WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid assessment procedures

  1. An operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Kalas, Milan; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc

    2017-07-01

    The development of methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is a key step to increase the usefulness of flood early warning systems and is crucial for effective emergency response and flood impact mitigation. Currently, flood early warning systems rarely include real-time components to assess potential impacts generated by forecasted flood events. To overcome this limitation, this study describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). Daily streamflow forecasts produced for major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood-prone areas, economic damage and affected population, infrastructures and cities.An extensive testing of the operational procedure has been carried out by analysing the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-based and report-based flood extent data, while modelled estimates of economic damage and affected population are compared against ground-based estimations. Finally, we evaluate the skill of risk estimates derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations of probabilistic forecasts. Results highlight the potential of the real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  2. An operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dottori

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is a key step to increase the usefulness of flood early warning systems and is crucial for effective emergency response and flood impact mitigation. Currently, flood early warning systems rarely include real-time components to assess potential impacts generated by forecasted flood events. To overcome this limitation, this study describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS. Daily streamflow forecasts produced for major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood-prone areas, economic damage and affected population, infrastructures and cities.An extensive testing of the operational procedure has been carried out by analysing the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia–Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-based and report-based flood extent data, while modelled estimates of economic damage and affected population are compared against ground-based estimations. Finally, we evaluate the skill of risk estimates derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations of probabilistic forecasts. Results highlight the potential of the real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  3. Benchmarking an operational procedure for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Salamon, Peter; Kalas, Milan; Bianchi, Alessandra; Feyen, Luc

    2016-04-01

    The development of real-time methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is crucial to improve emergency response and mitigate flood impacts. This work describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on the flood predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). The daily forecasts produced for the major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, based on the hydro-meteorological dataset of EFAS. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in near real-time in terms of flood prone areas, potential economic damage, affected population, infrastructures and cities. An extensive testing of the operational procedure is carried out using the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-derived flood footprints, while ground-based estimations of economic damage and affected population is compared against modelled estimates. We evaluated the skill of flood hazard and risk estimations derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations. The assessment includes a comparison of several alternative approaches to produce and present the information content, in order to meet the requests of EFAS users. The tests provided good results and showed the potential of the developed real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  4. Rapid assessment procedures in environmental sanitation research: a case study from the northern border of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Alamo, Urinda; Kendall, Tamil; Brunkard, Joan; Scrimshaw, Susan

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to enhance the quality and sustainability of environmental health programs in Mexico. What socio-cultural factors influenced the adoption or rejection of Clean Water in Homes programs in this population? We applied rapid appraisal procedures (RAP) to evaluate these community-based programs. Qualitative study conducted in communities along Mexico's northern border. We conducted informal dialogues, semi-structured interviews, field notes and observations. Home visits used a checklist to observe: sources of water, handwashing, as well as human waste and garbage disposal patterns. Data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti, which facilitated comparison and illustration of discrepancies, the elaboration of emerging issues and relationships between them. Community members perceived that the Clean Water program was a top-down intervention. Water is perceived as a political issue and a matter of corruption. Inequity also limits solidarity activities involved in environmental sanitation. Migration to the United States of America (US) contributes to community fragmentation, which in turn dilutes communal efforts to improve water and sanitation infrastructure. While targeting women as program "recipients", the Clean Water program did not take gendered spheres of decision-making into account. Community members and authorities discussed the main results in "assemblies", particularly addressing the needs of excluded groups. The oversight of not exploring community members' needs and priorities prior to program implementation resulted in interventions that did not address the structural (economic, infrastructure) and socio-cultural barriers faced by community members to undertake the health-promoting behaviour change, and provoked resentment.

  5. Validation of the rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA in the democratic republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanji Samuel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A simple method called RAPLOA, to rapidly assess what proportion of people in a community are infected with L. loa and hence which communities are at high risk of severe adverse reactions following ivermectin treatment, was developed in Cameroon and Nigeria. The method needed further validation in other geographical and cultural contexts before its application in all endemic countries. The present study was designed to validate RAPLOA in two regions in the North East and South West of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods In each study region, villages were selected from different bio-ecological zones in order to cover a wide range of loiasis endemicity. In each selected community, 80 people above the age of 15 years were interviewed for a history of eye worm (migration of adult L. loa under the conjunctiva of the eye and parasitologically examined for the presence and intensity of L. loa infection. In total, 8100 individuals from 99 villages were enrolled into the study. Results The results confirmed the findings of the original RAPLOA study: i the eye worm phenomenon was well-known in all endemic areas, ii there was a clear relationship between the prevalence of eye worm history and the prevalence and intensity of L. loa microfilaraemia, and iii using a threshold of 40%, the prevalence of eye worm history was a sensitive and specific indicator of high-risk communities. Conclusion Following this successful validation, RAPLOA was recommended for the assessment of loiasis endemicity in areas targeted for ivermectin treatment by lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis control programmes.

  6. Multigrade Teaching Rapid Appraisal Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Dean

    Multigrade classes have been recognized as part of elementary education for many years, but their special needs have been largely ignored. This manual focuses on the survey research that should predate the design of instructional management strategies in multigrade classrooms. It describes rapid and reliable ways to collect information about the…

  7. Rapid Ethical Assessment on Informed Consent Content and Procedure in Hintalo-Wajirat, Northern Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abay, Serebe; Addissie, Adamu; Davey, Gail; Farsides, Bobbie; Addissie, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Informed consent is a key component of bio-medical research involving human participants. However, obtaining informed consent is challenging in low literacy and resource limited settings. Rapid Ethical Assessment (REA) can be used to contextualize and simplify consent information within a given study community. The current study aimed to explore the effects of social, cultural, and religious factors during informed consent process on a proposed HPV-serotype prevalence study. A qualitative community-based REA was conducted in Adigudom and Mynebri Kebeles, Northern Ethiopia, from July to August 2013. Data were collected by a multi-disciplinary team using open ended questions concerning informed consent components in relation to the parent study. The team conducted one-to-one In-Depth Interviews (IDI) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with key informants and community members to collect data based on the themes of the study. Tape recorded data were transcribed in Tigrigna and then translated into English. Data were categorized and thematically analyzed using open coding and content analysis based on pre-defined themes. The REA study revealed a number of socio-cultural issues relevant to the proposed study. Low community awareness about health research, participant rights and cervical cancer were documented. Giving a vaginal sample for testing was considered to be highly embarrassing, whereas giving a blood sample made participants worry that they might be given a result without the possibility of treatment. Verbal consent was preferred to written consent for the proposed study. This rapid ethical assessment disclosed important socio-cultural issues which might act as barriers to informed decision making. The findings were important for contextual modification of the Information Sheet, and to guide the best consent process for the proposed study. Both are likely to have enabled participants to understand the informed consent better and consequently to comply with the

  8. Rapid Ethical Assessment on Informed Consent Content and Procedure in Hintalo-Wajirat, Northern Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serebe Abay

    Full Text Available Informed consent is a key component of bio-medical research involving human participants. However, obtaining informed consent is challenging in low literacy and resource limited settings. Rapid Ethical Assessment (REA can be used to contextualize and simplify consent information within a given study community. The current study aimed to explore the effects of social, cultural, and religious factors during informed consent process on a proposed HPV-serotype prevalence study.A qualitative community-based REA was conducted in Adigudom and Mynebri Kebeles, Northern Ethiopia, from July to August 2013. Data were collected by a multi-disciplinary team using open ended questions concerning informed consent components in relation to the parent study. The team conducted one-to-one In-Depth Interviews (IDI and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs with key informants and community members to collect data based on the themes of the study. Tape recorded data were transcribed in Tigrigna and then translated into English. Data were categorized and thematically analyzed using open coding and content analysis based on pre-defined themes.The REA study revealed a number of socio-cultural issues relevant to the proposed study. Low community awareness about health research, participant rights and cervical cancer were documented. Giving a vaginal sample for testing was considered to be highly embarrassing, whereas giving a blood sample made participants worry that they might be given a result without the possibility of treatment. Verbal consent was preferred to written consent for the proposed study.This rapid ethical assessment disclosed important socio-cultural issues which might act as barriers to informed decision making. The findings were important for contextual modification of the Information Sheet, and to guide the best consent process for the proposed study. Both are likely to have enabled participants to understand the informed consent better and consequently to

  9. Rapid assessment procedure for loiasis and mapping lymphatic filariasis: two perfect illustrations of "to be in English or not to be".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carme, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Interest in filariasis has found a new impetus now that neglected tropical diseases have their own journal. However, some of the advances published in renowned international journals have completely ignored previous publications on the subject, particularly those in languages other than English. The rapid assessment procedure for loiasis and the mapping of lymphatic filariasis provide two perfect illustrations of this. This problem may seem a bit outdated, given that all "good authors" now publish exclusively in English. It certainly is outdated for most areas of medicine. But, surely, this should not be the case for neglected tropical diseases, for which certain long-standing findings are every bit as important as what may be presented as new discoveries. One possibility would be for certain journals, such as PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, to include a specific heading permitting the publication in English of older studies that initially appeared in a language other than English. The texts would be English versions respecting the entirety of the original text. Submission should be accompanied by a presentation of the problem, with details and explanatory comments, with submission at the initiative of the authors of the former article in question or their students or sympathizers.

  10. Rapid Building Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    22  Figure 12. Average kWh savings per gross square footage ( GSF ). ....................................... 22  iii LIST OF TABLES...Certification Program FTP File Transfer Protocol GIS Geographical Information Systems GSF gross square footage JCI Johnson Controls Energy...Average kWh savings per gross square footage ( GSF ). 23 6.0 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FirstFuel chose each Performance Objective with the major project

  11. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  12. Biocytin: a neuronal tracer compatible with rapid decalcification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsig-Wiechmann, C R

    1994-03-01

    The compatibility of neuronal tract-tracing and decalcification procedures was examined in salamander nasal chemosensory systems. Biocytin, but not horseradish peroxidase, retained its labeling capacity following rapid decalcification of the cranial bone. The combination of biocytin tract-tracing and decalcification procedures allows the visualization of labeled neurons and/or their projections within bony regions of intact specimens.

  13. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  14. A Simple, Rapid and Inexpensive Procedure to Distinguish Amino ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 3. A Simple, Rapid and Inexpensive Procedure to Distinguish Amino Acids and their Esters. B Ramachandra ... Author Affiliations. B Ramachandra Murty1. Department of Biochemistry PSG College of Arts and Science Coimbatore 641 014, India.

  15. Pollutant Assessments Group procedures manual: Volume 2, Technical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This is volume 2 of the manuals that describes the technical procedures currently in use by the Pollution Assessments Group. This manual incorporates new developments in hazardous waste assessment technology and administrative policy. Descriptions of the equipment, procedures and operations of such things as radiation detection, soil sampling, radionuclide monitoring, and equipment decontamination are included in this manual. (MB)

  16. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Data Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Datasets used in the analysis of the Colorado Plateau (COP) Rapid Ecoregion Assessment (REA).They can be downloaded via a layer package (lpk, similar to a zip file...

  17. Procedural Modeling for Rapid-Prototyping of Multiple Building Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, M.; Johanson, C.

    2013-02-01

    RomeLab is a multidisciplinary working group at UCLA that uses the city of Rome as a laboratory for the exploration of research approaches and dissemination practices centered on the intersection of space and time in antiquity. In this paper we present a multiplatform workflow for the rapid-prototyping of historical cityscapes through the use of geographic information systems, procedural modeling, and interactive game development. Our workflow begins by aggregating archaeological data in a GIS database. Next, 3D building models are generated from the ArcMap shapefiles in Esri CityEngine using procedural modeling techniques. A GIS-based terrain model is also adjusted in CityEngine to fit the building elevations. Finally, the terrain and city models are combined in Unity, a game engine which we used to produce web-based interactive environments which are linked to the GIS data using keyhole markup language (KML). The goal of our workflow is to demonstrate that knowledge generated within a first-person virtual world experience can inform the evaluation of data derived from textual and archaeological sources, and vice versa.

  18. Southern Great Plains rapid ecoregional assessment : Pre-assessment report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of...

  19. SPECAL ISSUE Assessing the Assessment Procedures and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    purpose only if they are of good quality. It follows that the ... comply with the CBE philosophy, the objectives of each CBE and the assessment criteria. It is with this ... The study generally attempted to examine the quality of assessment and grading guidelines of CBE courses at Jimma University. Specific Objectives. The study ...

  20. Procedures for health risk assessment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeley, M.R.; Tonner-Navarro, L.E.; Beck, B.D.; Deskin, R.; Feron, V.J.; Johanson, G.; Bolt, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This report compares cancer classification systems, health risk assessment approaches, and procedures used for establishing occupational exposure limits (OELs), in various European countries and scientific organizations. The objectives were to highlight and compare key aspects of these processes and

  1. Short Communication: Rapid Visual Assessment of Fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Rapid Visual Assessment of Fish Communities on Selected Reefs in the Bazaruto Archipelago. ... the Bazaruto reef types to provide a basis for their sound management and conservation. Keywords: Bazaruto Archipelago, Mozambique, ichthyofauna, fish surveys, underwater visual census, coral reefs.

  2. Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    governing equations are often used in conjunction with each other to define the flow characteristics of a given hydraulic phenomenon. The energy equation...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC TN-EMRRP-SR-48 February 2016 Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration...account the hydraulic conditions of the stream being restored. This is true whether the project involves a few feet of bank stabilization or several

  3. CFD Script for Rapid TPS Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This grid generation script creates unstructured CFD grids for rapid thermal protection system (TPS) damage aeroheating assessments. The existing manual solution is cumbersome, open to errors, and slow. The invention takes a large-scale geometry grid and its large-scale CFD solution, and creates a unstructured patch grid that models the TPS damage. The flow field boundary condition for the patch grid is then interpolated from the large-scale CFD solution. It speeds up the generation of CFD grids and solutions in the modeling of TPS damages and their aeroheating assessment. This process was successfully utilized during STS-134.

  4. Developing and implementing assessment moderation procedures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is intended to help draw assessment moderation procedures to significantly minimize discrepancies between teachers in marking lab reports. It also helps students to develop their report writing skills. A population of 193 students taking two chemistry laboratory courses and a team of three instructors were used ...

  5. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment: Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Garman, Steven L.; Walters, Annika; Ray, Andrea; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wesner, Jeff S.; O’Donnell, Michael S.; Sherrill, Kirk R.; Babel, Nils C.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) being conducted for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change, and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks. The REA also may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing the cumulative effects of a variety of land uses. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and partners for the ecoregion, identify the information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant aquatic and terrestrial species and communities that are to be conserved and (or) restored. The REA also will evaluate major drivers of ecosystem change (Change Agents) currently affecting or likely to affect the status of Conservation Elements. We selected 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages to be included as Conservation Elements. We will address the four primary Change Agents—development, fire, invasive species, and climate change—required for the REA. The purpose of the work plan for the Wyoming Basin REA is to document the selection process for, and final list of, Management Questions, Conservation Elements, and Change Agents. The work plan also presents the overall assessment framework that will be used to assess the status of Conservation Elements and answer Management Questions.

  6. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2005-12-01

    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  7. Rapid, efficient and eco-friendly procedure for the synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 2. Rapid, efficient and eco-friendly procedure for the synthesis of quinoxalines under solvent-free conditions using sulfated polyborate as a recyclable catalyst. KRISHNA S INDALKAR CHETAN K KHATRI GANESH U CHATURBHUJ. Rapid Communication ...

  8. Molecular Procedure for Rapid Detection of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei

    OpenAIRE

    Bauernfeind, Adolf; Roller, Carsten; Meyer, Detlef; Jungwirth, Renate; Schneider, Ines

    1998-01-01

    A PCR procedure for the discrimination of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei was developed. It is based on the nucleotide difference T 2143 C (T versus C at position 2143) between B. mallei and B. pseudomallei detected in the 23S rDNA sequences. In comparison with conventional methods the procedure allows more rapid identification at reduced risk for infection of laboratory personnel.

  9. Final rapid reactivation project environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-10

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Rapid Reactivation Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The EA analyzes the potential effects of a proposal to increase production of neutron generators from the current capability of 600 units per year up to 2,000 units per year. The project would use existing buildings and infrastructure to the maximum extent possible to meet the additional production needs. The increased production levels would necessitate modifications and additions involving a total area of approximately 26,290 gross square feet at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Technical Area 1. Additional production equipment would be procured and installed. The no-action alternative would be to continue production activities at the current capability of 600 units per year. The EA analyzes effects on health, safety, and air quality, resulting from construction and operation and associated cumulative effects. A detailed description of the proposed action and its environmental consequences is presented in the EA.

  10. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepcha, Nor Tshering; Chettri, Chandra Kumar; Getshen, Kunzang; Rai, Bhim Bahadur; Ramaswamy, Shamanna Bindiganavale; Saibaba, Saravanan; Nirmalan, Praveen Kumar; Demarchis, Emilia Hansson; Tabin, Geoffrey; Morley, Michael; Morley, Katharine

    2013-08-01

    To conduct a rapid assessment of avoidable blindness survey in Bhutan to obtain estimates of blindness, visual impairment, and cataract surgical coverage, outcomes and barriers among persons ≥50 years old. A total of 82 clusters of 50 people ≥50 years were selected using probability proportionate to size sampling. Eligible participants were selected from households using compact segment sampling, and underwent ophthalmic examination for visual acuity, followed by penlight and direct ophthalmoscopy. Participants with cataract were interviewed regarding surgical outcomes and barriers to surgery. Overall, 4046 of 4100 persons enumerated (98.7%) underwent ophthalmic examination. Adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence of bilaterally blind persons with available correction was 1.5% (95% confidence interval 1.09-1.89). Most blindness (67.1%) and severe visual impairment (74.1%) resulted from cataract, but 22.1% resulted from posterior segment pathology. Cataract surgical coverage for bilaterally blind persons was 72.7%. Almost 90% of patients reported moderate or good satisfaction, despite poor surgical outcomes in 23.6%. The prevalence of blindness in people aged ≥50 years in Bhutan was relatively low when compared with neighboring countries and World Health Organization sub-region estimates. Areas for improvement include community outreach, surgical outcomes, and posterior segment diseases.

  11. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.

    1990-08-01

    This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

  12. 42 CFR 90.3 - Procedures for requesting health assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for requesting health assessments. 90.3... ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES § 90.3 Procedures for requesting health assessments. (a) ATSDR will...

  13. Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment: pre-assessment report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Carr, Natasha B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of Conservation Elements, Change Agents, and Management Questions developed during Phase I. The overall goal of the REAs being conducted for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change, and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks. The REA also may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing the cumulative effects of a variety of land uses. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and partners for the ecoregion, identify the information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant terrestrial and aquatic species and communities that are to be conserved and (or) restored. For each Conservation Element, key ecological attributes will be evaluated to determine the status of each species and community. The REA also will evaluate major drivers of ecosystem change, or Change Agents, currently affecting or likely to affect the status of Conservation Elements in the future. The relationships between Change Agents and key ecological attributes will be summarized using conceptual models. The REA process is a two-phase process. Phase I (pre-assessment) includes developing and finalizing the lists of priority Management Questions, Conservation Elements, and Change Agents, culminating in the REA Pre-Assessment Report.

  14. A rapid procedure for routine double staining of cartilage and bone in fetal and adult animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, C A; Trammell, C

    1981-09-01

    A simple, rapid procedure for dual staining of cartilage and bone in rodents, particularly in late gestation, has been developed for routine use. The procedure involves rapid, complete skinning of fresh eviscerated specimens following a 30 sec immersion in a 70 C water bath. The unfixed specimen is stained in a mixture of 0.14% Alcian blue and 0.12% alizarin red S in ethanol and glacial acetic acid. Specimens are then macerated in 2% KOH, cleared and hardened in 1:1 glycerin and distilled water, and stored in pure glycerin. Rapid staining of cartilage only is done in a mixture of 0.08% Alcian blue, glacial acetic acid, and ethanol, with subsequent maceration, clearing, and hardening as in the double staining procedure. Rapid staining of bone only, concurrent with maceration of soft tissue, can be done by placing fresh, unskinned specimens in a diluted mixture of alizarin red S in 2% KOH, with subsequent clearing and hardening in 1:1 distilled water and glycerin. Good quality fetal specimens can be prepared for examination by any of these procedures in a minimum of 11/2-2 days as compared to a minimum of 4-5 days for other procedures. Double stained specimens can be examined for abnormalities of the cartilage as well as bone.

  15. Molecular Procedure for Rapid Detection of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauernfeind, Adolf; Roller, Carsten; Meyer, Detlef; Jungwirth, Renate; Schneider, Ines

    1998-01-01

    A PCR procedure for the discrimination of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei was developed. It is based on the nucleotide difference T 2143 C (T versus C at position 2143) between B. mallei and B. pseudomallei detected in the 23S rDNA sequences. In comparison with conventional methods the procedure allows more rapid identification at reduced risk for infection of laboratory personnel. PMID:9705426

  16. Rapid procedure to calibrate EC-10 and EC-20 capacitance sensors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid calibration procedure for EC-10 and EC-20 sensors is introduced to promote the commercial use of these sensors for hydroponic irrigation management in coir. The method is comprised of taking one sensor reading, by a sensor installed under hydroponic crop production conditions, and one gravimetric sample, ...

  17. Rapid procedure to calibrate EC-10 and EC-20 capacitance sensors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-04

    Oct 4, 2013 ... A rapid calibration procedure for EC-10 and EC-20 sensors is introduced to promote the commercial use of these sensors for hydroponic irrigation management in coir. The method is comprised of taking one sensor reading, by a sensor installed under hydroponic crop production conditions, and one ...

  18. Pollutant Assessments Group Procedures Manual: Volume 1, Administrative and support procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This manual describes procedures currently in use by the Pollutant Assessments Group. The manual is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 includes administrative and support procedures, and Volume 2 includes technical procedures. These procedures are revised in an ongoing process to incorporate new developments in hazardous waste assessment technology and changes in administrative policy. Format inconsistencies will be corrected in subsequent revisions of individual procedures. The purpose of the Pollutant Assessments Groups Procedures Manual is to provide a standardized set of procedures documenting in an auditable manner the activities performed by the Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) of the Environmental Measurements and Applications Section (EMAS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Procedures Manual ensures that the organizational, administrative, and technical activities of PAG conform properly to protocol outlined by funding organizations. This manual also ensures that the techniques and procedures used by PAG and other contractor personnel meet the requirements of applicable governmental, scientific, and industrial standards. The Procedures Manual is sufficiently comprehensive for use by PAG and contractor personnel in the planning, performance, and reporting of project activities and measurements. The Procedures Manual provides procedures for conducting field measurements and includes program planning, equipment operation, and quality assurance elements. Successive revisions of this manual will be archived in the PAG Document Control Department to facilitate tracking of the development of specific procedures.

  19. Rapid Geriatric Assessment of Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanker, Jesse; Duque, Gustavo

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive geriatric assessment, combined with a battery of imaging and blood tests, should be able to identify those hip fracture patients who are at higher risk of short- and long-term complications. This comprehensive assessment should be followed by the implementation of a comprehensive multidimensional care plan aimed to prevent negative outcomes in the postoperative period (short and long term), thus assuring a safe and prompt functional recovery while also preventing future falls and fractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The quality of rapid HIV testing in South Africa: an assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of rapid HIV testing in South Africa. Method: A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select HCT sites in eight provinces of South Africa. The study employed both semi-structured interviews with HIV testers and observation of testing sessions as a ...

  1. The quality of rapid HIV testing in South Africa: an assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of rapid HIV testing in South Africa. Method: A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select HCT sites in eight provinces of South Africa. The study employed both semi-structured interviews with HIV testers and observation of testing sessions as a means of ...

  2. Decreasing pressure ulcer risk during hospital procedures: a rapid process improvement workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Vicki; Pechacek, Judy; Maher, Travis; Wilde, Joy; Kula, Larry; Powell, Julie

    2011-01-01

    A 300-bed acute care community hospital used a 2-day "Rapid Process Improvement Workshop" to identify factors contributing to facility-acquired pressure ulcers (PU). The Rapid Process Improvement Workshop included key stakeholders from all procedural areas providing inpatient services and used standard components of rapid process improvement: data analysis, process flow charting, factor identification, and action plan development.On day 1, the discovery process revealed increased PU risk related to prolonged immobility when transporting patients for procedures, during imaging studies, and during the perioperative period. On day 2, action plans were developed that included communication of PU risk or presence of an ulcer,measures to shorten procedure times when clinically appropriate, implementation of prevention techniques during procedures, and recommendations for mattress upgrades. In addition, educational programs about PU prevention were developed, schedules for presentations were established, and an online power point presentation was completed and placed in a learning management system module. Finally, our nursing department amended a hospital wide handoff communication tool to include skin status and PU risk level. This tool is used in all patient handoff situations, including nonnursing departments such as radiology. Patients deemed at risk for ulcers were provided "Braden Risk" armbands to enhance interdepartmental awareness.

  3. Rapid Depression Assessment in Geriatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, George T; Beck, David; Zaidi, Syed Noman Y

    2017-08-01

    Depression is common in geriatric patients, especially in those with multiple comorbidities and polypharmacy. Depression in older adults is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Initial screening for depression can easily be accomplished in the waiting room. Yet the clinical interview still remains the gold standard for diagnosing geriatric depression. Key components of the clinical interview are observant watching of the patient for the subtle signs of depression. Clinical interview should be done with sensitivity to the importance of privacy. Illicit substances and medical conditions may significantly contribute. Suicide assessment should be done in a step wise manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk Informed Design Using Integrated Vehicle Rapid Assessment Tools Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A successful proof of concept was performed in FY 2012 integrating the Envision tool for parametric estimates of vehicle mass and the Rapid Response Risk Assessment...

  5. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change provides data and information on global and regional land cover change in raster format for...

  6. Rapid and efficient filtration-based procedure for separation and safe analysis of CBRN mixed samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Bentahir

    Full Text Available Separating CBRN mixed samples that contain both chemical and biological warfare agents (CB mixed sample in liquid and solid matrices remains a very challenging issue. Parameters were set up to assess the performance of a simple filtration-based method first optimized on separate C- and B-agents, and then assessed on a model of CB mixed sample. In this model, MS2 bacteriophage, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis baculovirus (AcNPV, Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores were used as biological agent simulants whereas ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA and pinacolyl methylphophonic acid (PMPA were used as VX and soman (GD nerve agent surrogates, respectively. Nanoseparation centrifugal devices with various pore size cut-off (30 kD up to 0.45 µm and three RNA extraction methods (Invisorb, EZ1 and Nuclisens were compared. RNA (MS2 and DNA (AcNPV quantification was carried out by means of specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCRs (qPCR. Liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS methods was used for quantifying EMPA and PMPA. Culture methods and qPCR demonstrated that membranes with a 30 kD cut-off retain more than 99.99% of biological agents (MS2, AcNPV, Bacillus Atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores tested separately. A rapid and reliable separation of CB mixed sample models (MS2/PEG-400 and MS2/EMPA/PMPA contained in simple liquid or complex matrices such as sand and soil was also successfully achieved on a 30 kD filter with more than 99.99% retention of MS2 on the filter membrane, and up to 99% of PEG-400, EMPA and PMPA recovery in the filtrate. The whole separation process turnaround-time (TAT was less than 10 minutes. The filtration method appears to be rapid, versatile and extremely efficient. The separation method developed in this work constitutes therefore a useful model for further evaluating and comparing additional separation alternative procedures for a safe handling and

  7. Rapid and Efficient Filtration-Based Procedure for Separation and Safe Analysis of CBRN Mixed Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentahir, Mostafa; Laduron, Frederic; Irenge, Leonid; Ambroise, Jérôme; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Separating CBRN mixed samples that contain both chemical and biological warfare agents (CB mixed sample) in liquid and solid matrices remains a very challenging issue. Parameters were set up to assess the performance of a simple filtration-based method first optimized on separate C- and B-agents, and then assessed on a model of CB mixed sample. In this model, MS2 bacteriophage, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis baculovirus (AcNPV), Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores were used as biological agent simulants whereas ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and pinacolyl methylphophonic acid (PMPA) were used as VX and soman (GD) nerve agent surrogates, respectively. Nanoseparation centrifugal devices with various pore size cut-off (30 kD up to 0.45 µm) and three RNA extraction methods (Invisorb, EZ1 and Nuclisens) were compared. RNA (MS2) and DNA (AcNPV) quantification was carried out by means of specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCRs (qPCR). Liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS) methods was used for quantifying EMPA and PMPA. Culture methods and qPCR demonstrated that membranes with a 30 kD cut-off retain more than 99.99% of biological agents (MS2, AcNPV, Bacillus Atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores) tested separately. A rapid and reliable separation of CB mixed sample models (MS2/PEG-400 and MS2/EMPA/PMPA) contained in simple liquid or complex matrices such as sand and soil was also successfully achieved on a 30 kD filter with more than 99.99% retention of MS2 on the filter membrane, and up to 99% of PEG-400, EMPA and PMPA recovery in the filtrate. The whole separation process turnaround-time (TAT) was less than 10 minutes. The filtration method appears to be rapid, versatile and extremely efficient. The separation method developed in this work constitutes therefore a useful model for further evaluating and comparing additional separation alternative procedures for a safe handling and

  8. READS: the rapid electronic assessment documentation system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Ann

    2012-12-13

    Patient documentation is time consuming and can detract from care. The authors report a novel computer programme that manipulates routinely collected information to quantify nursing workload, along with the reason for admission, functional status, estimates of in-hospital mortality and life expectancy. The programme stores information in a database, and produces a print-out in a situation\\/background\\/assessment\\/recommendation (SBAR) format. The average time taken to enter 629 patient encounters was 6.6 minutes. Pain was the most common presentation for low workload patients, while high workload patients often presented with altered mental status and reduced mobility. There was only a modest correlation between the risk of death and nursing workload. The programme measures nursing workload without further paperwork, and improves routine documentation with a legible brief report that is automatically generated. This report can be shared and provides data that is immediately available for day-to-day care, audit, quality control and service planning.

  9. Innovative and rapid procedure for 4-hydroxyproline determination in meat-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messia, Maria Cristina; Marconi, Emanuele

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a rapid and innovative microwave procedure for protein hydrolysis coupled with high performance anion exchange chromatography and pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) to quantify the amino acid 4-hydroxyproline in meat and meat-based products. This innovative approach was successfully applied to determine collagen content (4-hydroxyproline × 8) as the index quality of meat material used in the preparation of typical meat-based foods.

  10. 34 CFR 303.166 - Evaluation, assessment, and nondiscriminatory procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation, assessment, and nondiscriminatory procedures. 303.166 Section 303.166 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Statewide System-Application Requirements § 303.166 Evaluation, assessment, and nondiscriminatory procedures...

  11. [Rapid identification of microorganisms by mass spectrometry in a blood culture system. Comparison of two procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, María E; Posse, Tamara; Hermes, Ricardo L; Kaufman, Sara C

    2015-01-01

    Rapid identification of microorganisms is critical in hospitalized infected patients. Blood culture is currently the gold standard for detecting and identifying microorganisms causing bacteremia or sepsis. The introduction of mass spectrometry by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF MS) in microbiology laboratories, especially in microorganisms growing in blood culture bottles, provides rapid identification. This study evaluates the performance of the Maldi Sepsityper Biotyper procedure (hereinafter, MS) compared to that of an in-home method (hereinafter, HF). Eight hundred and forty (840) positive blood culture bottles were processed using the HF procedure, 542 of which were also processed using MS. The organisms were identified in 670 (79.76%) and 391 (72.14%) bottles respectively (p = 0,0013). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of both procedures for identifying microorganisms directly from positive blood culture bottles. However, the HF procedure proved to be more effective than MS, especially in the presence of Gram positive organisms. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. A Choice Procedure to Assess the Aversive Effects of Drugs in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Woods, James H.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this series of experiments was to develop an operant choice procedure to examine rapidly the punishing effects of intravenous drugs in rats. First, the cardiovascular effects of experimenter-administered intravenous histamine, a known aversive drug, were assessed to determine a biologically active dose range. Next, rats responded on…

  13. Rapid Health and Needs assessments after disasters: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yzermans CJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publichealth care providers, stakeholders and policy makers request a rapid insight into health status and needs of the affected population after disasters. To our knowledge, there is no standardized rapid assessment tool for European countries. The aim of this article is to describe existing tools used internationally and analyze them for the development of a workable rapid assessment. Methods A review was conducted, including original studies concerning a rapid health and/or needs assessment. The studies used were published between 1980 and 2009. The electronic databasesof Medline, Embase, SciSearch and Psychinfo were used. Results Thirty-three studies were included for this review. The majority of the studies was of US origin and in most cases related to natural disasters, especially concerning the weather. In eighteen studies an assessment was conducted using a structured questionnaire, eleven studies used registries and four used both methods. Questionnaires were primarily used to asses the health needs, while data records were used to assess the health status of disaster victims. Conclusions Methods most commonly used were face to face interviews and data extracted from existing registries. Ideally, a rapid assessment tool is needed which does not add to the burden of disaster victims. In this perspective, the use of existing medical registries in combination with a brief questionnaire in the aftermath of disasters is the most promising. Since there is an increasing need for such a tool this approach needs further examination.

  14. Rapid trachoma assessment in Kersa District, Southwest Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was thus conducted to assess the prevalence estimate of trachoma and its risk factors in Kersa District, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross sectional Rapid Assessment of Trachoma was conducted using a WHO guideline. Six sub-districts were selected from Kersa District based on primary ...

  15. Rapid Assessment of Protected area Pressures and Threats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular evaluation of protected area operations can enable policy makers develop strategic responses to pervasive management problems. Pressures and threats in seven National Parks of the National Park Service (NPS) were therefore assessed using the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area ...

  16. Assessment of Competence in EVAR Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, M; Lönn, L; Bech, B

    2017-01-01

    -3000) from vascular surgery (n = 21) and radiology (n = 11) was established. The first Delphi round was based on a review of endovascular skills assessment papers, stent graft instructions for use, and structured interviews. It led to a primary pool of 83 items that were formulated as global rating scale...... suggested by the panel and reduced to seven pivotal assessment items that reached consensus, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82. The seven item rating scale covers key elements of competence in EVAR stent placement and deployment. Each item has well defined grades with explicit anchors at unacceptable, acceptable...

  17. Teaching and assessing procedural skills: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchie, Claire; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Varpio, Lara

    2013-05-14

    Graduating Internal Medicine residents must possess sufficient skills to perform a variety of medical procedures. Little is known about resident experiences of acquiring procedural skills proficiency, of practicing these techniques, or of being assessed on their proficiency. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively investigate resident 1) experiences of the acquisition of procedural skills and 2) perceptions of procedural skills assessment methods available to them. Focus groups were conducted in the weeks following an assessment of procedural skills incorporated into an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Using fundamental qualitative description, emergent themes were identified and analyzed. Residents perceived procedural skills assessment on the OSCE as a useful formative tool for direct observation and immediate feedback. This positive reaction was regularly expressed in conjunction with a frustration with available assessment systems. Participants reported that proficiency was acquired through resident directed learning with no formal mechanism to ensure acquisition or maintenance of skills. The acquisition and assessment of procedural skills in Internal Medicine programs should move toward a more structured system of teaching, deliberate practice and objective assessment. We propose that directed, self-guided learning might meet these needs.

  18. Self-assessment procedure using fuzzy sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimi, Fotini

    2000-10-01

    Self-Assessment processes, initiated by a company itself and carried out by its own people, are considered to be the starting point for a regular strategic or operative planning process to ensure a continuous quality improvement. Their importance has increased by the growing relevance and acceptance of international quality awards such as the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, the European Quality Award and the Deming Prize. Especially award winners use the instrument of a systematic and regular Self-Assessment and not only because they have to verify their quality and business results for at least three years. The Total Quality Model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), used for the European Quality Award, is the basis for Self-Assessment in Europe. This paper presents a self-assessment supporting method based on a methodology of fuzzy control systems providing an effective means of converting the linguistic approximation into an automatic control strategy. In particular, the elements of the Quality Model mentioned above are interpreted as linguistic variables. The LR-type of a fuzzy interval is used for their representation. The input data has a qualitative character based on empirical investigation and expert knowledge and therefore the base- variables are ordinal scaled. The aggregation process takes place on the basis of a hierarchical structure. Finally, in order to render the use of the method more practical a software system on PC basis is developed and implemented.

  19. Assessing procedural skills in context: Exploring the feasibility of an Integrated Procedural Performance Instrument (IPPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneebone, R; Nestel, D; Yadollahi, F; Brown, R; Nolan, C; Durack, J; Brenton, H; Moulton, C; Archer, J; Darzi, A

    2006-11-01

    The assessment of clinical procedural skills has traditionally focused on technical elements alone. However, in real practice, clinicians are expected to be able to integrate technical with communication and other professional skills. We describe an integrated procedural performance instrument (IPPI), where clinicians are assessed on 12 clinical procedures in a simulated clinical setting which combines simulated patients (SPs) with inanimate models or items of medical equipment. Candidates are observed remotely by assessors whose data are fed back to the clinician within 24 hours of the assessment. This paper describes the feasibility of IPPI. A full-scale IPPI and 2 pilot studies with trainee and qualified health care professionals has yielded an extensive data set including 585 scenario evaluations from candidates, 60 from clinical assessors and 31 from simulated patients (SPs). Interview and questionnaire data showed that for the majority of candidates IPPI provided a powerful and valuable learning experience. Realism was rated highly. Remote and real-time assessment worked effectively, although for some procedures limited camera resolution affected observation of fine details. IPPI offers an innovative approach to assessing clinical procedural skills. Although resource-intensive, it has the potential to provide insight into individual's performance over a spectrum of clinical scenarios and at no risk to the safety of patients. Additional benefits of IPPI include assessment in real time from experts (allowing remote rating by external examiners) as well as provision of feedback from simulated patients.

  20. New and rapid procedure for the isolation of ultra-high molecular weight eukaryotic DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.; Meincke, L.J.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have developed a novel procedure that permits the rapid extraction and isolation of ultra-high molecular weight DNA from avian or mammalian cells using dialysis against a solution of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Cells harvested by centrifugation and washed twice in ice-cold Ca/sup + +/- and Mg/sup + +/-free phosphate buffered saline were resuspended in 5 ml 0.01 M Tris-Cl (pH 8.0); 0.001 M EDTA (TE); sodium dodecyl sulfate and proteinase K were added to final concentrations of 0.1% and 0.1 mg/ml, respectively. After incubation at 37/sup 0/C overnight, the viscous solution was transferred to a mini-collodian bag and concentrated by dialysis against 4-5 changes of 20% PEG in TE over a period of 5 hours at RT. Concentrated samples were desalted by dialysis against fresh TE for two 15 minute intervals. DNA obtained using this procedure gives A/sub 260//A/sub 280/ consistently >1.8. Analysis of DNA size using pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed a distribution of fragments >500 Kb in length. Further measurements examined were (1) restriction enzyme digestibility, (2) ligation efficiency of restricted DNA, and (3) cloning efficiency using the lambda vector Ch21A. This novel methodology offers a valuable alternative protocol for rapid purification of ultrahigh molecular weight DNA for various applications in molecular biology.

  1. rapid assessment of polio virus antibodies prevalence amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    northern Nigeria. There is paucity of information as it relates to polio antibody prevalence amongst children in the state. Periodic serologic assessment is needed to determine the quality and effectiveness of routine vaccination campaigns carried in the state to rapidly build immunity against poliovirus. Children were.

  2. Rapid Assessment of Tree Debris Following Urban Forest Ice Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Hauer; Angela J. Hauer; Dudley R. Hartel; Jill R. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a rapid assessment method to estimate urban tree debris following an ice storm. Data were collected from 60 communities to quantify tree debris volumes, mostly from public rights-of-way, following ice storms based on community infrastructure, weather parameters, and urban forest structure. Ice thickness, area of a community, and street distance are...

  3. Rapid assessment of assignments using plagiarism detection software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Whitney R; Abrego, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    Faculty members most often use plagiarism detection software to detect portions of students' written work that have been copied and/or not attributed to their authors. The rise in plagiarism has led to a parallel rise in software products designed to detect plagiarism. Some of these products are configurable for rapid assessment and teaching, as well as for plagiarism detection.

  4. Rapid assessment as an evaluation tool for polio national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... timely intervention in covering missed children and helps in careful interpretation of the usual over 100% coverage often recorded during NIDs. It is recommended that this be practiced widely to improve quality of NIDs for early global eradication of poliomyelitis. Keywords: rapid assessment, evaluation, polio immunization

  5. A novel methodology for the rapid assessment of waterbird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A methodology for rapidly assessing the vulnerability of waterbirds to disturbance was tested at Sabaki estuary, Kenya. Three variables were employed to measure the responses of 15 species: (1) bird density, (2) minimum distance of birds from a stationary disturbance and (3) recovery times following a moving disturbance.

  6. Assessing procedural skills training in pediatric residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaies, Michael G; Landrigan, Christopher P; Hafler, Janet P; Sandora, Thomas J

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the opinions of pediatric program directors regarding procedural skills training of pediatric residents. We developed a survey based on the Residency Review Committee's guidelines for procedural training. It included items about the importance of 29 procedures encountered in pediatric training, estimates of residents' competence in performing them, and the teaching of procedural skills. The survey was sent to members of the Association of Pediatric Program Directors. The primary outcome was the perceived importance for residents to achieve competence in these procedures, rated on a 10-point Likert scale. Secondary outcomes included perception of resident competence to perform procedures and educational methods used by respondents for teaching procedural skills. Associations between demographic characteristics and perceived importance or competence were also assessed. Surveys were sent to 139 programs, and 112 responded. Thirteen procedures were rated 8 or higher by >75% of program directors. Seven skills that were prioritized by the Residency Review Committee did not achieve this level of consensus. Respondents reported that many residents failed to achieve competence by the end of training in 9 of 13 procedures that they rated as very important, including venipuncture, neonatal intubation, and administering injections. Residents who perform the majority of venipunctures and intravenous catheter placements at their institutions were more likely to be judged competent in performing these skills than residents who do not. The Residency Review Committee's list of procedures does not necessarily reflect the opinions of pediatric program directors on the most essential skills for trainees. Many residents may not develop competence in several important procedures by the end of residency, most notably vascular access and life-saving skills. A more robust and standardized method is needed for teaching procedural skills and for

  7. Teaching and assessing procedural skills using simulation: metrics and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Richard L; Davenport, Moira; Korley, Frederick; Griswold-Theodorson, Sharon; Fitch, Michael T; Narang, Aneesh T; Evans, Leigh V; Gross, Amy; Rodriguez, Elliot; Dodge, Kelly L; Hamann, Cara J; Robey, Walter C

    2008-11-01

    Simulation allows educators to develop learner-focused training and outcomes-based assessments. However, the effectiveness and validity of simulation-based training in emergency medicine (EM) requires further investigation. Teaching and testing technical skills require methods and assessment instruments that are somewhat different than those used for cognitive or team skills. Drawing from work published by other medical disciplines as well as educational, behavioral, and human factors research, the authors developed six research themes: measurement of procedural skills; development of performance standards; assessment and validation of training methods, simulator models, and assessment tools; optimization of training methods; transfer of skills learned on simulator models to patients; and prevention of skill decay over time. The article reviews relevant and established educational research methodologies and identifies gaps in our knowledge of how physicians learn procedures. The authors present questions requiring further research that, once answered, will advance understanding of simulation-based procedural training and assessment in EM.

  8. SU-E-T-432: A Rapid and Comprehensive Procedure for Daily Proton QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, T; Sun, B; Grantham, K; Knutson, N; Santanam, L; Goddu, S; Klein, E [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The objective is to develop a rapid and comprehensive daily QA procedure implemented at the S. Lee Kling Proton Therapy Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital. Methods: A scribed phantom with imbedded fiducials is used for checking lasers accuracy followed by couch isocentricity and for X-ray imaging congruence with isocenter. A Daily QA3 device (Sun Nuclear, FL) was used to check output, range and profiles. Five chambers in the central region possess various build-ups. After converting the thickness of the inherent build-ups into water equivalent thickness (WET) for proton, range of any beam can be checked with additional build-up on the Daily QA3 device. In our procedure, 3 beams from 3 bands (large, small and deep) with nominal range of 20 cm are checked daily. 17cm plastic water with WET of 16.92cm are used as additional build-up so that four chambers sit on the SOBP plateau at various depths and one sit on the distal fall off. Reading from the five chambers are fitted to an error function that has been parameterized to match the SOBP with the same nominal range. Shifting of the error function to maximize the correlation between measurements and the error function is deemed as the range shift from the nominal value. Results: We have found couch isocentricity maintained over 180 degrees. Imaging system exhibits accuracy in regard to imaging and mechanical isocenters. Ranges are within 1mm accuracy from measurements in water tank, and sensitive to change of sub-millimeter. Data acquired since the start of operation show outputs, profiles and range stay within 1% or 1mm from baselines. The whole procedure takes about 40 minutes. Conclusion: Taking advantage of the design of Daily QA3 device turns the device originally designed for photon and electron into a comprehensive and rapid tool for proton daily QA.

  9. Measurement of humic and fulvic acid concentrations and dissolution properties by a rapid batch procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zomeren, A.; Comans, R.N.J. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-08-29

    Although humic substances (HS) strongly facilitate the transport of metals and hydrophobic organic contaminants in environmental systems, their measurement is hampered by the time-consuming nature of currently available methods for their isolation and purification. We present and apply a new rapid batch method to measure humic (HA) and fulvic (FA) acid concentrations and dissolution properties in both solid and aqueous samples. The method is compared with the conventional procedures and is shown to substantially facilitate HS concentration measurements, particularly for applications such as geochemical modeling where HS purification is not required. The new method can be performed within 1.5-4 h per sample and multiple samples can be processed simultaneously, while the conventional procedures typically require approximately 40 h for a single sample. In addition, specific dissolution properties of HS are identified and are consistent with recent views on the molecular structure of HS that emphasize molecular interactions of smaller entities over distinct macromolecular components. Because the principles of the new method are essentially the same as those of generally accepted conventional procedures, the identified HA and FA properties are of general importance for the interpretation of the environmental occurrence and behavior of HS.

  10. A robustness screen for the rapid assessment of chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karl D; Glorius, Frank

    2013-07-01

    In contrast to the rapidity with which scientific information is published, the application of new knowledge often remains slow, and we believe this to be particularly true of newly developed synthetic organic chemistry methodology. Consequently, methods to assess and identify robust chemical reactions are desirable, and would directly facilitate the application of newly reported synthetic methodology to complex synthetic problems. Here, we describe a simple process for assessing the likely scope and limitations of a chemical reaction beyond the idealized reaction conditions initially reported. Using simple methods and common analytical techniques we demonstrate a rapid assessment of an established chemical reaction, and also propose a simplified analysis that may be reported alongside new synthetic methodology.

  11. A Bayesian Procedure for Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grezio, A.; Marzocchi, W.; Sandri, L.; Gasparini, P.

    2009-04-01

    We implement a Bayesian procedure for the Probability Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA). The approach is general and modular incorporating all significant information relevant for the hazard assessment, such as theoretical and empirical background, analytical or numerical models, instrumental and historical data. The procedure provides the a posteriori probability distribution that integrates the a priori probability distribution based on the physical knowledge of the process, and the likelihood based on the historical data. Also, the method deals with aleatory and epistemic uncertainties incorporating in a formal way all sources of relevant uncertainty, from the tsunami generation process to the wave propagation and impact on the coasts. The modular structure of the procedure is flexible and easy to modify and/or update as long as new models and/or information are available. Finally, the procedure is applied to an hypothetical region, Neverland, to clarify the PTHA evaluation in a realistic case.

  12. Assessors' approaches to portfolio assessment in Assessment of Prior Learning procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Jochems, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Sluijsmans, D. M. A., & Jochems, W. M. G. (2010). Assessors' approaches to portfolio assessment in Assessment of Prior Learning procedures. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(1), 59-74.

  13. A rapid in situ procedure for determination of bacterial susceptibility or resistance to antibiotics that inhibit peptidoglycan biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bou Germán

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics which inhibit bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis are the most widely used in current clinical practice. Nevertheless, resistant strains increase dramatically, with serious economic impact and effects on public health, and are responsible for thousands of deaths each year. Critical clinical situations should benefit from a rapid procedure to evaluate the sensitivity or resistance to antibiotics that act at the cell wall. We have adapted a kit for rapid determination of bacterial DNA fragmentation, to assess cell wall integrity. Results Cells incubated with the antibiotic were embedded in an agarose microgel on a slide, incubated in an adapted lysis buffer, stained with a DNA fluorochrome, SYBR Gold and observed under fluorescence microscopy. The lysis affects the cells differentially, depending on the integrity of the wall. If the bacterium is susceptible to the antibiotic, the weakened cell wall is affected by the lysing solution so the nucleoid of DNA contained inside the bacterium is released and spread. Alternatively, if the bacterium is resistant to the antibiotic, it is practically unaffected by the lysis solution and does not liberate the nucleoid, retaining its normal morphological appearance. In an initial approach, the procedure accurately discriminates susceptible, intermediate and resistant strains of Escherichia coli to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. When the bacteria came from an exponentially growing liquid culture, the effect on the cell wall of the β-lactam was evident much earlier that when they came from an agar plate. A dose-response experiment with an E. coli strain susceptible to ampicillin demonstrated a weak effect before the MIC dose. The cell wall damage was not homogenous among the different cells, but the level of damage increased as dose increased with a predominant degree of effect for each dose. A microgranular-fibrilar extracellular background was evident in gram

  14. Agricultural soils potentially contaminated: risk assessment procedure case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Beccaloni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the moment, the health-environmental risk analysis is used to decision-making targets in the contaminated sites management; this procedure allows to assess the quantitative health risk related to the pollutants presence in environmental compartments, as soil and waters. As regards potentially contaminated agricultural soils, the ingestion of food from vegetable and/or animal source, produced inside the contaminated area, is the most suitable way to assess the health risk. As an official procedure to this assessment is not available, the National Institute for Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS has worked out an operating procedure, organized into several phases, depending on the available specific-site know-how. In this document, agricultural soils potentially contaminated in two sites have been studied; the sites are the following: Brescia Caffaro and Torviscosa.

  15. Learner-centred feedback using remote assessment of clinical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Kneebone; Fernando Bello; Debra Nestel; Neville Mooney; Andrew Codling; Faranak Yadollahi; Tanya Tierney; David Wilcockson; Ara Darzi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the Imperial College Feedback and Assessment System (ICFAS) and explores its feasibility in supporting the learning of practical clinical procedures. ICFAS is an innovative combination of existing technologies which brings together video recording, networked mobile computers (laptop and handheld) and content management software. The aim is to observe, record, assess and provide feedback on multiple simulated encounters. We have developed ICFAS within the framework of our Integrated Procedural Performance Instrument (IPPI) (Kneebone et al. 2006a,b), providing a technology-based 'feedback space' for maximizing educational value.

  16. Rapid Risk Assessment: FY05 Annual Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, Gene; Millard, W. David; Gelston, Gariann M.; Pelton, Mitch A.; Yang, Zhaoqing; Strenge, Dennis L.; Lee, Cheegwan; Sivaraman, Chitra; Simpson, Mary J.; Young, Joan K.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Downing, Timothy R.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Hachmeister, Lon E.

    2006-03-06

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing decision support tools that will assist in the transition of incident information into Protective Action Recommendations (PARs) that are understandable and can be executed in a real-world, operational environment. During emergencies, responders must rapidly assess risks and decide on the best course of action—all within minutes to hours. PNNL is blending existing modeling and decision support technology to develop new methods for transitioning science-based threat assessment to PARs. The rapid risk assessment tool will be both understandable and applicable to the emergency management community and would be a valuable tool during any water security-related incident. In 2005, PNNL demonstrated the integration of the multi-thematic modeling with emergency management decision support tools to create a Rapid Risk Assessment (RRA) tool that will transition risk to PARs that assist in responding to or mitigating the direct and indirect impacts of the incident(s). The RRA tool does this by aligning multi-thematic modeling capabilities with real-world response zones established by emergency and site operations managers. The RRA tool uses the risk assessment tool to drive prognostic models that use the type of incident, time of impact, severity of impact, and duration of impact to select the most appropriate PAR. Because PARs (and the thresholds by which they are selected) are jointly established by the technologists and the emergency management and operations decision makers, the science-based risk assessment can transition into a recommendation that can be understood and executed by people in the field.

  17. PAGER--Rapid assessment of an earthquake?s impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.; Hearne, M.

    2010-01-01

    PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system that produces content concerning the impact of significant earthquakes around the world, informing emergency responders, government and aid agencies, and the media of the scope of the potential disaster. PAGER rapidly assesses earthquake impacts by comparing the population exposed to each level of shaking intensity with models of economic and fatality losses based on past earthquakes in each country or region of the world. Earthquake alerts--which were formerly sent based only on event magnitude and location, or population exposure to shaking--now will also be generated based on the estimated range of fatalities and economic losses.

  18. Assessment of a new procedure for modelling industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinneck, J.W.

    1984-08-03

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the assessment of a new procedure for modelling industrial energy systems. The new procedure combines second-law methods of analysis with simple component models that allow all of the plant energy forms to be included in a single model. As an example, the new procedure is used to analyze the steam system for a large Canadian petrochemicals plant. Changes in the system operation resulting in an estimated savings of $600,000 per year are identified. It is concluded that the new procedure can be used in Canadian industry to save energy and money. The recommended course of action is to incorporate the second-law measures into the ENERGY Mark II program that is currently under develpment and to consider funding the development of a version of the optimization model at a later date. 58 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Assessment of the MPACT Resonance Data Generation Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Mark L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-26

    Currently, heterogeneous models are being used to generate resonance self-shielded cross-section tables as a function of background cross sections for important nuclides such as 235U and 238U by performing the CENTRM (Continuous Energy Transport Model) slowing down calculation with the MOC (Method of Characteristics) spatial discretization and ESSM (Embedded Self-Shielding Method) calculations to obtain background cross sections. And then the resonance self-shielded cross section tables are converted into subgroup data which are to be used in estimating problem-dependent self-shielded cross sections in MPACT (Michigan Parallel Characteristics Transport Code). Although this procedure has been developed and thus resonance data have been generated and validated by benchmark calculations, assessment has never been performed to review if the resonance data are properly generated by the procedure and utilized in MPACT. This study focuses on assessing the procedure and a proper use in MPACT.

  20. 75 FR 52054 - Assessment of Mediation and Arbitration Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board Assessment of Mediation and Arbitration Procedures AGENCY: Surface... matters relating to the use of mediation and arbitration as effective means of resolving disputes that are... mediation and arbitration in the resolution of disputes. If so, the proposed changes or new rules would be...

  1. 77 FR 23208 - Assessment of Mediation and Arbitration Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Parts 1108 and 1109 Assessment of Mediation and Arbitration Procedures... carriers to participate in the Board's arbitration program, unless they file a prior written notice with... to participate in the Board's arbitration program could file a request for arbitration with the Board...

  2. Improving L2 Reading Comprehension through Emotionalized Dynamic Assessment Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolrezapour, Parisa

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports a study on an emotionally-loaded dynamic assessment procedure used with Iranian EFL learners. It focuses on the effect of using emotional intelligence characteristics (based on Goleman's framework) as a tool for motivating learners while performing reading tasks. The study with 50 intermediate learners aged 12-15 used three…

  3. Nonspecialist Raters Can Provide Reliable Assessments of Procedural Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Oria; Dagnæs, Julia; Bube, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    skills which is difficult owing to the limited availability of faculty time. The aim of this study was to explore the validity of assessments of video recorded procedures performed by nonspecialist raters. METHODS: This study was a blinded observational trial. Twenty-three novices (senior medical...

  4. Rapid expansion of intravitreal drug injection procedures, 2000 to 2008: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert J; Bronskill, Susan E; Bell, Chaim M; Paterson, J Michael; Whitehead, Marlo; Gill, Sudeep S

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate patterns of care for age-related macular degeneration following the introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors. Using a population-based retrospective design, we studied monthly fee claims for intravitreal injections submitted to the Ontario Health Insurance Plan between January 1, 2000, and March 30, 2008, and linked procedures to the physicians who performed them. This database records physician services provided as part of universal health care insurance coverage in Ontario, Canada. This program covers all residents of Ontario, which had an average population of 12.1 million during the study period. Following regulatory approval of bevacizumab for colorectal cancer in 2005, off-label use of this drug for the treatment of retinal disease, particularly age-related macular degeneration, became increasingly common. The rate of intravitreal injections in Ontario rapidly grew 8-fold, and this growth preceded the availability of ranibizumab by more than a year. Moreover, in 2007, more than 50% of intravitreal injections in Ontario were performed by 3% of ophthalmologists. The development of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors has revolutionized the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. To our knowledge, this study is the first to quantify the dramatic uptake of these treatments at a population level. Our findings also suggest that off-label injection of bevacizumab was highly prevalent in Ontario. Serial intravitreal injections requiring direct physician administration and the concentration of injection procedures in the hands of a small number of ophthalmologists have the potential to affect services for other vision-threatening conditions.

