WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid analysis method

  1. A method for rapid similarity analysis of RNA secondary structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Na

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to the rapid expansion of RNA structure databases in recent years, efficient methods for structure comparison are in demand for function prediction and evolutionary analysis. Usually, the similarity of RNA secondary structures is evaluated based on tree models and dynamic programming algorithms. We present here a new method for the similarity analysis of RNA secondary structures. Results Three sets of real data have been used as input for the example applications. Set I includes the structures from 5S rRNAs. Set II includes the secondary structures from RNase P and RNase MRP. Set III includes the structures from 16S rRNAs. Reasonable phylogenetic trees are derived for these three sets of data by using our method. Moreover, our program runs faster as compared to some existing ones. Conclusion The famous Lempel-Ziv algorithm can efficiently extract the information on repeated patterns encoded in RNA secondary structures and makes our method an alternative to analyze the similarity of RNA secondary structures. This method will also be useful to researchers who are interested in evolutionary analysis.

  2. Development of rapid urine analysis method for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, J.; Noguchi, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    ICP-MS has begun to spread in the field of individual monitoring for internal exposure as a very effective machine for uranium analysis. Although the ICP-MS has very high sensitivity, it requires longer time than conventional analysis, such as fluorescence analysis, because it is necessary to remove matrix from a urine sample sufficiently. To shorten time required for the urine bioassay by ICP-MS, a rapid uranium analysis method using the ICP-MS connected with a flow injection system was developed. Since this method does not involve chemical separation steps, the time required is equivalent to the conventional analysis. A measurement test was carried out using 10 urine solutions prepared from a urine sample. Required volume of urine solution is 5 ml. Main chemical treatment is only the digestion with 5 ml of nitric acid using a microwave oven to decompose organic matter and to dissolve suspended or precipitated matter. The microwave oven can digest 10 samples at once within an hour. Volume of digested sample solution was adjusted to 10 ml. The prepared sample solutions were directly introduced to the ICP-MS without any chemical separation procedure. The ICP-MS was connected with a flow injection system and an auto sampler. The flow injection system can minimize the matrix effects caused from salt dissolved in high matrix solution, such as non chemical separated urine sample, because it can introduce micro volume of sample solution into the ICP-MS. The ICP-MS detected uranium within 2 min/sample using the auto sampler. The 10 solutions prepared from a urine sample showed an average of 7.5 ng/l of uranium concentration in urine with 10 % standard deviation. A detection limit is about 1 ng/l. The total time required was less than 4 hours for 10 sample analysis. In the series of measurement, any memory effect was not observed. The present analysis method using the ICP-MS equipped with the flow injection system demonstrated that the shortening of time required on high

  3. Development of rapid urine analysis method for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, J.; Noguchi, H.

    2000-01-01

    ICP-MS has begun to spread in the field of individual monitoring for internal exposure as a very effective machine for uranium analysis. Although the ICP-MS has very high sensitivity, it requires longer time than conventional analysis, such as fluorescence analysis, because it is necessary to remove matrix from a urine sample sufficiently. To shorten time required for the urine bioassay by ICP-MS, a rapid uranium analysis method using the ICP-MS connected with a flow injection system was developed. Since this method does not involve chemical separation steps, the time required is equivalent to the conventional analysis. A measurement test was carried out using 10 urine solutions prepared from a urine sample. Required volume of urine solution is 5 ml. Main chemical treatment is only the digestion with 5 ml of nitric acid using a microwave oven to decompose organic matter and to dissolve suspended or precipitated matter. The microwave oven can digest 10 samples at once within an hour. Volume of digested sample solution was adjusted to 10 ml. The prepared sample solutions were directly introduced to the ICP-MS without any chemical separation procedure. The ICP-MS was connected with a flow injection system and an auto sampler. The flow injection system can minimize the matrix effects caused from salt dissolved in high matrix solution, such as non chemical separated urine sample, because it can introduce micro volume of sample solution into the ICP-MS. The ICP-MS detected uranium within 2 min/sample using the auto sampler. The 10 solutions prepared from a urine sample showed an average of 7.5 ng/l of uranium concentration in urine with 10 % standard deviation. A detection limit is about 1 ng/l. The total time required was less than 4 hours for 10 sample analysis. In the series of measurement, any memory effect was not observed. The present analysis method using the ICP-MS equipped with the flow injection system demonstrated that the shortening of time required on high

  4. Mobile Image Ratiometry: A New Method for Instantaneous Analysis of Rapid Test Strips

    OpenAIRE

    Donald C. Cooper; Bryan Callahan; Phil Callahan; Lee Burnett

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe Mobile Image Ratiometry (MIR), a new method for the automated quantification of standardized rapid immunoassay strips using consumer-based mobile smartphone and tablet cameras. To demonstrate MIR we developed a standardized method using rapid immunotest strips directed against cocaine (COC) and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE). We performed image analysis of three brands of commercially available dye-conjugated anti-COC/BE antibody test strips in response to three d...

  5. Considerations for Task Analysis Methods and Rapid E-Learning Development Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ismail Ipek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide basic dimensions for rapid training development in e-learning courses in education and business. Principally, it starts with defining task analysis and how to select tasks for analysis and task analysis methods for instructional design. To do this, first, learning and instructional technologies as visions of the future were discussed. Second, the importance of task analysis methods in rapid e-learning was considered, with learning technologies as asynchronous and synchronous e-learning development. Finally, rapid instructional design concepts and e-learning design strategies were defined and clarified with examples, that is, all steps for effective task analysis and rapid training development techniques based on learning and instructional design approaches were discussed, such as m-learning and other delivery systems. As a result, the concept of task analysis, rapid e-learning development strategies and the essentials of online course design were discussed, alongside learner interface design features for learners and designers.

  6. Rapid analysis method for the determination of 14C specific activity in irradiated graphite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidmantas Remeikis

    Full Text Available 14C is one of the limiting radionuclides used in the categorization of radioactive graphite waste; this categorization is crucial in selecting the appropriate graphite treatment/disposal method. We propose a rapid analysis method for 14C specific activity determination in small graphite samples in the 1-100 μg range. The method applies an oxidation procedure to the sample, which extracts 14C from the different carbonaceous matrices in a controlled manner. Because this method enables fast online measurement and 14C specific activity evaluation, it can be especially useful for characterizing 14C in irradiated graphite when dismantling graphite moderator and reflector parts, or when sorting radioactive graphite waste from decommissioned nuclear power plants. The proposed rapid method is based on graphite combustion and the subsequent measurement of both CO2 and 14C, using a commercial elemental analyser and the semiconductor detector, respectively. The method was verified using the liquid scintillation counting (LSC technique. The uncertainty of this rapid method is within the acceptable range for radioactive waste characterization purposes. The 14C specific activity determination procedure proposed in this study takes approximately ten minutes, comparing favorably to the more complicated and time consuming LSC method. This method can be potentially used to radiologically characterize radioactive waste or used in biomedical applications when dealing with the specific activity determination of 14C in the sample.

  7. Rapid analysis method for the determination of 14C specific activity in irradiated graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeikis, Vidmantas; Lagzdina, Elena; Garbaras, Andrius; Gudelis, Arūnas; Garankin, Jevgenij; Plukienė, Rita; Juodis, Laurynas; Duškesas, Grigorijus; Lingis, Danielius; Abdulajev, Vladimir; Plukis, Artūras

    2018-01-01

    14C is one of the limiting radionuclides used in the categorization of radioactive graphite waste; this categorization is crucial in selecting the appropriate graphite treatment/disposal method. We propose a rapid analysis method for 14C specific activity determination in small graphite samples in the 1-100 μg range. The method applies an oxidation procedure to the sample, which extracts 14C from the different carbonaceous matrices in a controlled manner. Because this method enables fast online measurement and 14C specific activity evaluation, it can be especially useful for characterizing 14C in irradiated graphite when dismantling graphite moderator and reflector parts, or when sorting radioactive graphite waste from decommissioned nuclear power plants. The proposed rapid method is based on graphite combustion and the subsequent measurement of both CO2 and 14C, using a commercial elemental analyser and the semiconductor detector, respectively. The method was verified using the liquid scintillation counting (LSC) technique. The uncertainty of this rapid method is within the acceptable range for radioactive waste characterization purposes. The 14C specific activity determination procedure proposed in this study takes approximately ten minutes, comparing favorably to the more complicated and time consuming LSC method. This method can be potentially used to radiologically characterize radioactive waste or used in biomedical applications when dealing with the specific activity determination of 14C in the sample.

  8. Application of pulse spectro- zonal luminescent method for the rapid method of material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsin, V.M.; Oleshko, V.I.; Yakovlev, A.N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The scope of luminescent methods of the analysis covers enough a big around of substances as the luminescence can be excited in overwhelming majority of nonmetals. Analytical opportunities of luminescent methods can be essentially expanded by use of pulse excitation and registration of spectra of a luminescence with the time resolved methods. The most perspective method is to use pulses of high-current electron beams with the nanosecond duration for excitation from the following reasons: excitation is carried out ionizing, deeply enough by a penetrating radiation; the pulse of radiation has high capacity, up to 10 8 W, but energy no more than 1 J; the pulse of radiation has the nanosecond duration. Electrons with energy in 300-400 keV will penetrate on depth into some tenth shares of mm, i.e. they create volumetric excitation of a sample. Therefore the luminescence raised by an electronic beam has the information about volumetric properties of substance. High density of excitation allow to find out and study the centers (defects) having a small yield of a luminescence, to analyze the weakly luminescent objects. Occurrence of the new effects is possible useful to analyze of materials. There is an opportunity of reception of the information from change of spectral structure of a luminescence during the time after the ending of a pulse of excitation and kinetic characteristics of attenuation of luminescence. The matter is the energy of radiation is absorbed mainly by a matrix, then electronic excitations one is transferred the centers of a luminescence (defects) of a lattice. Therefore during the time after creation electronic excitations the spectrum of a luminescence can repeatedly change, transferring the information on the centers (defects) which are the most effective radiators at present time. Hence, the study of change of spectra of radiation during the time allows providing an additional way of discrimination of the information on the centers of a

  9. GSMA: Gene Set Matrix Analysis, An Automated Method for Rapid Hypothesis Testing of Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Cheadle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microarray technology has become highly valuable for identifying complex global changes in gene expression patterns. The assignment of functional information to these complex patterns remains a challenging task in effectively interpreting data and correlating results from across experiments, projects and laboratories. Methods which allow the rapid and robust evaluation of multiple functional hypotheses increase the power of individual researchers to data mine gene expression data more efficiently.Results: We have developed (gene set matrix analysis GSMA as a useful method for the rapid testing of group-wise up- or downregulation of gene expression simultaneously for multiple lists of genes (gene sets against entire distributions of gene expression changes (datasets for single or multiple experiments. The utility of GSMA lies in its flexibility to rapidly poll gene sets related by known biological function or as designated solely by the end-user against large numbers of datasets simultaneously.Conclusions: GSMA provides a simple and straightforward method for hypothesis testing in which genes are tested by groups across multiple datasets for patterns of expression enrichment.

  10. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  11. A rapid chemical method for lysing Arabidopsis cells for protein analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takano Tetsuo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein extraction is a frequent procedure in biological research. For preparation of plant cell extracts, plant materials usually have to be ground and homogenized to physically break the robust cell wall, but this step is laborious and time-consuming when a large number of samples are handled at once. Results We developed a chemical method for lysing Arabidopsis cells without grinding. In this method, plants are boiled for just 10 minutes in a solution containing a Ca2+ chelator and detergent. Cell extracts prepared by this method were suitable for SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis. This method was also applicable to genomic DNA extraction for PCR analysis. Our method was applied to many other plant species, and worked well for some of them. Conclusions Our method is rapid and economical, and allows many samples to be prepared simultaneously for protein analysis. Our method is useful not only for Arabidopsis research but also research on certain other species.

  12. High resolution melting analysis: a rapid and accurate method to detect CALR mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bilbao-Sieyro

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of CALR mutations in essential thrombocythemia (ET and primary myelofibrosis (PMF patients without JAK2/MPL mutations has emerged as a relevant finding for the molecular diagnosis of these myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN. We tested the feasibility of high-resolution melting (HRM as a screening method for rapid detection of CALR mutations.CALR was studied in wild-type JAK2/MPL patients including 34 ET, 21 persistent thrombocytosis suggestive of MPN and 98 suspected secondary thrombocytosis. CALR mutation analysis was performed through HRM and Sanger sequencing. We compared clinical features of CALR-mutated versus 45 JAK2/MPL-mutated subjects in ET.Nineteen samples showed distinct HRM patterns from wild-type. Of them, 18 were mutations and one a polymorphism as confirmed by direct sequencing. CALR mutations were present in 44% of ET (15/34, 14% of persistent thrombocytosis suggestive of MPN (3/21 and none of the secondary thrombocytosis (0/98. Of the 18 mutants, 9 were 52 bp deletions, 8 were 5 bp insertions and other was a complex mutation with insertion/deletion. No mutations were found after sequencing analysis of 45 samples displaying wild-type HRM curves. HRM technique was reproducible, no false positive or negative were detected and the limit of detection was of 3%.This study establishes a sensitive, reliable and rapid HRM method to screen for the presence of CALR mutations.

  13. Development of a micropulverized extraction method for rapid toxicological analysis of methamphetamine in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kakuta, Masaya; Iwata, Yuko T; Matsuda, Hideaki; Tazawa, Hidekatsu; Kimura, Hiroko; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2007-09-07

    We developed a rapid sample preparation method for the toxicological analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine (the major metabolite of methamphetamine) in human hair by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), to facilitate fast screening and quantitation. Two milligrams of hair were mechanically micropulverized for 5 min in a 2-ml plastic tube together with 100 microl of an aqueous solvent containing 10% acetonitrile, 100 mM trifluoroacetic acid and the corresponding deuterium analogues as internal standards. The pulverizing highly disintegrated the hair components, simultaneously allowing the extraction of any drugs present in the hair. After filtering the suspension with a membrane-filter unit, the clear filtrate was directly analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. No evaporation processes were required for sample preparation. Method optimization and validation study were carried out using real-case specimens and fortified samples in which the drugs had been artificially absorbed, respectively. Concentration ranges for quantitation were 0.040-125 and 0.040-25 ng/mg for methamphetamine and amphetamine, respectively. Real-case specimens were analyzed by the method presented here and by conventional ones to verify the applicability of our method to real-world analysis. Our method took less than 30 min for a set of chromatograms to be obtained from a washed hair sample.

  14. Rapid analysis of fertilizers by the direct-reading thermometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, I; Sipos, B

    1972-05-01

    The authors have developed rapid methods for the determination of the main components of fertilizers, namely phosphate, potassium and nitrogen fixed in various forms. In the absence of magnesium ions phosphate is precipitated with magnesia mixture; in the presence of magnesium ions ammonium phosphomolybdate is precipitated and the excess of molybdate is reacted with hydrogen peroxide. Potassium is determined by precipitation with silico-fluoride. For nitrogen fixed as ammonium salts the ammonium ions are condensed in a basic solution with formalin to hexamethylenetetramine; for nitrogen fixed as carbamide the latter is decomposed with sodium nitrite; for nitrogen fixed as nitrate the latter is reduced with titanium(III). In each case the temperature change of the test solution is measured. Practically all essential components of fertilizers may be determined by direct-reading thermometry; with this method and special apparatus the time of analysis is reduced to at most about 15 min for any determination.

  15. Rapid flow imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelc, N.J.; Spritzer, C.E.; Lee, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid, phase-contrast, MR imaging method of imaging flow has been implemented. The method, called VIGRE (velocity imaging with gradient recalled echoes), consists of two interleaved, narrow flip angle, gradient-recalled acquisitions. One is flow compensated while the second has a specified flow encoding (both peak velocity and direction) that causes signals to contain additional phase in proportion to velocity in the specified direction. Complex image data from the first acquisition are used as a phase reference for the second, yielding immunity from phase accumulation due to causes other than motion. Images with pixel values equal to MΔΘ where M is the magnitude of the flow compensated image and ΔΘ is the phase difference at the pixel, are produced. The magnitude weighting provides additional vessel contrast, suppresses background noise, maintains the flow direction information, and still allows quantitative data to be retrieved. The method has been validated with phantoms and is undergoing initial clinical evaluation. Early results are extremely encouraging

  16. A Simple PCR Method for Rapid Genotype Analysis of Mycobacterium ulcerans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinear, Timothy; Davies, John K.; Jenkin, Grant A.; Portaels, Françoise; Ross, Bruce C.; OppEdIsano, Frances; Purcell, Maria; Hayman, John A.; Johnson, Paul D. R.

    2000-01-01

    Two high-copy-number insertion sequences, IS2404 and IS2606, were recently identified in Mycobacterium ulcerans and were shown by Southern hybridization to possess restriction fragment length polymorphism between strains from different geographic origins. We have designed a simple genotyping method that captures these differences by PCR amplification of the region between adjacent copies of IS2404 and IS2606. We have called this system 2426 PCR. The method is rapid, reproducible, sensitive, and specific for M. ulcerans, and it has confirmed previous studies suggesting a clonal population structure of M. ulcerans within a geographic region. M. ulcerans isolates from Australia, Papua New Guinea, Malaysia, Surinam, Mexico, Japan, China, and several countries in Africa were easily differentiated based on an array of 4 to 14 PCR products ranging in size from 200 to 900 bp. Numerical analysis of the banding patterns suggested a close evolutionary link between M. ulcerans isolates from Africa and southeast Asia. The application of 2426 PCR to total DNA, extracted directly from M. ulcerans-infected tissue specimens without culture, demonstrated the sensitivity and specificity of this method and confirmed for the first time that both animal and human isolates from areas of endemicity in southeast Australia have the same genotype. PMID:10747130

  17. A novel method for perceptual assessment of small room acoustics using rapid sensory analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplanis, Neofytos; Bech, Søren; Lokki, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    presented with auralized sound over a loudspeaker array and followed a rapid sensory analysis protocol. The elicited attributes and ratings are analyzed and possible links to the acoustical properties of these spaces are discussed. [This study is a part of Marie Curie Network on Dereverberation...

  18. A critical analysis of methods for rapid and nondestructive determination of wood density in standing trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan Gao; Xiping Wang; Michael C. Wiemann; Brian K. Brashaw; Robert J. Ross; Lihai Wang

    2017-01-01

    Key message Field methods for rapid determination of wood density in trees have evolved from increment borer, torsiometer, Pilodyn, and nail withdrawal into sophisticated electronic tools of resistance drilling measurement. A partial resistance drilling approach coupled with knowledge of internal tree density distribution may...

  19. Rapid estimation of compost enzymatic activity by spectral analysis method combined with machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Das, Bhabani S; Ali, Md Nasim; Li, Bin; Sarathjith, M C; Majumdar, K; Ray, D P

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using visible near-infrared (VisNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) as an easy, inexpensive, and rapid method to predict compost enzymatic activity, which traditionally measured by fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA-HR) assay. Compost samples representative of five different compost facilities were scanned by DRS, and the raw reflectance spectra were preprocessed using seven spectral transformations for predicting compost FDA-HR with six multivariate algorithms. Although principal component analysis for all spectral pretreatments satisfactorily identified the clusters by compost types, it could not separate different FDA contents. Furthermore, the artificial neural network multilayer perceptron (residual prediction deviation=3.2, validation r(2)=0.91 and RMSE=13.38 μg g(-1) h(-1)) outperformed other multivariate models to capture the highly non-linear relationships between compost enzymatic activity and VisNIR reflectance spectra after Savitzky-Golay first derivative pretreatment. This work demonstrates the efficiency of VisNIR DRS for predicting compost enzymatic as well as microbial activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid prototyping: een veelbelovende methode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverman, T.M.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Prins, H.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization,

  1. New modelling method for fast reactor neutronic behaviours analysis; Nouvelles methodes de modelisation neutronique des reacteurs rapides de quatrieme Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, P.

    2011-05-23

    Due to safety rules running on fourth generation reactors' core development, neutronics simulation tools have to be as accurate as never before. First part of this report enumerates every step of fast reactor's neutronics simulation implemented in current reference code: ECCO. Considering the field of fast reactors that meet criteria of fourth generation, ability of models to describe self-shielding phenomenon, to simulate neutrons leakage in a lattice of fuel assemblies and to produce representative macroscopic sections is evaluated. The second part of this thesis is dedicated to the simulation of fast reactors' core with steel reflector. These require the development of advanced methods of condensation and homogenization. Several methods are proposed and compared on a typical case: the ZONA2B core of MASURCA reactor. (author) [French] Les criteres de surete qui regissent le developpement de coeurs de reacteurs de quatrieme generation implique l'usage d'outils de calcul neutronique performants. Une premiere partie de la these reprend toutes les etapes de modelisation neutronique des reacteurs rapides actuellement d'usage dans le code de reference ECCO. La capacite des modeles a decrire le phenomene d'autoprotection, a representer les fuites neutroniques au niveau d'un reseau d'assemblages combustibles et a generer des sections macroscopiques representatives est appreciee sur le domaine des reacteurs rapides innovants respectant les criteres de quatrieme generation. La deuxieme partie de ce memoire se consacre a la modelisation des coeurs rapides avec reflecteur acier. Ces derniers necessitent le developpement de methodes avancees de condensation et d'homogenisation. Plusieurs methodes sont proposees et confrontees sur un probleme de modelisation typique: le coeur ZONA2B du reacteur maquette MASURCA

  2. A novel method for rapid comparative quantitative analysis of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, Sebastian D.; Coates, David J.; Parks, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Metric framework determined to compare nuclear fuel cycles. ► Fast and thermal reactors simulated using MATLAB models, including thorium. ► Modelling uses deterministic methods instead of Monte–Carlo for speed. ► Method rapidly identifies relative cycle strengths and weaknesses. ► Significant scope for use in project planning and cycle optimisation. - Abstract: One of the greatest obstacles facing the nuclear industry is that of sustainability, both in terms of the finite reserves of uranium ore and the production of highly radiotoxic spent fuel which presents proliferation and environmental hazards. Alternative nuclear technologies have been suggested as a means of delivering enhanced sustainability with proposals including fast reactors, the use of thorium fuel and tiered fuel cycles. The debate as to which is the most appropriate technology continues, with each fuel system and reactor type delivering specific advantages and disadvantages which can be difficult to compare fairly. This paper demonstrates a framework of performance metrics which, coupled with a first-order lumped reactor model to determine nuclide population balances, can be used to quantify the aforementioned pros and cons for a range of different fuel and reactor combinations. The framework includes metrics such as fuel efficiency, spent fuel toxicity and proliferation resistance, and relative cycle performance is analysed through parallel coordinate plots, yielding a quantitative comparison of disparate cycles.

  3. Method for rapid particle size analysis by hydrosizing and nuclear sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daellenbach, C.B.; Mahan, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus to practice the method for rapidly determining the size and mass distribution of a sample of randomly sized particles of a known total mass are described. A series of substantially identical hydrocyclones are connected by conduits to each other and to a temperature controlled water feed. By restricting the cross-sectional areas of these conduits to progressively smaller values, the slurry containing the sample particles is caused to increase its velocity as it moves from hydrocyclone to hydrocyclone. As described by the Stokesian theory which relates particle diameter and settling velocity, the largest sized particles are suspended in the closed apex of the first hydrocyclone with smaller sized particles, in given size ranges, being suspended in the next succeeding hydrocyclone's apexes. In this manner, the particles are separated into discrete fractional sizes with a residual slurry of the very smallest particles being discharged. Before the discrete fractions of particles are suspended in their hydrocyclone apexes, a combined photon source, like a gamma ray source, and detector are calibrated with the water temperature kept constant. When the suspension of particles takes place, an attenuation of the radiation from the source is observed at the detector. This attenuation can be related to the mass or weight of the discrete fractions of suspended particles. Electronic circuitry is used to indicate what this fractional mass or weight is as it relates to the total weight of the sample. 6 claims, 4 figs

  4. A neurophysiological method of rapid detection and analysis of marine algal toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerr, DS; Bødtkjer, Donna Briggs; Saba, HI

    1999-01-01

    a robust, reversible increase in amplitude mic spikes, and the appearance of multiple spikes (i.e., epileptiform activity) within minutes of toxin wash-in. Other notable features of the domoic acid signature included a significant decrease in amplitude of the field EPSPs, and a complete absence of effect...... responsive fashion at toxin concentrations of 25-200 nM, and tests of naturally contaminated shellfish confirmed the utility of this assay as a screening method for PSP. Our findings suggest that the in vitro hippocampal slice preparation has potential in the detection and analysis of three marine algal...

  5. Development of a sensitive and rapid method for rifampicin impurity analysis using supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Jun; Yan, Zheng-Yu

    2015-10-10

    A novel simple, fast and efficient supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) method was developed and compared with RPLC method for the separation and determination of impurities in rifampicin. The separation was performed using a packed diol column and a mobile phase B (modifier) consisting of methanol with 0.1% ammonium formate (w/v) and 2% water (v/v). Overall satisfactory resolutions and peak shapes for rifampicin quinone (RQ), rifampicin (RF), rifamycin SV (RSV), rifampicin N-oxide (RNO) and 3-formylrifamycinSV (3-FR) were obtained by optimization of the chromatography system. With gradient elution of mobile phase, all of the impurities and the active were separated within 4 min. Taking full advantage of features of SFC (such as particular selectivity, non-sloping baseline in gradient elution, and without injection solvent effects), the method was successfully used for determination of impurities in rifampicin, with more impurity peaks detected, better resolution achieved and much less analysis time needed compared with conventional reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microplate-reader method for the rapid analysis of copper in natural waters with chemiluminescence detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eDurand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a method for the determination of copper in natural waters at nanomolar levels. The use of a microplate-reader minimises sample processing time (~ 25 sec per sample, reagent consumption (~ 120 μL per sample and sample volume (~ 700 μL. Copper is detected by chemiluminescence. This technique is based on the formation of a complex between copper and 1,10-phenanthroline and the subsequent emission of light during the oxidation of the complex by hydrogen peroxide. Samples are acidified to pH 1.7 and then introduced directly into a 24-well plate. Reagents are added during data acquisition via two reagent injectors. When trace metal clean protocols are employed, the reproducibility is generally less then 7% on blanks and the detection limit is 0.7 nM for seawater and 0.4 nM for freshwater. More than 100 samples per hour can be analyzed with this technique, which is simple, robust, and amenable to at-sea analysis. Seawater samples from Storm Bay in Tasmania illustrate the utility of the method for environmental science. Indeed other trace metals for which optical detection methods exist (e.g. chemiluminescence, fluorescence and absorbance could be adapted to the microplate-reader.

  7. Method Development for Rapid Analysis of Natural Radioactive Nuclides Using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.M.; Ji, Y.Y.; Lee, H.; Park, J.H.; Jang, M.; Chung, K.H.; Kang, M.J.; Choi, G.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    As an attempt to reduce the social costs and apprehension arising from radioactivity in the environment, an accurate and rapid assessment of radioactivity is highly desirable. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are widely spread throughout the environment. The concern with radioactivity from these materials has therefore been growing for the last decade. In particular, radiation exposure in the industry when handling raw materials (e.g., coal mining and combustion, oil and gas production, metal mining and smelting, mineral sands (REE, Ti, Zr), fertilizer (phosphate), and building materials) has been brought to the public's attention. To decide the proper handling options, a rapid and accurate analytical method that can be used to evaluate the radioactivity of radionuclides (e.g., {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K) should be developed and validated. Direct measuring methods such as alpha spectrometry, a liquid scintillation counter (LSC), and mass-spectrometry are usually used for the measurement of radioactivity in NORM samples, and they encounter the most significant difficulties during pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment). Since the pretreatment process consequently plays an important role in the measurement uncertainty, method development and validation should be performed. Furthermore, a-spectrometry has a major disadvantage of a long counting time, while it has a prominent measurement capability at a very low activity level of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 226}Ra. Contrary to the α-spectrometry method, a measurement technique using ICP-MS allow radioactivity in many samples to be measured in a short time period with a high degree of accuracy and precision. In this study, a method was developed for a rapid analysis of natural radioactive nuclides using ICP-MS. A sample digestion process was established using LiBO{sub 2} fusion and Fe co-precipitation. A magnetic

  8. High resolution melting curve analysis, a rapid and affordable method for mutation analysis in childhood acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin eLiu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular genetic alterations with prognostic significance have been described in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML. The aim of this study was to establish cost-effective techniques to detect mutations of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3, Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1, and a partial tandem duplication within the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL-PTD genes in childhood AML. Procedure: Ninety-nine children with newly diagnosed AML were included in this study. We developed a fluoresent dye SYTO-82 based high resolution melting curve (HRM anaylsis to detect FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD, FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain (FLT3-TKD and NPM1 mutations. MLL-PTD was screened by real-time quantitative PCR. Results: The HRM methodology correlated well with gold standard Sanger sequencing with less cost. Among the 99 patients studied, the FLT3-ITD mutation was associated with significantly worse event free survival (EFS. Patients with the NPM1 mutation had significantly better EFS and overall survival. However, HRM was not sensitive enough for minimal residual disease monitoring. Conclusions: HRM was a rapid and efficient method for screening of FLT3 and NPM1 gene mutations. It was both affordable and accurate, especially in resource underprivileged regions. Our results indicated that HRM could be a useful clinical tool for rapid and cost effective screening of the FLT3 and NPM1 mutations in AML patients.

  9. Method for rapid screening analysis of Sr-90 in edible plant samples collected near Fukushima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hikaru; Sakamoto, Hideaki; Shiga, Norikatsu; Suzuki, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    A screening method for measuring 90 Sr in edible plant samples by focusing on 90 Y in equilibrium with 90 Sr is reported. 90 Y was extracted from samples with acid, co-precipitated with iron hydroxide, and precipitated with oxalic acid. The dissolved oxalate precipitate was loaded on an extraction chromatography resin, and the 90 Y-enriched eluate was analyzed by Cherenkov counting with a TDCR liquid scintillation counter. 90 Sr ( 90 Y) concentration was determined in plant samples collected near the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants with this method. - Highlights: • A screening method for measuring 90 Sr in edible plant samples by focusing on 90 Y in equilibrium with 90 Sr is reported. • 90 Y was extracted from samples with acid, co-precipitated with iron hydroxide, and precipitated with oxalic acid. • The dissolved oxalate precipitate was loaded on an extraction chromatography resin. • 90 Y-enriched eluate was analyzed by Cherenkov counting with a TDCR liquid scintillation counter. • 90 Sr ( 90 Y) concentration was determined in edible plant samples collected near the damaged Fukushima Daiichi NPPs with this method.

  10. Rapid and stream-lined methods for analysis of actinides in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, E.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: 1) Project Summary: A systematic study of separating the actinides from each other in 1 M hydrochloric acid media has been carried out using selective oxidation/reduction processes followed by co-precipitation with neodymium fluoride. We have optimized two such procedures, one with bromate and another with permanganate, for the sequential separation of Am, Pu, Np, and U isotopes. The first procedure involves oxidation of Pu, Np and U to +6 state in 1 M HCI media at 85 deg C with 30% NaBrO 3 and separation from trivalent Am by collecting the latter on the first NdF 3 co- precipitated source. Plutonium is then reduced and converted to +4 oxidation state with 40% NaNO 2 at 85 deg C, while Np and U are kept oxidized with additional bromate in solution at 50-70 deg C, thus separating Pu by collection on a second NdF 3 source. At this stage, Np present in the filtrate is reduced with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and separated from U by collecting on a third source. Subsequently, U is reduced with 30% TiCI 3 and co-precipitated on a final source. The second procedure, which employs KMnO 4 in 1 M HCI media at 60-85 deg C for oxidizing Pu, Np and U, and separating from Am, produces MnO 2 which is collected along with Am on the co-precipitated NdF 3 . This MnO 2 is dissolved on the filter itself with 1 ml of acidified 1.5% H 2 O 2 without any degradation of the α-spectra. After evaporating the filtrate to destroy H 2 O 2 , Pu, Np and U are separated by following steps similar to those in the bromate procedure. The recoveries of the actinides with both procedures are >99%. The decontamination factors are between 10 3 and 10 4 . 2) Summary of Proposed Work for the Next Year: Now that the separation procedure has been developed, we will begin to incorporate it into rapid and steam-lined procedures for samples, such as water, air filters and environmental materials. (author)

  11. A rapid method of radium-226 analysis in water samples using an alpha spectroscopic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, T.P.

    1981-01-01

    A fast, reliable and accurate method for radium-226 determination in environmental water samples has been devised, using an alpha spectroscopic technique. The correlation between barium-133 and radium-226 in the barium-radium sulphate precipitation mechanism was studied and in the limited experimental recovery range, the coefficient of correlation was r = 0.986. A self-absorption study for various barium carrier concentrations was also undertaken to obtain the least broadening of alpha energy line widths. An optimum value of 0.3 mg barium carrier was obtained for chemical recovery in the range of 85 percent. (auth)

  12. Longitudinal analysis of the temporal evolution of Acinetobacter baumannii strains in Ohio, USA, by using rapid automated typing methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke K Decker

    Full Text Available Genotyping methods are essential to understand the transmission dynamics of Acinetobacter baumannii. We examined the representative genotypes of A. baumannii at different time periods in select locations in Ohio, using two rapid automated typing methods: PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS, a form of multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, and repetitive-sequence-based-PCR (rep-PCR. Our analysis included 122 isolates from 4 referral hospital systems, in 2 urban areas of Ohio. These isolates were associated with outbreaks at 3 different time periods (1996, 2000 and 2005-2007. Type assignments of PCR/ESI-MS and rep-PCR were compared to each other and to worldwide (WW clone types. The discriminatory power of each method was determined using the Simpson's index of diversity (DI. We observed that PCR/ESI-MS sequence type (ST 14, corresponding to WW clone 3, predominated in 1996, whereas ST 12 and 14 co-existed in the intermediate period (2000 and ST 10 and 12, belonging to WW clone 2, predominated more recently in 2007. The shift from WW clone 3 to WW clone 2 was accompanied by an increase in carbapenem resistance. The DI was approximately 0.74 for PCR/ESI-MS, 0.88 for rep-PCR and 0.90 for the combination of both typing methods. We conclude that combining rapid automated typing methods such as PCR/ESI-MS and rep-PCR serves to optimally characterize the regional molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii. Our data also sheds light on the changing sequence types in an 11 year period in Northeast Ohio.

  13. Spatial distribution pattern analysis of subtidal macroalgae assemblages by a non-destructive rapid assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinda, Xabier; Juanes, José Antonio; Puente, Araceli; Echavarri-Erasun, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    The extensive field work carried out over the last century has allowed the worldwide description of general distribution patterns and specific composition of rocky intertidal communities. However, the information concerning subtidal communities on hard substrates is more recent and scarce due to the difficulties associated with working in such environments. In this work, a non-destructive method is applied to the study and mapping of subtidal rocky bottom macroalgae assemblages on the coast of Cantabria (N Spain) which is quick, easy and economical. Gelidium corneum and Cystoseira baccata were the dominant species, however, the composition and coverage of macroalgae assemblages varied significantly at different locations and depth ranges. The high presence of Laminaria ochroleuca and Saccorhiza polyschides, characteristic of colder waters, shows the transitional character of this coastal area. The results obtained throughout this study have been very useful to the application of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC) and could be of great interest for the future conservation and management of these ecosystems (e.g. Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC).

  14. A Rapid, Simple, and Validated RP-HPLC Method for Quantitative Analysis of Levofloxacin in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion Notario

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To conduct a bioequivalence study for a copy product of levofloxacin (LEV, a simple and validated analytical method was needed, but the previous developed methods were still too complicated. For this reason, a simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for LEV quantification in human plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed under isocratic elution on a Luna Phenomenex® C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column. The mobile phase was comprised of acetonitrile, methanol, and phosphate buffer 25 mM that adjusted at pH 3.0 (13:7:80 v/v/v and pumped at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. Detection was performed under UV detector at wavelength of 280 nm. Samples were prepared by adding acetonitrile and followed by centrifugation to precipitate plasma protein. Then followed successively by evaporation and reconstitution step. The optimized method meets the requirements of validation parameters which included linearity (r = 0.995, sensitivity (LLOQ and LOD was 1.77 and 0.57 µg/mL respectively, accuracy (%error above LLOQ ≤ 12% and LLOQ ≤ 20%, precision (RSD ≤ 9%, and robustness in the ranges of 1.77-28.83 µg/mL. Therefore, the method can be used as a routine analysis of LEV in human plasma as well as in bioequivalence study of LEV.

