auditory system and the redundancy of acoustic information in spoken language, a normal listener is able to recognize speech even when parts of the signal are missing, whereas this ability is often impaired in listeners with APD. One limitation of the various versions of the LPFST is that they are carried out using a constant level of low-pass filtering (e.g. a fixed 1kHz corner frequency) which makes them prone to ceiling and floor effects. The purpose of this study was to counter these effects by modifying the LPFST using a computer-based adaptive procedure, and to evaluate the performance of normal-hearing participants of varying ages on the test. In this preliminary study, 33 adults and 30 children (aged 8-11 years) with no known history of listening difficulties were tested. The University of Canterbury Adaptive Speech Test (UCAST) platform was used to administer a four-alternative forced-choice adaptive test that altered a low-pass filter (LPF) to track the corner frequency at which participants correctly identified a certain percentage of the word stimuli. Findings on the University of Canterbury Adaptive Speech Test-Filtered Words (UCAST-FW) indicated a significant maturational effect. Adult participants performed significantly better on the UCAST-FW in comparison to the child participants. The UCAST-FW test was reliable over repeated administrations. An adaptive low-pass filtered speech test such as the UCAST-FW is sensitive to maturational changes in auditory processing ability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transfer Effect of Speech-sound Learning on Auditory-motor Processing of Perceived Vocal Pitch Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaocong; Wong, Francis C K; Jones, Jeffery A; Li, Weifeng; Liu, Peng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-08-17

    Speech perception and production are intimately linked. There is evidence that speech motor learning results in changes to auditory processing of speech. Whether speech motor control benefits from perceptual learning in speech, however, remains unclear. This event-related potential study investigated whether speech-sound learning can modulate the processing of feedback errors during vocal pitch regulation. Mandarin speakers were trained to perceive five Thai lexical tones while learning to associate pictures with spoken words over 5 days. Before and after training, participants produced sustained vowel sounds while they heard their vocal pitch feedback unexpectedly perturbed. As compared to the pre-training session, the magnitude of vocal compensation significantly decreased for the control group, but remained consistent for the trained group at the post-training session. However, the trained group had smaller and faster N1 responses to pitch perturbations and exhibited enhanced P2 responses that correlated significantly with their learning performance. These findings indicate that the cortical processing of vocal pitch regulation can be shaped by learning new speech-sound associations, suggesting that perceptual learning in speech can produce transfer effects to facilitating the neural mechanisms underlying the online monitoring of auditory feedback regarding vocal production.

  13. fMRI of the auditory system: understanding the neural basis of auditory gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salle, Francesco; Esposito, Fabrizio; Scarabino, Tommaso; Formisano, Elia; Marciano, Elio; Saulino, Claudio; Cirillo, Sossio; Elefante, Raffaele; Scheffler, Klaus; Seifritz, Erich

    2003-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has rapidly become the most widely used imaging method for studying brain functions in humans. This is a result of its extreme flexibility of use and of the astonishingly detailed spatial and temporal information it provides. Nevertheless, until very recently, the study of the auditory system has progressed at a considerably slower pace compared to other functional systems. Several factors have limited fMRI research in the auditory field, including some intrinsic features of auditory functional anatomy and some peculiar interactions between fMRI technique and audition. A well known difficulty arises from the high intensity acoustic noise produced by gradient switching in echo-planar imaging (EPI), as well as in other fMRI sequences more similar to conventional MR sequences. The acoustic noise interacts in an unpredictable way with the experimental stimuli both from a perceptual point of view and in the evoked hemodynamics. To overcome this problem, different approaches have been proposed recently that generally require careful tailoring of the experimental design and the fMRI methodology to the specific requirements posed by the auditory research. The novel methodological approaches can make the fMRI exploration of auditory processing much easier and more reliable, and thus may permit filling the gap with other fields of neuroscience research. As a result, some fundamental neural underpinnings of audition are being clarified, and the way sound stimuli are integrated in the auditory gestalt are beginning to be understood.

  14. Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depressin, and hyperacute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of The Sound of a Moracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  15. Review: Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ja'fari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depression, and hyper acute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of the sound of a miracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  16. NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Scott A.; Kakar, Ramesh; Zipser, Edward; Heymsfield, Gerald; Albers, Cerese; Brown, Shannon; Durden, Stephen; Guimond, Stephen; Halverson, Jeffery; Heymsfield, Andrew; hide

    2013-01-01

    In August–September 2010, NASA, NOAA, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) conducted separate but closely coordinated hurricane field campaigns, bringing to bear a combined seven aircraft with both new and mature observing technologies. NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment, the subject of this article, along with NOAA's Intensity Forecasting Experiment (IFEX) and NSF's Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud-Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) experiment, obtained unprecedented observations of the formation and intensification of tropical cyclones. The major goal of GRIP was to better understand the physical processes that control hurricane formation and intensity change, specifically the relative roles of environmental and inner-core processes. A key focus of GRIP was the application of new technologies to address this important scientific goal, including the first ever use of the unmanned Global Hawk aircraft for hurricane science operations. NASA and NOAA conducted coordinated flights to thoroughly sample the rapid intensification (RI) of Hurricanes Earl and Karl. The tri-agency aircraft teamed up to perform coordinated flights for the genesis of Hurricane Karl and Tropical Storm Matthew and the non-redevelopment of the remnants of Tropical Storm Gaston. The combined GRIP–IFEX–PREDICT datasets, along with remote sensing data from a variety of satellite platforms [Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Aqua, Terra, CloudSat, and Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO)], will contribute to advancing understanding of hurricane formation and intensification. This article summarizes the GRIP experiment, the missions flown, and some preliminary findings.

  17. Tune Deafness: Processing Melodic Errors Outside of Conscious Awareness as Reflected by Components of the Auditory ERP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Allen; McArdle, Joe; Jones, Jennifer; Nechaev, Vladimir; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Drayna, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Tune deafness (TD) is a central auditory processing disorder characterized by the inability to discriminate pitch, reproduce melodies or to recognize deviations in melodic structure, in spite of normal hearing. The cause of the disorder is unknown. To identify a pathophysiological marker, we ascertained a group of severely affected TD patients using the Distorted Tunes Test, an ecologically valid task with a longstanding history, and used electrophysiological methods to characterize the brain's responses to correct and incorrect melodic sequences. As expected, we identified a neural correlate of patients' unawareness of melodic distortions: deviant notes modulated long-latency auditory evoked potentials and elicited a mismatch negativity in controls but not in affected subjects. However a robust P300 was elicited by deviant notes, suggesting that, as in blindsight, TD subjects process stimuli that they cannot consciously perceive. Given the high heritability of TD, these patients may make it possible to use genetic methods to study cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying conscious awareness. PMID:18545651

  18. Visual, Auditory, and Cross Modal Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism:An EEG Power and BOLD fMRI Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Hames

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG and Blood Oxygen Level Dependent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imagining (BOLD fMRI assessed the neurocorrelates of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli in 11 adults with autism (ASD and 10 neurotypical (NT controls between the ages of 20-28. We hypothesized that ASD performance on combined audiovisual trials would be less accurate with observable decreased EEG power across frontal, temporal, and occipital channels and decreased BOLD fMRI activity in these same regions; reflecting deficits in key sensory processing areas. Analysis focused on EEG power, BOLD fMRI, and accuracy. Lower EEG beta power and lower left auditory cortex fMRI activity were seen in ASD compared to NT when they were presented with auditory stimuli as demonstrated by contrasting the activity from the second presentation of an auditory stimulus in an all auditory block versus the second presentation of a visual stimulus in an all visual block (AA2­VV2. We conclude that in ASD, combined audiovisual processing is more similar than unimodal processing to NTs.

  19. Modality-Dependent or Modality-Independent Processing in Mental Arithmetic: Evidence From Unimpaired Auditory Multiplication for a Patient With Left Frontotemporal Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dazhi; Wu, Haiyan; Yuan, Li; Xu, Rui; Chen, Qian; Zhou, Xinlin

    2017-09-01

    Mental arithmetic is essential to daily life. Researchers have explored the mechanisms that underlie mental arithmetic. Whether mental arithmetic fact retrieval is dependent on surface modality or knowledge format is still highly debated. Chinese individuals typically use a procedure strategy for addition; and they typically use a rote verbal strategy for multiplication. This provides a way to examine the effect of surface modality on different arithmetic operations. We used a series of neuropsychological tests (i.e., general cognitive, language processing, numerical processing, addition, and multiplication in visual and auditory conditions) for a patient who had experienced a left frontotemporal stroke. The patient had language production impairment; but preserved verbal processing concerning basic numerical abilities. Moreover, the patient had preserved multiplication in the auditory presentation rather than in the visual presentation. The patient suffered from impairments in an addition task, regardless of visual or auditory presentation. The findings suggest that mental multiplication could be characterized as a form of modality-dependent processing, which was accessed through auditory input. The learning strategy of multiplication table recitation could shape the verbal memory of multiplication leading to persistence of the auditory module. (JINS, 2017, 23, 692-699).

  20. Language processing of auditory cortex revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging in presbycusis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianming; Wang, Maoxin; Deng, Yihong; Liang, Yonghui; Li, Jianzhong; Chen, Shiyan

    2016-01-01

    Contralateral temporal lobe activation decreases with aging, regardless of hearing status, with elderly individuals showing reduced right ear advantage. Aging and hearing loss possibly lead to presbycusis speech discrimination decline. To evaluate presbycusis patients' auditory cortex activation under verbal stimulation. Thirty-six patients were enrolled: 10 presbycusis patients (mean age = 64 years, range = 60-70), 10 in the healthy aged group (mean age = 66 years, range = 60-70), and 16 young healthy volunteers (mean age = 25 years, range = 23-28). These three groups underwent simultaneous 1 kHz and 90 dB single-syllable word stimuli and (blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging) BOLD fMRI examinations. The main activation regions were superior temporal and middle temporal gyrus. For all aged subjects, the right region of interest (ROI) activation volume was decreased compared with the young group. With left ear stimulation, bilateral ROI activation intensity held. With right ear stimulation, the aged group's activation intensity was higher. Using monaural stimulation in the young group, contralateral temporal lobe activation volume and intensity were higher vs ipsilateral, while they were lower in the aged and presbycusis groups. On left and right ear auditory tasks, the young group showed right ear advantage, while the aged and presbycusis groups showed reduced right ear advantage.