  5. Simplified Expert Elicitation Procedure for Risk Assessment of Operating Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Julie Marble; William Galyean; Larry Blackwood; Harold Blackman

    2005-06-01

    This report describes a simplified, tractable, and usable procedure within the US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) for seeking expert opinion and judgment. The NRC has increased efforts to document the reliability and risk of nuclear power plants (NPPs) through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) models. The Significance Determination Process (SDP) and Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) programs at the NRC utilize expert judgment on the probability of failure, human error, and the operability of equipment in cases where otherwise insufficient operational data exist to make meaningful estimates. In the past, the SDP and ASP programs informally sought the opinion of experts inside and outside the NRC. This document represents a formal, documented procedure to take the place of informal expert elicitation. The procedures outlined in this report follow existing formal expert elicitation methodologies, but are streamlined as appropriate to the degree of accuracy required and the schedule for producing SDP and ASP analyses.

  6. A rapid test for soy aeroallergens exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Simon, Daniel; Cruz, María-Jesús; Untoria, María-Dolores; Muñoz, Xavier; Villalbí, Joan R; Morell, Ferran; Gómez-Ollés, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Determining soy aeroallergens levels is extremely important in the assessment of health risks due to these airborne substances. Currently, soy aeroallergens exposure in the environment is monitored using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) which must be evaluated in a specialized laboratory by skilled personnel. To describe the development and performance of a rapid immunochromatography assay for the detection of soy aeroallergens in environmental samples. A test strip using gold labeled anti-soy hull low molecular weight extract (SHLMWE) antibody for the rapid detection of soy aeroallergens in environmental samples was developed. One hundred nineteen airborne samples were analysed in parallel by the strip assay and the anti-SHLMWE sandwich EIA. The assay results were visually analysed by three independent observers who ranked samples as: -, + or ++. Strips were also scanned and analysed by densitometry. The rapid test detected a range of concentrations from 6.25 to 25 ng/mL. Agreement in strip assay interpretations between evaluators was substantial (Kappa = 0.63; CI 0.544-0.715). Visual interpretation also gave a good concordance with EIA results, with sensitivity ranging from 77.3 to 100 and specificity from 65 to 83.5 depending on the observer. Furthermore, a strong correlation was observed between densitometry results of strip assay and EIA determinations. The strip assay developed is rapid, simple, and sensitive and does not require expensive equipment or specific skills. It has considerable potential in the environmental monitoring field for screening soy aeroallergens levels in port cities where allergen measurements are not currently performed. Due to its simplicity, the test will improve the management of soy allergic patients by controlling environmental allergen exposure without the need for apparatus or skilled personnel.

  7. Rapid Assessment of Age-Related Differences in Standing Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kalisch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As life expectancy continues to rise, in the future there will be an increasing number of older people prone to falling. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for comprehensive testing of older individuals to collect data and to identify possible risk factors for falling. Here we use a low-cost force platform to rapidly assess deficits in balance under various conditions. We tested 21 healthy older adults and 24 young adults during static stance, unidirectional and rotational displacement of their centre of pressure (COP. We found an age-related increase in postural sway during quiet standing and a reduction of maximal COP displacement in unidirectional and rotational displacement tests. Our data show that even low-cost computerized assessment tools allow for the comprehensive testing of balance performance in older subjects.

  8. The Simulation-Based Assessment of Pediatric Rapid Response Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, James J; McBride, Mary E; Boulet, John R; Murray, David J

    2017-09-01

    To create scenarios of simulated decompensating pediatric patients to train pediatric rapid response teams (RRTs) and to determine whether the scenario scores provide a valid assessment of RRT performance with the hypothesis that RRTs led by intensivists-in-training would be better prepared to manage the scenarios than teams led by nurse practitioners. A set of 10 simulated scenarios was designed for the training and assessment of pediatric RRTs. Pediatric RRTs, comprising a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) registered nurse and respiratory therapist, led by a PICU intensivist-in-training or a pediatric nurse practitioner, managed 7 simulated acutely decompensating patients. Two raters evaluated the scenario performances and psychometric analyses of the scenarios were performed. The teams readily managed scenarios such as supraventricular tachycardia and opioid overdose but had difficulty with more complicated scenarios such as aortic coarctation or head injury. The management of any particular scenario was reasonably predictive of overall team performance. The teams led by the PICU intensivists-in-training outperformed the teams led by the pediatric nurse practitioners. Simulation provides a method for RRTs to develop decision-making skills in managing decompensating pediatric patients. The multiple scenario assessment provided a moderately reliable team score. The greater scores achieved by PICU intensivist-in-training-led teams provides some evidence to support the validity of the assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Strengthening health professions regulation in Cambodia: a rapid assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Duke, Jan; Wuliji, Tana; Smith, Alyson; Phuong, Keat; San, Un

    2016-03-10

    This paper describes a rapid assessment of Cambodia's current system for regulating its health professions. The assessment forms part of a co-design process to set strategic priorities for strengthening health profession regulation to improve the quality and safety of health services. A health system approach for strengthening health professions' regulation is underway and aims to support the Government of Cambodia's plans for scaling up its health workforce, improving health services' safety and quality, and meeting its Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) obligations to facilitate trade in health care services. The assessment used a mixed methods approach including: A desktop review of key laws, plans, reports and other documents relating to the regulation of the health professions in Cambodia (medicine, dentistry, midwifery, nursing and pharmacy); Key informant interviews with stakeholders in Cambodia (The term "stakeholders" refers to government officials, people working on health professional regulation, people working for the various health worker training institutions and health workers at the national and provincial level); Surveys and questionnaires to assess Cambodian stakeholder knowledge of regulation; Self-assessments by members of the five Cambodian regulatory councils regarding key capacities and activities of high-performing regulatory bodies; and A rapid literature review to identify: The key functions of health professional regulation; The key issues affecting the Cambodian health sector (including relevant developments in the wider ASEAN region); and "Smart" health profession regulation practices of possible relevance to Cambodia. We found that the current regulatory system only partially meets Cambodia's needs. A number of key regulatory functions are being performed, but overall, the current system was not designed with Cambodia's specific needs in mind. The existing system is also overly complex, with considerable duplication and

  10. Rapid climate change and society: assessing responses and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Simon; Petts, Judith; Hobson, Kersty

    2005-12-01

    Assessing the social risks associated with climate change requires an understanding of how humans will respond because it affects how well societies will adapt. In the case of rapid or dangerous climate change, of particular interest is the potential for these responses to cross thresholds beyond which they become maladaptive. To explore the possibility of such thresholds, a series of climate change scenarios were presented to U.K. participants whose subjective responses were recorded via interviews and surveyed using Q methodology. The results indicate an initially adaptive response to climate warming followed by a shift to maladaptation as the magnitude of change increases. Beyond this threshold, trust in collective action and institutions was diminished, negatively impacting adaptive capacity. Climate cooling invoked a qualitatively different response, although this may be a product of individuals being primed for warming because it has dominated public discourse. The climate change scenarios used in this research are severe by climatological standards. In reality, the observed responses might occur at a lower rate of change. Whatever the case, analysis of subjectivity has revealed potential for maladaptive human responses, constituting a dangerous or rapid climate threshold within the social sphere.

  11. Rapid assessment of disaster damage using social media activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with the real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. We present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy’s path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats, together with physical disaster effects, are directly observable through the intensity and composition of Twitter’s message stream. We demonstrate that per-capita Twitter activity strongly correlates with the per-capita economic damage inflicted by the hurricane. We verify our findings for a wide range of disasters and suggest that massive online social networks can be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale disaster. PMID:27034978

  12. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  13. Rapid Assessment of Habitat Diversity Along the Araras Stream, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriel Barboza Bentos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agriculture, urbanization, and industrialization are some of the anthropogenic activities that constantly generate negative impacts on natural environments. Part of this degradation directly affects aquatic systems. This study aimed to evaluate the visual characteristics of the Araras Stream, located in the municipality of Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil. Data was collected at six different assessment sites along the river in both rural and urban areas. The evaluation used a Rapid Habitat Diversity Assessment (RHDA protocol composed of 22 parameters, which define levels of preservation of ecological conditions. According to this protocol, the 32 Km-long study transect along the Araras Stream was rated as impacted (39.6 points. A separate assessment by transects showed that only Transect 1 presented a natural level of preservation (71.8 points. Transects located in the urban area contributed the most to impacts on the aquatic environment. The RHDA protocol proved to be an important tool to evaluate and monitor aquatic environments.

  14. Rapid assessment of disaster damage using social media activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with the real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. We present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy's path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats, together with physical disaster effects, are directly observable through the intensity and composition of Twitter's message stream. We demonstrate that per-capita Twitter activity strongly correlates with the per-capita economic damage inflicted by the hurricane. We verify our findings for a wide range of disasters and suggest that massive online social networks can be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale disaster.

  15. Trachoma rapid assessment in Shandong province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yi; Bi, Hongsheng; Wen, Ying; Li, Chaofeng; Wu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This research aims at identifying relative interventions on trachoma and testing the effectiveness of control measures adopted by assessing its prevalence and related risk factors in Shandong province of China. Trachoma rapid assessment (TRA) was conducted in 6 sub-districts selected from Shandong province based on primary high risk assessment. Active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years and environmental risk factors of trachoma (unclean faces, absence of running water, and absence of flush toilets) were assessed (TRA 1). Control measures were taken in endemic areas. A second TRA (TRA 2) was conducted after 12 months in the same 6 districts and findings of the two TRAs were compared. In TRA 1, we found trachoma in 3 sub-districts and the detection rate was 4% (95% CI: 0.39%-11.12%), 6% (95% CI: 1.18%-14.17%), and 6% (95% CI: 1.18%-14.17%) respectively. We could not find trachoma cases in TRA 2. Research data supports that children living with environmental risk factors face an increased risk to active trachoma. However, we could not find statistical evidence for this association, which may be caused by the limited data on prevalence. This research indicates that the TRA methodology is easy to assess trachoma and its related risk factors. Based on the results of this study, we have already achieved the goal of "elimination of trachoma" in Shandong province, as the detection rate of trachomatous inflamation follicular/trachomatous inflammation intense in 1-9-year-old children was less than 5%.

  16. Effect of annealing procedure on the bonding of ceramic to cobalt-chromium alloys fabricated by rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulga, Ayca

    2017-08-22

    An annealing procedure is a heat treatment process to improve the mechanical properties of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys. However, information is lacking about the effect of the annealing process on the bonding ability of ceramic to Co-Cr alloys fabricated by rapid prototyping. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of the fabrication techniques and the annealing procedure on the shear bond strength of ceramic to Co-Cr alloys fabricated by different techniques. Ninety-six cylindrical specimens (10-mm diameter, 10-mm height) made of Co-Cr alloy were prepared by casting (C), milling (M), direct process powder-bed (LaserCUSING) with and without annealing (CL+, CL), and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) with annealing (EL+) and without annealing (EL). After the application of ceramic to the metal specimens, the metal-ceramic bond strength was assessed using a shear force test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Shear bond strength values were statistically analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests (α=.05). Although statistically significant differences were found among the 3 groups (M, 29.87 ±2.06; EL, 38.92 ±2.04; and CL+, 40.93 ±2.21; P=.002), no significant differences were found among the others (P>.05). The debonding surfaces of all specimens exhibited mixed failure mode. These results showed that the direct process powder-bed method is promising in terms of metal-ceramic bonding ability. The manufacturing technique of Co-Cr alloys and the annealing process influence metal-ceramic bonding. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkering, G E; Kleijnen, J

    2008-12-01

    The Federal Joint Committee (FJC; Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA) defines the health-care elements that are to be reimbursed by sickness funds. To define a directive, the FJC can commission benefit assessments, which provide an overview of the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and benefits of an intervention. This paper describes the operational implementation of the legal requirements with regard to the benefit assessments of medicines. Such benefit assessments are sometimes referred to as "isolated benefit assessments," to distinguish them from benefit assessments as part of a full economic evaluation. The FJC has the freedom to commission these assessments from any agency; however, to date the majority have commissioned the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG). Nevertheless, the content of this paper applies integrally to any institute commissioned for such assessments. In this report, "the institute"' is used when the text refers to any of these institutes. The legal framework for benefit assessments is laid out in the German Social Code Book version V (http://www. sozialgesetzbuch.de), Sects. 35b ( section sign 1), 139a ( section sign 4-6) and Sect. 139b ( section sign 3). It is specified that: The institute must guarantee high transparency. The institute must provide appropriate participation of relevant parties for the commission-related development of assessments, and opportunity for comment on all important segments of the assessment procedure. The institute has to report on the progress and results of the work at regular intervals. The institute is held to giving the commission to external experts. Based on the legal framework, the institute must guarantee a high procedural transparency. Transparency of the whole process should be achieved, which is evidenced by clear reporting of procedures and criteria in all phases undertaken in the benefit assessment. The most important means of enhancing transparency are: 1. To

  18. Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkering, Geertruida E; Kleijnen, Jos

    2008-11-01

    The Federal Joint Committee (FJC; Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA) defines the health-care elements that are to be reimbursed by sickness funds. To define a directive, the FJC can commission benefit assessments, which provide an overview of the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and benefits of an intervention. This paper describes the operational implementation of the legal requirements with regard to the benefit assessments of medicines. Such benefit assessments are sometimes referred to as "isolated benefit assessments," to distinguish them from benefit assessments as part of a full economic evaluation.The FJC has the freedom to commission these assessments from any agency; however, to date the majority have commissioned the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG). Nevertheless, the content of this paper applies integrally to any institute commissioned for such assessments. In this report, 'the institute' is used when the text refers to any of these institutes.The legal framework for benefit assessments is laid out in the German Social Code Book version V ( http://www.sozialgesetzbuch.de ), Sects. 35b ( section 1), 139a ( section 4-6) and Sect. 139b ( section 3). It is specified that: The institute must guarantee high transparency. The institute must provide appropriate participation of relevant parties for the commission-related development of assessments, and opportunity for comment on all important segments of the assessment procedure. The institute has to report on the progress and results of the work at regular intervals. The institute is held to giving the commission to external experts. Based on the legal framework, the institute must guarantee a high procedural transparency. Transparency of the whole process should be achieved, which is evidenced by clear reporting of procedures and criteria in all phases undertaken in the benefit assessment. The most important means of enhancing transparency are: 1. To implement a scoping

  19. Assessment of Conventional Teaching Procedures: Implications for Gifted Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogbel Aid K Alenizi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to assess the conventional teaching procedures in the development of mathematical skills of the students with learning difficulties. The study group was made up of all the children with academic learning disorders in KSA. The research questions have been scrutinized from the averages and the standard deviation of the marks scored by the participants in the test and control group. The outcomes of the study show that the conventional teaching procedures have effects on mathematical skill development of the female pupils with learning disorders. The results of the study show that the test group outperformed the control group. Based on the data and the evidences, various recommendations have been proposed for the stakeholders in the area of teaching the gifted children so as to ascertain better training for them. Keywords: Maths skills, Learning difficulties, Saudi Arabia

  20. The Effects of Rapid Assessments and Adaptive Restudy Prompts in Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkl, Alexander; Skuballa, Irene T.; Schwonke, Rolf; Harr, Nora; Leber, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of rapid assessment tasks and different adaptive restudy prompts in multimedia learning. The adaptivity was based on rapid assessment tasks that were interspersed throughout a multimedia learning environment. In Experiment 1 (N = 52 university students), we analyzed to which extent rapid assessment tasks were reactive…

  1. Rapid assessment methods in eye care: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Marmamula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable information is required for the planning and management of eye care services. While classical research methods provide reliable estimates, they are prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Rapid assessment (RA methods are indispensable tools in situations where data are needed quickly and where time- or cost-related factors prohibit the use of classical epidemiological surveys. These methods have been developed and field tested, and can be applied across almost the entire gamut of health care. The 1990s witnessed the emergence of RA methods in eye care for cataract, onchocerciasis, and trachoma and, more recently, the main causes of avoidable blindness and visual impairment. The important features of RA methods include the use of local resources, simplified sampling methodology, and a simple examination protocol/data collection method that can be performed by locally available personnel. The analysis is quick and easy to interpret. The entire process is inexpensive, so the survey may be repeated once every 5-10 years to assess the changing trends in disease burden. RA survey methods are typically linked with an intervention. This article provides an overview of the RA methods commonly used in eye care, and emphasizes the selection of appropriate methods based on the local need and context.

  2. Rapid Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability in Palestinian Refugee Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

    Studies of historical and recorded earthquakes in Palestine demonstrate that damaging earthquakes are occurring frequently along the Dead Sea Transform: Earthquake of 11 July 1927 (ML 6.2), Earthquake of 11 February 2004 (ML 5.2). In order to reduce seismic vulnerability of buildings, losses in lives, properties and infrastructures, an attempt was made to estimate the percentage of damage degrees and losses at selected refugee camps: Al Ama`ri, Balata and Dhaishe. Assessing the vulnerability classes of building structures was carried out according to the European Macro-Seismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98) and the Fedral Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The rapid assessment results showed that very heavy structural and non structural damages will occur in the common buildings of the investigated Refugee Camps (many buildings will suffer from damages grades 4 and 5). Bad quality of buildings in terms of design and construction, lack of uniformity, absence of spaces between the building and the limited width of roads will definitely increase the seismic vulnerability under the influence of moderate-strong (M 6-7) earthquakes in the future.

  3. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): reactor-accident assessment methods. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    As part of the continuing emphasis on emergency preparedness, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the development of a rapid dose assessment system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This system, the Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program for rapidly assessing the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. This document describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations. IRDAM calculates whole body (5-cm depth) and infant thyroid doses at six fixed downwind distances between 500 and 20,000 meters. Radionuclides considered primarily consist of noble gases and radioiodines. In order to provide a rapid assessment capability consistent with the capacity of the Osborne-1 computer, certain simplifying approximations and assumptions are made. These are described, along with default values (assumptions used in the absence of specific input) in the text of this document. Two companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. The user's Guide (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 1) describes the setup and operation of equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Scenarios for Comparing Dose Assessment Models (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 3) provides the results of calculations made by IRDAM and other models for specific accident scenarios.

  4. State and Federal project development procedures for bus rapid transit : managing differences and reducing implementation delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report documents an investigation into the transportation project development process in the : context of the implementation of bus rapid transit systems on the State Highway System as well as such : systems being part of the Federal New Starts ...

  5. Rapid assessment of nonlinear optical propagation effects in dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyo, J. del; de la Cruz, A. Ruiz; Grace, E.; Ferrer, A.; Siegel, J.; Pasquazi, A.; Assanto, G.; Solis, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast laser processing applications need fast approaches to assess the nonlinear propagation of the laser beam in order to predict the optimal range of processing parameters in a wide variety of cases. We develop here a method based on the simple monitoring of the nonlinear beam shaping against numerical prediction. The numerical code solves the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with nonlinear absorption under simplified conditions by employing a state-of-the art computationally efficient approach. By comparing with experimental results we can rapidly estimate the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients of the material. The validity of this approach has been tested in a variety of experiments where nonlinearities play a key role, like spatial soliton shaping or fs-laser waveguide writing. The approach provides excellent results for propagated power densities for which free carrier generation effects can be neglected. Above such a threshold, the peculiarities of the nonlinear propagation of elliptical beams enable acquiring an instantaneous picture of the deposition of energy inside the material realistic enough to estimate the effective nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients that can be used for predicting the spatial distribution of energy deposition inside the material and controlling the beam in the writing process. PMID:25564243

  6. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in the Occupied Palestinian Territories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Far Chiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are no recent data on the prevalence and causes of blindness in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in the population aged 50 years and above in the Occupied Palestinian Territories using the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB survey method. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Clusters of 40 people who were 50 years and above were selected with probability proportionate to size using a multistage cluster random sampling method. Participants received a comprehensive ophthalmic examination in their homes, including visual acuity testing by one of three experienced ophthalmologists. The principal cause for visual loss was determined by an experienced ophthalmologist using portable diagnostic instruments. Information about previous cataract surgery, satisfaction with surgery and barriers to cataract surgery were collected. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was also determined. The prevalence of bilateral blindness (VAor=3/60 and or=6/60 and or=6/18, 23.2% had a borderline outcome (VAor=6/60 and 22.3% had a poor outcome (VAor=50 year age group was 26.4% (95% CI: 24.9-27.9. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of blindness suggests that significant numbers of people in the Occupied Palestinian Territories exist who do not access eye care - predominantly women and those residing in Gaza. Programmes need to focus on maximizing the use of current services by these excluded groups.

  7. Competence of Litter Ants for Rapid Biodiversity Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Saumya E. Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Biodiversity Assessment approaches associated with focusing taxa have overcome many of the problems related to large scale surveys. This study examined the suitability of litter ants as a focusing taxon by checking whether diversity and species assemblages of litter ants reflect the overall picture of arthropod diversity and assemblages in leaf litter in two vegetation types: secondary forest and pine plantation in Upper Hanthana forest reserve, Sri Lanka. In each vegetation type, arthropods were sampled using three sampling methods (Winkler extraction, hand collection, and pitfall traps along three 100 m line transects. From the two sites, 1887 litter ants (34 species and 3488 litter arthropods (52 species were collected. Species assemblages composition of both ants and other arthropods differed significantly between the two sites (ANOSIM, p=0.001 with both groups generating distinct clusters for the two sites (SIMPROF, p=0.001. But there was no significant correlation (p>0.05 between abundance and richness of litter ants and those of other arthropods in both vegetation types. The overall finding suggests that the litter ants do not reflect the holistic picture of arthropod diversity and assemblages in leaf litter, but the quality of the habitat for the survival of all litter arthropods.

  8. CTER—Rapid estimation of CTF parameters with error assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penczek, Pawel A., E-mail: Pawel.A.Penczek@uth.tmc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin MSB 6.220, Houston, TX 77054 (United States); Fang, Jia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin MSB 6.220, Houston, TX 77054 (United States); Li, Xueming; Cheng, Yifan [The Keck Advanced Microscopy Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); Loerke, Justus; Spahn, Christian M.T. [Institut für Medizinische Physik und Biophysik, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    In structural electron microscopy, the accurate estimation of the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) parameters, particularly defocus and astigmatism, is of utmost importance for both initial evaluation of micrograph quality and for subsequent structure determination. Due to increases in the rate of data collection on modern microscopes equipped with new generation cameras, it is also important that the CTF estimation can be done rapidly and with minimal user intervention. Finally, in order to minimize the necessity for manual screening of the micrographs by a user it is necessary to provide an assessment of the errors of fitted parameters values. In this work we introduce CTER, a CTF parameters estimation method distinguished by its computational efficiency. The efficiency of the method makes it suitable for high-throughput EM data collection, and enables the use of a statistical resampling technique, bootstrap, that yields standard deviations of estimated defocus and astigmatism amplitude and angle, thus facilitating the automation of the process of screening out inferior micrograph data. Furthermore, CTER also outputs the spatial frequency limit imposed by reciprocal space aliasing of the discrete form of the CTF and the finite window size. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of CTER using a data set collected on a 300 kV Tecnai Polara (FEI) using the K2 Summit DED camera in super-resolution counting mode. Using CTER we obtained a structure of the 80S ribosome whose large subunit had a resolution of 4.03 Å without, and 3.85 Å with, inclusion of astigmatism parameters. - Highlights: • We describe methodology for estimation of CTF parameters with error assessment. • Error estimates provide means for automated elimination of inferior micrographs. • High computational efficiency allows real-time monitoring of EM data quality. • Accurate CTF estimation yields structure of the 80S human ribosome at 3.85 Å.

  9. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  10. An Alternative and Rapid Method for the Extraction of Nucleic Acids from Ixodid Ticks by Potassium Acetate Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islay Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four variants of the potassium acetate procedure for DNA extraction from ixodid ticks at different stage of their life cycles were evaluated and compared with phenol-chloroform and ammonium hydroxide methods. The most rapid and most efficient variant was validated in the DNA extraction procedure from the engorged ticks collected from bovine, canine as well as from house ticks for the screening of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. The ammonium hydroxide procedure was used for non-engorged ticks. All the variants were efficient and allowed obtaining PCR-quality material according to the specific amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragment of the original tick. DNA extracted from the ticks under the study was tested by multiplex PCR for the screening of tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. amplification products were obtained from 29/48 extracts. Ammonium hydroxide protocol was not efficient for two extracts. Detection of amplification products from the PCR indicated that DNA had been successfully extracted. The potassium acetate procedure could be an alternative, rapid, and reliable method for DNA extraction from the ixodid ticks, mainly for poorly-resourced laboratories.

  11. Rapid Assessment Medical Support (RAMS) for active shooter incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechem, C Crawford; Bossert, Richard; Baldini, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This country has witnessed a steady increase in the number of active shooter incidents in recent years. The traditional emergency medical services (EMS) response to such incidents has been to stage at a safe distance until the scene has been secured by law enforcement. Such an approach may lead to unnecessary delays in medical care and potentially needless loss of life. To address this issue locally, the Philadelphia Fire Department (PFD) and the Philadelphia Police Department (PPD) collaborated to develop the Rapid Assessment Medical Support (RAMS) program. All PFD paramedics have been equipped and trained to move with PPD officers into a scene that has been cleared by police but not yet secured in order to initiate emergency care, with an emphasis on hemorrhage control. Patients are then extracted to awaiting EMS resources in the cold zone. The history behind the program and the challenges and obstacles that had to be addressed in its development are described. These included initial and ongoing training and funding sources; buy-in from risk management, labor, and the individual providers; whether only paramedics should be included in the RAMS program or if the PFD's firefighter-EMTs should be included as well; the potential for mission creep as police recognized the value of this asset and its potential application to other scenarios; and how to involve the many nonmunicipal ambulance services that are not involved in the routine operation of Philadelphia's 9-1-1 system. To date, RAMS teams have been activated on multiple occasions, but fortunately the incidents were resolved without injury or loss of life. However, the program provides another valuable tool with which the City of Philadelphia can respond should another active shooter incident occur.

  12. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Nakuru district, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathenge, Wanjiku; Kuper, Hannah; Limburg, Hans; Polack, Sarah; Onyango, Oscar; Nyaga, Godfrey; Foster, Allen

    2007-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of avoidable blindness in > or =50-year-olds in Nakuru district, Kenya, and to evaluate the Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness (RAAB), a new methodology to measure the magnitude and causes of blindness. Cross-sectional population-based survey. Seventy-six clusters of 50 people 50 years or older were selected by probability proportionate to size sampling of clusters. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. Three thousand seven hundred eighty-four eligible subjects were selected, of whom 3503 (92.6%) were examined. Participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination in their homes by an ophthalmologist, including measurement of visual acuity (VA) with a tumbling-E chart and the diagnosis of the principal cause of visual impairment. Those who had undergone cataract surgery were questioned about the details of the operation and their satisfaction with surgery. Those who were visually impaired from cataract were asked why they had not gone for surgery. Visual acuity and principal cause of VA or =6/60) was 5.8% (95% CI, 4.8%-6.8%) in the sample. Definite avoidable causes of blindness (i.e., cataract, refractive error, trachoma, and corneal scarring) were responsible for 69.6% of bilateral blindness and 74.9% of bilateral visual impairment. Cataract was the major cause of blindness (42.0%) and visual impairment (36.0%). The cataract surgical coverage was high, with 78% of those with bilateral cataract who needed surgery having had surgery at VA or =50-year-olds in Nakuru district was low, in part due to the high cataract surgical coverage. The RAAB is easy to use and inexpensive and provides information about the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness that can be used for planning and monitoring eye care services.

  13. Clean fog rapid procedure test of artificially and naturally polluted HVDC porcelain barrel insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlastos, A.E. (Univ. of Technology, Gothenberg (SE))

    1992-07-01

    The first question asked in this paper refers to the variation of the peak leakage current prior to the flashover and the variation of the time prior to flashover in the test of artificially polluted insulators when using the up-and-down method. To answer this question sums up the test procedure used in the up-and-down method. For each trial represented the insulator was again polluted artificially and then dried following the procedure described in the paper. Then the insulator was transported into the fog chamber and the voltage and fog was switched on simultaneously. In these experiments a low fog injection rate was used.

  14. Measurement of humic and fulvic acid concentrations and dissolution properties by a rapid batch procedure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Although humic substances (HS) strongly facilitate the transport of metals and hydrophobic organic contaminants in environmental systems, their measurement is hampered by the time-consuming nature of currently available methods for their isolation and purification. We present and apply a new rapid

  15. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe

  16. A Rapid Selection Procedure for Simple Commercial Implementation of omega-Transaminase Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen Deslauriers, Maria; Tufvesson, Pär; Rackham, Emma J.

    2016-01-01

    A stepwise selection procedure is presented to quickly evaluate whether a given omega-transaminase reaction is suitable for a so-called "simple" scale-up for fast industrial implementation. Here "simple" is defined as a system without the need for extensive process development or specialized...

  17. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guerrero, M L; Morrow, R C; Calva, J J; Ortega-Gallegos, H; Weller, S C; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Morrow, A L

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding...

  18. [Development and scientific rationale for a universal index for rapid assessment of readability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teksheva, L M

    2007-01-01

    The hygienic regulations of academic books, including teachware, for children and adolescents necessitate the performance of special studies to assess their readability by the unified procedure that would suggest a visual response while reading. This study has developed and warranted a universal readability index by the velocity of reading. There are significant regression correlations between the velocity of reading as the readability index and the degree of tiredness, detected by various visual functions. The parameters of accommodation and adaptive properties of the eye are most sensitive to visual load on reading. Reading velocity as an indicator of readability of illogical texts may be used as a rapid method under laboratory and natural conditions to determine the action of various textual loads on the visual system.

  19. Developing and Validating a Rapid Small-Scale Column Test Procedure for GAC Selection using Reconstituted Lyophilized NOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost effective design and operation of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) facilities requires the selection of GAC that is optimal for a specific site. Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) are widely used for GAC assessment due to several advantages, including the ability to simu...

  20. A rapid and specific derivatization procedure to identify acyl-glucuronides by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Alfin D N; Wang, Wei Wei; Bessire, Andrew J; Sharma, Raman; Hagen, Anne E

    2010-07-30

    A simple procedure is described to identify acyl-glucuronides by coupled liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after derivatization to a hydroxamic acid with hydroxylamine. The reaction specificity obviates the need for isolation of the acyl-glucuronide from an extract. Glucuronides derived from carbamic acids, and alkyl- and aromatic amines, are inert to the derivatization reaction conditions, making the hydroxamic acid derivative a fingerprint for acyl-glucuronides. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Rapid assessment of visual impairment (RAVI in marine fishing communities in South India - study protocol and main findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madala Sreenivas R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable data are a pre-requisite for planning eye care services. Though conventional cross sectional studies provide reliable information, they are resource intensive. A novel rapid assessment method was used to investigate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and presbyopia in subjects aged 40 years and older. This paper describes the detailed methodology and study procedures of Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI project. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using cluster random sampling in the coastal region of Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh in India, predominantly inhabited by fishing communities. Unaided, aided and pinhole visual acuity (VA was assessed using a Snellen chart at a distance of 6 meters. The VA was re-assessed using a pinhole, if VA was Results The data collection was completed in Conclusion There is a high prevalence of visual impairment in marine fishing communities in Prakasam district in India. The data from this rapid assessment survey can now be used as a baseline to start eye care services in this region. The rapid assessment methodology (RAVI reported in this paper is robust, quick and has the potential to be replicated in other areas.

  2. Rapid analytical procedure for determination of mineral oils in edible oil by GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, Magdalena; Pezo, Davinson; Nerin, Cristina

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for the determination of mineral oils in edible oil has been fully developed. The procedure consists of using a sulphuric acid-impregnated silica gel (SAISG) glass column to eliminate the fat matter. A chemical combustion of the fatty acids takes place, while the mineral oils are not affected by the sulphuric acid. The column is eluted with hexane using a vacuum pump and the final extract is concentrated and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionisation detector (FID). The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification limit (LOQ) in hexane were 0.07 and 0.21 μg g(-1) respectively and the LOQ in vegetable oil was 1 μg g(-1). Only a few minutes were necessary for sample treatment to have a clean extract. The efficiency of the process, measured through the recoveries from spiked samples of edible oil was higher than 95%. The procedure has been applied to determine mineral oil in olive oil from the retailed market. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The usefulness and significance of assessing rapidly progressive spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björndahl, Lars

    2010-01-01

    It is possible and clinically relevant to distinguish between slow and rapid progressive spermatozoa in basic semen analysis. This is discussed in light of the different purposes of semen analysis for the subfertile couple and the male patient. The two groups of progressive spermatozoa should be distinguished to help ensure that pertinent information available in the semen sample is not neglected. PMID:20111079

  4. Using Ant Communities For Rapid Assessment Of Terrestrial Ecosystem Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L

    2005-06-01

    relative health of the ecosystem. The IBI, though originally for Midwestern streams, has been successfully adapted to other ecoregions and taxa (macroinvertebrates, Lombard and Goldstein, 2004) and has become an important tool for scientists and regulatory agencies alike in determining health of stream ecosystems. The IBI is a specific type of a larger group of methods and procedures referred to as Rapid Bioassessment (RBA). These protocols have the advantage of directly measuring the organisms affected by system perturbations, thus providing an integrated evaluation of system health because the organisms themselves integrate all aspects of their environment and its condition. In addition to the IBI, the RBA concept has also been applied to seep wetlands (Paller et al. 2005) and terrestrial systems (O'Connell et al. 1998, Kremen et al. 1993, Rodriguez et al. 1998, Rosenberg et al. 1986). Terrestrial RBA methods have lagged somewhat behind those for aquatic systems because terrestrial systems are less distinctly defined and seem to have a less universal distribution of an all-inclusive taxon, such as fish in the IBI, upon which to base an RBA. In the last decade, primarily in Australia, extensive development of an RBA using ant communities has shown great promise. Ants have the same advantage for terrestrial RBAs that fish do for aquatic systems in that they are an essential and ubiquitous component of virtually all terrestrial ecosystems. They occupy a broad range of niches, functional groups, and trophic levels and they possess one very important characteristic that makes them ideal for RBA because, similar to the fishes, there is a wide range of tolerance to conditions within the larger taxa. Within ant communities there are certain groups, genera, or species that may be very robust and abundant under even the harshest impacts. There are also taxa that are very sensitive to disturbance and change and their presence or absence is also indicative of the local

  5. Rapid Carbon Assessment Project: Data Summary and Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Skye; Loecke, Terry; Roecker, Stephen; Beaudette, Dylan; Libohova, Zamir; Monger, Curtis; Lindbo, David

    2017-04-01

    The Rapid Carbon Assessment (RaCA) project was undertaken to estimate regional soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the conterminous United States (CONUS) as a one-time event. Sample locations were selected randomly using the NRI (National Resource Inventory) sampling framework covering all areas in CONUS with SSURGO certified maps as of Dec 2012. Within each of 17 regions, sites were selected by a combination of soil and land use/cover groups (LUGR). At each of more than 6,000 sites five pedons were described and sampled to a depth of 100cm (one central and 4 satellites 30m in each cardinal direction). There were 144,833 samples described from 32,084 pedons at 6, 017 sites. A combination of measurement and modeled bulk density was used for all samples. A visible near-infrared (VNIR) spectrophotometer was used to scan each sample for prediction of soil carbon contents. The samples of each central pedon were analyzed by the Kellogg Soil Survey Laboratory for combustion carbon and calcimeter inorganic carbon. SOC stocks were calculated for each pedon using a standard fixed depth technique to depths of 5, 30 and 100cm. Pedon SOC stocks were transformed to better approach normality before LUGR, regional and land use/cover summaries were calculated. The values reported are geometric means. A detailed spatial map can be produced using LUGR mean assignment to correlated pixels. LUGR values range from 1 to 3,000 Mg ha-1. While some artifacts are visible due to the stratified nature of sampling and extrapolation, the predictions are generally smooth and highlight some distinct geomorphic features including the sandhills in the Great Plains in the central US, mountainous regions in the West and coastal wetlands in the East. Regional averages range from 46 Mg ha-1 in the desert Southwest to 182 Mg ha-1 in the Northeast. Regional trends correlate to climate variables such as precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. While land use/cover classes vary in mean values

  6. CAD – CAM PROCEDURE USING FOR RAPID PROTOTYPING WITH APPLICATION IN BIOMECHANICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAUN Barbu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new and efficient method for modeling some components with application in Biomechanics. It is shown the way in which this method could be successfully applied for orthopedic shoes, namely for foot insoles to correct any plantar deformities. The main advantages of the proposed method refer to low costs, successfully applying for different products for Biomechanics. The prototyped models via CAD/CAM method allowed a rapid and efficient improvement of their design. Another advantage refer to the fact that these can be properly and efficiently tested before prototyping by the point of view of mechanical stress, due to prior simulations, eliminating all costs meaning wastes or adjustments.

  7. Rapid and simple procedure for visualization of amphibian skeletons for teratological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, S.M. Jr.; Dugan, T.S.; Dumont, J.N.

    1983-07-01

    A method for Alizarin red S and Alcian blue 8GX double staining of ossified and cartilagenous skeletal components has been developed for late larval and newly metamorphosed stages of Xenopus laevis. This technique, which utilizes fixed specimens, employs hydrogen peroxide bleaching, potassium hydroxide maceration, and ethanol/glycerin clearing, has proved convenient with many possible stopping points and the capability of producing assayable skeletons in only two and one-half days. The method routinely produces stained skeletons with excellent contrast and brilliant colors for photographics. This procedure was developed in conjunction with the use of late larvae of Xenopus as teratological test animals. The sensitivity and uniformity of response of this biological system and the capabilities of this skeletal technique provide an excellent system for the study of teratogenic effects on the development of ossified bone and skeletal conformation.

  8. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Lisianski, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  9. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Tau, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  10. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Farallon de Pajaros, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  11. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Rose, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  12. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Alamagan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  13. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  14. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at French Frigate, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  15. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Asuncion, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  16. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Pagan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  17. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Ofu & Olosega, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  18. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Molokai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  19. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Maug, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  20. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kingman, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  1. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Tutuila, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  2. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Wake, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  3. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Agrihan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  4. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Lanai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  5. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kure, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  6. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Rota, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  7. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Hawaii, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  8. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kauai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  9. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Swains, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  10. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guguan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  11. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Sarigan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  12. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Johnston, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  13. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Aguijan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  14. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Palmyra, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  15. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Tinian, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  16. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Pearl & Hermes, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  17. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Maui, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  18. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guam, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  19. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, M.L.; Morrow, R C; Calva, J.J.; Ortega-Gallegos, H.; Weller, S. C.; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Morrow, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding. The responses to pilot interviews were used to develop a standardized questionnaire regarding reasons for infant feeding choice, sources of advice, and barriers to breastfeeding. We interviewed a random sample of 150 mothers with a child < 5 years of age; 136 (91%) of them had initiated ...

  20. Assessment of the Operational Procedure of the Traditional Credit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the operational procedure of the traditional credit and savings associations in Imo State. It is aimed at identifying the associations whose operational procedure and organizational structure make linkage with the formal credit market possible without the associations losing their distinctive relevance to ...

  1. Rapid Assessment of Loiasis in parts of the Niger Delta, in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of loiasis was rapidly assessed based on the World Health Organisation RAPLOA technique in 24 rural communities of the Niger Delta Area of Imo State, Nigeria using 78-82 adults per community. The rapid assessment was based on history of eye worm and Calabar swellings from individual, as well as ...

  2. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Hongbin; Wang Chunyan; Qi Yao [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Song Fengrui, E-mail: songfr@ciac.jl.cn [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Liu Zhiqiang; Liu Shuying [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-11-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS combined with PCA and HCA was used to rapidly identify markers of Radix Aconiti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DART MS behavior of six aconitine-type alkaloids was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical markers were recognized between the qualified and unqualified samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS was shown to be an effective tool for quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata. - Abstract: This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in

  3. A rapid procedure to ascertain the antimicrobial efficacy of oral care formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, P K; Tambs, G; Gittins, E; Nabi, N; Gaffar, A

    2003-12-01

    A rapid method examining the antimicrobial efficacy of oral care formulations with alamar blue, an oxidation-reduction dye with fluorescent end-points, is described. Significant correlations between increasing viable plate counts of the oral bacteria Actinomyces viscosus, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and increased alamar fluorescence were noted. Metabolically active bacteria reduced alamar with the reduced dye found in the cell-free filtrate. Insignificant alamar reductions were noted in the absence of bacteria or by spent culture supernatants. The efficacy of mouthrinses with clinically proven antiplaque agents such as chlorhexidine or cetylpyridinium chloride were determined by alamar blue. In a model system with A. viscosus, triclosan dentifrices demonstrate a dose-dependent effect on bacteria. Human salivary bacteria demonstrate increasing alamar fluorescence with increasing plate counts. A clinical study examined the effects of rinsing with chlorhexidine or cetylpyridinium chloride mouthrinses in comparison with a placebo mouthrinse and water on salivary bacteria. Rinsing with chlorhexidine resulted in the least number of bacteria by alamar and plate count methods. In summary, the current study demonstrates the utility of alamar blue to examine the antimicrobial effects of oral care formulations in laboratory and clinical studies.

  4. Procedure for selecting GCM datasets for climate risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Lin Ching-Pin Tung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available General Circulation Models (GCMs are indispensable tools to project future climate. It is not realistic or necessary to use all GCM datasets when assessing climate risks and building adaptive capacity. Thus, a rational procedure for selecting GCM datasets is needed. It is also required to classify weather stations into climate zones and then suggest a suitable list of GCM datasets to avoid weather stations with similar climate patterns but using different GCM datasets. The purpose of this study is to establish a process for selecting GCM datasets for a region. The process consists of climate zonation, applicability ranking, and a model similarity check. Principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis are used to classify regional weather stations into climate zones. The weighted average ranking (WAR method and demerit point system (DPS are then used to rank the GCM performance using CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 datasets. The GCM family tree is then applied to screen out highly similar GCMs before generating a GCM suggestion list. Taiwan is chosen as the study area for this investigation. Taiwan receives monthly mean precipitation data from 25 weather stations. The weather stations were clustered into ten climate zones with different GCM datasets suggested for each zone. The top five GCM datasets suggested for Taiwan by the WAR method are HadGEM2-AO, CESM1-CAM5, CCSM4, MIROC5, and GISS-E2-R while those suggested by the DPS method are CSIRO-Mk3-6-0, HadGEM2-AO, CESM1-CAM5, MIROC5, and CCSM4. The GCM selection process presented in this study is applicable to other regions to assist users in finding GCM datasets suitable for their research.

  5. Applying an improved rapid impact assessment matrix method to strategic environmental assessment of urban planning in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili@bnu.edu.cn; Xie, Yuanbo, E-mail: former_007@163.com; Hao, Fanghua, E-mail: fanghua@bnu.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    -making structures in China. It offers the potential for delivering timely and quality results to decision-making processes. To achieve the desired efficiency, it is recommended that an SEA procedure take into account findings acquired from an improved RIAM application at an early stage, then, at a later stage, results from more comprehensive assessments conducted using more sophisticated methods should be added, if time and data are available. - Highlights: • RIAM is a potential SEA tool due to its multidisciplinary setting and rapid process. • Weighting index and computing IES are raised for improving RIAM when applied to SEAs. • The improved RIAM boosts SEA effectiveness by timely responding to decision-making. • The improved RIAM is more suitable to an SEA bothered by tight time or data shortage. • The improved RIAM adapts to the technical aims of SEA and decision features in China.

  6. Nanoparticles rapidly assess specific IgE in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Sarmadia; Qadri, Shahnaz; al-Ramadi, Basel; Haik, Yousef

    2012-08-03

    Allergy is the sixth leading cause of chronic disease in the world. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting allergy indicators in human plasma, noninvasively, at the point of care and with a comparable efficiency and reduced turnaround time compared with the gold standard. Peanut allergy was utilized as a model due to its widespread occurrence among the US population and fatality if not treated. The detection procedure utilized magnetic nanoparticles that were coated with an allergen layer (peanut protein extract). Peanut immunoglobulin E (IgE) was detected in concentrations close to the minimum detection range of CAP assay. The results were obtained in minutes compared with the CAP assay which requires more than 3 h.

  7. Rapid procedure for coupling of protein antigens to red cells to be used in plaque assays by prewashing in chromium chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Greeve, A.A.M.; Rijkers, G.T.; Marwitz, P.A.; Benner, R.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid and efficient procedure is described for the coupling of proteins (protein A, provalbumin, albumin and chicken gamma globulin) to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) to be used in antigen-specific or protein A plaque assays. This modification of the original procedure has three distinct features:

  8. A rapid method for assessing the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglizzo, E F; Frank, F; Bernardos, J; Buschiazzo, D E; Cabo, S

    2006-06-01

    The generation of reliable updated information is critical to support the harmonization of socio-economic and environmental issues in a context of sustainable development. The agro-environmental assessment and management of agricultural systems often relies on indicators that are necessary to make sound decisions. This work aims to provide an approach to (a) assess the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina, and (b) propose a methodological framework to calculate environmental indicators that can rapidly be applied to practical farming. 120 commercial farms scattered across the Pampas were analyzed in this study during 2002 and 2003. Eleven basic indicators were identified and calculation methods described. Such indicators were fossil energy (FE) use, FE use efficiency, nitrogen (N) balance, phosphorus (P) balance, N contamination risk, P contamination risk, pesticide contamination risk, soil erosion risk, habitat intervention, changes in soil carbon stock, and balance of greenhouse gases. A model named Agro-Eco-Index was developed on a Microsoft-Excel support to incorporate on-farm collected data and facilitate the calculation of indicators by users. Different procedures were applied to validate the model and present the results to the users. Regression models (based on linear and non-linear models) were used to validate the comparative performance of the study farms across the Pampas. An environmental dashboard was provided to represent in a graphical way the behavior of farms. The method provides a tool to discriminate environmentally friendly farms from those that do not pay enough attention to environmental issues. Our procedure might be useful for implementing an ecological certification system to reward a good environmental behavior in society (e.g., through tax benefits) and generate a commercial advantage (e.g., through the allocation of green labels) for committed farmers.

  9. Periodontal and dental effects of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion, assessed by using digital study models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Furquim Siqueira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the maxillary dental arch changes produced by surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME. METHODS: Dental casts from 18 patients (mean age of 23.3 years were obtained at treatment onset (T1, three months after SARME (T2 and 6 months after expansion (T3. The casts were scanned in a 3D scanner (D-250, 3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark. Maxillary dental arch width, dental crown tipping and height were measured and assessed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. RESULTS: Increased transversal widths from T1 and T2 and the maintenance of these values from T2 and T3 were observed. Buccal teeth tipping also showed statistically significant differences, with an increase in all teeth from T1 to T2 and a decrease from T2 to T3. No statistically significant difference was found for dental crown height, except for left first and second molars, although clinically irrelevant. CONCLUSION: SARME proved to be an effective and stable procedure, with minimum periodontal hazards.

  10. An economic and rapid diagnostic procedure for the detection of salmonella/shigella using the polyvalent salmonella phage O-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, H; Bürgi, E; Margadant, A; Boller, E

    1978-01-01

    An easy, rapid and economic two-step procedure is described for the detection of Salmonella/Shigella. In the first step the susceptibility of suspected colonies for the phage O-1 of FELIX and CALLOW is tested. Positive cultures are serologically confirmed. The test is performed on Triple Sugar Iron Agar and lasts 4-6 hrs. Phage negative cultures which are lactose- and sucrose negative are tested for lysine decarboxylase and, if Shigella is possible (i.e. in human material on primary plates), for indol production and motility in a semisolid tryptophane agar. Of 22880 Salmonella straine 21977, i.e. 96.1% were phage-sensitive. Strains belonging to certain O-groups (OE) or species are lysed at a lower percentage. However, since they are lysine decarboxylase positive they are not lost and can be submitted to a serological examination.

  11. Rapid assessment of cataract surgical coverage in rural Zululand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Cataract surgical coverage (CSC) is a useful indicator of the degree of success of a cataract intervention programme. However, because previously described methods are time-consuming and labour-intensive, they are rarely performed. This study describes a simple and inexpensive assessment of CSC based ...

  12. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M L; Morrow, R C; Calva, J J; Ortega-Gallegos, H; Weller, S C; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Morrow, A L

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding. The responses to pilot interviews were used to develop a standardized questionnaire regarding reasons for infant feeding choice, sources of advice, and barriers to breastfeeding. We interviewed a random sample of 150 mothers with a child health, growth, and hygiene were the main reasons for the type of feeding selected; cost, comfort, and the husband's opinion were less important. Physicians were ranked as the most important source of advice. Reduction or cessation of breastfeeding occurred on the doctor's advice (68%); or when the mothers encountered local folk illnesses such as "coraje" (52%) or "susto" (54%), which are associated with anger or fright; or had "not enough milk" (62%) or "bad milk" (56%); or because of illness of the mother (56%) or child (43%). During childhood illnesses and conditions, breastfeeding was reduced and the use of supplementary foods was increased. This study emphasizes the importance of cultural values in infant feeding choices, defines specific barriers to breastfeeding, and provides a basis for interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding in the study population.

  13. The safety and effectiveness of Da Vinci surgical system compared with open surgery and laparoscopic surgery: a rapid assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiajie; Wang, Yingqiang; Li, Youping; Li, Xianglian; Li, Cuicui; Shen, Jiantong

    2014-05-01

    The primary objectives of this rapid assessment were to assess the clinical evidence of Da Vinci surgical system (DVSS) comparing with open procedures and laparoscopic procedures, and in order to provide the evidence for health decision makers and clinician. A comprehensive search of electronic databases (EMbase, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI, VIP, CBM and Wanfang) and HTA websites were completed up to 9 October, 2013. Two reviews (Jiajie Yu and Yingqiang Wang) independently extracted data of the manuscripts, and assessed quality of included studies using AMSTAR tools. Qualitative description and GRADE were used to report the outcomes and evidence quality. A total of 17 studies were included: 3 were HTA and 14 were SR/meta-analysis. The included studies focused on prostatectomy, nephrectomy, hysterectomy colorectal surgery, and cardiac surgery. DVSS was shown to be associated with statistically significant reduction in length of hospital stay, blood loss, and transfusion rate compared with open and laparoscopic surgery, but increase in operative time when compared with open surgery. Based on the evidence included in this rapid assessment, DVSS has a limited impact on several clinical outcomes. Considering no available data from randomized controlled trials and much higher cost, decisions will be complex and need to be made carefully. Decision makers should cut down the quantity of purchasing and reasonable allocate them. © 2014 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Assessing Children's Implicit Attitudes Using the Affect Misattribution Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda; Steele, Jennifer R.; Lipman, Corey

    2016-01-01

    In the current research, we examined whether the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) could be successfully adapted as an implicit measure of children's attitudes. We tested this possibility in 3 studies with 5- to 10-year-old children. In Study 1, we found evidence that children misattribute affect elicited by attitudinally positive (e.g., cute…

  15. Cognitive Styles in Admission Procedures for Assessing Candidates of Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casakin, Hernan; Gigi, Ariela

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive style has a strong predictive power in academic and professional success. This study investigated the cognitive profile of candidates studying architecture. Specifically, it explored the relation between visual and verbal cognitive styles, and the performance of candidates in admission procedures. The cognitive styles of candidates who…

  16. A pebble count procedure for assessing watershed cumulative effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory S. Bevenger; Rudy M. King

    1995-01-01

    Land mangement activities can result in the delivery of fine sediment to streams. Over time, such delivery can lead to cumulative impacts to the aquactic ecosystem. Because numerous laws require Federal land managers to analyze watershed cumulative effects, field personnel need simple monitoring procedures that can be used directly and consistently. One approach to...

  17. 77 FR 19591 - Assessment of Mediation and Arbitration Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... and Arbitration Procedures AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... permit parties to engage voluntarily in mediation. The Board also proposes an arbitration program under... of arbitration in other disputes. The Board seeks comments regarding these proposed rules. DATES...

  18. Rapid assessment of disaster damage using social media activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiot...

  19. Innovative procedure for computer-assisted genioplasty: three-dimensional cephalometry, rapid-prototyping model and surgical splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, R; Tranduy, K; Reychler, H

    2010-07-01

    The authors present a new procedure of computer-assisted genioplasty. They determined the anterior, posterior and inferior limits of the chin in relation to the skull and face with the newly developed and validated three-dimensional cephalometric planar analysis (ACRO 3D). Virtual planning of the osteotomy lines was carried out with Mimics (Materialize) software. The authors built a three-dimensional rapid-prototyping multi-position model of the chin area from a medical low-dose CT scan. The transfer of virtual information to the operating room consisted of two elements. First, the titanium plates on the 3D RP model were pre-bent. Second, a surgical guide for the transfer of the osteotomy lines and the positions of the screws to the operating room was manufactured. The authors present the first case of the use of this model on a patient. The postoperative results are promising, and the technique is fast and easy-to-use. More patients are needed for a definitive clinical validation of this procedure. Copyright 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid Damage Assessment by Means of Multi-Temporal SAR — A Comprehensive Review and Outlook to Sentinel-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Plank

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fast crisis response after natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tropical storms, is necessary to support, for instance, rescue, humanitarian, and reconstruction operations in the crisis area. Therefore, rapid damage mapping after a disaster is crucial, i.e., to detect the affected area, including grade and type of damage. Thereby, satellite remote sensing plays a key role due to its fast response, wide field of view, and low cost. With the increasing availability of remote sensing data, numerous methods have been developed for damage assessment. This article gives a comprehensive review of these techniques focusing on multi-temporal SAR procedures for rapid damage assessment: interferometric coherence and intensity correlation. The review is divided into six parts: First, methods based on coherence; second, the ones using intensity correlation; and third, techniques using both methodologies combined to increase the accuracy of the damage assessment are reviewed. Next, studies using additional data (e.g., GIS and optical imagery to support the damage assessment and increase its accuracy are reported. Moreover, selected studies on post-event SAR damage assessment techniques and examples of other applications of the interferometric coherence are presented. Then, the preconditions for a successful worldwide application of multi-temporal SAR methods for damage assessment and the limitations of current SAR satellite missions are reported. Finally, an outlook to the Sentinel-1 SAR mission shows possible solutions of these limitations, enabling a worldwide applicability of the presented damage assessment methods.

  1. [Rapid and Dynamic Determination Models of Amino Acids and Catechins Concentrations during the Processing Procedures of Keemun Black Tea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jing-ming; Yan, Ling; Zhang, Zheng-zhu; Wei, Ling-dong; Li, Lu-qing; Fang, Jun-ting; Huang, Cai-wang

    2015-12-01

    Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. For the contribution to the taste and healthy functions of tea, amino acids and catechins are important components. Among different kinds of black teas in the world, Keemun black tea has the famous and specific fragrance, "Keemun aroma". During the processing procedure of Keemun black tea, the contents of amino acids and catechins changed greatly, and the differences of these concentrations during processing varied significantly. However, a rapid and dynamic determination method during the processing procedure was not existed up to now. In order to find out a rapid determination method for the contents of amino acids and catechins during the processing procedure of Keemun black tea, the materials of fresh leaves, withered leaves, twisted leaves, fermented leaves, and crude tea (after drying) were selected to acquire their corresponding near infrared spectroscopy and obtain their contents of amino acids and catechins by chemical analysis method. The original spectra data were preprocessed by the Standard Normal Variate Transformation (SNVT) method. And the model of Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with the contents of amino acids and catechins combined with Synergy Interval Partial Least squares (Si-PLS) was established in this study. The correlation coefficients and the cross validation root mean square error are treated as the efficient indexes for evaluating models. The results showed that the optimal prediction model of amino acids by Si-PLS contained 20 spectral intervals combined with 4 subintervals and 9 principal component factors. The correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of the calibration set were 0. 955 8 and 1. 768, respectively; the correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of the prediction set were 0. 949 5 and 2. 16, respectively. And the optimal prediction model of catechins by Si-PLS contained 20 spectral intervals combined with 3 subintervals and 10 principal

  2. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Benthic Data from Rapid Assessment Transects Maui 2006 (NODC Accession 0039383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2006 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. In 2006, there were...

  3. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Benthic Data from Rapid Assessment Transects 2001-2004 (NODC Accession 0002464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2001-2004 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. The types and...

  4. A National Needs Assessment to Identify Technical Procedures in Vascular Surgery for Simulation Based Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayahangan, Leizl Joy; Konge, Lars; Schroeder, T V

    2017-01-01

    a national needs assessment to identify the technical procedures that should be integrated in a simulation based curriculum. DESIGN AND METHODS: A national needs assessment using a Delphi process was initiated by engaging 33 predefined key persons in vascular surgery. Round 1 was a brainstorming phase...... to identify technical procedures that vascular surgeons should learn. Round 2 was a survey that used a needs assessment formula to explore the frequency of procedures, the number of surgeons performing each procedure, risk and/or discomfort, and feasibility for simulation based training. Round 3 involved...... eliminated, resulting in a final prioritised list of 19 technical procedures. CONCLUSION: A national needs assessment using a standardised Delphi method identified a list of procedures that are highly suitable and may provide the basis for future simulation based training programs for vascular surgeons...