  15. A rapid method to screen for cell-wall mutants using discriminant analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen LiMei; Carpita, N.C.; Reiter, W.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Jeffries, C.; McCann, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a rapid method to screen large numbers of mutant plants for a broad range of cell wall phenotypes using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy of leaves. We established and validated a model that can discriminate between the leaves of wild-type and a previously defined set of cell-wall mutants of Arabidopsis. Exploratory principal component analysis indicated that mutants deficient in different cell-wall sugars can be distinguished from each other. Discrimination of cell-wall mutants from wild-type was independent of variability in starch content or additional unrelated mutations that might be present in a heavily mutagenised population. We then developed an analysis of FTIR spectra of leaves obtained from over 1000 mutagenised flax plants, and selected 59 plants whose spectral variation from wild-type was significantly out of the range of a wild-type population, determined by Mahalanobis distance. Cell wall sugars from the leaves of selected putative mutants were assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 42 showed significant differences in neutral sugar composition. The FTIR spectra indicated that six of the remaining 17 plants have altered ester or protein content. We conclude that linear discriminant analysis of FTIR spectra is a robust method to identify a broad range of structural and architectural alterations in cell walls, appearing as a consequence of developmental regulation, environmental adaptation or genetic modification. (author)

  16. Development and validation of a rapid chromatographic method for the analysis of flunarizine and its main production impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh O’Connor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A rapid selective method for the analysis of flunarizine and its associated impurities was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines. The separation was carried out using a Thermo Scientific Hypersil Gold C18 column (50mm×4.6mm i.d., 1.9μm particle size with a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile–ammonium acetate–tetrabutylammoniumhydrogen sulfate buffer, at a flow rate of 1.8mL/min and UV detection at 230nm. Naturally aged samples were also tested to determine sample stability. A profile of sample and impurity breakdown was also presented. Keywords: Flunarizine, Sub 2μm column, Active pharmaceutical ingredient, HPLC

  17. Direct, rapid RNA sequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peattie, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The original methods of RNA sequence analysis were based on enzymatic production and chromatographic separation of overlapping oligonucleotide fragments from within an RNA molecule followed by identification of the mononucleotides comprising the oligomer. Over the past decade the field of nucleic acid sequencing has changed dramatically, however, and RNA molecules now can be sequenced in a variety of more streamlined fashions. Most of the more recent advances in RNA sequencing have involved one-dimensional electrophoretic separation of 32 P-end-labeled oligoribonucleotides on polyacrylamide gels. In this chapter the author discusses two of these methods for determining the nucleotide sequences of RNA molecules rapidly: the chemical method and the enzymatic method. Both methods are direct and degradative, i.e., they rely on fragmatic and chemical approaches should be utilized. The single-strand-specific ribonucleases (A, T 1 , T 2 , and S 1 ) provide an efficient means to locate double-helical regions rapidly, and the chemical reactions provide a means to determine the RNA sequence within these regions. In addition, the chemical reactions allow one to assign interactions to specific atoms and to distinguish secondary interactions from tertiary ones. If the RNA molecule is small enough to be sequenced directly by the enzymatic or chemical method, the probing reactions can be done easily at the same time as sequencing reactions

  18. A scoping review of rapid review methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Antony, Jesmin; Zarin, Wasifa; Strifler, Lisa; Ghassemi, Marco; Ivory, John; Perrier, Laure; Hutton, Brian; Moher, David; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-09-16

    Rapid reviews are a form of knowledge synthesis in which components of the systematic review process are simplified or omitted to produce information in a timely manner. Although numerous centers are conducting rapid reviews internationally, few studies have examined the methodological characteristics of rapid reviews. We aimed to examine articles, books, and reports that evaluated, compared, used or described rapid reviews or methods through a scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, internet websites of rapid review producers, and reference lists were searched to identify articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened literature search results and abstracted data from included studies. Descriptive analysis was conducted. We included 100 articles plus one companion report that were published between 1997 and 2013. The studies were categorized as 84 application papers, seven development papers, six impact papers, and four comparison papers (one was included in two categories). The rapid reviews were conducted between 1 and 12 months, predominantly in Europe (58 %) and North America (20 %). The included studies failed to report 6 % to 73 % of the specific systematic review steps examined. Fifty unique rapid review methods were identified; 16 methods occurred more than once. Streamlined methods that were used in the 82 rapid reviews included limiting the literature search to published literature (24 %) or one database (2 %), limiting inclusion criteria by date (68 %) or language (49 %), having one person screen and another verify or screen excluded studies (6 %), having one person abstract data and another verify (23 %), not conducting risk of bias/quality appraisal (7 %) or having only one reviewer conduct the quality appraisal (7 %), and presenting results as a narrative summary (78 %). Four case studies were identified that compared the results of rapid reviews to systematic reviews. Three studies found that the conclusions between

  19. DESI-MS2: a rapid and innovative method for trace analysis of six cytostatic drugs in health care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Giovanni; Fioretti, Marzia; Rocca, Lucia Mainero; Curini, Roberta

    2012-05-01

    With the aim of establishing exposure levels for hospital personnel preparing and administering cytostatic drugs (CDs), here, we present an innovative screening method based on the use of the desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) interface coupled with a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer. A rapid, simple, and sensitive procedure was developed for the simultaneous surface monitoring of cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, methotrexate, vincristine, gemcitabine, and cytarabine. Since analytes were in the solid state, a novel approach based on the use of passive samplers was combined with the direct analysis of wipes. A PTFE-printed glass slide was used as a passive sampler, while hydrophobic centers of Swiffer® cloths were judged extremely efficient as wipe samplers. After the sampling period, the CD collectors were directly processed with the DESI-MS system without any further treatment. MS/MS confirmatory analysis was conducted using selected reaction monitoring in the positive ion mode and detection limits were evaluated. Values were at the picograms per square millimeter levels on the passive collector and at the picograms per square centimeter levels for the wipe ones. Direct determination on solid-state samples combined with mass spectrometry selectivity provided a powerful tool so far unapplied to occupational hygiene.

  20. A novel, rapid and automated conductometric method to evaluate surfactant-cells interactions by means of critical micellar concentration analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiecco, Matteo; Corte, Laura; Roscini, Luca; Colabella, Claudia; Germani, Raimondo; Cardinali, Gianluigi

    2014-07-25

    Conductometry is widely used to determine critical micellar concentration and micellar aggregates surface properties of amphiphiles. Current conductivity experiments of surfactant solutions are typically carried out by manual pipetting, yielding some tens reading points within a couple of hours. In order to study the properties of surfactant-cells interactions, each amphiphile must be tested in different conditions against several types of cells. This calls for complex experimental designs making the application of current methods seriously time consuming, especially because long experiments risk to determine alterations of cells, independently of the surfactant action. In this paper we present a novel, accurate and rapid automated procedure to obtain conductometric curves with several hundreds reading points within tens of minutes. The method was validated with surfactant solutions alone and in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. An easy-to use R script, calculates conductometric parameters and their statistical significance with a graphic interface to visualize data and results. The validations showed that indeed the procedure works in the same manner with surfactant alone or in combination with cells, yielding around 1000 reading points within 20 min and with high accuracy, as determined by the regression analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A simple and rapid method for the determination of iodine in rice samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Toshimasa; Iwashima, Kiyoshi; Yamagata, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the determination of iodine in rice samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Irradiated rice powder was decomposed together with an iodide carrier solution containing I-131 on heating in a sodium hypochlorite solution. After decomposition, the solution was acidified with hydrochloric acid, and the insoluble residue was filtered off. To the filtrate sodium sulfite solution and palladium chloride solution were added, and the precipitate of palladium iodide was separated with a glass fiber filter paper. Iodine contents of rice were calculated from the peak areas under the 443 keV γ-ray of I-128 in the precipitate and comparative stand ard. Corrections for the chemical recovery were applied to them by means of the areas under the 365 keV γ-ray of I-131. This method was applied to the certified refe rece materials, IAEA wheat flour RM-V-5 and NBS orchard leaves SRM 1571. The results were in good agreement with the recommended values. Iodine contents of rice samples of two different origins in Japan were found to be of the order of 10 0 ng g -1 (dry weight base). The recovery of iodine in this procedure was about 80%. Decontamination factors for Mn, Cl, Na, and Br in the final fraction were 7 x 10 3 , 2 x 10 4 , 3 x 10 4 , and 2 x 10 2 , respectively. The time required for the chemical procedure was about 15 min, and the limit of determination was 0.7 ng of iodine in a sample of 1 g. (author)

  2. Rapid Radiochemical Methods for Asphalt Paving Material ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Brief Validated rapid radiochemical methods for alpha and beta emitters in solid matrices that are commonly encountered in urban environments were previously unavailable for public use by responding laboratories. A lack of tested rapid methods would delay the quick determination of contamination levels and the assessment of acceptable site-specific exposure levels. Of special concern are matrices with rough and porous surfaces, which allow the movement of radioactive material deep into the building material making it difficult to detect. This research focuses on methods that address preparation, radiochemical separation, and analysis of asphalt paving materials and asphalt roofing shingles. These matrices, common to outdoor environments, challenge the capability and capacity of very experienced radiochemistry laboratories. Generally, routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques produce liquid samples (representative of the original sample material) that can be processed using available radiochemical methods. The asphalt materials are especially difficult because they do not readily lend themselves to these routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques. The HSRP and ORIA coordinate radiological reference laboratory priorities and activities in conjunction with HSRP’s Partner Process. As part of the collaboration, the HSRP worked with ORIA to publish rapid radioanalytical methods for selected radionuclides in building material matrice

  3. Rapid review programs to support health care and policy decision making: a descriptive analysis of processes and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisena, Julie; Garritty, Chantelle; Kamel, Chris; Stevens, Adrienne; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M

    2015-03-14

    Health care decision makers often need to make decisions in limited timeframes and cannot await the completion of a full evidence review. Rapid reviews (RRs), utilizing streamlined systematic review methods, are increasingly being used to synthesize the evidence with a shorter turnaround time. Our primary objective was to describe the processes and methods used internationally to produce RRs. In addition, we sought to understand the underlying themes associated with these programs. We contacted representatives of international RR programs from a broad realm in health care to gather information about the methods and processes used to produce RRs. The responses were summarized narratively to understand the characteristics associated with their processes and methods. The summaries were compared and contrasted to highlight potential themes and trends related to the different RR programs. Twenty-nine international RR programs were included in our sample with a broad organizational representation from academia, government, research institutions, and non-for-profit organizations. Responses revealed that the main objectives for RRs were to inform decision making with regards to funding health care technologies, services and policy, and program development. Central themes that influenced the methods used by RR programs, and report type and dissemination were the imposed turnaround time to complete a report, resources available, the complexity and sensitivity of the research topics, and permission from the requestor. Our study confirmed that there is no standard approach to conduct RRs. Differences in processes and methods across programs may be the result of the novelty of RR methods versus other types of evidence syntheses, customization of RRs for various decision makers, and definition of 'rapid' by organizations, since it impacts both the timelines and the evidence synthesis methods. Future research should investigate the impact of current RR methods and reporting to

  4. A rapid extraction and analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 26 bioflavonoids in Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Li, Lingzhi; Tian, Jinlong; Wu, Yingying; Gao, Pinyi; Li, Danqi; Zhang, Qingyi; Song, Shaojiang

    2014-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea, purslane) is an edible plant that is widely distributed around the world, and flavonoids are its main bioactive constituents. Therefore, the detection of flavonoids is very important for a better understanding of its pharmacological actions and to monitor the product quality control of P. oleracea. To develop a rapid method to extract and determine 26 bioflavonoids in P. oleracea, based on microwave extraction (MWE) and triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry. The optimal conditions of MWE for the extraction of flavonoids from P. oleracea involved the use of methanol as the extraction solvent, a microwave power of 300 W, an extraction time of 450 s, and a solvent-to-solid ratio of 30 mL/g. The samples were analysed using an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph coupled with a triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) system. The calibration curves of all 26 analytes showed good linearity (r ≥ 0.999) and the intra- and interday precisions and repeatability were all within required limits. The mean recoveries measured at three concentrations were higher than 94.2%, with RSDs lower than 2.94% for the targets. The established MWE/UPLC-MS/MS method is a rapid and effective method for quality evaluation of P. oleracea from different production regions and different harvest periods. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A rapid method for α-spectrometric analysis of radium isotopes in natural waters using ion-selective membrane technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkl, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2003-01-01

    An α-spectrometric method for the rapid determination of radium isotopes ( 223 Ra, 224 Ra and 226 Ra) in environmental samples is presented. Using Empore TM Radium Rad Disks complete separation of the target radionuclides is achieved. The high selectivity of these Rad Disks allows the straightforward use of 225 Ra as yield tracer. Chemical yield is up to 92±9%. The chemical procedure can be accomplished within 5 h. α-Sources show energy resolution in the range of typically 26-40 keV (FWHM). Despite minimal thickness of the sources no significant radon (Rn) losses can be observed

  6. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  7. [Study on rapid analysis method of pesticide contamination in processed foods by GC-MS and GC-FPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Otsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Sato, Chizuko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    A simple and rapid method using GC-MS and GC-FPD for the determination of pesticide contamination in processed food has been developed. Pesticides were extracted from a sample with ethyl acetate in the presence of anhydrous sodium sulfate, then cleaned up with a combination of mini-columns, such as macroporous diatomaceous earth, C18, GCB (graphite carbon black) and PSA. Recovery tests of 57 pesticides (known to be toxic or harmful) from ten kinds of processed foods (butter, cheese, corned beef, dried shrimp, frozen Chinese dumplings, grilled eels, instant noodles, kimchi, retort-packed curry and wine) were performed, and the recovery rates were mostly between 70% and 120%. This method can be used to judge whether or not processed foods are contaminated with pesticides at potentially harmful levels.

  8. An Innovative Rapid Method for Analysis of 10 Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Wheat by HS-SPME-GC-FPD/MSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Ren, YongLin; Beckett, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    The rapid detection of pesticide residues in wheat has become a top food security priority. A solvent-free headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) has been evaluated for rapid screening of organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in wheat with high sensitivity. Individual wheat samples (1.7 g), spiked with 10 OPPs, were placed in a 4 mL sealed amber glass vial and heated at 60°C for 45 min. During this time, the OPP residues were extracted with a 50 μm/30 μm divinylbenzene (DVB)/carboxen (CAR)/plasma desorption mass spectroscopy polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber from the headspace above the sample. The fiber was then removed and injected into the GC injection port at 250°C for desorption of the extracted chemicals. The multiple residues were identified by a GC mass spectrometer detector (GC-MSD) and quantified with a GC flame photometric detector (GC-FPD). Seven spiked levels of 10 OPPs on wheat were analyzed. The GC responses for a 50 μm/30 μm DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber increased with increasing spiking levels, yielding significant (R(2) > 0.98) linear regressions. The lowest LODs of the multiple pesticide standards were evaluated under the conditions of the validation study in a range of levels from 0 (control) to 100 ng of pesticide residue per g of wheat that separated on a low-polar GC capillary column (Agilent DB-35UI). The results of the HS-SPME method were compared with the QuEChERS AOAC 2007.01 method and they showed several advantages over the latter. These included improved sensitivity, selectivity, and simplicity.

  9. [Rapid analysis of suppositories by quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, R A; Kovaleva, S A; Goriainov, S V; Vorob'ev, A N; Kalabin, G A

    2012-01-01

    Rapid analysis of suppositories with ibuprofen and arbidol by quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy was performed. Optimal conditions for the analysis were developed. The results are useful for design of rapid methods for quality control of suppositories with different components

  10. [Rapid prototyping: a very promising method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverman, T M; Karagozoglu, K H; Prins, H-J; Schulten, E A J M; Forouzanfar, T

    2013-03-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization, laminated object manufacturing, three-dimensional printing, three-dimensional plotting, polyjet inkjet technology,fused deposition modelling, vacuum casting and milling. The various methods currently being used in the biomedical sector differ in production, materials and properties of the three-dimensional model which is produced. Rapid prototyping is mainly usedforpreoperative planning, simulation, education, and research into and development of bioengineering possibilities.

  11. Rapid methods for multi-elemental X-ray fluorescence analysis using excitation isotope sources and Si(Li)-semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravleva, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Some rapid methods using an unique calibration curve have been developed for multi-elemental X-ray fluorescence analysis of thin and thick layers of various samples having low contents of heavy elements. The matrix absorption effect in thick samples is taken into account according to the scattered radiation.The similar method using a unique calibration curve for determination of low contents of trace elements in thin layers without account of matrix effect is proposed. The results on the intercomposition run soil-5 are in good agreement with the data obtained in different laboratories. The errors of the method are 10 %; in a case of peak superposition - 15 %

  12. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  13. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Clardy, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This report describes complete practical guidelines and insights for the crystalline sponge method, which have been derived through the first use of synchrotron radiation on these systems, and includes a procedure for faster synthesis of the sponges. These guidelines will be applicable to crystal sponge data collected at synchrotrons or in-house facilities, and will allow researchers to obtain reliable high-quality data and construct chemically and physically sensible models for guest structural determination. A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal–organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collection times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine

  14. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhar, Timothy R. [Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115 (United States); Zheng, Shao-Liang [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138 (United States); Chen, Yu-Sheng [ChemMatCARS, Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago c/o Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois, 60439 (United States); Clardy, Jon, E-mail: jon-clardy@hms.harvard.edu [Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report describes complete practical guidelines and insights for the crystalline sponge method, which have been derived through the first use of synchrotron radiation on these systems, and includes a procedure for faster synthesis of the sponges. These guidelines will be applicable to crystal sponge data collected at synchrotrons or in-house facilities, and will allow researchers to obtain reliable high-quality data and construct chemically and physically sensible models for guest structural determination. A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal–organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collection times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine

  15. A comprehensive aerosol spray method for the rapid photocatalytic grid area analysis of semiconductor photocatalyst thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafizas, Andreas; Mills, Andrew; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2010-01-01

    Indicator inks, previously shown to be capable of rapidly assessing photocatalytic activity via a novel photo-reductive mechanism, were simply applied via an aerosol spray onto commercially available pieces of Activ TM self-cleaning glass. Ink layers could be applied with high evenness of spread, with as little deviation as 5% upon UV-visible spectroscopic assessment of 25 equally distributed positions over a 10 cm x 10 cm glass cut. The inks were comprised of either a resazurin (Rz) or dichloroindophenol (DCIP) redox dye with a glycerol sacrificial electron donor in an aqueous hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) polymer media. The photo-reduction reaction under UVA light of a single spot was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy and digital images attained from a flat-bed scanner in tandem for both inks. The photo-reduction of Rz ink underwent a two-step kinetic process, whereby the blue redox dye was initially reduced to a pink intermediate resorufin (Rf) and subsequently reduced to a bleached form of the dye. In contrast, a simple one-step kinetic process was observed for the reduction of the light blue redox dye DCIP to its bleached intermediates. Changes in red-green-blue colour extracted from digital images of the inks were inversely proportional to the changes seen at corresponding wavelengths via UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and wholly indicative of the reaction kinetics. The photocatalytic activity areas of cuts of Activ TM glass, 10 cm x 10 cm in size, were assessed using both Rz and DCIP indicator inks evenly sprayed over the films; firstly using UVA lamp light to activate the underlying Activ TM film (1.75 mW cm -2 ) and secondly under solar conditions (2.06 ± 0.14 mW cm -2 ). The photo-reduction reactions were monitored solely by flat-bed digital scanning. Red-green-blue values of a generated 14 x 14 grid (196 positions) that covered the entire area of each film image were extracted using a custom-built program entitled RGB Extractor(C). A homogenous

  16. Rapid chemical analysis of allanite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Goro; Hayashi, Hiroshi

    1981-01-01

    Rapid chemical analysis of allanite was studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Powdered sample was fused with mixture of sodium carbonate anhydrous and borax (4 : 1 weight) in platinum crucible and sample solution was prepared. SiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , MnO and rare earth metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, CaO, MgO and Ce 2 O 3 by titration, ThO 2 by colorimetry, and La 2 O 3 by flame photometry respectively. For sample solution treated with hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Na 2 O and K 2 O were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, TiO 2 and P 2 O 5 by colorimetry. Chemical analyses for four samples were carried out and gave consistent results. (author)

  17. A rapid and sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of aliphatic and polar molecules containing free carboxyl groups in plant extracts by LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventure Gustavo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aliphatic molecules containing free carboxyl groups are important intermediates in many metabolic and signalling reactions, however, they accumulate to low levels in tissues and are not efficiently ionized by electrospray ionization (ESI compared to more polar substances. Quantification of aliphatic molecules becomes therefore difficult when small amounts of tissue are available for analysis. Traditional methods for analysis of these molecules require purification or enrichment steps, which are onerous when multiple samples need to be analyzed. In contrast to aliphatic molecules, more polar substances containing free carboxyl groups such as some phytohormones are efficiently ionized by ESI and suitable for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Thus, the development of a method with which aliphatic and polar molecules -which their unmodified forms differ dramatically in their efficiencies of ionization by ESI- can be simultaneously detected with similar sensitivities would substantially simplify the analysis of complex biological matrices. Results A simple, rapid, specific and sensitive method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of free aliphatic molecules (e.g., free fatty acids (FFA and small polar molecules (e.g., jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA containing free carboxyl groups by direct derivatization of leaf extracts with Picolinyl reagent followed by LC-MS/MS analysis is presented. The presence of the N atom in the esterified pyridine moiety allowed the efficient ionization of 25 compounds tested irrespective of their chemical structure. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained after analysis of Nicotiana attenuata leaf material with previously described analytical methods. Conclusion The method presented was used to detect 16 compounds in leaf extracts of N. attenuata plants. Importantly, the method can be adapted based on the specific analytes of interest with the only consideration that the

  18. A rapid, simple method for the genetic discrimination of intact Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seeds using metabolic profiling by direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Young

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient high throughput screening systems of useful mutants are prerequisite for study of plant functional genomics and lots of application fields. Advance in such screening tools, thanks to the development of analytic instruments. Direct analysis in real-time (DART-mass spectrometry (MS by ionization of complex materials at atmospheric pressure is a rapid, simple, high-resolution analytical technique. Here we describe a rapid, simple method for the genetic discrimination of intact Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seeds using metabolic profiling by DART-MS. Results To determine whether this DART-MS combined by multivariate analysis can perform genetic discrimination based on global metabolic profiling, intact Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seeds were subjected to DART-MS without any sample preparation. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA of DART-MS spectral data from intact seeds classified 14 different lines of seeds into two distinct groups: Columbia (Col-0 and Landsberg erecta (Ler ecotype backgrounds. A hierarchical dendrogram based on partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA subdivided the Col-0 ecotype into two groups: mutant lines harboring defects in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway and mutants without these defects. These results indicated that metabolic profiling with DART-MS could discriminate intact Arabidopsis seeds at least ecotype level and metabolic pathway level within same ecotype. Conclusion The described DART-MS combined by multivariate analysis allows for rapid screening and metabolic characterization of lots of Arabidopsis mutant seeds without complex metabolic preparation steps. Moreover, potential novel metabolic markers can be detected and used to clarify the genetic relationship between Arabidopsis cultivars. Furthermore this technique can be applied to predict the novel gene function of metabolic mutants regardless of morphological phenotypes.

  19. Experimental study on rapid embankment construction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Hideaki; Egawa, Kikuji; Hyodo, Kazuya; Kannoto, Yasuo; Sekimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Kokichi.

    1982-01-01

    In the construction of a thermal or nuclear power plant in a coastal area, shorter embankment construction period has come to be called for recently. This tendency is remarkable where construction period is limited due to meteorological or sea conditions. To meet this requirement, the authors have been conducting basic experimental studies on two methods for the rapid execution of embankment construction, that is, Steel Plate Cellular Bulkhead Embedding Method and Ship Hull Caisson Method. This paper presents an outline of the results of the experimental study on these two methods. (author)

  20. WORKING POSTURE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN USING RULA (RAPID UPPER LIMB ASSESSMENT METHOD IN PRODUCTION PROCESS AT PT. INDANA PAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongky Kusnandar Djiono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Working posture can affect the comfort and productivity of labor in doing manual work. In this study, RULA method is used to determine the risk level of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs injury in the production process at PT. Indana Paint (consists of mixing and packaging steps for water-based paint, solvent-based paint, and base paint production, and then given proposed improvements to reduce the risk level. Method used in this research is direct observation and video recording of every work element to determine some awkward postures that will be assessed using RULA method. Thirty awkward postures are found, there are 7 working posture (23.3% have low risk level, 11 working posture (36.7% have medium risk level, and 12 working posture (40% have high risk level. Proposed improvements given is to brief the workers on appropriate lifting technique and working methods, adding mechanical aids for handling drums, and working position height adjustment.

  1. Rapid actinide analysis method coupling liquid chromatography/ICP-MS and "9"0Sr gas proportional counter in post-accidental situation environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi, Azza

    2015-01-01

    The present study follows the Fukushima power plant accident and aimed to develop an analytical method to achieve, during an emergency situation, a rapid identification and quantification of alpha and beta emitters in environmental samples. The first step of this study allowed us to list the alpha and beta emitters which can be released in the environment in case of a nuclear accident. The second step aimed towards the development of a rapid analysis method to quantify 17 radionuclides of U, Th, Pu, Am, Np and Sr. The main objective was the automation of the radiochemical separation step and its coupling for the measurement. The separation is performed using columns containing extraction resins, namely TEVA, TRU and Sr. The measurement is performed using an ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and in some cases a gas proportional counter to quantify radiostrontium ("8"9Sr and "9"0Sr). Excellent figures of merit were obtained, off line, with water (tap, river and sea water) and solid matrices (soil and aerosol filters), after a micro-wave digestion or an alkaline fusion dissolution followed by a Ca_3(PO_4)_2 coprecipitation. The proposed analytical strategy showed yields between 70 % and 100 % and standard deviations between 5 % and 10 %. The newly developed separation method was then automated and coupled on-line to ICP-MS. The operating parameters were optimized using a design of experiments and the results were processed with Minitab. The optimized automated separation coupled on-line to the ICP-MS allows the rapid quantification, in 1.5 h per sample, of U, Th, Pu, Am, Np and Sr with detection limits gain as high as 20 times for artificial radionuclide. (author)

  2. Analysis of plasmid profiling as a method for rapid differentiation of food-associated Clostridium perfringens strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M K; Iwanejko, L A; Longden, M S

    1989-09-01

    Plasmid analysis of over 120 strains of Clostridium perfringens, isolated during food-poisoning incidents and from animal carcasses and food constituents with no association with food poisoning, showed the potential of plasmid profiling as a means of differentiating epidemiologically related strains. On average 65% of freshly isolated strains contained one or more plasmids which could be used in the analysis. Comparison of profiles of strains from unrelated sources or unrelated strains from the same source showed a particularly wide variety of plasmid profiles. Thus the possibility that epidemiologically-unrelated strains might possess similar profiles appears to be very low in this organism. Analysis of serologically-related strains from the same source revealed similar plasmid profiles in all the plasmid-bearing strains examined. A high proportion (71%) of fresh and well-characterized food-poisoning strains possessed plasmids of 6.2 kb in size (compared with 19% of non-food-poisoning strains). The possible role of these plasmids is discussed, since the structural gene encoding the enterotoxin type A was not present on any of the plasmids in the food-poisoning strains tested.

  3. Establishment of a simple and rapid identification method for Listeria spp. by using high-resolution melting analysis, and its application in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Chihiro; Takahashi, Hajime; Phraephaisarn, Chirapiphat; Vesaratchavest, Mongkol; Keeratipibul, Suwimon; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is the causative bacteria of listeriosis, which has a higher mortality rate than that of other causes of food poisoning. Listeria spp., of which L. monocytogenes is a member, have been isolated from food and manufacturing environments. Several methods have been published for identifying Listeria spp.; however, many of the methods cannot identify newly categorized Listeria spp. Additionally, they are often not suitable for the food industry, owing to their complexity, cost, or time consumption. Recently, high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA), which exploits DNA-sequence differences, has received attention as a simple and quick genomic typing method. In the present study, a new method for the simple, rapid, and low-cost identification of Listeria spp. has been presented using the genes rarA and ldh as targets for HRMA. DNA sequences of 9 Listeria species were first compared, and polymorphisms were identified for each species for primer design. Species specificity of each HRM curve pattern was estimated using type strains of all the species. Among the 9 species, 7 were identified by HRMA using rarA gene, including 3 new species. The remaining 2 species were identified by HRMA of ldh gene. The newly developed HRMA method was then used to assess Listeria isolates from the food industry, and the method efficiency was compared to that of identification by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The 2 methods were in coherence for 92.6% of the samples, demonstrating the high accuracy of HRMA. The time required for identifying Listeria spp. was substantially low, and the process was considerably simplified, providing a useful and precise method for processing multiple samples per day. Our newly developed method for identifying Listeria spp. is highly valuable; its use is not limited to the food industry, and it can be used for the isolates from the natural environment.

  4. Introducing AAA-MS, a rapid and sensitive method for amino acid analysis using isotope dilution and high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwagie, Mathilde; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Dupierris, Véronique; Couté, Yohann; Bruley, Christophe; Garin, Jérôme; Dupuis, Alain; Jaquinod, Michel; Brun, Virginie

    2012-07-06

    Accurate quantification of pure peptides and proteins is essential for biotechnology, clinical chemistry, proteomics, and systems biology. The reference method to quantify peptides and proteins is amino acid analysis (AAA). This consists of an acidic hydrolysis followed by chromatographic separation and spectrophotometric detection of amino acids. Although widely used, this method displays some limitations, in particular the need for large amounts of starting material. Driven by the need to quantify isotope-dilution standards used for absolute quantitative proteomics, particularly stable isotope-labeled (SIL) peptides and PSAQ proteins, we developed a new AAA assay (AAA-MS). This method requires neither derivatization nor chromatographic separation of amino acids. It is based on rapid microwave-assisted acidic hydrolysis followed by high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of amino acids. Quantification is performed by comparing MS signals from labeled amino acids (SIL peptide- and PSAQ-derived) with those of unlabeled amino acids originating from co-hydrolyzed NIST standard reference materials. For both SIL peptides and PSAQ standards, AAA-MS quantification results were consistent with classical AAA measurements. Compared to AAA assay, AAA-MS was much faster and was 100-fold more sensitive for peptide and protein quantification. Finally, thanks to the development of a labeled protein standard, we also extended AAA-MS analysis to the quantification of unlabeled proteins.

  5. Survey of methods for rapid spin reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKibben, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    The need for rapid spin reversal technique in polarization experiments is discussed. The ground-state atomic-beam source equipped with two rf transitions for hydrogen can be reversed rapidly, and is now in use on several accelerators. It is the optimum choice provided the accelerator can accept H + ions. At present all rapid reversal experiments using H - ions are done with Lamb-shift sources; however, this is not a unique choice. Three methods for the reversal of the spin of the atomic beam within the Lamb-shift source are discussed in order of development. Coherent intensity and perhaps focus modulation seem to be the biggest problems in both types of sources. Methods for reducing these modulations in the Lamb-shift source are discussed. The same Lamb-shift apparatus is easily modified to provide information on the atomic physics of quenching of the 2S/sub 1/2/ states versus spin orientation, and this is also discussed. 2 figures

  6. A rapid method for the extraction and analysis of carotenoids and other hydrophobic substances suitable for systems biology studies with photosynthetic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bóna-Lovász, Judit; Bóna, Aron; Ederer, Michael; Sawodny, Oliver; Ghosh, Robin

    2013-10-11

    A simple, rapid, and inexpensive extraction method for carotenoids and other non-polar compounds present in phototrophic bacteria has been developed. The method, which has been extensively tested on the phototrophic purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, is suitable for extracting large numbers of samples, which is common in systems biology studies, and yields material suitable for subsequent analysis using HPLC and mass spectroscopy. The procedure is particularly suitable for carotenoids and other terpenoids, including quinones, bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a, and is also useful for the analysis of polar phospholipids. The extraction procedure requires only a single step extraction with a hexane/methanol/water mixture, followed by HPLC using a Spherisorb C18 column, with a mobile phase consisting of acetone-water and a non-linear gradient of 50%-100% acetone. The method was employed for examining the carotenoid composition observed during microaerophilic growth of R. rubrum strains, and was able to determine 18 carotenoids, 4 isoprenoid-quinones, bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a as well as four different phosphatidylglycerol species of different acyl chain compositions. The analytical procedure was used to examine the dynamics of carotenoid biosynthesis in the major and minor pathways operating simultaneously in a carotenoid biosynthesis mutant of R. rubrum.

  7. A Rapid Method for the Extraction and Analysis of Carotenoids and Other Hydrophobic Substances Suitable for Systems Biology Studies with Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Sawodny

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and inexpensive extraction method for carotenoids and other non-polar compounds present in phototrophic bacteria has been developed. The method, which has been extensively tested on the phototrophic purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, is suitable for extracting large numbers of samples, which is common in systems biology studies, and yields material suitable for subsequent analysis using HPLC and mass spectroscopy. The procedure is particularly suitable for carotenoids and other terpenoids, including quinones, bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a, and is also useful for the analysis of polar phospholipids. The extraction procedure requires only a single step extraction with a hexane/methanol/water mixture, followed by HPLC using a Spherisorb C18 column, with a mobile phase consisting of acetone-water and a non-linear gradient of 50%–100% acetone. The method was employed for examining the carotenoid composition observed during microaerophilic growth of R. rubrum strains, and was able to determine 18 carotenoids, 4 isoprenoid-quinones, bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a as well as four different phosphatidylglycerol species of different acyl chain compositions. The analytical procedure was used to examine the dynamics of carotenoid biosynthesis in the major and minor pathways operating simultaneously in a carotenoid biosynthesis mutant of R. rubrum.

  8. Motion Analysis Based on Invertible Rapid Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the use of invertible rapid transform (IRT for the motion estimation in a sequence of images. Motion estimation algorithms based on the analysis of the matrix of states (produced in the IRT calculation are described. The new method was used experimentally to estimate crowd and traffic motion from the image data sequences captured at railway stations and at high ways in large cities. The motion vectors may be used to devise a polar plot (showing velocity magnitude and direction for moving objects where the dominant motion tendency can be seen. The experimental results of comparison of the new motion estimation methods with other well known block matching methods (full search, 2D-log, method based on conventional (cross correlation (CC function or phase correlation (PC function for application of crowd motion estimation are also presented.

  9. Rapid Genetic Analysis in Congenital Hyperinsulinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Brusgaard, Klaus; Alm, Jan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In severe, medically unresponsive congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), the histological differentiation of focal versus diffuse disease is vital, since the surgical management is completely different. Genetic analysis may help in the differential diagnosis, as focal CHI is associated...... with a paternal germline ABCC8 or KCNJ11 mutation and a focal loss of maternal chromosome 11p15, whereas a maternal mutation, or homozygous/compound heterozygous ABCC8 and KCNJ11 mutations predict diffuse-type disease. However, genotyping usually takes too long to be helpful in the absence of a founder mutation....... METHODS: In 4 patients, a rapid genetic analysis of the ABBC8 and KCNJ11 genes was performed within 2 weeks on request prior to the decision of pancreatic surgery. RESULTS: Two patients had no mutations, rendering the genetic analysis non-informative. Peroperative multiple biopsies showed diffuse disease...

  10. Rapid 3-D analysis of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Greg M.; Guerin, A.; Avdievitch, Nikita N.; Collins, Brian D.; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Recent fatal and damaging rockfalls in Yosemite National Park indicate the need for rapid response data collection methods to inform public safety and assist with management response. Here we show the use of multiple-platform remote sensing methods to rapidly capture pertinent data needed to inform management and the public following a several large rockfalls from El Capitan cliff in Yosemite Valley, California.

  11. Rapid quantitative analysis of individual anthocyanin content based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection with the pH differential method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huayin

    2014-09-01

    A new quantitative technique for the simultaneous quantification of the individual anthocyanins based on the pH differential method and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection is proposed in this paper. The six individual anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-rutinoside, and malvidin 3-rutinoside) from mulberry (Morus rubra) and Liriope platyphylla were used for demonstration and validation. The elution of anthocyanins was performed using a C18 column with stepwise gradient elution and individual anthocyanins were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the pH differential method, the high-performance liquid chromatography peak areas of maximum and reference absorption wavelengths of anthocyanin extracts were conducted to quantify individual anthocyanins. The calibration curves for these anthocyanins were linear within the range of 10-5500 mg/L. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) all exceeded 0.9972, and the limits of detection were in the range of 1-4 mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 for these anthocyanins. The proposed quantitative analysis was reproducible with good accuracy of all individual anthocyanins ranging from 96.3 to 104.2% and relative recoveries were in the range 98.4-103.2%. The proposed technique is performed without anthocyanin standards and is a simple, rapid, accurate, and economical method to determine individual anthocyanin contents. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A new rapid method for isolating nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou Fang; Lam, Yun Wah

    2015-01-01

    The nucleolus was one of the first subcellular organelles to be isolated from the cell. The advent of modern proteomic techniques has resulted in the identification of thousands of proteins in this organelle, and live cell imaging technology has allowed the study of the dynamics of these proteins. However, the limitations of current nucleolar isolation methods hinder the further exploration of this structure. In particular, these methods require the use of a large number of cells and tedious procedures. In this chapter we describe a new and improved nucleolar isolation method for cultured adherent cells. In this method cells are snap-frozen before direct sonication and centrifugation onto a sucrose cushion. The nucleoli can be obtained within a time as short as 20 min, and the high yield allows the use of less starting material. As a result, this method can capture rapid biochemical changes in nucleoli by freezing the cells at a precise time, hence faithfully reflecting the protein composition of nucleoli at the specified time point. This protocol will be useful for proteomic studies of dynamic events in the nucleolus and for better understanding of the biology of mammalian cells.

  13. Rapid spectrographic method for determining microcomponents in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, L.I.; Fadeeva, L.A.; Gordeeva, A.N.; Ermakova, N.V.

    1984-01-01

    Rapid spectrographic method foe determining microcomponents (Cd, V, Mo, Ni, rare earths and other elements) in industrial and natural solutions has been developed. The analyses were conducted in argon medium and in the air. Calibration charts for determining individual rare earths in solutions are presented. The accuracy of analysis (Sr) was detection limit was 10 -3 -10 -4 mg/ml, that for rare earths - 1.10 -2 mg/ml. The developed method enables to rapidly analyze solutions (sewages and industrialllwaters, wine products) for 20 elements including 6 rare earths, using strandard equipment

  14. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  15. Computerized method for rapid optimization of immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, F.; Forest, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have developed an one step quantitative method for radioimmunoassay optimization. The method is rapid and necessitates only to perform a series of saturation curves with different titres of the antiserum. After calculating the saturation point at several antiserum titres using the Scatchard plot, the authors have produced a table that predicts the main characteristics of the standard curve (Bo/T, Bo and T) that will prevail for any combination of antiserum titre and percentage of sites saturation. The authors have developed a microcomputer program able to interpolate all the data needed to produce such a table from the results of the saturation curves. This computer program permits also to predict the sensitivity of the assay at any experimental conditions if the antibody does not discriminate between the labeled and the non labeled antigen. The authors have tested the accuracy of this optimization table with two in house RIA systems: 17-β-estradiol, and hLH. The results obtained experimentally, including sensitivity determinations, were concordant with those predicted from the optimization table. This method accerelates and improves greatly the process of optimization of radioimmunoassays [fr

  16. A Rapid Aeroelasticity Optimization Method Based on the Stiffness characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhe; Huo, Shihui; Ren, Jianting

    2018-01-01

    A rapid aeroelasticity optimization method based on the stiffness characteristics was proposed in the present study. Large time expense in static aeroelasticity analysis based on traditional time domain aeroelasticity method is solved. Elastic axis location and torsional stiffness are discussed firstly. Both torsional stiffness and the distance between stiffness center and aerodynamic center have a direct impact on divergent velocity. The divergent velocity can be adjusted by changing the cor...

  17. Clan structure analysis and rapidity gap probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupia, S.; Giovannini, A.; Ugoccioni, R.

    1995-01-01

    Clan structure analysis in rapidity intervals is generalized from negative binomial multiplicity distribution to the wide class of compound Poisson distributions. The link of generalized clan structure analysis with correlation functions is also established. These theoretical results are then applied to minimum bias events and evidentiate new interesting features, which can be inspiring and useful in order to discuss data on rapidity gap probability at TEVATRON and HERA. (orig.)

  18. Clan structure analysis and rapidity gap probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupia, S. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Giovannini, A. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Ugoccioni, R. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    Clan structure analysis in rapidity intervals is generalized from negative binomial multiplicity distribution to the wide class of compound Poisson distributions. The link of generalized clan structure analysis with correlation functions is also established. These theoretical results are then applied to minimum bias events and evidentiate new interesting features, which can be inspiring and useful in order to discuss data on rapidity gap probability at TEVATRON and HERA. (orig.)