  1. Different origin of auditory and phonological processing problems in children with language impairment: evidence from a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D V; Bishop, S J; Bright, P; James, C; Delaney, T; Tallal, P

    1999-02-01

    This study investigated the heritability of auditory processing impairment, as assessed by Tallal's Auditory Repetition Test (ART). The sample consisted of 37 same-sex twin pairs who had previously been selected because one or both twins met criteria for language impairment (LI) and 104 same-sex twin pairs in the same age range (7 to 13 years) from the general population. These samples yielded 55 children who met criteria for LI, who were compared with 76 children whose language was normal for their age (LN group). We replicated earlier work showing that group LI is impaired relative to group LN on ART. However, there was no evidence of a heritable influence on ART scores: Correlations between twins and their co-twins were reasonably high for both MZ and DZ twins, suggesting that performance is more influenced by shared environment than genetic factors. Analyses of extreme scores gave a similar picture of nonsignificant group heritability. In contrast, a test of phonological short-term memory, the Children's Nonword Repetition Test (CNRep), gave high estimates of group heritability. In general, CNRep was a better predictor of low language test scores than ART, but ART did make a significant independent contribution in accounting for variance in a test of grammatical understanding.

  2. Auditory object salience: human cortical processing of non-biological action sounds and their acoustic signal attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James W.; Talkington, William J.; Tallaksen, Katherine C.; Frum, Chris A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether viewed or heard, an object in action can be segmented as a distinct salient event based on a number of different sensory cues. In the visual system, several low-level attributes of an image are processed along parallel hierarchies, involving intermediate stages wherein gross-level object form and/or motion features are extracted prior to stages that show greater specificity for different object categories (e.g., people, buildings, or tools). In the auditory system, though relying on a rather different set of low-level signal attributes, meaningful real-world acoustic events and “auditory objects” can also be readily distinguished from background scenes. However, the nature of the acoustic signal attributes or gross-level perceptual features that may be explicitly processed along intermediate cortical processing stages remain poorly understood. Examining mechanical and environmental action sounds, representing two distinct non-biological categories of action sources, we had participants assess the degree to which each sound was perceived as object-like versus scene-like. We re-analyzed data from two of our earlier functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task paradigms (Engel et al., 2009) and found that scene-like action sounds preferentially led to activation along several midline cortical structures, but with strong dependence on listening task demands. In contrast, bilateral foci along the superior temporal gyri (STG) showed parametrically increasing activation to action sounds rated as more “object-like,” independent of sound category or task demands. Moreover, these STG regions also showed parametric sensitivity to spectral structure variations (SSVs) of the action sounds—a quantitative measure of change in entropy of the acoustic signals over time—and the right STG additionally showed parametric sensitivity to measures of mean entropy and harmonic content of the environmental sounds. Analogous to the visual system, intermediate stages

  3. Auditory object salience: human cortical processing of non-biological action sounds and their acoustic signal attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James W; Talkington, William J; Tallaksen, Katherine C; Frum, Chris A

    2012-01-01

    Whether viewed or heard, an object in action can be segmented as a distinct salient event based on a number of different sensory cues. In the visual system, several low-level attributes of an image are processed along parallel hierarchies, involving intermediate stages wherein gross-level object form and/or motion features are extracted prior to stages that show greater specificity for different object categories (e.g., people, buildings, or tools). In the auditory system, though relying on a rather different set of low-level signal attributes, meaningful real-world acoustic events and "auditory objects" can also be readily distinguished from background scenes. However, the nature of the acoustic signal attributes or gross-level perceptual features that may be explicitly processed along intermediate cortical processing stages remain poorly understood. Examining mechanical and environmental action sounds, representing two distinct non-biological categories of action sources, we had participants assess the degree to which each sound was perceived as object-like versus scene-like. We re-analyzed data from two of our earlier functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task paradigms (Engel et al., 2009) and found that scene-like action sounds preferentially led to activation along several midline cortical structures, but with strong dependence on listening task demands. In contrast, bilateral foci along the superior temporal gyri (STG) showed parametrically increasing activation to action sounds rated as more "object-like," independent of sound category or task demands. Moreover, these STG regions also showed parametric sensitivity to spectral structure variations (SSVs) of the action sounds-a quantitative measure of change in entropy of the acoustic signals over time-and the right STG additionally showed parametric sensitivity to measures of mean entropy and harmonic content of the environmental sounds. Analogous to the visual system, intermediate stages of the

  4. Neural Processing of Auditory Signals and Modular Neural Control for Sound Tropism of Walking Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Roth

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The specialized hairs and slit sensillae of spiders (Cupiennius salei can sense the airflow and auditory signals in a low-frequency range. They provide the sensor information for reactive behavior, like e.g. capturing a prey. In analogy, in this paper a setup is described where two microphones and a neural preprocessing system together with a modular neural controller are used to generate a sound tropism of a four-legged walking machine. The neural preprocessing network is acting as a low-pass filter and it is followed by a network which discerns between signals coming from the left or the right. The parameters of these networks are optimized by an evolutionary algorithm. In addition, a simple modular neural controller then generates the desired different walking patterns such that the machine walks straight, then turns towards a switched-on sound source, and then stops near to it.

  5. Noise Attenuation Estimation for Maximum Length Sequences in Deconvolution Process of Auditory Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of maximum length sequence (m-sequence has been found beneficial for recovering both linear and nonlinear components at rapid stimulation. Since m-sequence is fully characterized by a primitive polynomial of different orders, the selection of polynomial order can be problematic in practice. Usually, the m-sequence is repetitively delivered in a looped fashion. Ensemble averaging is carried out as the first step and followed by the cross-correlation analysis to deconvolve linear/nonlinear responses. According to the classical noise reduction property based on additive noise model, theoretical equations have been derived in measuring noise attenuation ratios (NARs after the averaging and correlation processes in the present study. A computer simulation experiment was conducted to test the derived equations, and a nonlinear deconvolution experiment was also conducted using order 7 and 9 m-sequences to address this issue with real data. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the NAR is essentially independent of the m-sequence order and is decided by the total length of valid data, as well as stimulation rate. The present study offers a guideline for m-sequence selections, which can be used to estimate required recording time and signal-to-noise ratio in designing m-sequence experiments.

  6. Can rapid maxillary expansion cause auditory improvement in children and adolescents with hearing loss? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Rabello, Nicole Melres; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Normando, David; Mello, Karina Corrêa Flexa Ribeiro

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate whether the use of palatal expansion techniques can influence hearing loss in children and adolescents with previous hearing impairment. Electronic searches in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, Lilacs, OpenGrey, and Google Scholar were performed with a controlled vocabulary and free-text terms relating to palatal expansion and hearing loss. No language or time restrictions were imposed. Clinical trials that focused on human patients treated with rapid or semirapid maxillary expansion in children and teenagers with hearing loss were included. Data extraction was undertaken by two authors, with conflict resolution by a third author. Risk of bias assessment and data extraction were performed on the selected studies. Seventy-four citations were retrieved by the search. Initially, 12 studies were selected according to the eligibility criteria, but three studies were excluded because of the presence of adults, absence of hearing level evaluation, and oversampling, resulting in nine studies. The mean improvement in hearing levels varied from 2 to 19 dB among the studies. The risk of bias varied from low to moderate risk. The evidence indicated that there was a hearing improvement after maxillary expansion in patients with hearing loss in the evaluated studies, although more controlled and randomized studies are necessary to investigate this issue further.

  7. Auditory object cognition in dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Johanna C.; Kim, Lois G.; Hailstone, Julia C.; Lehmann, Manja; Buckley, Aisling; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    The cognition of nonverbal sounds in dementia has been relatively little explored. Here we undertook a systematic study of nonverbal sound processing in patient groups with canonical dementia syndromes comprising clinically diagnosed typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 21), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 5), logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA; n = 7) and aphasia in association with a progranulin gene mutation (GAA; n = 1), and in healthy age-matched controls (n = 20). Based on a cognitive framework treating complex sounds as ‘auditory objects’, we designed a novel neuropsychological battery to probe auditory object cognition at early perceptual (sub-object), object representational (apperceptive) and semantic levels. All patients had assessments of peripheral hearing and general neuropsychological functions in addition to the experimental auditory battery. While a number of aspects of auditory object analysis were impaired across patient groups and were influenced by general executive (working memory) capacity, certain auditory deficits had some specificity for particular dementia syndromes. Patients with AD had a disproportionate deficit of auditory apperception but preserved timbre processing. Patients with PNFA had salient deficits of timbre and auditory semantic processing, but intact auditory size and apperceptive processing. Patients with LPA had a generalised auditory deficit that was influenced by working memory function. In contrast, the patient with GAA showed substantial preservation of auditory function, but a mild deficit of pitch direction processing and a more severe deficit of auditory apperception. The findings provide evidence for separable stages of auditory object analysis and separable profiles of impaired auditory object cognition in different dementia syndromes. PMID:21689671

  8. A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Voice-Processing Abnormalities in Schizophrenia: A Window into Auditory Verbal Hallucinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Tatiana; Gonçalves, Oscar F; Pinheiro, Ana P

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a core symptom of schizophrenia. Like "real" voices, AVH carry a rich amount of linguistic and paralinguistic cues that convey not only speech, but also affect and identity, information. Disturbed processing of voice identity, affective, and speech information has been reported in patients with schizophrenia. More recent evidence has suggested a link between voice-processing abnormalities and specific clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, especially AVH. It is still not well understood, however, to what extent these dimensions are impaired and how abnormalities in these processes might contribute to AVH. In this review, we consider behavioral, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological data to investigate the speech, identity, and affective dimensions of voice processing in schizophrenia, and we discuss how abnormalities in these processes might help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying specific phenomenological features of AVH. Schizophrenia patients exhibit behavioral and neural disturbances in the three dimensions of voice processing. Evidence suggesting a role of dysfunctional voice processing in AVH seems to be stronger for the identity and speech dimensions than for the affective domain.

  9. Relação entre potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência e distúrbio de processamento auditivo: estudo de casos Relationship between auditory evoked potentials and middle latency auditory processing disorder: cases study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Leite Romero

    2013-04-01

    . This study aimed to analyze the auditory evoked middle latency response in two patients with auditory processing disorder and relate objective and behavioral measures. This case study was conducted in 2 patients (P1 = 12 years, female, P2 = 17 years old, male, both with the absence of sensory abnormalities, neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Both were submitted to anamnesis, inspection of the external ear canal, hearing test and evaluation of Auditory Evoked Middle latency Response. There was a significant association between behavioral test and objectives results. In the interview, there were complaints about the difficulty in listening in a noisy environment, sound localization, inattention, and phonological changes in writing and speaking, as confirmed by evaluation of auditory processing and Auditory Evoked Middle Latency Response. Changes were observed in the right decoding process hearing in both cases on the behavioral assessment of auditory processing; auditory evoked potential test middle latency shows that the right contralateral via response was deficient, confirming the difficulties of the patients in the assignment of meaning in acoustic information in a competitive sound condition at right, in both cases. In these cases it was shown the association between the results, but there is a need for further studies with larger sample population to confirm the data.