  5. A Procedure for High Resolution Satellite Imagery Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Crespi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Data products generated from High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI are routinely evaluated during the so-called in-orbit test period, in order to verify if their quality fits the desired features and, if necessary, to obtain the image correction parameters to be used at the ground processing center. Nevertheless, it is often useful to have tools to evaluate image quality also at the final user level. Image quality is defined by some parameters, such as the radiometric resolution and its accuracy, represented by the noise level, and the geometric resolution and sharpness, described by the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF. This paper proposes a procedure to evaluate these image quality parameters; the procedure was implemented in a suitable software and tested on high resolution imagery acquired by the QuickBird, WorldView-1 and Cartosat-1 satellites.

  6. GPS based three-dimensional ionospheric monitoring: procedure and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, C.; Schlüter, S.; Heise, S.; Jacobi, Ch.; Jakowski, N.; Raabe, A.

    Integrated TEC measurements derived from ground- and space-based GPS observations are used to image the ionospheric electron density distribution through three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction. Here, the reconstruction procedure is presented, that has been applied for ionospheric mapping especially during perturbed geomagnetic conditions. The monitoring technique including tomographic algorithm and external constraints is described and discussed in detail. The procedure is based on an iterative MART algorithm and is initialised by a combined IRI/GCPM model. Input data are GPS TEC measured from ground-based networks as well as from the scientific Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellite CHAMP. The problem of spaceborne GPS instrumental biases is addressed, and the approach applied for bias estimation by using calibrated zenith antenna TEC data is presented. Statistical validations of tomographic results with independent data are shown.

  7. Benthic data from rapid assessment transects, 2001-2004, in the Hawaiian Islands (NODC Accession 0002464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2001-2004 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. The types and...

  8. Methodology for Computer-aided, Interactive Rapid Assessment of Local or Regional Stress Fields on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, S. L.; Ferrill, D. A.; Sims, D. W.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Franklin, N. M.

    2003-03-01

    We present a method for rapid assessment of stress fields on Mars: (i) mapping geologic structures, (ii) calculating stress fields, and (iii) determining resolved stresses on faults. Preliminary results are presented for northern Utopia Planitia.

  9. Assessment of changes in smile after rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Morales Cobra de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated changes in the smile characteristics of patients with maxillary constriction submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME. METHODS: The sample consisted of 81 extraoral photographs of maximum smile of 27 patients with mean age of 10 years, before expansion and 3 and 6 months after fixation of the expanding screw. The photographs were analyzed on the software Cef X 2001, with achievement of the following measurements: Transverse smile area, buccal corridors, exposure of maxillary incisors, gingival exposure of maxillary incisors, smile height, upper and lower lip thickness, smile symmetry and smile arch. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: RME promoted statistically significant increase in the transverse smile dimension and exposure of maxillary central and lateral incisors; maintenance of right and left side smile symmetry and of the lack of parallelism between the curvature of the maxillary incisal edges and lower lip border. CONCLUSIONS: RME was beneficial for the smile esthetics with the increase of the transverse smile dimension and exposure of maxillary central and lateral incisors.INTRODUÇÃO: esse estudo avaliou as alterações das características do sorriso de pacientes com atresia maxilar submetidos à expansão rápida da maxila (ERM. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 81 fotografias extrabucais do sorriso máximo de 27 pacientes, com idade média de 10 anos, antes da expansão e aos três e seis meses após a fixação do parafuso expansor. As análises das fotografias foram realizadas por meio do programa Cef X 2001, e as seguintes medidas foram analisadas: dimensão transversal do sorriso, corredores bucais, quantidade de exposição dos incisivos superiores, exposição gengival dos incisivos superiores, altura do sorriso, espessuras dos lábios superior e inferior, simetria e arco do sorriso. As alterações no sorriso durante

  10. Operant Procedures for Assessing Behavioral Flexibility in Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brady, Anne Marie; Floresco, Stan B

    2015-01-01

    .... Understanding of the neurobiology of executive functions has been greatly advanced by the availability of animal tasks for assessing discrete components of behavioral flexibility, particularly...

  11. Microwave Hematoma Detector for the Rapid Assessment of Head Injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadded, W.; Chang, J.; Rosenbury, T.; Dallum, G.; Welsch, P.; Scott, D.; Duarte, D.; Acevedo-Bolton, V.

    2000-02-11

    A non-invasive microwave device for the detection of epi/subdural hemorrhaging (hematoma) is under current development. The final device will be highly portable and allow real time assessment of head injuries, thereby satisfying early detection needs of the field technician as well as providing a tool for repetitious monitoring of high-risk individuals. The device will adopt the advanced technology of micropower impulse radar (MIR) which is a state of the art low cost ultra wide band (UWB) microwave radar developed here at LLNL. It will consist of a MIR transmitting and receiving module, a computer based signal processing module, and a device-to-patient signal coupling module--the UWB antenna. The prototype design is being guided by the needs of the patient and the practitioner along with the prerequisites of the technology including issues such as the specificity of the device, efficacy of diagnosis, accuracy, robustness, and patient comfort. The prototype development follows a concurrent approach which .includes experiments designed to evaluate requirements of the radar and antenna design, phantom development to facilitate laboratory investigations, and investigation into the limits of adapting pre-existing non-medical MIR devices to medical applications. This report will present the accomplishments and project highlights to date in the fiscal year 1999. Future project projections will also be discussed.

  12. Space Shuttle Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Threat Assessment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J.; Christiansen, E.

    Prior to each shuttle mission, Meteoroid and orbital Debris (M/OD) threat assessments are performed to determine the critical penetration risk for the orbiter vehicle, the radiator tube leak risk &the window replacement risk. Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the assessment. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). An M/OD risk analysis is typically performed in support of orbiter Cargo Integration Reviews (CIR) and Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR). Three types of M/OD risk are assessed. The most important involves the calculation of "critical" penetration risk, defined as penetrations that may result in the catastrophic loss of vehicle and crew. Critical failure criteria have been established though detailed engineering evaluations by NASA and Boeing. The radiator assessment is concerned with premature end-of- mission due to loss of a coolant loop. The window assessment is a postflight maintenance and logistics issue. The result s are provided to the Space Shuttle Vehicle Engineering Office (MV) the Space and Life Science Directorate (SA) at JSC. This paper will document the inputs used in the critical penetration analysis for CIR, FRR, and post-flight assessments, it will also serve as a reference for the Space Shuttle Orbiter finite element model (FEM) surface property definitions that are used in M/OD threat assessments.

  13. Flood damage assessment – Literature review and recommended procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Lea; Löwe, Roland; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    is therefore important when assessing flood disaster mitigation options and economical optimizations of possible measures. A common definition is that the flood risk is found with the use of a flood hazard assessment and a flood vulnerability assessment (Apel, Merz and Thieken, 2008). The flood hazard...... is the quantification of amount, extent, and location of flooding expected to occur with a given return period. This means that the spatial distribution of the calculated inundation depth as a function of the return period can be used to describe the flood hazard. The vulnerability is the susceptibility of the area...... subjected to the flooding. A way to express the vulnerability is through a damage cost assessment....

  14. Validation of Short-Term Noise Assessment Procedures: FY16 Summary of Procedures, Progress, and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    measured values. Multiple topics were explored towards identifying possible sources of error. The peak-level calculation algorithm is found to...perform adequately, but an alternative method is recommended for future use. Significant meteorological variability is found across the landscape, leading...algorithm is continuing in FY17. Updates to the noise assessment tools are identified. Throughout this document, procedures used for calculations and analysis are included.

  15. Motor assessment instruments and psychometric procedures: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmella de Medeiros

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It was our objective to identify the psychometric elements to an epistemological reflection through a systematic review of cross-cultural validation procedures of TGMD-2 batteries, MABC-2 and KTK. Searches were carried out by two evaluators independently without year and language restrictions in six databases: Web of Science, Science Direct, Lilacs, Scopus, Pubmed and The ScientificElectronic Library Online - SciELO. The key words used were: "MABC", "TGMD" and "KTK" all of them combined with the word "validity". There was a total of 734 articles, of which, after the exclusion criteria, remained only 11 studies. It was found that there are differences between the authors in relation to the psychometric factors taken into account in cross-cultural validation. So that there was a lack of unanimity of the validation criteria of all studies in this field.

  16. A procedure for assessing climate change impacts on hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamududu, B.; Jjunju, E.; Killingtveit, Aa.; Alfredsen, K.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Ever since climate change was highlighted as an important issue in water related projects, various procedures have been used by different researchers to gain indications of likely impact of climate change on hydropower. Though all methods give results, comparisons of these results is not ideal and may be difficult due to large differences in methods used. This paper is an attempt to propose an ideal procedure or process of estimating the impact of climate change on hydropower production in a basin. The paper describes where to begin, what future climate change projections are necessary, and where to get such data. It also shows highlights various techniques that are available and could be applied to climate projections in order to down scale the large scale projections from global climate models to site or basin climate. Another technique that has been applied is the delta approach or perturbation methods that transfer changes in meteorological variables between the control and the scenario simulations from the regional climate model to a database of observed meteorological data. Further it highlights various ways of transforming basin climate variables that can be used in hydrological modeling to produce runoff series. The paper also discusses applicability of hydrological modeling strategies for climate predictions in relation to stationarity in models and how this will influence climate predictions. The runoff is the input into hydropower systems and hydropower simulations to get the desired hydropower production in the future. In all these steps, different approaches for processing are highlighted. The paper ends with a section on different sources of uncertainties in climate projections. Finally some concluding remarks are given on the reliability of the results from various methodologies. A case study on Zambezi River basin is given towards the end illustrating the differences resulting from different methodologies. (Author)

  17. Open thoracotomy procedural competency: validity study of teaching and assessment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D M; Rhee, K J; Marx, J A; Honigman, B; Panacek, E A; Martinez, D; Brofeldt, B T; Cavanaugh, S H

    1996-12-01

    To determine (1) reliability and validity estimates of three modalities used to assess open thoracotomy procedural competency and (2) the effect of computer practice on procedural performance as measured by the three assessment modalities. An experimental, sequential assessment design with volunteer examinees completing all three assessment modalities (paper, computer, pig model) was implemented at the animal support facilities of a university medical school with an affiliated emergency medicine residency program. Level of physician training (student, resident, faculty) and type of computer practice (thoracotomy, cricothyrotomy) were independent variables. Procedural competency scores were determined for each modality; scores were defined in terms of performance time and performance accuracy for three thoracotomy procedures (opening the chest, pericardiotomy, and aortic cross-clamping). Thoracotomy performance on the pig reliably discriminated among examinees known to differ in level of training. However, computer simulation performance did not significantly differ among examinees with different levels of training. Computer simulation practice significantly improved later performance on the computer assessment (P < .05) but not on the pig assessment. The greatest predictor of procedural competency (time and accuracy) on the pig assessment was the ability to sequentially order procedural steps. This study establishes the pig model as superior to the paper and computer models as the criterion standard for open thoracotomy assessment. Psychometric properties support the pig model as the most reliable and valid model yet described for assessing thoracotomy procedural competency. Computer simulation practice using visual images (complex anatomy) and the sequential ordering of procedural steps through paper modeling show promise for teaching and assessment of prerequisite skills required to develop psychomotor procedural competency.

  18. Assessment of Mechanical Performance of Bone Architecture Using Rapid Prototyping Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparin, Peter; Woesz, Alexander; Thomsen, Jasper S.; Fratzl, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this on-going research project is to assess the influence of bone microarchitecture on the mechanical performance of trabecular bone. A testing chain consist-ing of three steps was established: 1) micro computed tomography (μCT) imaging of human trabecular bone; 2) building of models of the bone from a light-sensitive polymer using Rapid Prototyping (RP); 3) mechanical testing of the models in a material testing machine. A direct resampling procedure was developed to convert μCT data into the format of the RP machine. Standardized parameters for production and testing of the plastic models were established by use of regular cellular structures. Next, normal, osteoporotic, and extreme osteoporotic vertebral trabecular bone architectures were re-produced by RP and compression tested. We found that normal architecture of vertebral trabecular bone exhibit behaviour characteristic of a cellular structure. In normal bone the fracture occurs at much higher strain values that in osteoporotic bone. After the fracture a normal trabecular architecture is able to carry much higher loads than an osteoporotic architecture. However, no statistically significant differences were found in maximal stress during uniaxial compression of the central part of normal, osteoporotic, and extreme osteoporotic vertebral trabecular bone. This supports the hypothesis that osteoporotic trabecular bone can compensate for a loss of trabeculae by thickening the remaining trabeculae in the loading direction (compensatory hypertrophy). The developed approach could be used for mechanical evaluation of structural data acquired non-invasively and assessment of changes in performance of bone architecture.

  19. Rapid screening procedure to optimise the anaerobic codigestion of industrial biowastes and agricultural livestock wastes in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monou, M; Kythreotou, N; Fatta, D; Smith, S R

    2009-02-01

    Small-scale experimental investigations were undertaken on the anaerobic digestion (AD) and codigestion of livestock waste and industrial biowastes. A simple procedure was developed to rapidly determine the suitability of wastes for digestion. The experiment was split into two phases; initially, the seed (digested brewery waste) was replaced by the test waste over a period of 5 days. During the second phase, the test waste was incubated and monitored for methanogenesis. Dairy cattle slurry was the most efficient co-substrate which, when codigested with pig slurry in an equal ratio achieved volatile solids destruction of 32%, CH(4) production rate of 97.4 ml d(-1), maximum CH(4) content of 61.6% and total gas yield of 2229 ml after 529 h. High fat content wastes were unsuitable for AD due to low pH value and because the dominant microbial reaction was fermentation. Codigestion was investigated to overcome any inhibitions; however, dairy cattle slurry, abattoir wastewater and NaOH additions did not lead to methanogenesis. Treating these wastes by AD is feasible but without CH(4) production.

  20. Assessment of washing procedure for determination some of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was proposed to assess the suitability of washing technique to distinguish between airborne and soil borne several metal contaminants. For this reason, six plant species which grew under Mobarakeh Steel Company emissions were selected. Aluminum, iron, nickel, manganese, zinc, copper and lead ...

  1. A rapid one-step kinetics-based immunoassay procedure for the highly-sensitive detection of C-reactive protein

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Sandeep Kumar Vashist, Gregor Czilwik, Thomas van Oordt, Felix von Stetten, Roland Zengerle, E. Marion Schneider & John H.T. Luong ### Abstract A rapid one-step kinetics-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) procedure has been developed for highly-sensitive detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) in less than 30 min. With minimal process steps, the procedure is highly simplified and cost-effective. The analysis only involves sequentially the formation of a sandwic...

  2. Biomechanical Assessment of Patellar Advancement Procedures for Patella Alta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Adam; Baldini, Todd; Krughoff, Kevin; Shapiro, Joshua A; Lindeque, Bennie; Rhodes, Jason; Carollo, James

    2016-05-01

    Crouch gait deformity is common in children with cerebral palsy and often is associated with patella alta. Patellar tendon advancement typically is used to correct patella alta and restore normal knee mechanics. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanical strength of surgical constructs used for fixation during patellar advancement procedures. This study used a cadaveric model to determine which of 3 surgical techniques is biomechanically optimal for patellar tendon advancement in treating patella alta. Twenty-four human cadaveric knees (8 per group) were prepared using 1 of 3 different common surgical techniques: tibial tubercle osteotomy, patellar tendon partial resection and repair at the distal patella, and patellar tendon imbrication. The patella was loaded from 25 to 250 N at 1 Hz for 1000 cycles. A significant difference in patella displacement under cyclical loading was found between surgical techniques. Tibial tubercle osteotomy exhibited significantly less displacement under cyclical loading than distal patella excision and repair (Ppatella excision and repair (P=.0006). Tibial tubercle osteotomy survived longest. Based on failure criteria of 5 mm of displacement, tibial tubercle osteotomy lasted between 250 and 500 cycles. The other 2 techniques failed by 25 cycles. This study offers quantitative evidence regarding the relative mechanical strength of each construct and may influence choice of surgical technique. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e492-e497.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. THE ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE OF THE OPERATIONAL RISK EVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Iulia Iuga

    2009-01-01

    A credit institution must establish a management framework of the operational risk.This framework must cover the appetite and tolerance to the operational risk of a credit institution,in accordance with the management policies of this risk, including the measure and method inwhich the operational risk is transferred outside the credit institution.The management framework of the operational risk should include policies and processes for theidentification, assessment, monitoring and control/dim...

  4. Evaluation of Procedural Simulation as a Training and Assessment Tool in General Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Flemming; Strandbygaard, Jeanett; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic appendectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure, but few training models have been described for it. We examined a virtual reality module for practising a laparoscopic appendectomy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with the following 3 groups of surgeons (n = 4...... be useful as a training tool, but further development is required before it can be used for assessment purposes. Procedural simulation may demonstrate more variation for movement parameters, and future research should focus on developing better procedure-specific parameters....

  5. Standardization of figures and assessment procedures for DTM verticalaccuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Casella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital Terrain Models (DTMs are widely used in many sectors. They play a key role in hydrological risk prevention, risk mitigation and numeric simulations. This paper deals with two questions: (i when it is stated that a DTM has a given vertical accuracy, is this assertion univocal? (ii when DTM vertical accuracy is assessed by means of checkpoints, does their location influence results? First, the paper illustrates that two vertical accuracy definitions are conceivable: Vertical Accuracy at the Nodes (VAN, the average vertical distance between the model and the terrain, evaluated at the DTM's nodes and Vertical Accuracy at the interpolated Points (VAP, in which the vertical distance is evaluated at the generic points. These two quantities are not coincident and, when they are calculated for the same DTM, different numeric values are reached. Unfortunately, the two quantities are often interchanged, but this is misleading. Second, the paper shows a simulated example of a DTM vertical accuracy assessment, highlighting that the checkpoints’ location plays a key role: when checkpoints coincide with the DTM nodes, VAN is estimated; when checkpoints are randomly located, VAP is estimated, instead. Third, an in-depth, theoretical characterization of the two considered quantities is performed, based on symbolic computation, and suitable standardization coefficients are proposed. Finally, our discussion has a well-defined frame: it doesn't deal with all the items of the DTM vertical accuracy budget, which would require a much longer essay, but only with one, usually called fundamental vertical accuracy.

  6. Detalhes singulares nos procedimentos operacionais da disjunção palatina Singular aspects to operate rapid palatal expansion procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Tanaka

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A disjunção palatina traz benefícios significativos nas más oclusões caracterizadas pela atresia esquelética do arco dentário superior. Desde os tempos de Angell muitos manuais foram criados com o intuito de orientar a instalação de aparelhos construídos em diferentes formatos e com materiais dos mais diversos fabricantes, utilizando, ainda, diferentes protocolos de ativação que objetivam a referida correção. A tecnologia utilizada para melhorar os materiais componentes dos aparelhos ortodônticos é muito importante mas os pequenos detalhes, que na verdade, não são pequenos, aliados aos conhecimentos científicos e ao bom senso devem ser observados, pois não se deve esperar que o aparelho "faça e resolva" tudo, corrigindo "num passe de mágica" as mordidas cruzadas posteriores. Este trabalho tem por objetivo detalhar as minúcias globais importantes, seja na confecção, na ativação e nos cuidados durante a permanência do disjuntor palatino na cavidade bucal.The rapid maxillary expansion procedure provide significant benefits in malocclusions with esqueletal posterior crossbites.Since Angell, lots of manuals were made in effort to guide the assembly of appliances from different types and employment of several techniques to obtain the desired correction. The technology used to improve the appliance materials is very important, but little details that actually are not so small together with scientific acknowledge and good sense must be regarded because one can not wait for the appliance “to do and solve” everything, correcting the posterior cross bites by a sleight-of-hand trick. The purpose of this report is to detail some little global aspects about construction, activation and concerns during the permanence period of the rapid maxillary expansion appliance in the mouth.

  7. Assessing the item response theory with covariate (IRT-C) procedure for ascertaining differential item functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tay, L.; Vermunt, J.K.; Wang, C.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the item response theory with covariates (IRT-C) procedure for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) without preknowledge of anchor items (Tay, Newman, & Vermunt, 2011). This procedure begins with a fully constrained baseline model, and candidate items are tested for uniform

  8. On the assessment of extremely low breakdown probabilities by an inverse sampling procedure [gaseous insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyregod, Poul; Vibholm, Svend

    1991-01-01

    the flashover probability function and the corresponding distribution of first breakdown voltages under the inverse sampling procedure, and show how this relation may be utilized to assess the single-shot flashover probability corresponding to the observed average first breakdown voltage. Since the procedure...

  9. A Procedural Skills OSCE: Assessing Technical and Non-Technical Skills of Internal Medicine Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Debra; Hamstra, Stanley J.; Wood, Timothy J.; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Touchie, Claire; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Bordage, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Internists are required to perform a number of procedures that require mastery of technical and non-technical skills, however, formal assessment of these skills is often lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and gather validity evidence for a procedural skills objective structured clinical examination (PS-OSCE) for internal…

  10. Acceptability of Functional Behavioral Assessment Procedures to Special Educators and School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Robert E.; Bundock, Kaitlin; Kladis, Kristin; Hawken, Leanne S.

    2015-01-01

    This survey study assessed the acceptability of a variety of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures (i.e., functional assessment interviews, rating scales/questionnaires, systematic direct observations, functional analysis manipulations) to a national sample of 123 special educators and a state sample of 140 school psychologists.…

  11. The characteristics of a negotiated assessment procedure to promote teacher learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberg, Christina Petronella Maria

    2013-01-01

    The literature indicates that teacher professional development and learning may be improved by using formative assessment procedures. This thesis focuses on a specific form of formative assessment, negotiated assessment, which is characterised by the exchange of views between assessor and assessee

  12. 45 CFR 640.4 - Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an environmental assessment. 640.4 Section 640.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... § 640.4 Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental assessment. (a) Program... environmental impact that the applicant's proposed study may have. (c) Should an environmental assessment be...

  13. Assessing Dimensionality in Complex Data Structures: A Performance Comparison of DETECT and NOHARM Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetina, Dubravka

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of complex structure on dimensionality assessment in compensatory and noncompensatory multidimensional item response models (MIRT) of assessment data using dimensionality assessment procedures based on conditional covariances (i.e., DETECT) and a factor analytical approach (i.e., NOHARM). …

  14. Validity of the Rapid Eating Assessment for Patients for assessing dietary patterns in NCAA athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurka, Jonathan M; Buman, Matthew P; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2014-01-01

    Athletes may be at risk for developing adverse health outcomes due to poor eating behaviors during college. Due to the complex nature of the diet, it is difficult to include or exclude individual food items and specific food groups from the diet. Eating behaviors may better characterize the complex interactions between individual food items and specific food groups. The purpose was to examine the Rapid Eating Assessment for Patients survey (REAP) as a valid tool for analyzing eating behaviors of NCAA Division-I male and female athletes using pattern identification. Also, to investigate the relationships between derived eating behavior patterns and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) while stratifying by sex and aesthetic nature of the sport. Two independent samples of male (n = 86; n = 139) and female (n = 64; n = 102) collegiate athletes completed the REAP in June-August 2011 (n = 150) and June-August 2012 (n = 241). Principal component analysis (PCA) determined possible factors using wave-1 athletes. Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) determined factors accounting for error and confirmed model fit in wave-2 athletes. Wave-2 athletes' BMI and WC were recorded during a physical exam and sport participation determined classification in aesthetic and non-aesthetic sport. Mean differences in eating behavior pattern score were explored. Regression models examined interactions between pattern scores, participation in aesthetic or non-aesthetic sport, and BMI and waist circumference controlling for age and race. A 5-factor PCA solution accounting for 60.3% of sample variance determined fourteen questions for EFA and CFA. A confirmed solution revealed patterns of Desserts, Healthy food, Meats, High-fat food, and Dairy. Pattern score (mean ± SE) differences were found, as non-aesthetic sport males had a higher (better) Dessert score than aesthetic sport males (2.16 ± 0.07 vs. 1.93 ± 0.11). Female aesthetic athletes had a higher score

  15. The psychological mindedness assessment procedure - Validation study of a Dutch version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. Smith (Annemarie J.); W.Chr. Kleijn (Wim); R.W. Trijsburg (Wim); R.W. Segaar (Robert); C. van der Staak; G.J.M. Hutschemaekers (Giel J.)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractObjective. The Psychological Mindedness Assessment Procedure [PMAP; McCallum, M. & Piper, W. E. (1990)] operationalizes psychological mindedness as a participant's understanding of the problem presented by two videotaped enacted patients. To possibly enhance predictive power for

  16. RISK-ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES AND ESTABLISHING THE SIZE OF SAMPLES FOR AUDITING FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel Botez

    2014-01-01

    In auditing financial statements, the procedures for the assessment of the risks and the calculation of the materiality differ from an auditor to another, by audit cabinet policy or advice professional bodies...

  17. Determining the quality of competences assessment programs: A self-evaluation procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartman, Liesbeth; Prins, Frans; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2009-01-01

    Baartman, L. K. J., Prins, F. J., Kirschner, P. A., & Van der Vleuten, C. P. M. (2007). Determining the quality of Competence Assessment Programs: A self-evaluation procedure. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 33, 258-281.

  18. A National Needs Assessment to Identify Technical Procedures in Vascular Surgery for Simulation Based Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayahangan, L J; Konge, L; Schroeder, T V; Paltved, C; Lindorff-Larsen, K G; Nielsen, B U; Eiberg, J P

    2017-04-01

    Practical skills training in vascular surgery is facing challenges because of an increased number of endovascular procedures and fewer open procedures, as well as a move away from the traditional principle of "learning by doing." This change has established simulation as a cornerstone in providing trainees with the necessary skills and competences. However, the development of simulation based programs often evolves based on available resources and equipment, reflecting convenience rather than a systematic educational plan. The objective of the present study was to perform a national needs assessment to identify the technical procedures that should be integrated in a simulation based curriculum. A national needs assessment using a Delphi process was initiated by engaging 33 predefined key persons in vascular surgery. Round 1 was a brainstorming phase to identify technical procedures that vascular surgeons should learn. Round 2 was a survey that used a needs assessment formula to explore the frequency of procedures, the number of surgeons performing each procedure, risk and/or discomfort, and feasibility for simulation based training. Round 3 involved elimination and ranking of procedures. The response rate for round 1 was 70%, with 36 procedures identified. Round 2 had a 76% response rate and resulted in a preliminary prioritised list after exploring the need for simulation based training. Round 3 had an 85% response rate; 17 procedures were eliminated, resulting in a final prioritised list of 19 technical procedures. A national needs assessment using a standardised Delphi method identified a list of procedures that are highly suitable and may provide the basis for future simulation based training programs for vascular surgeons in training. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determining procedures for simulation-based training in radiology: a nationwide needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayahangan, Leizl Joy; Nielsen, Kristina Rue; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth; Bachmann Nielsen, Michael; Paltved, Charlotte; Lindorff-Larsen, Karen Gilboe; Nielsen, Bjørn Ulrik; Konge, Lars

    2018-01-09

    New training modalities such as simulation are widely accepted in radiology; however, development of effective simulation-based training programs is challenging. They are often unstructured and based on convenience or coincidence. The study objective was to perform a nationwide needs assessment to identify and prioritize technical procedures that should be included in a simulation-based curriculum. A needs assessment using the Delphi method was completed among 91 key leaders in radiology. Round 1 identified technical procedures that radiologists should learn. Round 2 explored frequency of procedure, number of radiologists performing the procedure, risk and/or discomfort for patients, and feasibility for simulation. Round 3 was elimination and prioritization of procedures. Response rates were 67 %, 70 % and 66 %, respectively. In Round 1, 22 technical procedures were included. Round 2 resulted in pre-prioritization of procedures. In round 3, 13 procedures were included in the final prioritized list. The three highly prioritized procedures were ultrasound-guided (US) histological biopsy and fine-needle aspiration, US-guided needle puncture and catheter drainage, and basic abdominal ultrasound. A needs assessment identified and prioritized 13 technical procedures to include in a simulation-based curriculum. The list may be used as guide for development of training programs. • Simulation-based training can supplement training on patients in radiology. • Development of simulation-based training should follow a structured approach. • The CAMES Needs Assessment Formula explores needs for simulation training. • A national Delphi study identified and prioritized procedures suitable for simulation training. • The prioritized list serves as guide for development of courses in radiology.

  20. A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (I) Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2011-01-01

    A new procedure for probabilistic seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is proposed. This procedure modifies the current procedures using tools developed recently for performance-based earthquake engineering of buildings. The proposed procedure uses (a) response-based fragility curves to represent the capacity of structural and nonstructural components of NPPs, (b) nonlinear response-history analysis to characterize the demands on those components, and (c) Monte Carlo simulations to determine the damage state of the components. The use of response-rather than ground-motion-based fragility curves enables the curves to be independent of seismic hazard and closely related to component capacity. The use of Monte Carlo procedure enables the correlation in the responses of components to be directly included in the risk assessment. An example of the methodology is presented in a companion paper to demonstrate its use and provide the technical basis for aspects of the methodology. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Procedure for assessing the performance of a rockfall fragmentation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Gerard; Lantada, Nieves; Corominas, Jordi; Gili, Josep Antoni; Ruiz-Carulla, Roger; Prades, Albert

    2017-04-01

    A Rockfall is a mass instability process frequently observed in road cuts, open pit mines and quarries, steep slopes and cliffs. It is frequently observed that the detached rock mass becomes fragmented when it impacts with the slope surface. The consideration of the fragmentation of the rockfall mass is critical for the calculation of block's trajectories and their impact energies, to further assess their potential to cause damage and design adequate preventive structures. We present here the performance of the RockGIS model. It is a GIS-Based tool that simulates stochastically the fragmentation of the rockfalls, based on a lumped mass approach. In RockGIS, the fragmentation initiates by the disaggregation of the detached rock mass through the pre-existing discontinuities just before the impact with the ground. An energy threshold is defined in order to determine whether the impacting blocks break or not. The distribution of the initial mass between a set of newly generated rock fragments is carried out stochastically following a power law. The trajectories of the new rock fragments are distributed within a cone. The model requires the calibration of both the runout of the resultant blocks and the spatial distribution of the volumes of fragments generated by breakage during their propagation. As this is a coupled process which is controlled by several parameters, a set of performance criteria to be met by the simulation have been defined. The criteria includes: position of the centre of gravity of the whole block distribution, histogram of the runout of the blocks, extent and boundaries of the young debris cover over the slope surface, lateral dispersion of trajectories, total number of blocks generated after fragmentation, volume distribution of the generated fragments, the number of blocks and volume passages past a reference line and the maximum runout distance Since the number of parameters to fit increases significantly when considering fragmentation, the

  2. A Rapid Assessment Tool for affirming good practice in midwifery education programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Judith T; Johnson, Peter; Lobe, Erika; Myint, Khine Haymar; Aung, Nan Nan; Moe, Thida; Linn, Nay Aung

    2016-03-01

    to design a criterion-referenced assessment tool that could be used globally in a rapid assessment of good practices and bottlenecks in midwifery education programs. a standard tool development process was followed, to generate standards and reference criteria; followed by external review and field testing to document psychometric properties. review of standards and scoring criteria were conducted by stakeholders around the globe. Field testing of the tool was conducted in Myanmar. eleven of Myanmar׳s 22 midwifery education programs participated in the assessment. the clinimetric tool was demonstrated to have content validity and high inter-rater reliability in use. a globally validated tool, and accompanying user guide and handbook are now available for conducting rapid assessments of compliance with good practice criteria in midwifery education programming. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing health systems for type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a 'Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, David; Yudkin, John S; de Courten, Maximilian

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol for th...

  4. Rapid Evidence Assessments of Research to Inform Social Policy: Taking Stock and Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James; Newman, Mark; Oliver, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    There is a tension between conducting comprehensive systematic reviews and completing them in time to meet policy-making deadlines. The "rapid evidence assessment" has been proposed as a solution to this; offering rigorous reviews in a condensed timescale. While used frequently in healthcare, this mode of reviewing presents considerable…

  5. Rapid Geriatric Assessment: Secondary Prevention to Stop Age-Associated Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, John E

    2017-08-01

    The Rapid Geriatric Assessment (RGA) measures frailty, sarcopenia, anorexia, cognition, and advanced directives. The RGA is a screen for primary care physicians to be able to detect geriatric syndromes. Early intervention when geriatric syndromes are recognized can decrease disability, hospitalization, and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid assessment of wildfire damage using Forest Inventory data: A case in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Harper; John W. Coulsten; Jeffery A. Turner

    2009-01-01

    The rapid assessment of damage caused by natural disasters is essential for planning the appropriate amount of disaster relief funds and public communication. Annual Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data provided initial estimates of damage to timberland in a timely manner to State leaders during the 2007 Georgia Bay Complex Wildfire in southeast Georgia. FIA plots...

  7. Development of flexural vibration inspection techniques to rapidly assess the structural health of rural bridge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Robert Vatalaro; Xiping Wang; Kevin Sarvela; James P. Wacker

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 4,000 vehicle bridges in the State of Minnesota contain structural timber members. Recent research at the University of Minnesota Duluth Natural Resources Research Institute (UMD NRRI) has been conducted on vibration testing of timber bridges as a means of developing rapid in-place testing techniques for assessing the structural health of bridges. The...

  8. A rapid assessment of species-specific bird strike risk at the Kotoka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid assessment of species-specific bird strike risk at the Kotoka International Airport in Accra, Ghana. ... We conclude that wildlife management to avert the risk of bird strikes could be successfully achieved by adopting both proactive and reactive measures to reduce the presence of problem species at the aerodrome.

  9. Rapid psychological assessment of depression and its relationship with physical health among urban elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perce...

  10. An efficient and rapid DNA minipreparation procedure suitable for PCR/SSR and RAPD analyses in tropical forest tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lilia Alzate-Marin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and rapid DNA minipreparation modified method for frozen samples was developed for five tropical tree species: Copaifera langsdorffii, Hymenaea courbaril, Eugenia uniflora, Tabebuia roseo alba and Cariniana estrellensis. This procedure that dispenses the use of liquid nitrogen, phenol and the addition of proteinase K, is an adaptation of the CTAB-based DNA extraction method. The modifications included the use of PVP to eliminate the polyphenols, only one chloroform-isoamyl alcohol step and the addition of RNase immediately after extraction with chloroform. The yields of the DNA samples ranged from 25.7 to 42.1 µg from 100 mg leaf tissue. The DNA samples extracted by this method were successfully used for PCR (SSR and RAPD analyses in these five and other twelve tropical tree species.Este trabalho teve como objetivo otimizar um protocolo econômico, rápido e eficaz de minipreparação de DNA genômico, para as espécies florestais Copaifera langsdorffii (Óleo de Copaíba, Hymenaea courbaril (Jatobá, Eugenia uniflora (Pitanga, Tabebuia roseo alba (Ipê Branco e Cariniana estrellensis (Jequitibá Branco. Este método é uma adaptação da técnica de extração CTAB de Doyle e Doyle (1990, o qual consiste principalmente na adição de PVP para eliminar polifenoles, somente uma etapa de extração com clorofórmio-álcool isoamílico e a adição da RNase A imediatamente após a extração com clorofórmio. O método também dispensa o uso de nitrogênio líquido, o uso do fenol e a adição de proteinase K. Os DNAs das espécies florestais extraídos apresentaram alto rendimento e boa qualidade, com rendimento de 25.7 a 42.1 µg de DNA a partir de 100 mg de tecido foliar congelado. Com este protocolo, em apenas 1 dia de trabalho, uma pessoa pode completar o isolamento do DNA de aproximadamente 50 amostras de folhas (dependendo da capacidade da centrífuga. O DNA obtido pode ser usado para métodos de análise baseados em PCR (SSR e

  11. A combined deterministic and probabilistic procedure for safety assessment of components with cracks - Handbook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillstroem, Peter; Bergman, Mats; Brickstad, Bjoern; Weilin Zang; Sattari-Far, Iradj; Andersson, Peder; Sund, Goeran; Dahlberg, Lars; Nilsson, Fred (Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    SSM has supported research work for the further development of a previously developed procedure/handbook (SKI Report 99:49) for assessment of detected cracks and tolerance for defect analysis. During the operative use of the handbook it was identified needs to update the deterministic part of the procedure and to introduce a new probabilistic flaw evaluation procedure. Another identified need was a better description of the theoretical basis to the computer program. The principal aim of the project has been to update the deterministic part of the recently developed procedure and to introduce a new probabilistic flaw evaluation procedure. Other objectives of the project have been to validate the conservatism of the procedure, make the procedure well defined and easy to use and make the handbook that documents the procedure as complete as possible. The procedure/handbook and computer program ProSACC, Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Components with Cracks, has been extensively revised within this project. The major differences compared to the last revision are within the following areas: It is now possible to deal with a combination of deterministic and probabilistic data. It is possible to include J-controlled stable crack growth. The appendices on material data to be used for nuclear applications and on residual stresses are revised. A new deterministic safety evaluation system is included. The conservatism in the method for evaluation of the secondary stresses for ductile materials is reduced. A new geometry, a circular bar with a circumferential surface crack has been introduced. The results of this project will be of use to SSM in safety assessments of components with cracks and in assessments of the interval between the inspections of components in nuclear power plants

  12. A Brief Description of Functional Assessment Procedures Reported in JASH (1983-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Robert E.; Johnson, Jesse W.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the prevalence of different types of functional assessment and analysis procedures reported in articles in the "Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps" (JASH) involving individuals exhibiting problem behaviors. The most frequently reported functional assessment approach was the use of structured direct…

  13. Assessment of the atmospheric hazards and risks of new chemicals: procedures to estimate "hazard potentials"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw FAAM

    1993-01-01

    In this report a procedure for the assessment of atmospheric hazards and risks of newly introduced chemicals is discussed. However, an assessment of direct effects caused by exposure to expected ambient concentrations or by deposition is not discussed ; here emphasis is on the role which new

  14. The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure as a Measure of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, C. Alix; England, Erica L.; Herbert, James D.; Forman, Evan M.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to pilot the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) in measuring attitudes toward the self: one related to body image specifically and another assessing the broader construct of self-esteem. Study 1 utilized the IRAP with female college students to examine self-referential beliefs regarding body image. Results…

  15. A sudden-stop vestibulovisual test for rapid assessment of motion sickness manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A sudden-stop vestibulovisual (SSV) test employing a rotating chair centered in a striped cylindrical enclosure is discussed. A subject, with his eyes covered, is accelerated clockwise at 15 degrees per second squared and maintained at this velocity for 30 sec. The chair is then brought to rest within 1.5 sec and remains at rest for 30 sec while physiological parameters and motion sickness symptoms are recorded. The procedure is repeated until a predetermined motion sickness endpoint (slight nausea) is reached or 20 stops have been made. The scores made by 14 subjects in 4 sessions in terms of susceptibility to motion sickness are presented, and the pattern of all scores indicates rates of acquisition and decay of adaptation effects. It is concluded that at sea or in flight training good retention of adaptation is more important than is a rapid rate of acquiring adaptation, but in Spacelab, where early missions will be brief, rapid acquisition is all-important.

  16. Clinical skills assessment of procedural and advanced communication skills: performance expectations of residency program directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. Langenau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High stakes medical licensing programs are planning to augment and adapt current examinations to be relevant for a two-decision point model for licensure: entry into supervised practice and entry into unsupervised practice. Therefore, identifying which skills should be assessed at each decision point is critical for informing examination development, and gathering input from residency program directors is important. Methods: Using data from previously developed surveys and expert panels, a web-delivered survey was distributed to 3,443 residency program directors. For each of the 28 procedural and 18 advanced communication skills, program directors were asked which clinical skills should be assessed, by whom, when, and how. Descriptive statistics were collected, and Intraclass Correlations (ICC were conducted to determine consistency across different specialties. Results: Among 347 respondents, program directors reported that all advanced communication and some procedural tasks are important to assess. The following procedures were considered ‘important’ or ‘extremely important’ to assess: sterile technique (93.8%, advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS (91.1%, basic life support (BLS (90.0%, interpretation of electrocardiogram (89.4% and blood gas (88.7%. Program directors reported that most clinical skills should be assessed at the end of the first year of residency (or later and not before graduation from medical school. A minority were considered important to assess prior to the start of residency training: demonstration of respectfulness (64%, sterile technique (67.2%, BLS (68.9%, ACLS (65.9% and phlebotomy (63.5%. Discussion: Results from this study support that assessing procedural skills such as cardiac resuscitation, sterile technique, and phlebotomy would be amenable to assessment at the end of medical school, but most procedural and advanced communications skills would be amenable to assessment at the end of the

  17. Clinical skills assessment of procedural and advanced communication skills: performance expectations of residency program directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenau, Erik E.; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Roberts, William L.; DeChamplain, Andre F.; Boulet, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Background High stakes medical licensing programs are planning to augment and adapt current examinations to be relevant for a two-decision point model for licensure: entry into supervised practice and entry into unsupervised practice. Therefore, identifying which skills should be assessed at each decision point is critical for informing examination development, and gathering input from residency program directors is important. Methods Using data from previously developed surveys and expert panels, a web-delivered survey was distributed to 3,443 residency program directors. For each of the 28 procedural and 18 advanced communication skills, program directors were asked which clinical skills should be assessed, by whom, when, and how. Descriptive statistics were collected, and Intraclass Correlations (ICC) were conducted to determine consistency across different specialties. Results Among 347 respondents, program directors reported that all advanced communication and some procedural tasks are important to assess. The following procedures were considered ‘important’ or ‘extremely important’ to assess: sterile technique (93.8%), advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) (91.1%), basic life support (BLS) (90.0%), interpretation of electrocardiogram (89.4%) and blood gas (88.7%). Program directors reported that most clinical skills should be assessed at the end of the first year of residency (or later) and not before graduation from medical school. A minority were considered important to assess prior to the start of residency training: demonstration of respectfulness (64%), sterile technique (67.2%), BLS (68.9%), ACLS (65.9%) and phlebotomy (63.5%). Discussion Results from this study support that assessing procedural skills such as cardiac resuscitation, sterile technique, and phlebotomy would be amenable to assessment at the end of medical school, but most procedural and advanced communications skills would be amenable to assessment at the end of the first

  18. Rapid Analysis of Eukaryotic Bioluminescence to Assess Potential Groundwater Contamination Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacariah L. Hildenbrand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present data using a bioluminescent dinoflagellate, Pyrocystis lunula, in a toxicological bioassay to rapidly assess potential instances of groundwater contamination associated with natural gas extraction. P. lunula bioluminescence can be quantified using spectrophotometry as a measurement of organismal viability, with normal bioluminescent output declining with increasing concentration(s of aqueous toxicants. Glutaraldehyde and hydrochloric acid (HCl, components used in hydraulic fracturing and shale acidization, triggered significant toxicological responses in as little as 4 h. Conversely, P. lunula was not affected by the presence of arsenic, selenium, barium, and strontium, naturally occurring heavy metal ions potentially associated with unconventional drilling activities. If exogenous compounds, such as glutaraldehyde and HCl, are thought to have been introduced into groundwater, quantification of P. lunula bioluminescence after exposure to water samples can serve as a cost-effective detection and risk assessment tool to rapidly assess the impact of putative contamination events attributed to unconventional drilling activity.

  19. Rapid assessment of iron in blood plasma and serum by spectrophotometry with cloud-point extraction [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Samarina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid photometric assessment of iron in blood plasma and serum by a simple procedure after the extraction of iron(II complex with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol in the micellar phase of a nonionic surfactant at the cloud point upon heating (pH range is 4.5–6.3 is proposed. The procedure trueness was verified using a standard reference protocol using bathophenanthroline. The advantages of the procedure are higher sensitivity than the reference protocol: the limit of detection is 0.03 μg/mL, the limit of quantitation is 0.1 μg/mL, the determination range is 0.1 – 2.8 μg/mL (RSD 0.02–0.10. Copper does not interfere with the iron assessment.

  20. The Development and Validation of a Rapid Assessment Tool of Primary Care in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Liang, Yuan; Shi, LeiYu; Zhao, JingGe; Wang, YuTan; Kuang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. With Chinese health care reform increasingly emphasizing the importance of primary care, the need for a tool to evaluate primary care performance and service delivery is clear. This study presents a methodology for a rapid assessment of primary care organizations and service delivery in China. Methods. The study translated and adapted the Primary Care Assessment Tool-Adult Edition (PCAT-AE) into a Chinese version to measure core dimensions of primary care, namely, first contact, continuity, comprehensiveness, and coordination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the validity and reliability of the Chinese Rapid Primary Care Assessment Tool (CR-PCAT). Eight community health centers in Guangdong province have been selected to participate in the survey. Results. A total of 1465 effective samples were included for data analysis. Eight items were eliminated following principal component analysis and reliability testing. The principal component analysis extracted five multiple-item scales (first contact utilization, first contact accessibility, ongoing care, comprehensiveness, and coordination). The tests of scaling assumptions were basically met. Conclusion. The standard psychometric evaluation indicates that the scales have achieved relatively good reliability and validity. The CR-PCAT provides a rapid and reliable measure of four core dimensions of primary care, which could be applied in various scenarios. PMID:26885509

  1. A Parent-Oriented Approach to Rapid Toilet Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Dai; Toussaint, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    The current evaluation assessed the effectiveness of a rapid toilet training procedure for three young males with autism. The evaluation extended the research on rapid toilet training procedures by assessing parents' preference to include two common toilet training components, a urine alarm and positive practice. In addition, we assessed child…

  2. Rapid quantitative assessment of visible injury to vegetation and visual amenity effects of fluoride air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doley, D

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative measures of visible injury are proposed for the protection of the aesthetic acceptability and health of ecosystems. Visible indications of air pollutant injury symptoms can be assessed rapidly and economically over large areas of mixed species such as native ecosystems. Reliable indication requires close attention to the criteria for assessment, species selection, and the influence of other environmental conditions on plant response to a pollutant. The estimation of fluoride-induced visible injury in dicotyledonous species may require techniques that are more varied than the measurement of necrosis in linear-leaved monocotyledons and conifers. A scheme is described for quantitative estimates of necrosis, chlorosis and deformation of leaves using an approximately geometric series of injury categories that permits rapid and sufficiently consistent determination and recognises degrees of aesthetic offence associated with foliar injury to plants.

  3. The OPAL Project: Open source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides a comparison between Earthquake Loss Estimation (ELE) software packages and their application using an "Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software" (OPAL). The OPAL procedure has been developed to provide a framework for optimisation of a Global Earthquake Modelling process through: 1) Overview of current and new components of earthquake loss assessment (vulnerability, hazard, exposure, specific cost and technology); 2) Preliminary research, acquisition and familiarisation with all available ELE software packages; 3) Assessment of these 30+ software packages in order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the ELE methods used; and 4) Loss analysis for a deterministic earthquake (Mw7.2) for the Zeytinburnu district, Istanbul, Turkey, by applying 3 software packages (2 new and 1 existing): a modified displacement-based method based on DBELA (Displacement Based Earthquake Loss Assessment), a capacity spectrum based method HAZUS (HAZards United States) and the Norwegian HAZUS-based SELENA (SEismic Loss EstimatioN using a logic tree Approach) software which was adapted for use in order to compare the different processes needed for the production of damage, economic and social loss estimates. The modified DBELA procedure was found to be more computationally expensive, yet had less variability, indicating the need for multi-tier approaches to global earthquake loss estimation. Similar systems planning and ELE software produced through the OPAL procedure can be applied to worldwide applications, given exposure data. Keywords: OPAL, displacement-based, DBELA, earthquake loss estimation, earthquake loss assessment, open source, HAZUS

  4. Digital photography and the assessment of therapeutic results after bleaching procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengel, Wolfgang M

    2003-01-01

    The therapeutic outcome of tooth-bleaching procedures can be assessed by different methods, one of them being digital photography. However, none of the methods seems to be perfect. In this overview factors are discussed that have an influence on color rendition and image brightness in (digital) photography. A photographic procedure is proposed that results in comparable images. Beginning with a short description of some digital cameras currently used in dental photography, the article discusses the influence of light and camera technology on image brightness and color rendition in detail. Even if a highly standardized procedure is performed, there remain factors that affect color and brightness that cannot be excluded completely. Therefore, a photographic procedure is proposed that includes a piece of gray card in the picture as a neutral reference object. In this way, color casts can be eliminated and image brightness can be fine tuned using a standard image-editing program (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Incorporated, San Jose, CA, USA) before the relevant color values are metered by the same software. A photographic procedure using digital cameras is proposed that is relatively simple and sufficiently precise to allow the assessment of the therapeutic outcome of tooth-bleaching procedures.

  5. Legal Assessment of the Legal Force Exclusion of the 1st Prudential Procedure in the Act on Public Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Tyniewicki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available By the amendment of the Act on Public Finance of 26 July 2013, Polish legislature made a temporary suspension – till the end of 2013 – of the application of the provisions governing the Ist prudential procedure. This procedure has a crucial meaning for reducing the growth of budget deficit and in consequence – reducing public debt growth. In case of such crucial provisions for public finance, any amendments should be carried out in situations really justified and exceptional as well as with careful respecting of principles of proper legislation. In these aspects mentioned amendment rises a number of objections. For example, rapid pace of parliamentary works causes doubts about correctness of the legislative process. Therefore, in this article the author tries to make a legal assessment of the amendment of the Act on Public Finance of 26 July 2013, both from the formal and legal point of view and taking into the consideration the importance of provisions governing the prudential procedure for whole sphere of Polish public finance.

  6. Rapid health needs assessment following hurricane Andrew--Florida and Louisiana, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-18

    Following the impact phase of Hurricane Andrew in Florida (August 24) and Louisiana (August 26) (Figure 1), the primary objectives of the public health response have been to address the health and medical needs of residents in the storm-damaged areas and to provide data for relief interventions and decision-making. This report presents the combined findings from rapid health needs assessment surveys conducted by state health departments with CDC assistance 3-10 days postimpact.

  7. The FIBRO System: A Rapid Strategy for Assessment and Management of Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Boomershine, Chad S

    2010-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a complex disorder of widespread pain and tenderness associated with numerous other symptoms including fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, nonrestorative sleep, depression, anxiety, and stiffness. While new diagnostic criteria and previous management guidelines require quantitation of the severity of associated FMS symptoms experienced by individual patients, no system for rapid patient assessment has been made available to provide a basis for diagnosis, treatment s...

  8. Value of databases other than medline for rapid health technology assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Diane L; Topfer, Leigh-Ann; Dennett, Liz; Clement, Fiona

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the degree to which databases other than MEDLINE contribute studies relevant for inclusion in rapid health technology assessments (HTA). We determined the extent to which the clinical, economic, and social studies included in twenty-one full and four rapid HTAs published by three Canadian HTA agencies from 2007 to 2012 were indexed in MEDLINE. Other electronic databases, including EMBASE, were then searched, in sequence, to assess whether or not they indexed studies not found in MEDLINE. Assessment topics ranged from purely clinical (e.g., drug-eluting stents) to those with broader social implications (e.g., spousal violence). MEDLINE contributed the majority of studies in all but two HTA reports, indexing a mean of 89.6 percent of clinical studies across all HTAs, and 88.3 percent of all clinical, economic, and social studies in twenty-four of twenty-five HTAs. While EMBASE contributed unique studies to twenty-two of twenty-five HTAs, three rapid HTAs did not include any EMBASE studies. In some instances, PsycINFO and CINAHL contributed as many, if not more, non-MEDLINE studies than EMBASE. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing the topic-specific relative value of including EMBASE, or more specialized databases, in HTA search protocols. Although MEDLINE continues to be a key resource for HTAs, the time and resource limitations inherent in the production of rapid HTAs require that researchers carefully consider the value and limitations of other information sources to identify relevant studies.

  9. The appropriateness method has acceptable reliability and validity for assessing overuse and underuse of surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Elise H; Gibbons, Melinda Maggard; Ko, Clifford Y; Shekelle, Paul G

    2012-11-01

    To summarize the findings of methodological studies on the RAND/University of California Los Angeles (RAND/UCLA) appropriateness method, which was developed to assess if variation in the use of surgical procedures is because of overuse and/or underuse. A MEDLINE literature search was performed. Studies were included if they assessed the reliability or validity of the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method for a surgical procedure or the effect of altering panelist composition or eliminating in-person discussion between rating rounds. Information was abstracted on procedure, study design, and findings. One thousand six hundred one titles were identified, and 37 met the inclusion criteria. The test-retest reliability is good to very good (kappa, 0.64-0.81) for total knee and hip joint replacement, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The interpanel reliability is moderate to very good (kappa, 0.52-0.83) for CABG and hysterectomy. Construct validity has been demonstrated by comparing the appropriateness method with guidelines and/or evidence-based approaches for endoscopy, colonoscopy, CABG, hysterectomy, and CEA. Predictive validity has been studied for cardiac revascularization, in which concordance with appropriateness classification is associated with better clinical outcomes. Our findings support use of the appropriateness method to assess variation in the rates of the procedures studied by identifying overuse and underuse. Further methodological research should be conducted as appropriateness criteria are developed and implemented for a broader range of procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Procedure to select test organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops in aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbeck, Angelika; Bundschuh, Rebecca; Bundschuh, Mirco; Hofmann, Frieder; Oehen, Bernadette; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Trtikova, Miluse

    2017-11-01

    For a long time, the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops focused mainly on terrestrial ecosystems. This changed when it was scientifically established that aquatic ecosystems are exposed to GM crop residues that may negatively affect aquatic species. To assist the risk assessment process, we present a tool to identify ecologically relevant species usable in tiered testing prior to authorization or for biological monitoring in the field. The tool is derived from a selection procedure for terrestrial ecosystems with substantial but necessary changes to adequately consider the differences in the type of ecosystems. By using available information from the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), the procedure can draw upon existing biological data on aquatic systems. The proposed procedure for aquatic ecosystems was tested for the first time during an expert workshop in 2013, using the cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as the GM crop and 1 stream type as the receiving environment in the model system. During this workshop, species executing important ecological functions in aquatic environments were identified in a stepwise procedure according to predefined ecological criteria. By doing so, we demonstrated that the procedure is practicable with regard to its goal: From the initial long list of 141 potentially exposed aquatic species, 7 species and 1 genus were identified as the most suitable candidates for nontarget testing programs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:974-979. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  11. Rapid Microwave Digestion Procedures for the Elemental Analysis of Alloy and Slag Samples of Smelted Ocean Bed Polymetallic Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Smita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave digester for digestion of alloy and slag samples of smelted ocean bed polymetallic nodules has permitted the complete digestion of samples, thereby replacing the tedious classical methods of digestion of samples. The digestion procedure includes two acid-closed digestions of samples in a microwave oven. Owing to the hazardous nature of perchloric acid, it was not used in developed digestion procedure. Digested sample solutions were analyzed for concentrations of various radicals and the effectiveness of the developed digestion methodology was tested using certified reference materials. It was found that the developed method is giving results comparable with that obtained from conventionally digested samples. In this digestion procedure, time required for digestion of samples was reduced to about 1 hour only from 8-9 hours of conventional digestion.

  12. Assessing Risks and Benefits of Invasive Cardiac Procedures in Patients with Advanced Multimorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkaby, Ariela R; Forman, Daniel E

    2016-05-01

    Age-related cardiovascular disease in older adults is more likely to occur in combination with other age-related diseases, with mounting interactive complexity as multiple morbidities accumulate. Although invasive cardiac procedures are frequently recommended for cardiovascular disease, their value is less certain in the context of age-related intricacies of care. Tools for risk assessment before invasive procedures are insensitive to risks corresponding to the unique challenges of older adults. Recognizing multimorbidity and other age-related risks provides opportunities to intervene and moderate dangers. By refocusing risk assessment in terms of patient-centered goals, the fundamental utility of invasive cardiac procedures may be reconsidered and alternative therapies prioritized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. What Lies Beneath? An Evaluation of Rapid Assessment Tools for Management of Hull Fouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke Murray, Cathryn; Therriault, Thomas W.; Pakhomov, Evgeny

    2013-08-01

    Despite an increased understanding of marine invasions, non-indigenous species (NIS) continue to be redistributed at both global and regional scales. Since prevention is an important element of NIS programs, monitoring vectors responsible for NIS introductions and spread, such as hull fouling, has become a priority and methods should be selected carefully to balance accuracy, time, and cost. Two common fouling assessment tools for the marine recreational boating vector were evaluated for accuracy using a traditional underwater SCUBA survey in coastal British Columbia: a dockside level of fouling assessment and a behavioral questionnaire model. Results showed that although rapid, dockside assessments did not provide an accurate assessment of fouling present below the surface, at least not in this region. In contrast, a questionnaire-based model using four easily obtained variables (boat type, age of antifouling paint, storage type, and occurrence of long distance trips) reliably identified boats carrying macrofouling species, a proxy for risk of NIS transport. Once validated, this fouling model tool could be applied in border inspection or quarantine situations where decisions must be made quickly. Further development and refinement of rapid assessment tools would improve our ability to prevent new introductions and manage spread of existing invasive species.