  19. An Object-Based Image Analysis Method for Monitoring Land Conversion by Artificial Sprawl Use of RapidEye and IRS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Balestrat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In France, in the peri-urban context, urban sprawl dynamics are particularly strong with huge population growth as well as a land crisis. The increase and spreading of built-up areas from the city centre towards the periphery takes place to the detriment of natural and agricultural spaces. The conversion of land with agricultural potential is all the more worrying as it is usually irreversible. The French Ministry of Agriculture therefore needs reliable and repeatable spatial-temporal methods to locate and quantify loss of land at both local and national scales. The main objective of this study was to design a repeatable method to monitor land conversion characterized by artificial sprawl: (i We used an object-based image analysis to extract artificial areas from satellite images; (ii We built an artificial patch that consists of aggregating all the peripheral areas that characterize artificial areas. The “artificialized” patch concept is an innovative extension of the urban patch concept, but differs in the nature of its components and in the continuity distance applied; (iii The diachronic analysis of artificial patch maps enables characterization of artificial sprawl. The method was applied at the scale of four departments (similar to provinces along the coast of Languedoc-Roussillon, in the South of France, based on two satellite datasets, one acquired in 1996–1997 (Indian Remote Sensing and the other in 2009 (RapidEye. In the four departments, we measured an increase in artificial areas of from 113,000 ha in 1997 to 133,000 ha in 2009, i.e., an 18% increase in 12 years. The package comes in the form of a 1/15,000 valid cartography, usable at the scale of a commune (the smallest territorial division used for administrative purposes in France that can be adapted to departmental and regional scales. The method is reproducible in homogenous spatial-temporal terms, so that it could be used periodically to assess changes in land conversion

  20. Rapid surface enhanced Raman scattering detection method for chloramphenicol residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Yao, Weirong

    2015-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a widely used amide alcohol antibiotics, which has been banned from using in food producing animals in many countries. In this study, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coupled with gold colloidal nanoparticles was used for the rapid analysis of CAP. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted with Gaussian 03 at the B3LYP level using the 3-21G(d) and 6-31G(d) basis sets to analyze the assignment of vibrations. Affirmatively, the theoretical Raman spectrum of CAP was in complete agreement with the experimental spectrum. They both exhibited three strong peaks characteristic of CAP at 1104 cm-1, 1344 cm-1, 1596 cm-1, which were used for rapid qualitative analysis of CAP residues in food samples. The use of SERS as a method for the measurements of CAP was explored by comparing use of different solvents, gold colloidal nanoparticles concentration and absorption time. The method of the detection limit was determined as 0.1 μg/mL using optimum conditions. The Raman peak at 1344 cm-1 was used as the index for quantitative analysis of CAP in food samples, with a linear correlation of R2 = 0.9802. Quantitative analysis of CAP residues in foods revealed that the SERS technique with gold colloidal nanoparticles was sensitive and of a good stability and linear correlation, and suited for rapid analysis of CAP residue in a variety of food samples.

  1. Rapid Enzymatic Method for Pectin Methyl Esters Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Łękawska-Andrinopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectin is a natural polysaccharide used in food and pharma industries. Pectin degree of methylation is an important parameter having significant influence on pectin applications. A rapid, fully automated, kinetic flow method for determination of pectin methyl esters has been developed. The method is based on a lab-made analyzer using the reverse flow-injection/stopped flow principle. Methanol is released from pectin by pectin methylesterase in the first mixing coil. Enzyme working solution is injected further downstream and it is mixed with pectin/pectin methylesterase stream in the second mixing coil. Methanol is oxidized by alcohol oxidase releasing formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. This reaction is coupled to horse radish peroxidase catalyzed reaction, which gives the colored product 4-N-(p-benzoquinoneimine-antipyrine. Reaction rate is proportional to methanol concentration and it is followed using Ocean Optics USB 2000+ spectrophotometer. The analyzer is fully regulated by a lab written LabVIEW program. The detection limit was 1.47 mM with an analysis rate of 7 samples h−1. A paired t-test with results from manual method showed that the automated method results are equivalent to the manual method at the 95% confidence interval. The developed method is rapid and sustainable and it is the first application of flow analysis in pectin analysis.

  2. Integrated metabolomic analysis of the nano-sized copper particle-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats: a rapid in vivo screening method for nanotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ronghui; Wu, Chunqi; Yang, Baohua; Ma, Huazhai; Shi, Chang; Wang, Quanjun; Wang, Qingxiu; Yuan, Ye; Liao, Mingyang

    2008-10-15

    Despite an increasing application of copper nanoparticles, there is a serious lack of information concerning their impact on human health and the environment. In this study, the biochemical compositions of urine, serum, and extracts of liver and kidney tissues of rats treated with nano-copper at the different doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/d for 5 d) were investigated using (1)H NMR techniques with the pattern recognition methods. Serum biochemical analysis and histopathological examinations of the liver and kidney of all the rats were simultaneously performed. All the results indicated that the effects produced by nano-copper at a dose of 100 or 50 mg/kg/d were less than those induced at a higher dose of 200 mg/kg/d. Nano-copper induced overt hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity at 200 mg/kg/d for 5 d, which mainly involved scattered dot hepatocytic necrosis and widespread renal proximal tubule necrosis. Increased citrate, succinate, trimethylamine-N-oxide, glucose, and amino acids, accompanied by decreased creatinine levels were observed in the urine; furthermore, elevated levels of lactate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetate, creatine, triglycerides, and phosphatide and reduced glucose levels were observed in the serum. The predominant changes identified in the liver tissue aqueous extracts included increased lactate and creatine levels together with reduced glutamine and taurine levels, and the metabolic profile of the kidney tissue aqueous extracts showed an increase in lactate and a drop in glucose. In the chloroform/methanol extracts of the liver and kidney tissues, elevated triglyceride species were identified. These changes suggested that mitochondrial failure, enhanced ketogenesis, fatty acid beta-oxidation, and glycolysis contributed to the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by nano-copper at 200 mg/kg/d for 5 d. An increase in triglycerides in the serum, liver and kidney tissues could serve as a potential sensitive biomarker reflecting the lipidosis induced

  3. Integrated metabolomic analysis of the nano-sized copper particle-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats: A rapid invivo screening method for nanotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Ronghui; Wu Chunqi; Yang Baohua; Ma Huazhai; Shi Chang; Wang Quanjun; Wang Qingxiu; Yuan Ye; Liao Mingyang

    2008-01-01

    Despite an increasing application of copper nanoparticles, there is a serious lack of information concerning their impact on human health and the environment. In this study, the biochemical compositions of urine, serum, and extracts of liver and kidney tissues of rats treated with nano-copper at the different doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/d for 5 d) were investigated using 1 H NMR techniques with the pattern recognition methods. Serum biochemical analysis and histopathological examinations of the liver and kidney of all the rats were simultaneously performed. All the results indicated that the effects produced by nano-copper at a dose of 100 or 50 mg/kg/d were less than those induced at a higher dose of 200 mg/kg/d. Nano-copper induced overt hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity at 200 mg/kg/d for 5 d, which mainly involved scattered dot hepatocytic necrosis and widespread renal proximal tubule necrosis. Increased citrate, succinate, trimethylamine-N-oxide, glucose, and amino acids, accompanied by decreased creatinine levels were observed in the urine; furthermore, elevated levels of lactate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetate, creatine, triglycerides, and phosphatide and reduced glucose levels were observed in the serum. The predominant changes identified in the liver tissue aqueous extracts included increased lactate and creatine levels together with reduced glutamine and taurine levels, and the metabolic profile of the kidney tissue aqueous extracts showed an increase in lactate and a drop in glucose. In the chloroform/methanol extracts of the liver and kidney tissues, elevated triglyceride species were identified. These changes suggested that mitochondrial failure, enhanced ketogenesis, fatty acid β-oxidation, and glycolysis contributed to the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by nano-copper at 200 mg/kg/d for 5 d. An increase in triglycerides in the serum, liver and kidney tissues could serve as a potential sensitive biomarker reflecting the lipidosis induced by

  4. SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF AZIDOTHYMIDINE AND ITS MONOPHOSPHATE, DIPHOSPHATE AND TRIPHOSPHATE DERIVATIVES IN BIOLOGICAL-FLUIDS, TISSUE AND CULTURED-CELLS BY A RAPID HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOLEMA, G; JANSEN, RW; Visser, Jan; MEIJER, DKF

    1992-01-01

    A rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the simultaneous analysis of the antiviral drug azidothymidine (AZT), AZT monophosphate, AZT diphosphate and AZT triphosphate, with ultraviolet detection in the nanomolar range, is described. Determination of these compounds in vitro

  5. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  6. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2018-04-10

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  7. Rapid validated liquid chromatographic method coupled with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NTB in human plasma, and thus can be applied efficiently for the analysis of clinical samples containing. NTB. Keywords: ... permits the analysis of a lot of clinical samples containing NTB in a ... from Milli-Q plus purification system, Millipore, ... Fifty microliter of CBP working standard solution ... Percentage relative error (%.

  8. A solid-phase microextraction GC/MS/MS method for rapid quantitative analysis of food and beverages for the presence of legally restricted biologically active flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousova, Katerina; Mittendorf, Klaus; Senyuva, Hamide

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed using automated headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with GC/MS/MS to simultaneously determine the presence of seven biologically active flavoring substances whose levels of use in processed foods is controlled by statutory limits. The method can be applied to identify and quantify the presence of 1,2-benzopyrone (coumarin), beta-asarone, 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene (estragole), menthofuran, 4-allyl-1 ,2-dimethoxybenzene (methyl eugenol), pulegone, and thujone at levels ranging from 0.5 to 3000 mg/kg. The method has been optimized and validated for three different generic food types categorized on the basis of composition and anticipated use levels of flavorings and food ingredients. The food categories are alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages; semisolid processed foods (e.g., soups, sauces, confectionary, etc.); and solid foods (muesli, bakery products, etc.). The method is simple, inexpensive, and rapid, and eliminates the use of flammable and toxic solvents. There is no sample preparation, and using MSIMS, unequivocal confirmation of identification is achieved even in highly complex matrixes containing many potential interfering volatiles. The method precision for spiked samples ranged from 2 to 21%, with the greatest variability associated with solid matrixes. The LOD and LOQ values were well below 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively, in all cases for individual substances, fulfilling requirements for enforcement purposes. The robustness of the method was demonstrated in a small survey of retail samples of four spirits, five flavored milks, three energy drinks, five liqueurs, five soups, 10 sauces, five herbal teas, and three breakfast cereals.

  9. An easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for DNA extraction from various lichen taxa and specimens suitable for analysis of fungal and algal strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sook-Young; Jang, Seol-Hwa; Oh, Soon-Ok; Kim, Jung A; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2014-12-01

    Lichen studies, including biodiversity, phylogenetic relationships, and conservation concerns require definitive species identification, however many lichens can be challenging to identify at the species level. Molecular techniques have shown efficacy in discriminating among lichen taxa, however, obtaining genomic DNA from herbarium and fresh lichen thalli by conventional methods has been difficult, because lichens contain high proteins, polysaccharides, and other complex compounds in their cell walls. Here we report a rapid, easy, and inexpensive protocol for extracting PCR-quality DNA from various lichen species. This method involves the following two steps: first, cell breakage using a beadbeater; and second, extraction, isolation, and precipitation of genomic DNA. The procedure requires approximately 10 mg of lichen thalli and can be completed within 20 min. The obtained DNAs were of sufficient quality and quantity to amplify the internal transcribed spacer region from the fungal and algal lichen components, as well as to sequence the amplified products. In addition, 26 different lichen taxa were tested, resulting in successful PCR products. The results of this study validated the experimental protocols, and clearly demonstrated the efficacy and value of our KCl extraction method applied in the fungal and algal samples.

  10. Rapid Vegetative Propagation Method for Carob

    OpenAIRE

    Hamide GUBBUK; Esma GUNES; Tomas AYALA-SILVA; Sezai ERCISLI

    2011-01-01

    Most of fruit species are propagated by vegetative methods such as budding, grafting, cutting, suckering, layering etc. to avoid heterozygocity. Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L.) are of highly economical value and are among the most difficult to propagate fruit species. In the study, air-layering propagation method was investigated first time to compare wild and cultivated (�Sisam�) carob types. In the experiment, one year old carob limbs were air-layered on coco peat medium by wrapping with...

  11. Improving Student Understanding of Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis via GC/MS Using a Rapid SPME-Based Method for Determination of Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu Rong; Palmer, Peter T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determination of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water via solid-phase microextraction (SPME) GC/MS as a means to develop and improve student understanding of the use of GC/MS for qualitative and quantitative analysis. In the classroom, students are introduced to SPME, GC/MS instrumentation, and the use of MS…

  12. A novel method for rapid in vitro radiobioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Evan Bogert

    Rapid and accurate analysis of internal human exposure to radionuclides is essential to the effective triage and treatment of citizens who have possibly been exposed to radioactive materials in the environment. The two most likely scenarios in which a large number of citizens would be exposed are the detonation of a radiation dispersal device (RDD, "dirty bomb") or the accidental release of an isotope from an industrial source such as a radioisotopic thermal generator (RTG). In the event of the release and dispersion of radioactive materials into the environment in a large city, the entire population of the city -- including all commuting workers and tourists -- would have to be rapidly tested, both to satisfy the psychological needs of the citizens who were exposed to the mental trauma of a possible radiation dose, and to satisfy the immediate medical needs of those who received the highest doses and greatest levels of internal contamination -- those who would best benefit from rapid, intensive medical care. In this research a prototype rapid screening method to screen urine samples for the presence of up to five isotopes, both individually and in a mixture, has been developed. The isotopes used to develop this method are Co-60, Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-238, and Am-241. This method avoids time-intensive chemical separations via the preparation and counting of a single sample on multiple detectors, and analyzing the spectra for isotope-specific markers. A rapid liquid-liquid separation using an organic extractive scintillator can be used to help quantify the activity of the alpha-emitting isotopes. The method provides quantifiable results in less than five minutes for the activity of beta/gamma-emitting isotopes when present in the sample at the intervention level as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and quantifiable results for the activity levels of alpha-emitting isotopes present at their respective intervention levels in approximately 30

  13. Rapid assessment methods in eye care: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Marmamula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable information is required for the planning and management of eye care services. While classical research methods provide reliable estimates, they are prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Rapid assessment (RA methods are indispensable tools in situations where data are needed quickly and where time- or cost-related factors prohibit the use of classical epidemiological surveys. These methods have been developed and field tested, and can be applied across almost the entire gamut of health care. The 1990s witnessed the emergence of RA methods in eye care for cataract, onchocerciasis, and trachoma and, more recently, the main causes of avoidable blindness and visual impairment. The important features of RA methods include the use of local resources, simplified sampling methodology, and a simple examination protocol/data collection method that can be performed by locally available personnel. The analysis is quick and easy to interpret. The entire process is inexpensive, so the survey may be repeated once every 5-10 years to assess the changing trends in disease burden. RA survey methods are typically linked with an intervention. This article provides an overview of the RA methods commonly used in eye care, and emphasizes the selection of appropriate methods based on the local need and context.

  14. The effects of micro-implant assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE) on the nasomaxillary complex--a finite element method (FEM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGinnis, Matt; Chu, Howard; Youssef, George; Wu, Kimberley W; Machado, Andre Wilson; Moon, Won

    2014-08-29

    Orthodontic palatal expansion appliances have been widely used with satisfactory and, most often, predictable clinical results. Recently, clinicians have successfully utilized micro-implants with palatal expander designs to work as anchors to the palate to achieve more efficient skeletal expansion and to decrease undesired dental effects. The purpose of the study was to use finite element method (FEM) to determine the stress distribution and displacement within the craniofacial complex when simulated conventional and micro-implant-assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE) expansion forces are applied to the maxilla. The simulated stress distribution produced within the palate and maxillary buttresses in addition to the displacement and rotation of the maxilla could then be analyzed to determine if micro-implants aid in skeletal expansion. A three-dimensional (3D) mesh model of the cranium with associated maxillary sutures was developed using computed tomography (CT) images and Mimics modeling software. To compare transverse expansion stresses in rapid palatal expansion (RPE) and MARPE, expansion forces were distributed to differing points on the maxilla and evaluated with ANSYS simulation software. The stresses distributed from forces applied to the maxillary teeth are distributed mainly along the trajectories of the three maxillary buttresses. In comparison, the MARPE showed tension and compression directed to the palate, while showing less rotation, and tipping of the maxillary complex. In addition, the conventional hyrax displayed a rotation of the maxilla around the teeth as opposed to the midpalatal suture of the MARPE. This data suggests that the MARPE causes the maxilla to bend laterally, while preventing unwanted rotation of the complex. In conclusion, the MARPE may be beneficial for hyperdivergent patients, or those that have already experienced closure of the midpalatal suture, who require palatal expansion and would worsen from buccal tipping of the teeth

  15. A rapid hydrolysis method and DABS-Cl derivatization for complete amino acid analysis of octreotide acetate by reversed phase HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Yousef; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Attar, Hossein; Alamir Hoor, Amir

    2015-11-01

    Octreotide as a synthetic cyclic octapeptide is a somatostatin analog with longer half-life and more selectivity for inhibition of the growth hormone. The acetate salt of octreotide is currently used for medical treatment of somatostatin-related disorders such as endocrine and carcinoid tumors, acromegaly, and gigantism. Octreotide contains both cysteine and tryptophan residues which make the hydrolysis part of its amino acid analysis procedure very challenging. The current paper introduces a fast and additive-free method which preserves tryptophan and cysteine residues during the hydrolysis. Using only 6 M HCl, this hydrolysis process is completed in 30 min at 150 °C. This fast hydrolysis method followed by pre-column derivatization of the released amino acids with 4-N,N-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4'-sulfonyl chloride (DABS-Cl) which takes only 20 min, makes it possible to do the complete amino acid analysis of an octreotide sample in a few hours. The highly stable-colored DABS-Cl derivatives can be detected in 436 nm in a reversed phase chromatographic system, which eliminates spectral interferences to a great extent. The amino acid analysis of octreotide acetate including hydrolysis, derivatization, and reversed phase HPLC determination was validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines.

  16. [A new method of fabricating photoelastic model by rapid prototyping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Huang, Qing-feng; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Xia, Yin-pei

    2011-10-01

    To explore a novel method of fabricating the photoelastic model using rapid prototyping technique. A mandible model was made by rapid prototyping with computerized three-dimensional reconstruction, then the photoelastic model with teeth was fabricated by traditional impression duplicating and mould casting. The photoelastic model of mandible with teeth, which was fabricated indirectly by rapid prototyping, was very similar to the prototype in geometry and physical parameters. The model was of high optical sensibility and met the experimental requirements. Photoelastic model of mandible with teeth indirectly fabricated by rapid prototyping meets the photoelastic experimental requirements well.

  17. Developing rapid methods for analyzing upland riparian functions and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Regulators protecting riparian areas need to understand the integrity, health, beneficial uses, functions, and values of this resource. Up to now most methods providing information about riparian areas are based on analyzing condition or integrity. These methods, however, provide little information about functions and values. Different methods are needed that specifically address this aspect of riparian areas. In addition to information on functions and values, regulators have very specific needs that include: an analysis at the site scale, low cost, usability, and inclusion of policy interpretations. To meet these needs a rapid method has been developed that uses a multi-criteria decision matrix to categorize riparian areas in Washington State, USA. Indicators are used to identify the potential of the site to provide a function, the potential of the landscape to support the function, and the value the function provides to society. To meet legal needs fixed boundaries for assessment units are established based on geomorphology, the distance from "Ordinary High Water Mark" and different categories of land uses. Assessment units are first classified based on ecoregions, geomorphic characteristics, and land uses. This simplifies the data that need to be collected at a site, but it requires developing and calibrating a separate model for each "class." The approach to developing methods is adaptable to other locations as its basic structure is not dependent on local conditions.

  18. Rapid structural analysis of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryuzaki, Sou; Tsutsui, Makusu; He, Yuhui; Yokota, Kazumichi; Arima, Akihide; Morikawa, Takanori; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2017-04-01

    Rapid structural analysis of nanoscale matter in a liquid environment represents innovative technologies that reveal the identities and functions of biologically important molecules. However, there is currently no method with high spatio-temporal resolution that can scan individual particles in solutions to gain structural information. Here we report the development of a nanopore platform realizing quantitative structural analysis for suspended nanomaterials in solutions with a high z-axis and xy-plane spatial resolution of 35.8 ± 1.1 and 12 nm, respectively. We used a low thickness-to-diameter aspect ratio pore architecture for achieving cross sectional areas of analyte (i.e. tomograms). Combining this with multiphysics simulation methods to translate ionic current data into tomograms, we demonstrated rapid structural analysis of single polystyrene (Pst) beads and single dumbbell-like Pst beads in aqueous solutions.

  19. A simple method for rapidly processing HEU from weapons returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    A method based on the use of a high temperature fluidized bed for rapidly oxidizing, homogenizing and down-blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) from dismantled nuclear weapons is presented. This technology directly addresses many of the most important issues that inhibit progress in international commerce in HEU; viz., transaction verification, materials accountability, transportation and environmental safety. The equipment used to carry out the oxidation and blending is simple, inexpensive and highly portable. Mobile facilities to be used for point-of-sale blending and analysis of the product material are presented along with a phased implementation plan that addresses the conversion of HEU derived from domestic weapons and related waste streams as well as material from possible foreign sources such as South Africa or the former Soviet Union.

  20. Rapid and selective derivatizatin method for the nitrogen-sensitive detection of carboxylic acids in biological fluids prior to gas chromatographic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingeman, H.; Haan, H.B.P.; Hulshoff, A.

    1984-01-01

    A rapid and selective derivatization procedure is described for the pre-column labelling of carboxylic acids with a nitrogen-containing label. The carboxylic acid function is activated with 2-bromo-1-methylpyridinium iodide and the activated carboxylic acid function reacts with a primary or a

  1. Rapid enzymatic analysis of plasma for tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, H; Taniguchi, K; Sugiyama, M; Kanno, T

    1990-01-01

    In this rapid, simple, and convenient enzymatic method for measurement of tyrosine in plasma, tyrosine is converted to tyramine by action of tyrosine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.25) and the tyramine produced is oxidized to p-hydroxybenzyl aldehyde and hydrogen peroxide by action of tyramine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.9). The hydrogen peroxide is reacted with 4-aminoantipyrine and N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxy-3-sulfopropyl)-m-toluidine in the presence of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) to obtain quinoneimine dye, the absorbance of which is measured at 570 nm. Thus tyrosine is measured in the visible range. The CV was 4.6% or less, and the measurement was unaffected by other amino acids, except for phenylalanine. The values obtained (y) correlated well with those obtained with an amino acid analyzer (x): y = 0.902x + 3.92 mumol/L (Syx = 12.3; r = 0.985; n = 54).

  2. Rapid Analysis and Manufacturing Propulsion Technology (RAMPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.

    2018-01-01

    NASA's strategic plan calls for the development of enabling technologies, improved production methods, and advanced design and analysis tools related to the agency's objectives to expand human presence in the solar system. NASA seeks to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration, as well as facilitate and utilize U.S. commercial capabilities to deliver cargo and crew to space.

  3. A simple and rapid method to estimate radiocesium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindl, P.; Steger, F.

    1990-09-01

    A simple and rapid method for monitoring internal contamination of radiocesium in man was developed. This method is based on measurements of the γ-rays emitted from the muscular parts between the thights by a simple NaJ(Tl)-system. The experimental procedure, the calibration, the estimation of the body activity and results are explained and discussed. (Authors)

  4. Numerical analysis of rapid drawdown: Applications in real cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo E. Alonso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rapid drawdown scenarios were analyzed by means of numerical examples as well as modeling of real cases with in situ measurements. The aim of the study was to evaluate different approaches available for calculating pore water pressure distributions during and after a drawdown. To do that, a single slope subjected to a drawdown was first analyzed under different calculation alternatives, and numerical results were discussed. Simple methods, such as undrained analysis and pure flow analysis, implicitly assuming a rigid soil skeleton, lead to significant errors in pore water pressure distributions when compared with coupled flow-deformation analysis. A similar analysis was performed for the upstream slope of the Glen Shira Dam, Scotland, and numerical results were compared with field measurements during a controlled drawdown. Field records indicate that classical undrained calculations are conservative but unrealistic. Then, a recent case of a major landslide triggered by a rapid drawdown in a reservoir was interpreted. A key aspect of the case was the correct characterization of permeability of a representative soil profile. This was achieved by combining laboratory test results and a back analysis of pore water pressure time records during a period of reservoir water level fluctuations. The results highlight the difficulty of predicting whether the pore water pressure is overestimated or underestimated when using simplified approaches, and it is concluded that predicting the pore water pressure distribution in a slope after a rapid drawdown requires a coupled flow-deformation analysis in saturated and unsaturated porous media.

  5. Monitoring of radioiodine and methods for rapid measurement, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    Milk is selected as an indicator or critical food in the environmental monitoring samples, and radioactive iodine as a specific critical radionuclide. Rapid determination of Iodine-131 in the milk has been developed as a standard procedure for the network of environmental radioactivity monitoring in a state of emergency. Outline of the procedure is gamma-ray spectrometry using a heavily shielded 3''diameter x 3'' sodium iodide (thallium-activated) crystal as a detector, 2 liter of Marinelli Beaker for a raw milk and a multi channel pulse height analyzer for quantitative analysis of gamma spectra through the utilization of simultaneous equations. The analysis is what we call ''Milk Matrix Method'' introducing calibration data from the standard samples of Iodine-131, Cesium-137 and Potassium-40. They were selected experimentally, and counting data from the sample were taken into the elements of matrix of set up three simultaneous equations. Most recently detected concentration of Iodine-131 in milk was 81 pCi per liter in 20 May 1978, originated from the nuclear explosion test carried out by the People's Republic of China in 15 May 1978. (author)

  6. Improved ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight high-definition mass spectrometry method for the rapid analysis of the chemical constituents of a typical medical formula: Liuwei Dihuang Wan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Lv, Hai tao; Zhang, Ai hua; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guang li; Han, Ying; Wu, Xiu hong; Wang, Xi jun

    2013-11-01

    Liuwei Dihuang Wan (LDW), a classic Chinese medicinal formula, has been used to improve or restore declined functions related to aging and geriatric diseases, such as impaired mobility, vision, hearing, cognition, and memory. It has attracted increasing attention as one of the most popular and valuable herbal medicines. However, the systematic analysis of the chemical constituents of LDW is difficult and thus has not been well established. In this paper, a rapid, sensitive, and reliable ultra-performance LC with ESI quadrupole TOF high-definition MS method with automated MetaboLynx analysis in positive and negative ion mode was established to characterize the chemical constituents of LDW. The analysis was performed on a Waters UPLC™ HSS T3 using a gradient elution system. MS/MS fragmentation behavior was proposed for aiding the structural identification of the components. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 50 peaks were tentatively characterized by comparing the retention time and MS data. It is concluded that a rapid and robust platform based on ultra-performance LC with ESI quadrupole TOF high-definition MS has been successfully developed for globally identifying multiple constituents of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. This is the first report on the systematic analysis of the chemical constituents of LDW. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Histogram analysis for smartphone-based rapid hematocrit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Uddin M.; Kim, Sang C.; Shim, Joon S.

    2017-01-01

    A novel and rapid analysis technique using histogram has been proposed for the colorimetric quantification of blood hematocrits. A smartphone-based “Histogram” app for the detection of hematocrits has been developed integrating the smartphone embedded camera with a microfluidic chip via a custom-made optical platform. The developed histogram analysis shows its effectiveness in the automatic detection of sample channel including auto-calibration and can analyze the single-channel as well as multi-channel images. Furthermore, the analyzing method is advantageous to the quantification of blood-hematocrit both in the equal and varying optical conditions. The rapid determination of blood hematocrits carries enormous information regarding physiological disorders, and the use of such reproducible, cost-effective, and standard techniques may effectively help with the diagnosis and prevention of a number of human diseases. PMID:28717569

  8. Rapid methods for measuring radionuclides in food and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    The application of ICP/mass spectrometry for the isotopic analysis of environmental samples, the use of drum assayers for measuring radionuclides in food and a rapid procedure for the measurement of the transuranic elements and thorium, performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory are discussed

  9. Rapid detection of atrazine and metolachlor in farm soils: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based analysis using the bubble-in-drop single drop microextraction enrichment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D Bradley G; George, Mosotho J; Marjanovic, Ljiljana

    2014-08-06

    Tracking of metolachlor and atrazine herbicides in agricultural soils, from spraying through to harvest, was conducted using our recently reported "bubble-in-drop single-drop microextraction" method. The method showed good linearity (R(2) = 0.999 and 0.999) in the concentration range of 0.01-1.0 ng/mL with LOD values of 0.01 and 0.02 ng/mL for atrazine and metolachlor, respectively. Sonication methods were poor at releasing these herbicides from the soil matrixes, while hot water extraction readily liberated them, providing an efficient accessible alternative to sonication techniques. Good recoveries of 97% and 105% were shown for atrazine and metolachlor, respectively, from the soil. The spiking protocol was also investigated, resulting in a traceless spiking method. We demonstrate a very sensitive technique by which to assess, for example, the length of residence of pesticides in given soils and thus risk of exposure.

  10. Rapid analysis of some rare earth magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoot, K.N.; Raoot, Sarala; Rukmani Desikan, N.

    1978-01-01

    A simple complexometric method for the quick analysis of the constituent elements in some quaternary rare earth magnets of the type RE-Co-Cu-Fe and RE-Ni-Cu-Fe is described. The technique is based on a total titration, subsequent release of EDTA from rare earth with ammonium fluoride and that from copper (II) with ascorbic acid and thiourea followed by determination of the excess and liberated EDTA by lead nitrate in a weak acid medium using xylenol orange indicator. In another, aliquot iron (III) and rare earth are first masked with sodium fluoride, and copper (II) with ascorbic acid and thiourea before cobalt (II) or nickel (II) is estimated by back titration. Iron is calculated by difference. The new method yields accurate and reproducible results with error not exceeding 1%. A set of three samples can conveniently be analysed in two hours. (author)

  11. Rapid analysis of some rare earth magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoot, K N; Raoot, S; Rukmani Desikan, N [Defence Metallurgical Research Lab., Hyderabad (India)

    1978-12-01

    A simple complexometric method for the quick analysis of the constituent elements in some quaternary rare earth magnets of the type RE-Co-Cu-Fe and RE-Ni-Cu-Fe is described. The technique is based on a total titration, subsequent release of EDTA from rare earth with ammonium fluoride and that from copper (II) with ascorbic acid and thiourea followed by determination of the excess and liberated EDTA by lead nitrate in a weak acid medium using xylenol orange indicator. In another, aliquot iron (III) and rare earth are first masked with sodium fluoride, and copper (II) with ascorbic acid and thiourea before cobalt (II) or nickel (II) is estimated by back titration. Iron is calculated by difference. The new method yields accurate and reproducible results with error not exceeding 1%. A set of three samples can conveniently be analysed in two hours.

  12. Study on tube rupture strength evaluation method for rapid overheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Ryuji; Wada, Yusaku

    1998-08-01

    A sodium-water reaction derived from the single tube break in steam generator might overheat neighbor tubes rapidly under internal pressure loadings. If the temperature of tube wall becomes too high, it has to be evaluated that the stress of tube does not exceed the material strength limit to prevent the propagation of tube rupture. In the present study this phenomenon was recognized as the fracture of cylindrical tube with the large deformation due to overheating, and the evaluation method was investigated based on both of experimental and analytical approaches. The results obtained are as follows. (1) As for the nominal stress estimation, it was clarified through the experimental data and the detailed FEM elasto-plastic large deformation analysis that the formula used in conventional designs can be applied. (2) Within the overheating temperature limits of tubes, the creep effect is dominant, even if the loading time is too short. So the strain rate on the basis of JIS elevated temperature tensile test method for steels and heat-resisting alloys is too late and almost of total strain is composed by creep one. As a result the time dependent effect cannot be evaluated under JIS strain rate condition. (3) Creep tests in shorter time condition than a few minutes and tensile tests in higher strain rate condition than 10%/min of JIS are carried out for 2 1/4Cr-1Mo(NT) steel, and the standard values for tube rupture strength evaluation are formulated. (4) The above evaluation method based on both of the stress estimation and the strength standard values application is justified by using the tube burst test data under internal pressure. (5) The strength standard values on Type 321 ss is formulated in accordance with the procedure applied for 2 1/4Cr-1Mo(NT) steel. (author)

  13. A Rapid Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction Method Followed by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis for the Determination of Mycotoxins in Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Giorgia La; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Montone, Carmela Maria; Chiozzi, Riccardo Zenezini; Laganà, Aldo

    2017-04-21

    Mycotoxins can contaminate various food commodities, including cereals. Moreover, mycotoxins of different classes can co-contaminate food, increasing human health risk. Several analytical methods have been published in the literature dealing with mycotoxins determination in cereals. Nevertheless, in the present work, the aim was to propose an easy and effective system for the extraction of six of the main mycotoxins from corn meal and durum wheat flour, i.e., the main four aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and the mycoestrogen zearalenone. The developed method exploited magnetic solid phase extraction (SPE), a technique that is attracting an increasing interest as an alternative to classical SPE. Therefore, the use of magnetic graphitized carbon black as a suitable extracting material was tested. The same magnetic material proved to be effective in the extraction of mycoestrogens from milk, but has never been applied to complex matrices as cereals. Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used for detection. Recoveries were >60% in both cereals, even if the matrix effects were not negligible. The limits of quantification of the method results were comparable to those obtained by other two magnetic SPE-based methods applied to cereals, which were limited to one or two mycotoxins, whereas in this work the investigated mycotoxins belonged to three different chemical classes.

  14. A Rapid Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction Method Followed by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis for the Determination of Mycotoxins in Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia La Barbera

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins can contaminate various food commodities, including cereals. Moreover, mycotoxins of different classes can co-contaminate food, increasing human health risk. Several analytical methods have been published in the literature dealing with mycotoxins determination in cereals. Nevertheless, in the present work, the aim was to propose an easy and effective system for the extraction of six of the main mycotoxins from corn meal and durum wheat flour, i.e., the main four aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and the mycoestrogen zearalenone. The developed method exploited magnetic solid phase extraction (SPE, a technique that is attracting an increasing interest as an alternative to classical SPE. Therefore, the use of magnetic graphitized carbon black as a suitable extracting material was tested. The same magnetic material proved to be effective in the extraction of mycoestrogens from milk, but has never been applied to complex matrices as cereals. Ultra high–performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used for detection. Recoveries were >60% in both cereals, even if the matrix effects were not negligible. The limits of quantification of the method results were comparable to those obtained by other two magnetic SPE-based methods applied to cereals, which were limited to one or two mycotoxins, whereas in this work the investigated mycotoxins belonged to three different chemical classes.

  15. Rapid screening method for plutonium in mixed waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somers, W.; Culp, T.; Miller, R.

    1987-01-01

    A waste stream sampling program was undertaken to determine those waste streams which contained hazardous constituents, and would therefore be regulated as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The waste streams also had the potential of containing radioactive material, either plutonium, americium, or depleted uranium. Because of the potential for contamination with radioactive material, a method of rapidly screening the liquid samples for radioactive material was required. A counting technique was devised to count a small aliquot of a sample, determine plutonium concentration, and allow the sample to be shipped the same day they were collected. This technique utilized the low energy photons (x-rays) that accompany α decay. This direct, non-destructive x-ray analysis was applied to quantitatively determine Pu-239 concentrations in industrial samples. Samples contained a Pu-239, Am-241 mixture; the ratio and/or concentrations of these two radionuclides was not constant. A computer program was designed and implemented to calculate Pu-239 activity and concentration (g/ml) using the 59.5 keV Am-241 peak to determine Am-241's contribution to the 17 keV region. Am's contribution was subtracted, yielding net counts in the 17 keV region due to Pu. 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. The Use of Rapid Review Methods for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnode, Carrie D; Eder, Michelle L; Walsh, Emily S; Viswanathan, Meera; Lin, Jennifer S

    2018-01-01

    Rapid review products are intended to synthesize available evidence in a timely fashion while still meeting the needs of healthcare decision makers. Various methods and products have been applied for rapid evidence syntheses, but no single approach has been uniformly adopted. Methods to gain efficiency and compress the review time period include focusing on a narrow clinical topic and key questions; limiting the literature search; performing single (versus dual) screening of abstracts and full-text articles for relevance; and limiting the analysis and synthesis. In order to maintain the scientific integrity, including transparency, of rapid evidence syntheses, it is imperative that procedures used to streamline standard systematic review methods are prespecified, based on sound review principles and empiric evidence when possible, and provide the end user with an accurate and comprehensive synthesis. The collection of clinical preventive service recommendations maintained by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, along with its commitment to rigorous methods development, provide a unique opportunity to refine, implement, and evaluate rapid evidence synthesis methods and add to an emerging evidence base on rapid review methods. This paper summarizes the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's use of rapid review methodology, its criteria for selecting topics for rapid evidence syntheses, and proposed methods to streamline the review process. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid response teams: qualitative analysis of their effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Linda Searle; Mayo, Ann M

    2013-05-01

    Multidisciplinary rapid response teams focus on patients' emergent needs and manage critical situations to prevent avoidable deaths. Although research has focused primarily on outcomes, studies of the actual team effectiveness within the teams from multiple perspectives have been limited. To describe effectiveness of rapid response teams in a large teaching hospital in California that had been using such teams for 5 years. The grounded-theory method was used to discover if substantive theory might emerge from interview and/or observational data. Purposeful sampling was used to conduct in-person semistructured interviews with 17 key informants. Convenience sampling was used for the 9 observed events that involved a rapid response team. Analysis involved use of a concept or indicator model to generate empirical results from the data. Data were coded, compared, and contrasted, and, when appropriate, relationships between concepts were formed. Results Dimensions of effective team performance included the concepts of organizational culture, team structure, expertise, communication, and teamwork. Professionals involved reported that rapid response teams functioned well in managing patients at risk or in crisis; however, unique challenges were identified. Teams were loosely coupled because of the inconsistency of team members from day to day. Team members had little opportunity to develop relationships or team skills. The need for team training may be greater than that among teams that work together regularly under less time pressure to perform. Communication between team members and managing a crisis were critical aspects of an effective response team.

  18. A rapid method to map the crustal and lithospheric thickness using elevation, geoid anomaly and thermal analysis. Application to the Gibraltar Arc System, Atlas Mountains and adjacent zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullea, J.; Fernàndez, M.; Zeyen, H.; Vergés, J.

    2007-02-01

    We present a method based on the combination of elevation and geoid anomaly data together with thermal field to map crustal and lithospheric thickness. The main assumptions are local isostasy and a four-layered model composed of crust, lithospheric mantle, sea water and the asthenosphere. We consider a linear density gradient for the crust and a temperature dependent density for the lithospheric mantle. We perform sensitivity tests to evaluate the effect of the variation of the model parameters and the influence of RMS error of elevation and geoid anomaly databases. The application of this method to the Gibraltar Arc System, Atlas Mountains and adjacent zones reveals the presence of a lithospheric thinning zone, SW-NE oriented. This zone affects the High and Middle Atlas and extends from the Canary Islands to the eastern Alboran Basin and is probably linked with a similarly trending zone of thick lithosphere constituting the western Betics, eastern Rif, Rharb Basin, and Gulf of Cadiz. A number of different, even mutually opposite, geodynamic models have been proposed to explain the origin and evolution of the study area. Our results suggest that a plausible slab-retreating model should incorporate tear and asymmetric roll-back of the subducting slab to fit the present-day observed lithosphere geometry. In this context, the lithospheric thinning would be caused by lateral asthenospheric flow. An alternative mechanism responsible for lithospheric thinning is the presence of a hot magmatic reservoir derived from a deep ancient plume centred in the Canary Island, and extending as far as Central Europe.