  10. Relação entre potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência e distúrbio de processamento auditivo: estudo de casos Relationship between auditory evoked potentials and middle latency auditory processing disorder: cases study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Leite Romero

    2013-01-01

    . This study aimed to analyze the auditory evoked middle latency response in two patients with auditory processing disorder and relate objective and behavioral measures. This case study was conducted in 2 patients (P1 = 12 years, female, P2 = 17 years old, male, both with the absence of sensory abnormalities, neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Both were submitted to anamnesis, inspection of the external ear canal, hearing test and evaluation of Auditory Evoked Middle latency Response. There was a significant association between behavioral test and objectives results. In the interview, there were complaints about the difficulty in listening in a noisy environment, sound localization, inattention, and phonological changes in writing and speaking, as confirmed by evaluation of auditory processing and Auditory Evoked Middle Latency Response. Changes were observed in the right decoding process hearing in both cases on the behavioral assessment of auditory processing; auditory evoked potential test middle latency shows that the right contralateral via response was deficient, confirming the difficulties of the patients in the assignment of meaning in acoustic information in a competitive sound condition at right, in both cases. In these cases it was shown the association between the results, but there is a need for further studies with larger sample population to confirm the data.

  11. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  12. Computational Auditory Scene Analysis Based Perceptual and Neural Principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, DeLiang

    2004-01-01

    .... This fundamental process of auditory perception is called auditory scene analysis. of particular importance in auditory scene analysis is the separation of speech from interfering sounds, or speech segregation...

  13. Auditory sensory processing deficits in sensory gating and mismatch negativity-like responses in the social isolation rat model of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witten, Louise; Oranje, Bob; Mørk, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit disturbances in information processing. These disturbances can be investigated with different paradigms of auditory event related potentials (ERP), such as sensory gating in a double click paradigm (P50 suppression) and the mismatch negativity (MMN) component...... in an auditory oddball paradigm. The aim of the current study was to test if rats subjected to social isolation, which is believed to induce some changes that mimic features of schizophrenia, displays alterations in sensory gating and MMN-like response. Male Lister-Hooded rats were separated into two groups; one...... group socially isolated (SI) for 8 weeks and one group housed (GH). Both groups were then tested in a double click sensory gating paradigm and an auditory oddball paradigm (MMN-like) paradigm. It was observed that the SI animals showed reduced sensory gating of the cortical N1 amplitude. Furthermore...

  14. Auditory Reserve and the Legacy of Auditory Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Musical training during childhood has been linked to more robust encoding of sound later in life. We take this as evidence for an auditory reserve: a mechanism by which individuals capitalize on earlier life experiences to promote auditory processing. We assert that early auditory experiences guide how the reserve develops and is maintained over the lifetime. Experiences that occur after childhood, or which are limited in nature, are theorized to affect the reserve, although their influence o...

  15. The Effects of Aircraft Noise on the Auditory Language Processing Abilities of English First Language Primary School Learners in Durban, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Cara; de Andrade, Victor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Schools located near to airports are exposed to high levels of noise which can cause cognitive, health, and hearing problems. Therefore, this study sought to explore whether this noise may cause auditory language processing (ALP) problems in primary school learners. Sixty-one children attending schools exposed to high levels of noise were matched…

  16. Understanding and Identifying the Child at Risk for Auditory Processing Disorders: A Case Method Approach in Examining the Interdisciplinary Role of the School Nurse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Kathleen; Foley, Marie; Gertner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Despite receiving increased professional and public awareness since the initial American Speech Language Hearing Association (ASHA) statement defining Auditory Processing Disorders (APDs) in 1993 and the subsequent ASHA statement (2005), many misconceptions remain regarding APDs in school-age children among health and academic professionals. While…

  17. Daily Stress, Hearing-Specific Stress and Coping: Self-Reports from Deaf or Hard of Hearing Children and Children with Auditory Processing Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbeck, Heike; Gillé, Vera; Heim-Dreger, Uwe; Schock, Alexandra; Schott, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated stressors and coping strategies in 70 children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) or with auditory processing disorder (APD) attending Grades 5 and 6 of a school for deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Everyday general stressors and more hearing-specific stressors were examined in a hearing-specific modified stress and…

  18. Analysis of Rapid Acquisition Processes to Fulfill Future Urgent Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    UAVs , the DOD defines UAVs as “powered aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator; use aerodynamic forces to provide lift; can be autonomously...25 B. UAV ...25 1. UAV Background ...............................................................................25 2. Rapid Acquisition in UAV

  19. Rapid Tools Compensation in Sheet Metal Stamping Process

    OpenAIRE

    Iorio Lorenzo; Strano Matteo; Monno Michele

    2016-01-01

    The sudden growth of additive manufacturing is generating a renovated interest towards the field of rapid tooling. We propose a geometrical compensation method for rapid tools made by thermoset polyurethane. The method is based on the explicit FEM simulation coupled to a geometrical optimization algorithm for designing the stamping tools. The compensation algorithm is enhanced by considering the deviations between the stamped and designed components. The FEM model validation has been performe...

  20. Effect of temporal predictability on the neural processing of self-triggered auditory stimulation during vocalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhaocong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensory consequences of our own actions are perceived differently from the sensory stimuli that are generated externally. The present event-related potential (ERP study examined the neural responses to self-triggered stimulation relative to externally-triggered stimulation as a function of delays between the motor act and the stimulus onset. While sustaining a vowel phonation, subjects clicked a mouse and heard pitch-shift stimuli (PSS in voice auditory feedback at delays of either 0 ms (predictable or 500–1000 ms (unpredictable. The motor effect resulting from the mouse click was corrected in the data analyses. For the externally-triggered condition, PSS were delivered by a computer with a delay of 500–1000 ms after the vocal onset. Results As compared to unpredictable externally-triggered PSS, P2 responses to predictable self-triggered PSS were significantly suppressed, whereas an enhancement effect for P2 responses was observed when the timing of self-triggered PSS was unpredictable. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the effect of the temporal predictability of stimulus delivery with respect to the motor act on the neural responses to self-triggered stimulation. Responses to self-triggered stimulation were suppressed or enhanced compared with the externally-triggered stimulation when the timing of stimulus delivery was predictable or unpredictable. Enhancement effect of unpredictable self-triggered stimulation in the present study supports the idea that sensory suppression of self-produced action may be primarily caused by an accurate prediction of stimulus timing, rather than a movement-related non-specific suppression.

  1. Experimental analysis of the auditory detection process on avian point counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, T.R.; Alldredge, M.W.; Pollock, K.H.; Wettroth, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a system for simulating the conditions of avian surveys in which birds are identified by sound. The system uses a laptop computer to control a set of amplified MP3 players placed at known locations around a survey point. The system can realistically simulate a known population of songbirds under a range of factors that affect detection probabilities. The goals of our research are to describe the sources and range of variability affecting point-count estimates and to find applications of sampling theory and methodologies that produce practical improvements in the quality of bird-census data. Initial experiments in an open field showed that, on average, observers tend to undercount birds on unlimited-radius counts, though the proportion of birds counted by individual observers ranged from 81% to 132% of the actual total. In contrast to the unlimited-radius counts, when data were truncated at a 50-m radius around the point, observers overestimated the total population by 17% to 122%. Results also illustrate how detection distances decline and identification errors increase with increasing levels of ambient noise. Overall, the proportion of birds heard by observers decreased by 28 ± 4.7% under breezy conditions, 41 ± 5.2% with the presence of additional background birds, and 42 ± 3.4% with the addition of 10 dB of white noise. These findings illustrate some of the inherent difficulties in interpreting avian abundance estimates based on auditory detections, and why estimates that do not account for variations in detection probability will not withstand critical scrutiny.

  2. P300 as a measure of processing capacity in auditory and visual domains in specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Julia L; Selinger, Craig; Pollak, Seth D

    2011-05-10

    This study examined the electrophysiological correlates of auditory and visual working memory in children with Specific Language Impairments (SLI). Children with SLI and age-matched controls (11;9-14;10) completed visual and auditory working memory tasks while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. In the auditory condition, children with SLI performed similarly to controls when the memory load was kept low (1-back memory load). As expected, when demands for auditory working memory were higher, children with SLI showed decreases in accuracy and attenuated P3b responses. However, children with SLI also evinced difficulties in the visual working memory tasks. In both the low (1-back) and high (2-back) memory load conditions, P3b amplitude was significantly lower for the SLI as compared to CA groups. These data suggest a domain-general working memory deficit in SLI that is manifested across auditory and visual modalities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of Sensory Perception, Emotionality and Lifeworld in Auditory Word Processing: Evidence from Congenital Blindness and Synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Judith; Domahs, Frank; Kauschke, Christina

    2017-12-01

    Although it has been established that human beings process concrete and abstract words differently, it is still a matter of debate what factors contribute to this difference. Since concrete concepts are closely tied to sensory perception, perceptual experience seems to play an important role in their processing. The present study investigated the processing of nouns during an auditory lexical decision task. Participants came from three populations differing in their visual-perceptual experience: congenitally blind persons, word-color synesthetes, and sighted non-synesthetes. Specifically, three features with potential relevance to concreteness were manipulated: sensory perception, emotionality, and Husserlian lifeworld, a concept related to the inner versus the outer world of the self. In addition to a classical concreteness effect, our results revealed a significant effect of lifeworld: words that are closely linked to the internal states of humans were processed faster than words referring to the outside world. When lifeworld was introduced as predictor, there was no effect of emotionality. Concerning participants' perceptual experience, an interaction between participant group and item characteristics was found: the effects of both concreteness and lifeworld were more pronounced for blind compared to sighted participants. We will discuss the results in the context of embodied semantics, and we will propose an approach to concreteness based on the individual's bodily experience and the relatedness of a given concept to the self.

  4. Lateralization of auditory-cortex functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    In the present review, we summarize the most recent findings and current views about the structural and functional basis of human brain lateralization in the auditory modality. Main emphasis is given to hemodynamic and electromagnetic data of healthy adult participants with regard to music- vs. speech-sound encoding. Moreover, a selective set of behavioral dichotic-listening (DL) results and clinical findings (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia) are included. It is shown that human brain has a strong predisposition to process speech sounds in the left and music sounds in the right auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. Up to great extent, an auditory area located at the posterior end of the temporal lobe (called planum temporale [PT]) underlies this functional asymmetry. However, the predisposition is not bound to informational sound content but to rapid temporal information more common in speech than in music sounds. Finally, we obtain evidence for the vulnerability of the functional specialization of sound processing. These altered forms of lateralization may be caused by top-down and bottom-up effects inter- and intraindividually In other words, relatively small changes in acoustic sound features or in their familiarity may modify the degree in which the left vs. right auditory areas contribute to sound encoding.