  14. Rapid Bioassessment and In Situ Bioassay: Cost Effective Tools for Environmental Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.

    2002-08-23

    Environmental impact can be difficult to assess, especially at the ecosystem level. Any impact assessment methodology that can give cost effective and timely results is highly desirable. Rapid bioassessment (RBA) is cost effective and produces timely results. Several types of RBA have been used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to assess stream conditions, including the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) based on fish community characteristics, and various techniques using aquatic macroinvertebrate species diversity and abundance. In an attempt to broaden the applicability of the RBA concept, we have also begun to develop RBA techniques for seep-fed wetlands and terrestrial habitats. These techniques will focus on vertebrate and macroinvertebrate assemblages for seep-fed wetlands and arthropod assemblages for terrestrial habitats. In situ bioassay is another technique that could be used for rapid and economical assessment of the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. We propose the development of two methods of in situ bioassay that can address bioavailability of constituents of concern. The use of caged bioassay organisms can be applied to terrestrial systems such as capped or existing waste sites using the common house cricket. Another proposed bioassay could use a resident species, such as the imported red fire ant, which is found in disturbed habitats and open areas such as waste sites. Combining in situ techniques with RBA methodologies has the potential to provide a comprehensive assessment of chemical and physical impacts to a wide range of ecosystem types.

  15. REAP and WAVE: new tools to rapidly assess/discuss nutrition with patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Kim M; Ross, Elizabeth; Barner, Claudia W; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; McMurray, Jerome; Eaton, Charles

    2003-02-01

    Dietary changes can be helpful in preventing or treating a variety of prevalent health problems. Physicians can be helpful in helping patients make positive dietary changes, be physically active and lose weight, but, for a variety of reasons, many physicians do little nutrition counseling. There is a need for brief, user-friendly tools to enable physicians to rapidly and accurately assess patients' diets and exercise habits as well as provide information to aid the physician in delivering effective nutrition counseling. The purpose of this paper is to discuss two new tools, WAVE and REAP, that have been developed by the Nutrition Academic Award to help physicians and other health care providers conduct nutrition assessment and counseling with their patients in a practical and effective manner. The WAVE acronym and tool is designed to encourage provider/patient dialogue about the pros and cons of the patients' current status related to Weight, Activity, Variety and Excess. The Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Patients (REAP) is a brief validated questionnaire that is designed to aid providers in performing a brief assessment of diet and physical activity. An accompanying Physician Key aids the provider in discussing the patient's answers and counseling them appropriately. REAP and WAVE can be helpful tools to facilitate nutrition assessment and counseling in the provider office. Depending on patients' health priorities and how much time is available, these tools can be used in a variety of ways to discuss nutrition with patients during a clinical encounter in 1-9 min.

  16. Can rapid assessment protocols be used to judge sediment impairment in gravel-bed streams? A commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Lisle; John M. Buffington; Peter R. Wilcock; Kristin Bunte

    2015-01-01

    Land management agencies commonly use rapid assessments to evaluate the impairment of gravel-bed streams by sediment inputs from anthropogenic sources. We question whether rapid assessment can be used to reliably judge sediment impairment at a site or in a region. Beyond the challenges of repeatable and accurate sampling, we argue that a single metric or protocol is...

  17. Assessment of Competence in EVAR Procedures: A Novel Rating Scale Developed by the Delphi Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, M; Lönn, L; Bech, B; Schroeder, T V; Konge, L

    2017-07-01

    To develop a procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of operator competence in endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). A Delphi approach was used to achieve expert consensus. A panel of 32 international experts (median 300 EVAR procedures, range 200-3000) from vascular surgery (n = 21) and radiology (n = 11) was established. The first Delphi round was based on a review of endovascular skills assessment papers, stent graft instructions for use, and structured interviews. It led to a primary pool of 83 items that were formulated as global rating scale items with tentative anchors. Iterative Delphi rounds were executed. The panellists rated the importance of each item on a 5 point Likert scale. Consensus was defined as 80% of the panel rating an item 4 or 5 in the primary round and 90% in subsequent rounds. Consensus on the final assessment tool was defined as Cronbach's alpha > .8 after a minimum of three rounds. Thirty-two of 35 invited experts participated. Three rounds of surveys were completed with a completion rate of 100% in the first two rounds and 91% in round three. The 83 primary assessment items were supplemented with five items suggested by the panel and reduced to seven pivotal assessment items that reached consensus, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82. The seven item rating scale covers key elements of competence in EVAR stent placement and deployment. Each item has well defined grades with explicit anchors at unacceptable, acceptable, and superior performance on a 5 point Likert scale. The Delphi methodology allowed for international consensus on a new procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of competence in EVAR. The resulting scale, EndoVascular Aortic Repair Assessment of Technical Expertise (EVARATE), represents key elements in the procedure. EVARATE constitutes an assessment tool for providing structured feedback to endovascular operators in training. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier

  18. Developing best practices teaching procedures for skinfold assessment: observational examination using the Think Aloud method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Michael E; Verba, Steven D; Lynn, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-01

    Skinfold assessment is valid and economical; however, it has a steep learning curve, and many programs only include one exposure to the technique. Increasing the number of exposures to skinfold assessment within an undergraduate curriculum would likely increase skill proficiency. The present study combined observational and Think Aloud methodologies to quantify procedural and cognitive characteristics of skinfold assessment. It was hypothesized that 1) increased curricular exposure to skinfold assessment would improve proficiency and 2) the combination of an observational and Think Aloud analysis would provide quantifiable areas of emphasis for instructing skinfold assessment. Seventy-five undergraduates with varied curricular exposure performed a seven-site skinfold assessment on a test subject while expressing their thoughts aloud. A trained practitioner recorded procedural observations, with transcripts generated from audio recordings to capture cognitive information. Skinfold measurements were compared with a criterion value, and bias scores were generated. Participants whose total bias fell within ±3.5% of the criterion value were proficient, with the remainder nonproficient. An independent-samples t-test was used to compare procedural and cognitive observations across experience and proficiency groups. Additional curricular exposure improved performance of skinfold assessment in areas such as the measurement of specific sites (e.g., chest, abdomen, and thigh) and procedural (e.g., landmark identification) and cognitive skills (e.g., complete site explanation). Furthermore, the Think Aloud method is a valuable tool for determining curricular strengths and weaknesses with skinfold assessment and as a pedagogical tool for individual instruction and feedback in the classroom. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  19. 40 CFR 63.1104 - Process vents from continuous unit operations: applicability assessment procedures and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....1104 Process vents from continuous unit operations: applicability assessment procedures and methods. (a... from continuous unit operations. The owner or operator of a process vent is not required to determine... process vent from a batch unit operation manifolded with at least one process vent from a continuous unit...

  20. Standardised Observation Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for Assessing Parent and Child Behaviours in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi; Sacco, Kelley; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent-child behaviour before…

  1. Learning effects of repetitive administration of the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure in novice prosthetic users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golea-Vasluian, Ecaterina; Bongers, Raoul M; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Sluis, Corry K

    Objective: The Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) evaluates the functionality of normal, injured or prosthetic hands. The aim was to evaluate the learning effects of SHAP tasks and the appropriateness of the time limits applied per task in novice prosthetic users. Methods: Right-handed

  2. Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software (OPAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.

    2011-07-01

    This paper provides a comparison between Earthquake Loss Estimation (ELE) software packages and their application using an "Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software" (OPAL). The OPAL procedure was created to provide a framework for optimisation of a Global Earthquake Modelling process through: 1. overview of current and new components of earthquake loss assessment (vulnerability, hazard, exposure, specific cost, and technology); 2. preliminary research, acquisition, and familiarisation for available ELE software packages; 3. assessment of these software packages in order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the ELE methods used; and 4. loss analysis for a deterministic earthquake (Mw = 7.2) for the Zeytinburnu district, Istanbul, Turkey, by applying 3 software packages (2 new and 1 existing): a modified displacement-based method based on DBELA (Displacement Based Earthquake Loss Assessment, Crowley et al., 2006), a capacity spectrum based method HAZUS (HAZards United States, FEMA, USA, 2003) and the Norwegian HAZUS-based SELENA (SEismic Loss EstimatioN using a logic tree Approach, Lindholm et al., 2007) software which was adapted for use in order to compare the different processes needed for the production of damage, economic, and social loss estimates. The modified DBELA procedure was found to be more computationally expensive, yet had less variability, indicating the need for multi-tier approaches to global earthquake loss estimation. Similar systems planning and ELE software produced through the OPAL procedure can be applied to worldwide applications, given exposure data.

  3. Preliminary study of the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure for Children and its reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golea-Vasluian, Ecaterina; Bongers, Raoul M.; Reinders - Messelink, Heleen A.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) is currently used in the adult population for evaluating the functionality of impaired or prosthetic hands. The SHAP cannot be used for children because of the relatively larger size of the objects used to perform SHAP tasks and unknown

  4. A Classical Conditioning Procedure for the Hearing Assessment of Multiply Handicapped Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Hearing assessments of multiply handicapped children/adolescents were conducted using classical conditioning (with an air puff as unconditioned stimulus) and operant conditioning (with a modified visual reinforcement audiometry procedure or edible reinforcement). Findings indicate that classical conditioning was successful with 21 of the 23…

  5. Assessing Women's Responses to Sexual Threat: Validity of a Virtual Role-Play Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G.; Gomez, Gabriella S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of a role-play procedure that uses virtual reality technology to assess women's responses to sexual threat. Forty-eight female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either a standard, face-to-face role-play (RP) or a virtual role-play (VRP) of a sexually coercive situation. A multimethod assessment…

  6. 45 CFR 5.44 - Procedures for assessing and collecting fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INFORMATION REGULATIONS Fees § 5.44 Procedures for assessing and collecting fees. (a) Agreement to pay. We... will require you to pay your past due fees and/or the estimated fees, or a deposit, before we start... normally require you to pay all fees before we furnish the records to you. We may, at our discretion, send...

  7. Developing a new assessment procedure of social information processing in adolescents within secure residential care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rest, M.M.; van Bokhoven, I.; van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Vriens, A.; Matthys, W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a new assessment procedure of social information processing (SIP) for adolescents, to explore its validity and to examine whether it differentiated between IQ groups. Ninety-four adolescents within secure residential care were administered the SIP

  8. Developing a new assessment procedure of social information processing in adolescents within secure residential care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rest, Maaike M.; van Bokhoven, Irene; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; Vriens, Aart; Matthys, Walter

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a new assessment procedure of social information processing (SIP) for adolescents, to explore its validity and to examine whether it differentiated between IQ groups. Ninety-four adolescents within secure residential care were administered the SIP

  9. Meeting on Common Ground: Assessing Parent-Child Relationships through the Joint Painting Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavron, Tami

    2013-01-01

    A basic assumption in psychotherapy with children is that the parent-child relationship is central to the child's development. This article describes the Joint Painting Procedure, an art-based assessment for evaluating relationships with respect to the two main developmental tasks of middle childhood: (a) the parent's ability to monitor and…

  10. Evaluation of a procedure to assess the adverse effects of illicit drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam, J G C van; Best, W; Opperhuizen, A; Wolff, F A de

    2004-01-01

    The assessment procedure of new synthetic illicit drugs that are not documented in the UN treaty on psychotropic drugs was evaluated using a modified Electre model. Drugs were evaluated by an expert panel via the open Delphi approach, where the written score was discussed on 16 items, covering

  11. Self-diagnosis of malaria by travelers and expatriates: assessment of malaria rapid diagnostic tests available on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltha, Jessica; Gillet, Philippe; Heutmekers, Marloes; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Van Gompel, Alfons; Jacobs, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In the past malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for self-diagnosis by travelers were considered suboptimal due to poor performance. Nowadays RDTs for self-diagnosis are marketed and available through the internet. The present study assessed RDT products marketed for self-diagnosis for diagnostic accuracy and quality of labeling, content and instructions for use (IFU). Diagnostic accuracy of eight RDT products was assessed with a panel of stored whole blood samples comprising the four Plasmodium species (n = 90) as well as Plasmodium negative samples (n = 10). IFUs were assessed for quality of description of procedure and interpretation and for lay-out and readability level. Errors in packaging and content were recorded. Two products gave false-positive test lines in 70% and 80% of Plasmodium negative samples, precluding their use. Of the remaining products, 4/6 had good to excellent sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum (98.2%-100.0%) and Plasmodium vivax (93.3%-100.0%). Sensitivity for Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae diagnosis was poor (6.7%-80.0%). All but one product yielded false-positive test lines after reading beyond the recommended reading time. Problems with labeling (not specifying target antigens (n = 3), and content (desiccant with no humidity indicator (n = 6)) were observed. IFUs had major shortcomings in description of test procedure and interpretation, poor readability and lay-out and user-unfriendly typography. Strategic issues (e.g. the need for repeat testing and reasons for false-negative tests) were not addressed in any of the IFUs. Diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for self-diagnosis was variable, with only 4/8 RDT products being reliable for the diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax, and none for P. ovale and P. malariae. RDTs for self-diagnosis need improvements in IFUs (content and user-friendliness), labeling and content before they can be considered for self-diagnosis by the traveler.

  12. RAPID-N: Assessing and mapping the risk of natural-hazard impact at industrial installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazard-triggered technological accidents (so-called Natech accidents) at hazardous installations can have major consequences due to the potential for release of hazardous materials, fires and explosions. Effective Natech risk reduction requires the identification of areas where this risk is high. However, recent studies have shown that there are hardly any methodologies and tools that would allow authorities to identify these areas. To work towards closing this gap, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre has developed the rapid Natech risk assessment and mapping framework RAPID-N. The tool, which is implemented in an online web-based environment, is unique in that it contains all functionalities required for running a full Natech risk analysis simulation (natural hazards severity estimation, equipment damage probability and severity calculation, modeling of the consequences of loss of containment scenarios) and for visualizing its results. The output of RAPID-N are risk summary reports and interactive risk maps which can be used for decision making. Currently, the tool focuses on Natech risk due to earthquakes at industrial installations. However, it will be extended to also analyse and map Natech risk due to floods in the near future. RAPID-N is available at http://rapidn.jrc.ec.europa.eu. This presentation will discuss the results of case-study calculations performed for selected flammable and toxic substances to test the capabilities of RAPID-N both for single- and multi-site earthquake Natech risk assessment. For this purpose, an Istanbul earthquake scenario provided by the Turkish government was used. The results of the exercise show that RAPID-N is a valuable decision-support tool that assesses the Natech risk and maps the consequence end-point distances. These end-point distances are currently defined by 7 kPa overpressure for Vapour Cloud Explosions, 2nd degree burns for pool fire (which is equivalent to a heat radiation of 5 kW/m2 for 40s

  13. Application of portable XRF and VNIR sensors for rapid assessment of soil heavy metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Chen, Songchao; Hu, Jie; Xia, Fang; Xu, Junfeng; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Rapid heavy metal soil surveys at large scale with high sampling density could not be conducted with traditional laboratory physical and chemical analyses because of the high cost, low efficiency and heavy workload involved. This study explored a rapid approach to assess heavy metals contamination in 301 farmland soils from Fuyang in Zhejiang Province, in the southern Yangtze River Delta, China, using portable proximal soil sensors. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (PXRF) was used to determine soil heavy metals total concentrations while soil pH was predicted by portable visible-near infrared spectroscopy (PVNIR). Zn, Cu and Pb were successfully predicted by PXRF (R2 >0.90 and RPD >2.50) while As and Ni were predicted with less accuracy (R2 soils was conducted based on previous results; the Kappa coefficient was 0.87, which showed that the combination of PXRF and PVNIR was an effective and rapid method to determine the degree of pollution with soil heavy metals. This study provides a new approach to assess soil heavy metals pollution; this method will facilitate large-scale surveys of soil heavy metal pollution. PMID:28234944

  14. Rapid Assessment of the Toxicity of Fungal Compounds Using Luminescent Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijie Jian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Most tropical fruits after harvest are very perishable because of fungal infection. Since some pathogenic fungi can produce hazardous compounds such as mycotoxins, novel rapid and effective methods to assess those hazardous compounds are urgently needed. Herein we report that Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67, a luminescent bacterium, can be used to rapidly assess the toxicities of mycotoxins and cultures from mycotoxin-producing pathogens. A good correlation (R2 > 0.98 between concentrations of the mycotoxins (fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, patulin, and citrinin and the luminous intensity of V. qinghaiensis sp. Q67 was obtained. Furthermore, significant correlations (R2 > 0.96 between the amount of mycotoxin and the luminous intensity from the cultures of 10 major mycotoxin-producing pathogens were also observed. In addition, Fusarium proliferatum (half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 17.49% exhibited greater luminescence suppression than Fusarium semitectum (IC50 = 92.56% or Fusarium oxysporum (IC50 = 28.61%, which was in agreement with the existing higher levels of fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, and deoxynivalenol, which were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. These results suggest that V. qinghaiensis sp. Q67 is a promising alternative for the rapid evaluation of the toxicity of fungal mycotoxins.

  15. The Key Role of Eyewitnesses in Rapid Impact Assessment of Global Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, R.; Steed, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Roussel, F.; Etivant, C.; Frobert, L.; Godey, S.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainties in rapid impact assessments of global earthquakes are intrinsically large because they rely on 3 main elements (ground motion prediction models, building stock inventory and related vulnerability) which values and/or spatial variations are poorly constrained. Furthermore, variations of hypocentral location and magnitude within their respective uncertainty domain can lead to significantly different shaking level for centers of population and change the scope of the disaster. We present the strategy and methods implemented at the Euro-Med Seismological Centre (EMSC) to rapidly collect in-situ observations on earthquake effects from eyewitnesses for reducing uncertainties of rapid earthquake impact assessment. It comprises crowdsourced information (online questionnaires, pics) as well as information derived from real time analysis of web traffic (flashourcing technique), and more recently deployment of QCN (Quake Catcher Network) low cost sensors. We underline the importance of merging results of different methods to improve performances and reliability of collected data.We try to better understand and respond to public demands and expectations after earthquakes through improved information services and diversification of information tools (social networks, smartphone app., browsers adds-on…), which, in turn, drive more eyewitnesses to our services and improve data collection. We will notably present our LastQuake Twitter feed (Quakebot) and smartphone applications (IOs and android) which only report earthquakes that matter for the public and authorities, i.e. felt and damaging earthquakes identified thanks to citizen generated information.

  16. Rapid diagnosis and intraoperative margin assessment of human lung cancer with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyan Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A method of rapidly differentiating lung tumor from healthy tissue is extraordinarily needed for both the diagnosis and the intraoperative margin assessment. We assessed the ability of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM for differentiating human lung cancer and normal tissues with the autofluorescence, and also elucidated the mechanism in tissue studies and cell studies. A 15-patient testing group was used to compare FLIM results with traditional histopathology diagnosis. Based on the endogenous fluorescence lifetimes of the testing group, a criterion line was proposed to distinguish normal and cancerous tissues. Then by blinded examined 41 sections from the validation group of other 16 patients, the sensitivity and specificity of FLIM were determined. The cellular metabolism was studied with specific perturbations of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in cell studies. The fluorescence lifetime of cancerous lung tissues is consistently lower than normal tissues, and this is due to the both decrease of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD lifetimes. A criterion line of lifetime at 1920 ps can be given for differentiating human lung cancer and normal tissues.The sensitivity and specificity of FLIM for lung cancer diagnosis were determined as 92.9% and 92.3%. These findings suggest that NADH and FAD can be used to rapidly diagnose lung cancer. FLIM is a rapid, accurate and highly sensitive technique in the judgment during lung cancer surgery and it can be potential in earlier cancer detection.

  17. Application of portable XRF and VNIR sensors for rapid assessment of soil heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Chen, Songchao; Hu, Jie; Xia, Fang; Xu, Junfeng; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Rapid heavy metal soil surveys at large scale with high sampling density could not be conducted with traditional laboratory physical and chemical analyses because of the high cost, low efficiency and heavy workload involved. This study explored a rapid approach to assess heavy metals contamination in 301 farmland soils from Fuyang in Zhejiang Province, in the southern Yangtze River Delta, China, using portable proximal soil sensors. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (PXRF) was used to determine soil heavy metals total concentrations while soil pH was predicted by portable visible-near infrared spectroscopy (PVNIR). Zn, Cu and Pb were successfully predicted by PXRF (R2 >0.90 and RPD >2.50) while As and Ni were predicted with less accuracy (R2 <0.75 and RPD <1.40). The pH values were well predicted by PVNIR. Classification of heavy metals contamination grades in farmland soils was conducted based on previous results; the Kappa coefficient was 0.87, which showed that the combination of PXRF and PVNIR was an effective and rapid method to determine the degree of pollution with soil heavy metals. This study provides a new approach to assess soil heavy metals pollution; this method will facilitate large-scale surveys of soil heavy metal pollution.

  18. Rapid diagnosis and intraoperative margin assessment of human lung cancer with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengyan; Tang, Feng; Pan, Xiaobo; Yao, Longfang; Wang, Xinyi; Jing, Yueyue; Ma, Jiong; Wang, Guifang; Mi, Lan

    2017-12-01

    A method of rapidly differentiating lung tumor from healthy tissue is extraordinarily needed for both the diagnosis and the intraoperative margin assessment. We assessed the ability of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) for differentiating human lung cancer and normal tissues with the autofluorescence, and also elucidated the mechanism in tissue studies and cell studies. A 15-patient testing group was used to compare FLIM results with traditional histopathology diagnosis. Based on the endogenous fluorescence lifetimes of the testing group, a criterion line was proposed to distinguish normal and cancerous tissues. Then by blinded examined 41 sections from the validation group of other 16 patients, the sensitivity and specificity of FLIM were determined. The cellular metabolism was studied with specific perturbations of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in cell studies. The fluorescence lifetime of cancerous lung tissues is consistently lower than normal tissues, and this is due to the both decrease of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) lifetimes. A criterion line of lifetime at 1920 ps can be given for differentiating human lung cancer and normal tissues.The sensitivity and specificity of FLIM for lung cancer diagnosis were determined as 92.9% and 92.3%. These findings suggest that NADH and FAD can be used to rapidly diagnose lung cancer. FLIM is a rapid, accurate and highly sensitive technique in the judgment during lung cancer surgery and it can be potential in earlier cancer detection.

  19. A rapid inoculation technique for assessing pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis on Cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A continuous-dip inoculation technique for rapid assessment of pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis was developed. The method, adapted from a similar procedure for determining pathogenicity of Colletotrichum magna (causal agent of anthracnose of cucurbits), involves constant exposure of seedlings and cuttings (seedlings with root systems excised) of watermelon and muskmelon to conidial suspensions contained in small scintillation vials. Disease development in intact seedlings corresponded well to disease responses observed with the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The continuous-dip inoculation technique resulted in rapid disease development, with 50% of watermelon cuttings dying after 4–6 days of exposure to F. o. niveum. A mortality of 30% also was observed in watermelon cuttings exposed to conidia of F. o. melonis, as opposed to only a 0–2.5% mortality in seedlings with intact roots. Disease response was similar with muskmelon seedlings and cuttings continuously dip-inoculated with F. o. melonis isolates. However, no disease symptoms were observed in muskmelon seedlings or cuttings inoculated with F. o. niveum. Four nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum did not cause disease symptoms in either watermelon or muskmelon cuttings and seedlings when assayed by this technique. The proposed method enables a rapid screening of pathogenicity and requires less time, labor, and greenhouse space than the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The reliability of the continuous-dip inoculation technique is limited, however, to exposure of intact seedlings at a concentration of 1 × 106conidia per milliliter; the method is not accurate at this range for excised seedlings.

  20. Picture Pile: A citizen-powered tool for rapid post-disaster damage assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylo, Olha; Sturn, Tobias; Giovando, Cristiano; Moorthy, Inian; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; Kapur, Ravi; Girardot, Blake; Ajmar, Andrea; Giulio Tonolo, Fabio; Reinicke, Tobias; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Duerauer, Martina

    2017-04-01

    According to the World Bank's global risk analysis, around 34% of the total world's population lives in areas of high mortality risk from two or more natural hazards. Therefore, timely and innovative methods to rapidly assess damage to subsequently aid relief and recovery efforts are critical. In this field of post-disaster damage assessment, several crowdsourcing-based technological tools that engage citizens in carrying out various tasks, including data collection, satellite image analysis and online interactive mapping, have recently been developed. One such tool is Picture Pile, a cross-platform application that is designed as a generic and flexible tool for ingesting satellite imagery for rapid classification. As part of the ESA's Crowd4Sat initiative led by Imperative Space, this study develops a workflow for employing Picture Pile for rapid post-disaster damage assessment. We outline how satellite image interpretation tasks within Picture Pile can be crowdsourced using the example of Hurricane Matthew, which affected large regions of Haiti in September 2016. The application provides simple microtasks, where the user is presented with satellite images and is asked a simple yes/no question. A "before" disaster satellite image is displayed next to an "after" disaster image and the user is asked to assess whether there is any visible, detectable damage. The question is formulated precisely to focus the user's attention on a particular aspect of the damage. The user-interface of Picture Pile is also built for users to rapidly classify the images by swiping to indicate their answer, thereby efficiently completing the microstask. The proposed approach will not only help to increase citizen awareness of natural disasters, but also provide them with a unique opportunity to contribute directly to relief efforts. Furthermore, to gain confidence in the crowdsourced results, quality assurance methods were integrated during the testing phase of the application using image

  1. Patient safety competencies in undergraduate nursing students: a rapid evidence assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Monica; Bressan, Valentina; Cadorin, Lucia; Pagnucci, Nicola; Tolotti, Angela; Valcarenghi, Dario; Watson, Roger; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Sasso, Loredana

    2016-12-01

    To identify patient safety competencies, and determine the clinical learning environments that facilitate the development of patient safety competencies in nursing students. Patient safety in nursing education is of key importance for health professional environments, settings and care systems. To be effective, safe nursing practice requires a good integration between increasing knowledge and the different clinical practice settings. Nurse educators have the responsibility to develop effective learning processes and ensure patient safety. Rapid Evidence Assessment. MEDLINE, CINAHL, SCOPUS and ERIC were searched, yielding 500 citations published between 1 January 2004-30 September 2014. Following the Rapid Evidence Assessment process, 17 studies were included in this review. Hawker's (2002) quality assessment tool was used to assess the quality of the selected studies. Undergraduate nursing students need to develop competencies to ensure patient safety. The quality of the pedagogical atmosphere in the clinical setting has an important impact on the students' overall level of competence. Active student engagement in clinical processes stimulates their critical reasoning, improves interpersonal communication and facilitates adequate supervision and feedback. Few studies describe the nursing students' patient safety competencies and exactly what they need to learn. In addition, studies describe only briefly which clinical learning environments facilitate the development of patient safety competencies in nursing students. Further research is needed to identify additional pedagogical strategies and the specific characteristics of the clinical learning environments that encourage the development of nursing students' patient safety competencies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Financial and testamentary capacity evaluations: procedures and assessment instruments underneath a functional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Liliana B; Simões, Mário R; Firmino, Horácio; Peisah, Carmelle

    2014-02-01

    Mental health professionals are frequently involved in mental capacity determinations. However, there is a lack of specific measures and well-defined procedures for these evaluations. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a review of financial and testamentary capacity evaluation procedures, including not only the traditional neuropsychological and functional assessment but also the more recently developed forensic assessment instruments (FAIs), which have been developed to provide a specialized answer to legal systems regarding civil competencies. Here the main guidelines, papers, and other references are reviewed in order to achieve a complete and comprehensive selection of instruments used in the assessment of financial and testamentary capacity. Although some specific measures for financial abilities have been developed recently, the same is not true for testamentary capacity. Here are presented several instruments or methodologies for assessing financial and testamentary capacity, including neuropsychological assessment, functional assessment scales, performance based functional assessment instruments, and specific FAIs. FAIs are the only specific instruments intended to provide a specific and direct answer to the assessment of financial capacity based on legal systems. Considering the need to move from a diagnostic to a functional approach in financial and testamentary capacity evaluations, it is essential to consider both general functional examination as well as cognitive functioning.

  3. Rapid Assessment of Aircraft Structural Topologies for Multidisciplinary Optimization and Weight Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.; Sensmeier, mark D.; Stewart, Bret A.

    2006-01-01

    Algorithms for rapid generation of moderate-fidelity structural finite element models of air vehicle structures to allow more accurate weight estimation earlier in the vehicle design process have been developed. Application of these algorithms should help to rapidly assess many structural layouts before the start of the preliminary design phase and eliminate weight penalties imposed when actual structure weights exceed those estimated during conceptual design. By defining the structural topology in a fully parametric manner, the structure can be mapped to arbitrary vehicle configurations being considered during conceptual design optimization. Recent enhancements to this approach include the porting of the algorithms to a platform-independent software language Python, and modifications to specifically consider morphing aircraft-type configurations. Two sample cases which illustrate these recent developments are presented.

  4. Assessors' approaches to portfolio assessment in Assessment of Prior Learning procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Jochems, W.; Sluijsmans, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to gain better understanding of the assessment of prior informal and non-formal learning, this article explores assessors’ approaches to portfolio assessment. Through this portfolio assessment, candidates had requested exemptions from specific courses within an educational programme or admission to the programme based on their prior learning. The assessors judged the portfolios according to set rating criteria, and subsequently discussed their approaches. Their decision-making pr...

  5. Adapting a Markov Monte Carlo simulation model for forecasting the number of coronary artery revascularisation procedures in an era of rapidly changing technology and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, Haider R; Knuiman, Matthew; Hobbs, Michael

    2008-06-25

    Treatments for coronary heart disease (CHD) have evolved rapidly over the last 15 years with considerable change in the number and effectiveness of both medical and surgical treatments. This period has seen the rapid development and uptake of statin drugs and coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs) that include Coronary Artery Bypass Graft procedures (CABGs) and Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (PCIs). It is difficult in an era of such rapid change to accurately forecast requirements for treatment services such as CARPs. In a previous paper we have described and outlined the use of a Markov Monte Carlo simulation model for analyzing and predicting the requirements for CARPs for the population of Western Australia (Mannan et al, 2007). In this paper, we expand on the use of this model for forecasting CARPs in Western Australia with a focus on the lack of adequate performance of the (standard) model for forecasting CARPs in a period during the mid 1990s when there were considerable changes to CARP technology and implementation policy and an exploration and demonstration of how the standard model may be adapted to achieve better performance. Selected key CARP event model probabilities are modified based on information relating to changes in the effectiveness of CARPs from clinical trial evidence and an awareness of trends in policy and practice of CARPs. These modified model probabilities and the ones obtained by standard methods are used as inputs in our Markov simulation model. The projected numbers of CARPs in the population of Western Australia over 1995-99 only improve marginally when modifications to model probabilities are made to incorporate an increase in effectiveness of PCI procedures. However, the projected numbers improve substantially when, in addition, further modifications are incorporated that relate to the increased probability of a PCI procedure and the reduced probability of a CABG procedure stemming from changed CARP preference

  6. A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (II) Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the procedures and results of intensity- and time-based seismic risk assessments of a sample nuclear power plant (NPP) to demonstrate the risk-assessment methodology proposed in its companion paper. The intensity-based assessments include three sets of sensitivity studies to identify the impact of the following factors on the seismic vulnerability of the sample NPP, namely: (1) the description of fragility curves for primary and secondary components of NPPs, (2) the number of simulations of NPP response required for risk assessment, and (3) the correlation in responses between NPP components. The time-based assessment is performed as a series of intensity-based assessments. The studies illustrate the utility of the response-based fragility curves and the inclusion of the correlation in the responses of NPP components directly in the risk computation. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Utility and Usability of the Rapid Assessment of Hospital Procurement Barriers in Donation (RAPiD) as a Tool for OPO Hospital Development Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alolod, Gerard P; Traino, Heather M; Siminoff, Laura A

    2016-09-01

    Few systematic assessment tools are available to organ procurement organizations (OPOs) for evaluating donation climates of hospitals in their donation service areas (DSAs). The Rapid Assessment of hospital Procurement barriers in Donation (RAPiD) was developed for OPO hospital development staff to assess the organ donation climate of hospitals. To implement a national test of the RAPiD to examine its efficacy and usability by OPO hospital development staff. Two-arm randomized design, comparing implementation of RAPiD protocol between qualitatively trained researchers (n = 7) and OPO hospital development staff (n = 24); all evaluators received the same training assessments of high-yield hospitals. A total of 77 hospitals in DSAs of 8 OPOs. A total of 2552 health-care providers (HCPs) in high organ donor potential units. Twenty-four donation-related attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. More HCPs interviewed in the autonomous condition were positive toward the concept of organ donation. However, HCPs in the assisted condition were more candid about and critical of the OPO. As for knowledge, fewer HCPs in the autonomous condition reported familiarity with the donation process, need for donors, and generally accepted timely referral criteria. With respect to behaviors, more respondents in the autonomous condition reported frequent or occasional contact with the OPO and routine or occasional referral criteria use. Due to issues of bias, inadequate research experience, conflicts of interest, and ongoing OPO hospital development initiatives, the RAPiD's usability by OPO-based hospital development staff is questionable and not recommended in its current form. A next generation of the RAPiD is described for future consideration. © 2016, NATCO.

  8. The FIBRO System: A Rapid Strategy for Assessment and Management of Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomershine, Chad S

    2010-08-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a complex disorder of widespread pain and tenderness associated with numerous other symptoms including fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, nonrestorative sleep, depression, anxiety, and stiffness. While new diagnostic criteria and previous management guidelines require quantitation of the severity of associated FMS symptoms experienced by individual patients, no system for rapid patient assessment has been made available to provide a basis for diagnosis, treatment selection and follow-up for clinicians in busy practices who have limited time. This review presents the FIBRO System, an easily remembered system for FMS symptom quantitation using the FIBRO mnemonic along with verbal questions on simple 0-10 scales to assess symptom severity (the FIBRO Problem Scale) and response to treatment (the FIBRO Change Scale) along with recommendations for pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies to address individual FIBRO symptoms. This symptom-based approach can improve the care of FMS patients by providing a comprehensive, focused assessment in limited time.

  9. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining of fecal streptococci for rapid assessment of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlova, M.T.; Beauvais, E.; Brezenski, F.T.; Litsky, W.

    1975-01-01

    Immunofluorescence (IF) techniques were employed in an attempt to develop a rapid test for the identification of fecal streptococci. Fresh isolates were obtained from river waters and raw sewage. Identification to species were made by the conventional physiological, biochemical, and serological tests. Both whole and disrupted cells of representative strains of each species were used for the preparation of the fecal streptococcal vaccine. Globulin fractions of individual and pooled antisera were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and the resulting conjugates were tested with homologous and heterologous antigens. The present findings suggest that the immunofluorescence techniques can be employed in the determination of the presence and source of fecal pollution in water employing the fecal streptococci as indicator organisms. By using this method it was determined that fecal streptococci can be identified from water and sewage samples within 20 hours. Parenthetically it should be noted that the identification procedures using the routine biochemical and serological tests may take as long as 7 to 14 days. The procedure may be automated for continual monitoring.

  10. Photographic assessment of nasal morphology following rapid maxillary expansion in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Gabriel da Silva Filho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to use facial analysis to determine the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on nasal morphology in children in the stages of primary and mixed dentition, with posterior cross-bite. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Facial photographs (front view and profile of 60 patients in the pre-expansion period, immediate post-expansion period and one year following rapid maxillary expansion with a Haas appliance were evaluated on 2 occasions by 3 experienced orthodontists independently, with a 2-week interval between evaluations. The examiners were instructed to assess nasal morphology and had no knowledge regarding the content of the study. Intraexaminer and interexaminer agreement (assessed using the Kappa statistic was acceptable. RESULTS: From the analysis of the mode of the examiners' findings, no alterations in nasal morphology occurred regarding the following aspects: dorsum of nose, alar base, nasal width of middle third and nasal base. Alterations were only detected in the nasolabial angle in 1.64% of the patients between the pre-expansion and immediate post-expansion photographs. In 4.92% of the patients between the immediate post-expansion period and 1 year following expansion; and in 6.56% of the patients between the pre-expansion period and one year following expansion. CONCLUSIONS: RME performed on children in stages of primary and mixed dentition did not have any impact on nasal morphology, as assessed using facial analysis.

  11. Amniotic fluid volume: Rapid MR-based assessment at 28-32 weeks gestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, N.J.; Hawkes, R.; Patterson, A.J.; Graves, M.J.; Priest, A.N.; Hunter, S.; Set, P.A.; Lomas, D.J. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lees, C. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Obstetrics and Fetal Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    This work evaluates rapid magnetic resonance projection hydrography (PH) based amniotic fluid volume (AFV) estimates against established routine ultrasound single deepest vertical pocket (SDVP) and amniotic fluid index (AFI) measurements, in utero at 28-32 weeks gestation. Manual multi-section planimetry (MSP) based measurement of AFV is used as a proxy reference standard. Thirty-five women with a healthy singleton pregnancy (20-41 years) attending routine antenatal ultrasound were recruited. SDVP and AFI were measured using ultrasound, with same day MRI assessing AFV with PH and MSP. The relationships between the respective techniques were assessed using linear regression analysis and Bland-Altman method comparison statistics. When comparing estimated AFV, a highly significant relationship was observed between PH and the reference standard MSP (R{sup 2} = 0.802, p < 0.001). For the US measurements, SDVP measurement related most closely to amniotic fluid volume, (R{sup 2} = 0.470, p < 0.001), with AFI demonstrating a weaker relationship (R{sup 2} = 0.208, p = 0.007). This study shows that rapid MRI based PH measurement is a better predictor of AFV, relating more closely to our proxy standard than established US techniques. Although larger validation studies across a range of gestational ages are required this approach could form part of MR fetal assessment, particularly where poly- or oligohydramnios is suspected. (orig.)

  12. Can juvenile corals be surveyed effectively using digital photography?: implications for rapid assessment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Scott C; Osborne, Kate; Sfiligoj, Bianca; Sweatman, Hugh

    2010-12-01

    The widespread decline of coral reefs requires integrated management measures across whole regions. Knowledge of demographic processes of reef organisms is important for informed management, yet current techniques for assessing such processes are time consuming, making it impractical to gather relevant information over large scales. We tested the usefulness of digital still photography as a rapid assessment technique to estimate coral recruitment--an important process in coral reef recovery. Estimates of the density and diversity of juvenile hard corals from digital images were compared with direct visual estimates from the same plots made in the field. Multiple plots were sampled on four reefs from a range of locations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. On average, estimates of juvenile densities from photographic images were lower, in both absolute and relative terms, than that estimated from images. This was the case whether colonies <20 mm or <50 mm in diameter were considered. Overall differences between methods were generally greater at reefs where recruitment was higher, though proportional differences (density from images/density from direct visual census) still varied among reefs. Although the ranking of taxa, in terms of their densities, from the two methods were similar, the density of common genera was generally underestimated in images, and the occurrence of 'unknown' taxa was higher. We conclude that photographic images do not constitute a reliable rapid assessment method for estimating the spatial patterns in the density or diversity of juvenile hard corals.

  13. Photographic assessment of nasal morphology following rapid maxillary expansion in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    da SILVA FILHO, Omar Gabriel; LARA, Tulio Silva; AYUB, Priscila Vaz; OHASHI, Amanda Sayuri Cardoso; BERTOZ, Francisco Antônio

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to use facial analysis to determine the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on nasal morphology in children in the stages of primary and mixed dentition, with posterior cross-bite. Material and Methods Facial photographs (front view and profile) of 60 patients in the pre-expansion period, immediate post-expansion period and one year following rapid maxillary expansion with a Haas appliance were evaluated on 2 occasions by 3 experienced orthodontists independently, with a 2-week interval between evaluations. The examiners were instructed to assess nasal morphology and had no knowledge regarding the content of the study. Intraexaminer and interexaminer agreement (assessed using the Kappa statistic) was acceptable. Results From the analysis of the mode of the examiners' findings, no alterations in nasal morphology occurred regarding the following aspects: dorsum of nose, alar base, nasal width of middle third and nasal base. Alterations were only detected in the nasolabial angle in 1.64% of the patients between the pre-expansion and immediate post-expansion photographs. In 4.92% of the patients between the immediate post-expansion period and 1 year following expansion; and in 6.56% of the patients between the pre-expansion period and one year following expansion. Conclusion RME performed on children in stages of primary and mixed dentition did not have any impact on nasal morphology, as assessed using facial analysis. PMID:21986660

  14. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarão, Andressa M; Costa, Lucíola C M; Comper, Maria L C; Padula, Rosimeire S

    2014-01-01

    Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81%) for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%). The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken.

  15. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa M. Lamarão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81% for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%. Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken.

  16. Assessing health systems for type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a 'Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Courten Maximilian

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol for the gathering of other data through site visits, discussions, and document reviews. Methods The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access draws on the principles of Rapid Assessment Protocols which have been developed and implemented in several different areas. This protocol was adapted through a thorough literature review on diabetes, chronic condition management and medicine supply in developing countries. A visit to three countries in sub-Saharan Africa and meetings with different experts in the field of diabetes helped refine the questionnaires. Following the development of the questionnaires these were tested with various people familiar with diabetes and/or healthcare in developing countries. The Protocol was piloted in Mozambique then refined and had two further iterations in Zambia and Mali. Translations of questionnaires were made into local languages when necessary, with back translation to ensure precision. Results In each country the protocol was implemented in 3 areas – the capital city, a large urban centre and a predominantly rural area and their respective surroundings. Interviews were carried out by local teams trained on how to use the tool. Data was then collected and entered into a database for analysis. Conclusion The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access was developed to provide a situational analysis of Type 1 diabetes, in order to make recommendations to the national Ministries of Health and Diabetes Associations. It provided valuable information on patients' access to insulin, syringes, monitoring and care. It was thus able to sketch a picture of the health care system with regards to its ability to

  17. Rapid Assessment of Ecosystem Service Co-Benefits of Biodiversity Priority Areas in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Neugarten

    Full Text Available The importance of ecosystems for supporting human well-being is increasingly recognized by both the conservation and development sectors. Our ability to conserve ecosystems that people rely on is often limited by a lack of spatially explicit data on the location and distribution of ecosystem services (ES, the benefits provided by nature to people. Thus there is a need to map ES to guide conservation investments, to ensure these co-benefits are maintained. To target conservation investments most effectively, ES assessments must be rigorous enough to support conservation planning, rapid enough to respond to decision-making timelines, and often must rely on existing data. We developed a framework for rapid spatial assessment of ES that relies on expert and stakeholder consultation, available data, and spatial analyses in order to rapidly identify sites providing multiple benefits. We applied the framework in Madagascar, a country with globally significant biodiversity and a high level of human dependence on ecosystems. Our objective was to identify the ES co-benefits of biodiversity priority areas in order to guide the investment strategy of a global conservation fund. We assessed key provisioning (fisheries, hunting and non-timber forest products, and water for domestic use, agriculture, and hydropower, regulating (climate mitigation, flood risk reduction and coastal protection, and cultural (nature tourism ES. We also conducted multi-criteria analyses to identify sites providing multiple benefits. While our approach has limitations, including the reliance on proximity-based indicators for several ES, the results were useful for targeting conservation investments by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF. Because our approach relies on available data, standardized methods for linking ES provision to ES use, and expert validation, it has the potential to quickly guide conservation planning and investment decisions in other data-poor regions.

  18. A rapid murine coma and behavior scale for quantitative assessment of murine cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan W Carroll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM is a neurological syndrome that includes coma and seizures following malaria parasite infection. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and cannot be accounted for by infection alone: patients still succumb to CM, even if the underlying parasite infection has resolved. To that effect, there is no known adjuvant therapy for CM. Current murine CM (MCM models do not allow for rapid clinical identification of affected animals following infection. An animal model that more closely mimics the clinical features of human CM would be helpful in elucidating potential mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and evaluating new adjuvant therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quantitative, rapid murine coma and behavior scale (RMCBS comprised of 10 parameters was developed to assess MCM manifested in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA. Using this method a single mouse can be completely assessed within 3 minutes. The RMCBS enables the operator to follow the evolution of the clinical syndrome, validated here by correlations with intracerebral hemorrhages. It provides a tool by which subjects can be identified as symptomatic prior to the initiation of trial treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Since the RMCBS enables an operator to rapidly follow the course of disease, label a subject as affected or not, and correlate the level of illness with neuropathologic injury, it can ultimately be used to guide the initiation of treatment after the onset of cerebral disease (thus emulating the situation in the field. The RMCBS is a tool by which an adjuvant therapy can be objectively assessed.

  19. Rapid Assessment of Ecosystem Service Co-Benefits of Biodiversity Priority Areas in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamaro, Luciano; Cano, Carlos Andres; Grantham, Hedley S.; Hole, David; Juhn, Daniel; McKinnon, Madeleine; Rasolohery, Andriambolantsoa; Steininger, Marc; Wright, Timothy Max

    2016-01-01

    The importance of ecosystems for supporting human well-being is increasingly recognized by both the conservation and development sectors. Our ability to conserve ecosystems that people rely on is often limited by a lack of spatially explicit data on the location and distribution of ecosystem services (ES), the benefits provided by nature to people. Thus there is a need to map ES to guide conservation investments, to ensure these co-benefits are maintained. To target conservation investments most effectively, ES assessments must be rigorous enough to support conservation planning, rapid enough to respond to decision-making timelines, and often must rely on existing data. We developed a framework for rapid spatial assessment of ES that relies on expert and stakeholder consultation, available data, and spatial analyses in order to rapidly identify sites providing multiple benefits. We applied the framework in Madagascar, a country with globally significant biodiversity and a high level of human dependence on ecosystems. Our objective was to identify the ES co-benefits of biodiversity priority areas in order to guide the investment strategy of a global conservation fund. We assessed key provisioning (fisheries, hunting and non-timber forest products, and water for domestic use, agriculture, and hydropower), regulating (climate mitigation, flood risk reduction and coastal protection), and cultural (nature tourism) ES. We also conducted multi-criteria analyses to identify sites providing multiple benefits. While our approach has limitations, including the reliance on proximity-based indicators for several ES, the results were useful for targeting conservation investments by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF). Because our approach relies on available data, standardized methods for linking ES provision to ES use, and expert validation, it has the potential to quickly guide conservation planning and investment decisions in other data-poor regions. PMID:28006005

  20. Psychomotor skills assessment in practicing surgeons experienced in performing advanced laparoscopic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anthony G; Smith, C Daniel; Bowers, Steven P; Seymour, Neal E; Pearson, Adam; McNatt, Steven; Hananel, David; Satava, Richard M

    2003-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has introduced a new and unique set of psychomotor skills for a surgeon to acquire and master. Although assessment technologies have been proposed, precise and objective psychomotor skills assessment of surgeons performing laparoscopic procedures has not been detailed. Two hundred ten surgeons attending the 2001 annual meeting of the American College of Surgeons in New Orleans who reported having completed more than 50 laparoscopic procedures participated. Subjects were required to complete one box-trainer laparoscopic cutting task and a similar virtual reality task. These tasks were specifically designed to test only psychomotor and not cognitive skills. Both tasks were completed twice. Performance of tasks was assessed and analyzed. Demographic and laparoscopic experience data were also collected. Complete data were available on 195 surgeons. In this group, surgeons performed the box-trainer task better with their dominant hand (p psychomotor skills is now possible. Surgeons who had performed more than 50 laparoscopic procedures showed considerable variability in their performance on a simple laparoscopic and virtual reality task. Approximately 10% of surgeons tested performed the task significantly worse than the group's average performance. Studies such as this may form the methodology for establishing criteria levels and performance objectives in objective assessment of the technical skills component of determining surgical competence.

  1. A transferable approach towards rapid inventory data capturing for seismic vulnerability assessment using open-source geospatial technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, M.; Pittore, M.; Parolai, S.; Zschau, J.

    2012-04-01

    Geospatial technologies are increasingly being used in pre-disaster vulnerability assessment and post-disaster impact assessment for different types of hazards. Especially the use of remote sensing data has been strongly promoted in recent years due to its capabilities of providing up-to-date information over large areas at a comparatively low cost with increasingly high spatial, temporal and spectral resolution. Despite its clear potentials, a purely remote sensing based approach has its limitations in that it is only capable of providing information about the birds-eye view of the objects of interest. The use of omnidirectional imaging in addition can provide the necessary street-view that furthermore allows for a rapid visual screening of a buildings façade. In this context, we propose an integrated approach to rapid inventory data capturing for the assessment of structural vulnerability of buildings in case of an earthquake. Globally available low-cost data sources are preferred and the tools are developed on an open-source basis to allow for a high degree of transferability and usability. On a neighbourhood scale medium spatial but high temporal and spectral resolution satellite images are analysed to outline areas of homogeneous urban structure. Following a proportional allocation scheme, for each urban structure type representative sample areas are selected for a more detailed analysis of the building stock with high resolution image data. On a building-by-building scale a ground-based, rapid visual survey is performed using an omnidirectional imaging system driven around with a car inside the identified sample areas. Processing of the acquired images allows for an extraction of vulnerability-related features of single buildings (e.g. building height, detection of soft-storeys). An analysis of high resolution satellite images provides with further inventory features (e.g. footprint area, shape irregularity). Since we are dealing with information coming from

  2. Assessment of Patients Referred to Specialty Dental Hospitals for Dental Implant Procedure: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thukral, Rishi; Kumar, Anuj; Prasant, M C; Punjabi, Krunal M; Paliwal, Aparna; Patel, Kunal

    2016-06-01

    One of the most common and effective ways of replacing missing teeth is by dental implants. Both quality and quantity of bone along with the area of implant placement govern the prognosis of the implant procedure. Certain risk factors predispose the implant treatment to high failure rate. Hence, we assessed the implant patients who were referred from private practitioners to the specialty hospitals from 2010 to 2014. All the patients being referred from private clinics to the specialty dental hospital for the purpose of prosthetic rehabilitation by dental implants from June 2010 to July 2014 were included in the present study. Skilled oral and maxillofacial surgeons were appointed for performing the implant surgical procedures. Prosthetic rehabilitation was done after 6 to 8 weeks and after 10 to 14 weeks in implant cases without and with bone augmentation procedures respectively. Distribution of dental implants based on the indications, location, dimension of augmentation procedure, and complication of implants was analyzed and assessed for the level of significance. Of the patients, 712 were females, while the remaining were males. Most of the patients were in the age group of 50 to 59 years. As compared with completely edentulous patients, most of the patients required rehabilitation by a single implant. Maximum dental implants were placed in maxillary premolar region and mandibular first molar region. Over 1,000 cases in this study required rehabilitation by augmentation procedure. Partially edentulous patients are most commonly referred to specialized dental hospitals for prosthetic rehabilitation by dental implants, mostly with the purpose of implant placement. Failure rate can be minimized by following strict patient selection protocols along with following a standard surgical criterion. Following standard surgical protocols and strict treatment planning, prognosis of the dental implant procedures can be improved to a greater extent, thereby increasing its

  3. A RAPID ASSESSMENT MODEL FOR UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIAL COST OF CARBON

    OpenAIRE

    STEPHEN C. NEWBOLD; CHARLES GRIFFITHS; CHRIS MOORE; ANN WOLVERTON; ELIZABETH KOPITS

    2013-01-01

    The "social cost of carbon" (SCC) is the present value of the stream of future damages from one additional unit of carbon emissions in a particular year. This paper develops a rapid assessment model for the SCC. The model includes the essential ingredients for calculating the SCC at the global scale and is designed to be transparent and easy to use and modify. Our goal is to provide a tool to help analysts and decision-makers quickly explore the implications of various modeling assumptions fo...

  4. Photograph-based ergonomic evaluations using the Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebregts, J; Sonne, M; Potvin, J R

    2016-01-01

    The Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) was developed to assess musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk factors for computer workstations. This study examined the validity and reliability of remotely conducted, photo-based assessments using ROSA. Twenty-three office workstations were assessed on-site by an ergonomist, and 5 photos were obtained. Photo-based assessments were conducted by three ergonomists. The sensitivity and specificity of the photo-based assessors' ability to correctly classify workstations was 79% and 55%, respectively. The moderate specificity associated with false positive errors committed by the assessors could lead to unnecessary costs to the employer. Error between on-site and photo-based final scores was a considerable ∼2 points on the 10-point ROSA scale (RMSE = 2.3), with a moderate relationship (ρ = 0.33). Interrater reliability ranged from fairly good to excellent (ICC = 0.667-0.856) and was comparable to previous results. Sources of error include the parallax effect, poor estimations of small joint (e.g. hand/wrist) angles, and boundary errors in postural binning. While this method demonstrated potential validity, further improvements should be made with respect to photo-collection and other protocols for remotely-based ROSA assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Reliability of an Online Geriatric Assessment Procedure Using the interRAI Acute Care Assessment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Khan, Melinda G; Edwards, Helen; Wootton, Richard; Counsell, Steven R; Varghese, Paul; Lim, Wen Kwang; Darzins, Peteris; Dakin, Lucy; Klein, Kerenaftali; Gray, Leonard C

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether geriatric triage decisions made using a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) performed online are less reliable than face-to-face (FTF) decisions. Multisite noninferiority prospective cohort study. Two specialist geriatricians assessed individuals sequentially referred for an acute care geriatric consultation. Participants were allocated to one FTF assessment and an additional assessment (FTF or online (OL)), creating two groups-two FTF (FTF-FTF, n = 81) or online and FTF (OL-FTF, n = 85). Three acute care public hospitals in two Australian states. Admitted individuals referred for CGA. Nurse-administered CGA, based on the interRAI Acute Care assessment system accessed online and other online clinical data such as pathology results and imaging enabling geriatricians to review participants' information and provide input into their care from a distance. The primary decision subjected to this analysis was referral for permanent residential care. Geriatricians also recorded recommendations for referrals and variations for medication management and judgment regarding prognosis at discharge and after 3 months. Overall percentage agreement was 88% (n = 71) for the FTF-FTF group and 91% (n = 77) for the OL-FTF group. The difference in agreement between the FTF-FTF and OL-FTF groups was -3%, indicating that there was no difference between the methods of assessment. Judgements made regarding diagnoses of geriatric syndromes, medication management, and prognosis (with regard to hospital outcome and location at 3 months) were found to be equally reliable in each mode of consultation. Geriatric assessment performed online using a nurse-administered structured CGA system was no less reliable than conventional assessment in making clinical triage decisions. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia and spectacle coverage: results from a rapid assessment of refractive error survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Keeffe, Jill E; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia and spectacle coverage in subjects aged 15-50 years using rapid assessment methodology in the Mahabubnagar district of Andhra Pradesh, India. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted using cluster random sampling to enumerate 3,300 subjects from 55 clusters. Unaided, aided and pinhole visual acuity was assessed using a LogMAR chart at a distance of 4 meters. Near vision was assessed using N notation chart. Uncorrected refractive error was defined as presenting visual acuity worse than 6/12 but improving to at least 6/12 or better on using a pinhole. Presbyopia is defined as binocular near vision worse than N8 in subjects aged more than 35 years with binocular distance visual acuity of 6/12 or better. Of the 3,300 subjects enumerated from 55 clusters, 3,203 (97%) subjects were available for examination. Of these, 1,496 (46.7%) were females and 930 (29%) were > or = 40 years. Age and gender adjusted prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors causing visual impairment in the better eye was 2.7% (95% CI, 2.1-3.2%). Presbyopia was present in 690 (63.7%, 95% CI, 60.8-66.6%) subjects aged over 35 years. Spectacle coverage for refractive error was 29% and for presbyopia it was 19%. There is a large unmet need for refractive correction in this area in India. Rapid assessment methods are an effective means of assessing the need for services and the impact of models of care.

  7. Prospective randomized assessment of single versus double-gloving for general surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na'aya, H U; Madziga, A G; Eni, U E

    2009-01-01

    There is increased tendency towards double-gloving by general surgeons in our practice, due probably to awareness of the risk of contamination with blood or other body fluids during surgery. The aim of the study was to compare the relative frequency of glove puncture in single-glove versus double glove sets in general surgical procedures, and to determine if duration of surgery affects perforation rate. Surgeons at random do single or double gloves at their discretion, for general surgical procedures. All the gloves used by the surgeons were assessed immediately after surgery for perforation. A total of 1120 gloves were tested, of which 880 were double-glove sets and 240 single-glove sets. There was no significant difference in the overall perforation rate between single and double glove sets (18.3% versus 20%). However, only 2.3% had perforations in both the outer and inner gloves in the double glove group. Therefore, there was significantly greater risk for blood-skin exposure in the single glove sets (p < 0.01). The perforation rate was also significantly greater during procedures lasting an hour or more compared to those lasting less than an hour (p < 0.01). Double-gloving reduces the risk of blood-skin contamination in all general surgical procedures, and especially so in procedures lasting an hour or more.