  19. [Rapid methods for the genus Salmonella bacteria detection in food and raw materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, D M; Sokolov, M S

    2013-01-01

    The article considers sanitary and epidemiological aspects and the impact of Salmonella food poisoning in Russia and abroad. The main characteristics of the agent (Salmonella enterica subsp. Enteritidis) are summarized. The main sources of human Salmonella infection are products of poultry and livestock (poultry, eggs, dairy products, meat products, etc.). Standard methods of identifying the causative agent, rapid (alternative) methods of analysis of Salmonella using differential diagnostic medium (MSRV, Salmosyst, XLT4-agar, agar-Rambach et al.), rapid tests Singlepath-Salmonella and PCR (food proof Salmonella) in real time were stated. Rapid tests provide is a substantial (at 24-48 h) reducing the time to identify Salmonella.

  20. Analysis of the Rapid Chloride Migration test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, P.R.; Ballari, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Ferreira, R. M.; Gulikers, J.; Andrade, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study the Rapid Chloride Migration test (RCM) standardized as NT Build 492 and BAW-Merkblatt is reviewed. Since the traditional natural diffusion tests are laborious, time consuming and costly, they are not always preferred from a practical point of view. To overcome these disadvantages,

  1. Application of Solid Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry as a Rapid Method for Field Sampling and Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Industrial Chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hook, Gary L

    2003-01-01

    ..., is: What chemicals are present? In order to answer this question rapidly, there is increasing demand for field analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds with instrumentation that provides definitive identification...

  2. A new rapid method for rockfall energies and distances estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Anna; Ferrari, Federica; Thoeni, Klaus; Lambert, Cedric

    2016-04-01

    and distances at the base to block and slope features. The validation of the proposed approach was conducted by comparing predictions to experimental data collected in the field and gathered from the scientific literature. The method can be used for both natural and constructed slopes and easily extended to more complicated and articulated slope geometries. The study shows its great potential for a quick qualitative hazard assessment providing indication about impact energy and horizontal distance of the first impact at the base of a rock cliff. Nevertheless, its application cannot substitute a more detailed quantitative analysis required for site-specific design of mitigation measures. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP). References Dorren, L.K.A. (2003) A review of rockfall mechanics and modelling approaches, Progress in Physical Geography 27(1), 69-87. Agliardi, F., Crosta, G.B., Frattini, P. (2009) Integrating rockfall risk assessment and countermeasure design by 3D modelling techniques. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 9(4), 1059-1073. Ferrari, F., Thoeni, K., Giacomini, A., Lambert, C. (2016) A rapid approach to estimate the rockfall energies and distances at the base of rock cliffs. Georisk, DOI: 10.1080/17499518.2016.1139729.

  3. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stuart J [Richland, WA; Cowley,; E, Wendy [Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Cramer, Nicholas O [Richland, WA

    2012-03-06

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  4. Rapid and sensitive analysis of 27 underivatized free amino acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides in fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle using HILIC-UHPLC-QTRAP(®)/MS (2) combined with chemometrics methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guisheng; Wang, Mengyue; Li, Yang; Peng, Ying; Li, Xiaobo

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a new strategy based on chemical analysis and chemometrics methods was proposed for the comprehensive analysis and profiling of underivatized free amino acids (FAAs) and small peptides among various Luo-Han-Guo (LHG) samples. Firstly, the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) parameters were optimized using Plackett-Burman (PB) screening and Box-Behnken designs (BBD), and the following optimal UAE conditions were obtained: ultrasound power of 280 W, extraction time of 43 min, and the solid-liquid ratio of 302 mL/g. Secondly, a rapid and sensitive analytical method was developed for simultaneous quantification of 24 FAAs and 3 active small peptides in LHG at trace levels using hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-UHPLC-QTRAP(®)/MS(2)). The analytical method was validated by matrix effects, linearity, LODs, LOQs, precision, repeatability, stability, and recovery. Thirdly, the proposed optimal UAE conditions and analytical methods were applied to measurement of LHG samples. It was shown that LHG was rich in essential amino acids, which were beneficial nutrient substances for human health. Finally, based on the contents of the 27 analytes, the chemometrics methods of unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised counter propagation artificial neural network (CP-ANN) were applied to differentiate and classify the 40 batches of LHG samples from different cultivated forms, regions, and varieties. As a result, these samples were mainly clustered into three clusters, which illustrated the cultivating disparity among the samples. In summary, the presented strategy had potential for the investigation of edible plants and agricultural products containing FAAs and small peptides.

  5. An Analysis of Army Rapid Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    measuring its bottom-line impacts enables managers to increase the productivity of these critical assets.”16 If we determine that the current rapid...readiness-requirements/. 111 William Beaver , “Mantech Awarded $61M for Contractor Logistics Sustainment Support Services,” Danger Zone Jobs (blog...could be quickly produced and fielded.”120  Stable and Available Funding. MRAP “was able to avoid negative cost and schedule impacts that are

  6. A rapid, simple method for obtaining radiochemically pure hepatic heme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonkowski, H.L.; Bement, W.J.; Erny, R.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactively-labelled heme has usually been isolated from liver to which unlabelled carrier has been added by long, laborious techniques involving organic solvent extraction followed by crystallization. A simpler, rapid method is devised for obtaining radiochemically-pure heme synthesized in vivo in rat liver from delta-amino[4- 14 C]levulinate. This method, in which the heme is extracted into ethyl acetate/glacial acetic acid and in which porphyrins are removed from the heme-containing organic phase with HCl washes, does not require addition of carrier heme. The new method gives better heme recoveries than and heme specific activities identical to, those obtained using the crystallization method. In this new method heme must be synthesized from delta-amino[4- 14 C]levulinate; it is not satisfactory to use [2- 14 C]glycine substrate because non-heme counts are isolated in the heme fraction. (Auth.)

  7. Rapid methods for jugular bleeding of dogs requiring one technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, C S; Richardson, M R

    1979-06-01

    Two methods were used to collect blood from the jugular vein of dogs. In both techniques, only one technician was required. A rope with a slip knot was placed around the base of the neck to assist in restraint and act as a tourniquet for the vein. The technician used one hand to restrain the dog by the muzzle and position the head. The other hand was used for collecting the sample. One of the methods could be accomplished with the dog in its cage. The bleeding techniques were rapid, requiring approximately 1 minute per dog.

  8. Substoichiometric method in the simple radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, N.; Noguchi, K.

    1979-01-01

    The substoichiometric method is applied to simple radiometric analysis. Two methods - the standard reagent method and the standard sample method - are proposed. The validity of the principle of the methods is verified experimentally in the determination of silver by the precipitation method, or of zinc by the ion-exchange or solvent-extraction method. The proposed methods are simple and rapid compared with the conventional superstoichiometric method. (author)

  9. Method for producing rapid pH changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.H.; Campillo, A.J.; Shapiro, S.L.; Winn, K.R.

    A method of initiating a rapid pH change in a solution comprises irradiating the solution with an intense flux of electromagnetic radiation of a frequency which produces a substantial pK change to a compound in solution. To optimize the resulting pH change, the compound being irradiated in solution should have an excited state lifetime substantially longer than the time required to establish an excited state acid-base equilibrium in the solution. Desired pH changes can be accomplished in nanoseconds or less by means of picosecond pulses of laser radiation.

  10. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  11. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with 14 C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques

  12. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with /sup 14/C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques.

  13. A simple and rapid molecular method for Leptospira species identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Ahmed; Anthony, Richard M.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.

    2010-01-01

    Serological and DNA-based classification systems only have little correlation. Currently serological and molecular methods for characterizing Leptospira are complex and costly restricting their world-wide distribution and use. Ligation mediated amplification combined with microarray analysis

  14. Rapid method for identification of transgenic fish zygosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Alimuddin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of zygosity in transgenik fish is normally achieved by PCR analysis with genomic DNA template extracted from the tissue of progenies which are derived by mating the transgenic fish and wild-type counterpart.  This method needs relatively large amounts of fish material and is time- and labor-intensive. New approaches addressing this problem could be of great help for fish biotechnologists.  In this experiment, we applied a quantitative real-time PCR (qr-PCR method to analyze zygosity in a stable line of transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio carrying masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou D6-desaturase-like gene. The qr-PCR was performed using iQ SYBR Green Supermix in the iCycler iQ Real-time PCR Detection System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA.  Data were analyzed using the comparative cycle threshold method.  The results demonstrated a clear-cut identification of all transgenic fish (n=20 classified as a homozygous or heterozygous.  Mating of those fish with wild-type had revealed transgene transmission to the offspring following expected Mendelian laws. Thus, we found that the qTR-PCR to be effective for a rapid and precise determination of zygosity in transgenic fish. This technique could be useful in the establishment of breeding programs for mass transgenic fish production and in experiments in which zygosity effect could have a functional impact. Keywords: quantitative real-time PCR; zygosity; transgenic fish; mass production   ABSTRAK Identifikasi sigositas ikan transgenik biasanya dilakukan menggunakan analisa PCR dengan cetakan DNA genomik yang diekstraksi dari jaringan ikan hasil persilangan antara ikan transgenik dan ikan normal.   Metode ini memerlukan ikan dalam jumlah yang banyak, dan juga waktu serta tenaga.  Pendekatan baru untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut akan memberikan manfaat besar kepada peneliti bioteknologi perikanan.  Pada penelitian ini, kami menggunakan metode PCR real-time kuantitatif (krt-PCR untuk

  15. A rapid method for determining chlorobenzenes in dam water systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method using direct immersion solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) was developed for the analysis of 7 chlorinated benzenes in dam water. The main parameters affecting the DI-SPME process were optimised. The optimised method ...

  16. RESEARCH NOTE A Universal, rapid, and inexpensive method for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    success of the extracted gDNA to be submitted into post-PCR analysis. ... The application of the universal method for DNA extraction not restricted into routine ... On the other hand, the universal method has proven its feasibility to be utilized.

  17. Application of a rapid screening method to detect irradiated meat in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincee, H.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the enormous potential for food irradiation in Brazil, and to ensure free consumer choice, there is a need to find a convenient and rapid method for detection of irradiated food. Since treatment with ionising radiation causes DNA fragmentation, the analysis of DNA damage might be promising. In this paper, the DNA Comet Assay was used to identify exotic meat (boar, jacare and capybara), irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays. The applied radiation doses were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy. Analysis of the DNA migration enabled a rapid identification of the radiation treatment

  18. A Rapid Method for the Determination of Fucoxanthin in Diatom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucoxanthin is a natural pigment found in microalgae, especially diatoms and Chrysophyta. Recently, it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and anti-obesityactivity in humans. Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a diatom with high economic potential due to its high content of fucoxanthin and eicosapentaenoic acid. In order to improve fucoxanthin production, physical and chemical mutagenesis could be applied to generate mutants. An accurate and rapid method to assess the fucoxanthin content is a prerequisite for a high-throughput screen of mutants. In this work, the content of fucoxanthin in P. tricornutum was determined using spectrophotometry instead of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. This spectrophotometric method is easier and faster than liquid chromatography and the standard error was less than 5% when compared to the HPLC results. Also, this method can be applied to other diatoms, with standard errors of 3–14.6%. It provides a high throughput screening method for microalgae strains producing fucoxanthin.

  19. A rapid method for titration of ascovirus infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ningning; Chen, Zishu; Wan, Hu; Huang, Guohua; Li, Jianhong; Jin, Byung Rae

    2018-05-01

    Ascoviruses are a recently described family and the traditional plaque assay and end-point PCR assay have been used for their titration. However, these two methods are time-consuming and inaccurate to titrate ascoviruses. In the present study, a quick method for the determination of the titer of ascovirus stocks was developed based on ascovirus-induced apoptosis in infected insect cells. Briefly, cells infected with serial dilutions of virus (10 -2 -10 -10 ) for 24 h were stained with trypan blue. The stained cells were counted, and the percentage of nonviable cells was calculated. The stained cell rate was compared between virus-infected and control cells. The minimum-dilution group that had a significant difference compared with control and the maximum-dilution group that had no significant difference were selected and then compared each well of the two groups with the average stained cell rate of control. The well was marked as positive well if the stained cell rate was higher than the average stained cell rate of control wells; otherwise, the well was marked as negative wells. The percentage of positive wells were calculated according to the number of positive. Subsequently, the virus titer was calculated through the method of Reed and Muench. This novel method is rapid, simple, reproducible, accurate, and less material-consuming and eliminates the subjectivity of the other procedures for titrating ascoviruses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid Exploitation and Analysis of Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttler, D J; Andrzejewski, D; Stevens, K D; Anastasiu, D; Gao, B

    2011-11-28

    Analysts are overwhelmed with information. They have large archives of historical data, both structured and unstructured, and continuous streams of relevant messages and documents that they need to match to current tasks, digest, and incorporate into their analysis. The purpose of the READ project is to develop technologies to make it easier to catalog, classify, and locate relevant information. We approached this task from multiple angles. First, we tackle the issue of processing large quantities of information in reasonable time. Second, we provide mechanisms that allow users to customize their queries based on latent topics exposed from corpus statistics. Third, we assist users in organizing query results, adding localized expert structure over results. Forth, we use word sense disambiguation techniques to increase the precision of matching user generated keyword lists with terms and concepts in the corpus. Fifth, we enhance co-occurrence statistics with latent topic attribution, to aid entity relationship discovery. Finally we quantitatively analyze the quality of three popular latent modeling techniques to examine under which circumstances each is useful.

  1. A rapid protection switching method in carrier ethernet ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; Ji, Meng

    2008-11-01

    Abstract: Ethernet is the most important Local Area Network (LAN) technology since more than 90% data traffic in access layer is carried on Ethernet. From 10M to 10G, the improving Ethernet technology can be not only used in LAN, but also a good choice for MAN even WAN. MAN are always constructed in ring topology because the ring network could provide resilient path protection by using less resource (fibre or cable) than other network topologies. In layer 2 data networks, spanning tree protocol (STP) is always used to protect transmit link and preventing the formation of logic loop in networks. However, STP cannot guarantee the efficiency of service convergence when link fault happened. In fact, convergent time of networks with STP is about several minutes. Though Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and Multi-Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) improve the STP technology, they still need a couple of seconds to achieve convergence, and can not provide sub-50ms protection switching. This paper presents a novel rapid ring protection method (RRPM) for carrier Ethernet. Unlike other link-fault detection method, it adopts distributed algorithm to detect link fault rapidly (sub-50ms). When networks restore from link fault, it can revert to the original working state. RRPM can provide single ring protection and interconnected ring protection without the formation of super loop. In normal operation, the master node blocks the secondary port for all non-RRPM Ethernet frames belonging to the given RRPM Ring, thereby avoiding a loop in the ring. When link fault happens, the node on which the failure happens moves from the "ring normal" state to the "ring fault" state. It also sends "link down" frame immediately to other nodes and blocks broken port and flushes its forwarding database. Those who receive "link down" frame will flush forwarding database and master node should unblock its secondary port. When the failure restores, the whole ring will revert to the normal state. That is

  2. New methods for rapid data acquisition of contaminated land cover after NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.; Cespirova, I.

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the research project is the analysis of the modem and rapid reliable data acquisition methods for agricultural countermeasures, feed-stuff restrictions and clean-up of large contaminated areas after NPP accident. Acquiring agricultural reliable data especially based on satellite technology and analysis of landscape contamination (based on computer code vs. in situ measurements, airborne and/or terrestrial mapping of contamination) are discussed. (authors)

  3. New methods for rapid data acquisition of contaminated land cover after NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.; Cespirova, I.

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the research project is the analysis of the modem and rapid reliable data acquisition methods for agricultural countermeasures, feed-stuff restrictions and clean-up of large contaminated areas after NPP accident. Acquiring agricultural reliable data especially based on satellite technology and analysis of landscape contamination (based on computer code vs. in situ measurements, airborne and/or terrestrial mapping of contamination) are discussed. (authors)

  4. The surface analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of surfaces analysis methods, each having its specificity, its qualities, its constraints (for instance vacuum) and its limits. Expensive in time and in investment, these methods have to be used deliberately. This article appeals to non specialists. It gives some elements of choice according to the studied information, the sensitivity, the use constraints or the answer to a precise question. After having recalled the fundamental principles which govern these analysis methods, based on the interaction between radiations (ultraviolet, X) or particles (ions, electrons) with matter, two methods will be more particularly described: the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-rays photoemission spectroscopy (ESCA or XPS). Indeed, they are the most widespread methods in laboratories, the easier for use and probably the most productive for the analysis of surface of industrial materials or samples submitted to treatments in aggressive media. (O.M.)

  5. Application of a rapid screening method to detect irradiated meat in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Delincee, H.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Based on the enormous potential for food irradiation in Brazil, and to ensure free consumer choice, there is a need to find a convenient and rapid method for detection of irradiated food. Since treatment with ionizing radiation causes DNA fragmentation, the analysis of DNA damage might be promising. In fact, DNA fragmentation measured in single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis - DNA Comet Assay - has shown to offer great potential as a rapid tool to detect whether a wide variety of foodstuffs has been radiation processed. However, more work is needed to exploit the full potential of this promising technique. In this paper, the DNA Comet Assay was used to identify exotic meat (boar, jacare and capybara), irradiated with 60 Co gamma-rays. The applied radiation doses were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy. Analysis of the DNA migration enable a rapid identification of the radiation treatment

  6. Rapid Analysis and Exploration of Fluorescence Microscopy Images

    OpenAIRE

    Pavie, Benjamin; Rajaram, Satwik; Ouyang, Austin; Altschuler, Jason; Steininger, Robert J; Wu, Lani; Altschuler, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in high-throughput microscopy, quantitative image-based assays still pose significant challenges. While a variety of specialized image analysis tools are available, most traditional image-analysis-based workflows have steep learning curves (for fine tuning of analysis parameters) and result in long turnaround times between imaging and analysis. In particular, cell segmentation, the process of identifying individual cells in an image, is a major bottleneck in this regard.

  7. Rapid method for Detection of Irradiation Mango Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Salhy, F.T.

    2011-01-01

    To detect mango fruits which have been exposed to low doses of gamma rays (0.5-3.0 kGy), three recommended methods by European Committee for Standardization (EN 1784:1996, EN 1785:1996 and EN 1787:2000) were used to study the possibility for identification of irradiated mango fruits (Ewais variety). Fresh mangoes were irradiated to different doses (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy). The first method for determining the volatile hydrocarbons (VHC) was carried out by using florisil column then identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major VHCs were C14:1, C15:0 and C17:1 at different doses which increased linearly with increasing doses either at low or high doses. The second one for determining the 2-alkyl cyclobutanone (2-DCB) was carried out using florisil chromatography method activated with 20% for separation and identified by GC-MS. 2-DCB bio marker specific for irradiated food proved its presence at the applied doses from 0.75-3.0 kGy but not at 0.5 kGy. All the mentioned compounds could not detected in non-irradiated samples, which mean that these radiolytic products (VHC and 2-DCB) can be used as a detection markers for irradiated mangoes even at low doses. The third one (EN 1787:2000) was conducted by electron spin resonance (ESR) on dried petioles of mangoes. The results proved that ESR was more sensitive for all applied doses.It could be concluded that using the three methods can be succeeded for detection of irradiated mangoes but the rapid one even at low doses with high accuracy was ESR.

  8. Electrochemical method for rapid synthesis of Zinc Pentacyanonitrosylferrate Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogaieh Bargeshadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a rapid and simple approach was developed for the preparation of zinc pentacyanonitrosylferrate nanotubes (ZnPCNF NTs within the cylindrical pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template by electrochemical method. The AAO was fabricated in two steps anodizing from aluminum foil. The first anodization of aluminum foil was performed in 0.2 mol L-1 H2C2O4 followed by removal of the formed porous oxide film by a solution of 6 wt% of phosphoric acid. The second anodization step was then performed using the same conditions as the previous step. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD method were employed to characterize the resulting highly oriented uniform hollow tube array which its diameter was in the range of 25-75 nm depending on the applied voltage and the length of nanotubes was equal to the thickness of AAO which was about 2 m. The growth properties of the ZnPCNF NTs array film can be achieved by controlling the structure of the template and applied potential across the cell.

  9. Rapid and robust detection methods for poison and microbial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Melanie M; Lu, Peter J; Sims, Peter A; Slocum, Alexander H

    2012-06-27

    Real-time on-site monitoring of analytes is currently in high demand for food contamination, water, medicines, and ingestible household products that were never tested appropriately. Here we introduce chemical methods for the rapid quantification of a wide range of chemical and microbial contaminations using a simple instrument. Within the testing procedure, we used a multichannel, multisample, UV-vis spectrophotometer/fluorometer that employs two frequencies of light simultaneously to interrogate the sample. We present new enzyme- and dye-based methods to detect (di)ethylene glycol in consumables above 0.1 wt % without interference and alcohols above 1 ppb. Using DNA intercalating dyes, we can detect a range of pathogens ( E. coli , Salmonella , V. Cholera, and a model for Malaria) in water, foods, and blood without background signal. We achieved universal scaling independent of pathogen size above 10(4) CFU/mL by taking advantage of the simultaneous measurement at multiple wavelengths. We can detect contaminants directly, without separation, purification, concentration, or incubation. Our chemistry is stable to ± 1% for >3 weeks without refrigeration, and measurements require <5 min.

  10. A Rapid Method for Measuring Strontium-90 Activity in Crops in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lingjing Pan; Yu, Guobing; Wen, Deyun; Chen, Zhi; Sheng, Liusi; Liu, Chung-King; Xu, X. George

    2017-09-01

    A rapid method for measuring Sr-90 activity in crop ashes is presented. Liquid scintillation counting, combined with ion exchange columns 4`, 4"(5")-di-t-butylcyclohexane-18-crown-6, is used to determine the activity of Sr-90 in crops. The yields of chemical procedure are quantified using gravimetric analysis. The conventional method that uses ion-exchange resin with HDEHP could not completely remove all the bismuth when comparatively large lead and bismuth exist in the samples. This is overcome by the rapid method. The chemical yield of this method is about 60% and the MDA for Sr-90 is found to be 2:32 Bq/kg. The whole procedure together with using spectrum analysis to determine the activity only takes about one day, which is really a large improvement compared with the conventional method. A modified conventional method is also described here to verify the value of the rapid one. These two methods can meet di_erent needs of daily monitoring and emergency situation.

  11. A rapid reliability estimation method for directed acyclic lifeline networks with statistically dependent components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Won-Hee; Kliese, Alyce

    2014-01-01

    Lifeline networks, such as transportation, water supply, sewers, telecommunications, and electrical and gas networks, are essential elements for the economic and societal functions of urban areas, but their components are highly susceptible to natural or man-made hazards. In this context, it is essential to provide effective pre-disaster hazard mitigation strategies and prompt post-disaster risk management efforts based on rapid system reliability assessment. This paper proposes a rapid reliability estimation method for node-pair connectivity analysis of lifeline networks especially when the network components are statistically correlated. Recursive procedures are proposed to compound all network nodes until they become a single super node representing the connectivity between the origin and destination nodes. The proposed method is applied to numerical network examples and benchmark interconnected power and water networks in Memphis, Shelby County. The connectivity analysis results show the proposed method's reasonable accuracy and remarkable efficiency as compared to the Monte Carlo simulations

  12. Methods of Multivariate Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rencher, Alvin C

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit

  13. Rapid methods for the extraction and archiving of molecular grade fungal genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Palmer, Michael; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    The rapid and inexpensive extraction of fungal genomic DNA that is of sufficient quality for molecular approaches is central to the molecular identification, epidemiological analysis, taxonomy, and strain typing of pathogenic fungi. Although many commercially available and in-house extraction procedures do eliminate the majority of contaminants that commonly inhibit molecular approaches, the inherent difficulties in breaking fungal cell walls lead to protocols that are labor intensive and that routinely take several hours to complete. Here we describe several methods that we have developed in our laboratory that allow the extremely rapid and inexpensive preparation of fungal genomic DNA.

  14. Rapid simulation of spatial epidemics: a spectral method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Samuel P C; Tildesley, Michael J; Keeling, Matthew J

    2015-04-07

    Spatial structure and hence the spatial position of host populations plays a vital role in the spread of infection. In the majority of situations, it is only possible to predict the spatial spread of infection using simulation models, which can be computationally demanding especially for large population sizes. Here we develop an approximation method that vastly reduces this computational burden. We assume that the transmission rates between individuals or sub-populations are determined by a spatial transmission kernel. This kernel is assumed to be isotropic, such that the transmission rate is simply a function of the distance between susceptible and infectious individuals; as such this provides the ideal mechanism for modelling localised transmission in a spatial environment. We show that the spatial force of infection acting on all susceptibles can be represented as a spatial convolution between the transmission kernel and a spatially extended 'image' of the infection state. This representation allows the rapid calculation of stochastic rates of infection using fast-Fourier transform (FFT) routines, which greatly improves the computational efficiency of spatial simulations. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this fast spectral rate recalculation (FSR) method with two examples: an idealised scenario simulating an SIR-type epidemic outbreak amongst N habitats distributed across a two-dimensional plane; the spread of infection between US cattle farms, illustrating that the FSR method makes continental-scale outbreak forecasting feasible with desktop processing power. The latter model demonstrates which areas of the US are at consistently high risk for cattle-infections, although predictions of epidemic size are highly dependent on assumptions about the tail of the transmission kernel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid preparation method for technetium-99m bicisate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, J.C. [Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Chowdhury, S. [Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Redfern, M.G. [Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mahoney, D.W. [Section of Biostatistics, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    1997-06-10

    The method currently recommended for the preparation of technetium-99m bicisate ({sup 99m}Tc-bicisate) requires a lengthy 30-min incubation at room temperature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an alternative method to shorten the preparation time. {sup 99m}Tc-bicisate was prepared with 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) {sup 99m}Tc according to the manufacturer`s instructions, except for the final incubation step, which was replaced with the microwave heating procedure. A standard thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method (i.e., Baker-Flex silica gel IB-F TLC plate with ethyl acetate as mobile phase) was used for the determination of the radiochemical purity (RCP) of {sup 99m}Tc-bicisate. Our evaluation with different microwave heating processes (300 W with different heating times) demonstrated that as the microwave heating temperature was increased (i.e., 44 -71 C), an increased percentage of samples reached 95% within 5 min post preparation (n=58). The highest RCP value (i.e., 97.4%{+-}0.5%, n=10) could be obtained immediately after an 8-s microwave heating time at 300 W (microwave temperature at 69 C), and an average RCP value of 96.4%{+-}1.3% (n=90) was maintained throughout the 24-h evaluation period. However, the trend seemed to reverse at higher microwave temperatures (i.e., 76 -90 C), which reconfirmed our initial findings that overheating had no benefit for the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc-bicisate. To ensure that temperature was the only determining factor, a hot water incubator set at 69 C was used (n=6). Similar RCP results were achieved. In conclusion, the use of a microwave oven at a low heat cycle provides a rapid and efficient way to prepare {sup 99m}Tc-bicisate. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Sensitive rapid analysis of iodine-labelled protein mixture on flat substrates with high spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanevskij, Yu.V.; Ivanov, A.B.; Movchan, S.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Chan Dyk Tkhan'; Chernenko, S.P.; Kaminir, L.B.; Krejndlin, Eh.Ya.; Chernyj, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Usability of rapid analysis by electrophoresis of the admixture of I 125 -labelled proteins on flat samples by means of URAN type installation developed using a multiwire proportional chamber is studied. The sensitivity of the method is better than 200 cpm/cm 2 and the spatial resolution is approximately 1 mm. The procedure of the rapid analysis is no longer than several tens of minutes

  17. Rapid Methods for the Laboratory Identification of Pathogenic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    coli Hemophilus influenzae Bacillus anthracis Bacillus circulans Bacillus coagulans Bacillus cereus T Candida albicans Cryptococcus neoformans Legionel...reveree aide If neceeeary and Identify by block number) Lectins: Rapid Identification, Bacillus anthracisjCryptococcus " neoformans. Neisseria...field-type kit for the rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis. We have shown that certain lectins will selectively interact with B. anthracis

  18. Rapid HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of tea catechins and folates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Farias, Monica; Gaudreau, Alain; Rozoy, Elodie; Bazinet, Laurent

    2014-05-14

    An effective and rapid HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous separation of the eight most abundant tea catechins, gallic acid, and caffeine was developed. These compounds were rapidly separated within 9 min by a linear gradient elution using a Zorbax SB-C18 packed with sub 2 μm particles. This methodology did not require preparative and semipreparative HPLC steps. In fact, diluted tea samples can be easily analyzed using HPLC-MS as described in this study. The use of mass spectrometry detection for quantification of catechins ensured a higher specificity of the method. The percent relative standard deviation was generally lower than 4 and 7% for most of the compounds tested in tea drinks and tea extracts, respectively. Furthermore, the method provided excellent resolution for folate determination alone or in combination with catechins. To date, no HPLC method able to discriminate catechins and folates in a quick analysis has been reported in the literature.

  19. A rapid method of evaluating fluoroscopic system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprawls, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a study to develop a method for the rapid evaluation and documentation of fluoroscopic image quality. All objects contained within a conventional contrast-detail test phantom (Leeds TO-10) are displayed in an array format according to their contrast and size. A copy of the display is used as the data collection form and a permanent record of system performance. A fluoroscope is evaluated by viewing the test phantom and marking the visible objects on the display. A line drawn through the objects with minimum visibility in each size group forms a contrast-detail curve for the system. This is compared with a standard or reference line, which is in the display.Deviations in curve position are useful indicators of specific image quality problems, such as excessive noise or blurring. The use of a special object-visibility array format display makes it possible to collect data, analyze the results, and create a record of fluoroscopic performance in less than 2 minutes for each viewing mode

  20. An optimized rapid bisulfite conversion method with high recovery of cell-free DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shaohua; Long, Fei; Cheng, Juanbo; Huang, Daixin

    2017-12-19

    Methylation analysis of cell-free DNA is a encouraging tool for tumor diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis. Sensitivity of methylation analysis is a very important matter due to the tiny amounts of cell-free DNA available in plasma. Most current methods of DNA methylation analysis are based on the difference of bisulfite-mediated deamination of cytosine between cytosine and 5-methylcytosine. However, the recovery of bisulfite-converted DNA based on current methods is very poor for the methylation analysis of cell-free DNA. We optimized a rapid method for the crucial steps of bisulfite conversion with high recovery of cell-free DNA. A rapid deamination step and alkaline desulfonation was combined with the purification of DNA on a silica column. The conversion efficiency and recovery of bisulfite-treated DNA was investigated by the droplet digital PCR. The optimization of the reaction results in complete cytosine conversion in 30 min at 70 °C and about 65% of recovery of bisulfite-treated cell-free DNA, which is higher than current methods. The method allows high recovery from low levels of bisulfite-treated cell-free DNA, enhancing the analysis sensitivity of methylation detection from cell-free DNA.

  1. Solvent extraction method for rapid separation of strontium-90 in milk and food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hingorani, S.B.; Sathe, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    A solvent extraction method, using tributyl phosphate, for rapid separation of strontium-90 in milk and other food samples has been presented in this report in view of large number of samples recieved after Chernobyl accident for checking radioactive contamination. The earlier nitration method in use for the determination of 90 Sr through its daughter 90 Y takes over two weeks for analysis of a sample. While by this extraction method it takes only 4 to 5 hours for sample analysis. Complete estimation including initial counting can be done in a single day. The chemical recovery varies between 80-90% compared to nitration method which is 65-80%. The purity of the method has been established by following the decay of yttrium-90 separated. Some of the results obtained by adopting this chemical method for food analysis are included. The method is, thus, found to be rapid and convenient for accurate estimation of strontium-90 in milk and food samples. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig

  2. Development of a simple and rapid solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method for the analysis of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarato, Attilio; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2014-01-31

    The work aims at developing a simple and rapid method for the quantification of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in human urine. The urinary levels of these biogenic amines can be correlated with several pathological conditions concerning heart disease, stress, neurological disorders and cancerous tumors. The proposed analytical approach is based on the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS) after a fast derivatization of both aliphatic amino and phenolic moieties by propyl chloroformate. The variables influencing the derivatization reaction were reliably optimized by the multivariate approach of "Experimental design". The optimal conditions were obtained by performing derivatization with 100μL of propyl chloroformate and 100μL of pyridine. The extraction ability of five commercially available SPME fibers was evaluated in univariate mode and the best results were obtained using the polyacrylate fiber. The variables affecting the efficiency of SPME analysis were again optimized by the multivariate approach of "Experimental design" and, in particular, a central composite design (CCD) was applied. The optimal values were extraction in 45min at room temperature, desorption temperature at 300°C, no addition of NaCl. Assay of derivatized analytes was performed by using a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS) system in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition. An evaluation of all analytical parameters demonstrates that the developed method provides satisfactory results. Indeed, very good linearities were achieved in the tested calibration range with correlation coefficient values of 0.9995, 0.9999 and 0.9997 for DA, 5-HT and NE, respectively. Accuracies and RSDs calculated for between-run and tested at concentrations of 30, 200, and 800μg L(-1) were in the range from 92.8% to 103.0%, and from 0.67 to 4.5%, respectively. Finally

  3. Methods for RNA Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Signe

    of the transcriptome, 5’ end capture of RNA is combined with next-generation sequencing for high-throughput quantitative assessment of transcription start sites by two different methods. The methods presented here allow for functional investigation of coding as well as noncoding RNA and contribute to future...... RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA...

  4. Benchmarking electrical methods for rapid estimation of root biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postic, François; Doussan, Claude

    2016-01-01

    To face climate change and subsequent rainfall instabilities, crop breeding strategies now include root traits phenotyping. Rapid estimation of root traits in controlled conditions can be achieved by using parallel electrical capacitance and its linear correlation with root dry mass. The aim of the present study was to improve robustness and efficiency of methods based on capacitance and other electrical variables, such as serial/parallel resistance, conductance, impedance or reactance. Using different electrode configurations and stem contact electrodes, we have measured the electrical impedance spectra of wheat plants grown in pots filled with three types of soil. For each configuration, parallel capacitance and other linearly independent electrical variables were computed and their quality as root dry mass estimator was evaluated by a 'sensitivity score' that we derived from Pearson's correlation coefficient r and linear regression parameters. The highest sensitivity score was obtained by parallel capacitance at an alternating current frequency of 116 Hz in three-terminal configuration. Using a clamp, instead of a needle, as a stem electrode did not significantly affect the capacitance measurements. Finally, in handheld LCR meter equivalent conditions, capacitance had the highest sensitivity score and determination coefficient (r (2) = 0.52) at 10 kHz frequency. Our benchmarking of linear correlations between different electrical variables and root dry mass enables to determine more coherent practices for ensuring a sensitive and robust root dry mass estimation, including in handheld LCR meter conditions. This would enhance the value of electrical capacitance as a tool for screening crops in relation with root systems in breeding programs.

  5. Analysis of numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacson, Eugene

    1994-01-01

    This excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students covers norms, numerical solution of linear systems and matrix factoring, iterative solutions of nonlinear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, polynomial approximation, and other topics. It offers a careful analysis and stresses techniques for developing new methods, plus many examples and problems. 1966 edition.

  6. Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome- specific EST sequences. Chuan-Liang Deng, Wei-Li Zhang, Ying Cao, Shao-Jing Wang, ... Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1 gene). 389 2.31E-13. 98.96. SP3−12. Betula pendula histidine kinase 3 (HK3) mRNA, ...

  7. Rapid prenatal diagnosis of cytogenetic abnormalities by array CGH analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Array CGH analysis has been shown to be highly accurate for rapid detection of chromosomal aneuploidies and submicroscopic deletions or duplications on fetal DNA samples in a clinical prenatal diagnostic setting. The objective of this study is to present our "post-validation phase" experience with ...

  8. Analysis of the structure of events by the method of rapidity intervals in K-p interactions at 32 GeV/c and pp interactions at 69 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babintsev, V.V.; Bumazhnov, V.A.; Kruglov, N.A.; Moiseev, A.M.; Proskuryakov, A.S.; Smirnova, L.N.; Ukhanov, M.N.

    1981-01-01

    We present an analysis of the structure of distributions in the magnitude r/sup n//sub m/ of rapidity intervals containing m charged particles in events with n charged particles in K - p interactions at 32 GeV/c and pp interactions at 69 GeV/c. It is found that all distributions correspond to a smooth curve with a single maximum. A comparison is made between the shape of the experimental distributions for K - p interactions and the shape of the distributions for generated events corresponding to the multi-Regge model

  9. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  10. Rapid Online Analysis of Local Feature Detectors and Their Complementarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Ehsan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A vision system that can assess its own performance and take appropriate actions online to maximize its effectiveness would be a step towards achieving the long-cherished goal of imitating humans. This paper proposes a method for performing an online performance analysis of local feature detectors, the primary stage of many practical vision systems. It advocates the spatial distribution of local image features as a good performance indicator and presents a metric that can be calculated rapidly, concurs with human visual assessments and is complementary to existing offline measures such as repeatability. The metric is shown to provide a measure of complementarity for combinations of detectors, correctly reflecting the underlying principles of individual detectors. Qualitative results on well-established datasets for several state-of-the-art detectors are presented based on the proposed measure. Using a hypothesis testing approach and a newly-acquired, larger image database, statistically-significant performance differences are identified. Different detector pairs and triplets are examined quantitatively and the results provide a useful guideline for combining detectors in applications that require a reasonable spatial distribution of image features. A principled framework for combining feature detectors in these applications is also presented. Timing results reveal the potential of the metric for online applications.

  11. Petrifilm rapid S. aureus Count Plate method for rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, K M; Lindberg, K G

    2001-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for Staphylococcus aureus in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method, was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 (Staphylococcus aureus in Foods). Nine foods-instant nonfat dried milk, dry seasoned vegetable coating, frozen hash browns, frozen cooked chicken patty, frozen ground raw pork, shredded cheddar cheese, fresh green beans, pasta filled with beef and cheese, and egg custard-were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated test sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable for pasta filled with beef and cheese; frozen hash browns; cooked chicken patty; egg custard; frozen ground raw pork; and instant nonfat dried milk. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method were similar to those of the standard method.

  12. Rapid filling of pipelines with the SPH particle method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Q.; Zhang, L.X.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports the development and application of a SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) based simulation of rapid filling of pipelines, for which the rigid-column model is commonly used. In this paper the water-hammer equations with a moving boundary are used to model the pipe filling process,

  13. Rapid filling of pipelines with the SPH particle method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Q.; Zhang, L.X.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports the development and application of a SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) based simulation of rapid filling of pipelines, for which the rigid-column model is commonly used. In this paper the water-hammer equations with a moving boundary are used to model the pipe filling process,

  14. A multiplex PCR method for rapid identification of Brachionus rotifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiadou, Kalliopi; Papakostas, Spiros; Triantafyllidis, Alexander; Kappas, Ilias; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J

    2009-01-01

    Cryptic species are increasingly being recognized in many organisms. In Brachionus rotifers, many morphologically similar yet genetically distinct species/biotypes have been described. A number of Brachionus cryptic species have been recognized among hatchery strains. In this study, we present a simple, one-step genetic method to detect the presence of those Brachionus sp. rotifers that have been found in hatcheries. With the proposed technique, each of the B. plicatilis sensu stricto, B. ibericus, Brachionus sp. Nevada, Brachionus sp. Austria, Brachionus sp. Manjavacas, and Brachionus sp. Cayman species and/or biotypes can be identified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Based on 233 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences, we reviewed all the available cryptic Brachionus sp. genetic polymorphisms, and we designed six nested primers. With these primers, a specific amplicon of distinct size is produced for every one of the involved species/biotypes. Two highly sensitive protocols were developed for using the primers. Many of the primers can be combined in the same PCR. The proposed method has been found to be an effective and practical tool to investigate the presence of the above six cryptic species/biotypes in both individual and communal (bulk) rotifer deoxyribonucleic acid extractions from hatcheries. With this technique, hatchery managers could easily determine their rotifer composition at the level of cryptic species and monitor their cultures more efficiently.