  5. Oscillatory Mechanisms of Stimulus Processing and Selection in the Visual and Auditory Systems: State-of-the-Art, Speculations and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Zoefel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available All sensory systems need to continuously prioritize and select incoming stimuli in order to avoid overflow or interference, and provide a structure to the brain's input. However, the characteristics of this input differ across sensory systems; therefore, and as a direct consequence, each sensory system might have developed specialized strategies to cope with the continuous stream of incoming information. Neural oscillations are intimately connected with this selection process, as they can be used by the brain to rhythmically amplify or attenuate input and therefore represent an optimal tool for stimulus selection. In this paper, we focus on oscillatory processes for stimulus selection in the visual and auditory systems. We point out both commonalities and differences between the two systems and develop several hypotheses, inspired by recently published findings: (1 The rhythmic component in its input is crucial for the auditory, but not for the visual system. The alignment between oscillatory phase and rhythmic input (phase entrainment is therefore an integral part of stimulus selection in the auditory system whereas the visual system merely adjusts its phase to upcoming events, without the need for any rhythmic component. (2 When input is unpredictable, the visual system can maintain its oscillatory sampling, whereas the auditory system switches to a different, potentially internally oriented, “mode” of processing that might be characterized by alpha oscillations. (3 Visual alpha can be divided into a faster occipital alpha (10 Hz and a slower frontal alpha (7 Hz that critically depends on attention.

  6. Is the rapid adaptation paradigm too rapid? Implications for face and object processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemrodov, Dan; Itier, Roxane J

    2012-07-16

    Rapid adaptation is an adaptation procedure in which adaptors and test stimuli are presented in rapid succession. The current study tested the validity of this method for early ERP components by investigating the specificity of the adaptation effect on the face-sensitive N170 ERP component across multiple test stimuli. Experiments 1 and 2 showed identical response patterns for house and upright face test stimuli using the same adaptor stimuli. The results were also identical to those reported in a previous study using inverted face test stimuli (Nemrodov and Itier, 2011). In Experiment 3 all possible adaptor-test combinations between upright face, house, chair and car stimuli were used and no interaction between adaptor and test category, expected in the case of test-specific adaptation, was found. These results demonstrate that the rapid adaptation paradigm does not produce category-specific adaptation effects around 170-200 ms following test stimulus onset, a necessary condition for the interpretation of adaptation results. These results suggest the rapid categorical adaptation paradigm does not work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Auditory adaptation improves tactile frequency perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommett, L.E.; Pérez Bellido, A.; Yau, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Our ability to process temporal frequency information by touch underlies our capacity to perceive and discriminate surface textures. Auditory signals, which also provide extensive temporal frequency information, can systematically alter the perception of vibrations on the hand. How auditory signals

  8. Visual processing in rapid-chase systems: Image processing, attention, and awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchmidt

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual stimuli can be classified so rapidly that their analysis may be based on a single sweep of feedforward processing through the visuomotor system. Behavioral criteria for feedforward processing can be evaluated in response priming tasks where speeded pointing or keypress responses are performed towards target stimuli which are preceded by prime stimuli. We apply this method to several classes of complex stimuli. 1 When participants classify natural images into animals or non-animals, the time course of their pointing responses indicates that prime and target signals remain strictly sequential throughout all processing stages, meeting stringent behavioral criteria for feedforward processing (rapid-chase criteria. 2 Such priming effects are boosted by selective visual attention for positions, shapes, and colors, in a way consistent with bottom-up enhancement of visuomotor processing, even when primes cannot be consciously identified. 3 Speeded processing of phobic images is observed in participants specifically fearful of spiders or snakes, suggesting enhancement of feedforward processing by long-term perceptual learning. 4 When the perceived brightness of primes in complex displays is altered by means of illumination or transparency illusions, priming effects in speeded keypress responses can systematically contradict subjective brightness judgments, such that one prime appears brighter than the other but activates motor responses as if it was darker. We propose that response priming captures the output of the first feedforward pass of visual signals through the visuomotor system, and that this output lacks some characteristic features of more elaborate, recurrent processing. This way, visuomotor measures may become dissociated from several aspects of conscious vision. We argue that "fast" visuomotor measures predominantly driven by feedforward processing should supplement "slow" psychophysical measures predominantly based on visual

  9. Auditory Spatial Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  10. Basic auditory processing and sensitivity to prosodic structure in children with specific language impairments: a new look at a perceptual hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Ruth; Wilson, Angela; Goswami, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific language impairments (SLIs) show impaired perception and production of spoken language, and can also present with motor, auditory, and phonological difficulties. Recent auditory studies have shown impaired sensitivity to amplitude rise time (ART) in children with SLIs, along with non-speech rhythmic timing difficulties. Linguistically, these perceptual impairments should affect sensitivity to speech prosody and syllable stress. Here we used two tasks requiring sensitivity to prosodic structure, the DeeDee task and a stress misperception task, to investigate this hypothesis. We also measured auditory processing of ART, rising pitch and sound duration, in both speech ("ba") and non-speech (tone) stimuli. Participants were 45 children with SLI aged on average 9 years and 50 age-matched controls. We report data for all the SLI children (N = 45, IQ varying), as well as for two independent SLI subgroupings with intact IQ. One subgroup, "Pure SLI," had intact phonology and reading (N = 16), the other, "SLI PPR" (N = 15), had impaired phonology and reading. Problems with syllable stress and prosodic structure were found for all the group comparisons. Both sub-groups with intact IQ showed reduced sensitivity to ART in speech stimuli, but the PPR subgroup also showed reduced sensitivity to sound duration in speech stimuli. Individual differences in processing syllable stress were associated with auditory processing. These data support a new hypothesis, the "prosodic phrasing" hypothesis, which proposes that grammatical difficulties in SLI may reflect perceptual difficulties with global prosodic structure related to auditory impairments in processing amplitude rise time and duration.

  11. Rapid Tools Compensation in Sheet Metal Stamping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iorio Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sudden growth of additive manufacturing is generating a renovated interest towards the field of rapid tooling. We propose a geometrical compensation method for rapid tools made by thermoset polyurethane. The method is based on the explicit FEM simulation coupled to a geometrical optimization algorithm for designing the stamping tools. The compensation algorithm is enhanced by considering the deviations between the stamped and designed components. The FEM model validation has been performed by comparing the results of a DOE done at different values of press force.

  12. The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception, and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Jeremy M.; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquiere, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether auditory, speech perception, and phonological skills are tightly interrelated or independently contributing to reading. We assessed each of these three skills in 36 adults with a past diagnosis of dyslexia and 54 matched normal reading adults. Phonological skills were tested by the typical threefold tasks, i.e., rapid automatic naming, verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness. Dynamic auditory processing skills were assessed by means of a frequency m...

  13. The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy eLaw; Maaike eVandermosten; Pol eGhesquiere; Jan eWouters

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether auditory, speech perception and phonological skills are tightly interrelated or independently contributing to reading. We assessed each of these three skills in 36 adults with a past diagnosis of dyslexia and 54 matched normal reading adults. Phonological skills were tested by the typical threefold tasks, i.e. rapid automatic naming, verbal short term memory and phonological awareness. Dynamic auditory processing skills were assessed by means of a frequency mod...

  14. Rapid Prototyping of High Performance Signal Processing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Nimish

    Advances in embedded systems for digital signal processing (DSP) are enabling many scientific projects and commercial applications. At the same time, these applications are key to driving advances in many important kinds of computing platforms. In this region of high performance DSP, rapid prototyping is critical for faster time-to-market (e.g., in the wireless communications industry) or time-to-science (e.g., in radio astronomy). DSP system architectures have evolved from being based on application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to incorporate reconfigurable off-the-shelf field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), the latest multiprocessors such as graphics processing units (GPUs), or heterogeneous combinations of such devices. We, thus, have a vast design space to explore based on performance trade-offs, and expanded by the multitude of possibilities for target platforms. In order to allow systematic design space exploration, and develop scalable and portable prototypes, model based design tools are increasingly used in design and implementation of embedded systems. These tools allow scalable high-level representations, model based semantics for analysis and optimization, and portable implementations that can be verified at higher levels of abstractions and targeted toward multiple platforms for implementation. The designer can experiment using such tools at an early stage in the design cycle, and employ the latest hardware at later stages. In this thesis, we have focused on dataflow-based approaches for rapid DSP system prototyping. This thesis contributes to various aspects of dataflow-based design flows and tools as follows: 1. We have introduced the concept of topological patterns, which exploits commonly found repetitive patterns in DSP algorithms to allow scalable, concise, and parameterizable representations of large scale dataflow graphs in high-level languages. We have shown how an underlying design tool can systematically exploit a high

  15. Rapid Delivery of Cyber Capabilities: Evaluation of the Requirement for a Rapid Cyber Acquisition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    capabilities and rapid implementation of tactics—all aspects readily addressed using non-material solutions. Additionally, configuration and maintenance of...Offict Symbol: 4. Co~ttac-t 1nror11tation: (l\\’am~ Pj Rcqu.-$1/.Uomtlt’nttNU POC) (RD.11J.!Crrult’) (0/ Jit ’’ Spn) Phone’ 1\\’un.rbo S. T ec:hni<’lll POC 6

  16. Incidental auditory category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K; Zevin, Jason D; Holt, Lori L

    2015-08-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in 1 of 4 possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from 1 of 4 distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  18. Relação entre desvios fonológicos e processamento auditivo Relationship between phonological disorders and auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Tomazi Moreira Caumo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Pesquisar a relação entre desvio fonológico e processamento auditivo. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados por meio da verificação de prontuários. Foram incluídos no estudo pacientes com diagnóstico de desvio fonológico que realizaram testes de processamento auditivo e que tinham idade mínima de sete anos. Considerou-se a avaliação do processamento auditivo, a avaliação da fala, o gênero, a idade e a série escolar. RESULTADOS: Todas as crianças (100% apresentaram pelo menos um subperfil do processamento auditivo alterado. Ao comparar os processos de substituição e de estruturação silábica aos resultados dos testes de processamento auditivo verificou-se correlação estatisticamente significante para a etapa de integração binaural para a orelha direita do teste dicótico de dígitos (p=0,018 e para a condição nomeando do teste PPS (p=0,041. Na comparação dos testes de processamento auditivo com a idade encontrou-se diferença estatisticamente significante para o teste PSI na orelha direita (p=0,011 para a faixa de 10 a 12 anos. O mesmo ocorreu na comparação com a série escolar, em que o teste SSW na condição direita competitiva (p=0,039 e a atenção direcionada à direita do teste dicótico de dígitos (p=0,037 foram estatisticamente significantes para as séries mais avançadas. CONCLUSÃO: A pesquisa sugere a existência de uma estreita relação entre processamento auditivo e desvio fonológico principalmente em relação ao desempenho da orelha direita, evidenciando a importância de determinar a existência do comprometimento das habilidades auditivas em crianças com desvio fonológico.PURPOSE: To study the relationship between phonological disorder and auditory processing. METHODS: Data were gathered from patients' records, and included individuals with diagnosis of phonological disorder, with seven years old or more, who had carried out auditory processing tests. The study considered auditory