  8. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T., E-mail: markku.kuitunen@jyu.fi

    2014-11-15

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state.

  9. Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin. Rapid chromatographic procedures for the purification of intact hormone and isolation of subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W T; Ward, D N

    1980-07-25

    A method exploiting hydroxylapatite chromatography was developed to purify pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG or eCG) to high biological activity from partially purified commerical preparations. In addition, an alternative method utilizing chromatography on quaternary aminoethyl (QAE)-Sephadex and Sephadex G-200 is also presented. Both procedures are capable of producing, from commerical material with a potency of approximately 2,500 IU/mg, a product in excess of 12,000 IU/mg. If care is taken in the selection of fractions from the hydroxylapatite chromatography, essentially purified material may be obtained in a single step. The best fraction from the QAE-Sephadex and G-200 chromatography procedure contains a minor impurity. Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin subunits were purified by a single chromatographic step from the foregoing preparations utilizing 6 M guanidine hydrochloride for dissociation, followed by chromatography on Sephadex G-75. Analytical data, including amino acid composition, carbohydrate composition. NH2-terminal amino acid determinations, and electrophoretic behavior of the subunits in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are presented.

  10. The use of rapid review methods in health technology assessments: 3 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenthaler, Eva; Cooper, Katy; Pandor, Abdullah; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Chatters, Robin; Wong, Ruth

    2016-08-26

    Rapid reviews are of increasing importance within health technology assessment due to time and resource constraints. There are many rapid review methods available although there is little guidance as to the most suitable methods. We present three case studies employing differing methods to suit the evidence base for each review and outline some issues to consider when selecting an appropriate method. Three recently completed systematic review short reports produced for the UK National Institute for Health Research were examined. Different approaches to rapid review methods were used in the three reports which were undertaken to inform the commissioning of services within the NHS and to inform future trial design. We describe the methods used, the reasoning behind the choice of methods and explore the strengths and weaknesses of each method. Rapid review methods were chosen to meet the needs of the review and each review had distinctly different challenges such as heterogeneity in terms of populations, interventions, comparators and outcome measures (PICO) and/or large numbers of relevant trials. All reviews included at least 10 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), each with numerous included outcomes. For the first case study (sexual health interventions), very diverse studies in terms of PICO were included. P-values and summary information only were presented due to substantial heterogeneity between studies and outcomes measured. For the second case study (premature ejaculation treatments), there were over 100 RCTs but also several existing systematic reviews. Data for meta-analyses were extracted directly from existing systematic reviews with new RCT data added where available. For the final case study (cannabis cessation therapies), studies included a wide range of interventions and considerable variation in study populations and outcomes. A brief summary of the key findings for each study was presented and narrative synthesis used to summarise results for each

  11. Incisor compliance following operative procedures: a rapid 3-D finite element analysis using micro-CT data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Pascal; Tan, Derek T

    2008-02-01

    New methods are available for the rapid generation of 3-D finite element models of dental structures and restorations. Validation of these methods are required. The aim of the present study is to utilize stereolithography and surface-driven automatic meshing to generate models of specific restorative conditions, and to examine these models under loading. The data generated are compared to existing experimental data in an attempt to validate the model. An intact maxillary central incisor was digitized with a micro-CT scanner. Surface contours of enamel and dentin were fitted following tooth segmentation based on pixel density using an interactive medical image control system. Stereolithography (STL) files of enamel and dentin surfaces were then remeshed to reduce mesh density and imported in a rapid prototyping software, where Boolean operations were used to assure the interfacial mesh congruence (dentinoenamel junction) and simulate different tooth preparations (endodontic access, veneer, proximal, and Class III preparations) and restorations (Class III composites). The different parts were then imported in a finite element software package to create 3D solid models. A 50-N point load perpendicular to the tooth's long axis and centered on the incisal edge was applied either on the buccal or palatal surface. The surface strain was obtained from selected nodes corresponding to the location of the strain gauges in the validation experiments. The increase in crown flexure (compared to the unaltered tooth) ranged from near zero values (conservative endodontic access, removal of proximal enamel) to ca 10% (aggressive endodontic access, conservative Class III preparations), 23% and 34% (moderate and aggressive Class III preparations, respectively), and 91% (veneer preparation). Placement of Class III composite resin restorations resulted in 85% recovery of the original crown stiffness. 3D FEA data correlated well with existing experimental data. In two situations, smaller

  12. A New Procedure for Damage Assessment of Prestressed Concrete Beams Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sumangala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A damage assessment procedure has been developed using artificial neural network (ANN for prestressed concrete beams. The methodology had been formulated using the results obtained from an experimental study conducted in the laboratory. Prestressed concrete (PSC rectangular beams were cast, and pitting corrosion was introduced in the prestressing wires and was allowed to be snapped using accelerated corrosion process. Both static and dynamic tests were conducted to study the behaviour of perfect and damaged beams. The measured output from both static and dynamic tests was taken as input to train the neural network. Back propagation network was chosen for this purpose, which was written using the programming package MATLAB. The trained network was tested using separate test data obtained from the tests. A damage assessment procedure was developed using the trained network, it was validated using the data available in literature, and the outcome is presented in this paper.

  13. Health-related quality of life following ambulatory surgery procedures: assessment by RAND-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Kristiina; Lahtela, Merja; Hynynen, Markku

    2012-12-05

    Increasing numbers of elective surgical procedures are performed as day-cases. The impact of ambulatory surgery on health-related quality of life in the recovery period has seldom been described. We assessed health-related quality of life in 143 adult outpatients scheduled for arthroscopic procedures of the knee and shoulder joints, laparoscopic cholecystectomy and inguinal hernia repair using the RAND 36-Item Health Survey preoperatively and one week after patients had returned to work or comparable normal daily routines. Postoperatively all patient groups reported significant improvements in bodily pain and vitality. Physical functioning improved significantly in orthopedic and inguinal hernia patients. However, in the orthopedic groups, postoperative scores for physical health were still relatively lower compared to the general population reference values. Ambulatory surgery has a positive impact on health-related quality of life. Assessment of the recovery process is necessary for recognition of potential areas of improvement in care and postoperative rehabilitation.

  14. Developing the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure as a Measure of Self-Forgiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bast, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The current thesis set out to develop an implicit relational assessment procedure as a measure of self-forgiveness across five studies. The first study targeted the development of a measure of implicit forgiveness of self related to “minor” transgressions (mistakes, flaws, shortcomings) versus the forgiveness of others. The results indicated that the measure of implicit forgiveness diverged from an explicit measure designed to measure the same construct. Moreover, implicitly, participants ten...

  15. A limited assessment of the ASEP human reliability analysis procedure using simulator examination results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, B.R.; Dukelow, J.S. Jr.; Mitts, T.M.; Nicholson, W.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report presents a limited assessment of the conservatism of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) human reliability analysis (HRA) procedure described in NUREG/CR-4772. In particular, the, ASEP post-accident, post-diagnosis, nominal HRA procedure is assessed within the context of an individual`s performance of critical tasks on the simulator portion of requalification examinations administered to nuclear power plant operators. An assessment of the degree to which operator perforn:Lance during simulator examinations is an accurate reflection of operator performance during actual accident conditions was outside the scope of work for this project; therefore, no direct inference can be made from this report about such performance. The data for this study are derived from simulator examination reports from the NRC requalification examination cycle. A total of 4071 critical tasks were identified, of which 45 had been failed. The ASEP procedure was used to estimate human error probability (HEP) values for critical tasks, and the HEP results were compared with the failure rates observed in the examinations. The ASEP procedure was applied by PNL operator license examiners who supplemented the limited information in the examination reports with expert judgment based upon their extensive simulator examination experience. ASEP analyses were performed for a sample of 162 critical tasks selected randomly from the 4071, and the results were used to characterize the entire population. ASEP analyses were also performed for all of the 45 failed critical tasks. Two tests were performed to assess the bias of the ASEP HEPs compared with the data from the requalification examinations. The first compared the average of the ASEP HEP values with the fraction of the population actually failed and it found a statistically significant factor of two bias on the average.

  16. Rapid Traversability Assessment in 2.5D Grid-based Map on Rough Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rapid traversability assessment approach based on an extended 2.5D grid-based representaion of the rough terrain. Stereo vision system is used to perceive the environment surrounding robot. Conventional 2D, 3D and other 2.5D grid maps determine the traversability indices of the grids directly from the sensor feedback, while our approach attempts to address the indices of terrain from multiple grids instead. By analyzing the properties of multiple grids that the robot is to traverse, passable grids are distinguished, which also takes the robot's size into account. Fuzzy logic framework is applied to extract traversabiltiy indices from the terrain characteristics. A soccer robot equipped with a stereo vision system is adopted for experiments. The results show that our map is capable of speeding the process of traversability assessment and providing an autonomous mobile robot with a appropriate representation of 3D uneven terrain profile.

  17. Face and Convergent Validity of Persian Version of Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA Checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrouz Armal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this work was the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Persian version of the Rapid Office Stress Assessment (ROSA checklist. Material & Methods: This methodological study was conducted according of IQOLA method. 100 office worker were selected in order to carry out a psychometric evaluation of the ROSA checklist by performing validity (face and convergent analyses. The convergent validity was evaluated using RULA checklist. Results: Upon major changes made to the ROSA checklist during the translation/cultural adaptation process, face validity of the Persian version was obtained. Spearman correlation coefficient between total score of ROSA check list and RULA checklist was significant (r=0.76, p<0.0001. Conclusion: The results indicated that the translated version of the ROSA checklist is acceptable in terms of face validity, convergent validity in target society, and hence provides a useful instrument for assessing Iranian office workers

  18. Predicting Airport Screening Officers' Visual Search Competency With a Rapid Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroff, Stephen R; Ericson, Justin M; Sharpe, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    Objective The study's objective was to assess a new personnel selection and assessment tool for aviation security screeners. A mobile app was modified to create a tool, and the question was whether it could predict professional screeners' on-job performance. Background A variety of professions (airport security, radiology, the military, etc.) rely on visual search performance-being able to detect targets. Given the importance of such professions, it is necessary to maximize performance, and one means to do so is to select individuals who excel at visual search. A critical question is whether it is possible to predict search competency within a professional search environment. Method Professional searchers from the USA Transportation Security Administration (TSA) completed a rapid assessment on a tablet-based X-ray simulator (XRAY Screener, derived from the mobile technology app Airport Scanner; Kedlin Company). The assessment contained 72 trials that were simulated X-ray images of bags. Participants searched for prohibited items and tapped on them with their finger. Results Performance on the assessment significantly related to on-job performance measures for the TSA officers such that those who were better XRAY Screener performers were both more accurate and faster at the actual airport checkpoint. Conclusion XRAY Screener successfully predicted on-job performance for professional aviation security officers. While questions remain about the underlying cognitive mechanisms, this quick assessment was found to significantly predict on-job success for a task that relies on visual search performance. Application It may be possible to quickly assess an individual's visual search competency, which could help organizations select new hires and assess their current workforce.

  19. Learning, experience, and self-assessment of competence of third-year medical students in performing bedside procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, R M; Lewis, L A

    1994-04-01

    Third-year medical students are expected to perform common bedside procedures as part of their daily ward activities, but there are few programs to teach these skills or document students' abilities to perform them. In addition to describing the clinical procedures course at the Medical College of Georgia School of Medicine, the purpose of this paper is to report how often students perform common bedside procedures during the third year of medical school, whether the number of times a procedure has been performed is indicative of self-perceived level of competence, and how useful the students find the procedures course for learning how to perform common procedures. In June 1991, the 163 entering third-year students participated in a two-day course in which they were taught universal precautions and provided specific step-by-step instructions for performing 16 clinical procedures. One year later, after the students had completed their third-year clerkships, they were asked to report the numbers of times they had performed the procedures during their clerkships, to provide self-assessments of their competency, and to indicate how helpful the course had been for learning clinical procedures. The association between the number of times the students reported performing a procedure and how competent they felt to perform the procedure was assessed using Kendall's tau coefficient. A total of 100 students returned completed questionnaires. Most of the students reported performing venipuncture, obtaining blood cultures, and scrubbing surgically more than five times, but they reported performing other procedures less frequently. For most procedures, self-assessment of competency correlated with frequency of performance. The procedures course was well received by students and instructors, based on both written evaluations and informal verbal feedback. Surprisingly, the students' self-reports indicated that many students performed procedures on patients infrequently. As

  20. Vibration Testing Procedures for Bone Stiffness Assessment in Fractures Treated with External Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Lorenza; Longo, Antonia; Di Puccio, Francesca; Ciulli, Enrico; Marchetti, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    A bone healing assessment is crucial for the successful treatment of fractures, particularly in terms of the timing of support devices. However, in clinical practice, this assessment is only made qualitatively through bone manipulation and X-rays, and hence cannot be repeated as often as might be required. The present study reconsiders the quantitative method of frequency response analysis for healing assessments, and specifically for fractures treated with an external fixator. The novelty consists in the fact that bone excitation and response are achieved through fixator pins, thus overcoming the problem of transmission through soft-tissues and their damping effect. The main objective was to develop and validate a test procedure in order to characterize the treated bone. More than 80 tests were performed on a tibia phantom alone, a phantom with pins, and a phantom with a complete fixator. Different excitation techniques and input-output combinations were compared. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of a procedure based on impact tests using a micro-hammer. Pins and fixator were demonstrated to influence the frequency response of the phantom by increasing the number of resonant frequencies. This procedure will be applied in future studies to monitor healing both in in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  1. Xurography as a Rapid Fabrication Alternative for Point-of-Care Devices: Assessment of Passive Micromixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, J. Israel; Mojica, Mauricio; Rodríguez, Ciro A.; Siller, Héctor R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the copious amount of research on the design and operation of micromixers, there are few works regarding manufacture technology aimed at implementation beyond academic environments. This work evaluates the viability of xurography as a rapid fabrication tool for the development of ultra-low cost microfluidic technology for extreme Point-of-Care (POC) micromixing devices. By eschewing photolithographic processes and the bulkiness of pumping and enclosure systems for rapid fabrication and passively driven operation, xurography is introduced as a manufacturing alternative for asymmetric split and recombine (ASAR) micromixers. A T-micromixer design was used as a reference to assess the effects of different cutting conditions and materials on the geometric features of the resulting microdevices. Inspection by stereographic and confocal microscopy showed that it is possible to manufacture devices with less than 8% absolute dimensional error. Implementation of the manufacturing methodology in modified circular shape- based SAR microdevices (balanced and unbalanced configurations) showed that, despite the precision limitations of the xurographic process, it is possible to implement this methodology to produce functional micromixing devices. Mixing efficiency was evaluated numerically and experimentally at the outlet of the microdevices with performances up to 40%. Overall, the assessment encourages further research of xurography for the development of POC micromixers. PMID:27196904

  2. Xurography as a Rapid Fabrication Alternative for Point-of-Care Devices: Assessment of Passive Micromixers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, J Israel; Mojica, Mauricio; Rodríguez, Ciro A; Siller, Héctor R

    2016-05-16

    Despite the copious amount of research on the design and operation of micromixers, there are few works regarding manufacture technology aimed at implementation beyond academic environments. This work evaluates the viability of xurography as a rapid fabrication tool for the development of ultra-low cost microfluidic technology for extreme Point-of-Care (POC) micromixing devices. By eschewing photolithographic processes and the bulkiness of pumping and enclosure systems for rapid fabrication and passively driven operation, xurography is introduced as a manufacturing alternative for asymmetric split and recombine (ASAR) micromixers. A T-micromixer design was used as a reference to assess the effects of different cutting conditions and materials on the geometric features of the resulting microdevices. Inspection by stereographic and confocal microscopy showed that it is possible to manufacture devices with less than 8% absolute dimensional error. Implementation of the manufacturing methodology in modified circular shape- based SAR microdevices (balanced and unbalanced configurations) showed that, despite the precision limitations of the xurographic process, it is possible to implement this methodology to produce functional micromixing devices. Mixing efficiency was evaluated numerically and experimentally at the outlet of the microdevices with performances up to 40%. Overall, the assessment encourages further research of xurography for the development of POC micromixers.

  3. Xurography as a Rapid Fabrication Alternative for Point-of-Care Devices: Assessment of Passive Micromixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Israel Martínez-López

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the copious amount of research on the design and operation of micromixers, there are few works regarding manufacture technology aimed at implementation beyond academic environments. This work evaluates the viability of xurography as a rapid fabrication tool for the development of ultra-low cost microfluidic technology for extreme Point-of-Care (POC micromixing devices. By eschewing photolithographic processes and the bulkiness of pumping and enclosure systems for rapid fabrication and passively driven operation, xurography is introduced as a manufacturing alternative for asymmetric split and recombine (ASAR micromixers. A T-micromixer design was used as a reference to assess the effects of different cutting conditions and materials on the geometric features of the resulting microdevices. Inspection by stereographic and confocal microscopy showed that it is possible to manufacture devices with less than 8% absolute dimensional error. Implementation of the manufacturing methodology in modified circular shape- based SAR microdevices (balanced and unbalanced configurations showed that, despite the precision limitations of the xurographic process, it is possible to implement this methodology to produce functional micromixing devices. Mixing efficiency was evaluated numerically and experimentally at the outlet of the microdevices with performances up to 40%. Overall, the assessment encourages further research of xurography for the development of POC micromixers.

  4. Rapid assessment of rice seed availability for wildlife in harvested fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, B.J.; Miller, M.R.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, P.S.; Farinha, M.A.; Benjamin, Gustafson K.; Yee, J.L.; Fleskes, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Rice seed remaining in commercial fields after harvest (waste rice) is a critical food resource for wintering waterfowl in rice-growing regions of North America. Accurate and precise estimates of the seed mass density of waste rice are essential for planning waterfowl wintering habitat extents and management. In the Sacramento Valley of California, USA, the existing method for obtaining estimates of availability of waste rice in harvested fields produces relatively precise estimates, but the labor-, time-, and machineryintensive process is not practical for routine assessments needed to examine long-term trends in waste rice availability. We tested several experimental methods designed to rapidly derive estimates that would not be burdened with disadvantages of the existing method. We first conducted a simulation study of the efficiency of each method and then conducted field tests. For each approach, methods did not vary in root mean squared error, although some methods did exhibit bias for both simulations and field tests. Methods also varied substantially in the time to conduct each sample and in the number of samples required to detect a standard trend. Overall, modified line-intercept methods performed well for estimating the density of rice seeds. Waste rice in the straw, although not measured directly, can be accounted for by a positive relationship with density of rice on the ground. Rapid assessment of food availability is a useful tool to help waterfowl managers establish and implement wetland restoration and agricultural habitat-enhancement goals for wintering waterfowl. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  5. Rapid assessment of large scale vegetation change based on multi-temporal phenological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Danlu; Guan, Yanning; Guo, Shan; Yan, Baoping; Xing, Zhi; Zhang, Chunyan; Piao, Yingchao; An, Xudong; Kang, Lihua

    2011-11-01

    Detecting vegetation change is critical for earth system and sustainability science. The existing methods, however, show several limitations, including inevitable selection of imagery acquisition dates, affection from vegetation related noise on temporal trajectory analysis, and assumptions due to vegetation classification model. This paper presents a multitemporal phenological frequency analysis over a relatively short period (MTPFA-SP) methodology to detect vegetation changes. This MTPFA-SP methodology bases on the amplitude components of fast Fourier transforming (FFT) and is implemented with two steps. First, NDVI time series over two periods are transformed with FFT into frequency domain, separately. Second, amplitude components with phenological information from Step 1 are selected for further change comparison. In this methodology, component selection shows physical meanings of natural vegetation process in frequency domain. Comparisons among those selected components help enhance the ability to rapidly detect vegetation changes. To validate this MTPFA-SP methodology, we detect changes between two periods (2001-2005 and 2006-2010) in the eastern Tibet Plateau area and make two kinds of assessments. The first is for a larger scale, including statistic analysis of altitudinal zonality and latitudinal zonality. The second assessment is for rapid detection of vegetation change location. Landsat TM image were employed to validate the result.

  6. Use of refractometry and colorimetry as field methods to rapidly assess antimalarial drug quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael D; Nettey, Henry; Villalva Rojas, Ofelia; Pamanivong, Chansapha; Khounsaknalath, Lamphet; Grande Ortiz, Miguel; Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Vongsack, Latsamy; Manolin, Ot

    2007-01-04

    The proliferation of counterfeit and poor-quality drugs is a major public health problem; especially in developing countries lacking adequate resources to effectively monitor their prevalence. Simple and affordable field methods provide a practical means of rapidly monitoring drug quality in circumstances where more advanced techniques are not available. Therefore, we have evaluated refractometry, colorimetry and a technique combining both processes as simple and accurate field assays to rapidly test the quality of the commonly available antimalarial drugs; artesunate, chloroquine, quinine, and sulfadoxine. Method bias, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy relative to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of drugs collected in the Lao PDR were assessed for each technique. The HPLC method for each drug was evaluated in terms of assay variability and accuracy. The accuracy of the combined method ranged from 0.96 to 1.00 for artesunate tablets, chloroquine injectables, quinine capsules, and sulfadoxine tablets while the accuracy was 0.78 for enterically coated chloroquine tablets. These techniques provide a generally accurate, yet simple and affordable means to assess drug quality in resource-poor settings.

  7. Utilizing web-based geodata for rapid disaster identification and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Kerry; Schmitt, Michael; Sickert, Salomon; Metzger, Alex; Krautblatter, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Developing methods to rapidly locate and quantify the impact of natural disasters can aid both the coordination of emergency response, and the long-term understanding of natural hazards in a range of environmental settings. Gaining such quantitative data in the aftermath of landslide events is particularly challenging, as the localized nature, steep terrain, and frequent damage to infrastructure caused by common triggering events (e.g. earthquakes, storms) complicates traditional methods of survey and data communication. As a result, the first, and often best overview of disastrous events is typically provided by eyewitness or first-responder photographs distributed through official, or social media networks. Although these images allow for an initial qualitative assessment of the event, their ad-hoc nature does not currently allow for either precise location, or quantitative evaluation of key event parameters (e.g. structural setting, geology, geometry, size, transport path, or total fall height). Here we present two tools designed to facilitate initial location and assessment of key event parameters using a combination of freely available geodata and information derived from eyewitness observations. These tools are currently under development, and rely on the adaptation of existing photogrammetric techniques in order to allow users to rapidly map and quantify event parameters from a combination of ad-hoc media photographs, and existing orthophoto and digital terrain model data (e.g. LiDAR, SRTM, ASTER). By incorporating results in freely-available GIS platforms such as Google Earth, local authorities will be able to to better assess and disseminate information regarding the impact of natural disasters in the critical hours following an event. We expect that quantitative data derived from events will provide important information to allow geohazard researchers to better assess landslide generation, and authorities to better plan responses to future triggering

  8. Relevance of new multispectral imagery for assessing tropical forest disturbance: RapidEye and WorldView-2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess utility of RapidEye imagery for predicting leaf nitrogen concentration and evaluate the effects of forest fragmentation on leaf nitrogen distribution in the Dukuduku forest, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Rapid...

  9. The Cultural Dimensions of Freshwater Wetland Assessments: Lessons Learned from the Application of US Rapid Assessment Methods in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucherand, Stéphanie; Schwoertzig, Eugénie; Clement, Jean-Christophe; Johnson, Brad; Quétier, Fabien

    2015-07-01

    Given the recent strengthening of wetland restoration and protection policies in France, there is need to develop rapid assessment methods that provide a cost-effective way to assess losses and gains of wetland functions. Such methods have been developed in the US and we tested six of them on a selection of contrasting wetlands in the Isère watershed. We found that while the methods could discriminate sites, they did not always give consistent rankings, thereby revealing the different assumptions they explicitly or implicitly incorporate. The US assessment methods commonly use notions of "old-growth" or "pristine" to define the benchmark conditions against which to assess wetlands. Any reference-based assessment developed in the US would need adaptation to work in the French context. This could be quite straightforward for the evaluation of hydrologic variables as scoring appears to be consistent with the best professional judgment of hydrologic condition made by a panel of French local experts. Approaches to rating vegetation condition and landscape context, however, would require substantial reworking to reflect a novel view of reference standard. Reference standard in the European context must include acknowledgement that many of the best condition and biologically important wetland types in France are the product of intensive, centuries-long management (mowing, grazing, etc.). They must also explicitly incorporate the recent trend in ecological assessment to focus particularly on the wetland's role in landscape-level connectivity. These context-specific, socio-cultural dimensions must be acknowledged and adjusted for when adapting or developing wetland assessment methods in new cultural contexts.

  10. Quality of life assessment in domestic dogs: An evidence-based rapid review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belshaw, Z; Asher, L; Harvey, N D; Dean, R S

    2015-11-01

    Assessment of quality of life (QoL) is an important, increasingly popular outcome measure in veterinary research and practice, particularly in dogs. In humans, QoL is commonly assessed by self-reporting and since this is not possible for animals, it is crucial that instruments designed to measure QoL are tested for reliability and validity. Using a systematic, replicable literature search strategy, the aim of this study was to find published, peer-reviewed instruments for QoL assessment in dogs and to assess the quality of these. CAB Abstracts and PubMed were searched in July 2013 using terms relevant to dogs, wellbeing and QoL. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. When instruments were not published in full, authors were contacted to obtain them. Criteria were applied to assess the quality, validity and reliability of the 52 instruments obtained. Twenty-seven additional instruments used in peer-reviewed publications were not included because they had not been fully described in the publication or were not provided by authors upon request. Most of the instruments reviewed (48/52) were disease-specific rather than generic. Only four publications provided a definition of QoL or wellbeing. Only 11/52 instruments demonstrated evidence of assessing reliability or validity, and the quality of these instruments was variable. Many novel, unvalidated instruments have been generated and applied as clinical outcomes before it was known whether they measured QoL. This rapid review can be used to identify currently available and validated canine QoL instruments, and to assess the validity and quality of new or existing instruments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Scaling up success to improve health: Towards a rapid assessment guide for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Paltzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Evidence-based health interventions exist and are effectively implemented throughout resource-limited settings. The literature regarding scale-up strategies and frameworks is growing. The purpose of this paper is to identify and systematically document the variation in scale-up strategies to develop a rapid assessment tool for decision-makers looking to identify the most appropriate strategy for their organizational and environmental contexts. Methods A list of scale-up strategies and frameworks were identified through an in-depth literature review and conversations with scale-up and quality improvement leaders. The literature search included a broad range of terms that might be used interchangeably with scale-up of best practices. Terms included: implementation research, knowledge translation, translational research, quality improvement research, health systems improvement, scale-up, best practices, improvement collaborative, and community based research. Based on this research, 18 strategies and frameworks were identified, and nine met our inclusion criteria for scale-up of health-related strategies. We interviewed the key contact for four of the nine strategies to obtain additional information regarding the strategy’s scale-up components, targets, underlying theories, evaluation efforts, facilitating factors, and barriers. A comparative analysis of common elements and strategy characteristics was completed by two of the authors on the nine selected strategies. Key strategy characteristics and common factors that facilitate or hinder the strategy’s success in scaling up health-related interventions were identified. Results Common features of scale-up strategies include: 1 the development of context-specific evidence; 2 collaborative partnerships; 3 iterative processes; and 4 shared decision-making. Facilitating factors include strong leadership, community engagement, communication, government collaboration, and a focus on

  12. Portfolio assessment during medical internships: How to obtain a reliable and feasible assessment procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nele R M; Driessen, Erik W; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Van Gaal, Luc F; Bossaert, Leo L; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2009-12-01

    A portfolio is used to mentor and assess students' clinical performance at the workplace. However, students and raters often perceive the portfolio as a time-consuming instrument. In this study, we investigated whether assessment during medical internship by a portfolio can combine reliability and feasibility. The domain-oriented reliability of 61 double-rated portfolios was measured, using a generalisability analysis with portfolio tasks and raters as sources of variation in measuring the performance of a student. We obtained reliability (Phi coefficient) of 0.87 with this internship portfolio containing 15 double-rated tasks. The generalisability analysis showed that an acceptable level of reliability (Phi = 0.80) was maintained when the amount of portfolio tasks was decreased to 13 or 9 using one and two raters, respectively. Our study shows that a portfolio can be a reliable method for the assessment of workplace learning. The possibility of reducing the amount of tasks or raters while maintaining a sufficient level of reliability suggests an increase in feasibility of portfolio use for both students and raters.

  13. Sediment Processes on the Coral Reefs of Kahoolawe: A Rapid Field Assessment in 1993 (NODC Accession 0000883)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore coral ecosystems of Kahoolawe were rapidly assessed in 1993. Surveys were made of the coral coverage, fish communities, and sediment types from 19...

  14. Pacific Islands Coral Reef Ecosystems Division (CRED) Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) algae species lists (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quadrats were sampled along consecutively placed transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at sites in American Pacific Islands: CRED REA...

  15. One-step antibody immobilization-based rapid and highly-sensitive sandwich ELISA procedure for potential in vitro diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Marion Schneider, E.; Lam, Edmond; Hrapovic, Sabahudin; Luong, John H. T.

    2014-01-01

    An improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay using one-step antibody immobilization has been developed for the detection of human fetuin A (HFA), a specific biomarker for atherosclerosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The anti-HFA formed a stable complex with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) by ionic and hydrophobic interactions. The complex adsorbed on microtiter plates exhibited a detection range of 4.9 pg mL−1 to 20 ng mL−1 HFA, with a limit of detection of 7 pg mL−1. Furthermore, an analytical sensitivity of 10 pg mL−1 was achieved, representing a 51-fold increase in sensitivity over the commercial sandwich ELISA kit. The results obtained for HFA spiked in diluted human whole blood and plasma showed the same precision as the commercial kit. When stored at 4°C in 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), the anti-HFA bound microtiter plates displayed no significant decrease in their functional activity after two months. The new ELISA procedure was extended for the detection of C-reactive protein, human albumin and human lipocalin-2 with excellent analytical performance. PMID:24638258

  16. Comparison of risk assessment procedures used in OCRA and ULRA methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Liu, Danuta; Groborz, Anna; Tokarski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the convergence of two methods by comparing exposure and the assessed risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders at 18 repetitive task workstations. The already established occupational repetitive actions (OCRA) and the recently developed upper limb risk assessment (ULRA) produce correlated results (R = 0.84, p = 0.0001). A discussion of the factors that influence the values of the OCRA index and ULRA's repetitive task indicator shows that both similarities and differences in the results produced by the two methods can arise from the concepts that underlie them. The assessment procedure and mathematical calculations that the basic parameters are subjected to are crucial to the results of risk assessment. The way the basic parameters are defined influences the assessment of exposure and risk assessment to a lesser degree. The analysis also proved that not always do great differences in load indicator values result in differences in risk zones. We focused on comparing methods that, even though based on different concepts, serve the same purpose. The results proved that different methods with different assumptions can produce similar assessment of upper limb load; sharp criteria in risk assessment are not the best solution.

  17. Assessment of the efficiency of language interpreter services in a busy surgical and procedural practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Christopher M; Anderson, Kathleen A; Xiong, YaPa; Guerra, Andrea E; Tschida-Reuter, Daniel A

    2017-07-04

    Surgical and procedural patient care settings require efficient patient flow. The primary goal of this study was to assess use and efficiency of language services for our limited English proficiency (LEP) patients undergoing surgical and outpatient procedures. Patient language services needs were recorded from our operating room and procedural locations over a two and a half month period in 2016. Time from in-person interpreter request to arrival was recorded. Frequency of language service modality used and reason for telephone and professional video remote interpreting (VRI) rather than in person professional services was queried. Mean time from in-person interpreter request until arrival was 19 min. Variation was high. No cases were cancelled due to lack of available interpretive services and no LEP patient underwent a procedure without requested interpretative service assistance. Time for in person professional interpreter assistance was short but highly variable. Access to telephone interpretive services and VRI services ensured assistance when in person interpreters were immediately unavailable. With the numbers of LEP patients increasing over time along with any new mandates for providing language assistance, the stress on hospital patient service units and the financial implications for many health care facilities will likely continue as challenges.

  18. The Rapid Assessment Interface and Discharge service and its implications for patients with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh I

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Inderpal Singh,1 Sharan Ramakrishna,1 Kathryn Williamson21Department of Geriatric Medicine, 2Department of Old Age Psychiatry, Ysbyty Ystrad Fawr, Ystrad Mynach, Caerphilly, United KingdomAbstract: The rising prevalence of dementia will have an effect on acute care hospitals around the world. At present, around 40% of patients older than 70 years with acute medical admissions have dementia, but only half of these patients have been diagnosed. Patients with dementia have poorer health outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher rates of readmissions and institutionalization. Worldwide, health care budgets are severely constrained. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE has listed ten quality standards for supporting people in living well with dementia. NICE resource implications and commissioning support to implement these guidelines and improve dementia services have been recently published. Although most of the frail elderly patients with dementia are cared for by geriatricians, obstacles to making a diagnosis and to the management of dementia have been recognized. To provide a timely diagnosis of dementia, better care in acute hospital settings, and continuity of care in the community, services integrating all these elements are warranted. Extra resources also will be required for intermediate, palliative care, and mental health liaison services for people with dementia. The Birmingham Rapid Assessment Interface and Discharge service model uses a multiskilled team that provides comprehensive assessment of a person's physical and psychological well-being in a general hospital setting. It has been shown to be an effective model in terms of reducing both length of stay and avoiding readmission. The aim of this review is to discuss the implications of the Rapid Assessment Interface and Discharge model in people with dementia and to critically compare this model with similar published service provisions.Keywords: comorbidity, aged

  19. Rapid assessment of tsunami impact from real-time seismology and geographic, historical other datasets using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Alberto; Lomax, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    The impact of an earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruption, severe weather or other natural disaster is related to: the intensity of the hazard; the vulnerability or exposure of the population, such as housing quality, infrastructure and proximity to a coastlines; and the capacity to resist and cope with the disaster. Rapid assessment by monitoring agencies of the impact of a natural event is fundamental for early warning and response. We previously* proposed the "tsunami importance" parameter, It, for characterizing the strength of a tsunami. This parameter combines 5 descriptive indices from the NOAA/WDC Historical Tsunami Database: 4 tsunami impact measures (deaths, injuries, damage, houses destroyed), and maximum water height. Accordingly, It = 2 corresponds approximately to the JMA threshold for issuing a ''Tsunami Warning'' whereas the largest or most devastating tsunamis typically have It = 10. Here we discuss extending this simple, 5-component parameter with additional impact-related measures from relevant databases (e.g., LandScan population density, major infrastructures) and historical / archaeological information, and measures that might be obtained in near-real-time (e.g., emergency services, news, social media). We combine these measures with seismological and other real-time observations as an ensemble of features within automated procedures to estimate impact and guide decision making. We examine using modern machine learning methodologies to train and calibrate the procedures, while working with high-dimensional feature space. * Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2011), Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration and P-wave dominant period: the importance of length and depth of faulting, Geophys. J. Int., 185, 283-291, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04916.x

  20. Protocol: a rapid and economical procedure for purification of plasmid or plant DNA with diverse applications in plant biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research in plant molecular biology involves DNA purification on a daily basis. Although different commercial kits enable convenient extraction of high-quality DNA from E. coli cells, PCR and agarose gel samples as well as plant tissues, each kit is designed for a particular type of DNA extraction work, and the cost of purchasing these kits over a long run can be considerable. Furthermore, a simple method for the isolation of binary plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells with satisfactory yield is lacking. Here we describe an easy protocol using homemade silicon dioxide matrix and seven simple solutions for DNA extraction from E. coli and A. tumefaciens cells, PCR and restriction digests, agarose gel slices, and plant tissues. Compared with the commercial kits, this protocol allows rapid DNA purification from diverse sources with comparable yield and purity at negligible cost. Following this protocol, we have demonstrated: (1 DNA fragments as small as a MYC-epitope tag coding sequence can be successfully recovered from an agarose gel slice; (2 Miniprep DNA from E. coli can be eluted with as little as 5 μl water, leading to high DNA concentrations (>1 μg/μl for efficient biolistic bombardment of Arabidopsis seedlings, polyethylene glycol (PEG-mediated Arabidopsis protoplast transfection and maize protoplast electroporation; (3 Binary plasmid DNA prepared from A. tumefaciens is suitable for verification by restriction analysis without the need for large scale propagation; (4 High-quality genomic DNA is readily isolated from several plant species including Arabidopsis, tobacco and maize. Thus, the silicon dioxide matrix-based DNA purification protocol offers an easy, efficient and economical way to extract DNA for various purposes in plant research.

  1. Assessment of ecological risks at former landfill site using TRIAD procedure and multicriteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvari, Jaana; Schultz, Eija; Haimi, Jari

    2013-02-01

    Old industrial landfills are important sources of environmental contamination in Europe, including Finland. In this study, we demonstrated the combination of TRIAD procedure, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA), and statistical Monte Carlo analysis for assessing the risks to terrestrial biota in a former landfill site contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and metals. First, we generated hazard quotients by dividing the concentrations of metals and PHCs in soil by the corresponding risk-based ecological benchmarks. Then we conducted ecotoxicity tests using five plant species, earthworms, and potworms, and determined the abundance and diversity of soil invertebrates from additional samples. We aggregated the results in accordance to the methods used in the TRIAD procedure, conducted rating of the assessment methods based on their performance in terms of specific criteria, and weighted the criteria using two alternative weighting techniques to produce performance scores for each method. We faced problems in using the TRIAD procedure, for example, the results from the animal counts had to be excluded from the calculation of integrated risk estimates (IREs) because our reference soil sample showed the lowest biodiversity and abundance of soil animals. In addition, hormesis hampered the use of the results from the ecotoxicity tests. The final probabilistic IREs imply significant risks at all sampling locations. Although linking MCDA with TRIAD provided a useful means to study and consider the performance of the alternative methods in predicting ecological risks, some uncertainties involved still remained outside the quantitative analysis. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Rapid isolation procedure for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA) from Cannabis sativa using two flash chromatography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfarth, Ariane; Mahler, Hellmut; Auwärter, Volker

    2011-10-15

    Two isolation procedures for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA), the biogenetic precursor in the biosynthesis of the psychoactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the cannabis plant, are presented. Two flash chromatography systems that can be used independently from each other were developed to separate THCA from other compounds of a crude cannabis extract. In both systems UV absorption at 209 and 270 nm was monitored. Purity was finally determined by HPLC-DAD, NMR and GC-MS analysis with a focus on the impurity THC. System 1 consisted of a normal phase silica column (120 g) as well as cyclohexane and acetone--both spiked with the modifier pyridine--as mobile phases. Gradient elution was performed over 15 min. After the chromatographic run the fractions containing THCA fractions were pooled, extracted with hydrochloric acid to eliminate pyridine and evaporated to dryness. Loading 1800 mg cannabis extract yielded 623 mg THCA with a purity of 99.8% and a THC concentration of 0.09%. System 2 was based on a reversed-phase C18 column (150 g) combined with 0.55% formic acid and methanol as mobile phases. A very flat gradient was set over 20 minutes. After pooling the THCA-containing fractions methanol was removed in a rotary evaporator. THCA was re-extracted from the remaining aqueous phase with methyl tert-butyl ether. The organic phase was finally evaporated under high vacuum conditions. Loading 300 mg cannabis extract yielded 51 mg THCA with a purity of 98.8% and a THC concentration of 0.67%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Six rapid assessments of alcohol and other substance use in populations displaced by conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelekan Moruf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use among populations displaced by conflict is a neglected area of public health. Alcohol, khat, benzodiazepine, opiate, and other substance use have been documented among a range of displaced populations, with wide-reaching health and social impacts. Changing agendas in humanitarian response-including increased prominence of mental health and chronic illness-have so far failed to be translated into meaningful interventions for substance use. Methods Studies were conducted from 2006 to 2008 in six different settings of protracted displacement, three in Africa (Kenya, Liberia, northern Uganda and three in Asia (Iran, Pakistan, and Thailand. We used intervention-oriented qualitative Rapid Assessment and Response methods, adapted from two decades of experience among non-displaced populations. The main sources of data were individual and group interviews conducted with a culturally representative (non-probabilistic sample of community members and service providers. Results Widespread use of alcohol, particularly artisanally-produced alcohol, in Kenya, Liberia, Uganda, and Thailand, and opiates in Iran and Pakistan was believed by participants to be linked to a range of health, social and protection problems, including illness, injury (intentional and unintentional, gender-based violence, risky behaviour for HIV and other sexually transmitted infection and blood-borne virus transmission, as well as detrimental effects to household economy. Displacement experiences, including dispossession, livelihood restriction, hopelessness and uncertain future may make communities particularly vulnerable to substance use and its impact, and changing social norms and networks (including the surrounding population may result in changed - and potentially more harmful-patterns of use. Limited access to services, including health services, and exclusion from relevant host population programmes, may exacerbate the harmful consequences

  4. Rapid Web-Based Platform for Assessment of Orthopedic Surgery Patient Care Milestones: A 2-Year Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundle, Kenneth R; Mickelson, Dayne T; Cherones, Arien; Black, Jason; Hanel, Doug P

    To determine the validity, feasibility, and responsiveness of a new web-based platform for rapid milestone-based evaluations of orthopedic surgery residents. Single academic medical center, including a trauma center and pediatrics tertiary hospital. Forty residents (PG1-5) in an orthopedic residency program and their faculty evaluators. Residents and faculty were trained and supported in the use of a novel trainee-initiated web-based evaluation system. Residents were encouraged to use the system to track progress on patient care subcompetencies. Two years of prospectively collected data were reviewed from residents at an academic program. The primary outcome was Spearman's rank correlation between postgraduate year (PGY) and competency level achieved as a measure of validity. Secondary outcomes assessed feasibility, resident self-evaluation versus faculty evaluation, the distributions among subcompetencies, and responsiveness over time. Between February 2014 and February 2016, 856 orthopedic surgery patient care subcompetency evaluations were completed (1.2 evaluations per day). Residents promptly requested feedback after a procedure (median = 0 days, interquartile range: 0-2), and faculty responded within 2 days in 51% (median = 2 days, interquartile range: 0-13). Primary outcome showed a correlation between PGY and competency level (r = 0.78, p platform demonstrated validity, feasibility, and responsiveness. Next Accreditation System-mandated data may be efficiently collected and used for trainee and program self-study. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The “jaundice hotline” for the rapid assessment of patients with jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Hussaini, Hyder; McGovern, Dermot; Farrow, Richard; Maskell, Giles; Dalton, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Problem Patients with jaundice require rapid diagnosis and treatment, yet such patients are often subject to delay. Design An open referral, rapid access jaundice clinic was established by reorganisation of existing services and without the need for significant extra resources. Background and setting A large general hospital in a largely rural and geographically isolated area. Key measures for improvement Waiting times for referral, consultation, diagnosis, and treatment, length of stay in hospital, and general practitioners' and patients' satisfaction with the service. Strategies for change Referrals were made through a 24 hour telephone answering machine and fax line. Initial assessment of patients was carried out by junior staff as part of their working week. Dedicated ultrasonography appointments were made available. Effects of change Of 107 patients seen in the first year of the service, 62 had biliary obstruction. The mean time between referral and consultation was 2.5 days. Patients who went on to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography waited 5.7 days on average. The mean length of stay in hospital in the 69 patients who were admitted was 6.1 days, compared with 11.5 days in 1996, as shown by audit data. Nearly all the 36 general practices (95%) and the 30 consecutive patients (97%) that were surveyed rated the service as above average or excellent. Lessons learnt An open referral, rapid access service for patients with jaundice can shorten time to diagnosis and treatment and length of stay in hospital. These improvements can occur through the reorganisation of existing services and with minimal extra cost. PMID:12142314

  6. Rapid in situ assessment of physiological activities in bacterial biofilms using fluorescent probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F. P.; McFeters, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    Two rapid in situ enumeration methods using fluorescent probes were used to assess the physiological activities of Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilms on stainless steel. Fluorescent dyes, 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) and rhodamine 123 (Rh 123), were chosen to perform this study. CTC is a soluble redox indicator which can be reduced by respiring bacteria to fluorescent CTC-formazan crystals. Rh 123 is incorporated into bacteria with respect to cellular proton motive force. The intracellular accumulation of these fluorescent dyes can be determined using epifluorescence microscopy. The results obtained with these two fluorescent probes in situ were compared to the plate count (PC) and in situ direct viable count (DVC) methods. Viable cell densities within biofilms determined by the three in situ methods were comparable and always showed approximately 2-fold higher values than those obtained with the PC method. As an additional advantage, the results were observed after 2 h, which was shorter than the 4 h incubation time required for the DVC method and 24 h for colony formation. The results indicate that staining with CTC and Rh 123 provides rapid information regarding cell numbers and physiological activities of bacteria within biofilms.

  7. A rapid assessment survey of invasive species of macrobenthic invertebrates in Korean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Sung-Tae; Hong, Jae-Sang; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2017-09-01

    Introduced species are a growing and imminent threat to living marine resources in parts of the world's oceans. The present study is a rapid assessment survey of invasive macrobenthic invertebrate species in Korean ports. We surveyed over 40 ports around Korea during the period of May 2010 March 2013. Among the sampling sites were concrete walls, docks and associated floats, bumpers, tires, and ropes which might harbor non-native species. We found 15 invasive species as follows: one Sponge, two Bryozoans, three Mollusks, one Polychaete, four Cirripedes, and four Ascidians. Three morphologically similar species, namely X. atrata, M. galloprovincialis, and X. securis were further examined for distinctions in their morphology. Although they could be reasonably distinguished based on shell shapes, significant overlap was noted so that additional analysis may be required to correctly distinguish them. Although many of the introduced species have already spread to all three coastal areas, newly arrived invasive species showed a relatively restricted range, with a serpulid polychaete Ficopomatus enigmaticus and a mytilid bivalve Xenostrobus securis found only at a few sites on the East Coast. An exception is for Balanus perforatus, which has rapidly colonized the East coast of Korea following its introduction into the region. Successful management of invasive macrobenthic invertebrates should be established in order to contain the spread of these newly arrived species.

  8. Rapid health response, assessment, and surveillance after a tsunami--Thailand, 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-28

    On December 26, 2004, an earthquake triggered a devastating tsunami that caused an estimated 225,000 deaths in eight countries (India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Seychelles, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand) on two continents. In Thailand, six provinces (Krabi, Phang-Nga, Phuket, Ranong, Satun, and Trang) were impacted, including prominent international tourist destinations. The Thai Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) responded with rapid mobilization of local and nonlocal clinicians, public health practitioners, and medical supplies; assessment of health-care needs; identification of the dead, injured, and missing; and active surveillance of syndromic illness. The MOPH response was augmented by technical assistance from the Thai MOPH-U.S. CDC Collaboration (TUC) and the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS), with support from the office of the World Health Organization (WHO) representative to Thailand. This report summarizes these activities. The experiences in Thailand underscore the value of written and rehearsed disaster plans, capacity for rapid mobilization, local coordination of relief activities, and active public health surveillance.

  9. Rapid non-destructive assessment of pork edible quality by using VIS/NIR spectroscopic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun; Dhakal, Sagar; Song, Yulin; Zhao, Juan; Zhao, Songwei

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop a rapid non-destructive method to evaluate the edible quality of chilled pork. A total of 42 samples were packed in seal plastic bags and stored at 4°C for 1 to 21 days. Reflectance spectra were collected from visible/near-infrared spectroscopy system in the range of 400nm to 1100nm. Microbiological, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics such as the total viable counts (TVC), total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value and color parameters L* were determined to appraise pork edible quality. Savitzky-Golay (SG) based on five and eleven smoothing points, Multiple Scattering Correlation (MSC) and first derivative pre-processing methods were employed to eliminate the spectra noise. The support vector machines (SVM) and partial least square regression (PLSR) were applied to establish prediction models using the de-noised spectra. A linear correlation was developed between the VIS/NIR spectroscopy and parameters such as TVC, TVB-N, pH and color parameter L* indexes, which could gain prediction results with Rv of 0.931, 0.844, 0.805 and 0.852, respectively. The results demonstrated that VIS/NIR spectroscopy technique combined with SVM possesses a powerful assessment capability. It can provide a potential tool for detecting pork edible quality rapidly and non-destructively.

  10. Rapid in situ assessment for predicting soil quality using an algae-soaked disc seeding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Moon, Jongmin; Kim, Shin Woong; Kim, Hakyeong; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2017-11-16

    The soil quality of remediated land is altered and this land consequently exerts unexpected biological effects on terrestrial organisms. Therefore, field evaluation of such land should be conducted using biological indicators. Algae are a promising new biological indicator since they are a food source for organisms in higher soil trophic levels and easily sampled from the soil. Field evaluation of soil characteristics is preferred to be testing in laboratory conditions because many biological effects cannot be duplicated during laboratory evaluations. Herein, we describe a convenient and rapid algae-soaked disc seeding assay for assessing soil quality in the field based on soil algae. The collection of algae is easy and rapid and the method predicts the short-term quality of contaminated, remediated, and amended farm and paddy soils. The algae-soaked disc seeding assay is yet to be extensively evaluated, and the method cannot be applied to loamy sand soil in in situ evaluations. The algae-soaked disc seeding assay is recommended for prediction of soil quality in in situ evaluations because it reflects all variations in the environment. The algae-soaked disc seeding assay will help to develop management strategies for in situ evaluation.

  11. Environmental risk assessment for plant pests: a procedure to evaluate their impacts on ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilioli, G.; Schrader, G.; Baker, R.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    . By including both the structural and functional components of the environment threatened by invasive alien species (IAS), in particular plant pests, we propose an environmental risk assessment scheme that addresses this complexity. Structural components are investigated by evaluating the impacts of the plant...... Risk Analysis. The method enables the assessment of overall environmental risk which integrates the impacts on different components of the environment and their probabilities of occurrence. The application of the proposed scheme is illustrated by evaluating the environmental impacts of the invasive......The current methods to assess the environmental impacts of plant pests differ in their approaches and there is a lack of the standardized procedures necessary to provide accurate and consistent results, demonstrating the complexity of developing a commonly accepted scheme for this purpose...

  12. Rapid and Quantitative Assessment of Cancer Treatment Response Using In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alnawaz Rehemtulla

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assessment of orthotopic tumor models in animals utilizes survival as the primary therapeutic end point. In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI is a sensitive imaging modality that is rapid and accessible, and may comprise an ideal tool for evaluating antineoplastic therapies [1 ]. Using human tumor cell lines constitutively expressing luciferase, the kinetics of tumor growth and response to therapy have been assessed in intraperitoneal [2], subcutaneous, and intravascular [3] cancer models. However, use of this approach for evaluating orthotopic tumor models has not been demonstrated. In this report, the ability of BLI to noninvasively quantitate the growth and therapeuticinduced cell kill of orthotopic rat brain tumors derived from 9L gliosarcoma cells genetically engineered to stably express firefly luciferase (9LLuc was investigated. Intracerebral tumor burden was monitored over time by quantitation of photon emission and tumor volume using a cryogenically cooled CCD camera and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, respectively. There was excellent correlation (r=0.91 between detected photons and tumor volume. A quantitative comparison of tumor cell kill determined from serial MRI volume measurements and BLI photon counts following 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU treatment revealed that both imaging modalities yielded statistically similar cell kill values (P=.951. These results provide direct validation of BLI imaging as a powerful and quantitative tool for the assessment of antineoplastic therapies in living animals.

  13. Evaluation of ergonomic postures of dental professions by Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA, in Birjand, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasl Saraji J.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are major parts of the occupational diseases in workplaces. Protection from such diseases is dependent on assessment and improvement of job postures by using job analysis methods in ergonomics. Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate ergonomic conditions in dental professions by rapid entire body assessment (REBA in Birjand city and also to assess the relation between MSDS in different parts of the body and work conditions. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytical approach performed on 48 persons working at different professions by using REBA method. The prevalence of MSDs was obtained by using Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ. The data were analyzed by independent t-test, Chi-square and Fisher tests with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: In this investigation, the prevalence of disorders for different parts of the body was as follows: 65% for neck, 60% for back, 38% for shoulders, and 31% for wrist. These disorders were higher in women than men except for the back. There were significant correlation between disorders of femur and foreleg with work history, ankle and sole with body mass index (BMI, and MSDs with work conditions (P<0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that the work conditions and postures need to be improved. In addition the level of dental professional education regarding biomechanical hazardous effects as well as correct work conditions and postures should be increased.

  14. Ecosytem Services: A Rapid Assessment Method Tested at 35 Sites of the LTER-Europe Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Jan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of parameters to monitor the ecosystem services delivered at a site is fundamental to the concept’s adoption as a useful policy instrument at local, national and international scales. In this paper we (i describe the process of developing a rapid comprehensive ecosystem service assessment methodology and (ii test the applicability of the protocol at 35 long-term research (LTER sites across 14 countries in the LTER-Europe network (www.lter-europe.net including marine, urban, agricultural, forest, desert and conservation sites. An assessment of probability of occurrence with estimated confidence score using 83 ecosystem service parameters was tested. The parameters were either specific services like food production or proxies such as human activities which were considered surrogates for cultural diversity and economic activity. This initial test of the ecosystem service parameter list revealed that the parameters tested were relatively easy to score by site managers with a high level of certainty (92% scored as either occurring or not occurring at the site with certainty of over 90%. Based on this assessment, we concluded that (i this approach to operationalise the concept of ecosystem services is practical and applicable by many sectors of civil society as a first screen of the ecosystem services present at a site, (ii this study has direct relevance to land management and policy decision makers as a transparent vehicle to focus testing scenarios and target data gathering, but (iii further work beyond the scale investigated here is required to ensure global applicability.

  15. Rapid health assessments of evacuation centres in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Alma Ramos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Typhoon Haiyan caused thousands of deaths and catastrophic destruction, leaving many homeless in Region 8 of the Philippines. A team from the Philippine Field Epidemiology Training Program conducted a rapid health assessment survey of evacuation centres severely affected by Haiyan. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted whereby a convenience sample of evacuation centres were assessed on the number of toilets per evacuee, sanitation, drinking-water, food supply source and medical services. Results: Of the 20 evacuation centres assessed, none had a designated manager. Most were located in schools (70% with the estimated number of evacuees ranging from 15 to 5000 per centre. Only four (20% met the World Health Organization standard for number of toilets per evacuee; none of the large evacuation centres had even half the recommended number of toilets. All of the evacuation centres had available drinking-water. None of the evacuation centres had garbage collection, vector control activities or standby medical teams. Fourteen (70% evacuation centres had onsite vaccination activities for measles, tetanus and polio virus. Many evacuation centres were overcrowded. Conclusion: Evacuation centres are needed in almost every disaster. They should be safely located and equipped with the required amenities. In disaster-prone areas such as the Philippines, schools and community centres should not be designated as evacuation centres unless they are equipped with adequate sanitation services.

  16. Application of a voltammetric electronic tongue and near infrared spectroscopy for a rapid umami taste assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnasco, Lucia; Cosulich, M Elisabetta; Speranza, Giovanna; Medini, Luca; Oliveri, Paolo; Lanteri, Silvia

    2014-08-15

    The relationships between sensory attribute and analytical measurements, performed by electronic tongue (ET) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), were investigated in order to develop a rapid method for the assessment of umami taste. Commercially available umami products and some aminoacids were submitted to sensory analysis. Results were analysed in comparison with the outcomes of analytical measurements. Multivariate exploratory analysis was performed by principal component analysis (PCA). Calibration models for prediction of the umami taste on the basis of ET and NIR signals were obtained using partial least squares (PLS) regression. Different approaches for merging data from the two different analytical instruments were considered. Both of the techniques demonstrated to provide information related with umami taste. In particular, ET signals showed the higher correlation with umami attribute. Data fusion was found to be slightly beneficial - not so significantly as to justify the coupled use of the two analytical techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A participatory action research pilot study of urban health disparities using rapid assessment response and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David Richard; Hernández, Agueda; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Evans, Siân; Tafari, Ida; Brewster, Luther G; Celestin, Michel J; Gómez-Estefan, Carlos; Regalado, Fernando; Akal, Siri; Nierenberg, Barry; Kauschinger, Elaine D; Schwartz, Robert; Page, J Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 made it a priority to eliminate health disparities. We used a rapid assessment response and evaluation (RARE) to launch a program of participatory action research focused on health disparities in an urban, disadvantaged Black community serviced by a major south Florida health center. We formed partnerships with community members, identified local health disparities, and guided interventions targeting health disparities. We describe the RARE structure used to triangulate data sources and guide intervention plans as well as findings and conclusions drawn from scientific literature and epidemiological, historic, planning, clinical, and ethnographic data. Disenfranchisement and socioeconomic deprivation emerged as the principal determinants of local health disparities and the most appropriate targets for intervention.