  15. Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using Vis/NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories. PMID:25874818

  16. Rapid analysis of pharmaceutical drugs using LIBS coupled with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, P K; Awasthi, S; Kumar, R; Anand, R K; Rai, P K; Rai, A K

    2018-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes drug tablets containing voglibose having dose strengths of 0.2 and 0.3 mg of various brands have been examined, using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. The statistical methods such as the principal component analysis (PCA) and the partial least square regression analysis (PLSR) have been employed on LIBS spectral data for classifying and developing the calibration models of drug samples. We have developed the ratio-based calibration model applying PLSR in which relative spectral intensity ratios H/C, H/N and O/N are used. Further, the developed model has been employed to predict the relative concentration of element in unknown drug samples. The experiment has been performed in air and argon atmosphere, respectively, and the obtained results have been compared. The present model provides rapid spectroscopic method for drug analysis with high statistical significance for online control and measurement process in a wide variety of pharmaceutical industrial applications.

  17. Methods for Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alverbro, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Many decision-making situations today affect humans and the environment. In practice, many such decisions are made without an overall view and prioritise one or other of the two areas. Now and then these two areas of regulation come into conflict, e.g. the best alternative as regards environmental considerations is not always the best from a human safety perspective and vice versa. This report was prepared within a major project with the aim of developing a framework in which both the environmental aspects and the human safety aspects are integrated, and decisions can be made taking both fields into consideration. The safety risks have to be analysed in order to be successfully avoided and one way of doing this is to use different kinds of risk analysis methods. There is an abundance of existing methods to choose from and new methods are constantly being developed. This report describes some of the risk analysis methods currently available for analysing safety and examines the relationships between them. The focus here is mainly on human safety aspects

  18. A new facility for rapid neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Makarewicz, M.; Grass, F.; Casta, J.

    1996-01-01

    Many research groups have undertaken efforts on the utilization of short-lived nuclides in a broad spectrum of neutron activation analysis (NAA) applications. The advantages of these approaches are obvious because the information on the sample can be extracted more rapidly. In addition to its other advantages, NAA can become extremely competitive in price and analysis time. Nevertheless, NAA with short-lived nuclides has not gained broad popularity, perhaps because of some difficulties in accuracy and the availability of suitable irradiation facilities. This report discusses the ASTRA reactor for neutron activation analysis capabilities

  19. Enabling Rapid and Robust Structural Analysis During Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldred, Lloyd B.; Padula, Sharon L.; Li, Wu

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-year effort to add a structural analysis subprocess to a supersonic aircraft conceptual design process. The desired capabilities include parametric geometry, automatic finite element mesh generation, static and aeroelastic analysis, and structural sizing. The paper discusses implementation details of the new subprocess, captures lessons learned, and suggests future improvements. The subprocess quickly compares concepts and robustly handles large changes in wing or fuselage geometry. The subprocess can rank concepts with regard to their structural feasibility and can identify promising regions of the design space. The automated structural analysis subprocess is deemed robust and rapid enough to be included in multidisciplinary conceptual design and optimization studies.

  20. 3D virtual human rapid modeling method based on top-down modeling mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Taotao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to satisfy the vast custom-made character demand of 3D virtual human and the rapid modeling in the field of 3D virtual reality, a new virtual human top-down rapid modeling method is put for-ward in this paper based on the systematic analysis of the current situation and shortage of the virtual hu-man modeling technology. After the top-level realization of virtual human hierarchical structure frame de-sign, modular expression of the virtual human and parameter design for each module is achieved gradu-al-level downwards. While the relationship of connectors and mapping restraints among different modules is established, the definition of the size and texture parameter is also completed. Standardized process is meanwhile produced to support and adapt the virtual human top-down rapid modeling practice operation. Finally, the modeling application, which takes a Chinese captain character as an example, is carried out to validate the virtual human rapid modeling method based on top-down modeling mechanism. The result demonstrates high modelling efficiency and provides one new concept for 3D virtual human geometric mod-eling and texture modeling.

  1. Visual and colorimetric methods for rapid determination of total tannins in vegetable raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kalinkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development of rapid colorimetric method for determining the amount of tannins in aqueous extracts of vegetable raw materials. The sorption-based colorimetric test is determining sorption tannins polyurethane foam, impregnated of FeCl3, receiving on its surface painted in black and green color of the reaction products and the determination of their in sorbent matrix. Selectivity is achieved by determining the tannins specific interaction of polyphenols with iron ions (III. The conditions of sorption-colorimetric method: the concentration of ferric chloride (III, impregnated in the polyurethane foam; sorbent mass in the analytical cartridge; degree of loading his agent; the contact time of the phases. color scales have been developed for the visual determination of the amount of tannins in terms of gallic acid. Spend a digitized image obtained scales using computer program “Sorbfil TLC”, excluding a subjective assessment of the intensity of the color scale of the test. The results obtained determine the amount of tannins in aqueous extracts of vegetable raw rapid method using tablets and analytical cartridges. The results of the test determination of tannins with visual and densitometric analytical signal registration are compared to known methods. Spend a metrological evaluation of the results of determining the amount of tannins sorption rapid colorimetric methods. Time visual and densitometric rapid determination of tannins, taking into account the sample preparation is 25–30 minutes, the relative error does not exceed 28 %. The developed test methods for quantifying the content of tannins allow to exclude the use of sophisticated analytical equipment, carry out the analysis in non-laboratory conditions do not require highly skilled personnel.

  2. Rapid determination of tannins in tanning baths by adaptation of BSA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R; Buonomenna, M G; Cassano, A; Drioli, E

    2001-01-01

    A rapid and reproducible method for the determination of tannins in vegetable tanning baths is proposed as a modification of the BSA method for grain tannins existing in literature. The protein BSA was used instead of leather powder employed in the Filter Method, which is adopted in Italy and various others countries of Central Europe. In this rapid method the tannin contents is determined by means a spectrophotometric reading and not by means a gravimetric analysis of the Filter Method. The BSA method, which belongs to mixed methods (which use both precipitation and complexation of tannins), consists of selective precipitation of tannin from a solution containing also non tannins by BSA, the dissolution of precipitate and the quantification of free tannin amount by its complexation with Fe(III) in hydrochloric solutions. The absorbance values, read at 522 nm, have been expressed in terms of tannic acid concentration by using a calibration curve made with standard solutions of tannic acid; these have been correlated with the results obtained by using the Filter Method.

  3. Rapid analysis and exploration of fluorescence microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavie, Benjamin; Rajaram, Satwik; Ouyang, Austin; Altschuler, Jason M; Steininger, Robert J; Wu, Lani F; Altschuler, Steven J

    2014-03-19

    Despite rapid advances in high-throughput microscopy, quantitative image-based assays still pose significant challenges. While a variety of specialized image analysis tools are available, most traditional image-analysis-based workflows have steep learning curves (for fine tuning of analysis parameters) and result in long turnaround times between imaging and analysis. In particular, cell segmentation, the process of identifying individual cells in an image, is a major bottleneck in this regard. Here we present an alternate, cell-segmentation-free workflow based on PhenoRipper, an open-source software platform designed for the rapid analysis and exploration of microscopy images. The pipeline presented here is optimized for immunofluorescence microscopy images of cell cultures and requires minimal user intervention. Within half an hour, PhenoRipper can analyze data from a typical 96-well experiment and generate image profiles. Users can then visually explore their data, perform quality control on their experiment, ensure response to perturbations and check reproducibility of replicates. This facilitates a rapid feedback cycle between analysis and experiment, which is crucial during assay optimization. This protocol is useful not just as a first pass analysis for quality control, but also may be used as an end-to-end solution, especially for screening. The workflow described here scales to large data sets such as those generated by high-throughput screens, and has been shown to group experimental conditions by phenotype accurately over a wide range of biological systems. The PhenoBrowser interface provides an intuitive framework to explore the phenotypic space and relate image properties to biological annotations. Taken together, the protocol described here will lower the barriers to adopting quantitative analysis of image based screens.

  4. Rapid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla M. Wassim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of Aedes caspius mosquitoes are incriminated to be a potential reservoir of “Rift Valley Fever Virus” (RVF during interepizootic periods in Egypt. Ae. caspius contains two distinct forms which are morphologically indistinguishable but differ in physiology and behavior; Ae. caspius form (a requires a blood meal for each egg batch(anautogeny, is unable to mate in confined spaces(eurygamous. The second form (b lays egg batch without blood meal (autogenous and can mate in confined spaces (stenogamous. In this work, we collected the autogenous and anautogenous forms of Ae. caspius from two different breeding habitats in the Qalyubia Governorate. Analysis of the Drosophila ace-Orthologous acetylecholinesterase gene revealed that a single polymorphic region characterized each species. Based on this region, specific primers were used to amplify the entire section of intron II, sections of Exon 2 and Exon 3 of ace-2 gene for differentiating the complex species of mosquitoes. The amplicons of anautogenous form sized 441 pb and increase 116 bp than autogenous form of Ae. caspius. High rates of point mutations were addressed; deletion/insertion events are 120 bases. The transversion mutations were 44 bases and were relatively close to the transtion mutations 43 base. The genetic distance was 0.01 between the two forms.

  5. Method of signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthomier, Charles

    1975-01-01

    A method capable of handling the amplitude and the frequency time laws of a certain kind of geophysical signals is described here. This method is based upon the analytical signal idea of Gabor and Ville, which is constructed either in the time domain by adding an imaginary part to the real signal (in-quadrature signal), or in the frequency domain by suppressing negative frequency components. The instantaneous frequency of the initial signal is then defined as the time derivative of the phase of the analytical signal, and his amplitude, or envelope, as the modulus of this complex signal. The method is applied to three types of magnetospheric signals: chorus, whistlers and pearls. The results obtained by analog and numerical calculations are compared to results obtained by classical systems using filters, i.e. based upon a different definition of the concept of frequency. The precision with which the frequency-time laws are determined leads then to the examination of the principle of the method and to a definition of instantaneous power density spectrum attached to the signal, and to the first consequences of this definition. In this way, a two-dimensional representation of the signal is introduced which is less deformed by the analysis system properties than the usual representation, and which moreover has the advantage of being obtainable practically in real time [fr

  6. A rapid and reliable method for Pb isotopic analysis of peat and lichens by laser ablation-quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for biomonitoring and sample screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kylander, M.E.; Weiss, D.J.; Jeffries, T.E.; Kober, B.; Dolgopolova, A.; Garcia-Sanchez, R.; Coles, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical protocol for rapid and reliable laser ablation-quadrupole (LA-Q)- and multi-collector (MC-) inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of Pb isotope ratios ( 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb) in peats and lichens is developed. This technique is applicable to source tracing atmospheric Pb deposition in biomonitoring studies and sample screening. Reference materials and environmental samples were dry ashed and pressed into pellets for introduction by laser ablation. No binder was used to reduce contamination. LA-MC-ICP-MS internal and external precisions were 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios. LA-Q-ICP-MS internal precisions on 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios were lower with values for the different sample sets 208 Pb by Q-ICP-MS are identified as sources of reduced analytical performance

  7. Rapid column extraction method for actinides and strontium in fish and other animal tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell III, S.L.; Faison, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of actinides and radiostrontium in animal tissue samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes and strontium with very low detection limits in animal tissue samples, including fish, deer, hogs, beef and shellfish. A new, rapid separation method has been developed that allows the measurement of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, curium and strontium isotopes in large animal tissue samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin R , TRU Resin R and DGA Resin R cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alphaspectrometry. Strontium is collected on Sr Resin R from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA). After acid digestion and furnace heating of the animal tissue samples, the actinides and 89/90 Sr are separated using column extraction chromatography. This method has been shown to be effective over a wide range of animal tissue matrices. Vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates is used to minimize sample preparation time. (author)

  8. A novel sample preparation method using rapid nonheated saponification method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, In-Seek; Kwak, Byung-Man; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Leem, Donggil; Yoon, Taehyung; Yoon, Changyong; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Jin-Man

    2012-10-01

    In this study, nonheated saponification was employed as a novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods. Cholesterol content was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The cholesterol extraction method was optimized for maximum recovery from baby food and infant formula. Under these conditions, the optimum extraction solvent was 10 mL ethyl ether per 1 to 2 g sample, and the saponification solution was 0.2 mL KOH in methanol. The cholesterol content in the products was determined to be within the certified range of certified reference materials (CRMs), NIST SRM 1544 and SRM 1849. The results of the recovery test performed using spiked materials were in the range of 98.24% to 99.45% with an relative standard devitation (RSD) between 0.83% and 1.61%. This method could be used to reduce sample pretreatment time and is expected to provide an accurate determination of cholesterol in emulsified food matrices such as infant formula and baby food. A novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method using nonheated saponification was developed for cholesterol detection in emulsified foods. Recovery tests of CRMs were satisfactory, and the recoveries of spiked materials were accurate and precise. This method was effective and decreased the time required for analysis by 5-fold compared to the official method. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Rapid radiometric method for detection of Salmonella in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, B.J.; Eyles, M.J.; Murrell, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    A radiometric method for the detection of Salmonella in foods has been developed which is based on Salmonella poly H agglutinating serum preventing Salmonella from producing 14CO2 from [14C] dulcitol. The method will detect the presence or absence of Salmonella in a product within 30 h compared to 4 to 5 days by routine culture methods. The method has been evaluated against a routine culture method using 58 samples of food. The overall agreement was 91%. Five samples negative for Salmonella by the routine method were positive by the radiometric method. These may have been false positives. However, the routine method may have failed to detect Salmonella due to the presence of large numbers of lactose-fermenting bacteria which hindered isolation of Salmonella colonies on the selective agar plates

  10. A rapid method to estimate Westergren sedimentation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, Tamas; Pais, Eszter; Meiselman, Herbert J

    2009-09-01

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a nonspecific but simple and inexpensive test that was introduced into medical practice in 1897. Although it is commonly utilized in the diagnosis and follow-up of various clinical conditions, ESR has several limitations including the required 60 min settling time for the test. Herein we introduce a novel use for a commercially available computerized tube viscometer that allows the accurate prediction of human Westergren ESR rates in as little as 4 min. Owing to an initial pressure gradient, blood moves between two vertical tubes through a horizontal small-bore tube and the top of the red blood cell (RBC) column in each vertical tube is monitored continuously with an accuracy of 0.083 mm. Using data from the final minute of a blood viscosity measurement, a sedimentation index (SI) was calculated and correlated with results from the conventional Westergren ESR test. To date, samples from 119 human subjects have been studied and our results indicate a strong correlation between SI and ESR values (R(2)=0.92). In addition, we found a close association between SI and RBC aggregation indices as determined by an automated RBC aggregometer (R(2)=0.71). Determining SI on human blood is rapid, requires no special training and has minimal biohazard risk, thus allowing physicians to rapidly screen for individuals with elevated ESR and to monitor therapeutic responses.

  11. Methods for geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, Philip A.

    1987-01-01

    The laboratories for analytical chemistry within the Geologic Division of the U.S. Geological Survey are administered by the Office of Mineral Resources. The laboratory analysts provide analytical support to those programs of the Geologic Division that require chemical information and conduct basic research in analytical and geochemical areas vital to the furtherance of Division program goals. Laboratories for research and geochemical analysis are maintained at the three major centers in Reston, Virginia, Denver, Colorado, and Menlo Park, California. The Division has an expertise in a broad spectrum of analytical techniques, and the analytical research is designed to advance the state of the art of existing techniques and to develop new methods of analysis in response to special problems in geochemical analysis. The geochemical research and analytical results are applied to the solution of fundamental geochemical problems relating to the origin of mineral deposits and fossil fuels, as well as to studies relating to the distribution of elements in varied geologic systems, the mechanisms by which they are transported, and their impact on the environment.

  12. Note: Non-invasive optical method for rapid determination of alignment degree of oriented nanofibrous layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokorny, M.; Rebicek, J. [R& D Department, Contipro Biotech s.r.o., 561 02 Dolni Dobrouc (Czech Republic); Klemes, J. [R& D Department, Contipro Pharma a.s., 561 02 Dolni Dobrouc (Czech Republic); Kotzianova, A. [R& D Department, Contipro Pharma a.s., 561 02 Dolni Dobrouc (Czech Republic); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, CZ-62500 Brno (Czech Republic); Velebny, V. [R& D Department, Contipro Biotech s.r.o., 561 02 Dolni Dobrouc (Czech Republic); R& D Department, Contipro Pharma a.s., 561 02 Dolni Dobrouc (Czech Republic)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents a rapid non-destructive method that provides information on the anisotropic internal structure of nanofibrous layers. A laser beam of a wavelength of 632.8 nm is directed at and passes through a nanofibrous layer prepared by electrostatic spinning. Information about the structural arrangement of nanofibers in the layer is directly visible in the form of a diffraction image formed on a projection screen or obtained from measured intensities of the laser beam passing through the sample which are determined by the dependency of the angle of the main direction of polarization of the laser beam on the axis of alignment of nanofibers in the sample. Both optical methods were verified on Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous layers (fiber diameter of 470 nm) with random, single-axis aligned and crossed structures. The obtained results match the results of commonly used methods which apply the analysis of electron microscope images. The presented simple method not only allows samples to be analysed much more rapidly and without damaging them but it also makes possible the analysis of much larger areas, up to several square millimetres, at the same time.

  13. Note: Non-invasive optical method for rapid determination of alignment degree of oriented nanofibrous layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokorny, M.; Rebicek, J.; Klemes, J.; Kotzianova, A.; Velebny, V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a rapid non-destructive method that provides information on the anisotropic internal structure of nanofibrous layers. A laser beam of a wavelength of 632.8 nm is directed at and passes through a nanofibrous layer prepared by electrostatic spinning. Information about the structural arrangement of nanofibers in the layer is directly visible in the form of a diffraction image formed on a projection screen or obtained from measured intensities of the laser beam passing through the sample which are determined by the dependency of the angle of the main direction of polarization of the laser beam on the axis of alignment of nanofibers in the sample. Both optical methods were verified on Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous layers (fiber diameter of 470 nm) with random, single-axis aligned and crossed structures. The obtained results match the results of commonly used methods which apply the analysis of electron microscope images. The presented simple method not only allows samples to be analysed much more rapidly and without damaging them but it also makes possible the analysis of much larger areas, up to several square millimetres, at the same time

  14. COMPUTER METHODS OF GENETIC ANALYSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Osipov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic statistical methods used in conducting the genetic analysis of human traits. We studied by segregation analysis, linkage analysis and allelic associations. Developed software for the implementation of these methods support.

  15. A rapid and specific titrimetric method for the precise determination of plutonium using redox indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, R.T.; Dubey, S.C.

    1976-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of plutonium in plutonium nitrate solution and its application to the purex process solutions is discussed. The method involves the oxidation of plutonium to Pu(VI) with the help of argentic oxide followed by the destruction of the excess argentic oxide by means of sulphamic acid. The determination of plutonium is completed by adding ferrous ammonium sulphate solution which reduces Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) and titrating the excess ferrous with standard potassium dichromate solution using sodium diphenylamine sulphonate as the internal indicator. The effect of the various reagents add during the oxidation and reduction of plutonium, on the final titration has been investigated. The method works satisfactorily for the analysis of plutonium in the range of 0.5 to 5 mg. The precision of the method is found to be within 0.1%. (author)

  16. Simplified Method for Rapid Purification of Soluble Histones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Ivić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional and structural studies of histone-chaperone complexes, nucleosome modifications, their interactions with remodelers and regulatory proteins rely on obtaining recombinant histones from bacteria. In the present study, we show that co-expression of Xenopus laevis histone pairs leads to production of soluble H2AH2B heterodimer and (H3H42 heterotetramer. The soluble histone complexes are purified by simple chromatographic techniques. Obtained H2AH2B dimer and H3H4 tetramer are proficient in histone chaperone binding and histone octamer and nucleosome formation. Our optimized protocol enables rapid purification of multiple soluble histone variants with a remarkable high yield and simplifies histone octamer preparation. We expect that this simple approach will contribute to the histone chaperone and chromatin research. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  17. Phenylketonuria mutation analysis in Northern Ireland: A rapid stepwise approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschocke, J.; Graham, C.A.; Nevin, N.C. [Queen`s Univ., Belfast (Australia)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    We present a multistep approach for the rapid analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations. In the first step, three common mutations and a polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) system are rapidly analyzed with a fluorescent multiplex assay. In the second step, minihaplotypes combining STR and VNTR data are used to determine rare mutations likely to be present in an investigated patient, which are then confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis. The remaining mutations are analyzed with denaturant gradient-gel electrophoresis and sequencing. The first two steps together identify both mutations in 90%-95% of PKU patients, and results can be obtained within 2 d. We have investigated 121 Northern Irish families with hyperphenylalaninemia, including virtually all patients born since 1972, and have found 34 different mutations on 241 of the 242 mutant alleles. Three mutations (R408W, 165T, and F39L) account for 57.5% of mutations, while 14 mutations occur with a frequency of 1%-6%. The present analysis system is efficient and inexpensive and is particularly well suited to routine mutation analysis in a diagnostic setting. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Rapid Analysis of Corni fructus Using Paper Spray-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan; Gu, Zhixin; Liu, Xuemei; Liu, Jingjing; Ma, Ming; Chen, Bo; Wang, Liping

    2017-07-01

    Paper spray-mass spectrometry (PS-MS) is a kind of ambient MS technique for the rapid analysis of samples. Corni fructus has been widely used in traditional Chinese compound preparations and healthy food. However, a number of counterfeits of Corni fructus, such as Crataegi fructus, Lycii fructus, and grape skin are illegally sold in crude herb markets. Therefore, the development of a rapid and high-throughput quality evaluation method is important for ensuring the effectiveness and safety of the crude materials of Corni fructus. To develop PS-MS chemical profiles and a semi-quantitative method of Corni fructus for quality assessment and control, and species distinction of Corni fructus. Both positive and negative ion PS-MS chemical profiles were constructed for species distinction. The statistical analysis of the chemical profiles was accomplished by principal component analysis (PCA). Rapid semi-quantitative analysis of loganin and morroniside in the extracts of Corni fructus were accomplished by PS-MS. The profiles of the Corni fructus and Crataegi fructus samples were clearly clustered into two categories. The limit of quantification (LOQ) in the semi-quantitative analysis was 6 μg/mL and 5.6 μg/mL for loganin and morroniside, respectively. PS-MS is a simple, rapid, and high-throughput method for the quality control and species distinction of Corni fructus. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Rapid-viability PCR method for detection of live, virulent Bacillus anthracis in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létant, Sonia E; Murphy, Gloria A; Alfaro, Teneile M; Avila, Julie R; Kane, Staci R; Raber, Ellen; Bunt, Thomas M; Shah, Sanjiv R

    2011-09-01

    In the event of a biothreat agent release, hundreds of samples would need to be rapidly processed to characterize the extent of contamination and determine the efficacy of remediation activities. Current biological agent identification and viability determination methods are both labor- and time-intensive such that turnaround time for confirmed results is typically several days. In order to alleviate this issue, automated, high-throughput sample processing methods were developed in which real-time PCR analysis is conducted on samples before and after incubation. The method, referred to as rapid-viability (RV)-PCR, uses the change in cycle threshold after incubation to detect the presence of live organisms. In this article, we report a novel RV-PCR method for detection of live, virulent Bacillus anthracis, in which the incubation time was reduced from 14 h to 9 h, bringing the total turnaround time for results below 15 h. The method incorporates a magnetic bead-based DNA extraction and purification step prior to PCR analysis, as well as specific real-time PCR assays for the B. anthracis chromosome and pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids. A single laboratory verification of the optimized method applied to the detection of virulent B. anthracis in environmental samples was conducted and showed a detection level of 10 to 99 CFU/sample with both manual and automated RV-PCR methods in the presence of various challenges. Experiments exploring the relationship between the incubation time and the limit of detection suggest that the method could be further shortened by an additional 2 to 3 h for relatively clean samples.

  20. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  1. Rapid and Reliable HPLC Method for the Determination of Vitamin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate an accurate, sensitive and reproducible high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the quantitation of vitamin C in pharmaceutical samples. Method: The drug and the standard were eluted from Superspher RP-18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 10ìm particle size) at 20 0C.

  2. A rapid method for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using high volume centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ranjeet; Rao, D D; Dubla, Rupali; Yadav, J R

    2017-07-01

    The conventional radio-analytical technique used for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples involves anion exchange/TEVA column separation followed by alpha spectrometry. This sequence of analysis consumes nearly 3-4 days for completion. Many a times excreta analysis results are required urgently, particularly under repeat and incidental/emergency situations. Therefore, there is need to reduce the analysis time for the estimation of Pu-isotopes in bioassay samples. This paper gives the details of standardization of a rapid method for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using multi-purpose centrifuge, TEVA resin followed by alpha spectrometry. The rapid method involves oxidation of urine samples, co-precipitation of plutonium along with calcium phosphate followed by sample preparation using high volume centrifuge and separation of Pu using TEVA resin. Pu-fraction was electrodeposited and activity estimated using 236 Pu tracer recovery by alpha spectrometry. Ten routine urine samples of radiation workers were analyzed and consistent radiochemical tracer recovery was obtained in the range 47-88% with a mean and standard deviation of 64.4% and 11.3% respectively. With this newly standardized technique, the whole analytical procedure is completed within 9h (one working day hour). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid separation method for {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L., E-mail: sherrod.maxwell@srs.go [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Building 735-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Culligan, Brian K.; Noyes, Gary W. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Building 735-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using these two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  4. Rapid and inexpensive method for isolating plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljanabi, S. M.; Al-Awadi, S. J.; Al-Kazaz, A. A.; Baghdad Univ.

    1997-01-01

    A small-scale and economical method for isolating plasmid DNA from bacteria is described. The method provides DNA of suitable quality for most DNA manipulation techniques. This DNA can be used for restriction endonuclease digestion, southern blot hybridization, nick translation and end labeling of DNA probes, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) -based techniques, transformation, DNA cycle-sequencing, and Chain-termination method for DNA sequencing. The entire procedure is adapted to 1.5 ml microfuge tubes and takes approximately 30 mins. The DNA isolated by this method has the same purity produced by CTAB and cesium chloride precipitation and purification procedures respectively. The two previous methods require many hours to obtain the final product and require the use of very expensive equipment as ultracentrifuge. This method is well suited for the isolation of plasmid DNA from a large number of bacterial samples and in a very short time and low cost in laboratories where chemicals, expensive equipment and finance are limited factors in conducting molecular research. (authors). 11refs. 11refs

  5. A mass spectrometer for the rapid analysis of gaseous mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassignol, C.; Ortel, Y.; Taieb, J.

    1950-01-01

    A mass spectrometer for leak detection and rapid gas analysis were constructed, having the characteristics and several structural features of a simple instrument described by Siry in Rev. Sri. Instruments. 540 (1947). Although exhibiting a good resolving power, the apparatus, which has no ion lenses and whose electrodes can be regulated during the performance, has not been sufficiently tested. Since several design defects have been discovered, it will probably be rebuilt with various improvements (ion source outside the magnetic field, modified circuits, etc.). (author)

  6. Rapid, low-cost, image analysis through video processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, R.A.; Marrs, R.W.; Grantham, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    Remote Sensing now provides the data necessary to solve many resource problems. However, many of the complex image processing and analysis functions used in analysis of remotely-sensed data are accomplished using sophisticated image analysis equipment. High cost of this equipment places many of these techniques beyond the means of most users. A new, more economical, video system capable of performing complex image analysis has now been developed. This report describes the functions, components, and operation of that system. Processing capability of the new video image analysis system includes many of the tasks previously accomplished with optical projectors and digital computers. Video capabilities include: color separation, color addition/subtraction, contrast stretch, dark level adjustment, density analysis, edge enhancement, scale matching, image mixing (addition and subtraction), image ratioing, and construction of false-color composite images. Rapid input of non-digital image data, instantaneous processing and display, relatively low initial cost, and low operating cost gives the video system a competitive advantage over digital equipment. Complex pre-processing, pattern recognition, and statistical analyses must still be handled through digital computer systems. The video system at the University of Wyoming has undergone extensive testing, comparison to other systems, and has been used successfully in practical applications ranging from analysis of x-rays and thin sections to production of color composite ratios of multispectral imagery. Potential applications are discussed including uranium exploration, petroleum exploration, tectonic studies, geologic mapping, hydrology sedimentology and petrography, anthropology, and studies on vegetation and wildlife habitat

  7. A Rapid Method for Determining the Concentration of Recombinant Protein Secreted from Pichia pastoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L W; Zhao, Y; Jiang, R; Song, Y; Feng, H; Feng, K; Niu, L P; Qi, C

    2011-01-01

    Pichia secretive expression system is one of powerful eukaryotic expression systems in genetic engineering, which is especially suitable for industrial utilization. Because of the low concentration of the target protein in initial experiment, the methods and conditions for expression of the target protein should be optimized according to the protein yield repetitively. It is necessary to set up a rapid, simple and convenient analysis method for protein expression levels instead of the generally used method such as ultrafiltration, purification, dialysis, lyophilization and so on. In this paper, acetone precipitation method was chosen to concentrate the recombinant protein firstly after comparing with four different protein precipitation methods systematically, and then the protein was analyzed by SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The recombinant protein was determined with the feature of protein band by the Automated Image Capture and 1-D Analysis Software directly. With this method, the optimized expression conditions of basic fibroblast growth factor secreted from pichia were obtained, which is as the same as using traditional methods. Hence, a convenient tool to determine the optimized conditions for the expression of recombinant proteins in Pichia was established.

  8. Are rapid population estimates accurate? A field trial of two different assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grais, Rebecca F; Coulombier, Denis; Ampuero, Julia; Lucas, Marcelino E S; Barretto, Avertino T; Jacquier, Guy; Diaz, Francisco; Balandine, Serge; Mahoudeau, Claude; Brown, Vincent

    2006-09-01

    Emergencies resulting in large-scale displacement often lead to populations resettling in areas where basic health services and sanitation are unavailable. To plan relief-related activities quickly, rapid population size estimates are needed. The currently recommended Quadrat method estimates total population by extrapolating the average population size living in square blocks of known area to the total site surface. An alternative approach, the T-Square, provides a population estimate based on analysis of the spatial distribution of housing units taken throughout a site. We field tested both methods and validated the results against a census in Esturro Bairro, Beira, Mozambique. Compared to the census (population: 9,479), the T-Square yielded a better population estimate (9,523) than the Quadrat method (7,681; 95% confidence interval: 6,160-9,201), but was more difficult for field survey teams to implement. Although applicable only to similar sites, several general conclusions can be drawn for emergency planning.

  9. MASS SPECTROMETRY PROTEOMICS METHOD AS A RAPID SCREENING TOOL FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    MASS SPECTROMETRY PROTEOMICS METHOD AS A RAPID SCREENING TOOL FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD ECBC-TR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mass Spectrometry Proteomics Method as a Rapid Screening Tool for Bacterial Contamination of Food 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...the MSPM to correctly classify whether or not food samples were contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Newport in this blinded pilot study

  10. Use of refractometry and colorimetry as field methods to rapidly assess antimalarial drug quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael D; Nettey, Henry; Villalva Rojas, Ofelia; Pamanivong, Chansapha; Khounsaknalath, Lamphet; Grande Ortiz, Miguel; Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Vongsack, Latsamy; Manolin, Ot

    2007-01-04

    The proliferation of counterfeit and poor-quality drugs is a major public health problem; especially in developing countries lacking adequate resources to effectively monitor their prevalence. Simple and affordable field methods provide a practical means of rapidly monitoring drug quality in circumstances where more advanced techniques are not available. Therefore, we have evaluated refractometry, colorimetry and a technique combining both processes as simple and accurate field assays to rapidly test the quality of the commonly available antimalarial drugs; artesunate, chloroquine, quinine, and sulfadoxine. Method bias, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy relative to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of drugs collected in the Lao PDR were assessed for each technique. The HPLC method for each drug was evaluated in terms of assay variability and accuracy. The accuracy of the combined method ranged from 0.96 to 1.00 for artesunate tablets, chloroquine injectables, quinine capsules, and sulfadoxine tablets while the accuracy was 0.78 for enterically coated chloroquine tablets. These techniques provide a generally accurate, yet simple and affordable means to assess drug quality in resource-poor settings.

  11. Rapid, cost-effective liquid chromatograghic method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... The method was validated and used for pharmacokinetic studies. Key words: Metronidazole ... by the intrinsic analytical properties of the drug molecule ... In addition, such factors as sample size ... account, since these affect the reliability of the quantitation. ... phase and ion-pair high–performance liquid.

  12. Rapid multi-residue method for the determination of pesticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to pesticides can represent a potential risk to humans. Agricultural workers are at risk of chronic toxicity. Hence, the evaluation of pesticide residues in their blood gives an indication about the extent of exposure and help in assessing adverse health effects. The aim of our study was to develop analytical method for ...

  13. A universal, rapid, and inexpensive method for genomic DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MOHAMMED BAQUR SAHIB A. AL-SHUHAIB

    gels, containing 7% glycerol, and 1×TBE buffer. The gels were run under 200 .... Inc. Germany, GeneaidTM DNA Isolation Kit, Geneaid. Biotech., New Taipei City, .... C. L. and Arsenos G. 2015 Comparison of eleven methods for genomic DNA ...

  14. Rapid prototyping methods for the manufacture of fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The potential for the application of this method for the manufacture of metallic bipolar plates (BPP for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs is presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the fabrication of light elements for the construction of PEMFC stacks designed for mobile applications such as aviation technology and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs.

  15. The rapid determination of manganese, vanadium, and aluminium by instrumental neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watterson, J.I.W.; Eddy, B.T.; Pearton, D.C.G.

    1976-01-01

    Aluminium, manganese, and vanadium were determined in chromuim, ferrochromium, and slags. Because of the short-lived isotopes produced, the technique is rapid, and the total analysis time per sample is 15 minutes. The reproducibility is 3 to 4 per cent, and this value can be improved by certain modifications, particularly to the irradiation facilities. A similar method could be applied to on-line or in-plant analysis if an isotopic source of neutrons were used [af

  16. The Most Probable Limit of Detection (MPL) for rapid microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, G.P.H.T.; Willemse, M.J.; Hoefs, S.G.G.; Cremers, G.; Heuvel, E.R. van den

    Classical microbiological methods have nowadays unacceptably long cycle times. Rapid methods, available on the market for decades, are already applied within the clinical and food industry, but the implementation in pharmaceutical industry is hampered by for instance stringent regulations on

  17. The most probable limit of detection (MPL) for rapid microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, G.P.H.T.; Willemse, M.J.; Hoefs, S.G.G.; Cremers, G.; Heuvel, van den E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Classical microbiological methods have nowadays unacceptably long cycle times. Rapid methods, available on the market for decades, are already applied within the clinical and food industry, but the implementation in pharmaceutical industry is hampered by for instance stringent regulations on

  18. Optimal control methods for rapidly time-varying Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motzoi, F.; Merkel, S. T.; Wilhelm, F. K.; Gambetta, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we develop a numerical method to find optimal control pulses that accounts for the separation of timescales between the variation of the input control fields and the applied Hamiltonian. In traditional numerical optimization methods, these timescales are treated as being the same. While this approximation has had much success, in applications where the input controls are filtered substantially or mixed with a fast carrier, the resulting optimized pulses have little relation to the applied physical fields. Our technique remains numerically efficient in that the dimension of our search space is only dependent on the variation of the input control fields, while our simulation of the quantum evolution is accurate on the timescale of the fast variation in the applied Hamiltonian.

  19. Time evolution of the wave equation using rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Forward modeling of seismic data and reverse time migration are based on the time evolution of wavefields. For the case of spatially varying velocity, we have worked on two approaches to evaluate the time evolution of seismic wavefields. An exact solution for the constant-velocity acoustic wave equation can be used to simulate the pressure response at any time. For a spatially varying velocity, a one-step method can be developed where no intermediate time responses are required. Using this approach, we have solved for the pressure response at intermediate times and have developed a recursive solution. The solution has a very high degree of accuracy and can be reduced to various finite-difference time-derivative methods, depending on the approximations used. Although the two approaches are closely related, each has advantages, depending on the problem being solved. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  20. Time evolution of the wave equation using rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.

    2010-07-01

    Forward modeling of seismic data and reverse time migration are based on the time evolution of wavefields. For the case of spatially varying velocity, we have worked on two approaches to evaluate the time evolution of seismic wavefields. An exact solution for the constant-velocity acoustic wave equation can be used to simulate the pressure response at any time. For a spatially varying velocity, a one-step method can be developed where no intermediate time responses are required. Using this approach, we have solved for the pressure response at intermediate times and have developed a recursive solution. The solution has a very high degree of accuracy and can be reduced to various finite-difference time-derivative methods, depending on the approximations used. Although the two approaches are closely related, each has advantages, depending on the problem being solved. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  1. Methods of nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bellman, Richard Ernest

    1970-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  2. Study of a large rapid ashing apparatus and a rapid dry ashing method for biological samples and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Meisun; Wang Benli; Liu Wencang

    1988-04-01

    A large rapid-dry-ashing apparatus and a rapid ashing method for biological samples are described. The apparatus consists of specially made ashing furnace, gas supply system and temperature-programming control cabinet. The following adventages have been showed by ashing experiment with the above apparatus: (1) high speed of ashing and saving of electric energy; (2) The apparatus can ash a large amount of samples at a time; (3) The ashed sample is pure white (or spotless), loose and easily soluble with few content of residual char; (4) The fresh sample can also be ashed directly. The apparatus is suitable for ashing a large amount of the environmental samples containing low level radioactivity trace elements and the medical, food and agricultural research samples

  3. Evaluation of rapid radiometric method for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Libonati, J.P.; Middlebrook, G.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 106 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were tested for drug susceptibility by the conventional 7H11 plate method and by a new rapid radiometric method using special 7H12 liquid medium with 14 C-labeled substrate. Results obtained by the two methods were compared for rapidity, sensitivity, and specificity of the new test method. There was 98% overall agreement between the results obtained by the two methods. Of a total of 424 drug tests, only 8 drug results did not agree, mostly in the case of streptomycin. This new procedure was found to be rapid, with 87% of the tests results reportable within 4 days and 98% reportable within 5 days as compared to the usual 3 weeks required with the conventional indirect susceptibility test method. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the rapid radiometric method seems to have the potential for routine laboratory use and merits further investigations

  4. A rapid method for myoglobin radioimmunoanalysis as a diagnostic tool in myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, M.A.; Matveev, L.E.; Pressman, E.K.; Roschke, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    Stone et al. have elaborated a RIA-method for the determination of myoglobin, and found that increase of its concentration in serum is a reliable criterion for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. However, the test took 24-28 h. Subsequently, the time of the analysis has been reduced to 5-6 h. Recently, a rapid method for the determination of myoglobin has been proposed based upon the use of antiserum immobilized on a powdered carrier. This method takes a little more than 1 h. The procedure according to Roxin et al. is fast due to its non-equilibrium character; after the incubation (30 min) the reaction of the antigen with the immobilized antibody still remains far from equilibrium. It is generally believed that non-equilibrium RIA procedures are less convenient than equilibrium ones for practical clinical applications. According to the RIA procedure proposed here, the time saving compared with the established methods is achieved by using relatively-high concentrations of radioactive myoglobin of moderate specific radioactivity. Under these conditions, the kinetic plateau is reached in 15-20 min. Hence, the total time of the analysis to obtain a standard curve and results for five unknown sera is 55 min. Therefore, the method becomes more useful as a guide in the treatment of myocardial infarction. (Auth.)