  19. A FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING INVESTIGATION OF THE ROLES OF STRUCTURAL COMPLEXITY AND TASK-DEMAND DURING AUDITORY SENTENCE PROCESSING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tracy; Haist, Frank; Nicol, Janet; Swinney, David

    2009-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study directly examined an issue that bridges the potential language processing and multi-modal views of the role of Broca’s area: the effects of task-demands in language comprehension studies. We presented syntactically simple and complex sentences for auditory comprehension under three different (differentially complex) task-demand conditions: passive listening, probe verification, and theme judgment. Contrary to many language imaging findings, we found that both simple and complex syntactic structures activated left inferior frontal cortex (L-IFC). Critically, we found activation in these frontal regions increased together with increased task-demands. Specifically, tasks that required greater manipulation and comparison of linguistic material recruited L-IFC more strongly; independent of syntactic structure complexity. We argue that much of the presumed syntactic effects previously found in sentence imaging studies of L-IFC may, among other things, reflect the tasks employed in these studies and that L-IFC is a region underlying mnemonic and other integrative functions, on which much language processing may rely. PMID:16881268

  20. Comparison of conventional averaged and rapid averaged, autoregressive-based extracted auditory evoked potentials for monitoring the hypnotic level during propofol induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litvan, Héctor; Jensen, Erik W; Galan, Josefina

    2002-01-01

    The extraction of the middle latency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEP) is usually done by moving time averaging (MTA) over many sweeps (often 250-1,000), which could produce a delay of more than 1 min. This problem was addressed by applying an autoregressive model with exogenous input (ARX......) that enables extraction of the auditory evoked potentials (AEP) within 15 sweeps. The objective of this study was to show that an AEP could be extracted faster by ARX than by MTA and with the same reliability....

  1. A processing schema for children in the auditory equiprobable Go/NoGo task: ERP components and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Robert J; De Blasio, Frances M; Fogarty, Jack S

    2018-01-01

    A sequential processing model for adults in the auditory equiprobable Go/NoGo task has been developed in recent years. This used temporal principal components analysis (PCA) to decompose Go/NoGo event related potential (ERP) data into components that mark stages of perceptual and cognitive processing. The model has been found useful in frameworking several studies in young and older adults, and in children. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the common PCA approach of decomposing Go and NoGo ERP data together results in misallocation of variance between the conditions, distorting the timing, topography, and amplitudes of the resultant components in each condition. The present study thus reanalyses data from a child study, conducting separate PCAs on the data from each condition. Multiple regression was then used to seek links with behavioural measures from the task. In addition to confirming the previous NoGo N2b/inhibitory processing link, novel NoGo Negative Slow Wave/error evaluation and Go N1-1/RT variability links were obtained. Based on these outcomes, the recommended separate application of PCAs to Go and NoGo data was confirmed. The present data were used to develop a child-specific sequential processing schema for this paradigm, suggesting earlier separation of the Go and NoGo processing chains, and the need to include an additional inhibition and evaluation stage. The child schema should be useful in future studies involving this and other two-choice reaction tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving the Acute Myocardial Infarction Rapid Rule Out process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyden, Rachel; Fields, Willa

    2010-01-01

    Bedside staff nurses are in a unique position to identify implementation problems and ways to improve compliance with evidence-based practice guidelines. The goal of this performance improvement project was to improve compliance with an evidence-based Acute Myocardial Infarction Rapid Rule Out pathway. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate how a bedside staff nurse was able to decrease wait times and length of stay for patients with low-risk chest pain while applying evidence-based practice.

  3. An Oscillatory Hierarchy Controlling Neuronal Excitability and Stimulus Processing in the Auditory Cortex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Lakatos; Ankoor S. Shah; Kevin H. Knuth; Istvan Ulbert; George Karmos; Charles E. Schroeder

    2005-01-01

    .... However, despite decades of clinical and scientific investigation, there is no unifying theory of EEG organization, and the role of ongoing activity in sensory processing remains controversial...

  4. Neurophysiological Indices of Atypical Auditory Processing and Multisensory Integration Are Associated with Symptom Severity in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandwein, Alice B.; Foxe, John J.; Butler, John S.; Frey, Hans-Peter; Bates, Juliana C.; Shulman, Lisa H.; Molholm, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Atypical processing and integration of sensory inputs are hypothesized to play a role in unusual sensory reactions and social-cognitive deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reports on the relationship between objective metrics of sensory processing and clinical symptoms, however, are surprisingly sparse. Here we examined the relationship…

  5. Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment (SLI): Relations with the Perception of Lexical and Phrasal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Susan; Goswami, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether impaired acoustic processing is a factor in developmental language disorders. The amplitude envelope of the speech signal is known to be important in language processing. We examined whether impaired perception of amplitude envelope rise time is related to impaired perception of lexical and phrasal stress in…

  6. The role of auditory transient and deviance processing in distraction of task performance: a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eBerti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechanism is capable of distracting ongoing task performance. In contrast, it is open whether transient detection – which does not rely on predictive coding mechanisms – can trigger behavioral distraction, too. In the present study, the effect of rare auditory changes on visual task performance is tested in an auditory-visual cross-modal distraction paradigm. The rare changes are either embedded within a continuous standard stimulation (triggering deviance detection or are presented within an otherwise silent situation (triggering transient detection. In the event-related brain potentials, deviants elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN while transients elicited an enhanced N1 component, mirroring pre-attentive change detection in both conditions but on the basis of different neuro-cognitive processes. These sensory components are followed by attention related ERP components including the P3a and the reorienting negativity (RON. This demonstrates that both types of changes trigger switches of attention. Finally, distraction of task performance is observable, too, but the impact of deviants is higher compared to transients. These findings suggest different routes of distraction allowing for the automatic processing of a wide range of potentially relevant changes in the environment as a pre-requisite for adaptive behavior.

  7. Training-induced plasticity of auditory localization in adult mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kacelnik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate auditory localization relies on neural computations based on spatial cues present in the sound waves at each ear. The values of these cues depend on the size, shape, and separation of the two ears and can therefore vary from one individual to another. As with other perceptual skills, the neural circuits involved in spatial hearing are shaped by experience during development and retain some capacity for plasticity in later life. However, the factors that enable and promote plasticity of auditory localization in the adult brain are unknown. Here we show that mature ferrets can rapidly relearn to localize sounds after having their spatial cues altered by reversibly occluding one ear, but only if they are trained to use these cues in a behaviorally relevant task, with greater and more rapid improvement occurring with more frequent training. We also found that auditory adaptation is possible in the absence of vision or error feedback. Finally, we show that this process involves a shift in sensitivity away from the abnormal auditory spatial cues to other cues that are less affected by the earplug. The mature auditory system is therefore capable of adapting to abnormal spatial information by reweighting different localization cues. These results suggest that training should facilitate acclimatization to hearing aids in the hearing impaired.

  8. Comparison of conventional averaged and rapid averaged, autoregressive-based extracted auditory evoked potentials for monitoring the hypnotic level during propofol induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litvan, Héctor; Jensen, Erik W; Galan, Josefina

    2002-01-01

    The extraction of the middle latency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEP) is usually done by moving time averaging (MTA) over many sweeps (often 250-1,000), which could produce a delay of more than 1 min. This problem was addressed by applying an autoregressive model with exogenous input (ARX) that...

  9. Auditory-prefrontal axonal connectivity in the macaque cortex: quantitative assessment of processing streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezgin, G.; Rybacki, K.; Opstal, A.J. van; Bakker, R.; Shen, K.; Vakorin, V.A.; McIntosh, A.R.; Kötter, R.

    2014-01-01

    Primate sensory systems subserve complex neurocomputational functions. Consequently, these systems are organised anatomically in a distributed fashion, commonly linking areas to form specialised processing streams. Each stream is related to a specific function, as evidenced from studies of the

  10. Auditory temporal-regularity processing correlates with language and literacy skill in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Manon; Cooper, Freya E; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2013-01-01

    This work tests the hypothesis that language skill depends on the ability to incorporate streams of sound into an accurate temporal framework. We tested the ability of young English-speaking adults to process single time intervals and rhythmic sequences of such intervals, hypothesized to be relevant to the analysis of the temporal structure of language. The data implicate a specific role for the ability to process beat-based temporal regularities in phonological language and literacy skill.

  11. Drell-Yan process at forward rapidity at the LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof; Lewandowska, Emilia(Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, 31-342, Poland); Stasto, Anna M.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the Drell-Yan lepton pair production at forward rapidity at the Large Hadron Collider. Using the dipole framework for the computation of the cross section we find a significant suppression in comparison to the collinear factorization formula due to saturation effects in the dipole cross section. We develop a twist expansion in powers of Q_s^2/M^2 where Q_s is the saturation scale and M the invariant mass of the produced lepton pair. For the nominal LHC energy the leading twist desc...