  18. RAPID EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF NATIONWIDE RIVER FLOOD FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kwak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available considerably increased. For flood disaster risk reduction, it is important to identify and characterize flood area, locations (particularly lowland along rivers, and durations. For this purpose, flood mapping and monitoring are an imperative process and the fundamental part of risk management as well as emergency response. Our ultimate goal is to detect flood inundation areas over a nationwide scale despite limitations of optical and multispectral images, and to estimate flood risk in terms of affected people. We propose a methodological possibility to be used as a standard approach for nationwide rapid flood exposure assessment with the use of the multi-temporal Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS, a big contributor to progress in near-real-time flood mapping. The preliminary results in Bangladesh show that a propensity of flood risk change strongly depends on the temporal and spatial dynamics of exposure such as distributed population.

  19. Professional Development Needs of Novice Nursing Clinical Teachers: A Rapid Evidence Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Farah; Boschma, Geertje; Clauson, Marion

    2016-02-26

    The current nursing profession is challenged with a decreasing supply of competent clinical teachers due to several factors consequently impacting the quality of nursing education. To meet this demand, academic nursing programs are resorting to hiring expert nurses who may have little or no teaching experience. They need support during their transition from practice to teaching. Using the systematic approach of a Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA), scholarly literature was reviewed to identify existing professional development needs for novice clinical teachers as well as supportive strategies to aid the transition of experienced nurses into teaching practice. The REA included 29 relevant studies. Findings revealed three main professional development needs for novice clinical teachers and key supportive strategies. Based on these findings recommendations for best practices to support and prepare novice clinical teachers are presented.

  20. Additional Interventions to Enhance the Effectiveness of Individual Placement and Support: A Rapid Evidence Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Boycott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic. Additional interventions used to enhance the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS. Aim. To establish whether additional interventions improve the vocational outcomes of IPS alone for people with severe mental illness. Method. A rapid evidence assessment of the literature was conducted for studies where behavioural or psychological interventions have been used to supplement standard IPS. Published and unpublished empirical studies of IPS with additional interventions were considered for inclusion. Conclusions. Six published studies were found which compared IPS alone to IPS plus a supplementary intervention. Of these, three used skills training and three used cognitive remediation. The contribution of each discrete intervention is difficult to establish. Some evidence suggests that work-related social skills and cognitive training are effective adjuncts, but this is an area where large RCTs are required to yield conclusive evidence.

  1. Rapid assessment of antimicrobial resistance prevalence using a Lot Quality Assurance sampling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leth, Frank; den Heijer, Casper; Beerepoot, Mariëlle; Stobberingh, Ellen; Geerlings, Suzanne; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-04-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires rapid surveillance tools, such as Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS). LQAS classifies AMR as high or low based on set parameters. We compared classifications with the underlying true AMR prevalence using data on 1335 Escherichia coli isolates from surveys of community-acquired urinary tract infection in women, by assessing operating curves, sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of any set of LQAS parameters was above 99% and between 79 and 90%, respectively. Operating curves showed high concordance of the LQAS classification with true AMR prevalence estimates. LQAS-based AMR surveillance is a feasible approach that provides timely and locally relevant estimates, and the necessary information to formulate and evaluate guidelines for empirical treatment.

  2. Reliable and Rapid Robotic Assessment of Wrist Proprioception Using a Gauge Position Matching Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, Mike D.; Popp, Werner L.; Lambercy, Olivier; Gassert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative assessments of position sense are essential for the investigation of proprioception, as well as for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment planning for patients with somatosensory deficits. Despite the development and use of various paradigms and robotic tools, their clinimetric properties are often poorly evaluated and reported. A proper evaluation of the latter is essential to compare results between different studies and to identify the influence of possible confounds on outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of a rapid robotic assessment of wrist proprioception using a passive gauge position matching task. Thirty-two healthy subjects undertook six test-retests of proprioception of the right wrist on two different days. The constant error (CE) was 0.87°, the absolute error (AE) was 5.87°, the variable error (VE) was 4.59° and the total variability (E) was 6.83° in average for the angles presented in the range from 10° to 30°. The intraclass correlation analysis provided an excellent reliability for CE (0.75), good reliability for AE (0.68) and E (0.68), and fair reliability for VE (0.54). Tripling the assessment length had negligible effects on the reliabilities. Additional analysis revealed significant trends of larger overestimation (constant errors), as well as larger absolute and variable errors with increased flexion angles. No proprioceptive learning occurred, despite increased familiarity with the task, which was reflected in significantly decreased assessment duration by 30%. In conclusion, the proposed automated assessment can provide sensitive and reliable information on proprioceptive function of the wrist with an administration time of around 2.5 min, demonstrating the potential for its application in research or clinical settings. Moreover, this study highlights the importance of reporting the complete set of errors (CE, AE, VE, and E) in a matching experiment for the identification of

  3. A New Rapid In Vitro Assay for Assessing Reactivity of Acyl Glucuronides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Sheng; Jones, Russell; Lu, Wenzhe; Schadt, Simone; Ottaviani, Giorgio

    2015-11-01

    Idiosyncratic drug toxicity is a major challenge for the pharmaceutical industry since complex and multifactorial steps are involved, the dose-dependency is unclear, and its occurrence is not reliably predictable. Whereas the exact mechanisms leading to idiosyncratic toxicity remain elusive in many cases, there are often hints at the involvement of reactive metabolites, such as acyl glucuronides formed by conjugation of carboxylic acids with glucuronic acid. Because the patient-related susceptibilities leading to idiosyncratic toxicity are not sufficiently understood, the best option for the pharmaceutical industry is to minimize drug-related risk factors such as potential acyl glucuronide formation. Here, we describe a rapid in vitro assay for the assessment of the reactivity of acyl glucuronides, on the basis of acyl glucuronide migration, that can support the selection of low-risk drug candidates in the drug discovery phase. Twenty marketed compounds with a wide range of half-lives were tested, their acyl glucuronide migration rates were determined and compared with the half-lives of the respective acyl glucuronides. Ranking of acyl glucuronide stability using this method compared well with the results from existing methodologies. With this method, migration rates >20% would indicate higher risk of reactivity. This simpler approach using the acyl glucuronide migration rate is not dependent on authentic standards, therefore eliminating the requirement for either lengthy chemical synthesis or in vitro biosynthesis and purification of the 1-O-β-glucuronide. This methodology provides a rapid in vitro assay to assess acyl glucuronide stability and reactivity that is well suited for use early in the drug discovery phase. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts Through Application of Complexity-Based Cost Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Craig E.; Cutts, James; Balint, Tibor; Hall, James B.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of a rapid cost assessment models for evaluation of exploration missions through the application of complexity based cost indices. In Fall of 2004, NASA began developing 13 documents, known as "strategic roadmaps," intended to outline a strategy for space exploration over the next 30 years. The Third Strategic Roadmap, The Strategic Roadmap for Solar System Exploration, focused on strategy for robotic exploration of the Solar System. Development of the Strategic Roadmap for Solar System Exploration led to the investigation of a large variety of missions. However, the necessity of planning around scientific inquiry and budgetary constraints made it necessary for the roadmap development team to evaluate potential missions not only for scientific return but also cost. Performing detailed cost studies for each of the large number of missions was impractical given the time constraints involved and lack of detailed mission studies; so a method of rapid cost assessment was developed by us to allow preliminary analysis. It has been noted that there is a strong correlation between complexity and cost and schedule of planetary missions. While these correlations were made after missions had been built and flown (successfully or otherwise), it seemed likely that a similar approach could provide at least some relative cost ranking. Cost estimation relationships (CERs) have been developed based on subsystem design choices. These CERs required more detailed information than available, forcing the team to adopt a more high level approach. Costing by analogy has been developed for small satellites, however, planetary exploration missions provide such varying spacecraft requirements that there is a lack of adequately comparable missions that can be used for analogy.

  5. Rapid Assessment of Health Services in Punjab using a Mixed Method Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The out-of-pocket expenditure is quite high in Punjab. Hence, a rapid review of health facilities was undertaken to suggest remedial measures. Methods: Mixed method research approach was used to identify strengths and weaknesses of the health services in Punjab. All health institutions were included in the assessment from the three purposively sampled districts – one from each of the three regions of Punjab. Tools were developed to collect data from record review, observations, and in-depth interviews. Six building blocks framework proposed by the World Health Organization was used for data collection and analyses. Results: In general physical infrastructure, especially the buildings were found to be reasonably constructed at most of the healthcare facilities. However, the maintenance was not regular. The vacancies for general doctors, specialist doctors, nurses, and paramedics were 26%, 38%, 31% and 12% respectively. Supply of drugs was irregular and inadequate. A large proportion (45% of ‘user charges’ were spent on purchase of drugs and other consumables. Most registers were found to be updated, and reports were transmitted to higher levels usually on time. However, institutionalized system of monitoring and supervision was lacking. Govt. hospitals were providing in-patient care to about 35.5% of those who were estimated to need hospitalization. State had allocated about Rs. 1200 crores to health (0.46% of GDP, thus, spending only Rs. 433 per capita per year. Conclusions: Despite constraints, the government health service is catering to the needs of a large section of the population. Rapid health system assessment at periodic intervals using a mixed method approach can supplement routine monitoring of the health system.

  6. Myths and misconceptions about cervical cancer among Zambian women: rapid assessment by peer educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirwa, Susan; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi; Kapambwe, Sharon; Mkumba, Gracilia; Stringer, Jeff; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant; Pfaendler, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Objective To make a rapid assessment of the common myths and misconceptions surrounding the causes of cervical cancer and lack of screening among unscreened low-income Zambian women. Methods We initiated a door-to-door community-based initiative, led by peer educators, to inform unscreened women about the existence of a new see-and-treat cervical cancer prevention program. During home visits peer educators posed the following two questions to women: 1. What do you think causes cervical cancer? 2. Why haven’t you been screened for cervical cancer? The most frequent types of responses gathered in this exercise were analyzed thematically. Results Peer educators contacted over 1100 unscreened women over a period of two months. Their median age was 33 years, a large majority (58%) were not educated beyond primary school, over two-thirds (71%) did not have monthly incomes over 500,000 Zambian Kwacha (US$100) per month, and just over half (51%) were married and cohabiting with their spouses. Approximately 75% of the women engaged in discussions had heard of cervical cancer and had heard of the new cervical cancer prevention program in the local clinic. The responses of unscreened low-income Zambian women to questions posed by peer educators in urban Lusaka reflect the variety of prevalent ‘folk’ myths and misconceptions surrounding cervical cancer and its prevention methods. Conclusion The information in our rapid assessment can serve as a basis for developing future educational and intervention campaigns for improving uptake of cervical cancer prevention services in Zambia. It also speaks to the necessity of ensuring that programs addressing women’s reproductive health take into account societal inputs at the time they are being developed and implemented. Taking a community-based participatory approach to program development and implementation will help ensure sustainability and impact. PMID:20595342

  7. Imaging Spectroscopy Techniques for Rapid Assessment of Geologic and Cryospheric Science Data from future Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; Hill, R.

    2016-12-01

    Several efforts are currently underway to develop and launch the next generation of imaging spectrometer systems on satellite platforms for a wide range of Earth Observation goals. Systems that include the reflected solar wavelength range up to 2.5 μm will be capable of detailed mapping of the composition of the Earth's surface. Sensors under development include EnMAP, HISUI, PRISMA, HERO, and HyspIRI. These systems are expected to be able to provide global data for insights and constraints on fundamental geological processes, natural and anthropogenic hazards, water, energy and mineral resource assessments. Coupled with the development of these sensors is the challenge of bringing a multi-channel user community (from Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER) into the rich science return available from imaging spectrometer systems. Most data end users will never be spectroscopy experts so that making the derived science products accessible to a wide user community is imperative. Simple band parameterizations have been developed for the CRISM instrument at Mars, including mafic and alteration minerals, frost and volatile ice indices. These products enhance and augment the use of that data set by broader group of scientists. Summary products for terrestrial geologic and water resource applications would help build a wider user base for future satellite systems, and rapidly key spectral experts to important regions for detailed spectral mapping. Summary products take advantage of imaging spectroscopy's narrow spectral channels with band depth calculations in addition to band ratios that are commonly used by multi-channel systems (e.g. NDVI, NDWI, NDSI). We are testing summary products for Earth geologic and snow scenes over California using AVIRIS data at 18m/pixel. This has resulted in several algorithms for rapid mineral discrimination and mapping and data collects over the melting Sierra snowpack in spring 2016 are expected to generate algorithms for snow grain size and surface

  8. Rapid assessment of malaria transmission using age-specific sero-conversion rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveta Stewart

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria transmission intensity is a crucial determinant of malarial disease burden and its measurement can help to define health priorities. Rapid, local estimates of transmission are required to focus resources better but current entomological and parasitological methods for estimating transmission intensity are limited in this respect. An alternative is determination of antimalarial antibody age-specific sero-prevalence to estimate sero-conversion rates (SCR, which have been shown to correlate with transmission intensity. This study evaluated SCR generated from samples collected from health facility attendees as a tool for a rapid assessment of malaria transmission intensity.The study was conducted in north east Tanzania. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens MSP-1(19 and AMA-1 were measured by indirect ELISA. Age-specific antibody prevalence was analysed using a catalytic conversion model based on maximum likelihood to generate SCR. A pilot study, conducted near Moshi, found SCRs for AMA-1 were highly comparable between samples collected from individuals in a conventional cross-sectional survey and those collected from attendees at a local health facility. For the main study, 3885 individuals attending village health facilities in Korogwe and Same districts were recruited. Both malaria parasite prevalence and sero-positivity were higher in Korogwe than in Same. MSP-1(19 and AMA-1 SCR rates for Korogwe villages ranged from 0.03 to 0.06 and 0.07 to 0.21 respectively. In Same district there was evidence of a recent reduction in transmission, with SCR among those born since 1998 [MSP-1(19 0.002 to 0.008 and AMA-1 0.005 to 0.014 ] being 5 to 10 fold lower than among individuals born prior to 1998 [MSP-1(19 0.02 to 0.04 and AMA-1 0.04 to 0.13]. Current health facility specific estimates of SCR showed good correlations with malaria incidence rates in infants in a contemporaneous clinical trial (MSP-1(19 r(2 = 0.78, p<0.01 & AMA-1 r

  9. Rapid forest carbon assessments of oceanic islands: a case study of the Hawaiian archipelago

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    Gregory P. Asner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatially explicit forest carbon (C monitoring aids conservation and climate change mitigation efforts, yet few approaches have been developed specifically for the highly heterogeneous landscapes of oceanic island chains that continue to undergo rapid and extensive forest C change. We developed an approach for rapid mapping of aboveground C density (ACD; units = Mg or metric tons C ha−1 on islands at a spatial resolution of 30 m (0.09 ha using a combination of cost-effective airborne LiDAR data and full-coverage satellite data. We used the approach to map forest ACD across the main Hawaiian Islands, comparing C stocks within and among islands, in protected and unprotected areas, and among forests dominated by native and invasive species. Results Total forest aboveground C stock of the Hawaiian Islands was 36 Tg, and ACD distributions were extremely heterogeneous both within and across islands. Remotely sensed ACD was validated against U.S. Forest Service FIA plot inventory data (R2 = 0.67; RMSE = 30.4 Mg C ha−1. Geospatial analyses indicated the critical importance of forest type and canopy cover as predictors of mapped ACD patterns. Protection status was a strong determinant of forest C stock and density, but we found complex environmentally mediated responses of forest ACD to alien plant invasion. Conclusions A combination of one-time airborne LiDAR data acquisition and satellite monitoring provides effective forest C mapping in the highly heterogeneous landscapes of the Hawaiian Islands. Our statistical approach yielded key insights into the drivers of ACD variation, and also makes possible future assessments of C storage change, derived on a repeat basis from free satellite data, without the need for additional LiDAR data. Changes in C stocks and densities of oceanic islands can thus be continually assessed in the face of rapid environmental changes such as biological invasions, drought, fire and land use

  10. Rapid forest carbon assessments of oceanic islands: a case study of the Hawaiian archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Sousan, Sinan; Knapp, David E; Selmants, Paul C; Martin, Roberta E; Hughes, R Flint; Giardina, Christian P

    2016-12-01

    Spatially explicit forest carbon (C) monitoring aids conservation and climate change mitigation efforts, yet few approaches have been developed specifically for the highly heterogeneous landscapes of oceanic island chains that continue to undergo rapid and extensive forest C change. We developed an approach for rapid mapping of aboveground C density (ACD; units = Mg or metric tons C ha-1) on islands at a spatial resolution of 30 m (0.09 ha) using a combination of cost-effective airborne LiDAR data and full-coverage satellite data. We used the approach to map forest ACD across the main Hawaiian Islands, comparing C stocks within and among islands, in protected and unprotected areas, and among forests dominated by native and invasive species. Total forest aboveground C stock of the Hawaiian Islands was 36 Tg, and ACD distributions were extremely heterogeneous both within and across islands. Remotely sensed ACD was validated against U.S. Forest Service FIA plot inventory data (R2 = 0.67; RMSE = 30.4 Mg C ha-1). Geospatial analyses indicated the critical importance of forest type and canopy cover as predictors of mapped ACD patterns. Protection status was a strong determinant of forest C stock and density, but we found complex environmentally mediated responses of forest ACD to alien plant invasion. A combination of one-time airborne LiDAR data acquisition and satellite monitoring provides effective forest C mapping in the highly heterogeneous landscapes of the Hawaiian Islands. Our statistical approach yielded key insights into the drivers of ACD variation, and also makes possible future assessments of C storage change, derived on a repeat basis from free satellite data, without the need for additional LiDAR data. Changes in C stocks and densities of oceanic islands can thus be continually assessed in the face of rapid environmental changes such as biological invasions, drought, fire and land use. Such forest monitoring information can be used to promote

  11. Using a novel assessment of procedural proficiency provides medical educators insight into blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Michael; Jensen, Brock; Burkart, Rebecca; Levis, Malorie

    2016-11-19

    This investigation was performed to determine how students in a health sciences program utilize and explain techniques within blood pressure measurement using a novel assessment, and changes associated with greater curricular exposure. An exploratory, qualitative and quantitative study was conducted using a 'Think Aloud' design with protocol analysis. Following familiarization, participants performed the task of measuring blood pressure on a reference subject while stating their thought processes. A trained practitioner recorded each participant's procedural proficiency using a standardized rubric. There were 112 participants in the study with varying levels of curricular exposure to blood pressure measurement. Four trends are noted. Specifically, a trend was observed wherein a marked increase in procedural proficiency with a plateau occurred (e.g. released cuff pressure 2-4 mmHg, 10%, 60%, 83%, 82%). Secondly, a trend was observed with improvement across groups (e.g. cuff placed snugly/smoothly on upper arm, 20%, 60%, 81%, and 91%). Other trends included a marked improvement with subsequent decrease, and an improvement without achieving proficiency (e.g. palpation of the brachial pulse, 5%, 90%, 81%, 68%, appropriate size cuff, 17%, 40%, 33%, 41%, respectively). Qualitatively, transcript interpretation resulted in a need for clarification in the way blood pressure procedure is instructed in the curriculum. The current investigation provides a snapshot of proficiency in blood pressure assessment across a curriculum and highlights considerations for best instructional practices, including the use of Think Aloud. Consequently, medical educators should use qualitative and quantitative assessments concurrently to determine achievement of blood pressure skill proficiency.

  12. Improving assessment of congenital heart disease through rapid patient specific modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kathleen; Farrar, Genevieve; Cowan, Brett; Suinesiaputra, Avan; Occleshaw, Christopher; Pontre, Beau; Perry, James; Hegde, Sanjeet; Omens, Jeffrey; McCulloch, Andrew; Young, Alistair

    2016-08-01

    Congenital heart disease is the most common birth defect, with an incidence of 75 in every 1000 births. As a result of improved interventions, 90% of people with congenital heart disease now survive to adulthood. They must undergo regular imaging to assess their biventricular (left and right ventricular) function. Analysis of the images is problematic due to the large variety of shapes and complex geometry. In this paper we extend a biventricular modeling method to improve the analysis of MR images from congenital heart disease patients. We used a subdivision surface method to create three customizable exemplars, representing common manifestations of anatomy, and incorporated these as priors into an interactive biventricular customization procedure. The CHD-specific priors were tested on 60 cases representing a variety of congenital heart diseases for which the gold standard manual contours were available. The introduction of multiple priors showed a significant decrease in analysis time while maintaining good correlation between the two methods (R2 >.82).

  13. The Advantages of Using an Analytic Scoring Procedure in Speaking Assessment

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    Nur Mukminatien

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article describes the advantages of using analytic proce­dure in speaking assessment. An analytic scoring guide, as compared to the impressionistic one, has a double function: as an instrument to mea­sure the learner's speaking proficiency and as a diagnostic procedure for remedial teaching. Thus, it provides reliable sources of information in the form of scores of the speaking components and can be used as feed-back for the teacher and learner to identify which component needs im­provement.

  14. Rapid psychological assessment of depression and its relationship with physical health among urban elderly

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    Pavithra Cheluvaraj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perception and physical health status has been explored. Methods A cross-sectional total geriatric population survey consisting of 254 elderly has been carried out at urban field practice area. A standard geriatric depression scale (Short form has been utilized to assess psychological status. Detailed physical examination and investigations with special reference to Diabetes, Hypertension and Visual defects was carried out. Data was analyzed to find out the relationship of various socio-demographic factors, physical morbidities with depression. Results Out of 254 elderly examined, 32 per cent females and 23 per cent males were found to be suffering from depressive disorders. When assessed for individual health status perception, 25 per cent felt to have good health. Out of 190 geriatric subjects perceiving fair to bad health, 110 were found to be suffering from depression (p<0.001. Depression was also found to be associated with history of hospital admission in the previous year (p<0.05, low vision (p<0.05, diabetes (p<0.01 and hypertension (p<0.01. Conclusion Depression among geriatric age group is associated with physical illness and perception of health.

  15. Rapid assessment of cataract blindness in an urban district of Gujarat

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    Limburg Hans

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of bilateral cataract blindness in persons ≥50 years of age in Ahmedabad district, Gujarat. Methods: A total of 1,962 persons ≥50 years of age were examined in clusters of 45 people or less. The survey design used a systematic random cluster sampling. The sample size was calculated assuming a prevalence of bilateral cataract blindness (visual acuity <3/60 of at least 3% and design effect of 1.6, to estimate the actual prevalence of cataract blindness with a sampling error of ≤20 at 80% confidence level. Visual acuity was assessed with glasses, where available, and pinhole was used for visual acuity <6/18. Distant direct ophthalmoscopy in semidark condition with undilated pupil was used to assess the lens status. Results: The age-gender-adjusted prevalence of all blindness was 2.9% in persons ≥50 years of age (6.7% for visual acuity<6/60. The age-gender-adjusted prevalence of bilateral cataract blindness ( visual acuity <3/60 was 1.2% in persons ≥50 years of age. For visual acuity <6/60, the prevalence was 3.1%. The prevalence in females was slightly higher than in males. The prevalence of bilateral and unilateral aphakia and pseudophakia was high. The cataract surgical coverage, an indicator for coverage and service utilization, was 92.9% for persons and 83.1% for eyes. Conclusion: Rapid assessment of cataract blindness in persons ≥50 years of age can be conducted in urban settings with existing resources and at affodable costs, to provide district level data for assessment and monitoring of cataract intervention programs.

  16. Rapid assessment of quality of deer antler slices by using an electronic nose coupled with chemometric analysis

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    Guojie Xu

    Full Text Available Deer antler is a precious animal-sourced traditional Chinese medicine. We aimed to rapidly assess the quality of deer antler slices by electronic nose so that we can ensure medical safety. In this study, response intensity of the electronic nose was favorably optimized, and samples were well assessed by using an electronic nose based on LDA model. The results obtained herein suggested that electronic nose could be an effective method to rapidly assess the quality of deer antler slices, and could also be an important tool for categorization of complex aroma mixtures for the control of quality of drugs or food.

  17. Rapid Assessment of Earthquakes with Radar and Optical Geodetic Imaging and Finite Fault Models (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, E. J.; Sladen, A.; Simons, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Yun, S.; Li, Z.; Avouac, J.; Leprince, S.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquake responders need to know where the earthquake has caused damage and what is the likely intensity of damage. The earliest information comes from global and regional seismic networks, which provide the magnitude and locations of the main earthquake hypocenter and moment tensor centroid and also the locations of aftershocks. Location accuracy depends on the availability of seismic data close to the earthquake source. Finite fault models of the earthquake slip can be derived from analysis of seismic waveforms alone, but the results can have large errors in the location of the fault ruptures and spatial distribution of slip, which are critical for estimating the distribution of shaking and damage. Geodetic measurements of ground displacements with GPS, LiDAR, or radar and optical imagery provide key spatial constraints on the location of the fault ruptures and distribution of slip. Here we describe the analysis of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and sub-pixel correlation (or pixel offset tracking) of radar and optical imagery to measure ground coseismic displacements for recent large earthquakes, and lessons learned for rapid assessment of future events. These geodetic imaging techniques have been applied to the 2010 Leogane, Haiti; 2010 Maule, Chile; 2010 Baja California, Mexico; 2008 Wenchuan, China; 2007 Tocopilla, Chile; 2007 Pisco, Peru; 2005 Kashmir; and 2003 Bam, Iran earthquakes, using data from ESA Envisat ASAR, JAXA ALOS PALSAR, NASA Terra ASTER and CNES SPOT5 satellite instruments and the NASA/JPL UAVSAR airborne system. For these events, the geodetic data provided unique information on the location of the fault or faults that ruptured and the distribution of slip that was not available from the seismic data and allowed the creation of accurate finite fault source models. In many of these cases, the fault ruptures were on previously unknown faults or faults not believed to be at high risk of earthquakes, so the area and degree of

  18. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

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    Baik Fred

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Methods Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. Results There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. Conclusion None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind.

  19. Warm-ups for military fitness testing: rapid evidence assessment of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeno, Stacey A; Purvis, Dianna; Crawford, Cindy; Lee, Courtney; Lisman, Peter; Deuster, Patricia A

    2013-07-01

    Warm-up exercises are commonly used before exercise as a method to physiologically prepare for strenuous physical activity. Various warm-up exercises are often implemented but without scientific merit and, at times, may be detrimental to performance. To date, no systematic reviews have examined the effectiveness of warm-up exercises for military physical fitness test (PFT) or combat fitness test (CFT). The purpose of this rapid evidence assessment of the literature was to examine the quantity, quality, and effectiveness of warm-up exercises for PFT and identify those that might increase PFT and/or CFT scores, as reported in the literature. Literature searches of randomized controlled trials were performed across various databases from database inception to May 2011. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) 50 criteria for randomized controlled trial designs, and studies were individually described. Subject matter experts summarized the results applicable or generalizable to military testing. The search yielded a total of 1177 citations, with 37 fitting our inclusion criteria. Cardiovascular warm-ups increased sprint/running time, but dynamic stretching and dynamic warm-ups had the most positive outcome for the various exercise tests examined. Systematically, static stretching had no beneficial or detrimental effect on exercise performance but did improve range of movement exercises. Selected warm-up exercise may increase PFT and possibly CFT scores. Further research is needed to investigate the efficacy of dynamic stretching and dynamic warm-ups.

  20. Acute Kidney Injury Risk Assessment and the Nephrology Rapid Response Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Topete, Lilia Maria; Rosner, Mitchell H; Ronco, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Acute kidney Injury (AKI) is a serious medical condition affecting more than 10 million people around the world annually and resulting in poor outcomes. It has been suggested that late recognition of the syndrome may lead to delayed interventions with increased morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and timely therapeutic strategies may be the cornerstone of future improvement in outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide a practical model to identify patients at high risk for AKI in different environments, with the goal to prevent AKI. We describe the AKI Risk Assessment (ARA) as a proposed algorithm that systematically evaluates the patient in high-risk situations of AKI in a simple way no matter where the patient is located, and allows different medical specialists to approach patients as a team with a nephrologist to improve outcomes. The goal of the nephrology rapid response team (NRRT) is to prevent AKI or start treatment if AKI is already diagnosed as a consequence of progressive events that can lead to progressive deterioration of kidney tissues and eventual decline in renal function and to ensure appropriate follow-up of patients at risk for progressive chronic kidney disease after the episode of AKI. Prevention is the key to avoid mortality and morbidity associated with AKI. Integration of these assessment tools in a global methodology that includes a multi-disciplinary team (NRRT) is critical to success. Video Journal Club 'Cappuccino with Claudio Ronco' at http://www.karger.com/?doi=452402. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Earthquake Magnitude and Shaking Intensity Dependent Fragility Functions for Rapid Risk Assessment of Buildings

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    Marie-José Nollet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated web application, referred to as ER2 for rapid risk evaluator, is under development for a user-friendly seismic risk assessment by the non-expert public safety community. The assessment of likely negative consequences is based on pre-populated databases of seismic, building inventory and vulnerability parameters. To further accelerate the computation for near real-time analyses, implicit building fragility curves were developed as functions of the magnitude and the intensity of the seismic shaking defined with a single intensity measure, input spectral acceleration at 1.0 s implicitly considering the epicentral distance and local soil conditions. Damage probabilities were compared with those obtained with the standard fragility functions explicitly considering epicentral distances and local site classes in addition to the earthquake magnitudes and respective intensity of the seismic shaking. Different seismic scenarios were considered first for 53 building classes common in Eastern Canada, and then a reduced number of 24 combined building classes was proposed. Comparison of results indicate that the damage predictions with implicit fragility functions for short (M ≤ 5.5 and medium strong motion duration (5.5 < M ≤ 7.5 show low variation with distance and soil class, with average error of less than 3.6%.

  2. A Rapid Physical Habitat Assessment of Wadeable Streams for Mixed-Land-Use Watersheds

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    Lynne Hooper

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitigating stream and river impairment is complex, particularly in mixed-land-use watersheds given the likelihood of integrated responses of stream restoration to coupled and ongoing terrestrial ecosystem disturbance and the need for periodic reassessment and maintenance. Traditional biological sampling (e.g., macroinvertebrate sampling or other biological indices alone seldom identifies the cause of biological community impairment and large fiscal investments are often made with no apparent improvement to aquatic ecosystem health. A stream physical habitat assessment (PHA can yield information that, when paired with land-use data may reveal causal patterns in aquatic physical habitat degradation and help to identify sites for rehabilitation or restoration. A rapid and customizable physical habitat assessment method (rPHA is presented that reduces commonly high PHA time and labor costs while facilitating informative value. Sampling time is reduced to approximately 30–40 min per survey site with a crew of three individuals. The method is flexible and thus adaptable to varied applications and needs. The rPHA design facilitates replication at regular spatial and temporal intervals thereby informing land-use managers and agencies of current conditions and trends in habitat response to natural and anthropogenic stressors. The rPHA outcomes can thus provide science-based supplemental information to better inform management practices and stream restoration decisions in contemporary mixed-land-use watersheds.

  3. A Framework for Rapid Impact Assessment with special reference to wildfires

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    Isak D. Jansen Van Vuuren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical Information Systems (GIS technology is a powerful tool that can support decision-making in all the facets of disaster risk management. Being at the centre of all disaster risk management functions, GIS activities such as data acquisition, processing, analysis and visualisation should be seamless from planning to prediction, preparation, response and recovery. A case study of devastating wildfires that destroyed thousands of hectares of agricultural land during August 2011 in the North-West province, South Africa, identifies the lack of a comprehensive framework within which information-based disaster impact assessments are undertaken and which is integrated with the larger context of disaster risk management. Problems relating to the availability, quality and integration of data are typical of the ad hoc approach to the implementation of information technologies, indicating the need for an integrated and coordinated approach. The aim of this paper is to establish a framework for rapid impact assessment, with specific reference to geospatial data management. The framework is put into the theoretical context of disaster risk management and information management, with data acquisition and processing functions being anchored in the principles of information systems theory.

  4. Rapid full-field OCT assessment of clinical tissue specimens (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalimier, Eugénie; Harms, Fabrice; Brossollet, Charles; Benoit, Emilie; Martins, Franck; Boccara, Claude A.

    2016-03-01

    FFOCT (Full Field Optical Coherence Tomography) is a novel optical technology that gives access to very high resolution tomography images of biological tissues within minutes, non-invasively. This makes it an attractive tool to bridge the gap between medical imaging modalities (MRI, ultrasound, CT) used for cancer lesion identification or targeting and histological diagnosis. Clinical tissue specimens, such as surgical cancer margins or biopsies, can potentially be assessed rapidly, by the clinician, in the aim to help him decide on the course of action. A fast FFOCT prototype was built, that provides 1cm2 images with 1 µm resolution in 1 minute, and can accommodate samples up to 50mm diameter. Specific work was carried out to implement a large sample holder, high-speed image acquisition system, optimized scanning, and accelerated GPU tiles stitching. Results obtained on breast, urology, and digestive tissues show the efficiency of the technique for the detection of cancer on clinical tissue specimens, and reinforce the clinical relevance of the technique. The technical and clinical results show that the fast FFOCT system can successfully be used for a fast assessment of cancer excision margins or biopsies providing a very valuable tool in the clinical environment.

  5. [Are parents present during invasive procedures? Assessment in 32 Spanish hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamell Fullà, A; Corniero Alonso, P; Parra Cotanda, C; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Luaces Cubells, C

    2010-04-01

    Parental participation in medical decisions involving their children is essential and family presence during invasive procedures (IP) is fundamental. 1) To determine the frequency of parental presence during different IP in Spanish Paediatrics Emergency Departments (PED). 2) To assess the reasons for restricting parental presence. 3) To evaluate the agreement of health care professionals with regards to parental presence. Descriptive multicentre study based on questionnaires sent to physicians in charge of different Spanish PED. Thirty-two out of 43 questionnaires were replied. Family presence during IP is never allowed in 11 hospitals. In the rest, this varies depending on the type of IP: blood sampling (15 hospitals), wound suture (14), urethral catheterization (9), lumbar puncture (7), intubation (1) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (1), with no significant differences between hospitals. The main arguments for restricting parental presence are parental anxiety (26/30) and a lower performance by health personnel (23/30). Occasional problems, such as nausea (22/28), have arisen due to family presence. The interviewed physicians in charge think that health care professionals' agreement rates for parental presence decrease significantly with the increasing invasiveness of the procedure. Two hospitals have a working group and one a specific protocol to address parental presence. Parental presence during IP is limited in Spanish PED, due to parental anxiety and is detrimental to the success of the procedure. Physicians and nurses disagree with family presence, especially during the most invasive procedures. 2009 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. RISK-ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES AND ESTABLISHING THE SIZE OF SAMPLES FOR AUDITING FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

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    Daniel Botez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In auditing financial statements, the procedures for the assessment of the risks and the calculation of the materiality differ from an auditor to another, by audit cabinet policy or advice professional bodies. All, however, have the reference International Audit Standards ISA 315 “Identifying and assessing the risks of material misstatement through understanding the entity and its environment” and ISA 320 “Materiality in planning and performing an audit”. On the basis of specific practices auditors in Romania, the article shows some laborious and examples of these aspects. Such considerations are presented evaluation of the general inherent risk, a specific inherent risk, the risk of control and the calculation of the materiality.

  7. Improving the effectiveness of impact assessment pertaining to Indigenous peoples in the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Philippe [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Langdon, Esther Jean [Department of Anthropology, Center for Philosophy and Human Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina PO Box 5104, 88040-970, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Arts, Jos [Department of Planning, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    The number of environmental licence applications for projects affecting Indigenous peoples in Brazil has increased since the implementation of a major infrastructure program (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) in 2007. This increase has caused problems for Brazilian agencies involved in environmental licensing procedures (IBAMA, FUNAI and others). We analyze the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure for situations involving Indigenous peoples, Maroons (Quilombolas) or other traditional communities in order to identify potential improvements for Brazil and potentially other countries. Although Brazilian procedures are consistent with international best practice in environmental licensing, in practice social impacts are inadequately addressed, mitigation measures are poorly implemented, and there is a lack of enforcement and compliance. The paper is based on document analysis and interviews with key actors in governmental and non-governmental organizations and Indigenous leaders. We suggest that Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) processes need to be conducted at the earliest stages of project planning, and that Indigenous peoples should actively participate in impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation processes. In order to achieve a social licence to operate, there needs to be full recognition of traditional knowledge and acceptance of Indigenous values and concepts. We also recommend increased involvement of social experts and mediators as well as improved accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms in the licensing process. - Highlights: • The Brazilian environmental licensing system needs to address social impacts better. • Communities need to be consulted at the earliest stage possible. • Indigenous peoples need to be invited to participate in impact assessment teams. • Independent Indigenous committees to monitor implementation of mitigation measures. • Accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms need to be

  8. Using rapid assessment and response to operationalise physical activity strategic health communication campaigns in Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Latu, Netina; Cocker-Palu, Elizabeth; Liavaa, Villiami; Vivili, Paul; Gloede, Sara; Simons, Allison

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify stakeholder and program beneficiary needs and wants in relation to a netball communication strategy in Tonga. In addition, the study aimed to more clearly identify audience segments for targeting of communication campaigns and to identify any barriers or benefits to engaging in the physical activity program. A rapid assessment and response (RAR) methodology was used. The elicitation research encompassed qualitative fieldwork approaches, including semistructured interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries. Desk research of secondary data sources supported in-field findings. A number of potential barriers to behavioural compliance existed, including cultural factors, gender discrimination, socioeconomic factors, stigmatising attitudes, the threat of domestic violence, infrastructure and training issues. Factors contributing to participation in physical activity included the fun and social aspects of the sport, incentives (including career opportunities, highlighting the health benefits of the activity and the provision of religious and cultural sanctions by local leaders towards the increased physical activity of women. The consultative approach of RAR provided a more in-depth understanding of the need for greater levels of physical activity and opportunities for engagement by all stakeholders. The approach facilitated opportunities for the proposed health behaviours to be realised through the communication strategy. Essential insights for the strategy design were identified from key informants, as well as ensuring future engagement of these stakeholders into the strategy. So what? The expanded use of RAR to inform the design of social marketing interventions is a practical approach to data collection for non-communicable diseases and other health issues in developing countries. The approach allows for the rapid mobilisation of scarce resources for the implementation of more

  9. A regional human services authority's rapid needs assessment of evacuees following natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David E; Kasofsky, Jan M; Hunte, Christopher N; Diaz, James H

    2008-01-01

    The Atlantic hurricane season of 2005 was not an ordinary season, and Hurricane Katrina was not an ordinary hurricane. Hurricane Katrina damaged more than 93,000 square miles of Gulf of Mexico coastline, displaced more than 1 million residents from New Orleans, and flooded more than 80 percent of New Orleans for weeks, which killed more than 1,300 people, mostly New Orleanians. Inland regional state and local healthcare and human services agencies rushed to assist evacuees, most of whom were uninsured or displaced without employer healthcare coverage. The initial evacuation brought more than 350,000 evacuees seeking shelter to the greater Baton Rouge area, LA, 80 miles north of New Orleans, the closest high ground. This investigation describes the rapid needs assessment developed and conducted by the Capital Area Human Services District of the greater Baton Rouge area, a quasi-governmental human services authority, the regional provider of state-funded mental health, addictive disorders, and developmental disabilities services, on a sample of 6,553 Katrina evacuees in the greater Baton Rouge area. In the event of catastrophic natural and manmade disasters, state and federal decision makers should follow the National Incident Management System and support local designated lead agencies with additional resources as requested. They must rely on designated lead agencies to use their knowledge of the locale, local resources, and relationships with other providers and volunteers to respond rapidly and efficiently to evacuee needs identified through a designated, concise tool that is singularly utilized across the impacted region by all providers to determine the needed response.

  10. Rapid assessment of insect fauna based on local knowledge: comparing ecological and ethnobiological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Daniele Cristina de Oliveira; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; da Silva, Henrique Costa Hermenegildo; Alves, Angelo Giuseppe Chaves

    2016-03-01

    The rapid assessment of biodiversity making use of surveys of local knowledge has been successful for different biological taxa. However, there are no reports on the testing of such tools for sampling insect fauna. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different ethnobiological techniques for rapid sampling of insect fauna. Field research for the conventional survey of insect fauna was conducted on a private farm (9 ° 43'38.95 "S, 37 ° 45'11.97" W) , where there was intensive cultivation of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench)). The survey of local entomological knowledge was conducted among all the producers of okra living in the rural villages Pereira, Santa Luzia, and Nassau de Souza, within the Jacaré Curituba irrigated settlement scheme. The combined use of the techniques "free list" and projective interviews was analyzed, using two types of visual stimuli: stock photos and an entomological box. During the conventional survey of insect fauna, the species Bemisia tabaci biotype B, Aphis gossypii, Phenacoccus sp., Icerya purchasi and Lagria villosa were the primary pests found in the okra crop. Regarding the survey of insect pests, the results were convergent  in both techniques (conventional sampling and free list). Comparing the interview with visual stimuli (pictures) and specimen witnesses (entomological box) revealed that the latter was more effective. Techniques based on the recording and analysis of local knowledge about insects are effective for quick sampling of pest insects, but ineffective in sampling predator insects. The utilization of collected insects, infested branches, or photos of the symptoms of damage caused by pests in projective interviews is recommended.

  11. A rapid, noninvasive immunoassay for frataxin: utility in assessment of Friedreich ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric C; Santani, Avni B; Perlman, Susan L; Farmer, Jennifer M; Stolle, Catherine A; Marusich, Michael F; Lynch, David R

    2010-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by reduced amounts of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Frataxin levels in research studies are typically measured via Western blot analysis from patient fibroblasts, lymphocytes, or muscle biopsies; none of these is ideal for rapid detection in large scale clinical studies. Recently, a rapid, noninvasive lateral flow immunoassay was developed to accurately measure picogram levels of frataxin protein and shown to distinguish lymphoblastoid cells from FRDA carriers, patients and controls. We expanded the immunoassay to measure frataxin directly in buccal cells and whole blood from a large cohort of controls, known carriers and patients typical of a clinical trial population. The assay in buccal cells shared a similar degree of variability with previous studies conducted in lymphoblastoid cells (~10% coefficient of variation in controls). Significant differences in frataxin protein quantity were seen between the mean group values of controls, carriers, and patient buccal cells (100, 50.2, and 20.9% of control, respectively) and in protein extracted from whole blood (100, 75.3, and 32.2%, respectively), although there was some overlap between the groups. In addition, frataxin levels were inversely related to GAA repeat length and correlated directly with age of onset. Subjects with one expanded GAA repeat and an identified frataxin point mutation also carried frataxin levels in the disease range. Some patients displaying an FRDA phenotype but carrying only a single identifiable mutation had frataxin levels in the FRDA patient range. One patient from this group has a novel deletion that included exons 2 and 3 of the FXN gene based on multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of the FXN gene. The lateral flow immunoassay may be a useful means to noninvasively assess frataxin levels repetitively with minimal discomfort in FRDA patients in specific situations such

  12. Rapid assessment of infrastructure of primary health care facilities - a relevant instrument for health care systems management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Ngoli, Baltazar; Flessa, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    Health care infrastructure constitutes a major component of the structural quality of a health system. Infrastructural deficiencies of health services are reported in literature and research. A number of instruments exist for the assessment of infrastructure. However, no easy-to-use instruments to assess health facility infrastructure in developing countries are available. Present tools are not applicable for a rapid assessment by health facility staff. Therefore, health information systems lack data on facility infrastructure. A rapid assessment tool for the infrastructure of primary health care facilities was developed by the authors and pilot-tested in Tanzania. The tool measures the quality of all infrastructural components comprehensively and with high standardization. Ratings use a 2-1-0 scheme which is frequently used in Tanzanian health care services. Infrastructural indicators and indices are obtained from the assessment and serve for reporting and tracing of interventions. The tool was pilot-tested in Tanga Region (Tanzania). The pilot test covered seven primary care facilities in the range between dispensary and district hospital. The assessment encompassed the facilities as entities as well as 42 facility buildings and 80 pieces of technical medical equipment. A full assessment of facility infrastructure was undertaken by health care professionals while the rapid assessment was performed by facility staff. Serious infrastructural deficiencies were revealed. The rapid assessment tool proved a reliable instrument of routine data collection by health facility staff. The authors recommend integrating the rapid assessment tool in the health information systems of developing countries. Health authorities in a decentralized health system are thus enabled to detect infrastructural deficiencies and trace the effects of interventions. The tool can lay the data foundation for district facility infrastructure management.

  13. Validation and adaptation of rapid neurodevelopmental assessment instrument for infants in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L; Peñaloza, R A; Stormfields, K; Kooistra, R; Valencia-Moscoso, G; Muslima, H; Khan, N Z

    2015-11-01

    Timely detection of neurodevelopmental impairments in children can prompt referral for critical services that may prevent permanent disability. However, screening of impairments is a significant challenge in low-resource countries. We adapted and validated the rapid neurodevelopmental assessment (RNDA) instrument developed in Bangladesh to assess impairment in nine domains: primitive reflexes, gross and fine motor development, vision, hearing, speech, cognition, behaviour and seizures. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 77 infants (0-12 months) in rural Guatemala in July 2012 and July 2013. We assessed inter-rater reliability and predictive validity between the 27-item RNDA and the 325-item Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III) and concurrent validity based on chronic malnutrition, a condition associated with neurodevelopmental impairments. For both RNDA and BSID-III, standardized scores below 80 were defined as borderline impairment. Children came from rural households (92%), were born to indigenous women of Mayan descent (73%) and had moderate or severe growth stunting (43%). Inter-rater reliability for eight RNDA domains was of moderate to high reliability (weighted κ coefficients, 0.49-0.99). Children screened positive for impairment in fine motor (17%) and gross motor (14%) domains using the RNDA. The RNDA had good concurrent ability; infants who were growth stunted had higher mean levels of impairment in gross motor, speech and cognition domains (all p < 0.001). The RNDA took 20-30 min to complete compared with 45-60 min for BSID-III. Wide-scale implementation of a simple, valid and reliable screening tool like the RNDA by community health workers would facilitate early screening and referral of infants at-risk for neurodevelopmental impairment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Zika Virus in Ontario: Evaluating a Rapid Risk Assessment Tool for Emerging Infectious Disease Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meer, Ryan; Hohenadel, Karin; Fitzgerald-Husek, Alanna; Warshawsky, Bryna; Sider, Doug; Schwartz, Brian; Nelder, Mark P

    To determine the Ontario-specific risk of local and travel-related Zika virus transmission in the context of a public health emergency of international concern, Public Health Ontario (PHO) completed a rapid risk assessment (RRA) on January 29, 2016, using a newly developed RRA guidance tool. The RRA concluded that risk of local mosquito-borne transmission was low, with a high risk of imported cases through travel. The RRA was updated 3 times based on predetermined triggers. An independent evaluation assessed both the application of the RRA guidance tool (process evaluation) and the usefulness of the RRA (outcome evaluation). We conducted face-to-face, semi-structured interviews with 7 individuals who participated in the creation or review of the Zika virus RRA and 4 end-users at PHO and the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. An inductive thematic analysis of responses was undertaken, whereby themes were directly informed by the data. The process evaluation determined that most steps outlined in the RRA guidance tool were adhered to, including forming a cross-functional writing team, clarifying the scope and describing context, completing the RRA summary report, and updating the RRA based on predefined triggers. The outcome evaluation found that end-users judged the Zika virus RRA as evidence-informed, useful, consistent, and timely. The evaluation established that the locally tailored guidance tool, adapted from national and international approaches to RRAs, facilitated a systematic, evidence-informed, and timely formal RRA process at PHO for the Zika virus RRA, which met the needs of end-users. Based on the evaluation, PHO will modify future RRAs by incorporating some flexibility into the literature review process to support timeliness of the RRA, explicitly describing the limitations of studies used to inform the RRA, and refining risk algorithms to better suit emerging infectious disease threats. It is anticipated that these refinements will improve upon the

  15. Assessment of compost application to coal ash disposal sites to promote the rapid vegetation establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repmann, F.; Slazak, A.; Babic, M.; Schneider, B. U.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2009-04-01

    In the city of Tuzla, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a coal fired thermo electric power plant is operated by the company JP ELEKTROPRIVERDA BIH TERMOELEKTRANA "TUZLA". High amounts of ash are produced by the power plant, which are currently disposed into settlement ponds bordered by dams in natural valleys. A total of four ash disposal sites covering an area of approx. 170 ha have been established during the last decades. Due to the fact that residual ash from coal combustion was found to contain a variety of trace elements (Ni, Cr, As, B), it must be assumed that ash disposal of that magnitude constitutes an environmental problem which is investigated within the EU-FP6 / STREP project "Reintegration of Coal Ash Disposal Sites and Mitigation of Pollution in the West Balkan Area" RECOAL. The main hazards relate to soil and groundwater contamination due to leaching toxins, dust dispersion, and toxins entering the food chain as these disposal sites are used for agricultural purposes. In order to rapidly establish a vegetation cover on barren ash dumps that particularly would prevent dust erosion we assessed the applicability of compost, produced from locally available municipal and industrial organic residues as an amendment to ash to improve substrate fertility. The envisaged remediation technology was considered to be a low cost, easy applicable and rapid method capable of substantially enhancing living conditions of residents in the vicinity of the abandoned disposal sites. Various compost application rates were evaluated in the field on experimental site Divkovici I in Tuzla and additionally in the greenhouse environment at Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus. Field and laboratory tests revealed that plant growth and cover rate can substantially be improved by mixing compost into the upper ash layer to a maximum depth of approx. 20 cm. Besides direct growth observations in the field analysis of soil parameters gave evidence that the fertility of ashy

  16. Using multimodal imaging techniques to monitor limb ischemia: a rapid noninvasive method for assessing extremity wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Rajiv; Caruso, Joseph D.; Radowsky, Jason S.; Rodriguez, Maricela; Forsberg, Jonathan; Elster, Eric A.; Crane, Nicole J.

    2013-03-01

    Over 70% of military casualties resulting from the current conflicts sustain major extremity injuries. Of these the majority are caused by blasts from improvised explosive devices. The resulting injuries include traumatic amputations, open fractures, crush injuries, and acute vascular disruption. Critical tissue ischemia—the point at which ischemic tissues lose the capacity to recover—is therefore a major concern, as lack of blood flow to tissues rapidly leads to tissue deoxygenation and necrosis. If left undetected or unaddressed, a potentially salvageable limb may require more extensive debridement or, more commonly, amputation. Predicting wound outcome during the initial management of blast wounds remains a significant challenge, as wounds continue to "evolve" during the debridement process and our ability to assess wound viability remains subjectively based. Better means of identifying critical ischemia are needed. We developed a swine limb ischemia model in which two imaging modalities were combined to produce an objective and quantitative assessment of wound perfusion and tissue viability. By using 3 Charge-Coupled Device (3CCD) and Infrared (IR) cameras, both surface tissue oxygenation as well as overall limb perfusion could be depicted. We observed a change in mean 3CCD and IR values at peak ischemia and during reperfusion correlate well with clinically observed indicators for limb function and vitality. After correcting for baseline mean R-B values, the 3CCD values correlate with surface tissue oxygenation and the IR values with changes in perfusion. This study aims to not only increase fundamental understanding of the processes involved with limb ischemia and reperfusion, but also to develop tools to monitor overall limb perfusion and tissue oxygenation in a clinical setting. A rapid and objective diagnostic for extent of ischemic damage and overall limb viability could provide surgeons with a more accurate indication of tissue viability. This may

  17. An Approach for Rapid Assessment of Seismic Hazards in Turkey by Continuous GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Ozener

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Earth is being monitored every day by all kinds of sensors. This leads an overflow of data in all branches of science nowadays, especially in Earth Sciences. Data storage and data processing are the problems to be solved by current technologies, as well as by those accessing and analyzing these large data sources. Once solutions have been created for collecting, storing and accessing data, then the challenge becomes how to effectively share data, applications and processing resources across many locations. The Global Positioning System (GPS sensors are being used as geodetic instruments to precisely detect crustal motion in the Earth’s surface. Rapid access to data provided by GPS sensors is becoming increasingly important for deformation monitoring and rapid hazard assessments. Today, reliable and fast collection and distribution of data is a challenge and advances in Internet technologies have made it easier to provide the needed data. This study describes a system which will be able to generate strain maps using data from continuous GPS stations for seismic hazard analysis. Strain rates are a key factor in seismic hazard analyses. Turkey is a country prone to earthquakes with a long history of seismic hazards and disasters. This situation has resulted in the studies by Earth scientists that focus on Turkey in order to improve their understanding of the Earth’s crust structure and seismic hazards. Nevertheless, the construction of models, data access and analysis are often not fast as expected, but the combination of Internet technologies with continuous GPS sensors can be a solution to overcome this problem. This system would have the potential to answer many important questions to assess seismic hazards such as how much stretching, squashing and shearing is taking place in different parts of Turkey, and how do velocities change from place to place? Seismic hazard estimation is the most effective way to reduce

  18. An Approach for Rapid Assessment of Seismic Hazards in Turkey by Continuous GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozener, Haluk; Dogru, Asli; Unlutepe, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    The Earth is being monitored every day by all kinds of sensors. This leads an overflow of data in all branches of science nowadays, especially in Earth Sciences. Data storage and data processing are the problems to be solved by current technologies, as well as by those accessing and analyzing these large data sources. Once solutions have been created for collecting, storing and accessing data, then the challenge becomes how to effectively share data, applications and processing resources across many locations. The Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors are being used as geodetic instruments to precisely detect crustal motion in the Earth's surface. Rapid access to data provided by GPS sensors is becoming increasingly important for deformation monitoring and rapid hazard assessments. Today, reliable and fast collection and distribution of data is a challenge and advances in Internet technologies have made it easier to provide the needed data. This study describes a system which will be able to generate strain maps using data from continuous GPS stations for seismic hazard analysis. Strain rates are a key factor in seismic hazard analyses. Turkey is a country prone to earthquakes with a long history of seismic hazards and disasters. This situation has resulted in the studies by Earth scientists that focus on Turkey in order to improve their understanding of the Earth's crust structure and seismic hazards. Nevertheless, the construction of models, data access and analysis are often not fast as expected, but the combination of Internet technologies with continuous GPS sensors can be a solution to overcome this problem. This system would have the potential to answer many important questions to assess seismic hazards such as how much stretching, squashing and shearing is taking place in different parts of Turkey, and how do velocities change from place to place? Seismic hazard estimation is the most effective way to reduce earthquake losses. It is clear that reliability

  19. Development of a standardized testing procedure for assessing the irritation potential of occupational skin cleansers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Peter; Seyfarth, Florian; Antonov, Dimitar; John, Swen Malte; Diepgen, Thomas; Schliemann, Sibylle

    2014-03-01

    Frequent skin cleaning fulfils the definition of occupational 'wet work'. Standardized methods are required to assess the irritation potential of workplace cleansers. To develop a standardized procedure for testing the irritation potential of occupational skin cleansers. In this single-blind, single-centre trial in 25 healthy volunteers, the irritation potential of five generic reference cleansers was tested by three-times-daily washing with an automated skin cleaning device for 4 days, and quantification of cumulative skin barrier damage was performed by visual scoring, chromametry, transepidermal water loss TEWL, and corneometry. For two cleansers, reproducibility of the irritancy assessment was assessed. Furthermore, the irritation induced by four commercial workplace skin cleansers was studied. Whereas no significant changes were observed for any of the tested cleansers by either visual scoring or chromametry, significant increases in TEWL and significant decreases in stratum corneum hydration were found for all cleansers. Cleansers differed significantly in their irritation potential. On retesting of two cleansers, the first results were confirmed. Among the four commercial cleansers, one that was claimed to be mild was found to be disproportionally irritant. The presented model for testing cleansing preparations allows a highly controlled, practically relevant and reproducible irritancy assessment of occupational skin cleansers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Environmental risk assessment for plant pests: a procedure to evaluate their impacts on ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilioli, G; Schrader, G; Baker, R H A; Ceglarska, E; Kertész, V K; Lövei, G; Navajas, M; Rossi, V; Tramontini, S; van Lenteren, J C

    2014-01-15

    The current methods to assess the environmental impacts of plant pests differ in their approaches and there is a lack of the standardized procedures necessary to provide accurate and consistent results, demonstrating the complexity of developing a commonly accepted scheme for this purpose. By including both the structural and functional components of the environment threatened by invasive alien species (IAS), in particular plant pests, we propose an environmental risk assessment scheme that addresses this complexity. Structural components are investigated by evaluating the impacts of the plant pest on genetic, species and landscape diversity. Functional components are evaluated by estimating how plant pests modify ecosystem services in order to determine the extent to which an IAS changes the functional traits that influence ecosystem services. A scenario study at a defined spatial and temporal resolution is then used to explore how an IAS, as an exogenous driving force, may trigger modifications in the target environment. The method presented here provides a standardized approach to generate comparable and reproducible results for environmental risk assessment as a component of Pest Risk Analysis. The method enables the assessment of overall environmental risk which integrates the impacts on different components of the environment and their probabilities of occurrence. The application of the proposed scheme is illustrated by evaluating the environmental impacts of the invasive citrus long-horn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis. © 2013.