  5. Novel rapid method for the characterisation of polymeric sugars from macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, S E; Adams, J M M; Thomas, D S; Gallagher, J A; Winters, Ana L

    2017-01-01

    Laminarins are storage polysaccharides found only in brown seaweeds, specifically Laminarialaes and Fucales. Laminarin has been shown to have anti-apoptotic and anti-tumoural activities and is considered as a nutraceutical component that can positively influence human health. The structure is species dependent, generally composed of linear ß(1-3) glucans with intrachain β(1-6) branching and varies according to harvest season and environmental factors. Current methods for analysis of molar mass and DP length are technically demanding and are not widely available. Here, we present a simple inexpensive method which enables rapid analysis of laminarins from macroalgal biomass using high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) without the need for hydrolysis or further processing. This is based on the linear relationship observed between log 10 DP and retention time following separation of laminarins on a CarboPac PA-100 column (Dionex) using standard 1,3-β-d-gluco-oligosaccharides ranging in DP from 2 to 8. This method was applied to analyse laminarin oligomers in extracts from different species harvested from within the intertidal zone on Welsh rocky shores containing laminarin polymers with different ranges of DP. The degree of polymerisation and extrapolated molar mass agreed well with values estimated by LC-ESI/MS n analysis and those reported in the literature.

  6. A probabilistic analysis of rapid boron dilution scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.; Diamond, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A probabilistic and deterministic analysis of a rapid boron dilution scenario related to reactor restart was performed. The event is initiated by a loss of off-site power during the startup dilution process. The automatic restart of the charging pump in such cases may lead to the accumulation of a diluted slug of water in the lower plenum. The restart of the reactor coolant pumps may send the diluted slug through the core, adding sufficient reactivity to overcome the shutdown margin and cause a power excursion. The concern is that the power excursion is sufficient in certain circumstances to cause fuel damage. The estimated core damage frequency based on the scoping analysis is 1.0--3.0E-05/yr for the plants analyzed. These are relatively significant values when compared to desirable goals. The analysis contained assumptions related to plant specific design characteristics which may lead to non-conservative estimates. The most important conservative assumptions were that mixing of the injected diluted water is insignificant and that fuel damage occurs when the slug passes through the core

  7. [Electromyography Analysis of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Natsuko; Kinoshita, Fumiya; Takada, Hiroki; Nakayama, Meiho

    2018-01-01

    Polysomnography (PSG), which records physiological phenomena including brain waves, breathing status, and muscle tonus, is useful for the diagnosis of sleep disorders as a gold standard. However, measurement and analysis are complex for several specific sleep disorders, such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Usually, brain waves during REM sleep indicate an awakening pattern under relaxed conditions of skeletal and antigravity muscles. However, these muscles are activated during REM sleep when patients suffer from RBD. These activated muscle movements during REM, so-called REM without atonia (RWA) recorded by PSG, may be related to a neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease. Thus, careful analysis of RWA is significant not only physically, but also clinically. Commonly, manual viewing measurement analysis of RWA is time-consuming. Therefore, quantitative studies on RWA are rarely reported. A software program, developed from Microsoft Office Excel ® , was used to semiautomatically analyze the RWA ratio extracted from PSG to compare with manual viewing measurement analysis. In addition, a quantitative muscle tonus study was carried out to evaluate the effect of medication on RBD patients. Using this new software program, we were able to analyze RWA on the same cases in approximately 15 min as compared with 60 min in the manual viewing measurement analysis. This software program can not only quantify RWA easily but also identify RWA waves for either phasic or tonic bursts. We consider that this software program will support physicians and scientists in their future research on RBD. We are planning to offer this software program for free to physicians and scientists.

  8. Rapid Methods for the Detection of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens: Principles, Applications, Advantages and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law eJodi Woan-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR, multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases.

  9. Excitation methods for energy dispersive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaklevic, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The rapid development in recent years of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis has been based primarily on improvements in semiconductor detector x-ray spectrometers. However, the whole analysis system performance is critically dependent on the availability of optimum methods of excitation for the characteristic x rays in specimens. A number of analysis facilities based on various methods of excitation have been developed over the past few years. A discussion is given of the features of various excitation methods including charged particles, monochromatic photons, and broad-energy band photons. The effects of the excitation method on background and sensitivity are discussed from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints. Recent developments such as pulsed excitation and polarized photons are also discussed

  10. Multivariate analysis: models and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz Perucha, J.

    1990-01-01

    Data treatment techniques are increasingly used since computer methods result of wider access. Multivariate analysis consists of a group of statistic methods that are applied to study objects or samples characterized by multiple values. A final goal is decision making. The paper describes the models and methods of multivariate analysis

  11. Multivariate analysis methods in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, M.

    2007-01-01

    A review of multivariate methods based on statistical training is given. Several multivariate methods useful in high-energy physics analysis are discussed. Selected examples from current research in particle physics are discussed, both from the on-line trigger selection and from the off-line analysis. Also statistical training methods are presented and some new application are suggested [ru

  12. Methods in algorithmic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrushkin, Vladimir A

    2009-01-01

    …helpful to any mathematics student who wishes to acquire a background in classical probability and analysis … This is a remarkably beautiful book that would be a pleasure for a student to read, or for a teacher to make into a year's course.-Harvey Cohn, Computing Reviews, May 2010

  13. Communication Network Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Richard V.; Mabee, Timothy

    This paper reviews a variety of analytic procedures that can be applied to network data, discussing the assumptions and usefulness of each procedure when applied to the complexity of human communication. Special attention is paid to the network properties measured or implied by each procedure. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling are among…

  14. Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital.

  15. Methods and Magnitudes of Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Over Pre-Competition Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kons Rafael Lima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to analyse the methods and magnitudes of rapid weight loss (RWL in judo team members in distinct periods before the biggest state competition in Southern Brazil.

  16. Interconnection blocks: a method for providing reusable, rapid, multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Snakenborg, Detlef; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented for creating 'interconnection blocks' that are re-usable and provide multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Interconnection blocks made from polydimethylsiloxane allow rapid testing of microfluidic chips and unobstructed microfluidic observ...

  17. Diagnostic Performance of a Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging Method of Measuring Hepatic Steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Michael J.; Gan, Eng K.; Adams, Leon A.; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T.; Bangma, Sander J.; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Olynyk, John K.; St. Pierre, Tim G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Hepatic steatosis is associated with an increased risk of developing serious liver disease and other clinical sequelae of the metabolic syndrome. However, visual estimates of steatosis from histological sections of biopsy samples are subjective and reliant on an invasive procedure with associated risks. The aim of this study was to test the ability of a rapid, routinely available, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to diagnose clinically relevant grades of hepatic steatosis in a cohort of patients with diverse liver diseases. Materials and Methods Fifty-nine patients with a range of liver diseases underwent liver biopsy and MRI. Hepatic steatosis was quantified firstly using an opposed-phase, in-phase gradient echo, single breath-hold MRI methodology and secondly, using liver biopsy with visual estimation by a histopathologist and by computer-assisted morphometric image analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of the MRI method against the biopsy observations. Results The MRI approach had high sensitivity and specificity at all hepatic steatosis thresholds. Areas under ROC curves were 0.962, 0.993, and 0.972 at thresholds of 5%, 33%, and 66% liver fat, respectively. MRI measurements were strongly associated with visual (r2 = 0.83) and computer-assisted morphometric (r2 = 0.84) estimates of hepatic steatosis from histological specimens. Conclusions This MRI approach, using a conventional, rapid, gradient echo method, has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing liver fat at all grades of steatosis in a cohort with a range of liver diseases. PMID:23555650

  18. A rapid method to estimate uranium using ionic liquid as extracting agent from basic aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhath Ravi, K.; Sathyapriya, R.S.; Rao, D.D.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids, as their name suggests are salts with a low melting point typically less than 100 °C and exist as liquid at room temperature. The common cationic parts of ionic liquids are imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, quaternary ammonium, or phosphonium ions, and common anionic parts are chloride, bromide, boron tetrafluorate, phosphorous hexafluorate, triflimide etc. The physical properties of ionic liquids can be tuned by choosing appropriate cations with differing alkyl chain lengths and anions. Application of ionic liquids in organic synthesis, liquid-liquid extractions, electrochemistry, catalysis, speciation studies, nuclear reprocessing is being studied extensively in recent times. In this paper a rapid method to estimate the uranium content in aqueous media by extraction with room temperature ionic liquid tricaprylammoniumthiosalicylate ((A- 336)(TS)) followed by liquid scintillation analysis is described. Re-extraction of uranium from ionic liquid phase to aqueous phase was also studied

  19. A robust and rapid method of producing soluble, stable, and functional G-protein coupled receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Corin

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins, particularly G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, are notoriously difficult to express. Using commercial E. coli cell-free systems with the detergent Brij-35, we could rapidly produce milligram quantities of 13 unique GPCRs. Immunoaffinity purification yielded receptors at >90% purity. Secondary structure analysis using circular dichroism indicated that the purified receptors were properly folded. Microscale thermophoresis, a novel label-free and surface-free detection technique that uses thermal gradients, showed that these receptors bound their ligands. The secondary structure and ligand-binding results from cell-free produced proteins were comparable to those expressed and purified from HEK293 cells. Our study demonstrates that cell-free protein production using commercially available kits and optimal detergents is a robust technology that can be used to produce sufficient GPCRs for biochemical, structural, and functional analyses. This robust and simple method may further stimulate others to study the structure and function of membrane proteins.

  20. The determination of Sr-90 in environmental material using an improved rapid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghods, A.; Veselsky, J.C.; Zhu, S.; Mirna, A.; Schelenz, R.

    1989-01-01

    A short report on strontium 90, its occurrence in the biosphere and its rapid determination methods is given. Classification of determination methods suitable for various environmental and biological materials is established. Interference due to Y-91 and a method to eliminate the activity of Y-90 and Y-91 is discussed. Tabs

  1. Rapid identification of salmonella serotypes with stereo and hyperspectral microscope imaging Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) method can reduce detection time within 8 hours including incubation process. The early and rapid detection with this method in conjunction with the high throughput capabilities makes HMI method a prime candidate for implementation for the food industry. Th...

  2. STOCHASTIC METHODS IN RISK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra OSADSKÁ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review basic stochastic methods which can be used to extend state-of-the-art deterministic analytical methods for risk analysis. We can conclude that the standard deterministic analytical methods highly depend on the practical experience and knowledge of the evaluator and therefore, the stochastic methods should be introduced. The new risk analysis methods should consider the uncertainties in input values. We present how large is the impact on the results of the analysis solving practical example of FMECA with uncertainties modelled using Monte Carlo sampling.

  3. Rapid thyroid dysfunction screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering and multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dayong; Lü, Guodong; Zhai, Zhengang; Du, Guoli; Mo, Jiaqing; Lü, Xiaoyi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering and multivariate statistical analysis are used to investigate a rapid screening technique for thyroid function diseases. At present, the detection of thyroid function has become increasingly important, and it is urgently necessary to develop a rapid and portable method for the detection of thyroid function. Our experimental results show that, by using the Silmeco-based enhanced Raman signal, the signal strength greatly increases and the characteristic peak appears obviously. It is also observed that the Raman spectra of normal and anomalous thyroid function human serum are significantly different. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to diagnose thyroid dysfunction, and the diagnostic accuracy was 87.4%. The use of serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering technology combined with PCA-LDA shows good diagnostic performance for the rapid detection of thyroid function. By means of Raman technology, it is expected that a portable device for the rapid detection of thyroid function will be developed.

  4. Rapid Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanowires by Annealing Methods on Seed Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Bo Shim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO nanowire arrays were successfully synthesized on a glass substrate using the rapid microwave heating process. The ZnO seed layers were produced by spinning the precursor solutions onto the substrate. Among coatings, the ZnO seed layers were annealed at 100°C for 5 minutes to ensure particle adhesion to the glass surface in air, nitrogen, and vacuum atmospheres. The annealing treatment of the ZnO seed layer was most important for achieving the high quality of ZnO nanowire arrays as ZnO seed nanoparticles of larger than 30 nm in diameter evolve into ZnO nanowire arrays. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a single-crystalline lattice of the ZnO nanowires. Because of their low power (140 W, low operating temperatures (90°C, easy fabrication (variable microwave sintering system, and low cost (90% cost reduction compared with gas condensation methods, high quality ZnO nanowires created with the rapid microwave heating process show great promise for use in flexible solar cells and flexible display devices.

  5. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-09-15

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T{sub 1} relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improvement in the k-space sampling trajectory is desired to acquire data in clinically acceptable times. In this thesis, a new trajectory, termed line-sharing, is introduced for TAPIR that can potentially reduce the acquisition time by 40 %. Additionally, the line-sharing method was compared with the GRAPPA parallel imaging method. These methods were employed to reconstruct time-point images from the data acquired on a 4T high-field MR research scanner. Multislice, multipoint in vivo results obtained using these methods are presented. Despite improvement in acquisition speed, through line-sharing, for example, motion remains a problem and artefact-free data cannot always be obtained. Therefore, in this thesis, a rapid technique is introduced to estimate in-plane motion. The presented technique is based on calculating the in-plane motion parameters, i.e., translation and rotation, by registering the low-resolution MR images. The rotation estimation method is based on the pseudo-polar FFT, where the Fourier domain is composed of frequencies that reside in an oversampled set of non-angularly, equispaced points. The essence of the method is that unlike other Fourier-based registration schemes, the employed approach does not require any interpolation to calculate the pseudo-polar FFT grid coordinates. Translation parameters are estimated by the phase correlation method. However, instead of two-dimensional analysis of the phase correlation matrix, a low complexity subspace identification of the phase

  6. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-09-01

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T 1 relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improvement in the k-space sampling trajectory is desired to acquire data in clinically acceptable times. In this thesis, a new trajectory, termed line-sharing, is introduced for TAPIR that can potentially reduce the acquisition time by 40 %. Additionally, the line-sharing method was compared with the GRAPPA parallel imaging method. These methods were employed to reconstruct time-point images from the data acquired on a 4T high-field MR research scanner. Multislice, multipoint in vivo results obtained using these methods are presented. Despite improvement in acquisition speed, through line-sharing, for example, motion remains a problem and artefact-free data cannot always be obtained. Therefore, in this thesis, a rapid technique is introduced to estimate in-plane motion. The presented technique is based on calculating the in-plane motion parameters, i.e., translation and rotation, by registering the low-resolution MR images. The rotation estimation method is based on the pseudo-polar FFT, where the Fourier domain is composed of frequencies that reside in an oversampled set of non-angularly, equispaced points. The essence of the method is that unlike other Fourier-based registration schemes, the employed approach does not require any interpolation to calculate the pseudo-polar FFT grid coordinates. Translation parameters are estimated by the phase correlation method. However, instead of two-dimensional analysis of the phase correlation matrix, a low complexity subspace identification of the phase

  7. Gas evolution as a rapid screening method for detection of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.; Chambers, D.M.; Brailsford, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    A number of detection methods for irradiated foods are in advanced state of development. No single method is likely to be universally applicable but a battery of tests such as thermoluminescence, electron spin resonance and analysis of lipid radiolytic products may soon be available for most foods and technical uses of irradiation. Most of these proposed tests require relatively sophisticated equipment or technical skills and are often time consuming and costly. There would be value in relatively simple tests which could be used as a rapid screening system or confirmatory method. The literature on the use of radiolytic gases as a detection method is limited and this paper extends the above studies. In particular, it extends the work to frozen shellfish, for which irradiation has been used as a commercial decontaminant technique for many years, and considers the effect of storage temperature. Work on poultry is also reported as a cross-reference to earlier work and because irradiated poultry has recently been released into the US retail trade. (author)

  8. Basic methods of isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochkin, A.V.; Rozenkevich, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    The bases of the most applied methods of the isotope analysis are briefly presented. The possibilities and analytical characteristics of the mass-spectrometric, spectral, radiochemical and special methods of the isotope analysis, including application of the magnetic resonance, chromatography and refractometry, are considered [ru

  9. The method of rapid design of the folding bridge based on floating supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marszałek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article includes a methodology for the rapid design of the folding bridge based on floating supports. This methodology includes an analysis of the possibilities of using blocks from the park pontoon PP-64 as a support for the floating folding DMS-65 bridge, built as a tem-porary crossing for civilian application. The analysis was carried out for the bridge loaded with a moving vehicle. The results of this analysis have been developed in the form of nomograms that enable rapid development of crossings in different structural systems.[b]Keywords[/b]: civil engineering, folding bridges, floating supports

  10. The method of rapid design of the folding bridge based on floating supports

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Marszałek; Mieczysław Piechota

    2016-01-01

    The article includes a methodology for the rapid design of the folding bridge based on floating supports. This methodology includes an analysis of the possibilities of using blocks from the park pontoon PP-64 as a support for the floating folding DMS-65 bridge, built as a tem-porary crossing for civilian application. The analysis was carried out for the bridge loaded with a moving vehicle. The results of this analysis have been developed in the form of nomograms that enable rapid development ...

  11. Rapid characterization of transgenic and non-transgenic soybean oils by chemometric methods using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Aderval S.; da Silva, Arnaldo P.; Pinho, Jéssica S. A.; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate classification were applied to discriminate soybean oil samples into non-transgenic and transgenic. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract relevant features from the spectral data and to remove the anomalous samples. The best results were obtained when with Support Vectors Machine-Discriminant Analysis (SVM-DA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) after mean centering plus multiplicative scatter correction. For SVM-DA the percentage of successful classification was 100% for the training group and 100% and 90% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively. For PLS-DA the percentage of successful classification was 95% and 100% in training group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively and 100% and 80% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic respectively. The results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy can provide a rapid, nondestructive and reliable method to distinguish non-transgenic and transgenic soybean oils.

  12. Microcalorimeter Q-spectroscopy for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croce, M.P., E-mail: mpcroce@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bond, E.M.; Hoover, A.S.; Kunde, G.J.; Mocko, V.; Rabin, M.W.; Weisse-Bernstein, N.R.; Wolfsberg, L.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, D.A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Schmidt, D.R.; Ullom, J.N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We are developing superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters that are optimized for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples by Q-spectroscopy. By designing mechanically robust TESs and simplified detector assembly methods, we have developed a detector for Q-spectroscopy of actinides that can be assembled in minutes. We have characterized the effects of each simplification and present the results. Finally, we show results of isotopic analysis of plutonium samples with Q-spectroscopy detectors and compare the results to mass spectrometry.

  13. Microcalorimeter Q-spectroscopy for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croce, M.P.; Bond, E.M.; Hoover, A.S.; Kunde, G.J.; Mocko, V.; Rabin, M.W.; Weisse-Bernstein, N.R.; Wolfsberg, L.E.; Bennett, D.A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Schmidt, D.R.; Ullom, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters that are optimized for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples by Q-spectroscopy. By designing mechanically robust TESs and simplified detector assembly methods, we have developed a detector for Q-spectroscopy of actinides that can be assembled in minutes. We have characterized the effects of each simplification and present the results. Finally, we show results of isotopic analysis of plutonium samples with Q-spectroscopy detectors and compare the results to mass spectrometry

  14. AO–MW–PLS method applied to rapid quantification of teicoplanin with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiemei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Teicoplanin (TCP is an important lipoglycopeptide antibiotic produced by fermenting Actinoplanes teichomyceticus. The change in TCP concentration is important to measure in the fermentation process. In this study, a reagent-free and rapid quantification method for TCP in the TCP–Tris–HCl mixture samples was developed using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy by focusing our attention on the fermentation process for TCP. The absorbance optimization (AO partial least squares (PLS was proposed and integrated with the moving window (MW PLS, which is called AO–MW–PLS method, to select appropriate wavebands. A model set that includes various wavebands that were equivalent to the optimal AO–MW–PLS waveband was proposed based on statistical considerations. The public region of all equivalent wavebands was just one of the equivalent wavebands. The obtained public regions were 1540–1868nm for TCP and 1114–1310nm for Tris. The root-mean-square error and correlation coefficient for leave-one-out cross validation were 0.046mg mL−1 and 0.9998mg mL−1 for TCP, and 0.235mg mL−1 and 0.9986mg mL−1 for Tris, respectively. All the models achieved highly accurate prediction effects, and the selected wavebands provided valuable references for designing specialized spectrometers. This study provided a valuable reference for further application of the proposed methods to TCP fermentation broth and to other spectroscopic analysis fields.

  15. Study on a noninvasive method for rapid screening Human Serum albumin injectables by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin (HSA injectable product is a severely afflicted area on drug safety due to its high price and restricted supply. Raman spectroscopy performances high specificity on HSA detection and it is even possible to determine HSA injectable products noninvasively. In this study, we developed a noninvasive rapid screening method for of HSA injectable products by using portable Raman spectrometer. Qualitative models were established by using principal component analysis combined with classical least squares (PCA-CLS algorithm, while quantitative model was established by using partial least squares (PLS algorithm. Model transfer in different instruments of both the same and different apparatus modules was further discussed in this paper. A total of 34 HSA injectable samples collected from markets were used for verification. The identification results showed 100% accuracy and the predicted concentrations of those identified as true HSA were consistent with their labeled concentrations. The quantitative results also indicated that model transfer was excellent in the same apparatus modules of Raman spectrometer at all concentration levels, and still good enough in the different apparatus modules although the relative standard deviation (RSD value showed a little increasing trend at low HSA concentration level. In conclusion, the method was proved to be feasible and efficient for screening HSA injections, especially on its screening speed and the consideration of glass containers. Moreover, with inspiring results on the model transfer, the method could be used as a universal screening mean to different Raman instruments.

  16. The scope of application of incremental rapid prototyping methods in foundry engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stankiewicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the scope of application of selected incremental Rapid Prototyping methods in the process of manufacturing casting models, casting moulds and casts. The Rapid Prototyping methods (SL, SLA, FDM, 3DP, JS are predominantly used for the production of models and model sets for casting moulds. The Rapid Tooling methods, such as: ZCast-3DP, ProMetalRCT and VoxelJet, enable the fabrication of casting moulds in the incremental process. The application of the RP methods in cast production makes it possible to speed up the prototype preparation process. This is particularly vital to elements of complex shapes. The time required for the manufacture of the model, the mould and the cast proper may vary from a few to several dozen hours.

  17. Use of predictive models and rapid methods to nowcast bacteria levels at coastal beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.

    2009-01-01

    The need for rapid assessments of recreational water quality to better protect public health is well accepted throughout the research and regulatory communities. Rapid analytical methods, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis, are being tested but are not yet ready for widespread use.Another solution is the use of predictive models, wherein variable(s) that are easily and quickly measured are surrogates for concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria. Rainfall-based alerts, the simplest type of model, have been used by several communities for a number of years. Deterministic models use mathematical representations of the processes that affect bacteria concentrations; this type of model is being used for beach-closure decisions at one location in the USA. Multivariable statistical models are being developed and tested in many areas of the USA; however, they are only used in three areas of the Great Lakes to aid in notifications of beach advisories or closings. These “operational” statistical models can result in more accurate assessments of recreational water quality than use of the previous day's Escherichia coli (E. coli)concentration as determined by traditional culture methods. The Ohio Nowcast, at Huntington Beach, Bay Village, Ohio, is described in this paper as an example of an operational statistical model. Because predictive modeling is a dynamic process, water-resource managers continue to collect additional data to improve the predictive ability of the nowcast and expand the nowcast to other Ohio beaches and a recreational river. Although predictive models have been shown to work well at some beaches and are becoming more widely accepted, implementation in many areas is limited by funding, lack of coordinated technical leadership, and lack of supporting epidemiological data.

  18. A rapid and simple chemiluminescence method for screening levels of inosine and hypoxanthine in non-traumatic chest pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, Don E; Sica, Domenic; Hindle, Michael; Edinboro, Les; Xi, Lei; Gehr, Todd W B; Gehr, Lynne; Farthing, Christine A; Larus, Terri L; Fakhry, Itaf; Karnes, H Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and simple chemiluminescence method was developed for detection of inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma. The method utilized a microplate luminometer with direct injectors to automatically dispense reagents during sample analysis. Enzymatic conversions of inosine to hypoxanthine, followed by hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid, generated superoxide anion radicals as a useful metabolic by-product. The free radicals react with Pholasin(®) , a sensitive photoprotein used for chemiluminescence detection, to produce measurable blue-green light. The use of Pholasin(®) and a chemiluminescence signal enhancer, Adjuvant-K™, eliminated the need for plasma clean-up steps prior to analysis. The method used 20 μL of heparinized plasma, with complete analysis of total hypoxanthine levels (inosine is metabolized to hypoxanthine using purine nucleoside phosphorylase) in approximately 3.7 min. The rapid chemiluminescence method demonstrated the capability of differentiating total hypoxanthine levels between healthy individuals, and patients presenting with non-traumatic chest pain and potential acute cardiac ischemia. The results support the potential use of chemiluminescence methodology as a diagnostic tool to rapidly screen for elevated levels of inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma, potential biomarkers of acute cardiac ischemia. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Probabilistic methods for rotordynamics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Torng, T. Y.; Millwater, H. R.; Fossum, A. F.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of dynamic systems that can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the eigenvalues or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on a fast probability integration concept and an efficient adaptive importance sampling method are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the methods.

  20. High-Resolution Melt Analysis for Rapid Comparison of Bacterial Community Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Bælum, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    In the study of bacterial community composition, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing is today among the preferred methods of analysis. The cost of nucleotide sequence analysis, including requisite computational and bioinformatic steps, however, takes up a large part of many research budgets. High......-resolution melt (HRM) analysis is the study of the melt behavior of specific PCR products. Here we describe a novel high-throughput approach in which we used HRM analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene to rapidly screen multiple complex samples for differences in bacterial community composition. We hypothesized...... that HRM analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes from a soil ecosystem could be used as a screening tool to identify changes in bacterial community structure. This hypothesis was tested using a soil microcosm setup exposed to a total of six treatments representing different combinations of pesticide...

  1. Rapid, convenient method for screening imidazole-containing compounds for heme oxygenase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahakis, Jason Z; Rahman, Mona N; Roman, Gheorghe; Jia, Zongchao; Nakatsu, Kanji; Szarek, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    Sensitive assays for measuring heme oxygenase activity have been based on the gas-chromatographic detection of carbon monoxide using elaborate, expensive equipment. The present study describes a rapid and convenient method for screening imidazole-containing candidates for inhibitory activity against heme oxygenase using a plate reader, based on the spectroscopic evaluation of heme degradation. A PowerWave XS plate reader was used to monitor the absorbance (as a function of time) of heme bound to purified truncated human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) in the individual wells of a standard 96-well plate (with or without the addition of a test compound). The degradation of heme by heme oxygenase-1 was initiated using l-ascorbic acid, and the collected relevant absorbance data were analyzed by three different methods to calculate the percent control activity occurring in wells containing test compounds relative to that occurring in control wells with no test compound present. In the cases of wells containing inhibitory compounds, significant shifts in λ(max) from 404 to near 412 nm were observed as well as a decrease in the rate of heme degradation relative to that of the control. Each of the three methods of data processing (overall percent drop in absorbance over 1.5h, initial rate of reaction determined over the first 5 min, and estimated pseudo first-order reaction rate constant determined over 1.5h) gave similar and reproducible results for percent control activity. The fastest and easiest method of data analysis was determined to be that using initial rates, involving data acquisition for only 5 min once reactions have been initiated using l-ascorbic acid. The results of the study demonstrate that this simple assay based on the spectroscopic detection of heme represents a rapid, convenient method to determine the relative inhibitory activity of candidate compounds, and is useful in quickly screening a series or library of compounds for heme oxygenase inhibition

  2. A restricted access material for rapid analysis of [(11)C]-labeled radiopharmaceuticals and their metabolites in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillings, N.

    2009-01-01

    , combined with a monolithic analysis column in a column-switching HPLC system. RESULTS: Up to 4 ml of plasma was analyzed by this method within 4.5-7 min in a fully automated process. Because of the rapid analysis, a large number of samples could be analyzed during a 90-min PET scan. The extraction column...

  3. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  4. Analysis apparatus and method of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A continuous streaming method developed for the excution of immunoassays is described in this patent. In addition, a suitable apparatus for the method was developed whereby magnetic particles are automatically employed for the consecutive analysis of a series of liquid samples via the RIA technique

  5. Nonlinear programming analysis and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avriel, Mordecai

    2012-01-01

    This text provides an excellent bridge between principal theories and concepts and their practical implementation. Topics include convex programming, duality, generalized convexity, analysis of selected nonlinear programs, techniques for numerical solutions, and unconstrained optimization methods.

  6. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D

    1981-01-01

    A practical guide to the methods in general use for the complete analysis of silicate rock material and for the determination of all those elements present in major, minor or trace amounts in silicate...

  7. Reliable, rapid and simple method for the analysis of phthalates in sediments by ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by head space-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, V; Moscoso-Pérez, C; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new reliable, simple and fast method for the determination of six PAEs in sediments, based on ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) followed by head space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination (GC-MS), is proposed. The extraction parameters were studied, and the most favourable conditions were selected. The analytical features of the method were calculated: matrix effect, accuracy (ranged from 90% to 111%), repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD <10%), detection and quantification limits of the method (ranged from 0.001µgg -1 (DOP) to 0.142µgg -1 (DEP)), and satisfactory results were obtained. Major advantages of this approach are low consumption of reagents and solvents, no clean-up or evaporation steps were required and minimum sample manipulation. In addition, cross contamination from glassware, solvents and samples is minimized, thus procedural blanks are keeping to a minimum.. The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated analysing sediment samples from Galician coast (NW Spain). The proposed method allows the application in routine laboratory conditions and its implementation in environmental monitoring studies under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eDatukishvili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  9. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  10. Rapid Separation Methods to Characterize Actinides and Metallic Impurities in Plutonium Scrap Materials at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Jones, V.D.

    1998-07-01

    The Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Storage Division at SRS plans to stabilize selected plutonium scrap residue materials for long term storage by dissolution processing and plans to stabilize other plutonium vault materials via high-temperature furnace processing. To support these nuclear material stabilization activities, the SRS Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD) will provide characterization of materials required prior to the dissolution or the high-firing of these materials. Lab renovations to install new analytical instrumentation are underway to support these activities that include glove boxes with simulated-process dissolution and high- pressure microwave dissolution capability. Inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively- coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) will be used to measure actinide isotopics and metallic impurities. New high-speed actinide separation methods have been developed that will be applied to isotopic characterization of nuclear materials by TIMS and ICP-MS to eliminate isobaric interferences between Pu-238 /U- 238 and Pu-241/Am-241. TEVA Resin, UTEVA Resin, and TRU Resin columns will be used with vacuum-assisted flow rates to minimize TIMS and ICP-MS sample turnaround times. For metallic impurity analysis, rapid column removal methods using UTEVA Resin, AGMP-1 anion resin and AG MP-50 cation resin have also been developed to remove plutonium and uranium matrix interferences prior to ICP-AES and ICP- MS measurements

  11. Polymerase Chain Reaction/Rapid Methods Are Gaining a Foothold in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragheb, Suzan Mohammed; Jimenez, Luis

    Detection of microbial contamination in pharmaceutical raw materials and finished products is a critical factor to guarantee their safety, stability, and potency. Rapid microbiological methods-such as polymerase chain reaction-have been widely applied to clinical and food quality control analysis. However, polymerase chain reaction applications to pharmaceutical quality control have been rather slow and sporadic. Successful implementation of these methods in pharmaceutical companies in developing countries requires important considerations to provide sensitive and robust assays that will comply with good manufacturing practices. In recent years several publications have encouraged the application of molecular techniques in the microbiological assessment of pharmaceuticals. One of these techniques is polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The successful application of PCR in the pharmaceutical industry in developing countries is governed by considerable factors and requirements. These factors include the setting up of a PCR laboratory and the choice of appropriate equipment and reagents. In addition, the presence of well-trained analysts and establishment of quality control and quality assurance programs are important requirements. The pharmaceutical firms should take into account these factors to allow better chances for regulatory acceptance and wide application of this technique. © PDA, Inc. 2014.

  12. Rapid Detection of Biological and Chemical Threat Agents Using Physical Chemistry, Active Detection, and Computational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung; Dong, Li; Fu, Rong; Liotta, Lance; Narayanan, Aarthi; Petricoin, Emanuel; Ross, Mark; Russo, Paul; Zhou, Weidong; Luchini, Alessandra; Manes, Nathan; Chertow, Jessica; Han, Suhua; Kidd, Jessica; Senina, Svetlana; Groves, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Basic technologies have been successfully developed within this project: rapid collection of aerosols and a rapid ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique. Water-soluble, humidity-resistant polyacrylamide nano-filters were shown to (1) capture aerosol particles as small as 20 nm, (2) work in humid air and (3) completely liberate their captured particles in an aqueous solution compatible with the immunoassay technique. The immunoassay technology developed within this project combines electrophoretic capture with magnetic bead detection. It allows detection of as few as 150-600 analyte molecules or viruses in only three minutes, something no other known method can duplicate. The technology can be used in a variety of applications where speed of analysis and/or extremely low detection limits are of great importance: in rapid analysis of donor blood for hepatitis, HIV and other blood-borne infections in emergency blood transfusions, in trace analysis of pollutants, or in search of biomarkers in biological fluids. Combined in a single device, the water-soluble filter and ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique may solve the problem of early warning type detection of aerosolized pathogens. These two technologies are protected with five patent applications and are ready for commercialization.

  13. Rapid high temperature field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcite scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    A test method is described which allows the rapid field testing of calcite scale inhibitors in high- temperature geothermal brines. Five commercial formulations, chosen on the basis of laboratory screening tests, were tested in brines with low total dissolved solids at ca 500 F. Four were found to be effective; of these, 2 were found to be capable of removing recently deposited scale. One chemical was tested in the full-flow brine line for 6 wks. It was shown to stop a severe surface scaling problem at the well's control valve, thus proving the viability of the rapid test method. (12 refs.)

  14. A rapid method for monitoring the hydrodeoxygenation of coal-derived naphtha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnand, B.A.; Coulombe, S.; Smiley, G.T.; Fairbridge, C.

    1988-01-01

    A bonded polar poly(ethylene glycol) capillary column has been used for the identification and quantification of the phenolic components in synthetic crude naphthas. This provides a rapid and routine method for the determination of phenolic oxygen content with results comparable to combustion and neutron activation methods. The method is most useful in monitoring the removal of phenolic oxygen by hydroprocessing. 11 refs., 1 fig. 1 tab.

  15. Rapid Automated Dissolution and Analysis Techniques for Radionuclides in Recycle Process Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudowe, Ralf; Roman, Audrey; Dailey, Ashlee; Go, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of process samples for radionuclide content is an important part of current procedures for material balance and accountancy in the different process streams of a recycling plant. The destructive sample analysis techniques currently available necessitate a significant amount of time. It is therefore desirable to develop new sample analysis procedures that allow for a quick turnaround time and increased sample throughput with a minimum of deviation between samples. In particular, new capabilities for rapid sample dissolution and radiochemical separation are required. Most of the radioanalytical techniques currently employed for sample analysis are based on manual laboratory procedures. Such procedures are time- and labor-intensive, and not well suited for situations in which a rapid sample analysis is required and/or large number of samples need to be analyzed. To address this issue we are currently investigating radiochemical separation methods based on extraction chromatography that have been specifically optimized for the analysis of process stream samples. The influence of potential interferences present in the process samples as well as mass loading, flow rate and resin performance is being studied. In addition, the potential to automate these procedures utilizing a robotic platform is evaluated. Initial studies have been carried out using the commercially available DGA resin. This resin shows an affinity for Am, Pu, U, and Th and is also exhibiting signs of a possible synergistic effects in the presence of iron.

  16. Rapid and accurate control rod calibration measurement and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, George W.; Doane, Harry J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to reduce the time needed to perform control rod calibrations and improve the accuracy of the results, a technique for a measurement, analysis, and tabulation of integral rod worths has been developed. A single series of critical rod positions are determined at constant low power to reduce the waiting time between positive period measurements and still assure true stable reactor period data. Reactivity values from positive period measurements and control rod drop measurements are used as input data for a non-linear fit to the expected control rod integral worth shape. With this method, two control rods can be calibrated in about two hours, and integral and differential calibration tables for operator use are printed almost immediately. Listings of the BASIC computer programs for the non-linear fitting and calibration table preparation are provided. (author)

  17. Rapid Detection and Identification of Human Hookworm Infections through High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Chua, Kek Heng

    2012-01-01

    Background Hookworm infections are still endemic in low and middle income tropical countries with greater impact on the socioeconomic and public health of the bottom billion of the world's poorest people. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with high resolution melting-curve (HRM) analysis was evaluated for an accurate, rapid and sensitive tool for species identification focusing on the five human hookworm species. Methods Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish hookworm species in human samples. Unique and distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were produced for each of the five hookworm species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 79.24±0.05°C and 83.00±0.04°C for Necator americanus, 79.12±0.10°C for Ancylostoma duodenale, 79.40±0.10°C for Ancylostoma ceylanicum, 79.63±0.05°C for Ancylostoma caninum and 79.70±0.14°C for Ancylostoma braziliense. An evaluation of the method's sensitivity and specificity revealed that this assay was able to detect as low as 0.01 ng/µl hookworm DNA and amplification was only recorded for hookworm positive samples. Conclusion The HRM assay developed in this study is a rapid and straightforward method for the diagnosis, identification and discrimination of five human hookworms. This assay is simple compared to other probe-based genotyping methods as it does not require multiplexing, DNA sequencing or post-PCR processing. Therefore, this method offers a new alternative for rapid detection of human hookworm species. PMID:22844538

  18. Rapid detection and identification of human hookworm infections through high resolution melting (HRM analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Ngui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are still endemic in low and middle income tropical countries with greater impact on the socioeconomic and public health of the bottom billion of the world's poorest people. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR coupled with high resolution melting-curve (HRM analysis was evaluated for an accurate, rapid and sensitive tool for species identification focusing on the five human hookworm species. METHODS: Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of nuclear ribosomal DNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish hookworm species in human samples. Unique and distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were produced for each of the five hookworm species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 79.24±0.05°C and 83.00±0.04°C for Necator americanus, 79.12±0.10°C for Ancylostoma duodenale, 79.40±0.10°C for Ancylostoma ceylanicum, 79.63±0.05°C for Ancylostoma caninum and 79.70±0.14°C for Ancylostoma braziliense. An evaluation of the method's sensitivity and specificity revealed that this assay was able to detect as low as 0.01 ng/µl hookworm DNA and amplification was only recorded for hookworm positive samples. CONCLUSION: The HRM assay developed in this study is a rapid and straightforward method for the diagnosis, identification and discrimination of five human hookworms. This assay is simple compared to other probe-based genotyping methods as it does not require multiplexing, DNA sequencing or post-PCR processing. Therefore, this method offers a new alternative for rapid detection of human hookworm species.