  12. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  13. A case of auditory agnosia with impairment of perception and expression of music: cognitive processing of tonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Masayuki; Takeda, Katsuhiko; Kuzuhara, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    There is fairly general agreement that the melody and the rhythm are the independent components of the perception of music. In the theory of music, the melody and harmony determine to which tonality the music belongs. It remains an unsettled question whether the tonality is also an independent component of the perception of music, or a by-product of the melody and harmony. We describe a patient with auditory agnosia and expressive amusia that developed after a bilateral infarction of the temporal lobes. We carried out a detailed examination of musical ability in the patient and in control subjects. Comparing with a control population, we identified the following impairments in music perception: (a) discrimination of familiar melodies; (b) discrimination of unfamiliar phrases, and (c) discrimination of isolated chords. His performance in pitch discrimination and tonality were within normal limits. Although intrasubject statistical analysis revealed significant difference only between tonality task and unfamiliar phrase performance, comparison with control subjects suggested a dissociation between a preserved tonality analysis and impairment of perception of melody and chords. By comparing the results of our patient with those in the literature, we may say that there is a double dissociation between the tonality and the other components. Thus, it seems reasonable to suppose that tonality is an independent component of music perception. Based on our present and previous studies, we proposed the revised version of the cognitive model of musical processing in the brain. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Effects of listening ability on speaking, writing and reading skills of children who were suspected of auditory processing difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçinkaya, Fulya; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Sahin, Semra

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of listening ability on speaking, writing and reading skills of children who was suspected of auditory processing difficulty (APD). This research was conducted with 67 children in 1st or 2nd grade of primary school. The first group (Group I-control) was comprised of 41 children without APD. The second group (Group II-study group) was comprised of 26 children with APD. Listening, speaking, reading and writing skills were evaluated by Observational Rating Scale (ORS) and analyzed in both groups. Listening value of ORS in APD group was significantly lower; and, speaking, reading and writing values of ORS in APD group were significantly higher than control group (p=0.000). It was also found that, the main effect of listening skills was on speaking in normal childs, and on writing ability in children with APD. It was concluded that, for school-aged children, APD can lead to or is associated with difficulties in written language.

  15. Impaired non-speech auditory processing at a pre-reading age is a risk-factor for dyslexia but not a predictor: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakas, Anna; van Zuijen, Titia; van Leeuwen, Theo; Thomson, Jennifer M; van der Leij, Aryan

    2013-04-01

    Impaired auditory sensitivity to amplitude rise time (ART) has been suggested to be a primary deficit in developmental dyslexia. The present study investigates whether impaired ART-sensitivity at a pre-reading age precedes and predicts later emerging reading problems in a sample of Dutch children. An oddball paradigm, with a deviant that differed from the standard stimulus in ART, was administered to 41-month-old children (30 genetically at-risk for developmental dyslexia and 14 controls) with concurrent EEG measurement. A second deviant that differed from the standard stimulus in frequency served as a control deviant. Grade two reading scores were used to divide the at-risks in a typical-reading and a dyslexic subgroup. We found that both ART- and frequency processing were related to later reading skill. We however also found that irrespective of reading level, the at-risks in general showed impaired basic auditory processing when compared to controls and that it was impossible to discriminate between the at-risk groups on basis of both auditory measures. A relatively higher quality of early expressive syntactic skills in the typical-reading at-risk group might indicate a protective factor against negative effects of impaired auditory processing on reading development. Based on these results we argue that ART- and frequency-processing measures, although they are related to reading skill, lack the power to be considered single-cause predictors of developmental dyslexia. More likely, they are genetically driven risk factors that may add to cumulative effects on processes that are critical for learning to read. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid Neutron Capture Process in Supernovae and Chemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    process in the supernova envelope at a high neutron density and a temperature of 109 degrees. ... Major advances have been made in calculating r-process .... Also electron capture on free protons is limited by the small abundance of free protons. These prob- lems are eased by higher density and higher temperature, ...

  17. Auditory Working Memory Load Impairs Visual Ventral Stream Processing: Toward a Unified Model of Attentional Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemen, Jane; Buchel, Christian; Buhler, Mira; Menz, Mareike M.; Rose, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Attentional interference between tasks performed in parallel is known to have strong and often undesired effects. As yet, however, the mechanisms by which interference operates remain elusive. A better knowledge of these processes may facilitate our understanding of the effects of attention on human performance and the debilitating consequences…

  18. Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D. [United Technologies Research Center, E. Hartford, CT (United States); Rastogi, S.; Klinzing, G.E. [Univ. of Pittsburg, PA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The thermodynamic properties of coal under conditions of rapid heating have been determined using a combination of UTRC facilities including a proprietary rapid heating rate differential thermal analyzer (RHR-DTA), a microbomb calorimeter (MBC), an entrained flow reactor (EFR), an elemental analyzer (EA), and a FT-IR. The total heat of devolatilization, was measured for a HVA bituminous coal (PSOC 1451D, Pittsburgh No. 8) and a LV bituminous coal (PSOC 1516D, Lower Kittaning). For the HVA coal, the contributions of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization were measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars. Morphological characterization of coal and char samples was performed at the University of Pittsburgh using a PC-based image analysis system, BET apparatus, helium pcynometer, and mercury porosimeter. The bulk density, true density, CO{sub 2} surface area, pore volume distribution, and particle size distribution as a function of extent of reaction are reported for both the HVA and LV coal. Analyses of the data were performed to obtain the fractal dimension of the particles as well as estimates for the external surface area. The morphological data together with the thermodynamic data obtained in this investigation provides a complete database for a set of common, well characterized coal and char samples. This database can be used to improve the prediction of particle temperatures in coal devolatilization models. Such models are used both to obtain kinetic rates from fundamental studies and in predicting furnace performance with comprehensive coal combustion codes. Recommendations for heat capacity functions and heats of devolatilization for the HVA and LV coals are given. Results of sample particle temperature calculations using the recommended thermodynamic properties are provided.

  19. Modeling auditory processing and speech perception in hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve

    in a diagnostic rhyme test. The framework was constructed such that discrimination errors originating from the front-end and the back-end were separated. The front-end was fitted to individual listeners with cochlear hearing loss according to non-speech data, and speech data were obtained in the same listeners....... It was shown that an accurate simulation of cochlear input-output functions, in addition to the audiogram, played a major role in accounting both for sensitivity and supra-threshold processing. Finally, the model was used as a front-end in a framework developed to predict consonant discrimination...... and reduced speech perception performance in the listeners with cochlear hearing loss. Overall, this work suggests a possible explanation of the variability in consequences of cochlear hearing loss. The proposed model might be an interesting tool for, e.g., evaluation of hearing-aid signal processing....

  20. The modulation of auditory novelty processing by working memory load in school age children and adults: a combined behavioral and event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widmann Andreas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the processing of task-irrelevant and unexpected novel sounds and its modulation by working-memory load in children aged 9-10 and in adults. Environmental sounds (novels were embedded amongst frequently presented standard sounds in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Each sound was followed by a visual target. In two conditions, participants evaluated the position of a visual stimulus (0-back, low load or compared the position of the current stimulus with the one two trials before (2-back, high load. Processing of novel sounds were measured with reaction times, hit rates and the auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs Mismatch Negativity (MMN, P3a, Reorienting Negativity (RON and visual P3b. Results In both memory load conditions novels impaired task performance in adults whereas they improved performance in children. Auditory ERPs reflect age-related differences in the time-window of the MMN as children showed a positive ERP deflection to novels whereas adults lack an MMN. The attention switch towards the task irrelevant novel (reflected by P3a was comparable between the age groups. Adults showed more efficient reallocation of attention (reflected by RON under load condition than children. Finally, the P3b elicited by the visual target stimuli was reduced in both age groups when the preceding sound was a novel. Conclusion Our results give new insights in the development of novelty processing as they (1 reveal that task-irrelevant novel sounds can result in contrary effects on the performance in a visual primary task in children and adults, (2 show a positive ERP deflection to novels rather than an MMN in children, and (3 reveal effects of auditory novels on visual target processing.

  1. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  2. Music-syntactic processing and auditory memory: similarities and differences between ERAN and MMN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The early right anterior negativity (ERAN) is an event-related potential (ERP) reflecting processing of music-syntactic information, that is, of acoustic information structured according to abstract and complex regularities. The ERAN is usually maximal between 150 and 250 ms, has anterior scalp distribution (and often right-hemispheric weighting), can be modified by short- and long-term musical experience, can be elicited under ignore conditions, and emerges in early childhood. Main generators of the ERAN appear to be located in inferior fronto-lateral cortex. The ERAN resembles both the physical MMN and the abstract feature MMN in a number of properties, but the cognitive mechanisms underlying ERAN and MMN partly differ: Whereas the generation of the MMN is based on representations of regularities of intersound relationships that are extracted online from the acoustic environment, the generation of the ERAN relies on representations of music-syntactic regularities that already exist in a long-term memory format. Other processes, such as predicting subsequent acoustic events and comparing new acoustic information with the predicted sound, presumably overlap strongly for MMN and ERAN.

  3. Modelling auditory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2017-02-19

    Sounds in everyday life seldom appear in isolation. Both humans and machines are constantly flooded with a cacophony of sounds that need to be sorted through and scoured for relevant information-a phenomenon referred to as the 'cocktail party problem'. A key component in parsing acoustic scenes is the role of attention, which mediates perception and behaviour by focusing both sensory and cognitive resources on pertinent information in the stimulus space. The current article provides a review of modelling studies of auditory attention. The review highlights how the term attention refers to a multitude of behavioural and cognitive processes that can shape sensory processing. Attention can be modulated by 'bottom-up' sensory-driven factors, as well as 'top-down' task-specific goals, expectations and learned schemas. Essentially, it acts as a selection process or processes that focus both sensory and cognitive resources on the most relevant events in the soundscape; with relevance being dictated by the stimulus itself (e.g. a loud explosion) or by a task at hand (e.g. listen to announcements in a busy airport). Recent computational models of auditory attention provide key insights into its role in facilitating perception in cluttered auditory scenes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Phase of Spontaneous Slow Oscillations during Sleep Influences Memory-Related Processing of Auditory Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Creery, Jessica D; Paller, Ken A

    2016-01-27

    Slow oscillations during slow-wave sleep (SWS) may facilitate memory consolidation by regulating interactions between hippocampal and cortical networks. Slow oscillations appear as high-amplitude, synchronized EEG activity, corresponding to upstates of neuronal depolarization and downstates of hyperpolarization. Memory reactivations occur spontaneously during SWS, and can also be induced by presenting learning-related cues associated with a prior learning episode during sleep. This technique, targeted memory reactivation (TMR), selectively enhances memory consolidation. Given that memory reactivation is thought to occur preferentially during the slow-oscillation upstate, we hypothesized that TMR stimulation effects would depend on the phase of the slow oscillation. Participants learned arbitrary spatial locations for objects that were each paired with a characteristic sound (eg, cat-meow). Then, during SWS periods of an afternoon nap, one-half of the sounds were presented at low intensity. When object location memory was subsequently tested, recall accuracy was significantly better for those objects cued during sleep. We report here for the first time that this memory benefit was predicted by slow-wave phase at the time of stimulation. For cued objects, location memories were categorized according to amount of forgetting from pre- to post-nap. Conditions of high versus low forgetting corresponded to stimulation timing at different slow-oscillation phases, suggesting that learning-related stimuli were more likely to be processed and trigger memory reactivation when they occurred at the optimal phase of a slow oscillation. These findings provide insight into mechanisms of memory reactivation during sleep, supporting the idea that reactivation is most likely during cortical upstates. Slow-wave sleep (SWS) is characterized by synchronized neural activity alternating between active upstates and quiet downstates. The slow-oscillation upstates are thought to provide a

  5. Rapid digestion process for determination of trichinellae in meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, P.M.