  1. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Suraj Singh Senjam; Praveen Vashist; Noopur Gupta; Sumit Malhotra; Vasundhara Misra; Amit Bhardwaj; Vivek Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) due to uncorrected refractive error (URE) and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was assessed in each eye using Snellen's E chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was

  2. A tool for rapid assessment of product usability and universal design: development and preliminary psychometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenker, James A; Nasarwanji, Mahiyar; Paquet, Victor; Feathers, David

    2011-01-01

    While there are many available tools and methods to evaluate product usability, few have been tested on user groups with disabilities and even fewer systematically consider universal design principles. This paper describes the development and preliminary psychometric testing of the Rapid Assessment of Product Usability & Universal Design (RAPUUD), a 12-item user-report tool based on the seven principles of universal design. A preliminary set of items was created to elicit ratings of diverse product characteristics (e.g., physical effort, cognitive effort, assistance required, safety). Data were gathered from 61 participants who rated the usability of products they use in their own environments. Each item elicited a full range of responses, with no apparent floor or ceiling effects. Collectively, the 12 items achieved a high internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.80). The data indicate that the tool was sensitive to differences in functional abilities, as well as differences in product characteristics. The instrument was usable for a range of consumer products, though not all items were appropriate for each and every product. The results suggest that the instrument could become a pragmatic tool for designers to identify usability problems experienced by a diversity of user populations. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved

  3. Use of a modified cluster sampling method to perform rapid needs assessment after Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlady, W G; Quenemoen, L E; Armenia-Cope, R R; Hurt, K J; Malilay, J; Noji, E K; Wurm, G

    1994-04-01

    To rapidly obtain population-based estimates of needs in the early aftermath of Hurricane Andrew in South Florida. We used a modified cluster-sampling method (the Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI] method) for three surveys. We selected a systematic sample of 30 quarter-mile square clusters for each survey and, beginning from a random start, interviewed members of seven consecutive occupied households in each cluster. Two surveys were of the most affected area (1990 population, 32,672) at three and ten days after the hurricane struck; one survey was of a less affected area (1990 population, 15,576) seven days after the hurricane struck. Results were available within 24 hours of beginning each survey. Initial findings emphasized the need for restoring utilities and sanitation and helped to focus medical relief on primary care and preventive services. The second survey of the most affected area showed improvement in the availability of food, water, electricity, and sanitation (P < or = .05). There was no evidence of disease outbreaks. For the first time, the EPI method provided population-based information to guide and evaluate relief operations after a sudden-impact natural disaster. An improvement over previous approaches, the EPI method warrants further evaluation as a needs assessment tool in acute disasters.

  4. Radiometric and geometric assessment of data from the RapidEye constellation of satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Haque, Md. Obaidul; Sampath, Aparajithan; Brunn, A.; Trosset, G.; Hoffmann, D.; Roloff, S.; Thiele, M.; Anderson, C.

    2013-01-01

    To monitor land surface processes over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, it is critical to have coordinated observations of the Earth's surface using imagery acquired from multiple spaceborne imaging sensors. The RapidEye (RE) satellite constellation acquires high-resolution satellite images covering the entire globe within a very short period of time by sensors identical in construction and cross-calibrated to each other. To evaluate the RE high-resolution Multi-spectral Imager (MSI) sensor capabilities, a cross-comparison between the RE constellation of sensors was performed first using image statistics based on large common areas observed over pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) by the sensors and, second, by comparing the on-orbit radiometric calibration temporal trending over a large number of calibration sites. For any spectral band, the individual responses measured by the five satellites of the RE constellation were found to differ B2B) alignment of the image data sets. The position accuracy was assessed by comparing the RE imagery against high-resolution aerial imagery, while the B2B characterization was performed by registering each band against every other band to ensure that the proper band alignment is provided for an image product. The B2B results indicate that the internal alignments of these five RE bands are in agreement, with bands typically registered to within 0.25 pixels of each other or better.

  5. Comparison between rapid and mixed maxillary expansion through an assessment of arch changes on dental casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassia, Vincenzo; d'Apuzzo, Fabrizia; Jamilian, Abdolreza; Femiano, Felice; Favero, Lorenzo; Perillo, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this retrospective observational study was to compare upper and lower dental changes in patients treated with Rapid Maxillary Expansion (RME) and Mixed Maxillary Expansion (MME), assessed by dental cast analysis. Treatment groups consisted of 42 patients: the RME group (n = 21) consisted of 13 female and 8 male subjects with the mean age of 8.8 years ± 1.37 at T0 and 9.6 years ± 1.45 at T1; the MME group (n = 21) consisted of 12 female and 9 male patients with a mean age of 8.9 years ± 2.34 at T0 and 10.5 years ± 2.08 at T1. The upper and lower arch analysis was performed on four dental bilateral landmarks, on upper and lower casts; also upper and lower arch depths were measured. The groups were compared using independent sample t-test to estimate dental changes in upper and lower arches. Before expansion treatment (T0), the groups were similar for all examined variables (p>0.05). In both RME and MME group, significant increments in all the variables for maxillary and mandibular arch widths were observed after treatment. No significant differences in maxillary and mandibular arch depths were observed at the end of treatment in both groups. An evaluation of the changes after RME and MME (T1) showed statistically significant differences in mandibular arch depth (plip bumper effects" observed in the MME protocol.

  6. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for the rapid quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Hao; Fang, Jing; Tang, Liying; Yang, Hongjun; Li, Hua; Wang, Zhuju; Yang, Bin; Wu, Hongwei; Fu, Meihong

    2017-08-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was used to quantify gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and the feasibility to classify the samples originating from different areas was investigated. A new high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to analyze gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra as the reference. Partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR), and stepwise multivariate linear regression (SMLR) were performed to calibrate the regression model. Different data pretreatments such as derivatives (1st and 2nd), multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, Savitzky-Golay filter, and Norris derivative filter were applied to remove the systematic errors. The performance of the model was evaluated according to the root mean square of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), and correlation coefficient (r). The results show that compared to PCR and SMLR, PLS had a lower RMSEC, RMSECV, and RMSEP and higher r for all the four analytes. PLS coupled with proper pretreatments showed good performance in both the fitting and predicting results. Furthermore, the original areas of Radix Paeoniae Rubra samples were partly distinguished by principal component analysis. This study shows that NIR with PLS is a reliable, inexpensive, and rapid tool for the quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra.

  7. Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts through Application of Complexity Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Craig; Cutts, James; Balint, Tibor; Hall, James B.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap Conmrittee (chartered by NASA to develop the roadmap for Solar System Exploration Missions for the coming decades) found itself posed with the difficult problem of sorting through several mission concepts and determining their relative costs. While detailed mission studies are the normal approach to costing, neither the budget nor schedule allotted to the conmrittee could support such studies. Members of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) supporting the conmrittee were given the challenge of developing a semi-quantitative approach that could provide the relative costs of these missions, without requiring an in depth study of the missions. In response to this challenge, a rapid cost assessment methodology based on a set of mission cost/complexity indexes was developed. This methodology also underwent two separate validations, one comparing its results when applied to historical missions, and another comparing its estimates against those of veteran space mission managers. Remarkably good agreement was achieved, suggesting that this approach provides an effective early indication of space mission costs.

  8. Quality controls in cellular immunotherapies: rapid assessment of clinical grade dendritic cells by gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiello, Luciano; Sabatino, Marianna; Zhao, Yingdong; Tumaini, Barbara; Ren, Jiaqiang; Ping, Jin; Wang, Ena; Wood, Lauren V; Marincola, Francesco M; Puri, Raj K; Stroncek, David F

    2013-02-01

    Cell-based immunotherapies are among the most promising approaches for developing effective and targeted immune response. However, their clinical usefulness and the evaluation of their efficacy rely heavily on complex quality control assessment. Therefore, rapid systematic methods are urgently needed for the in-depth characterization of relevant factors affecting newly developed cell product consistency and the identification of reliable markers for quality control. Using dendritic cells (DCs) as a model, we present a strategy to comprehensively characterize manufactured cellular products in order to define factors affecting their variability, quality and function. After generating clinical grade human monocyte-derived mature DCs (mDCs), we tested by gene expression profiling the degrees of product consistency related to the manufacturing process and variability due to intra- and interdonor factors, and how each factor affects single gene variation. Then, by calculating for each gene an index of variation we selected candidate markers for identity testing, and defined a set of genes that may be useful comparability and potency markers. Subsequently, we confirmed the observed gene index of variation in a larger clinical data set. In conclusion, using high-throughput technology we developed a method for the characterization of cellular therapies and the discovery of novel candidate quality assurance markers.

  9. Use of rapid needs assessment as a tool to identify vaccination delays in Guatemala and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ardenne, Katie K; Darrow, Juliana; Furniss, Anna; Chavez, Catia; Hernandez, Herminio; Berman, Stephen; Asturias, Edwin J

    2016-03-29

    To explore the use of rapid needs assessment (RNA) surveys to determine the prevalence and factors contributing to delays in vaccination of children in two low middle-income countries (LMIC). Data from two RNA surveys performed as part of program improvement evaluations in Guatemala and Peru were used for this analysis. The primary endpoint was the timeliness of immunization with delay defined as administration of vaccines beyond 28 days from recommended age for DTwP-HepB-Hib (Penta) and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines, as well as past age-restrictions for rotavirus vaccine. Independent risk factors analyzed included child's gender, birth year, number of children in household, maternal age, maternal education, and food insecurity. Vaccine information was available from 811 children from 838 households surveyed. High rate of immunization delays was observed, with 75.6% of children in Guatemala and 57.8% of children in Peru being delayed for the third dose of Penta primary series. Factors associated with delayed vaccination in Guatemala included advanced maternal age and increased number of children in household. In Peru, significant associations were birth year before 2009, lower maternal education level, and increased number of children in household. RNA is a fast and effective method to identify timely vaccine coverage and derive a hypothesis of factors possibly associated with vaccination delay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Utility and assessment of non-technical skills for rapid response systems and medical emergency teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalwin, R P; Flabouris, A

    2013-09-01

    Efforts are ongoing to improve outcomes from cardiac arrest and medical emergencies. A promising quality improvement modality is use of non-technical skills (NTS) that aim to address human factors through improvements in performance of leadership, communication, situational awareness and decision-making. Originating in the airline industry, NTS training has been successfully introduced into anaesthesia, surgery, emergency medicine and other acute medical specialities. Some aspects of NTS have already achieved acceptance for cardiac arrest teams. Leadership skills are emphasised in advanced life support training and have shown favourable results when employed in simulated and clinical resuscitation scenarios. The application of NTS in medical emergency teams as part of a rapid response system attending medical emergencies is less certain; however, observations of simulations have also shown promise. This review highlights the potential benefits of NTS competency for cardiac arrest teams and, more importantly, medical emergency teams because of the diversity of clinical scenarios encountered. Discussion covers methods to assess and refine NTS and NTS training to optimise performance in the clinical environment. Increasing attention should be applied to yielding meaningful patient and organisational outcomes from use of NTS. Similarly, implementation of any training course should receive appropriate scrutiny to refine team and institutional performance. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  11. Development and evaluation of an office ergonomic risk checklist: ROSA--rapid office strain assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Michael; Villalta, Dino L; Andrews, David M

    2012-01-01

    The Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) was designed to quickly quantify risks associated with computer work and to establish an action level for change based on reports of worker discomfort. Computer use risk factors were identified in previous research and standards on office design for the chair, monitor, telephone, keyboard and mouse. The risk factors were diagrammed and coded as increasing scores from 1 to 3. ROSA final scores ranged in magnitude from 1 to 10, with each successive score representing an increased presence of risk factors. Total body discomfort and ROSA final scores for 72 office workstations were significantly correlated (R = 0.384). ROSA final scores exhibited high inter- and intra-observer reliability (ICCs of 0.88 and 0.91, respectively). Mean discomfort increased with increasing ROSA scores, with a significant difference occurring between scores of 3 and 5 (out of 10). A ROSA final score of 5 might therefore be useful as an action level indicating when immediate change is necessary. ROSA proved to be an effective and reliable method for identifying computer use risk factors related to discomfort. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid assessment of stony coral richness and condition on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A McKenna

    Full Text Available The benthic habitats of Saba Bank (17 degrees 25'N, 63 degrees 30'W are at risk from maritime traffic, especially oil tankers (e.g., anchoring. To mitigate this risk, information is needed on the biodiversity and location of habitats to develop a zone use plan. A rapid survey to document the biodiversity of macro-algae, sponges, corals and fishes was conducted. Here we report on the richness and condition of stony coral species at 18 select sites, and we test for the effects of bottom type, depth, and distance from platform edge. Species richness was visually assessed by roving scuba diver with voucher specimens of each species collected. Coral tissue was examined for bleaching and diseases. Thirty-three coral species were documented. There were no significant differences in coral composition among bottom types or depth classes (ANOSIM, P>0.05. There was a significant difference between sites (ANOSIM, P<0.05 near and far from the platform edge. The number of coral species observed ranged from zero and one in algal dominated habitats to 23 at a reef habitat on the southern edge of the Bank. Five reef sites had stands of Acropora cervicornis, a critically endangered species on the IUCN redlist. Bleaching was evident at 82% of the sites assessed with 43 colonies bleached. Only three coral colonies were observed to have disease. Combining our findings with that of other studies, a total of 43 species have been documented from Saba Bank. The coral assemblage on the bank is representative and typical of those found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Although our findings will help develop effective protection, more information is needed on Saba Bank to create a comprehensive zone use plan. Nevertheless, immediate action is warranted to protect the diverse coral reef habitats documented here, especially those containing A. cervicornis.

  13. Use of automated radon measurements for rapid assessment of groundwater flow into Florida streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, William C.; Peterson, Richard N.; Santos, Isaac R.; Hicks, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    SummaryNaturally occurring 222Rn (radon; t1/2 = 3.8 days) is a good natural tracer of groundwater discharge because it is conservative and typically 2-3 orders of magnitude higher in groundwater than surface waters. In addition, new technology has allowed rapid and inexpensive field measurements of radon-in-water. Results from the C-25 Canal, a man-made canal in east-central Florida thought to be dominated by groundwater inflows, display how one can quickly assess a water body for locations of groundwater inputs. Although only the eastern portion of the canal was surveyed, use of a few assumptions together with some continuous radon measurements allowed reasonable estimates of the groundwater inflows to be made. Groundwater discharge estimates of 327,000 m 3/day and 331,000 m 3/day were measured for two stations based on determining the groundwater fraction of the total stream flow. This fraction in each case was calculated by correcting radon concentrations for decay over transit times determined from concentration differences between the apparent focal point of groundwater discharge (with a concentration of 520 ± 80 dpm/L) estimated to be ˜17.7 km upstream from the downstream sample locations. During the same period, an average flow of 312,000 ± 70,000 m 3/day was determined from time-series measurements of radon at a fixed downstream location. Coincident current meter readings and a measured cross-section area allowed an independent assessment of the total stream discharge of 336,000 m 3/day. The radon-derived estimates thus indicate that >90% of the total flow is groundwater derived, consistent with the known characteristics of this waterway.

  14. Quantitative Rapid Assessment of Leukoaraiosis in CT : Comparison to Gold Standard MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Uta; Sporns, Peter Bernhard; Schmidt, Rene; Niederstadt, Thomas; Minnerup, Jens; Bier, Georg; Knecht, Stefan; Kemmling, André

    2017-10-20

    The severity of white matter lesions (WML) is a risk factor of hemorrhage and predictor of clinical outcome after ischemic stroke; however, in contrast to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reliable quantification for this surrogate marker is limited for computed tomography (CT), the leading stroke imaging technique. We aimed to present and evaluate a CT-based automated rater-independent method for quantification of microangiopathic white matter changes. Patients with suspected minor stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke scale, NIHSS < 4) were screened for the analysis of non-contrast computerized tomography (NCCT) at admission and compared to follow-up MRI. The MRI-based WML volume and visual Fazekas scores were assessed as the gold standard reference. We employed a recently published probabilistic brain segmentation algorithm for CT images to determine the tissue-specific density of WM space. All voxel-wise densities were quantified in WM space and weighted according to partial probabilistic WM content. The resulting mean weighted density of WM space in NCCT, the surrogate of WML, was correlated with reference to MRI-based WML parameters. The process of CT-based tissue-specific segmentation was reliable in 79 cases with varying severity of microangiopathy. Voxel-wise weighted density within WM spaces showed a noticeable correlation (r = -0.65) with MRI-based WML volume. Particularly in patients with moderate or severe lesion load according to the visual Fazekas score the algorithm provided reliable prediction of MRI-based WML volume. Automated observer-independent quantification of voxel-wise WM density in CT significantly correlates with microangiopathic WM disease in gold standard MRI. This rapid surrogate of white matter lesion load in CT may support objective WML assessment and therapeutic decision-making during acute stroke triage.

  15. Diagnosis of tetanus immunization status: multicenter assessment of a rapid biological test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombet, Isabelle; Saguez, Colette; Sanson-Le Pors, Marie-José; Coudert, Benoît; Chatellier, Gilles; Espinoza, Pierre

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of tetanus immunization status by medical interview of patients with wounds is poor. Many protected patients receive unnecessary vaccine or immunoglobulin, and unprotected patients may receive nothing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of the Tetanos Quick Stick (TQS) rapid finger prick stick test in the emergency department for determining immunization status. We designed a prospective multicenter study for blinded comparison of TQS with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Adults referred for open wounds in 37 French hospital emergency departments had the TQS after receiving standard care (emergency-TQS). TQS was also performed in the hospital laboratory on total blood (blood/lab-TQS) and serum (serum/lab-TQS). ELISA was performed with the same blood sample at a central laboratory. We assessed concordance between emergency-TQS and blood/lab-TQS by the kappa test and the diagnostic accuracy (likelihood ratios) of medical interview, emergency-TQS, and lab-TQS. ELISA was positive in 94.6% of the 988 patients included. Concordance between blood/emergency-TQS and blood/lab-TQS results was moderate (kappa=0.6), with a high proportion of inconclusive blood/emergency-TQS tests (9.8%). Likelihood ratios for immunization were 3.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 5.1), 36.6 (95% CI, 5.3 to 255.3), 89.1 (95% CI, 5.6 to 1,405.0), and 92.7 (95% CI, 5.9 to 1,462.0) for medical interview, blood/emergency-TQS, blood/lab-TQS, and serum/lab-TQS, respectively. The sensitivity of the blood/emergency-TQS was 76.7%, and the specificity was 98% by reference to the ELISA. TQS use in the emergency room could make tetanus prevention more accurate if its technical feasibility were improved, and our assessment will be supplemented by a cost effectiveness study.

  16. Rapid assessment of visual impairment in urban population of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Malhotra, Sumit; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, causes and associated demographic factors related to visual impairment amongst the urban population of New Delhi, India. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in East Delhi district using cluster random sampling methodology. This Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) survey involved examination of all individuals aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of the district. Visual acuity (VA) assessment and comprehensive ocular examination were done during the door-to-door survey. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information of the study population. Blindness and Visual Impairment was defined as presenting VA visual impairment. Of 2421 subjects enumerated, 2331 (96.3%) were available for ophthalmic examination. Among those examined, 49.3% were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VI) in the study population, was 11.4% (95% C.I. 10.1, 12.7) and that of blindness was 1.2% (95% C.I. 0.8, 1.6). Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of VI accounting for 53.4% of all VI followed by cataract (33.8%). With multivariable logistic regression, the odds of having VI increased with age (OR = 24.6[95% C.I.: 14.9, 40.7]; p visual impairment is considerable in this region despite availability of adequate eye care facilities. Awareness generation and simple interventions like cataract surgery and provision of spectacles will help to eliminate the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in this region.

  17. Rapid assessment of trachoma in underserved population of Car-Nicobar Island, India.

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    Praveen Vashist

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the burden of trachoma and its related risk factors amongst the native population of Car-Nicobar Island in India. METHODS: Rapid assessment for trachoma was conducted in ten villages of Car-Nicobar Island according to standard WHO guidelines. An average of 50 children aged 1-9 years were assessed clinically for signs of active trachoma and facial cleanliness in each village. Additionally, all adults above 15 years of age in these households were examined for evidence of trachomatous trichiasis and corneal opacity. Environmental risk factors contributing to trachoma like limited access to potable water & functional latrine, presence of animal pen and garbage within the Nicobari hut were also noted in all villages. RESULTS: Out of a total of fifteen villages in Car-Nicobar Island, ten villages were selected for trachoma survey depending on evidence of socio-developmental indicators like poverty and decreased access to water, sanitation and healthcare facilities. The total population of the selected clusters was 7277 in the ten villages. Overall, 251 of 516 children (48.6%;CI: 46.5-55.1 had evidence of follicular stage of trachoma and 11 children (2.1%;CI:1.0-3.4 had evidence of inflammatory stage of trachoma. Nearly 15%(CI:12.1-18.3 children were noted to have unclean faces in the ten villages. Trachomatous trichiasis was noted in 73 adults (1.0%;CI:0.8-1.2. The environmental sanitation was not found to be satisfactory in the surveyed villages mainly due to the co-habitance of Nicobari people with domestic animals like pigs, hens, goats, dogs, cats etc in most (96.4% of the households. CONCLUSION: Active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis was observed in all the ten villages surveyed, wherein trachoma control measures are needed.

  18. Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Eyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

  19. Assessment of the knowledge of graphical symbols labelled on malaria rapid diagnostic tests in four international settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillet Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Graphical symbols on in vitro diagnostics (IVD symbols replace the need for text in different languages and are used on malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs marketed worldwide. The present study assessed the comprehension of IVD symbols labelled on malaria RDT kits among laboratory staff in four different countries. Methods Participants (n = 293 in Belgium (n = 96, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, n = 87, Cambodia (n = 59 and Cuba (n = 51 were presented with an anonymous questionnaire with IVD symbols extracted from ISO 15223 and EN 980 presented as stand-alone symbols (n = 18 and in context (affixed on RDT packages, n = 16. Responses were open-ended and scored for correctness by local professionals. Results Presented as stand-alone, three and five IVD symbols were correctly scored for comprehension by 67% and 50% of participants; when contextually presented, five and seven symbols reached the 67% and 50% correct score respectively. 'Batch code' scored best (correctly scored by 71.3% of participants when presented as stand-alone, 'Authorized representative in the European Community' scored worst (1.4% correct. Another six IVD symbols were scored correctly by less than 10% of participants: 'Do not reuse', 'In vitro diagnostic medical device', 'Sufficient for', 'Date of manufacture', 'Authorised representative in EC', and 'Do not use if package is damaged'. Participants in Belgium and Cuba both scored six symbols above the 67% criterion, participants from DRC and Cambodia scored only two and one symbols above this criterion. Low correct scores were observed for safety-related IVD symbols, such as for 'Biological Risk' (42.7% and 'Do not reuse' (10.9%. Conclusion Comprehension of IVD symbols on RDTs among laboratory staff in four international settings was unsatisfactory. Administrative and outreach procedures should be undertaken to assure their acquaintance by end-users.

  20. Evaluating the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP to assess the bond between dogs and humans.

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    Therese Rehn

    Full Text Available The Strange Situation Procedure (SSP is increasingly being used to study attachment between dogs and humans. It has been developed from the Ainsworth Strange Situation Procedure, which is used extensively to investigate attachment between children and their parents. In this experiment, 12 female beagle dogs were tested in two treatments to identify possible order effects in the test, a potential weakness in the SSP. In one treatment (FS, dogs participated together with a 'familiar person' and a 'stranger'. In a control treatment (SS, the same dogs participated together with two unfamiliar people, 'stranger A' and 'stranger B'. Comparisons were made between episodes within as well as between treatments. As predicted in FS, dogs explored more in the presence of the familiar person than the stranger. Importantly, they also explored more in the presence of stranger A (who appeared in the same order as the familiar person and followed the same procedure than stranger B in SS. Furthermore, comparisons between treatments, where a familiar person was present in FS and stranger A was present in SS, showed no differences in exploration. In combination, these results indicate that the effect of a familiar person on dogs' exploratory behaviour, a key feature when assessing secure attachment styles, could not be tested reliably due to the order in which the familiar person and the stranger appear. It is proposed that in the future only counterbalanced versions of the SSP are used. Alternatively, since dogs reliably initiated more contact with the familiar person compared to the strangers, it is suggested that future studies on attachment in dogs towards humans should focus either on the behaviour of the dog in those episodes of the SSP when the person returns, or on reunion behaviour in other studies, specially designed to address dog-human interactions at this time.

  1. Evaluating the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to Assess the Bond between Dogs and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Therese; McGowan, Ragen T. S.; Keeling, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) is increasingly being used to study attachment between dogs and humans. It has been developed from the Ainsworth Strange Situation Procedure, which is used extensively to investigate attachment between children and their parents. In this experiment, 12 female beagle dogs were tested in two treatments to identify possible order effects in the test, a potential weakness in the SSP. In one treatment (FS), dogs participated together with a ‘familiar person’ and a ‘stranger’. In a control treatment (SS), the same dogs participated together with two unfamiliar people, ‘stranger A’ and ‘stranger B’. Comparisons were made between episodes within as well as between treatments. As predicted in FS, dogs explored more in the presence of the familiar person than the stranger. Importantly, they also explored more in the presence of stranger A (who appeared in the same order as the familiar person and followed the same procedure) than stranger B in SS. Furthermore, comparisons between treatments, where a familiar person was present in FS and stranger A was present in SS, showed no differences in exploration. In combination, these results indicate that the effect of a familiar person on dogs' exploratory behaviour, a key feature when assessing secure attachment styles, could not be tested reliably due to the order in which the familiar person and the stranger appear. It is proposed that in the future only counterbalanced versions of the SSP are used. Alternatively, since dogs reliably initiated more contact with the familiar person compared to the strangers, it is suggested that future studies on attachment in dogs towards humans should focus either on the behaviour of the dog in those episodes of the SSP when the person returns, or on reunion behaviour in other studies, specially designed to address dog-human interactions at this time. PMID:23437277

  2. Geospatial Data Combined With The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) Tool For Rapid Post-Fire Watershed Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Clifford, T. J.; Guertin, D. P.; Sheppard, B. S.; Barlow, J. E.; Korgaonkar, Y.; Burns, I. S.; Unkrich, C. C.

    2016-12-01

    Wildfires disasters are common throughout the western US. While many feel fire suppression is the largest cost of wildfires, case studies note rehabilitation costs often equal or greatly exceed suppression costs. Using geospatial data sets, and post-fire burn severity products, coupled with the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA - www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa), the Dept. of Interior, Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams can rapidly analyze and identify at-risk areas to target rehabilitation efforts. AGWA employs nationally available geospatial elevation, soils, and land cover data to parameterize the KINEROS2 hydrology and erosion model. A pre-fire watershed simulation can be done prior to BAER deployment using design storms. As soon as the satellite-derived Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) map is obtained, a post-fire watershed simulation using the same storm is conducted. The pre- and post-fire simulations can be spatially differenced in the GIS for rapid identification of high at-risk areas of erosion or flooding. This difference map is used by BAER teams to prioritize field observations and in-turn produce a final burn severity map that is used in AGWA/KINEROS2 simulations to provide report ready results. The 2013 Elk Wildfire Complex that burned over 52,600 ha east of Boise, Idaho provides a tangible example of how BAER experts combined AGWA and geospatial data that resulted in substantial rehabilitation cost savings. The BAER team initially, they identified approximately 6,500 burned ha for rehabilitation. The team then used the AGWA pre- and post-fire watershed simulation results, accessibility constraints, and land slope conditions in an interactive process to locate burned areas that posed the greatest threat to downstream values-at-risk. The group combined the treatable area, field observations, and the spatial results from AGWA to target seed and mulch treatments that most effectively reduced the threats. Using this

  3. Assessment of Procedural Pain in Children Using Analgesia Nociception Index: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avez-Couturier, Justine; De Jonckheere, Julien; Jeanne, Mathieu; Vallée, Louis; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Logier, Régis

    2016-12-01

    The Analgesia Nociception Index (ANI), based on heart rate (HR) variability analysis, is known to decrease after a painful stimulus during surgery under general anesthesia in adults. It is measured continuously and noninvasively. We studied ANI response to procedural pain in a pediatric population and ANI measurement's feasibility in this context, across age. A prospective, noninterventional pilot study was performed. All children (between 6 mo and under 18 y) undergoing muscle biopsy conducted under analgesia and light sedation were included. Medical staff was blind to the ANI monitor. HR and ANI were recorded and analyzed during 2 periods: T1 before incision and T2 after incision. Pain was assessed by the FLACC scale at T2. We observed ANI and HR variations after incision. ANI, HR, and FLACC were compared between children younger or older than 6 years. Enrollment or technical issues were reported. A total of 26 children were included (median age, 6 y; ranging from 6 mo to 16 y; 16 male). ANI decreased from T1 to T2. HR, ANI, or FLACC values were not different in children younger or older than 6 years. No parents or children refused to take part in the study. No technical issues was reported. In this pilot study, ANI measurement seems relevant in pediatric procedural pain, across age. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

  4. Assessment procedure for the soft skills requested by Industry 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotet Gabriela Beatrice

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an increasingly more performant global and informational environment, as the one found in the virtual organization, the process of selecting and evaluating the human resources holds a particular important role. The premise behind this article is that of the need to adapt the human resource performance to the requests of the industry 4.0 being supported by the organizational culture. Following the analysis of the state of the art literature we concluded that there is no clear procedure for the assessment of the constellation of skills and personal qualities – soft skills requested by industry 4.0. These capabilities should complete professional technical hard-skills; the procedure should provide a map for the constellation of capabilities necessary to adapt and perform, in specific industry 4.0 activities. Current psychological evaluation systems consider only some of such requested capabilities not always the most relevant. To solve this problem, we tried to identify and evaluate what we considered as the core of the complex various skills required. Our research was centred on the use of a psychological instrument for evaluating transversal capabilities. The capabilities map needed for the evaluation and selection of the human resource fit to work in the industry 4.0 environment was designed after the application of this complex system of evaluation on successive series of students from the University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest.

  5. Procedure for conducting probabilistic safety assessment: level 1 full power internal event analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Dae; Lee, Y. H.; Hwang, M. J. [and others

    2003-07-01

    This report provides guidance on conducting a Level I PSA for internal events in NPPs, which is based on the method and procedure that was used in the PSA for the design of Korea Standard Nuclear Plants (KSNPs). Level I PSA is to delineate the accident sequences leading to core damage and to estimate their frequencies. It has been directly used for assessing and modifying the system safety and reliability as a key and base part of PSA. Also, Level I PSA provides insights into design weakness and into ways of preventing core damage, which in most cases is the precursor to accidents leading to major accidents. So Level I PSA has been used as the essential technical bases for risk-informed application in NPPs. The report consists six major procedural steps for Level I PSA; familiarization of plant, initiating event analysis, event tree analysis, system fault tree analysis, reliability data analysis, and accident sequence quantification. The report is intended to assist technical persons performing Level I PSA for NPPs. A particular aim is to promote a standardized framework, terminology and form of documentation for PSAs. On the other hand, this report would be useful for the managers or regulatory persons related to risk-informed regulation, and also for conducting PSA for other industries.

  6. Off-site toxic consequence assessment: a simplified modeling procedure and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Joe; Hoppe, Tom

    2008-11-15

    An assessment of off-site exposure from spills/releases of toxic chemicals can be conducted by compiling site-specific operational, geographic, demographic, and meteorological data and by using screening-level public-domain modeling tools (e.g., RMP Comp, ALOHA and DEGADIS). In general, the analysis is confined to the following: event-based simulations (allow for the use of known, constant, atmospheric conditions), known receptor distances (on the order of miles or less), short time scale for the distances considered (order of 10's of minutes or less), gently sloping rough terrain, dense and neutrally buoyant gas dispersion, known chemical inventory and infrastructure (used to define source-term), and known toxic endpoint (defines significance). While screening-level models are relatively simple to use, care must be taken to ensure that the results are meaningful. This approach allows one to assess risk from catastrophic release (e.g., via terrorism), or plausible release scenarios (related to standard operating procedures and industry standards). In addition, given receptor distance and toxic endpoint, the model can be used to predict the critical spill volume to realize significant off-site risk. This information can then be used to assess site storage and operation parameters and to determine the most economical and effective risk reduction measures to be applied.

  7. sUAS for Rapid Pre-Storm Coastal Characterization and Vulnerability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, K. L.; Slocum, R. K.; Spore, N.

    2015-12-01

    Open coast beaches and surf-zones are dynamic three-dimensional environments that can evolve rapidly on the time-scale of hours in response to changing environmental conditions. Up-to-date knowledge about the pre-storm morphology of the coast can be instrumental in making accurate predictions about coastal change and damage during large storms like Hurricanes and Nor'Easters. For example, alongshore variations in the shape of ephemeral sandbars along the coastline can focus wave energy, subjecting different stretches of coastline to significantly higher waves. Variations in beach slope and width can also alter wave runup, causing higher wave-induced water levels which can cause overwash or inlet breaching. Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) offer a new capability to rapidly and inexpensively map vulnerable coastlines in advance of approaching storms. Here we present results from a prototype system that maps coastal topography and surf-zone morphology utilizing a multi-camera sensor. Structure-from-motion algorithms are used to generate topography and also constrain the trajectory of the sUAS. These data, in combination with mount boresight information, are used to rectify images from ocean-facing cameras. Images from all cameras are merged to generate a wide field of view allowing up to 5 minutes of continuous imagery time-series to be collected as the sUAS transits the coastline. Water imagery is then analyzed using wave-kinematics algorithms to provide information on surf-zone bathymetry. To assess this methodology, the absolute and relative accuracy of topographic data are evaluated in relation to simultaneously collected terrestrial lidar data. Ortho-rectification of water imagery is investigated using visible fixed targets installed in the surf-zone, and through comparison to stationary tower-based imagery. Future work will focus on evaluating how topographic and bathymetric data from this sUAS approach can be used to update forcing parameters in both

  8. Rapid assessment of Cascadia tsunamis from real-time PANGA GPS crustal deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne, T. I.; Santillan, M.; Miner, A.; Webb, F.

    2008-12-01

    volcanic unrest and landslide early warning, as well as critical infrastructure such as dams and bridges; - GPS-based rapid estimation from afar (central Washington) of strong ground motion from large Puget Sound or megathrust earthquakes that incapacitate local seismic networks. These measurements will then be transmitted in real-time to the seismic networks and state emergency managers to facilitate emergency response; - Training of undergraduate and graduate students in high-precision geodetic measurement techniques and analyses needed for future hazards assessment and mitigation. Although the construction phase of the real-time network is nearing completion, the data analysis aspect is still ongoing. An overview of the network, data analysis strategies, parameter estimation routines, and third- party data access options will be discussed.

  9. A biometeorological procedure for weather forecast to assess the optimal outdoor clothing insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Maracchi, Giampiero; Gensini, Gian Franco; Orlandini, Simone

    2008-09-01

    Clothing insulation represents an important parameter strongly dependent on climate/weather variability and directly involved in the assessment of the human energy balance. Few studies tried to explore the influence of climate changes on the optimal clothing insulation for outdoor spaces. For this reason, the aim of this work was to investigate mainly the optimal outdoor minimum clothing insulation value required to reach the thermal neutrality (min_clo) related to climate change on a seasonal basis. Subsequently, we developed an example of operational biometeorological procedure to provide 72-hour forecast maps concerning the min_clo. Hourly meteorological data were provided by three Italian weather stations located in Turin, Rome and Palermo, for the period 1951-1995. Environmental variables and subjective characteristics referred to an average adult young male at rest and at a very high metabolic rate were used as input variables to calculate the min_clo by using a thermal index based on the human energy balance. Trends of min_clo were assessed by a non-parametric statistical method. Results showed a lower magnitude of trends in a subject at a very high metabolic rate than at rest. Turin always showed a decrease of min_clo during the study period and prevalently negative trends were also observed in Palermo. On the other hand, an opposite situation was observed in Rome, especially during the morning in all seasons. The development of a daily operational procedure to forecast customized min_clo could provide useful information for the outdoor clothing fitting that might help to reduce the weather-related human health risk.

  10. Simplified NaCl based (68)Ga concentration and labeling procedure for rapid synthesis of (68)Ga radiopharmaceuticals in high radiochemical purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Dirk; Klette, Ingo; Baum, Richard P; Gottschaldt, M; Schultz, Michael K; Breeman, Wouter A P

    2012-08-15

    A simple sodium chloride (NaCl) based (68)Ga eluate concentration and labeling method that enables rapid, high-efficiency labeling of DOTA conjugated peptides in high radiochemical purity is described. The method utilizes relatively few reagents and comprises minimal procedural steps. It is particularly well-suited for routine automated synthesis of clinical radiopharmaceuticals. For the (68)Ga generator eluate concentration step, commercially available cation-exchange cartridges and (68)Ga generators were used. The (68)Ga generator eluate was collected by use of a strong cation exchange cartridge. 98% of the total activity of (68)Ga was then eluted from the cation exchange cartridge with 0.5 mL of 5 M NaCl solution containing a small amount of 5.5 M HCl. After buffering with ammonium acetate, the eluate was used directly for radiolabeling of DOTATOC and DOTATATE. The (68)Ga-labeled peptides were obtained in higher radiochemical purity compared to other commonly used procedures, with radiochemical yields greater than 80%. The presence of (68)Ge could not be detected in the final product. The new method obviates the need for organic solvents, which eliminates the required quality control of the final product by gas chromatography, thereby reducing postsynthesis analytical effort significantly. The (68)Ga-labeled products were used directly, with no subsequent purification steps, such as solid-phase extraction. The NaCl method was further evaluated using an automated fluid handling system and it routinely facilitates radiochemical yields in excess of 65% in less than 15 min, with radiochemical purity consistently greater than 99% for the preparation of (68)Ga-DOTATOC.

  11. COMPARATIVE USABILITY ASSESSMENT OF REBA (RAPID ENTIRE BODY ASSESSMENT ERGONOMIC EVALUATION TOOL ON PAPER AND APP VERSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella de Souza Sierra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ferramentas para auxílio de análise ergonômica são frequentemente utilizadas quando há a necessidade de avaliação de riscos musculoesqueléticos no trabalho. Dessas ferramentas, uma das mais conhecidas é a REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment. Seu amplo uso fez com que suas formas de distribuição e aplicação fossem alteradas por vários autores, de forma a tentar encontrar a melhor maneira de aplicação. Inclusive, com o advento de celulares e tablets, foram feitas diversas versões em aplicativo da ferramenta. Pouco pode ser encontrado sobre a usabilidade desse método, ainda mais em qual versão é mais apropriado, em termos de usabilidade. Objetivou-se neste artigo realizar uma avaliação de usabilidade da ferramenta REBA em duas diferentes versões para verificar a influência que a usabilidade da ferramenta tem nos seus resultados. Acredita-se que qualquer tipo de ferramenta para uma avaliação ergonômica deve, de forma intrínseca, ser usável, pois sua usabilidade tem influência direta em sua confiabilidade e replicabilidade. Sendo assim, fez-se uma análise comparativa de usabilidade com a ferramenta em versão papel e aplicativos para celular com oito sujeitos para a verificação de tal usabilidade. Encontrou-se melhor usabilidade para o aplicativo, mas confiabilidade equiparada para as duas versões. Assim, constata-se que as duas podem ser igualmente usadas para avaliação REBA.

  12. A Platform for Rapid, Quantitative Assessment of Multiple Drug Combinations Simultaneously in Solid Tumors In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyoti Dey

    Full Text Available While advances in high-throughput screening have resulted in increased ability to identify synergistic anti-cancer drug combinations, validation of drug synergy in the in vivo setting and prioritization of combinations for clinical development remain low-throughput and resource intensive. Furthermore, there is currently no viable method for prospectively assessing drug synergy directly in human patients in order to potentially tailor therapies. To address these issues we have employed the previously described CIVO platform and developed a quantitative approach for investigating multiple combination hypotheses simultaneously in single living tumors. This platform provides a rapid, quantitative and cost effective approach to compare and prioritize drug combinations based on evidence of synergistic tumor cell killing in the live tumor context. Using a gemcitabine resistant model of pancreatic cancer, we efficiently investigated nine rationally selected Abraxane-based combinations employing only 19 xenografted mice. Among the drugs tested, the BCL2/BCLxL inhibitor ABT-263 was identified as the one agent that synergized with Abraxane® to enhance acute induction of localized apoptosis in this model of human pancreatic cancer. Importantly, results obtained with CIVO accurately predicted the outcome of systemic dosing studies in the same model where superior tumor regression induced by the Abraxane/ABT-263 combination was observed compared to that induced by either single agent. This supports expanded use of CIVO as an in vivo platform for expedited in vivo drug combination validation and sets the stage for performing toxicity-sparing drug combination studies directly in cancer patients with solid malignancies.

  13. Rapid assessment of octocoral diversity and habitat on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Etnoyer

    Full Text Available Saba Bank is a large submerged platform (approximately 2200 km(2, average depth 30 m, located 4 km southwest of Saba Island in Netherlands Antilles, Caribbean Sea. Ships traveling to and from oil terminals on nearby St. Eustatius routinely anchor on the Bank, damaging benthic megafauna. Gorgonian octocorals are vulnerable to anchor damage, and they are common and conspicuous in shallow water (15-50 m around the banks. This prompted a rapid assessment of octocoral habitat and diversity. The primary objectives were to estimate total species richness and to characterize habitats vis a vis gorgonians. Landsat imagery and multibeam bathymetry were employed to identify random sites for quantitative transects. A Seabotix LBV200L remotely operated vehicle (ROV and SCUBA were used to collect and survey to 130 m. A total of 14 scuba dives and 3 ROV dives were completed in 10 days. During that time, 48 octocoral species were collected, including two likely undescribed species in the genera Pterogorgia and Lytreia. Gorgonian richness was exceptional, but not all species were collected, because the species accumulation curve remained steeply inclined after all surveys. Two shallow-water gorgonian habitat types were identified using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses: 1 a high diversity, high density fore-reef environment characterized by Eunicea spp., Gorgonia spp., and Pseudopterogorgia spp. and 2 a low diversity, low density plateau environment characterized by Pseudopterogorgia acerosa, Pterogorgia guadalupensis, and Gorgonia mariae. The analyses support hypotheses of broad (approximately 15 km habitat homogeneity (ANOSIM, P>0.05, but a significant difference between fore-reef and plateau environments (ANOSIM, P<0.05. However, there was some indication of habitat heterogeneity along the 15 km study section of the 50 km platform edge along the southeast rim. Our results highlight the complexity and biodiversity of the Saba Bank, and

  14. A rapid assessment of the availability and use of obstetric care in Nigerian healthcare facilities.

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    Daniel O Erim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to reduce maternal deaths in Nigeria, pregnant women are being encouraged to give birth in healthcare facilities. However, little is known about whether or not available healthcare facilities can cope with an increasing demand for obstetric care. We thus carried out this survey as a rapid and tactical assessment of facility quality. We visited 121 healthcare facilities, and used the opportunity to interview over 700 women seeking care at these facilities. FINDINGS: Most of the primary healthcare facilities we visited were unable to provide all basic Emergency Obstetric Care (bEmOC services. In general, they lack clinical staff needed to dispense maternal and neonatal care services, ambulances and uninterrupted electricity supply whenever there were obstetric emergencies. Secondary healthcare facilities fared better, but, like their primary counterparts, lack neonatal care infrastructure. Among patients, most lived within 30 minutes of the visited facilities and still reported some difficulty getting there. Of those who had had two or more childbirths, the conditional probability of a delivery occurring in a healthcare facility was 0.91 if the previous delivery occurred in a healthcare facility, and 0.24 if it occurred at home. The crude risk of an adverse neonatal outcome did not significantly vary by delivery site or birth attendant, and the occurrence of such an outcome during an in-facility delivery may influence the mother to have her next delivery outside. Such an outcome during a home delivery may not prompt a subsequent in-facility delivery. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, reducing maternal deaths in Nigeria will require attention to both increasing the number of facilities with high-quality EmOC capability and also assuring Nigerian women have access to these facilities regardless of where they live.

  15. Rapid, serial, non-invasive assessment of drug efficacy in mice with autoluminescent Mycobacterium ulcerans infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is the world's third most common mycobacterial infection. There is no vaccine against BU and surgery is needed for patients with large ulcers. Although recent experience indicates combination chemotherapy with streptomycin and rifampin improves cure rates, the utility of this regimen is limited by the 2-month duration of therapy, potential toxicity and required parenteral administration of streptomycin, and drug-drug interactions caused by rifampin. Discovery and development of drugs for BU is greatly hampered by the slow growth rate of M. ulcerans, requiring up to 3 months of incubation on solid media to produce colonies. Surrogate markers for evaluating antimicrobial activity in real-time which can be measured serially and non-invasively in infected footpads of live mice would accelerate pre-clinical evaluation of new drugs to treat BU. Previously, we developed bioluminescent M. ulcerans strains, demonstrating proof of concept for measuring luminescence as a surrogate marker for viable M. ulcerans in vitro and in vivo. However, the requirement of exogenous substrate limited the utility of such strains, especially for in vivo experiments.For this study, we engineered M. ulcerans strains that express the entire luxCDABE operon and therefore are autoluminescent due to endogenous substrate production. The selected reporter strain displayed a growth rate and virulence similar to the wild-type parent strain and enabled rapid, real-time monitoring of in vitro and in vivo drug activity, including serial, non-invasive assessments in live mice, producing results which correlated closely with colony-forming unit (CFU counts for a panel of drugs with various mechanisms of action.Our results indicate that autoluminescent reporter strains of M. ulcerans are exceptional tools for pre-clinical evaluation of new drugs to treat BU due to their potential to drastically reduce the time, effort, animals, compound

  16. Quantitative assessment of motor speech abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusz, Jan; Hlavnička, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Bušková, Jitka; Ulmanová, Olga; Růžička, Evžen; Šonka, Karel

    2016-03-01

    Patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) are at substantial risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) or related neurodegenerative disorders. Speech is an important indicator of motor function and movement coordination, and therefore may be an extremely sensitive early marker of changes due to prodromal neurodegeneration. Speech data were acquired from 16 RBD subjects and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Objective acoustic assessment of 15 speech dimensions representing various phonatory, articulatory, and prosodic deviations was performed. Statistical models were applied to characterise speech disorders in RBD and to estimate sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between RBD and control subjects. Some form of speech impairment was revealed in 88% of RBD subjects. Articulatory deficits were the most prominent findings in RBD. In comparison to controls, the RBD group showed significant alterations in irregular alternating motion rates (p = 0.009) and articulatory decay (p = 0.01). The combination of four distinctive speech dimensions, including aperiodicity, irregular alternating motion rates, articulatory decay, and dysfluency, led to 96% sensitivity and 79% specificity in discriminating between RBD and control subjects. Speech impairment was significantly more pronounced in RBD subjects with the motor score of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale greater than 4 points when compared to other RBD individuals. Simple quantitative speech motor measures may be suitable for the reliable detection of prodromal neurodegeneration in subjects with RBD, and therefore may provide important outcomes for future therapy trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Study of Postural Loading in Malaysian Mining Industry using Rapid Entire Body Assessment

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    Norhidayah M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ergonomics and environment factors have been the core issue for the mining industry for many years, and its profiles are rising. To ensure an ergonomics work environment, it is possible to require specific attention especially in this industries sector. It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the essential issue in Malaysia due to lack of ergonomics knowledge and low awareness among the engineers in the mining sector. The focus of this study is to evaluate and validate the physical risk factor associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSDs by using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA among mining industry workers. All the physical risk factors involved the main body regions such as upper arm, lower arm, wrist, trunk, neck and leg that has been identified associated with WMSDs. There were 18 subjects were selected to involve in this study. Those subjects were chosen according to their job task. To increase the reliability of the result, each subject was evaluated thrice in the trials. From the analysis, the average of final score of the REBA is 8.24 indicates high risk and calls for engineering/or work method changes to reduce or eliminate muscular disorder risk. The results of the analysis were used to improve the process of work, design of workstation and also improving the work posture to enhance the comfort level of operators. This study is crucial among the mining industry that is a lack of the information and research about the ergonomics issues in the industry. The overall finding indicated that the whole process of selected work task will contribute to musculoskeletal disorder either for a short or long time exposure.

  18. Rapid toxicity assessment of sediments from estuarine ecosystems: A new tandem in vitro testing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. Thomas; Long, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    Microtox?? and Mutatox?? were used to evaluate the acute toxicity and genotoxicity, respectively, of organic sediment extracts from Pensacola Bay and St. Andrew Bay, two estuaries that cover about 273 and 127 km2, respectively, along the Gulf coast of Florida, USA. The sensitivity and selectivity of these two bioluminescent toxicity assays were demonstrated in validation studies with over 50 pesticides, genotoxins, and industrial pollutants, both as single compounds and in complex mixtures. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of insecticides, petroleum products, and polychlorinated biphenyls determined by Microtox all tended to group around the mean EC50 value of 1.2 (0.8) mg/L. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sensitivity of Mutatox was in general similar to that reported in the Ames test. Surficial sediment samples were collected, extracted with dichloromethane, evaporated and concentrated under nitrogen, dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, assayed for acute toxicity and genotoxicity, and compared with reference sediments. Samples with low EC50 values, and determined to be genotoxic, were detected in Massalina Bayou, Watson Bayou, East Bay, and St. Andrew Bay-East in St. Andrew Bay as well as Bayou Grande, Bayou Chico, and Bayou Texar in Pensacola Bay. An overview of these data sets analyzed by Spearman rank correlation showed a significant correlation between acute toxicity and genotoxicity (p < 0.05). Microtox and Mutatox in tandem was a sensitive, cost-effective, and rapid (<24 h) screening tool that identified troublesome areas of pollution and assessed the potential sediment toxicity of lipophilic contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Adapting a rapid river assessment protocols to be used by elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to adapt a rapid river assessment protocols (RAP to be used by elementary school children. The study was conducted in Ipameri, GO and the RAP was adapted for the evaluation of streams in the Cerrado biome. Based on two protocol models, the developed RAP included: physical parameters that affect the functioning of streams, language adapted to the educational level of elementary school and the presence of drawings that could facilitate the field application of RAP by the students. For consolidation of the adapted instrument, it was offered a monitoring workshop to 95 students from two public education institutions, and developed an analysis and interpretation of the pattern of responses obtained during the practical step of the workshop. The Bartlett and Levene tests revealed no statistical differences between the response patterns of the students, allowing to infer that the developed RAP was understandable by the evaluators. The application of the RAP was fast (20 to 40 minutes and the students reported that the developed instrument helped them to familiarize with environmental issues. In addition, the monitoring workshop helped them to understand the instrument and the available illustrations facilitated the field evaluation. In addition, the students concluded that they have become aware of the issues related to the water resource preservation and also that participation in the environmental monitoring workshop allowed the appropriation of knowledge about the river system functioning. It was concluded that adapted RAP has been proved to be a useful and interesting tool for using in environmental education projects and programs.

  20. Procedures to relate the NII safety assessment principles for nuclear reactors to risk

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Hemming, C R

    1985-01-01

    Within the framework of the Public Inquiry into the proposed pressurised water reactor (PWR) at Sizewell, estimates were made of the levels of individual and societal risk from a PWR designed in a manner which would conform to the safety assessment principles formulated by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). The procedures used to derive these levels of risk are described in this report. The opportunity has also been taken to revise the risk estimates made at the time of the Inquiry by taking account of additional data which were not then available, and to provide further quantification of the likely range of uncertainty in the predictions. This re-analysis has led to small changes in the levels of risk previously evaluated, but these are not sufficient to affect the broad conclusions reached before. For a reactor just conforming to the NII safety assessment principles a maximum individual risk of fatal cancer of about 10 sup - sup 6 per year of reactor operation has been estimated; the societal ris...

  1. Validation of a novel intraoperative assessment tool: The Surgical Procedure Feedback Rubric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, Ayca; Luhanga, Ulemu; Jones, Sarah; Winthrop, Andrea; McEwen, Laura

    2016-02-01

    The Surgical Procedure Feedback Rubric (SPR) is a tool to document resident intraoperative performance and provide targeted feedback to support learning in a competency-based model of surgical education. It differs from other assessment tools because it defines performance criteria by increasing complexity through the use of behavioral anchors, thus embedding standards of performance within the tool. This study explores aspects of validity of the SPR as an assessment tool. A 14-month observational study was conducted in 2 surgical training programs. Factor structure of the SPR was examined using exploratory factor analysis. Discriminative ability of the SPR was examined using analysis of variance. The SPR measures 3 factors: Operating Room Preparation, Technical skill, and intrinsic Competencies. Analysis of variance demonstrated the utility of the SPR to discriminate between intraoperative performances of residents by postgraduate training year. This study contributes to the validity argument for the SPR by providing evidence for construct and discriminative validity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Surgical procedures and pediatric medical traumatic stress (PMTS) syndrome: Assessment and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Amichai Ben; Peri, Tuvia; Margalit, Daniella; Galili-Weisstub, Esti; Udassin, Raphael; Benarroch, Fortu

    2017-10-16

    Surgical procedures involve traumatic stress. Children may develop chronic psychological distress and dysfunction after surgery, with consequent reluctance to comply with medical follow-up care. A literature review of this topic shows that it has been understudied. Our study aims to assess the frequency and characteristics of symptoms of persistent psychological distress in children following surgery, which have not been documented before, in order to promote its awareness and its early identification. Parents of 79 children (aged 1-6) that were hospitalized in a pediatric surgical ward, comprising a representative sample, completed three validated questionnaires assessing their children's psychological symptoms 3-5months after the hospitalization. A significant portion of children suffer from psychological distress 3-5months after hospitalization. Moreover, 10.39% of the children exhibited symptoms of PTSD, and 28.6% of parents reported that the child's distress causes dysfunction. Additionally, our findings emphasize the parents' concerns regarding the child's behavior, function, and health following hospitalization. Since a significant prevalence of hospitalization-related traumatic stress is documented, the awareness to it has to be improved, in order to reduce its frequency and increase adherence to medical follow-up care. Prognosis study. 1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Air-launched GPR evaluation for rapid assessment of MoDOT bridge decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The overarching goal of this study is to demonstrate that advanced nondestructive testing/evaluation (NDT/NDE) techniques can be rapidly, effectively, and economically implemented as part of routine MoDOT bridge deck surveys to determine the general ...

  4. Pain assessment and management in patients undergoing endovascular procedures in the catheterization laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, Thamires de Souza; Santos, Simone Marques Dos; Kruger, Juliana; Goes, Martha Georgina; Casco, Márcia Flores; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2017-05-25

    To describe how pain is assessed (characteristic, location, and intensity) and managed in clinical practice in patients undergoing endovascular procedures in the catheterization laboratory setting. Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection. Overall, 345 patients were included; 116 (34%) experienced post-procedural pain; in 107 (92%), pain characteristics were not recorded; the location of pain was reported in 100% of patients, and its intensity in 111 (96%); management was largely pharmacologic; of the patients who received some type of management (n=71), 42 (59%) underwent reassessment of pain. The location and intensity of pain are well reported in clinical practice. Pharmacologic pain management is still prevalent. Additional efforts are needed to ensure recording of the characteristics of pain and its reassessment after interventions. Describir cómo se evalúa el dolor (características, localización e intensidad) y su manejo en la práctica clínica en pacientes sometidos a procedimientos endovasculares en el laboratorio de cateterización. Estudio transversal con recolección retrospectiva de datos. En total, se incluyeron 345 pacientes; 116 (34%) experimentaron dolor post-procedimiento; en 107 (92%), no se registraron las características del dolor; la localización del dolor se informó en el 100% de los pacientes, y su intensidad en 111 (96%); el manejo fue en gran medida farmacológico; de los pacientes que recibieron algún tipo de tratamiento (n=71), 42 (59%) fueron sometidos a reevaluación del dolor. La ubicación y la intensidad del dolor se informan bien en la práctica clínica. El manejo farmacológico del dolor sigue siendo frecuente. Se necesitan esfuerzos adicionales para asegurar el registro de las características del dolor y su reevaluación después de las intervenciones.

  5. Photographic assessment of nasal morphology following rapid maxillary expansion in children

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Gabriel da Silva Filho; Tulio Silva Lara; Priscila Vaz Ayub; Amanda Sayuri Cardoso Ohashi; Francisco Antônio Bertoz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to use facial analysis to determine the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on nasal morphology in children in the stages of primary and mixed dentition, with posterior cross-bite. Material and Methods: Facial photographs (front view and profile) of 60 patients in the pre-expansion period, immediate post-expansion period and one year following rapid maxillary expansion with a Haas appliance were evaluated on 2 occasions by 3 experienced ortho...