  19. A novel method of rapidly modeling optical properties of actual photonic crystal fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Wen, Wang; Shu-Qin, Lou; Wei-Guo, Chen; Hong-Lei, Li

    2010-01-01

    The flexible structure of photonic crystal fibre not only offers novel optical properties but also brings some difficulties in keeping the fibre structure in the fabrication process which inevitably cause the optical properties of the resulting fibre to deviate from the designed properties. Therefore, a method of evaluating the optical properties of the actual fibre is necessary for the purpose of application. Up to now, the methods employed to measure the properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre often require long fibre samples or complex expensive equipments. To our knowledge, there are few studies of modeling an actual photonic crystal fibre and evaluating its properties rapidly. In this paper, a novel method, based on the combination model of digital image processing and the finite element method, is proposed to rapidly model the optical properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre. Two kinds of photonic crystal fibres made by Crystal Fiber A/S are modeled. It is confirmed from numerical results that the proposed method is simple, rapid and accurate for evaluating the optical properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre without requiring complex equipment. (rapid communication)

  20. Condensing Massive Satellite Datasets For Rapid Interactive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, G.; Gallaher, D. W.; Lv, Q.; Campbell, G. G.; Fowler, C.; LIU, Q.; Chen, C.; Klucik, R.; McAllister, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Our goal is to enable users to interactively analyze massive satellite datasets, identifying anomalous data or values that fall outside of thresholds. To achieve this, the project seeks to create a derived database containing only the most relevant information, accelerating the analysis process. The database is designed to be an ancillary tool for the researcher, not an archival database to replace the original data. This approach is aimed at improving performance by reducing the overall size by way of condensing the data. The primary challenges of the project include: - The nature of the research question(s) may not be known ahead of time. - The thresholds for determining anomalies may be uncertain. - Problems associated with processing cloudy, missing, or noisy satellite imagery. - The contents and method of creation of the condensed dataset must be easily explainable to users. The architecture of the database will reorganize spatially-oriented satellite imagery into temporally-oriented columns of data (a.k.a., "data rods") to facilitate time-series analysis. The database itself is an open-source parallel database, designed to make full use of clustered server technologies. A demonstration of the system capabilities will be shown. Applications for this technology include quick-look views of the data, as well as the potential for on-board satellite processing of essential information, with the goal of reducing data latency.

  1. Seismic design and analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varpasuo, P.

    1993-01-01

    Seismic load is in many areas of the world the most important loading situation from the point of view of structural strength. Taking this into account it is understandable, that there has been a strong allocation of resources in the seismic analysis during the past ten years. In this study there are three areas of the center of gravity: (1) Random vibrations; (2) Soil-structure interaction and (3) The methods for determining structural response. The solution of random vibration problems is clarified with the aid of applications in this study and from the point of view of mathematical treatment and mathematical formulations it is deemed sufficient to give the relevant sources. In the soil-structure interaction analysis the focus has been the significance of frequency dependent impedance functions. As a result it was obtained, that the description of the soil with the aid of frequency dependent impedance functions decreases the structural response and it is thus always the preferred method when compared to more conservative analysis types. From the methods to determine the C structural response the following four were tested: (1) The time history method; (2) The complex frequency-response method; (3) Response spectrum method and (4) The equivalent static force method. The time history appeared to be the most accurate method and the complex frequency-response method did have the widest area of application. (orig.). (14 refs., 35 figs.)

  2. [Experimental rationale for the parameters of a rapid method for oxidase activity determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorina, N N

    2010-01-01

    Experimental rationale is provided for the parameters of a rapid (1-2-min) test to concurrently determine the oxidase activity of all bacteria grown on the membrane filter after water filtration. Oxidase reagents that are the aqueous solutions of tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride and demethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride have been first ascertained to exert no effect on the viability and enzymatic activity of bacteria after one-hour contact. An algorithm has been improved for the rapid oxidase activity test: the allowable time for bacteria to contact oxidase reagents and procedures for minimizing the effect on bacterial biochemical activity following the contact. An accelerated method based on lactose medium with tergitol 7 and Endo agar has been devised to determine coliform bacteria, by applying the rapid oxidase test: the time of a final response is 18-24 hours. The method has been included into GOST 52426-2005.

  3. A rapid method for screening arrayed plasmid cDNA library by PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yingchun; Zhang Kaitai; Wu Dechang; Li Gang; Xiang Xiaoqiong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To develop a PCR-based method for rapid and effective screening of arrayed plasmid cDNA library. Methods: The plasmid cDNA library was arrayed and screened by PCR with a particular set of primers. Results: Four positive clones were obtained through about one week. Conclusion: This method can be applied to screening not only normal cDNA clones, but also cDNA clones-containing small size fragments. This method offers significant advantages over traditional screening method in terms of sensitivity, specificity and efficiency

  4. 1 H-NMR metabolomics: Profiling method for a rapid and efficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal component analysis was used to separate groups of samples and to relate known and unknown metabolites to transgenic events. The screening of 100 samples, from extraction to data mining, took 36 h. Thus, this procedure allows the rapid selection of metabolic phenotypes of interest among about 30 transgenic ...

  5. A rapid method for the separation and estimation of uranium in geological materials using ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Satya; Bangroo, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Ion Chromatography is an elegant analytical technique which was primarily developed for the analysis of anionic species and over the years it has been used successfully to analyse various elements in different matrices. In this work the potential of Ion Chromatography has been used for the rapid separation and estimation of uranium in hydrogeochemical and other geological materials

  6. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Hongbin; Wang Chunyan; Qi Yao [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Song Fengrui, E-mail: songfr@ciac.jl.cn [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Liu Zhiqiang; Liu Shuying [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-11-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS combined with PCA and HCA was used to rapidly identify markers of Radix Aconiti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DART MS behavior of six aconitine-type alkaloids was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical markers were recognized between the qualified and unqualified samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS was shown to be an effective tool for quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata. - Abstract: This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in

  7. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongbin; Wang Chunyan; Qi Yao; Song Fengrui; Liu Zhiqiang; Liu Shuying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► DART MS combined with PCA and HCA was used to rapidly identify markers of Radix Aconiti. ► The DART MS behavior of six aconitine-type alkaloids was investigated. ► Chemical markers were recognized between the qualified and unqualified samples. ► DART MS was shown to be an effective tool for quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata. - Abstract: This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in combination with multivariate data analysis provides a very flexible and reliable method for quality

  8. Rapid expansion method (REM) for time‐stepping in reverse time migration (RTM)

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    an analytical approximation for the Bessel function where we assume that the time step is sufficiently small. From this derivation we find that if we consider only the first two Chebyshev polynomials terms in the rapid expansion method we can obtain the second

  9. Rapid in vivo screening method for the evaluation of new anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid in vivo screening method for the evaluation of new anti helicobacter ... Six to eight week-old mice pre-treated (7 days) with Amoxicillin/Metronidazole (25 ... These findings were used as a mouse model of Helicobacter pylori infection to ...

  10. Simple rapid methods for freezing hybridomas in 96-well microculture plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, D E; Price, P J

    1983-04-15

    Macroscopic hybridoma colonies were frozen and recovered in a good state of viability in 96-well microculture plates using 2 freezing procedures. These methods offer convenient and rapid means of preserving hybridomas and will permit laboratories developing monoclonal antibodies to distribute workloads to more manageable levels without discarding possibly valuable hybridomas.

  11. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongbin; Wang, Chunyan; Qi, Yao; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2012-11-08

    This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in combination with multivariate data analysis provides a very flexible and reliable method for quality assessment of toxic herbal medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A rapid radiobioassay method for strontium estimation in nuclear/radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wankhede, Sonal; Sawant, Pramilla D.; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    During a nuclear/radiological emergency, workers as well as members of the public (MOP) may get internally contaminated with the radionuclides like Sr and Cs. In such situations, a truly rapid radiobioassay method is required to screen a large number of people in order to assess internal contamination and also to decide on subsequent medical intervention. The current precipitation method used at Bioassay Lab., Trombay is quite lengthy and laborious. Efforts are being made to optimize bioassay methods at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre using Solid Extraction Chromatography (SEC) technique for emergency response. The present work reports standardization of SEC technique for rapid estimation of Sr in urine samples. The method standardized using Sr spec is simpler, shorter, result in higher recoveries and reproducible results. It is most suitable for quick dose assessment of 90 Sr in bioassay samples in case of emergency

  13. A rapid method for soil cement design : Louisiana slope value method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-03-01

    The current procedure used by the Louisiana Department of Highways for laboratory design of cement stabilized soil base and subbase courses is taken from standard AASHO test methods, patterned after Portland Cement Association criteria. These methods...

  14. Data Analysis Methods for Library Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Toshiro; Kim, Eunja

    Our society is rapidly changing to information society, where the needs and requests of the people on information access are different widely from person to person. Library's mission is to provide its users, or patrons, with the most appropriate information. Libraries have to know the profiles of their patrons, in order to achieve such a role. The aim of library marketing is to develop methods based on the library data, such as circulation records, book catalogs, book-usage data, and others. In this paper we discuss the methodology and imporatnce of library marketing at the beginning. Then we demonstrate its usefulness through some examples of analysis methods applied to the circulation records in Kyushu University and Guacheon Library, and some implication that obtained as the results of these methods. Our research is a big beginning towards the future when library marketing is an unavoidable tool.

  15. Rapid-Viability PCR Method for Detection of Live, Virulent Bacillus anthracis in Environmental Samples ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Létant, Sonia E.; Murphy, Gloria A.; Alfaro, Teneile M.; Avila, Julie R.; Kane, Staci R.; Raber, Ellen; Bunt, Thomas M.; Shah, Sanjiv R.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a biothreat agent release, hundreds of samples would need to be rapidly processed to characterize the extent of contamination and determine the efficacy of remediation activities. Current biological agent identification and viability determination methods are both labor- and time-intensive such that turnaround time for confirmed results is typically several days. In order to alleviate this issue, automated, high-throughput sample processing methods were developed in which real...

  16. Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.

    2013-01-22

    An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.

  17. Interconnection blocks: a method for providing reusable, rapid, multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, D; Snakenborg, D; Dufva, M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented for creating 'interconnection blocks' that are re-usable and provide multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Interconnection blocks made from polydimethylsiloxane allow rapid testing of microfluidic chips and unobstructed microfluidic observation. The interconnection block method is scalable, flexible and supports high interconnection density. The average pressure limit of the interconnection block was near 5.5 bar and all individual results were well above the 2 bar threshold considered applicable to most microfluidic applications

  18. Rapid qualitative research methods during complex health emergencies: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ginger A; Vindrola-Padros, Cecilia

    2017-09-01

    The 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted both the successes and limitations of social science contributions to emergency response operations. An important limitation was the rapid and effective communication of study findings. A systematic review was carried out to explore how rapid qualitative methods have been used during global heath emergencies to understand which methods are commonly used, how they are applied, and the difficulties faced by social science researchers in the field. We also asses their value and benefit for health emergencies. The review findings are used to propose recommendations for qualitative research in this context. Peer-reviewed articles and grey literature were identified through six online databases. An initial search was carried out in July 2016 and updated in February 2017. The PRISMA checklist was used to guide the reporting of methods and findings. The articles were assessed for quality using the MMAT and AACODS checklist. From an initial search yielding 1444 articles, 22 articles met the criteria for inclusion. Thirteen of the articles were qualitative studies and nine used a mixed-methods design. The purpose of the rapid studies included: the identification of causes of the outbreak, and assessment of infrastructure, control strategies, health needs and health facility use. The studies varied in duration (from 4 days to 1 month). The main limitations identified by the authors were: the low quality of the collected data, small sample sizes, and little time for cross-checking facts with other data sources to reduce bias. Rapid qualitative methods were seen as beneficial in highlighting context-specific issues that need to be addressed locally, population-level behaviors influencing health service use, and organizational challenges in response planning and implementation. Recommendations for carrying out rapid qualitative research in this context included the early designation of community leaders as a point of

  19. A new quantitative method for the rapid evaluation of buildings against earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoodzadeh, Amir; Mazaheri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    At the present time there exist numerous weak buildings which are not able to withstand earthquakes. At the same time, both private and public developers are trying to use scientific methods to prioritize and allocate budget in order to reinforce the above mentioned structures. This is because of the limited financial resources and time. In the recent years the procedure of seismic assessment before rehabilitation of vulnerable buildings has been implemented in many countries. Now, it seems logical to reinforce the existing procedures with the mass of available data about the effects caused by earthquakes on buildings. The main idea is driven from FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) in quality management where the main procedure is to recognize the failure, the causes, and the priority of each cause and failure. Specifying the causes and effects which lead to a certain shortcoming in structural behavior during earthquakes, an inventory is developed and each building is rated through a yes-or-no procedure. In this way, the rating of the structure is based on some standard forms which along with relative weights are developed in this study. The resulted criteria by rapid assessment will indicate whether the structure is to be demolished, has a high, medium or low vulnerability or is invulnerable

  20. Lock-in thermography as a rapid and reproducible thermal characterization method for magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemal, Philipp; Geers, Christoph; Monnier, Christophe A.; Crippa, Federica; Daum, Leopold; Urban, Dominic A.; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Bonmarin, Mathias, E-mail: mathias.bonmarin@zhaw.ch [Institute of Computational Physics, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Technikumstrasse 9, 8400 Winterthur (Switzerland); Petri-Fink, Alke, E-mail: alke.fink@unifr.ch [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Chemistry Department, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Museé 9, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Moore, Thomas L., E-mail: thomaslee.moore@unifr.ch [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2017-04-01

    Lock-in thermography (LIT) is a sensitive imaging technique generally used in engineering and materials science (e.g. detecting defects in composite materials). However, it has recently been expanded for investigating the heating power of nanomaterials, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Here we implement LIT as a rapid and reproducible method that can evaluate the heating potential of various sizes of SPIONs under an alternating magnetic field (AMF), as well as the limits of detection for each particle size. SPIONs were synthesized via thermal decomposition and stabilized in water via a ligand transfer process. Thermographic measurements of SPIONs were made by stimulating particles of varying sizes and increasing concentrations under an AMF. Furthermore, a commercially available SPION sample was included as an external reference. While the size dependent heating efficiency of SPIONs has been previously described, our objective was to probe the sensitivity limits of LIT. For certain size regimes it was possible to detect signals at concentrations as low as 0.1 mg Fe/mL. Measuring at different concentrations enabled a linear regression analysis and extrapolation of the limit of detection for different size nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A multi-sample screening assessment of magnetic nanoparticle thermal characteristics is shown via lock-in thermography. • Lower concentration limit of nanoparticle detection based on particle size is proposed. • A commercially available reference sample indicates the stability and reproducibility of LIT.

  1. HPLC method for rapidly following biodiesel fuel transesterification reaction progress using a core-shell column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Samuel J; Ott, Lisa S

    2012-07-01

    There are a wide and growing variety of feedstocks for biodiesel fuel. Most commonly, these feedstocks contain triglycerides which are transesterified into the fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) which comprise biodiesel fuel. While the tranesterification reaction itself is simple, monitoring the reaction progress and reaction products is not. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is useful for assessing the FAAE products, but does not directly address either the tri-, di-, or monoglycerides present from incomplete transesterification or the free fatty acids which may also be present. Analysis of the biodiesel reaction mixture is complicated by the solubility and physical property differences among the components of the tranesterification reaction mixture. In this contribution, we present a simple, rapid HPLC method which allows for monitoring all of the main components in a biodiesel fuel transesterification reaction, with specific emphasis on the ability to monitor the reaction as a function of time. The utilization of a relatively new, core-shell stationary phase for the HPLC column allows for efficient separation of peaks with short elution times, saving both time and solvent.

  2. Rapid method to determine actinides and 89/90Sr in limestone and marble samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, J.B.; Utsey, R.C.; Sudowe, Ralf; McAlister, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the determination of actinides and radiostrontium in limestone and marble samples has been developed that utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the sample. Following rapid pre-concentration steps to remove sample matrix interferences, the actinides and 89 / 90 Sr are separated using extraction chromatographic resins and measured radiometrically. The advantages of sodium hydroxide fusion versus other fusion techniques will be discussed. This approach has a sample preparation time for limestone and marble samples of <4 h. (author)

  3. Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring: A Rapid, Reliable, and Cost-Effective Method Following Total Joint Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J Ryan; Camp, Christopher L; Stitz, Amber; Young, Ernest Y; Abdel, Matthew P; Taunton, Michael J; Trousdale, Robert T

    2016-03-02

    Noninvasive hemoglobin (nHgb) monitoring was initially introduced in the intensive care setting as a means of rapidly assessing Hgb values without performing a blood draw. We conducted a prospective analysis to compare reliability, cost, and patient preference between nHgb monitoring and invasive Hgb (iHgb) monitoring performed via a traditional blood draw. We enrolled 100 consecutive patients undergoing primary or revision total hip or total knee arthroplasty. On postoperative day 1, nHgb and iHgb values were obtained within thirty minutes of one another. iHgb and nHgb values, cost, patient satisfaction, and the duration of time required to obtain each reading were recorded. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was utilized to evaluate the agreement of the two Hgb measurement methods. Paired t tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were utilized to compare mean Hgb values, time, and pain for all readings. The mean Hgb values did not differ significantly between the two measurement methods: the mean iHgb value (and standard deviation) was 11.3 ± 1.4 g/dL (range, 8.2 to 14.3 g/dL), and the mean nHgb value was 11.5 ± 1.8 g/dL (range, 7.0 to 16.0 g/dL) (p = 0.11). The CCC between the two Hgb methods was 0.69. One hundred percent of the patients with an nHgb value of ≥ 10.5 g/dL had an iHgb value of >8.0 g/dL. The mean time to obtain an Hgb value was 0.9 minute for the nHgb method and 51.1 minutes for the iHgb method (p measurement, resulting in a savings of $26 per Hgb assessment when the noninvasive method is used. Noninvasive Hgb monitoring was found to be more efficient, less expensive, and preferred by patients compared with iHgb monitoring. Providers could consider screening total joint arthroplasty patients with nHgb monitoring and only order iHgb measurement if the nHgb value is protocol had been applied to the first blood draw in our 100 patients, approximately $2000 would have been saved. Extrapolated to the U.S. total joint arthroplasty practice

  4. ADVANTAGES OF RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINING SCALE MASS AND DECARBURIZED LAYER OF ROLLED COIL STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Parusov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the universal empirical relationships that allow for operational calculation of scale mass and decarbonized layer depth based on the parameters of the technological process for rolled coil steel production. Methodology. The research is carried out on the industrial batches of the rolled steel of SAE 1006 and SAE 1065 grades. Scale removability was determined in accordance with the procedure of «Bekaert» company by the specifi-cations: GA-03-16, GA-03-18, GS-03-02, GS-06-01. The depth of decarbonized layer was identified in accordance with GOST 1763-68 (M method. Findings. Analysis of experimental data allowed us to determine the rational temperature of coil formation of the investigated steel grades, which provide the best possible removal of scale from the metal surface, a minimal amount of scale, as well as compliance of the metal surface color with the require-ments of European consumers. Originality. The work allowed establishing correlation of the basic quality indicators of the rolled coil high carbon steel (scale mass, depth of decarbonized layer and inter-laminar distance in pearlite with one of the main parameters (coil formation temperature of the deformation and heat treatment mode. The re-sulting regression equations, without metallographic analysis, can be used to determine, with a minimum error, the quantitative values of the total scale mass, depth of decarbonized layer and the average inter-lamellar distance in pearlite of the rolled coil high carbon steel. Practical value. Based on the specifications of «Bekaert» company (GA-03-16, GA-03-18, GS-03-02 and GS-06-01 the method of testing descaling by mechanical means from the surface of the rolled coil steel of low- and high-carbon steel grades was developed and approved in the environment of PJSC «ArcelorMittal Kryvyi Rih». The work resulted in development of the rapid method for determination of total and remaining scale mass on the rolled coil steel

  5. Applying green analytical chemistry for rapid analysis of drugs: Adding health to pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazrul Haq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Green RP-HPLC method for a rapid analysis of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM in bulk drugs, self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS and marketed tablets was developed and validated in the present investigation. The chromatographic identification was achieved on Lichrosphere 250 × 4.0 mm RP C8 column having a 5 μm packing as a stationary phase using a combination of green solvents ethyl acetate:ethanol (50:50% v/v as a mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 250 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, robustness, sensitivity and specificity. The utility of the proposed method was verified by an assay of OLM in SMEDDS and commercial tablets. The proposed method was found to be selective, precise, reproducible, accurate, robust, sensitive and specific. The amount of OLM in SMEDDS and commercial tablets was found to be 101.25% and 98.67% respectively. The proposed method successfully resolved OLM peak in the presence of its degradation products which indicated stability-indicating property of the proposed method. These results indicated that the proposed method can be successfully employed for a routine analysis of OLM in bulk drugs and commercial formulations.

  6. Effectiveness of Rapid Cooling as a Method of Euthanasia for Young Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Chelsea K; Bright, Lauren A; Marx, James O; Andersen, Robert P; Mullins, Mary C; Carty, Anthony J

    2018-01-01

    Despite increased use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in biomedical research, consistent information regarding appropriate euthanasia methods, particularly for embryos, is sparse. Current literature indicates that rapid cooling is an effective method of euthanasia for adult zebrafish, yet consistent guidelines regarding zebrafish younger than 6 mo are unavailable. This study was performed to distinguish the age at which rapid cooling is an effective method of euthanasia for zebrafish and the exposure times necessary to reliably euthanize zebrafish using this method. Zebrafish at 3, 4, 7, 14, 16, 19, 21, 28, 60, and 90 d postfertilization (dpf) were placed into an ice water bath for 5, 10, 30, 45, or 60 min (n = 12 to 40 per group). In addition, zebrafish were placed in ice water for 12 h (age ≤14 dpf) or 30 s (age ≥14 dpf). After rapid cooling, fish were transferred to a recovery tank and the number of fish alive at 1, 4, and 12-24 h after removal from ice water was documented. Euthanasia was defined as a failure when evidence of recovery was observed at any point after removal from ice water. Results showed that younger fish required prolonged exposure to rapid cooling for effective euthanasia, with the required exposure time decreasing as fish age. Although younger fish required long exposure times, animals became immobilized immediately upon exposure to the cold water, and behavioral indicators of pain or distress rarely occurred. We conclude that zebrafish 14 dpf and younger require as long as 12 h, those 16 to 28 dpf of age require 5 min, and those older than 28 dpf require 30 s minimal exposure to rapid cooling for reliable euthanasia.

  7. Analysis of Pteridium ribosomal RNA sequences by rapid direct sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M K

    1991-08-01

    A total of 864 bases from 5 regions interspersed in the 18S and 26S rRNA molecules from various clones of Pteridium covering the general geographical distribution of the genus was analysed using a rapid rRNA sequencing technique. No base difference has been detected amongst the three major lineages, two of which apparently separated before the breakup of the ancient supercontinent, Pangaea. These regions of the rRNA sequences have thus been conserved for at least 160 million years and are here compared with other eukaryotic, especially plant rRNAs.

  8. PLEASE: The Python Low-energy Electron Analysis SuitE – Enabling Rapid Analysis of LEEM and LEED Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Grady

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available PLEASE, the Python Low-energy Electron Analysis SuitE, provides an open source and cross-platform graphical user interface (GUI for rapid analysis and visualization of low energy electron microscopy (LEEM data sets. LEEM and the associated technique, selected area micro-spot low energy electron diffraction (μ-LEED, are powerful tools for analysis of the surface structure for many novel materials. Specifically, these tools are uniquely suited for the characterization of two-dimensional materials. PLEASE offers a user-friendly point-and-click method for extracting intensity-voltage curves from LEEM and LEED data sets. Analysis of these curves provides insight into the atomic structure of the target material surface with unparalleled resolution.

  9. Development of a rapid method for the quantitative determination of deoxynivalenol using Quenchbody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinari, Tomoya [Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ryoji; Kaigome, Rena [Biomedical Division, Ushio Inc., 1-12 Minamiwatarida-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0855 (Japan); Ohkawa, Hideo [Research Center for Environmental Genomics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko, E-mail: y-konishi@azabu-u.ac.jp [Department of Food and Life Science, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201 (Japan)

    2015-08-12

    Quenchbody (Q-body) is a novel fluorescent biosensor based on the antigen-dependent removal of a quenching effect on a fluorophore attached to antibody domains. In order to develop a method using Q-body for the quantitative determination of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, anti-DON Q-body was synthesized from the sequence information of a monoclonal antibody specific to DON. When the purified anti-DON Q-body was mixed with DON, a dose-dependent increase in the fluorescence intensity was observed and the detection range was between 0.0003 and 3 mg L{sup −1}. The coefficients of variation were 7.9% at 0.003 mg L{sup −1}, 5.0% at 0.03 mg L{sup −1} and 13.7% at 0.3 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.006 mg L{sup −1} for DON in wheat. The Q-body showed an antigen-dependent fluorescence enhancement even in the presence of wheat extracts. To validate the analytical method using Q-body, a spike-and-recovery experiment was performed using four spiked wheat samples. The recoveries were in the range of 94.9–100.2%. The concentrations of DON in twenty-one naturally contaminated wheat samples were quantitated by the Q-body method, LC-MS/MS and an immunochromatographic assay kit. The LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the levels of DON contamination in the samples were between 0.001 and 2.68 mg kg{sup −1}. The concentrations of DON quantitated by LC-MS/MS were more strongly correlated with those using the Q-body method (R{sup 2} = 0.9760) than the immunochromatographic assay kit (R{sup 2} = 0.8824). These data indicate that the Q-body system for the determination of DON in wheat samples was successfully developed and Q-body is expected to have a range of applications in the field of food safety. - Highlights: • A rapid method for quantitation of DON using Q-body has been developed. • A recovery test using the anti-DON Q-body was performed. • The concentrations of DON in wheat

  10. Rapid susceptibility testing and microcolony analysis of Candida spp. cultured and imaged on porous aluminum oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Ingham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance to antifungal agents now supports the introduction of susceptibility testing for species-drug combinations for which this was previously thought unnecessary. For pathogenic yeasts, conventional phenotypic testing needs at least 24 h. Culture on a porous aluminum oxide (PAO support combined with microscopy offers a route to more rapid results. METHODS: Microcolonies of Candida species grown on PAO were stained with the fluorogenic dyes Fun-1 and Calcofluor White and then imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images were captured by a charge-coupled device camera and processed by publicly available software. By this method, the growth of yeasts could be detected and quantified within 2 h. Microcolony imaging was then used to assess the susceptibility of the yeasts to amphotericin B, anidulafungin and caspofungin (3.5 h culture, and voriconazole and itraconazole (7 h culture. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the results showed good agreement with EUCAST (86.5% agreement; n = 170 and E-test (85.9% agreement; n = 170. The closest agreement to standard tests was found when testing susceptibility to amphotericin B and echinocandins (88.2 to 91.2% and the least good for the triazoles (79.4 to 82.4%. Furthermore, large datasets on population variation could be rapidly obtained. An analysis of microcolonies revealed subtle effects of antimycotics on resistant strains and below the MIC of sensitive strains, particularly an increase in population heterogeneity and cell density-dependent effects of triazoles. Additionally, the method could be adapted to strain identification via germ tube extension. We suggest PAO culture is a rapid and versatile method that may be usefully adapted to clinical mycology and has research applications.

  11. Development of Novel Method for Rapid Extract of Radionuclides from Solution Using Polymer Ligand Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Jung H.

    Accurate and fast determination of the activity of radionuclides in a sample is critical for nuclear forensics and emergency response. Radioanalytical techniques are well established for radionuclides measurement, however, they are slow and labor intensive, requiring extensive radiochemical separations and purification prior to analysis. With these limitations of current methods, there is great interest for a new technique to rapidly process samples. This dissertation describes a new analyte extraction medium called Polymer Ligand Film (PLF) developed to rapidly extract radionuclides. Polymer Ligand Film is a polymer medium with ligands incorporated in its matrix that selectively and rapidly extract analytes from a solution. The main focus of the new technique is to shorten and simplify the procedure necessary to chemically isolate radionuclides for determination by alpha spectrometry or beta counting. Five different ligands were tested for plutonium extraction: bis(2-ethylhexyl) methanediphosphonic acid (H2DEH[MDP]), di(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), trialkyl methylammonium chloride (Aliquat-336), 4,4'(5')-di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), and 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (HEH[EHP]). The ligands that were effective for plutonium extraction further studied for uranium extraction. The plutonium recovery by PLFs has shown dependency on nitric acid concentration and ligand to total mass ratio. H2DEH[MDP] PLFs performed best with 1:10 and 1:20 ratio PLFs. 50.44% and 47.61% of plutonium were extracted on the surface of PLFs with 1M nitric acid for 1:10 and 1:20 PLF, respectively. HDEHP PLF provided the best combination of alpha spectroscopy resolution and plutonium recovery with 1:5 PLF when used with 0.1M nitric acid. The overall analyte recovery was lower than electrodeposited samples, which typically has recovery above 80%. However, PLF is designed to be a rapid field deployable screening technique and consistency is more important

  12. Expediting the Analysis of Qualitative Data in Evaluation: A Procedure for the Rapid Identification of Themes from Audio Recordings (RITA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Neal, Zachary P.; VanDyke, Erika; Kornbluh, Mariah

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative data offer advantages to evaluators, including rich information about stakeholders' perspectives and experiences. However, qualitative data analysis is labor-intensive and slow, conflicting with evaluators' needs to provide punctual feedback to their clients. In this method note, we contribute to the literature on rapid evaluation and…

  13. Field Portable Methods for Rapid Water Quality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    a pie-shaped segment of the rolled cylinder, also stored in a sterile flask. Several membrane layers were pulled away, and a scraping was removed for...For example, the H. pylori urease A gene can be used, and thefla A gene can be used for the campylobacter species. 12 2. Implement microwave technology

  14. Application of Rapid Prototyping Methods to High-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken in MSFC's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel to determine if rapid prototyping methods could be used in the design and manufacturing of high speed wind tunnel models in direct testing applications, and if these methods would reduce model design/fabrication time and cost while providing models of high enough fidelity to provide adequate aerodynamic data, and of sufficient strength to survive the test environment. Rapid prototyping methods utilized to construct wind tunnel models in a wing-body-tail configuration were: fused deposition method using both ABS plastic and PEEK as building materials, stereolithography using the photopolymer SL-5170, selective laser sintering using glass reinforced nylon, and laminated object manufacturing using plastic reinforced with glass and 'paper'. This study revealed good agreement between the SLA model, the metal model with an FDM-ABS nose, an SLA nose, and the metal model for most operating conditions, while the FDM-ABS data diverged at higher loading conditions. Data from the initial SLS model showed poor agreement due to problems in post-processing, resulting in a different configuration. A second SLS model was tested and showed relatively good agreement. It can be concluded that rapid prototyping models show promise in preliminary aerodynamic development studies at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds.

  15. SWOT ANALYSIS ON SAMPLING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIS ANCA OANA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Our article aims to study audit sampling in audit of financial statements. As an audit technique largely used, in both its statistical and nonstatistical form, the method is very important for auditors. It should be applied correctly for a fair view of financial statements, to satisfy the needs of all financial users. In order to be applied correctly the method must be understood by all its users and mainly by auditors. Otherwise the risk of not applying it correctly would cause loose of reputation and discredit, litigations and even prison. Since there is not a unitary practice and methodology for applying the technique, the risk of incorrectly applying it is pretty high. The SWOT analysis is a technique used that shows the advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities. We applied SWOT analysis in studying the sampling method, from the perspective of three players: the audit company, the audited entity and users of financial statements. The study shows that by applying the sampling method the audit company and the audited entity both save time, effort and money. The disadvantages of the method are difficulty in applying and understanding its insight. Being largely used as an audit method and being a factor of a correct audit opinion, the sampling method’s advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities must be understood by auditors.

  16. Collaborative validation of a rapid method for efficient virus concentration in bottled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Perelle, Sylvie; Di Pasquale, Simona

    2011-01-01

    . Three newly developed methods, A, B and C, for virus concentration in bottled water were compared against the reference method D: (A) Convective Interaction Media (CIM) monolithic chromatography; filtration of viruses followed by (B) direct lysis of viruses on membrane; (C) concentration of viruses......Enteric viruses, including norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), have emerged as a major cause of waterborne outbreaks worldwide. Due to their low infectious doses and low concentrations in water samples, an efficient and rapid virus concentration method is required for routine control...... by ultracentrifugation; and (D) concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration, for each methods' (A, B and C) efficacy to recover 10-fold dilutions of HAV and feline calicivirus (FCV) spiked in bottles of 1.5L of mineral water. Within the tested characteristics, all the new methods showed better performance than method D...

  17. A rapid method for establishment of a reverse genetics system for canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongle; Su, Jun; Wang, Jigui; Xi, Ji; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Liu, Weiquan

    2017-12-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important and highly prevalent pathogen of dogs that causes acute hemorrhagic enteritis disease. Here, we describe a rapid method for the construction and characterization of a full-length infectious clone (rCPV) of CPV. Feline kidney (F81) cells were transfected with rCPV incorporating an engineered EcoR I site that served as a genetic marker. The rescued virus was indistinguishable from that of wild-type virus in its biological properties.

  18. A simple, rapid and inexpensive screening method for the identification of Pythium insidiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondolo, Juliana Simoni Moraes; Loreto, Erico Silva; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Mario, Débora Alves Nunes; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

    2013-04-01

    Growth of Pythium insidiosum mycelia around minocycline disks (30μg) did not occur within 7days of incubation at 35°C when the isolates were grown on Sabouraud, corn meal, Muller-Hinton or RPMI agar. This technique offers a simple and rapid method for the differentiation of P. insidiosum from true filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A rapid method for the determination of some antihypertensive and antipyretic drugs by thermometric titrimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, U M; Chand, F; Bhanger, M I; Memon, S A

    1986-02-01

    A simple and rapid method is described for the direct thermometric determination of milligram amounts of methyl dopa, propranolol hydrochloride, 1-phenyl-3-methylpyrazolone (MPP) and 2,3-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one (phenazone) in the presence of excipients. The compounds are reacted with N'-bromosuccinimide and the heat of reaction is used to determine the end-point of the titration. The time required is approximately 2 min, and the accuracy is analytically acceptable.

  20. Detection - NIR, Luminescence and Other Rapid Methods-Pit Falls and Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudil, D.

    2007-01-01

    The proliferation of rapid, on-site biological detectors over the last 15 years has caused confusion within the user community and in some cases a diversion of resources. There remains no panacea; all systems have issues and no system provides the total answer. In 1995, with much enthusiasm, members of a US National Lab presented a mock-up of a hand held Biological Detector. This system, compared to a 'Tricorder' from science fiction, was envisioned to be available within 5 years. It would be able to scan a substance and within minutes provide an answer. Clearly that remains the goal of detector programs, but unfortunately science is the limiting factor. There are technologies, such as fluorescence and luminescence that provide minimally acceptable results when utilizing a defined bio-air sample. Many of these systems are also expensive, limiting their utility. But when these FLAPS, BARTS, BAWS, BioLerts and other are challenged with dirty or non-aerosol samples, they begin to have problems. With the relatively high cost of test kits, the significant number of potential hoax or negative samples; the issue of usefulness versus performance versus cost has further complicated the environment. Consequently, the utilization of cost effective, simple screening systems is needed for on site use. The current trend is to determine cost effective approaches to triage samples prior to in depth analysis. Therefore, a pH test, protein strip and Bioluminescence screen can indicate threat/non-threat prior to in-depth analysis. Experiences from 2001/2002 indicate over 90% of the first responder events are hoax related. Adapting the paradigm, screening out negatives become a priority. Near Infra Red (NIR) has been utilized in chemical agent detection and has been recently utilized to identify powders, salts, sugars and numerous potential hoax samples. The system is a non-destructive screening method that can be integrated with other technologies as a front end triage system

  1. A direct and rapid method to determine cyanide in urine by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiyang; Maddukuri, Naveen; Gong, Maojun

    2015-10-02

    Cyanides are poisonous chemicals that widely exist in nature and industrial processes as well as accidental fires. Rapid and accurate determination of cyanide exposure would facilitate forensic investigation, medical diagnosis, and chronic cyanide monitoring. Here, a rapid and direct method was developed for the determination of cyanide ions in urinary samples. This technique was based on an integrated capillary electrophoresis system coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Cyanide ions were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and a primary amine (glycine) for LIF detection. Three separate reagents, NDA, glycine, and cyanide sample, were mixed online, which secured uniform conditions between samples for cyanide derivatization and reduced the risk of precipitation formation of mixtures. Conditions were optimized; the derivatization was completed in 2-4min, and the separation was observed in 25s. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0nM at 3-fold signal-to-noise ratio for standard cyanide in buffer. The cyanide levels in urine samples from smokers and non-smokers were determined by using the method of standard addition, which demonstrated significant difference of cyanide levels in urinary samples from the two groups of people. The developed method was rapid and accurate, and is anticipated to be applicable to cyanide detection in waste water with appropriate modification. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Rapid analysis of steels using laser-based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, D.A.; Archuleta, F.L.; Dilworth, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the data obtained by this study, we conclude that laser-based techniques can be used to provide at least semi-quantitative information about the elemental composition of molten steel. Of the two techniques investigated here, the Sample-Only method appears preferable to the LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) method because of its superior analytical performance. In addition, the Sample-Only method would probably be easier to incorporate into a steel plant environment. However, before either technique can be applied to steel monitoring, additional research is needed

  3. Rapid discrimination of bergamot essential oil by paper spray mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Domenico; Di Donna, Leonardo; Mazzotti, Fabio; Tagarelli, Antonio; Napoli, Anna; Furia, Emilia; Sindona, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    A novel approach for the rapid discrimination of bergamot essential oil from other citrus fruits oils is presented. The method was developed using paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) allowing for a rapid molecular profiling coupled with a statistic tool for a precise and reliable discrimination between the bergamot complex matrix and other similar matrices, commonly used for its reconstitution. Ambient mass spectrometry possesses the ability to record mass spectra of ordinary samples, in their native environment, without sample preparation or pre-separation by creating ions outside the instrument. The present study reports a PS-MS method for the determination of oxygen heterocyclic compounds such as furocoumarins, psoralens and flavonoids present in the non-volatile fraction of citrus fruits essential oils followed by chemometric analysis. The volatile fraction of Bergamot is one of the most known and fashionable natural products, which found applications in flavoring industry as ingredient in beverages and flavored foodstuff. The development of the presented method employed bergamot, sweet orange, orange, cedar, grapefruit and mandarin essential oils. PS-MS measurements were carried out in full scan mode for a total run time of 2 min. The capability of PS-MS profiling to act as marker for the classification of bergamot essential oils was evaluated by using multivariate statistical analysis. Two pattern recognition techniques, linear discriminant analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogy, were applied to MS data. The cross-validation procedure has shown excellent results in terms of the prediction ability because both models have correctly classified all samples for each category. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): reactor-accident assessment methods. Vol.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    As part of the continuing emphasis on emergency preparedness, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the development of a rapid dose assessment system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This system, the Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program for rapidly assessing the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. This document describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations. IRDAM calculates whole body (5-cm depth) and infant thyroid doses at six fixed downwind distances between 500 and 20,000 meters. Radionuclides considered primarily consist of noble gases and radioiodines. In order to provide a rapid assessment capability consistent with the capacity of the Osborne-1 computer, certain simplifying approximations and assumptions are made. These are described, along with default values (assumptions used in the absence of specific input) in the text of this document. Two companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. The user's Guide (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 1) describes the setup and operation of equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Scenarios for Comparing Dose Assessment Models (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 3) provides the results of calculations made by IRDAM and other models for specific accident scenarios

  5. Three rapid methods for determination 90Sr in milk samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasisiara, F.; Attarilar, N.; Afshar, N.