    1975-07-01

    This patent relates to an accelerated digestion process for releasing trichinellae from meat (usually pork) as excysted and encysted worms in transparent fluid whereby they may be easily identified and/or counted visually or automatically. This improved digestion process for the determination of trichinellae in meat comprises placing the meat in a blender, adding a digestant consisting of one of the following ingredients, namely sodium hypochlorite, hydrochloric acid and pepsin, bromelin, trypsin, or dilute papain; and blending the meat and digestant for about one minute and then pouring the solution into a receptacle, allowing particulate to settle to the bottom, extracting samples from the bottom of said receptacle, and visually or automatically identifying and/or counting any trichinellae that may be present. (auth)

  6. Rapid Neutron Capture Process in Supernovae and Chemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have studied the r-process path corresponding to temperatures ranging from 1.0 × 109 K to 3.0 × 109 K and neutron density ranging from 1020 cm-3 to 1030 cm-3. With temperature and density conditions of 3.0 × 109 K and 1020 cm-3 a nucleus of mass 273 was theoretically found corresponding to atomic number 115.

  7. Rapid Prototyping of High Performance Signal Processing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI at the NRAO, Green Bank , finds its use in the spectrometers currently under development for the GBT...rates. The single dish Green Bank Telescope (GBT) [68], for example, is used for pulsar searches and high-precision timing studies, which drive...their support. I am extremely thankful to Dr. Richard Prestage of the NRAO, Green Bank , WV, for his initial support and continued guidance in

  8. Syllabic (∼2-5 Hz) and fluctuation (∼1-10 Hz) ranges in speech and auditory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erik; Chang, Edward F

    2013-11-01

    Given recent interest in syllabic rates (∼2-5 Hz) for speech processing, we review the perception of "fluctuation" range (∼1-10 Hz) modulations during listening to speech and technical auditory stimuli (AM and FM tones and noises, and ripple sounds). We find evidence that the temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) of human auditory perception is not simply low-pass in nature, but rather exhibits a peak in sensitivity in the syllabic range (∼2-5 Hz). We also address human and animal neurophysiological evidence, and argue that this bandpass tuning arises at the thalamocortical level and is more associated with non-primary regions than primary regions of cortex. The bandpass rather than low-pass TMTF has implications for modeling auditory central physiology and speech processing: this implicates temporal contrast rather than simple temporal integration, with contrast enhancement for dynamic stimuli in the fluctuation range. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) tests in a school-age hearing screening programme - analysis of 76,429 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarzynski, Piotr H; Wlodarczyk, Andrzej W; Kochanek, Krzysztof; Pilka, Adam; Jedrzejczak, Wiktor W; Olszewski, Lukasz; Bruski, Lukasz; Niedzielski, Artur; Skarzynski, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    Hearing disorders among school-age children are a current concern. Continuing studies have been performed in Poland since 2008, and on 2 December 2011 the EU Council adopted Conclusions on the Early Detection and Treatment of Communication Disorders in Children, Including the Use of e-Health Tools and innovative Solutions. The discussion now focuses not only on the efficacy of hearing screening programmes in schoolchildren, but what should be its general aim and what tests it should include? This paper makes the case that it is important to include central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) tests. One such test is the dichotic digits test (DDT). The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the usefulness of the DDT in detecting central hearing disorders in school-age children. During hearing screening programmes conducted in Poland in 2008-2010, exactly 235,664 children (7-12-years-old) were screened in 9,325 schools. Of this number, 7,642 were examined using the DDT test for CAPD. Screening programmes were conducted using the Sense Examination Platform. With the cut-off criterion set at the 5th percentile, results for the DDT applied in a divided attention mode were 11.4% positive for 7-year-olds and 11.3% for 12-year-olds. In the focused attention mode, the comparable result for 12-year-olds was 9.7%. There was a clear right ear advantage. In children with positive DDT results, a higher incidence of other disorders, such as dyslexia, was observed. A test for CAPD should be included in the hearing screening of school-age children. The results of this study form the basis for developing Polish standards in this area.

  10. Age-group differences in speech identification despite matched audiometrically normal hearing: contributions from auditory temporal processing and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Moore, Brian C J; Stone, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Hearing loss with increasing age adversely affects the ability to understand speech, an effect that results partly from reduced audibility. The aims of this study were to establish whether aging reduces speech intelligibility for listeners with normal audiograms, and, if so, to assess the relative contributions of auditory temporal and cognitive processing. Twenty-one older normal-hearing (ONH; 60-79 years) participants with bilateral audiometric thresholds ≤ 20 dB HL at 0.125-6 kHz were matched to nine young (YNH; 18-27 years) participants in terms of mean audiograms, years of education, and performance IQ. Measures included: (1) identification of consonants in quiet and in noise that was unmodulated or modulated at 5 or 80 Hz; (2) identification of sentences in quiet and in co-located or spatially separated two-talker babble; (3) detection of modulation of the temporal envelope (TE) at frequencies 5-180 Hz; (4) monaural and binaural sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS); (5) various cognitive tests. Speech identification was worse for ONH than YNH participants in all types of background. This deficit was not reflected in self-ratings of hearing ability. Modulation masking release (the improvement in speech identification obtained by amplitude modulating a noise background) and spatial masking release (the benefit obtained from spatially separating masker and target speech) were not affected by age. Sensitivity to TE and TFS was lower for ONH than YNH participants, and was correlated positively with speech-in-noise (SiN) identification. Many cognitive abilities were lower for ONH than YNH participants, and generally were correlated positively with SiN identification scores. The best predictors of the intelligibility of SiN were composite measures of cognition and TFS sensitivity. These results suggest that declines in speech perception in older persons are partly caused by cognitive and perceptual changes separate from age-related changes in audiometric

  11. Avaliação do processamento auditivo em crianças com dificuldades de aprendizagem Auditory processing evaluation in children with learning difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Engelmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esclarecer a relação entre dificuldades de aprendizagem e o transtorno do processamento auditivo em uma turma de segunda série. MÉTODOS: Através da aplicação de testes de leitura os alunos foram classificados quanto à fluência em leitura, sendo um com maior fluência (grupo A e outro com menor fluência (grupo B. Os testes de processamento auditivo foram comparados entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: Todos os participantes apresentaram dificuldades de aprendizagem e transtorno do processamento auditivo em quase todos os subperfis primários. Verificou-se que a variável memória sequencial verbal do grupo de menor fluência em leitura (grupo B foi significantemente melhor (p=0,030. CONCLUSÃO: Questiona-se o diagnóstico de transtorno primário do processamento auditivo e salienta-se a importância da memória sequencial verbal no aprendizado da leitura e escrita. Em face do que foi observado, mais pesquisas deverão ser realizadas objetivando o estudo dessa variável e sua relação com o processamento auditivo temporal.PURPOSE: To clarify the relationship between learning difficulties and auditory processing disorder in second grade students. METHODS: Based on the application of reading tests, the students of a second grade class of an elementary school were classified into two groups, according to their reading fluency: a group with better fluency (group A and another with less fluency (group B. A between-group analysis of the auditory processing tests was carried out. RESULTS: All participants presented learning difficulties and auditory processing disorder in almost every primary subprofiles. It was observed that the verbal sequential memory abilities of the less fluent group (group B was significantly better (p=0,030. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of primary auditory processing disorder is questioned, and it is emphasized the importance of stimulating verbal sequential memory to the learning of reading and writing abilities. In

  12. The Musical Emotional Bursts: A validated set of musical affect bursts to investigate auditory affective processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien ePaquette

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Musical Emotional Bursts (MEB consist of 80 brief musical executions expressing basic emotional states (happiness, sadness and fear and neutrality. These musical bursts were designed to be the musical analogue of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV – a set of brief non-verbal affective vocalizations portraying different basic emotions. The MEB consist of short (mean duration: 1.6 sec improvisations on a given emotion or of imitations of a given MAV stimulus, played on a violin (n:40 or a clarinet (n:40. The MEB arguably represent a primitive form of music emotional expression, just like the MAV represent a primitive form of vocal, nonlinguistic emotional expression. To create the MEB, stimuli were recorded from 10 violinists and 10 clarinetists, and then evaluated by 60 participants. Participants evaluated 240 stimuli (30 stimuli x 4 [3 emotions + neutral] x 2 instruments by performing either a forced-choice emotion categorization task, a valence rating task or an arousal rating task (20 subjects per task; 40 MAVs were also used in the same session with similar task instructions. Recognition accuracy of emotional categories expressed by the MEB (n:80 was lower than for the MAVs but still very high with an average percent correct recognition score of 80.4%. Highest recognition accuracies were obtained for happy clarinet (92.0% and fearful or sad violin (88.0% each MEB stimuli. The MEB can be used to compare the cerebral processing of emotional expressions in music and vocal communication, or used for testing affective perception in patients with communication problems.

  13. Systems and methods for rapid processing and storage of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalzer, Mark A.

    2017-01-24

    Systems and methods of building massively parallel computing systems using low power computing complexes in accordance with embodiments of the invention are disclosed. A massively parallel computing system in accordance with one embodiment of the invention includes at least one Solid State Blade configured to communicate via a high performance network fabric. In addition, each Solid State Blade includes a processor configured to communicate with a plurality of low power computing complexes interconnected by a router, and each low power computing complex includes at least one general processing core, an accelerator, an I/O interface, and cache memory and is configured to communicate with non-volatile solid state memory.

  14. Rapid and continuous analyte processing in droplet microfluidic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strey, Helmut; Kimmerling, Robert; Bakowski, Tomasz

    2017-04-18

    The compositions and methods described herein are designed to introduce functionalized microparticles into droplets that can be manipulated in microfluidic devices by fields, including electric (dielectrophoretic) or magnetic fields, and extracted by splitting a droplet to separate the portion of the droplet that contains the majority of the microparticles from the part that is largely devoid of the microparticles. Within the device, channels are variously configured at Y- or T junctions that facilitate continuous, serial isolation and dilution of analytes in solution. The devices can be limited in the sense that they can be designed to output purified analytes that are then further analyzed in separate machines or they can include additional channels through which purified analytes can be further processed and analyzed.