  6. [Novel Examination Procedures for the Assessment of Retinal Artery Occlusion by OCT Angiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loidl, Max; Enders, Christian; Werner, Jens Ulrich; Lang, Gerhard K; Lang, Gabriele E

    2017-09-01

    Background Retinal artery occlusion (RAO) is the most common primary angiopathy of the retina. With an incidence of 0.01 - 0.15%, this it is a rather rare disease, but is associated with irreversible damage to the retina and a poor prognosis for visual acuity. Since the 1960s - when fluorescence angiography (FA) was developed -, there has been little change in diagnostic investigations. FA is still the standard procedure for the assessment of retinal artery occlusions. With the development of OCT angiography (OCT-A), new multimodal imaging procedures have become possible. Patients/Methods We used Zeiss AngioPlex ® -OCT-A technology in combination with the CIRRUS ™ HD-OCT 5000 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, USA) to create 6 × 6 mm and 3 × 3 mm volume scans of the area of non-perfusion in patients with RAO. Qualitative OCT-A analysis was performed on retinal images segmented into the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus. In addition to this, volumetric scans can be segmented to any specific depth of the retina. On the basis of 4 cases, we demonstrate that OCT-A can be used to evaluate RAO. We present typical OCT-A findings. Results OCT-A images allow the detection of non-perfused areas in patients with acute and chronic RAO. The zones of reduced vascular perfusion are differently distributed in the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus. In both acute and chronic cases of RAO, OCT-A offers important information on retinal vascular perfusion. Conclusion OCT-A can be used in the diagnosis and monitoring of acute and chronic cases of RAO. The advantages of OCT-A are that this technique is non-invasive and allows three dimensional microvascular visualisation within seconds. Although artefacts and the currently limited field of view can make it difficult to interpret OCT-A images reliably, these findings suggest that OCT-A may in future replace FA in the assessment of RAO in most patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New

  7. Bulk Combinatorial Synthesis and High Throughput Characterization for Rapid Assessment of Magnetic Materials: Application of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, J.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Besser, M. F.; Simsek, E.; Ott, R. T.

    2016-07-01

    A bulk combinatorial approach for synthesizing alloy libraries using laser engineered net shaping (LENS™; i.e., 3D printing) was utilized to rapidly assess material systems for magnetic applications. The LENS™ system feeds powders in different ratios into a melt pool created by a laser to synthesize samples with bulk (millimeters) dimensions. By analyzing these libraries with autosampler differential scanning calorimeter/thermal gravimetric analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry, we are able to rapidly characterize the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of the libraries. The Fe-Co binary alloy was used as a model system and the results were compared with data in the literature.

  8. A meta-analysis of criterion effects for the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) in the clinical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahey, Nigel A; Nicholson, Emma; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2015-09-01

    The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) is a technique that is attracting a substantial body of research literature, particularly within the clinical domain. In response, the present paper outlines a meta-analysis of clinically-focused IRAP effects (N = 494) to provide the first estimate of how well such effects validate against their respective criterion variables in general. The meta-analysis incorporated clinically-focused IRAP effects from 15 studies yielding a large effect size, r¯ = .45, with a desirably narrow 95% credibility interval (.23, .67). The funnel plot and subsequent sensitivity analyses indicated that this meta-effect was not subject to publication bias. The present meta-effect is an estimate based upon an IRAP literature that is still evolving rapidly in the clinical domain, and so as per its accompanying credibility interval, all conclusions that follow are necessarily provisional even if bounded. Apart from the fact that the current meta-effect might be subject to inadvertent under- and/or over-estimations of the current literature, the present meta-effect might strengthen with further refinements of the IRAP. The current meta-effect provides the means to calculate what sample size would be required to achieve a statistical power of .80 when testing the criterion validity of clinically-focused IRAP effects using a given parametric statistic. For example, first-order Pearson correlations would hypothetically require an N of 29-37 for such purposes depending upon how conservatively over-estimation of the present meta-effect is controlled for. Overall, the IRAP compares favourably with alternative implicit measures in clinical psychology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Convenient In Vivo Model Using Small Interfering RNA Silencing to Rapidly Assess Skeletal Gene Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available It is difficult to study bone in vitro because it contains various cell types that engage in cross-talk. Bone biologically links various organs, and it has thus become increasingly evident that skeletal physiology must be studied in an integrative manner in an intact animal. We developed a model using local intraosseous small interfering RNA (siRNA injection to rapidly assess the effects of a target gene on the local skeletal environment. In this model, 160-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 1-2 weeks. The left tibia received intraosseous injection of a parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (Pth1r or insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf-1r siRNA transfection complex loaded in poloxamer 407 hydrogel, and the right tibia received the same volume of control siRNA. All the tibias received an intraosseous injection of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34 (rhPTH (1-34 or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. Calcein green and alizarin red were injected 6 and 2 days before euthanasia, respectively. IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were detected via RT-PCR assays and immunohistochemistry. Bone mineral density (BMD, microstructure, mineral apposition rates (MARs, and strength were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, micro-CT, histology and biomechanical tests. The RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results revealed that IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were dramatically diminished in the siRNA-treated left tibias compared to the right tibias (both p<0.05. Using poloxamer 407 hydrogel as a controlled-release system prolonged the silencing effect of a single dose of siRNA; the mRNA expression levels of IGF-1R were lower at two weeks than at one week (p<0.01. The BMD, bone microstructure parameters, MAR and bone strength were significantly decreased in the left tibias compared to the right tibias (all p<0.05. This simple and convenient local intraosseous siRNA injection model achieved gene silencing with very small quantities of

  10. [Rapid ecological assessment of tropical fish communities in a gold mine area of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Mendiola, Mario

    2008-12-01

    Gold mining impacts have generated a great concern regarding aquatic systems and habitat fragmentation. Anthropogenic disturbances on the structure and heterogeneity of a system can have an important effect on aquatic community stability. Ecological rapid assessments (1996, 2002, and 2007) were employed to determine the structure, composition and distribution of tropical fish communities in several rivers and smaller creeks from a gold mining area in Cerro Crucitas, Costa Rica. In addition, species composition and relative abundance were related with habitat structure. A total of 35 species were registered, among which sardine Astyanax aeneus (Characidae) and livebearer Alfaro cultratus (Poeciliidae) were the most abundant fish (71%). The highest species richness was observed in Caño Crucitas (s=19) and Minas Creek (s=18). Significant differences in fish communities structure and composition from Infiernillo river and Minas creek were observed (lamda = 0.0, F(132, 66) = 2.24, p < 0.001). Presence and/or absence of certain species such as Dormitor gobiomorus, Rhamdia nicaraguensis, Parachromis loiseillei and Atractosteus tropicus explained most of the spatial variation among sites. Habitat structure also contributed to explain differences among sites (lamda = 0.004, F(60.183) = 5.52, p < 0.001). Substratum (soft and hard bottom types) and habitat attributes (elevation, width and depth) explained most of the variability observed in Infiernillo River, Caño Crucitas and Tamagá Creek. In addition, a significant association between fish species and habitat structure was observed. This study reveals a high complexity in tropical fish communities that inhabit a gold mine area. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in fish community dynamics. The loss and degradation of aquatic systems in Cerro Crucitas can have a strong negative effect on fish community structure and composition of local species. A better understanding of the use of specific

  11. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjam, Suraj Singh; Vashist, Praveen; Gupta, Noopur; Malhotra, Sumit; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit; Gupta, Vivek

    2016-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) due to uncorrected refractive error (URE) and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi. A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was assessed in each eye using Snellen's "E" chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was attitude toward the refractive error. Understanding these aspects will help in planning appropriate strategies to eliminate VI due to URE.

  12. Rapid quantitative assessment of land patterns change and erupted volumes by spaceborne SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, N.; Bianchi, M.; Cigna, F.; di Muro, A.; Fortunato, G.; Sedze, M.; Ferrucci, F.

    2013-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar observations do not apply frequently to the quantitative mapping of lava flows and of eruptive patterns, as multispectral mid-to-high spatial/temporal resolution observations are naturally best suited for high-temperature contouring and eruptive rate assessment. However, in case of urgent need for quantitative geographical information, high-spatial and high-temporal resolution SAR data may become essential or unique in providing timely information support to officials in charge of volcano emergencies. This was the case of the early weeks of the 2011-2012 Nyiamulagira eruption (DR Congo), whose fast and large lava flow developed in an area off-limited by the ongoing military unrest, and persistent cloud cover spoiled the ground view to electro-optical high-resolution payloads. A combination of two automated techniques - one non-interferometric and one interferometric - on very-high resolution X-band images acquired during less-than-weekly revisits by the Cosmo SkyMED constellation, allowed locating the eruption site, highlighting the inherent landscape modifications, mapping the progression of the ~22 km lava flow, and carrying out volume estimates by precise DEM subtractions. The interferometric technique is based on the application of the PS-InSAR derived SqueeSAR procedure (Ferretti et al., IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.,49-9, 3460-3470; 2011) to series of Cosmo-SkyMED tandem pairs for obtaining high-precision/high-resolution DEMs anywhere-anytime within a limited time framework. Validation against a recent LiDAR DEM of the summit areas of Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island) returned a typical accuracy of 0.4m × 2.3m in one-orbit geometry. The non-interferometric technique exploits amplitude and coherence changes to single out, map and measure newly appeared volcanic features of significant dimensions. The overall observation-and-processing strategy was developed in the framework and under the specifications of project EVOSS (European

  13. A procedure for assessing future trends of subdaily precipitation values on point scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianna, Guido; Villani, Veronica; Mercogliano, Paola; Vezzoli, Renata

    2015-04-01

    In many areas of Italy, urban flooding or floods in small mountain basins, induced by heavy precipitations on subdaily scale, represent remarkable hazards able to cause huge damages and casualties often increased by very high population density. A proper assessment about how frequency and magnitude of such events could change under the effect of Climate Changes (CC) is crucial for the development of future territorial planning (such as early warning systems). The current constraints of climate modeling, also using high resolution RCM, prevent an adequate representation of subdaily precipitation patterns (mainly concerning extreme values) while available observed datasets are often unsuitable for the application of the bias-correction (BC) techniques requiring long time series. In this work, a new procedure is proposed: at point scale, precipitation outputs on 24 and 48 hours are provided by high resolution (about 8km) climate simulation performed through the RCM COSMO_CLM driven by GCM CMCC_CM and bias-corrected by quantile mapping approach. These ones are adopted for a monthly stochastic disaggregation approach combining Random Parameter Bartlett-Lewis (RPBL) gamma model with appropriate rainfall disaggregation technique. The last one implements empirical correction procedures, called adjusting procedures, to modify the model rainfall output, so that it is consistent with the observed rainfall values on daily time scale. In order to take into account the great difficulties related to minimization of objective function required by retrieving the 7 RPBL parameters, for each dataset the computations are repeated twenty times. Moreover, adopting statistical properties on 24 and 48 hours to retrieve RPBL parameters allows, according Bo et al. (1994), to infer statistical properties until hourly scale maintaining the information content about the possible changes in precipitation patterns due to CC. The entire simulation chain is tested on Baiso weather station, in

  14. Reliability and validity of procedure-based assessments in otolaryngology training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Zaid; Hayden, Lindsay; Robson, Andrew K; Muthuswamy, Keerthini; Tolley, Neil S

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the reliability and construct validity of procedure-based assessment (PBA) in assessing performance and progress in otolaryngology training. Retrospective database analysis using a national electronic database. We analyzed PBAs of otolaryngology trainees in North London from core trainees (CTs) to specialty trainees (STs). The tool contains six multi-item domains: consent, planning, preparation, exposure/closure, technique, and postoperative care, rated as "satisfactory" or "development required," in addition to an overall performance rating (pS) of 1 to 4. Individual domain score, overall calculated score (cS), and number of "development-required" items were calculated for each PBA. Receiver operating characteristic analysis helped determine sensitivity and specificity. There were 3,152 otolaryngology PBAs from 46 otolaryngology trainees analyzed. PBA reliability was high (Cronbach's α 0.899), and sensitivity approached 99%. cS correlated positively with pS and level in training (rs : +0.681 and +0.324, respectively). ST had higher cS and pS than CT (93% ± 0.6 and 3.2 ± 0.03 vs. 71% ± 3.1 and 2.3 ± 0.08, respectively; P otolaryngology trainees' performance and progress at all levels. It is highly sensitive in identifying competent trainees. The tool is used in a formative and feedback capacity. The technical domain is the best predictor and should be given close attention. NA. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Preliminary study of the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure for Children and its reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) is currently used in the adult population for evaluating the functionality of impaired or prosthetic hands. The SHAP cannot be used for children because of the relatively larger size of the objects used to perform SHAP tasks and unknown clinimetric properties. The aims of this study were to adapt the SHAP for use in children (SHAP-C), to determine norm values for the SHAP-C, and to analyze the reliability of the SHAP-C. Methods The SHAP-C was adapted based on the SHAP protocol. Some objects were downsized, and the timing of tasks was performed by the rater instead of the participant. Intra- and inter-rater reliability were assessed in 24 children (5 [0.54] y/o) with unimpaired hands. The repeatability coefficients (RCs) were calculated. An RC ≤ 75% of the mean SHAP-C task values was considered good reliability. Results Participants were able to perform all SHAP-C tasks. The means of the SHAP-C tasks ranged from 0.75 to 1.21 seconds for abstract objects and from 0.64-19.13 seconds for activities of daily living. The RCs of a single assessor did not exceed 75% in 17/26 SHAP-C tasks, displaying a relatively good intra-rater reliability, whereas the RCs for the inter-rater reliability exceeded 75% in 22/26 SHAP-C tasks, thus displaying poor reliability. Conclusion In this first study that adjusted the SHAP for pediatric use, we found that all SHAP-C objects and tasks could be performed by children. The intra-rater reliability was better than the inter-rater reliability. Although the SHAP-C appears to be a promising instrument, the protocol requires further modifications to provide reliable measurements in children. PMID:24916917

  16. Preliminary assessment of the dose to the interventional radiologist in fluoro-CT-guided procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M F; Alves, J G; Sarmento, S; Santos, J A M; Sousa, M J; Gouvêa, M; Oliveira, A D; Cardoso, J V; Santos, L M

    2011-03-01

    A preliminary assessment of the occupational dose to the intervention radiologist received in fluoroscopy computerised tomography (CT) used to guide the collection of lung and bone biopsies is presented. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the capability of the reading system as well as of the available whole-body (WB) and extremity dosemeters used in routine monthly monitoring periods to measure per procedure dose values. The intervention radiologist was allocated 10 WB detectors (LiF: Mg, Ti, TLD-100) placed at chest and abdomen levels above and below the lead apron, and at both right and left arms, knees and feet. A special glove was developed with casings for the insertion of 11 extremity detectors (LiF:Mg, Cu, P, TLD-100H) for the identification of the most highly exposed fingers. The H(p)(10) dose values received above the lead apron (ranged 0.20-0.02 mSv) depend mainly on the duration of the examination and on the placement of physician relative to the beam, while values below the apron are relatively low. The left arm seems to receive a higher dose value. H(p)(0.07) values to the hand (ranged 36.30-0.06 mSv) show that the index, middle and ring fingers are the most highly exposed. In this study, the wrist dose was negligible compared with the finger dose. These results are preliminary and further studies are needed to better characterise the dose assessment in CT fluoroscopy.

  17. A Specified Procedure for Distress Identification and Assessment for Urban Road Surfaces Based on PCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Loprencipe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simplified procedure for the assessment of pavement structural integrity and the level of service for urban road surfaces is presented. A sample of 109 Asphalt Concrete (AC urban pavements of an Italian road network was considered to validate the methodology. As part of this research, the most recurrent defects, those never encountered and those not defined with respect to the list collected in the ASTM D6433 have been determined by statistical analysis. The goal of this research is the improvement of the ASTM D6433 Distress Identification Catalogue to be adapted to urban road surfaces. The presented methodology includes the implementation of a Visual Basic for Application (VBA language-based program for the computerization of Pavement Condition Index (PCI calculation with interpolation by the parametric cubic spline of all of the density/deduct value curves of ASTM D6433 distress types. Also, two new distress definitions (for manholes and for tree roots and new density/deduct curve values were proposed to achieve a new distress identification manual for urban road pavements. To validate the presented methodology, for the 109 urban pavements considered, the PCI was calculated using the new distress catalogue and using the ASTM D6433 implemented on PAVERTM. The results of the linear regression between them and their statistical parameters are presented in this paper. The comparison of the results shows that the proposed method is suitable for the identification and assessment of observed distress in urban pavement surfaces at the PCI-based scale.

  18. Learning effects of repetitive administration of the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure in novice prosthetic users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasluian, Ecaterina; Bongers, Raoul M; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2014-09-01

    The Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) evaluates the functionality of normal, injured or prosthetic hands. The aim was to evaluate the learning effects of SHAP tasks and the appropriateness of the time limits applied per task in novice prosthetic users. Right-handed unimpaired volunteers (n = 24, mean age 21.8 years) completed 8 SHAP sessions over 5 consecutive days using a prosthetic simulator. The execution times of SHAP tasks were transformed into 6 prehensile patterns, the functionality profile, and the index of function, a general functionality score. Learning effects in task times were analysed using multilevel analysis. Learning effects occurred in all SHAP tasks. Tasks, sex, sessions, tasks-sessions interaction, and the first session of the day contributed (p  25% of participants in at least the first 3 sessions, which affected the calculation of the functionality profile and index of function scores. The learning effects of SHAP in novice prosthetic users require consideration when conducting a reliability study. SHAP scores in novice prosthetic-hand users are confounded by learning effects and exceeded time limits.

  19. Development of new protocols and analysis procedures for the assessment of LBP by surface EMG techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddsson, L I; Giphart, J E; Buijs, R J; Roy, S H; Taylor, H P; De Luca, C J

    1997-10-01

    Spectral parameters of the surface electromyographic (EMG) signal from lumbar back muscles assessed during a fatiguing isometric contraction can be used to classify different categories of low back pain (LBP) subjects and control subjects without LBP. In the test protocol currently used at the NeuroMuscular Research Center at Boston University, subjects contract their back muscles at 80% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. This fatigue-based protocol has been successfully applied to persons with subacute or chronic LBP; those in acute pain, however, have not been included because of their inability to perform a maximal exertion. In this paper we will examine the force sensitivity of the currently used EMG parameters and also give an overview of some of our efforts to develop new test procedures. Our goal is to develop force-insensitive surface EMG parameters that can be used for classification purposes in populations of subjects who develop low trunk extension forces. In addition, the development of a model to predict MVC from anthropometrical measurements will be presented.

  20. FRP-RC Beam in Shear: Mechanical Model and Assessment Procedure for Pseudo-Ductile Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Petrone

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of a mechanics-based shear model for reinforced concrete (RC elements strengthened in shear with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP and a design/assessment procedure capable of predicting the failure sequence of resisting elements: the yielding of existing transverse steel ties and the debonding of FRP sheets/strips, while checking the corresponding compressive stress in concrete. The research aims at the definition of an accurate capacity equation, consistent with the requirement of the pseudo-ductile shear behavior of structural elements, that is, transverse steel ties yield before FRP debonding and concrete crushing. For the purpose of validating the proposed model, an extended parametric study and a comparison against experimental results have been conducted: it is proven that the common accepted rule of assuming the shear capacity of RC members strengthened in shear with FRP as the sum of the maximum contribution of both FRP and stirrups can lead to an unsafe overestimation of the shear capacity. This issue has been pointed out by some authors, when comparing experimental shear capacity values with the theoretical ones, but without giving a convincing explanation of that. In this sense, the proposed model represents also a valid instrument to better understand the mechanical behavior of FRP-RC beams in shear and to calculate their actual shear capacity.

  1. PAINLESS RADIAL ACCESS PROCEDURES WITH NICORANDIL: A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT WITH CONVENTIONAL VERAPAMIL - NITROGLYCERINE COCKTAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain T Kallarakkal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radial artery spasm is a major limitation of the transradial approach. This study was designed to compare the spasmolytic effect between nicorandil and the conventional cocktail of nitroglycerine and verapamil during transradial coronary procedures. Materials and methods: 200 patients were randomized into two groups to compare 8 mg of nicorandil and cocktail (mixture of normal saline, 5 mg of verapamil and 200 μg of nitroglycerin. Radial artery spasm and patient comfort in both the groups were assessed. Results: Radial artery spasm and conversion rate to femoral access were statistically insignificant comparing both groups. None of the patients in the Nicorandil group had pain or burning sensation during its administration whereas all patients who received cocktail had pain and burning sensation in spite of aspirating blood and mixing cocktail thoroughly with blood. Conclusions: Nicorandil is a superior vasodilator and can be considered as a better alternative to the conventional cocktail of nitroglycerine and verapamil without any adverse effects as it gives more comfort to the patient by avoiding pain and burning sensation during its administration

  2. Assessment of three rapid methods for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Maria João; Soares, Carlos; Mendes, Ana Constança; Guimarães, Maria Luís; Cabeda, José Manuel; Amorim, José Manuel

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated three rapid methods to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and compared them with PCR amplification of mecA. A total of 103 S. aureus strains were studied by MRSA-Screen, BBL Crystal, Velogene Genomic and mecA PCR. All the methods detected the 61 MRSA strains having the mecA gene, showing 100% sensitivity and specificity. Despite the correlation between all the rapid methods and PCR, the ease of use and shorter turnaround time of MRSA-Screen were important factors leading to the selection of this method as the routine screening technique for MRSA.

  3. Step by Step: Biology Undergraduates’ Problem-Solving Procedures during Multiple-Choice Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Luanna B.; Lemons, Paula P.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the theoretical framework of domain-specific problem solving to explore the procedures students use to solve multiple-choice problems about biology concepts. We designed several multiple-choice problems and administered them on four exams. We trained students to produce written descriptions of how they solved the problem, and this allowed us to systematically investigate their problem-solving procedures. We identified a range of procedures and organized them as domain general, domain specific, or hybrid. We also identified domain-general and domain-specific errors made by students during problem solving. We found that students use domain-general and hybrid procedures more frequently when solving lower-order problems than higher-order problems, while they use domain-specific procedures more frequently when solving higher-order problems. Additionally, the more domain-specific procedures students used, the higher the likelihood that they would answer the problem correctly, up to five procedures. However, if students used just one domain-general procedure, they were as likely to answer the problem correctly as if they had used two to five domain-general procedures. Our findings provide a categorization scheme and framework for additional research on biology problem solving and suggest several important implications for researchers and instructors. PMID:27909021

  4. Assessment of the validity of rapid diagnostic test kits available in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were collected for serology tests using five (5) different rapid diagnostic test kits from different manufacturers, HIV status determination and evaluation of the haematological parameters we carried out. As a result, there were significant differences in the results obtained between AFB tests and serological ...

  5. Assessment of the changes in the stress-related salivary cortisol levels to the various dental procedures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila J Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fear and pain are the factors producing stress and there is evidence that dental fear acquired in childhood may persist to influence adult behavior. Dental treatment is often considered as anxiety producing and stressful. Aim: To assess the levels of stress displayed by the healthy children undergoing routine dental procedures like oral examination, restoration, and extraction by analyzing salivary levels of cortisol before, during, and after the procedures. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy children aged between 4 and 8 years having their first dental visit and requiring at least one restoration and one extraction were selected. In each patient, three procedures were carried out: (i Routine dental examination, (ii restoration, and (iii extraction. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected 10 min before, during the procedure, and 30 min after each procedure at three different visits for comparison of cortisol production in response to anxiety and stress over time. Total 180 samples were collected to determine salivary cortisol levels using UBI-MAGIWEL TM kit and the readings were noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software with paired t-test, two independent sample t-tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to analyze the findings. Results: A correlation between salivary cortisol and stress in dental procedure was noticed. Cavity preparation is more stressful procedure in children, so alternative methods can be used in anxious children. Stress associated with extraction persists to a postoperative period. No correlation exists in between Corah′s anxiety scale and salivary cortisol.

  6. Validation of the Spanish-language version of the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services among Colombian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pinto, Tatiana A; Blanco-Gómez, Argénida; Díaz-Martínez, Luis A

    2016-10-01

    Seventy percent of adolescent morbidity and mortality is related to six risky behaviors. The Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services is a screening questionnaire consisting of 21 questions but there is not a validated Spanish-language version. The obj ective of this study was to validate the Spanish-language version of the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services in two Colombian cities: Bucaramanga and Medellin. The questionnaire was administered to 270 randomly selected adolescent students aged between 11 and 19 years old. Its internal consistency measured using Cronbach's alpha was 0.7207. The factor analysis showed that two factors accounted for 84.5% of variance, but factor loading indicates that only one of these is valid in Colombia: substance use (tobacco, alcohol, narcotics, and psychoactive substances). Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  7. SINTAP: draft of a unified European failure assessment procedure. An introduction; SINTAP: Entwurf einer vereinheitlichten europaeischen Fehlerbewertungsprozedur. Eine Einfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbst, U.; Kocak, M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung; Wiesner, C. [The Welding Institute (TWI), Cambridge (United Kingdom). Structural Integrity Dept.; Hodulak, L. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Fracture mechanics based flaw assessment concepts are increasingly used in industrial regulations and standards. A considerable number of different guidelines and procedures are available which are partly based on each other but also exhibit significant differences. At this background, the EU sponsored SINTAP, an interdisciplinary Brite Euram project. SINTAP stands for 'Structural Integrity Assessment Procedures for European Industry'. From 1996 to 1999 seventeen organisations from nine European countries participated in the project the aim of which was to unify the available procedures. The present report is an introduction into the content, the structure and the scientific background of the procedure which was generated within SINTAP. (orig.) [German] Bruchmechanische Bewertungskonzepte werden international in zunehmendem Masse Bestandteil industrieller Regelwerke und Fachbereichsstandards. Bereits heute existiert eine Vielzahl derartiger Vorschriften und Rechnerprogramme, die teilweise aufeinander aufbauen, teilweise aber auch signifikante Unterschiede aufweisen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurde durch die EU von 1996 bis 1999 SINTAP, ein interdisziplinaeres Brite-Euram-Projekt gefoerdert, dessen Ziel in einer Vereinheitlichung der vorhandenen Ansaetze bestand, und an dem siebzehn Institutionen aus neun europaeischen Laendern beteiligt waren. SINTAP steht fuer 'Structural Integrity Assessment Procedures for European Industry'. Der vorliegende Bericht ist eine Einfuehrung in Inhalt, Struktur und wissenschaftlichen Hintergrund der im Ergebnis des Projektes entstandenen SINTAP-Prozedur. (orig.)

  8. The Effect and Implications of a "Self-Correcting" Assessment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Alisha L.; Barnett, Jerrold

    2012-01-01

    We investigated Montepare's (2005, 2007) self-correcting procedure for multiple-choice exams. Findings related to memory suggest this procedure should lead to improved retention by encouraging students to distribute the time spent reviewing the material. Results from a general psychology class (n = 98) indicate that the benefits are not as…

  9. Urban MEMS based seismic network for post-earthquakes rapid disaster assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Luzio, Dario; D'Anna, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Life losses following disastrous earthquake depends mainly by the building vulnerability, intensity of shaking and timeliness of rescue operations. In recent decades, the increase in population and industrial density has significantly increased the exposure to earthquakes of urban areas. The potential impact of a strong earthquake on a town center can be reduced by timely and correct actions of the emergency management centers. A real time urban seismic network can drastically reduce casualties immediately following a strong earthquake, by timely providing information about the distribution of the ground shaking level. Emergency management centers, with functions in the immediate post-earthquake period, could be use this information to allocate and prioritize resources to minimize loss of human life. However, due to the high charges of the seismological instrumentation, the realization of an urban seismic network, which may allow reducing the rate of fatalities, has not been achieved. Recent technological developments in MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology could allow today the realization of a high-density urban seismic network for post-earthquakes rapid disaster assessment, suitable for the earthquake effects mitigation. In the 1990s, MEMS accelerometers revolutionized the automotive-airbag system industry and are today widely used in laptops, games controllers and mobile phones. Due to their great commercial successes, the research into and development of MEMS accelerometers are actively pursued around the world. Nowadays, the sensitivity and dynamics of these sensors are such to allow accurate recording of earthquakes with moderate to strong magnitude. Due to their low cost and small size, the MEMS accelerometers may be employed for the realization of high-density seismic networks. The MEMS accelerometers could be installed inside sensitive places (high vulnerability and exposure), such as schools, hospitals, public buildings and places of

  10. An assessment of the BEST procedure to estimate the soil water retention curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Mirko; Di Prima, Simone; Iovino, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    and γ was considered and a different couple of parameters was chosen (in general, extreme values of the parameters), lower RMSD values were detected in three out of four cases for BEST-slope; iv) the negligible observed differences of RMSD however suggest that using the reference values of infiltration constants, does not worsen significantly the soil water retention curve estimation; v) in 25% of considered soils (PAL site), the BEST procedure was not able to reproduce the retention curve of the soil in a sufficiently accurate way. In conclusion, our results showed that the BEST-slope algorithm appeared to yield more accurate estimates of water retention data with reference to three of the four sampled soils. Conversely, determining water retention curves by the -intercept and -steady algorithms may be questionable, since these algorithms overestimated hg yielding independent values of this parameter from the proportionality coefficient γ. (*) The work was supported by the project "STRATEGA, Sperimentazione e TRAsferimento di TEcniche innovative di aGricoltura conservativA", financed by Regione Puglia - Servizio Agricoltura. References Castellini, M., Iovino, M., Pirastru, M., Niedda, M., Bagarello, V., 2016. Use of BEST Procedure to Assess Soil Physical Quality in the Baratz Lake Catchment (Sardinia, Italy). Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 80:742-755. doi:10.2136/sssaj2015.11.0389 Di Prima, S., Lassabatere, L., Bagarello, V., Iovino, M., Angulo-Jaramillo, R., 2016. Testing a new automated single ring infiltrometer for Beerkan infiltration experiments. Geoderma 262, 20-34. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.08.006 Lassabatère, L., Angulo-Jaramillo, R., Soria Ugalde, J.M., Cuenca, R., Braud, I., Haverkamp, R., 2006. Beerkan Estimation of Soil Transfer Parameters through Infiltration Experiments-BEST. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70:521-532. doi:10.2136/sssaj2005.0026 Smettem, K.R.J., Parlange, J.Y., Ross, P.J., Haverkamp, R., 1994. Three-dimensional analysis of infiltration from the disc

  11. Prospective assessment of FilmArray® technology for the rapid identification of yeast isolated from blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Franck-Martel, Claire; Bailly, Éric; Le Brun, Cécile; Gyan, Emmanuel; Goudeau, Alain; Chandenier, Jacques; Lanotte, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    We prospectively assessed the ability of FilmArray® device to identify fungal species involved in bloodstream infections. It succeeded in identifying 85.7% of isolates. The automated readout of results enabled the rapid initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. Thus, FilmArray® appeared as a reliable alternative diagnostic method for the most common yeast-like species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid Evidence Assessment: What can be learnt from other jurisdictions about preventing and responding to child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, Lorraine; Richardson-foster, Helen; Barter, Christine Anne; Stanley, Nicky

    2017-01-01

    This Rapid Evidence Assessment was commissioned by the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse in England and Wales which is investigating whether public bodies and other non-state institutions have taken seriously their duties to care for and protect children and young people from child sexual abuse and exploitation. The question for the review was: What can be learnt from jurisdictions, outside of England and Wales, about the role of institutions, including accountable state and non-sta...

  13. Surveillance for injuries and illnesses and rapid health-needs assessment following Hurricanes Marilyn and Opal, September-October 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-02

    Hurricanes rated a category three or greater (on a scale of one to five) strike the United States or its territories approximately once every 1.5 years (1). In 1995, both a category two and category three hurricane struck the United States within 18 days, causing approximately 40 deaths (2). This report summarizes the surveillance for injuries and illnesses and a rapid health-needs assessment conducted after the storms.

  14. Appropriateness criteria to assess variations in surgical procedure use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Elise H; Gibbons, Melinda Maggard; Ingraham, Angela M; Shekelle, Paul G; Ko, Clifford Y

    2011-12-01

    To systematically describe appropriateness criteria (AC) developed in the United States for surgical procedures and to summarize how these criteria have been applied to identify overuse and underuse of procedures in US populations. MEDLINE literature search performed in February 2010 and May 2011. Studies were included if they addressed the appropriateness of a surgical procedure using the RAND-UCLA Appropriateness Method. Non-US studies were excluded. Information was abstracted on study design, surgical procedure, and reported rates of appropriate use, overuse, and underuse. Identified AC were cross-referenced with lists of common procedures from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the State Ambulatory Surgery databases. A total of 1601 titles were identified; 39 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 17 developed AC and 27 applied AC to US populations. Appropriateness criteria have been developed for 16 surgical procedures. Underuse has only been studied for coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and rates range from 24% to 57%. Overuse has been more broadly studied, with rates ranging from 9% to 53% for carotid endarterectomy, 0% to 14% for coronary artery bypass graft, 11% to 24% for upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy, and 16% to 70% for hysterectomy. Appropriateness criteria exist for 10 of the 25 most common inpatient procedures and 6 of the 15 top ambulatory procedures in the United States. Most studies are more than 5 years old. Most existing AC are outdated, and AC have never been developed for most common surgical procedures. A broad and coordinated effort to develop and maintain AC would be required to implement this tool to address variation in the use of surgical procedures.

  15. A new technique for rapid assessment of eutrophication status of coastal waters using a support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianyu; Che, Xiaowei; Su, Rongguo; Zhang, Chuansong; Yao, Qingzhen; Shi, Xiaoyong

    2017-05-01

    There is an urgent need to develop efficient evaluation tools that use easily measured variables to make rapid and timely eutrophication assessments, which are important for marine health management, and to implement eutrophication monitoring programs. In this study, an approach for rapidly assessing the eutrophication status of coastal waters with three easily measured parameters (turbidity, chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen) was developed by the grid search (GS) optimized support vector machine (SVM), with trophic index TRIX classification results as the reference. With the optimized penalty parameter C =64 and the kernel parameter γ =1, the classification accuracy rates reached 89.3% for the training data, 88.3% for the cross-validation, and 88.5% for the validation dataset. Because the developed approach only used three easy-to-measure variables, its application could facilitate the rapid assessment of the eutrophication status of coastal waters, resulting in potential cost savings in marine monitoring programs and assisting in the provision of timely advice for marine management.

  16. Assessment of grammar optimizes language tasks for the intracarotid amobarbital procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika; Kuhn, Taylor; You, S Christine; Walshaw, Patricia; Curtiss, Susan; Bookheimer, Susan

    2017-11-01

    A previous study showed that assessment of language laterality could be improved by adding grammar tests to the recovery phase of the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP) (Połczyńska et al. 2014). The aim of this study was to further investigate the extent to which grammar tests lateralize language function during the recovery phase of the IAP in a larger patient sample. Forty patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (14 females, thirty-two right-handed, mean age 38.5years, SD=10.6) participated in this study. On EEG, 24 patients had seizures originating in the left hemisphere (LH), 13 in the right hemisphere (RH), and 4 demonstrated mixed seizure origin. Thirty participants (75%) had bilateral injections, and ten (25%) had unilateral injections (five RH and five LH). Based on results from the encoding phase, we segregated our study participants to a LH language dominant and a mixed dominance group. In the recovery phase of the IAP, the participants were administered a new grammar test (the CYCLE-N) and a standard language test. We analyzed the laterality index measure and effect sizes in the two tests. In the LH-dominant group, the CYCLE-N generated more profound language deficits in the recovery phase than the standard after injection to either hemisphere (pgrammar tasks was still higher than for the standard tests. Critically, the CYCLE-N administered in the recovery phase was nearly as effective as the standard tests given during the encoding phase. The results may be significant for individuals with epilepsy undergoing IAP. The grammar tests may be a highly efficient measure for lateralizing language function in the recovery phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrated assessment procedure for determining the fracture strength of glass components in CSP systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guerra Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The structural integrity and reliability of glass components are key issues for concentrated solar power (CSP systems. For example, the glass windows in a solar furnace may suffer catastrophic fracture due to thermal and structural loadings, including reaction chamber pressure cycling. Predicting design strength provides the basis for which the optical components and mounting assembly can be designed so that failure does not occur over the operational lifetime of a given CSP system. The fracture strength of brittle materials is dependent on the size and distribution of cracks or surface flaws. Due to the inherent brittleness of glass resulting in catastrophic failure, conservative design approaches are currently used for the development of optical components made of glass, which generally neglect the specific glass composition as well as subcritical crack growth, surface area under stress, and nature of the load – either static or cyclic – phenomena. In this paper, several methods to characterize the strength of glass are discussed to aid engineers in predicting a design strength for a given surface finish, glass type, and environment. Based on the Weibull statistical approach and experimental data available on testing silica glass rod specimens, a theoretical model is developed for estimating their fracture strength under typical loading conditions. Then, an integrated assessment procedure for structural glass elements is further developed based on fracture mechanics and the theory of probability, which is based on the probabilistic modelling of the complex behaviour of glass fracture but avoids the complexity for calculation in applications. As an example, the design strength of a glass window suitable for a solar furnace reaction chamber is highlighted.

  18. Development of Biocompatibility Procedures for Assessment of Plant Growth in Ground Test Hardware for the EMCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, R. N.; Steele, M. K.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) is an European Space Agency-developed facility designed to support plant research in microgravity on the IS NASA is responsible for providing US specific hardware to use within the EMCS. In preparation for flight, research will be developed and tested at Ames Research Center in the EMCS ground test hardware, the Experiment Reference Module (ERM) In order to determine the acceptability of the ERM for such purposes, biocompatibility tests will be performed to determine that the hardware functions as intended and successfully supports the' growth of plants. In this report, we describe the development of procedures and the collection of baseline data against which to compare ERM function, e.g. biocompatibility testing. A simple and robust system was developed to grow whole Arabidopsis thaliana plants within the confined volumes characteristic of spaceflight hardware. Our system for growing plants eliminated the necessity of a water/nutrient delivery system and allowed for quantifiable assessment of individual plants, as well as entire population dynamics. To insure uniform germination, seeds were started in small straw segments and transplanted into modified scintillation vials. Seedlings were selected prior to transplantation to decrease genetic variability. Plants were grown for a total of 24 days in standard laboratory plant growth chambers under controlled conditions. Sequential digital still images were taken on a daily basis. Analysis of these images allowed for the quantification of even minute environmental effect, on growth dynamics whole plants. The data collected provide reliable growth curves against which to compare plants grown in the ERM.

  19. Comparison of four extraction procedures to assess arsenate and arsenite species in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giral, Melanie [Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada); Zagury, Gerald J., E-mail: gerald.zagury@polymtl.c [Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada); Deschenes, Louise [The Interuniversity Research Centre for the Life Cycle of Products, Processes and Services (CIRAIG), Department of Chemical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada); Blouin, Jean-Pierre [Centre d' expertise en analyse environnementale du Quebec, Ministere de l' Environnement, du Developpement Durable et des Parcs, 850, boulevard Vanier, Laval, Quebec H7C 2M7 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Inorganic arsenic in soils poses an important environmental concern. Several studies reported an oxidation of arsenite to arsenate during its extraction from soils. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify, among published procedures, an extraction method which preserves the oxidation state of arsenic and (2) to assess the influence of soil physicochemical properties on the performance of these methods. Four extraction strategies were compared: 1) 10 M HCl, 2) 15% (v/v) H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, 3) 10 mM phosphate + 0.5% (w/v) NaDDC, and, 4) 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + 0.5 M ascorbic acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6}). Separation and analysis of As species was performed by HPLC-ICP/MS. Oxidation of As(III) into As(V) during extraction was more important in soils with high content of Mn oxides. Extraction of arsenic from soils with 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + 0.5 M C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6} under microwaves was the best strategy to extract the majority of As while minimizing conversion of As(III) into As(V). - Extraction of arsenic from soils with 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + 0.5 M C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6} under microwaves is a suitable method to extract the majority of As while minimizing conversion of As(III) into As(V).

  20. Rapid landslide risk assessment of transport infrastructure following the 13 November 2016 Kaikoura, New Zealand, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tom; Rosser, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake-generated landslides pose a significant risk to critical infrastructure, especially transport networks. For post-earthquake emergency response, identifying where landslides have affected transport networks is vital for understanding the ground access available to affected locations. However, post-earthquake landslide mapping is a difficult and time-consuming task, hindered by issues relating to the collection and processing of satellite images, cloud cover, and manual mapping. The development of rapid landslide modelling techniques for post-earthquake application can allow landslide hazard and risk to be modelled within hours of the earthquake occurring, leading to faster understanding of the likely losses to transport infrastructure. This study presents the results of efforts to rapidly model the extent of and losses related to landsliding following the 13 November 2016 Kaikoura earthquake in New Zealand. Using previously published data on landslide pre-disposing factors, the landslide hazard resulting from this earthquake was modelled in order to identify locations where landslides were most likely. This was combined with a simple horizon-scanning method along critical transport lines to identify zones in which landslides could potentially impact the networks. Landslide hazard in these zones was subsequently weighted by the reach angle to the respective network and averaged for the entire zone. The results show the relative risk of landslides impacting different sections of the transport networks and were derived within 48 hours of the earthquake occurring. These models rapidly and correctly highlighted the numerous blockages along the vital State Highway 1 link between Christchurch and Kaikoura, as well as those on the only alternative inland route. This demonstrates that accurate and rapid analysis of landslide losses can be undertaken immediately post-earthquake, with results potentially available within hours of the event, far sooner than current

  1. Assessment Procedures of Norwegian PhD Theses as Viewed by Examiners from the USA, the UK and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyvik, Svein

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the assessment procedures of Norwegian PhD theses as viewed by external members of evaluation committees from three countries with different examination systems; the USA, the UK and Sweden. Their viewpoints give useful information not only on the pros and cons with the Norwegian system, but also on the strengths and…

  2. Exploring the Potential for and Promise of Incorporating Distributive and Procedural Justices into Post-Secondary Assessment of Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Christine Cooper

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of incorporating constructs of distributive justice and procedural justice into summative assessment of student learning in higher education. I systematically compare the process used by managers to evaluate employee performance in organizations--performance appraisal (PA)--with processes used by professors to…

  3. Procedural Influence on Internal and External Assessment Scores of Undergraduate Vocational and Technical Education Research Projects in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. C., John; Manabete, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine the procedural influence on internal and external assessment scores of undergraduate research projects in vocational and technical education programmes in the university under study. A survey research design was used for the conduct of this study. The population consisted of 130 lecturers and 1,847 students in the…

  4. Step by Step: Biology Undergraduates' Problem-Solving Procedures during Multiple-Choice Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Luanna B; Lemons, Paula P

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the theoretical framework of domain-specific problem solving to explore the procedures students use to solve multiple-choice problems about biology concepts. We designed several multiple-choice problems and administered them on four exams. We trained students to produce written descriptions of how they solved the problem, and this allowed us to systematically investigate their problem-solving procedures. We identified a range of procedures and organized them as domain general, domain specific, or hybrid. We also identified domain-general and domain-specific errors made by students during problem solving. We found that students use domain-general and hybrid procedures more frequently when solving lower-order problems than higher-order problems, while they use domain-specific procedures more frequently when solving higher-order problems. Additionally, the more domain-specific procedures students used, the higher the likelihood that they would answer the problem correctly, up to five procedures. However, if students used just one domain-general procedure, they were as likely to answer the problem correctly as if they had used two to five domain-general procedures. Our findings provide a categorization scheme and framework for additional research on biology problem solving and suggest several important implications for researchers and instructors. © 2016 L. B. Prevost and P. P. Lemons. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  5. Implementation of 350-2500 nm diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography to rapidly assess manufacturing consistency and quality of cotrimoxazole tablets in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaale, Eliangiringa; Hope, Samuel M; Jenkins, David; Layloff, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To assess the quality of cotrimoxazole tablets produced by a Tanzanian manufacturer by a newly instituted quality assurance programme. Tablets underwent a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy procedure with periodic quality assessment confirmation by assay and dissolution testing using validated HPTLC techniques (including weight variation and disintegration evaluations). Based on results from the primary test methods, the first group of product was 99% compliance. This approach provides a model for rapidly assuring product quality of future procurements of other products that is more cost-effective than traditional pharmaceutical testing techniques. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Applying 'Evidence-Based Medicine' Theory to Interventional Radiology.Part 2: A Spreadsheet for Swift Assessment of Procedural Benefit and Harm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacEneaney, Peter M.; Malone, Dermot E

    2000-12-01

    AIM: To design a spreadsheet program to analyse interventional radiology (IR) data rapidly produced in local research or reported in the literature using 'evidence-based medicine' (EBM) parameters of treatment benefit and harm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microsoft Excel{sup TM}was used. The spreadsheet consists of three worksheets. The first shows the 'Levels of Evidence and Grades of Recommendations' that can be assigned to therapeutic studies as defined by the Oxford Centre for EBM. The second and third worksheets facilitate the EBM assessment of therapeutic benefit and harm. Validity criteria are described. These include the assessment of the adequacy of sample size in the detection of possible procedural complications. A contingency (2 x 2) table for raw data on comparative outcomes in treated patients and controls has been incorporated. Formulae for EBM calculations are related to these numerators and denominators in the spreadsheet. The parameters calculated are benefit -- relative risk reduction, absolute risk reduction, number needed to treat (NNT). Harm -- relative risk, relative odds, number needed to harm (NNH). Ninety-five per cent confidence intervals are calculated for all these indices. The results change automatically when the data in the therapeutic outcome cells are changed. A final section allows the user to correct the NNT or NNH in their application to individual patients. RESULTS: This spreadsheet can be used on desktop and palmtop computers. The MS Excel{sup TM}version can be downloaded via the Internet from the URL ftp://radiography.com/pub/TxHarm00.xls. CONCLUSION: A spreadsheet is useful for the rapid analysis of the clinical benefit and harm from IR procedures. MacEneaney, P.M. and Malone, D.E.

  7. Reliability assessment of a manual-based procedure towards learning curve modeling and fmea analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rech

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Separation procedures in drug Distribution Centers (DC are manual-based activities prone to failures such as shipping exchanged, expired or broken drugs to the customer. Two interventions seem as promising in improving the reliability in the separation procedure: (i selection and allocation of appropriate operators to the procedure, and (ii analysis of potential failure modes incurred by selected operators. This article integrates Learning Curves (LC and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis aimed at reducing the occurrence of failures in the manual separation of a drug DC. LCs parameters enable generating an index to identify the recommended operators to perform the procedures. The FMEA is then applied to the separation procedure carried out by the selected operators in order to identify failure modes. It also deployed the traditional FMEA severity index into two sub-indexes related to financial issues and damage to company´s image in order to characterize failures severity. When applied to a drug DC, the proposed method significantly reduced the frequency and severity of failures in the separation procedure.

  8. [Field assessment of the new rapid diagnostic test Ebola eZYSCREEN®].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, F; Gay-Andrieu, F; Picot, V; Magassouba, N; Mély, S; Peyrefitte, C N; Bellanger, L

    2017-02-01

    During the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2014, the World Health Organization has pointed out the need for rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid, equipment-free, and deliverable. The rapid diagnostic test (Lateral Flow Assay) Ebola eZYSCREEN® was developed in this emergency frame using monoclonal antibodies against the envelope glycoprotein of the virus. Two distinct versions have been industrialized, one for whole-blood samples and the other for serum/plasma samples. Both versions have an analytical detection limit of 10 5 pfu/ml, the stability is at least 393 days at 30°C and 120 days at 45°C. The nonretrospective and independent validation study was carried out in the course of the outbreak in Conakry and at the Ebola Treatment Center of Coyah (Guinea) on 144 patients. In this study, the RDT showed a sensitivity of 65.3% and a specificity of 98.9% on whole blood, a sensitivity of 74.5% and a specificity of 100% on serum. Results from the whole-blood version must be analyzed with caution because of the delay between the blood collection and the completion of the tests, which was out of specification (3 days on average instead of 2 h). In contrast to laboratory tests, this easy to use field test does not require sophisticated instrumentation or even electricity and can contribute to the diagnostic chain of Ebola virus disease taking into account its benefits, high stability, and specificity but also its limit of sensitivity compared to laboratory techniques RT-qPCR (Real-Time reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), which remain the reference for the diagnosis of Ebola. The RDT Ebola eZYSCREEN® was granted EC IVD (IVD = In Vitro Diagnostic) marking.

  9. Impact of experience when using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment to assess postural risk in children using information and communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Janice D; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Parsons, Richard; Buzzard, Jennifer; Ciccarelli, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is an observation-based screening tool that has been used to assess postural risks of children in school settings. Studies using eye-tracking technology suggest that visual search strategies are influenced by experience in the task performed. This study investigated if experience in postural risk assessments contributed to differences in outcome scores on the RULA and the visual search strategies utilized. While wearing an eye-tracker, 16 student occupational therapists and 16 experienced occupational therapists used the RULA to assess 11 video scenarios of a child using different mobile information and communication technologies (ICT) in the home environment. No significant differences in RULA outcome scores, and no conclusive differences in visual search strategies between groups were found. RULA can be used as a screening tool for postural risks following a short training session regardless of the assessor's experience in postural risk assessments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Can turbidity caused by Corophium volutator (Pallas) activity be used to assess sediment toxicity rapidly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew D; Greenwood, Naomi; Grant, Alastair

    2003-04-01

    The standard toxicity test organism, Corophium volutator, exhibits a behavioural response to contaminated sediments that causes increased turbidity of overlying water. We quantify the effects of this response to an estuarine sediment spiked with copper and hydrocarbon contaminated sediments from an oil installation in the North Sea. Turbidity measured 24 h after the start of a toxicity test shows a strong relationship with contaminant concentrations and with mortality after 10 days. Turbidity measurements can therefore give a rapid indication of sediment toxicity, permitting a reduction in storage time of sediments to be used in dilution series and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests, reducing the likelihood of contaminants degrading prior to testing.

  11. Utilizing Arc Marine Concepts for Designing a Geospatially Enabled Database to Support Rapid Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    données d’évaluation environnementale rapide (EER) a été réalisée en vertu d’un contrat . La base de données a été élaborée à l’aide du PostgreSQL, un...quality flags to each specialized data set requires the modification of each specialized access method. Thus, multiple modifications are required...the drivers that dictate any level of effort placed on modifications to the data system. Alternately stated, it is the decision requirement of the

  12. A novel method for perceptual assessment of small room acoustics using rapid sensory analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplanis, Neofytos; Bech, Søren; Lokki, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    small rooms and car cabins. In-situ measurements were performed to obtain a range of possible acoustical settings, by varying physically the spaces under investigation. The measured responses were spatiallyanalyzed and synthesized to reproduce the observed fields in the laboratory. Expert listeners were...... presented with auralized sound over a loudspeaker array and followed a rapid sensory analysis protocol. The elicited attributes and ratings are analyzed and possible links to the acoustical properties of these spaces are discussed. [This study is a part of Marie Curie Network on Dereverberation...

  13. Rapid assessment methodology in NORM measurements from building materials of Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarov, A A; Safarov, A N; Azimov, A N; Darby, I G

    2017-04-01

    Utilizing low cost NaI(Tl) scintillation detector systems we present methodology for the rapid screening of building material samples and the determination of their Radium Equivalent Activity (Raeq). Materials from Uzbekistan as a representative developing country have been measured and a correction coefficient for Radium activity is deduced. The use of the correction coefficient offers the possibility to decrease analysis times thus enabling the express measurement of a large quantity of samples. The reduction in time, cost and the use of inexpensive equipment can democratize the practice of screening NORM in building materials in the international community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using exposure bands for rapid decision making in the RISK21 tiered exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellarco, M; Zaleski, R; Gaborek, B J; Qian, H; Bellin, C A; Egeghy, P; Heard, N; Jolliet, O; Lander, D R; Sunger, N; Stylianou, K S; Tanir, J Y

    2017-04-01

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Risk Assessment in the Twenty-first Century (RISK21) project was initiated to address and catalyze improvements in human health risk assessment. RISK21 is a problem formulation-based conceptual roadmap and risk matrix visualization tool, facilitating transparent evaluation of both hazard and exposure components. The RISK21 roadmap is exposure-driven, that is, exposure is used as the second step (after problem formulation) to define and focus the assessment. This paper describes the exposure tiers of the RISK21 matrix and the approaches to adapt readily available information to more quickly inform exposure at a screening level. In particular, exposure look-up tables were developed from available exposure tools (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) Targeted Risk Assessment (TRA) for worker exposure, ECETOC TRA, European Solvents Industry Group (ESIG) Generic Exposure Scenario (GES) Risk and Exposure Tool (EGRET) for consumer exposure, and USEtox(®) for indirect exposure to humans via the environment) and were tested in a hypothetical mosquito bed netting case study. A detailed WHO risk assessment for a similar mosquito net use served as a benchmark for the performance of the RISK21 approach. The case study demonstrated that the screening methodologies provided suitable conservative exposure estimates for risk assessment. The results of this effort showed that the RISK21 approach is useful for defining future assessment efforts, focusing assessment activities and visualizing results.

  15. Broad target chemical screening approach used as tool for rapid assessment of groundwater quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laak, T.L.; Puijker, L.M.; van Leerdam, J.A.; Raat, K.J.; Kolkman, A.; de Voogt, P.; van Wezel, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The chemical water quality is often assessed by screening for a limited set of target chemicals. This ‘conventional’ target analysis approach inevitably misses chemicals present in the samples. In this study a ‘broad’ target screening approach for water quality assessment using high resolution and

  16. Procedures of assessment on the quantification of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis by radiography and photogrammetry: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Alessandra Beggiato; Okazaki, Victor Hugo Alves

    2017-10-01

    The quantification of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis can be assessed in different ways; among them radiography and photogrammetry. However, the assessment procedures are not consistent in the literature for either method. The objective of this study was to conduct a literature review about postural assessment through radiography and photogrammetry, for delineating the procedures for both methods. In total 38 studies were selected by an online search in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases with the keywords: radiograph and posture, postural alignment, photogrammetry or photometry or biophotogrammetry. For the radiographic method, the results showed divergences in arm positioning and in the calculation of thoracic and lumbar angles. The photogrammetry demonstrated differences in relation to the camera, tripod, plumb line and feet positioning, angle calculation, software utilization, and the use of footwear. Standardization is proposed for both methods to help establish normative values and comparisons between diagnoses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid Small-Signal Stability Assessment and Enhancement Following Changes in Topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saric, AT; Stankovic, AM

    2015-05-01

    The paper proposes a scalable and tractable algorithm for dynamic topology optimization of power systems involving changes in branch on/off status, while respecting small-signal stability (SSS) constraints. A procedure for fast updates of the system matrices (in descriptor form) and without additional full matrix inversions is proposed. To additionally reduce the computation time, only critical eigenvalues (right-most or those in a specified damping ratio and frequency range) are calculated. A quadratic optimization approach is proposed for optimized generation re-dispatch to satisfy SSS constraints. The approach is applied to two (medium- and large-scale) real-world test power systems.

  18. Quantitative methylene blue decolourisation assays as rapid screening tools for assessing the efficiency of catalytic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruid, Jan; Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice Leigh

    2017-05-01

    Identifying the most efficient oxidation process to achieve maximum removal of a target pollutant compound forms the subject of much research. There exists a need to develop rapid screening tools to support research in this area. In this work we report on the development of a quantitative assay as a means for identifying catalysts capable of decolourising methylene blue through the generation of oxidising species from hydrogen peroxide. Here, a previously described methylene blue test strip method was repurposed as a quantitative, aqueous-based spectrophotometric assay. From amongst a selection of metal salts and metallophthalocyanine complexes, monitoring of the decolourisation of the cationic dye methylene blue (via Fenton-like and non-Fenton oxidation reactions) by the assay identified the following to be suitable oxidation catalysts: CuSO 4 (a Fenton-like catalyst), iron(II)phthalocyanine (a non-Fenton oxidation catalyst), as well as manganese(II) phthalocyanine. The applicability of the method was examined for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA), as measured by HPLC, during parallel oxidation experiments. The order of catalytic activity was identified as FePc > MnPc > CuSO 4 for both BPA and MB. The quantitative MB decolourisation assay may offer a rapid method for screening a wide range of potential catalysts for oxidation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-06-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible.

  20. Assessment of Arteriovenous Shunt Pathway Function and Hypervolemia for Hemodialysis Patients by Using Integrated Rapid Screening System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ling Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the hemodialysis patients received body weight measurement by themselves, vital sign checking by nursing staffs before dialysis. Whenever, the arteriovenous routes with problems doubted, the patients needed to be referred to surgeon for vascular echography checking and then to be corrected. How to integrate these three tasks in one time is a very important issue. The project proposes to combine our previous study of audio-phono angiographic technology in detecting vascular stenosis with rapid screening system to evaluate dialysis patients’ arteriovenous routes function and their status of excess body fluids: inspecting and integrating the blood pressure, body weight, and fistula function work into a rapid screening system, and using the quantization of fistula phono angiography pitch to achieve assessing arteriovenous routes. Future hoping is developed a complete integrated intelligence system by combining the arteriovenous fistula signal processing with feature extraction with wireless sensor network technology.