  15. Impairment in predictive processes during auditory mismatch negativity in ScZ : Evidence from event-related fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, Andreas; Zeev-Wolf, Maor; Grent-'t-Jong, Tineke; Recasens, Marc; Wacongne, C.; Wibral, Michael; Helbling, Saskia; Peled, Abraham; Grinshpoon, Alexander; Singer, Wolf; Goldstein, Abraham; Uhlhaas, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (ScZ) show pronounced dysfunctions in auditory perception but the underlying mechanisms as well as the localization of the deficit remain unclear. To examine these questions, the current study examined whether alterations in the neuromagnetic mismatch negativity (MMNm) in

  16. The Relationship between Brainstem Temporal Processing and Performance on Tests of Central Auditory Function in Children with Reading Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiet, Cassandra R.; Bellis, Teri James

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Studies using speech stimuli to elicit electrophysiologic responses have found approximately 30% of children with language-based learning problems demonstrate abnormal brainstem timing. Research is needed regarding how these responses relate to performance on behavioral tests of central auditory function. The purpose of the study was to…

  17. Effects of Age and Attention on Auditory Global-Local Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Nicholas E. V.; Ouimet, Tia; Tryfon, Ana; Doyle-Thomas, Krissy; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Hyde, Krista L.

    2016-01-01

    In vision, typically-developing (TD) individuals perceive "global" (whole) before "local" (detailed) features, whereas individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit a local bias. However, auditory global-local distinctions are less clear in ASD, particularly in terms of age and attention effects. To these aims, here…

  18. Processamento auditivo em gagos: análise do desempenho das orelhas direita e esquerda Auditory processing in stutterers: performance of right and left ears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Neves de Andrade

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a diferença entre as orelhas nos testes comportamentais do processamento auditivo e os resultados de sujeitos com diferentes graus de gravidade de gagueira em cada teste do processamento auditivo. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta e seis indivíduos, com idades entre quatro e 34 anos, foram encaminhados pelo Ambulatório de Avaliação Fonoaudiológica da UNIFESP para avaliação comportamental do processamento auditivo. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação de audição, fala e linguagem. A disfluência foi classificada segundo o protocolo de Riley (1994, o qual prevê os seguintes graus de gravidade da gagueira: muito leve, leve, moderado, severo e muito severo. Os testes para avaliação do processamento auditivo foram selecionados e analisados de acordo com a idade do paciente e a proposta de Pereira & Schochat (1997. RESULTADOS: Observamos prevalência da gagueira de grau leve nas faixas etárias de quatro a sete anos e de 12 a 34 anos de idade, e de grau moderado nos indivíduos de oito a 11 anos de idade. Dos 56 indivíduos avaliados 92,85% apresentaram alteração do processamento auditivo. Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre as orelhas direita e esquerda na etapa de atenção direcionada do teste dicótico não verbal, em todas as faixas etárias estudadas. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os graus de gravidade da gagueira em nenhum dos testes de processamento auditivo. CONCLUSÕES: A orelha direita apresentou melhor desempenho do que a esquerda nos diferentes testes comportamentais. O grau de gravidade da gagueira não interferiu no resultado de cada teste.PURPOSE: To compare the difference between the performances of right and left ears in behavioral tests of auditory processing and to compare the results obtained by subjects with different stuttering severity classifications in each auditory processing test. METHODS: Fifty six subjects (49 male, 7 female, with ages ranging

  19. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePérez-González

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the stimuli. However, it is at higher levels in the auditory hierarchy where more sophisticated types of neuronal processing take place. For example, stimulus-specific adaptation, where neurons show adaptation to frequent, repetitive stimuli, but maintain their responsiveness to stimuli with different physical characteristics, thus representing a distinct kind of processing that may play a role in change and deviance detection. In the auditory cortex, adaptation takes more elaborate forms, and contributes to the processing of complex sequences, auditory scene analysis and attention. Here we review the multiple types of adaptation that occur in the auditory system, which are part of the pool of resources that the neurons employ to process the auditory scene, and are critical to a proper understanding of the neuronal mechanisms that govern auditory perception.

  20. Active auditory experience in infancy promotes brain plasticity in Theta and Gamma oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Musacchia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Language acquisition in infants is driven by on-going neural plasticity that is acutely sensitive to environmental acoustic cues. Recent studies showed that attention-based experience with non-linguistic, temporally-modulated auditory stimuli sharpens cortical responses. A previous ERP study from this laboratory showed that interactive auditory experience via behavior-based feedback (AEx, over a 6-week period from 4- to 7-months-of-age, confers a processing advantage, compared to passive auditory exposure (PEx or maturation alone (Naïve Control, NC. Here, we provide a follow-up investigation of the underlying neural oscillatory patterns in these three groups. In AEx infants, Standard stimuli with invariant frequency (STD elicited greater Theta-band (4–6 Hz activity in Right Auditory Cortex (RAC, as compared to NC infants, and Deviant stimuli with rapid frequency change (DEV elicited larger responses in Left Auditory Cortex (LAC. PEx and NC counterparts showed less-mature bilateral patterns. AEx infants also displayed stronger Gamma (33–37 Hz activity in the LAC during DEV discrimination, compared to NCs, while NC and PEx groups demonstrated bilateral activity in this band, if at all. This suggests that interactive acoustic experience with non-linguistic stimuli can promote a distinct, robust and precise cortical pattern during rapid auditory processing, perhaps reflecting mechanisms that support fine-tuning of early acoustic mapping.

  1. Contribution of bioanthropology to the reconstruction of prehistoric productive processes. The external auditory exostoses in the prehispanic population of Gran Canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Vázquez, Javier

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is an approach to the role of bioanthropological studies in the reconstruction of the productive processes of past societies. This objective is obtained starting from the survey and valuation of the prevalence of bone exostoses in the auditory canal among the prehistoric inhabitants of Gran Canaria. The auditory exostose is a bone wound well documented through clinical and experimental studies, closely related to the exposure of the auditory canal to cold water. The estimation of this bone anomaly among the analysed population, leads to the definition of outstanding territorial variations in the economic strategies of these human groups.

    En el presente trabajo se pretende abordar el papel de los estudios bioantropológicos en la reconstrucción de los procesos productivos de las sociedades del pasado. Esta finalidad es perseguida a partir del examen y valoración de la prevalencia de exostosis óseas en el canal auditivo en la población prehistórica de Gran Canaria. Las exostosis auditivas constituyen una lesión ósea, bien documentada en trabajos experimentales y clínicos, estrechamente relacionada con la exposición del canal auditivo al agua fría. La estimación de esta anormalidad ósea en el conjunto poblacional analizado permite la definición de importantes variaciones territoriales en las estrategias económicas emprendidas por estos grupos humanos.

  2. Impaired downregulation of visual cortex during auditory processing is associated with autism symptomatology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao Keehn, R Joanne; Sanchez, Sandra S; Stewart, Claire R; Zhao, Weiqi; Grenesko-Stevens, Emily L; Keehn, Brandon; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive developmental disorders characterized by impairments in language development and social interaction, along with restricted and stereotyped behaviors. These behaviors often include atypical responses to sensory stimuli; some children with ASD are easily overwhelmed by sensory stimuli, while others may seem unaware of their environment. Vision and audition are two sensory modalities important for social interactions and language, and are differentially affected in ASD. In the present study, 16 children and adolescents with ASD and 16 typically developing (TD) participants matched for age, gender, nonverbal IQ, and handedness were tested using a mixed event-related/blocked functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm to examine basic perceptual processes that may form the foundation for later-developing cognitive abilities. Auditory (high or low pitch) and visual conditions (dot located high or low in the display) were presented, and participants indicated whether the stimuli were "high" or "low." Results for the auditory condition showed downregulated activity of the visual cortex in the TD group, but upregulation in the ASD group. This atypical activity in visual cortex was associated with autism symptomatology. These findings suggest atypical crossmodal (auditory-visual) modulation linked to sociocommunicative deficits in ASD, in agreement with the general hypothesis of low-level sensorimotor impairments affecting core symptomatology. Autism Res 2017, 10: 130-143. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Rapid e-Learning Tools Selection Process for Cognitive and Psychomotor Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, David Tawei; Huang, Yung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a decision making process for the selection of rapid e-learning tools that could match different learning domains. With the development of the Internet, the speed of information updates has become faster than ever. E-learning has rapidly become the mainstream for corporate training and academic instruction. In order to reduce…

  4. Desempenho de escolares com distúrbio de aprendizagem e dislexia em testes de processamento auditivo Performance of students with learning disabilities and dyslexia on auditory processing tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marques de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar e comparar, por meio de testes comportamentais, o processamento auditivo de escolares com diagnóstico interdisciplinar de (I distúrbio da aprendizagem, (II dislexia e (III escolares com bom desempenho acadêmico. MÉTODOS: participaram deste estudo 30 escolares na faixa etária de 8 a 16 anos de idade, de ambos os gêneros, de 2ª a 4ª séries do ensino fundamental, divididos em três grupos: GI composto por 10 escolares com diagnóstico interdisciplinar de distúrbio de aprendizagem, GII: composto por 10 escolares com diagnóstico interdisciplinar de dislexia e GIII composto por 10 escolares sem dificuldades de aprendizagem, pareados segundo gênero e faixa etária com os grupos GI e GII. Foram realizadas avaliação audiológica e de processamento auditivo. RESULTADOS: os escolares de GIII apresentaram desempenho superior nos testes de processamento auditivo em relação aos escolares de GI e GII. GI apresentou desempenho inferior nas habilidades auditivas avaliadas para testes dicóticos de dígitos e dissílabos alternados, logoaudiometria pediátrica, localização sonora, memória verbal e não-verbal, ao passo que GII apresentou as mesmas alterações de GI, com exceção do teste de logoaudiometria pediátrica. CONCLUSÃO: os escolares com transtornos de aprendizagem apresentaram desempenho inferior nos testes de processamento auditivo, sendo que os escolares com distúrbio de aprendizagem apresentaram maior número de habilidades auditivas alteradas, em comparação com os escolares com dislexia, por terem apresentado atenção sustentada reduzida. O grupo de escolares com dislexia apresentou alterações decorrentes da dificuldade relacionada à codificação e decodificação de estímulos sonoros.PURPOSE: to characterize and compare, by means of behavioral tests, the auditory processing of students with an interdisciplinary diagnosis of (I learning disorder, (II dyslexia and (III students with good academic

  5. Auditory Association Cortex Lesions Impair Auditory Short-Term Memory in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michael; D'Amato, Michael R.; Rodman, Hillary R.; Gross, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Monkeys that were trained to perform auditory and visual short-term memory tasks (delayed matching-to-sample) received lesions of the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus. Although visual memory was completely unaffected by the lesions, auditory memory was severely impaired. Despite this impairme