    2006-01-01

    Strontium radionuclide 90 Sr is one of the main long-lived components of the radioactive fallout which occurred as a result of previous atmospheric nuclear tests and also nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl accident. Due to chemical and biochemical similarities between strontium and calcium, more than 99% of strontium is efficiently incorporated into bone tissue and teeth and Characterized by along physical and biological half-life, it may cause damage to bone marrow. Since determination of this radionuclide often is a time consuming process, rapid determination methods specially in emergency situations is always desirable. In this work, three rapid methods for determination of this radionuclide in milk samples will be evaluated. All of the methods include two major steps: 1- strontium separation from fats and proteins which can be performed by drying (in case of the fresh milk samples), ashing and leaching by nitric acids or by using exchange or chelating resins which have strong affinity for alkaline earth cations such as Dowex 50W-X8. And 2- Separation of Sr-90 or its daughter product, Y-90. In two methods separation of 90 Sr is performed by extraction of the daughter nuclide, 90 Y, by aid of organic extracting agent, Tributylphosphate or T.B.P., and then Cherenkov counting of the Y-90 extracted. The third method is based on separation of this radionuclide using Crown Ether or Sr -Spec resin. The detailed radiochemical procedures and evaluation of each method advantages or disadvantages will explained in full text paper. (authors)

  6. Flows method in global analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Minh Duc.

    1994-12-01

    We study the gradient flows method for W r,p (M,N) where M and N are Riemannian manifold and r may be less than m/p. We localize some global analysis problem by constructing gradient flows which only change the value of any u in W r,p (M,N) in a local chart of M. (author). 24 refs

  7. A Microfluidic Channel Method for Rapid Drug-Susceptibility Testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The recent global increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and lack of development of new therapeutic agents emphasize the importance of selecting appropriate antimicrobials for the treatment of infections. However, to date, the development of completely accelerated drug susceptibility testing methods has not been achieved despite the availability of a rapid identification method. We proposed an innovative rapid method for drug susceptibility testing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa that provides results within 3 h. The drug susceptibility testing microfluidic (DSTM device was prepared using soft lithography. It consisted of five sets of four microfluidic channels sharing one inlet slot, and the four channels are gathered in a small area, permitting simultaneous microscopic observation. Antimicrobials were pre-introduced into each channel and dried before use. Bacterial suspensions in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth were introduced from the inlet slot and incubated for 3 h. Susceptibilities were microscopically evaluated on the basis of differences in cell numbers and shapes between drug-treated and control cells, using dedicated software. The results of 101 clinically isolated strains of P. aeruginosa obtained using the DSTM method strongly correlated with results obtained using the ordinary microbroth dilution method. Ciprofloxacin, meropenem, ceftazidime, and piperacillin caused elongation in susceptible cells, while meropenem also induced spheroplast and bulge formation. Morphological observation could alternatively be used to determine the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to these drugs, although amikacin had little effect on cell shape. The rapid determination of bacterial drug susceptibility using the DSTM method could also be applicable to other pathogenic species, and it could easily be introduced into clinical laboratories without the need for expensive instrumentation.

  8. Rapid instrumental and separation methods for monitoring radionuclides in food and environmental samples. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, I.S.; Shukla, V.K.; Singh, A.N.; Nair, C.K.G.; Hingorani, S.B.; Dey, N.N.; Jha, S.K.; Rao, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    When activity levels are low, the direct gamma counting of milk and water samples take very long time, initial concentration step increases the sensitivity. 131 I in aqueous samples can be concentrated by absorption on AgCI in acidic condition. In case of milk, initial treatment with TCA, separation of precipitated casin and stirring the acidified (dil. HNO 3 ) clear solution with about 500 mg AgCI gives all the 131 I (more than 95%) picked up by AgCI which can be counted in a well crystal gamma spectrometer. In case of water samples acidification and direct stirring with AgCI all 131 I gets absorbed on to AgCI. About half an hour stirring has been found sufficient to give reproducible result. The total time required will be about 3 hrs. In case of 137 Cs, the aqueous solution should be stirred with ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) after acidification with HNO 3 . After an hour of AMP settling time, decantation, filtration and centrifuging one can get the AMP ready for counting in a gamma spectrometer having a well type detector. The analysis can be completed within 2 hrs. AgCI concentration of 131 I and AMP concentration of 137 Cs reduces the counting time significantly. These methods have been used for sea water and milk samples analysis. Methods are being standardised for solvent extraction separation of Pu, Am and Cm from preconcentrated environmental samples and direct counting of organic extract by liquid scintillation counting. For Pu determination, solvent extraction by TTA, back extraction and reextraction to 5% D2EHPA and direct liquid scintillation counting of Pu-alphas is planned. This will reduce the time required for Pu analysis to a significant extent. After bringing the sample to solution, this separation step can be carried out within 1 1/2 to 2 hrs. With Instagel scintillator cocktail in the packard 1550 LSS, Pu-239 counting had 70% efficiency with 5.3 cpm background. Pu-239 estimated in a few sediment sample gave results by both LSS method and Si

  9. Identification of new biomarker of radiation exposure for establishing rapid, simplified biodosimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Daisuke; Kawai, Hidehiko; Kamiya, Kenji; Suzuki, Fumio; Izumi, Shunsuke

    2014-01-01

    Until now, counting chromosome aberration is the most accurate method for evaluating radiation doses. However, this method is time consuming and requires skills for evaluating chromosome aberrations. It could be difficult to apply this method to majority of people who are expected to be exposed to ionizing radiation. In this viewpoint, establishment of rapid, simplified biodosimetric methods for triage will be anticipated. Due to the development of mass spectrometry method and the identification of new molecules such as microRNA (miRNA), it is conceivable that new molecular biomarker of radiation exposure using some newly developed mass spectrometry. In this review article, the part of our results including the changes of protein (including the changes of glycosylation), peptide, metabolite, miRNA after radiation exposure will be shown. (author)

  10. Rapid Determination of Isomeric Benzoylpaeoniflorin and Benzoylalbiflorin in Rat Plasma by LC-MS/MS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzoylpaeoniflorin (BP is a potential therapeutic agent against oxidative stress related Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, a more rapid, selective, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS method was developed to determine BP in rat plasma distinguishing with a monoterpene isomer, benzoylalbiflorin (BA. The method showed a linear response from 1 to 1000 ng/mL (r>0.9950. The precision of the interday and intraday ranged from 2.03 to 12.48% and the accuracy values ranged from −8.00 to 10.33%. Each running of the method could be finished in 4 minutes. The LC-MS/MS method was validated for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, and stability and was found to be acceptable for bioanalytical application. Finally, this fully validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats following oral administration.

  11. Multifrequency Excitation Method for Rapid and Accurate Dynamic Test of Micromachined Gyroscope Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Deng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and 600-Hz bandwidth was dramatically reduced from 10 min to 6 s. A multifrequency signal with an equal amplitude and initial linear-phase-difference distribution was generated to ensure test repeatability and accuracy. The current test system based on LabVIEW using the SFE method was modified to use the MFE method without any hardware changes. The experimental results verified that the MFE method can be an ideal solution for large-scale dynamic testing of gyroscope chips and gyroscopes.

  12. Adjustment of a rapid method for quantification of Fusarium spp. spore suspensions in plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore-Gei, Pablo F; Valdez, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    The use of a Neubauer chamber is a broadly employed method when cell suspensions need to be quantified. However, this technique may take a long time and needs trained personnel. Spectrophotometry has proved to be a rapid, simple and accurate method to estimate the concentration of spore suspensions of isolates of the genus Fusarium. In this work we present a linear formula to relate absorbance measurements at 530nm with the number of microconidia/ml in a suspension. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. A simple and rapid method of purification of impure plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, K.M.; Rakshe, P.R.; Dharmpurikar, G.R.; Thite, B.S.; Lokhande, Manisha; Sinalkar, Nitin; Dakshinamoorthy, A.; Munshi, S.K.; Dey, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Impure plutonium oxides are conventionally purified by dissolution in HNO 3 in presence of HF followed by ion exchange separation and oxalate precipitation. The method is tedious and use of HF enhances corrosion of the plant equipment's. A simple and rapid method has been developed for the purification of the oxide by leaching with various reagents like DM water, NaOH and oxalic acid. A combination of DM water followed by hot leaching with 0.4 M oxalic acid could bring down the impurity levels in the oxide to the desired level required for fuel fabrication. (author)

  14. Rapid method for protein quantitation by Bradford assay after elimination of the interference of polysorbate 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongfeng; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    Bradford assay is one of the most common methods for measuring protein concentrations. However, some pharmaceutical excipients, such as detergents, interfere with Bradford assay even at low concentrations. Protein precipitation can be used to overcome sample incompatibility with protein quantitation. But the rate of protein recovery caused by acetone precipitation is only about 70%. In this study, we found that sucrose not only could increase the rate of protein recovery after 1 h acetone precipitation, but also did not interfere with Bradford assay. So we developed a method for rapid protein quantitation in protein drugs even if they contained interfering substances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A rapid method of reprocessing for electronic microscopy of cut histological in paraffin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Chavarri, F.; Vargas Montero, M.; Rivera, P.; Carranza, A.

    2000-01-01

    A simple and rapid method is described for re-processing of light microscopy paraffin sections to observe they under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) The paraffin-embedded tissue is sectioned and deparaffinized in toluene; then exposed to osmium vapor under microwave irradiation using a domestic microwave oven. The tissues were embedded in epoxy resin, polymerized and ultrathin sectioned. The method requires a relatively short time (about 30 minutes for TEM and 15 for SEM), and produces a reasonable quality of the ultrastructure for diagnostic purposes. (Author) [es

  16. A rapid method for the computation of equilibrium chemical composition of air to 15000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Ramadas K.; Erickson, Wayne D.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid computational method has been developed to determine the chemical composition of equilibrium air to 15000 K. Eleven chemically reacting species, i.e., O2, N2, O, NO, N, NO+, e-, N+, O+, Ar, and Ar+ are included. The method involves combining algebraically seven nonlinear equilibrium equations and four linear elemental mass balance and charge neutrality equations. Computational speeds for determining the equilibrium chemical composition are significantly faster than the often used free energy minimization procedure. Data are also included from which the thermodynamic properties of air can be computed. A listing of the computer program together with a set of sample results are included.

  17. Computational System For Rapid CFD Analysis In Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barson, Steven L.; Ascoli, Edward P.; Decroix, Michelle E.; Sindir, Munir M.

    1995-01-01

    Computational system comprising modular hardware and software sub-systems developed to accelerate and facilitate use of techniques of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in engineering environment. Addresses integration of all aspects of CFD analysis process, including definition of hardware surfaces, generation of computational grids, CFD flow solution, and postprocessing. Incorporates interfaces for integration of all hardware and software tools needed to perform complete CFD analysis. Includes tools for efficient definition of flow geometry, generation of computational grids, computation of flows on grids, and postprocessing of flow data. System accepts geometric input from any of three basic sources: computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided engineering (CAE), or definition by user.

  18. Development of a new, rapid and sensitive HPTLC method for estimation of Milnacipran in bulk, formulation and compatibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Singhvi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and rapid high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC method has been developed and validated for quantitative determination of Milnacipran Hydrochloride (MIL in bulk and formulations. The chromatographic development was carried out on HPTLC plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254 using a mixture of acetonitrile, water and ammonia (6:0.6:1.6 (v/v/v as mobile phase. Detection was carried out densitometrically at 220 nm. The Rf value of drug was found to be 0.63 ± 0.02. The method was validated as per ICH guideline with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness etc. The calibration curve was found to be linear over a range of 100–1000 ng μL−1 with a regression coefficient of 0.999. The accuracy was found to be very high (99.12–100.87%. %RSD values for intra-day and inter-day variation were not more than 1.43. The method has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. The method was applied for compatibility studies also. The method is new, simple and economic for routine estimation of MIL in bulk, preformulation studies and pharmaceutical formulation to help the industries as well as researchers for their sensitive determination of MIL rapidly at low cost in routine analysis.

  19. N-nitrosodimethylamine in drinking water using a rapid, solid-phase extraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, S W.D. [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch; Koester, C J [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch; Taguchi, V Y [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch; Wang, D T [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch; Palmentier, J P.F.P. [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch; Hong, K P [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch

    1995-12-01

    A simple, rapid method for the extraction of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from drinking and surface waters was developed using Ambersorb 572. Development of an alternative method to classical liquid-liquid extraction techniques was necessary to handle the workload presented by implementation of a provincial guideline of 9 ppt for drinking water and a regulatory level of 200 ppt for effluents. A granular absorbent, Ambersorb 572, was used to extract the NDMA from the water in the sample bottle. The NDMA was extracted from the Ambersorb 572 with dichloromethane in the autosampler vial. Method characteristics include a precision of 4% for replicate analyses, and accuracy of 6% at 10 ppt and a detection limit of 1.0 ppt NDMA in water. Comparative data between the Ambersorb 572 method and liquid-liquid extraction showed excellent agreement (average difference of 12%). With the Ambersorb 572 method, dichloromethane use has been reduced by a factor of 1,000 and productivity has been increased by a factor of 3-4. Monitoring of a drinking water supply showed rapidly changing concentrations of NDMA from day to day. (orig.)

  20. A rapid Salmonella detection method involving thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification and a lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin-Jun; Zhou, Tian-Jiao; Li, Ping; Wang, Shuo

    2017-08-01

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen that is widespread in the environment and can cause serious human and animal disease. Since conventional culture methods to detect Salmonella are time-consuming and laborious, rapid and accurate techniques to detect this pathogen are critically important for food safety and diagnosing foodborne illness. In this study, we developed a rapid, simple and portable Salmonella detection strategy that combines thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification (tHDA) with a lateral flow assay to provide a detection result based on visual signals within 90 min. Performance analyses indicated that the method had detection limits for DNA and pure cultured bacteria of 73.4-80.7 fg and 35-40 CFU, respectively. Specificity analyses showed no cross reactions with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes, Shigella and Campylobacter jejuni. The results for detection in real food samples showed that 1.3-1.9 CFU/g or 1.3-1.9 CFU/mL of Salmonella in contaminated chicken products and infant nutritional cereal could be detected after 2 h of enrichment. The same amount of Salmonella in contaminated milk could be detected after 4 h of enrichment. This tHDA-strip can be used for the rapid detection of Salmonella in food samples and is particularly suitable for use in areas with limited equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alu polymerase chain reaction: A method for rapid isolation of human-specific sequences from complex DNA sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.L.; Ledbetter, S.A.; Corbo, L.; Victoria, M.F.; Ramirez-Solis, R.; Webster, T.D.; Ledbetter, D.H.; Caskey, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Current efforts to map the human genome are focused on individual chromosomes or smaller regions and frequently rely on the use of somatic cell hybrids. The authors report the application of the polymerase chain reaction to direct amplification of human DNA from hybrid cells containing regions of the human genome in rodent cell backgrounds using primers directed to the human Alu repeat element. They demonstrate Alu-directed amplification of a fragment of the human HPRT gene from both hybrid cell and cloned DNA and identify through sequence analysis the Alu repeats involved in this amplification. They also demonstrate the application of this technique to identify the chromosomal locations of large fragments of the human X chromosome cloned in a yeast artificial chromosome and the general applicability of the method to the preparation of DNA probes from cloned human sequences. The technique allows rapid gene mapping and provides a simple method for the isolation and analysis of specific chromosomal regions

  2. The performance studies of DKDP crystals grown by a rapid horizontal growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Qi, Hongji; Wang, Bin; Wang, Hu; Chen, Duanyang; Shao, Jianda

    2018-04-01

    A deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal with about 70% deuterium level was grown by a rapid horizontal growth method with independent design equipment, which includes a continuous filtration system. The cooling program during crystal growth was designed according to a self-developed software to catch the size of growing crystal in real time. The crystal structure, optical performance and laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of this DKDP crystal were investigated in this paper. The deuterium concentration of the crystal was confirmed by the neutron diffraction technique, which was effective and available in determining a complete range of deuteration level. The dielectric property was measured to evaluate the perfection of the lattice. The transmittance and LIDT were carried out further to evaluate the optical and functional properties of this DKDP crystal grown in the rapid horizontal growth technique. All of the detailed characterization for DKDP figured out that the 70% deuterated KDP crystal grown in this way had relatively good qualities.

  3. P-CARES 2.0.0, Probabilistic Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: P-CARES 2.0.0 (Probabilistic Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures) was developed for NRC staff use to determine the validity and accuracy of the analysis methods used by various utilities for structural safety evaluations of nuclear power plants. P-CARES provides the capability to effectively evaluate the probabilistic seismic response using simplified soil and structural models and to quickly check the validity and/or accuracy of the SSI data received from applicants and licensees. The code is organized in a modular format with the basic modules of the system performing static, seismic, and nonlinear analysis. 2 - Methods: P-CARES is an update of the CARES program developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory during the 1980's. A major improvement is the enhanced analysis capability in which a probabilistic algorithm has been implemented to perform the probabilistic site response and soil-structure interaction (SSI) analyses. This is accomplished using several sampling techniques such as the Latin Hypercube sampling (LHC), engineering LHC, the Fekete Point Set method, and also the traditional Monte Carlo simulation. This new feature enhances the site response and SSI analysis such that the effect of uncertainty in local site soil properties can now be quantified. Another major addition to P-CARES is a graphical user interface (GUI) which significantly improves the performance of P-Cares in terms of the inter-relations among different functions of the program, and facilitates the input/output processing and execution management. It also provides many user friendly features that would allow an analyst to quickly develop insights from the analysis results. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: None noted

  4. A review of analysis methods about thermal buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, D.; Combescure, A.; Acker, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper highlights the main items emerging from a large bibliographical survey carried out on strain-induced buckling analysis methods applicable in the building of fast neutron reactor structures. The work is centred on the practical analysis methods used in construction codes to account for the strain-buckling of thin and slender structures. Methods proposed in the literature concerning past and present studies are rapidly described. Experimental, theoretical and numerical methods are considered. Methods applicable to design and their degree of validation are indicated

  5. Creep analysis by the path function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akin, J.E.; Pardue, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The finite element method has become a common analysis procedure for the creep analysis of structures. The most recent programs are designed to handle a general class of material properties and are able to calculate elastic, plastic, and creep components of strain under general loading histories. The constant stress approach is too crude a model to accurately represent the actual behaviour of the stress for large time steps. The true path of a point in the effective stress-effective strain (sigmasup(e)-epsilonsup(c)) plane is often one in which the slope is rapidly changing. Thus the stress level quickly moves away from the initial stress level and then gradually approaches the final one. The result is that the assumed constant stress level quickly becomes inaccurate. What is required is a better method of approximation of the true path in the sigmasup(e)-epsilonsup(c) space. The method described here is called the path function approach because it employs an assumed function to estimate the motion of points in the sigmasup(e)-epsilonsup(c) space. (Auth.)

  6. A rapid colorimetric screening method for vanillic acid and vanillin-producing bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzuri, N A; Abd-Aziz, S; Rahim, R A; Phang, L Y; Alitheen, N B; Maeda, T

    2014-04-01

    To isolate a bacterial strain capable of biotransforming ferulic acid, a major component of lignin, into vanillin and vanillic acid by a rapid colorimetric screening method. For the production of vanillin, a natural aroma compound, we attempted to isolate a potential strain using a simple screening method based on pH change resulting from the degradation of ferulic acid. The strain Pseudomonas sp. AZ10 UPM exhibited a significant result because of colour changes observed on the assay plate on day 1 with a high intensity of yellow colour. The biotransformation of ferulic acid into vanillic acid by the AZ10 strain provided the yield (Yp/s ) and productivity (Pr ) of 1·08 mg mg(-1) and 53·1 mg L(-1) h(-1) , respectively. In fact, new investigations regarding lignin degradation revealed that the strain was not able to produce vanillin and vanillic acid directly from lignin; however, partially digested lignin by mixed enzymatic treatment allowed the strain to produce 30·7 mg l(-1) and 1·94 mg l(-1) of vanillic acid and biovanillin, respectively. (i) The rapid colorimetric screening method allowed the isolation of a biovanillin producer using ferulic acid as the sole carbon source. (ii) Enzymatic treatment partially digested lignin, which could then be utilized by the strain to produce biovanillin and vanillic acid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the use of a rapid colorimetric screening method for bacterial strains producing vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. [Accuracy of three methods for the rapid diagnosis of oral candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, X; Zhao, C; Yan, Z M; Hua, H

    2016-10-09

    Objective: To explore a simple, rapid and efficient method for the diagnosis of oral candidiasis in clinical practice. Methods: Totally 124 consecutive patients with suspected oral candidiasis were enrolled from Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China. Exfoliated cells of oral mucosa and saliva or concentrated oral rinse) obtained from all participants were tested by three rapid smear methods(10% KOH smear, gram-stained smear, Congo red stained smear). The diagnostic efficacy(sensitivity, specificity, Youden's index, likelihood ratio, consistency, predictive value and area under curve(AUC) of each of the above mentioned three methods was assessed by comparing the results with the gold standard(combination of clinical diagnosis, laboratory diagnosis and expert opinion). Results: Gram-stained smear of saliva(or concentrated oral rinse) demonstrated highest sensitivity(82.3%). Test of 10%KOH smear of exfoliated cells showed highest specificity(93.5%). Congo red stained smear of saliva(or concentrated oral rinse) displayed highest diagnostic efficacy(79.0% sensitivity, 80.6% specificity, 0.60 Youden's index, 4.08 positive likelihood ratio, 0.26 negative likelihood ratio, 80% consistency, 80.3% positive predictive value, 79.4% negative predictive value and 0.80 AUC). Conclusions: Test of Congo red stained smear of saliva(or concentrated oral rinse) could be used as a point-of-care tool for the rapid diagnosis of oral candidiasis in clinical practice. Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-DDD-16008118.

  8. Comparing models of rapidly rotating relativistic stars constructed by two numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Friedman, John L.

    1995-05-01

    We present the first direct comparison of codes based on two different numerical methods for constructing rapidly rotating relativistic stars. A code based on the Komatsu-Eriguchi-Hachisu (KEH) method (Komatsu et al. 1989), written by Stergioulas, is compared to the Butterworth-Ipser code (BI), as modified by Friedman, Ipser, & Parker. We compare models obtained by each method and evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the two codes. The agreement is surprisingly good, and error bars in the published numbers for maximum frequencies based on BI are dominated not by the code inaccuracy but by the number of models used to approximate a continuous sequence of stars. The BI code is faster per iteration, and it converges more rapidly at low density, while KEH converges more rapidly at high density; KEH also converges in regions where BI does not, allowing one to compute some models unstable against collapse that are inaccessible to the BI code. A relatively large discrepancy recently reported (Eriguchi et al. 1994) for models based on Friedman-Pandharipande equation of state is found to arise from the use of two different versions of the equation of state. For two representative equations of state, the two-dimensional space of equilibrium configurations is displayed as a surface in a three-dimensional space of angular momentum, mass, and central density. We find, for a given equation of state, that equilibrium models with maximum values of mass, baryon mass, and angular momentum are (generically) either all unstable to collapse or are all stable. In the first case, the stable model with maximum angular velocity is also the model with maximum mass, baryon mass, and angular momentum. In the second case, the stable models with maximum values of these quantities are all distinct. Our implementation of the KEH method will be available as a public domain program for interested users.

  9. A two-step method for rapid characterization of electroosmotic flows in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; He, Muyi; Yuan, Tao; Xu, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The measurement of electroosmotic flow (EOF) is important in a capillary electrophoresis (CE) experiment in terms of performance optimization and stability improvement. Although several methods exist, there are demanding needs to accurately characterize ultra-low electroosmotic flow rates (EOF rates), such as in coated capillaries used in protein separations. In this work, a new method, called the two-step method, was developed to accurately and rapidly measure EOF rates in a capillary, especially for measuring the ultra-low EOF rates in coated capillaries. In this two-step method, the EOF rates were calculated by measuring the migration time difference of a neutral marker in two consecutive experiments, in which a pressure driven was introduced to accelerate the migration and the DC voltage was reversed to switch the EOF direction. Uncoated capillaries were first characterized by both this two-step method and a conventional method to confirm the validity of this new method. Then this new method was applied in the study of coated capillaries. Results show that this new method is not only fast in speed, but also better in accuracy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Data Analysis Methods for Paleogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    (Danmarks Grundforskningfond) 'Centre of Excellence in GeoGenetics' grant, with additional funding provided by the Danish Council for Independent Research 'Sapere Aude' programme. The thesis comprises five chapters, all of which represent different projects that involved the analysis of massive amounts......, thanks to the introduction of NGS and the implementation of data analysis methods specific for each project. Chapters 1 to 3 have been published in peer-reviewed journals and Chapter 4 is currently in review. Chapter 5 consists of a manuscript describing initial results of an ongoing research project......The work presented in this thesis is the result of research carried out during a three-year PhD at the Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, under supervision of Professor Tom Gilbert. The PhD was funded by the Danish National Research Foundation...

  11. A New Boron Analysis Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitman, J; Daaverhoeg, N; Farvolden, S

    1970-07-01

    In connection with fast neutron (n, {alpha}) cross section measurements a novel boron analysis method has been developed. The boron concentration is inferred from the mass spectrometrically determined number of helium atoms produced in the thermal and epithermal B-10 (n, {alpha}) reaction. The relation between helium amount and boron concentration is given, including corrections for self shielding effects and background levels. Direct and diffusion losses of helium are calculated and losses due to gettering, adsorption and HF-ionization in the release stage are discussed. A series of boron determinations is described and the results are compared with those obtained by other methods, showing excellent agreement. The lower limit of boron concentration which can be measured varies with type of sample. In e.g. steel, concentrations below 10-5 % boron in samples of 0.1-1 gram may be determined.

  12. A semi-automated method for rapid detection of ripple events on interictal voltage discharges in the scalp electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Catherine J; Chan, Arthur; Song, Dan; Staley, Kevin J; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Kramer, Mark A

    2017-02-01

    High frequency oscillations are emerging as a clinically important indicator of epileptic networks. However, manual detection of these high frequency oscillations is difficult, time consuming, and subjective, especially in the scalp EEG, thus hindering further clinical exploration and application. Semi-automated detection methods augment manual detection by reducing inspection to a subset of time intervals. We propose a new method to detect high frequency oscillations that co-occur with interictal epileptiform discharges. The new method proceeds in two steps. The first step identifies candidate time intervals during which high frequency activity is increased. The second step computes a set of seven features for each candidate interval. These features require that the candidate event contain a high frequency oscillation approximately sinusoidal in shape, with at least three cycles, that co-occurs with a large amplitude discharge. Candidate events that satisfy these features are stored for validation through visual analysis. We evaluate the detector performance in simulation and on ten examples of scalp EEG data, and show that the proposed method successfully detects spike-ripple events, with high positive predictive value, low false positive rate, and high intra-rater reliability. The proposed method is less sensitive than the existing method of visual inspection, but much faster and much more reliable. Accurate and rapid detection of high frequency activity increases the clinical viability of this rhythmic biomarker of epilepsy. The proposed spike-ripple detector rapidly identifies candidate spike-ripple events, thus making clinical analysis of prolonged, multielectrode scalp EEG recordings tractable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hierarchically rough, mechanically durable and superhydrophobic epoxy coatings through rapid evaporation spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simovich, Tomer; Wu, Alex H.; Lamb, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    A mechanically durable and scalable superhydrophobic coating was fabricated by combining the advantages of both bottom-up and top-down approaches into a one-pot, one-step application method. This is achieved by spray coating a solution consisting of silica nanoparticles, which are embedded within epoxy resin, onto a heated substrate to rapidly drive both solvent evaporation and curing simultaneously. By maintaining a high substrate temperature, the arrival of spray-delivered micrometer-sized droplets are rapidly cured onto the substrate to form surface microroughness, while simultaneously, rapid solvent evaporation within each droplet results in the formation of a nanoporous structure. SEM, dual-beam FIB, and cross-sectional TEM/EDAX elemental mapping were used to confirm both the chemistry and the requisite micro- and nano-porosity within the coating structure requisite for superhydrophobicity. The resultant coatings exhibit contact angles greater than 150° (153.8° ± 0.8°) and roll-off angles of 8° ± 2°, with a coating hardness of 6H on the pencil hardness scale, and a rating of 5 on an ASTM crosshatch test. - Highlights: • A highly superhydrophobic coating was fabricated utilizing epoxy and nanoparticles. • The coating was demonstrated to be very durable and abrasion resistant. • The fabrication involves a novel, scalable one-pot synthesis technique

  14. Hierarchically rough, mechanically durable and superhydrophobic epoxy coatings through rapid evaporation spray method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simovich, Tomer; Wu, Alex H.; Lamb, Robert N., E-mail: rnlamb@unimelb.edu.au

    2015-08-31

    A mechanically durable and scalable superhydrophobic coating was fabricated by combining the advantages of both bottom-up and top-down approaches into a one-pot, one-step application method. This is achieved by spray coating a solution consisting of silica nanoparticles, which are embedded within epoxy resin, onto a heated substrate to rapidly drive both solvent evaporation and curing simultaneously. By maintaining a high substrate temperature, the arrival of spray-delivered micrometer-sized droplets are rapidly cured onto the substrate to form surface microroughness, while simultaneously, rapid solvent evaporation within each droplet results in the formation of a nanoporous structure. SEM, dual-beam FIB, and cross-sectional TEM/EDAX elemental mapping were used to confirm both the chemistry and the requisite micro- and nano-porosity within the coating structure requisite for superhydrophobicity. The resultant coatings exhibit contact angles greater than 150° (153.8° ± 0.8°) and roll-off angles of 8° ± 2°, with a coating hardness of 6H on the pencil hardness scale, and a rating of 5 on an ASTM crosshatch test. - Highlights: • A highly superhydrophobic coating was fabricated utilizing epoxy and nanoparticles. • The coating was demonstrated to be very durable and abrasion resistant. • The fabrication involves a novel, scalable one-pot synthesis technique.

  15. Pressure-jump induced rapid solidification of melt: a method of preparing amorphous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuru; Jia, Ru; Zhang, Doudou; Yuan, Chaosheng; Shao, Chunguang; Hong, Shiming

    2018-04-01

    By using a self-designed pressure-jump apparatus, we investigated the melt solidification behavior in rapid compression process for several kinds of materials, such as elementary sulfur, polymer polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and poly-ethylene-terephthalate, alloy La68Al10Cu20Co2 and Nd60Cu20Ni10Al10. Experimental results clearly show that their melts could be solidified to be amorphous states through the rapid compression process. Bulk amorphous PEEK with 24 mm in diameter and 12 mm in height was prepared, which exceeds the size obtained by melt quenching method. The bulk amorphous sulfur thus obtained exhibited extraordinarily high thermal stability, and an abnormal exothermic transition to liquid sulfur was observed at around 396 K for the first time. Furthermore, it is suggested that the glass transition pressure and critical compression rate exist to form the amorphous phase. This approach of rapid compression is very attractive not only because it is a new technique of make bulk amorphous materials, but also because novel properties are expected in the amorphous materials solidified by the pressure-jump within milliseconds or microseconds.

  16. Rapid analysis of the skin irritant p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in henna products using atmospheric solids analysis probe mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyang; Nkosi, Thobile A N; Combrinck, Sandra; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Cartwright-Jones, Catherine

    2016-09-05

    Henna (Lawsonia inermis) is applied to stain keratin, present in hair, skin and fingernails, a red-orange or rust colour. Producers of temporary tattoos mix the aromatic amine compound, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) into natural henna to create 'black henna' that rapidly stains the skin black. However, PPD may cause severe delayed hypersensitivity reactions following skin contact. This study proposes a rapid direct-analysis method to detect and identify PPD using an atmospheric solids analysis probe (ASAP) coupled to a Q-ToF mass spectrometer (MS). Since laborious, multistep methods of analysis to determine PPD are undesirable, due to the instability of the compound in solution, a screening method involving no sample preparation steps was developed. Experiments were carried out to optimise the corona current, sample cone voltage, source temperature, and desolvation gas temperature to determine ideal ASAP-Q-ToF-MS analysing conditions. Eleven of the 109 henna samples, originating from various countries, tested positive for PPD when henna products were screened using ASAP-MS, without any form of sample preparation other than grinding. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-ToF-MS) was subsequently used to confirm the results from ASAP and to determine the concentrations of PPD in henna products. The allergen was detected in the same eleven samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.05-4.21% (w/w). It can be concluded that the sensitivity of the ASAP-MS technique is sufficient (limit of detection=0.025% w/w) to allow screening of henna samples for the presence of PPD. This relatively new technique can be applied to commercial products without extraction, sample treatment or chromatographic separation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A rapid and sensitive method for measuring N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mauri

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive method to quantitatively assess N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG activity in cultured cells is highly desirable for both basic research and clinical studies. NAG activity is deficient in cells from patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB due to mutations in NAGLU, the gene that encodes NAG. Currently available techniques for measuring NAG activity in patient-derived cell lines include chromogenic and fluorogenic assays and provide a biochemical method for the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. However, standard protocols require large amounts of cells, cell disruption by sonication or freeze-thawing, and normalization to the cellular protein content, resulting in an error-prone procedure that is material- and time-consuming and that produces highly variable results. Here we report a new procedure for measuring NAG activity in cultured cells. This procedure is based on the use of the fluorogenic NAG substrate, 4-Methylumbelliferyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, in a one-step cell assay that does not require cell disruption or post-assay normalization and that employs a low number of cells in 96-well plate format. We show that the NAG one-step cell assay greatly discriminates between wild-type and MPS IIIB patient-derived fibroblasts, thus providing a rapid method for the detection of deficiencies in NAG activity. We also show that the assay is sensitive to changes in NAG activity due to increases in NAGLU expression achieved by either overexpressing the transcription factor EB (TFEB, a master regulator of lysosomal function, or by inducing TFEB activation chemically. Because of its small format, rapidity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the NAG one-step cell assay is suitable for multiple procedures, including the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries to identify modulators of NAG expression, folding and activity, and the investigation of candidate molecules and constructs for applications in

  18. A Rapid and Cost-Effective Method for DNA Extraction from Archival Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitsina, A A; Sizova, T V; Zaika, M A; Speranskaya, A S; Sukhorukov, A P

    2015-11-01

    Here we report a rapid and cost-effective method for the extraction of total DNA from herbarium specimens up to 50-90-year-old. The method takes about 2 h, uses AMPure XP magnetic beads diluted by PEG-8000- containing buffer, and does not require use of traditional volatile components like chloroform, phenol, and liquid nitrogen. It yields up to 4 µg of total nucleic acid with high purity from about 30 mg of dry material. The quality of the extracted DNA was tested by PCR amplification of 5S rRNA and rbcL genes (nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers) and compared against the traditional chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. Our results demonstrate that the use of the magnetic beads is crucial for extraction of DNA suitable for subsequent PCR from herbarium samples due to the decreasing inhibitor concentrations, reducing short fragments of degraded DNA, and increasing median DNA fragment sizes.

  19. Validation and application of an improved method for the rapid determination of proline in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienth, Markus; Romieu, Charles; Gregan, Rebecca; Walsh, Caroline; Torregrosa, Laurent; Kelly, Mary T

    2014-04-16

    A rapid and sensitive method is presented for the determination of proline in grape berries. Following acidification with formic acid, proline is derivatized by heating at 100 °C for 15 min with 3% ninhydrin in dimethyl sulfoxide, and the absorbance, which is stable for at least 60 min, is read at 520 nm. The method was statistically validated in the concentration range from 2.5 to 15 mg/L, giving a repeatability and intermediate precision of generally amino acid analyzer. In terms of sample preparation, a simple dilution (5-20-fold) is required, and sugars, primary amino acids, and anthocyanins were demonstrated not to interfere, as the latter are bleached by ninhydrin under the experimental conditions. The method was applied to the study of proline accumulation in the fruits of microvines grown in phytotrons, and it was established that proline accumulation and concentrations closely resemble those of field-grown macrovines.

  20. Rapid synthesis of single-phase bismuth ferrite by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Wenqian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Chen, Zhi, E-mail: zchen0@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Gao, Tong; Zhou, Dantong; Leng, Xiaonan; Niu, Feng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhu, Yuxiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Chemistry, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin (China); Qin, Laishun, E-mail: qinlaishun@yeah.net [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Jiangying; Huang, Yuexiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes on the fast synthesis of bismuth ferrite by the simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The phase transformation and the preferred growth facets during the synthetic process have been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Bismuth ferrite can be quickly prepared by microwave hydrothermal method by simply controlling the reaction time, which is further confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and magnetic measurement. - Graphical abstract: Single-phase BiFeO{sub 3} could be realized at a shortest reaction time of 65 min. The reaction time has strong influences on the phase transformation and the preferred growth facets. - Highlights: • Rapid synthesis (65 min) of BiFeO{sub 3} by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • Reaction time has influence on the purity and preferred growth facets. • FTIR and magnetic measurement further confirm the pure phase.

  1. Rapid bioassay method for estimation of 90Sr in urine samples by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wankhede, Sonal; Chaudhary, Seema; Sawant, Pramilla D.

    2018-01-01

    Radiostrontium (Sr) is a by-product of the nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium in nuclear reactors and is an important radionuclide in spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. Rapid bioassay methods are required for estimating Sr in urine following internal contamination. Decision regarding medical intervention, if any can be based upon the results of urinalysis. The present method used at Bioassay Laboratory, Trombay is by Solid Extraction Chromatography (SEC) technique. The Sr separated from urine sample is precipitated as SrCO 3 and analyzed gravimetrically. However, gravimetric procedure is time consuming and therefore, in the present study, feasibility of Liquid Scintillation Counting for direct detection of radiostrontium in effluent was explored. The results obtained in the present study were compared with those obtained using gravimetric method

  2. Rapid synthesis of single-phase bismuth ferrite by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wenqian; Chen, Zhi; Gao, Tong; Zhou, Dantong; Leng, Xiaonan; Niu, Feng; Zhu, Yuxiang; Qin, Laishun; Wang, Jiangying; Huang, Yuexiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes on the fast synthesis of bismuth ferrite by the simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The phase transformation and the preferred growth facets during the synthetic process have been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Bismuth ferrite can be quickly prepared by microwave hydrothermal method by simply controlling the reaction time, which is further confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and magnetic measurement. - Graphical abstract: Single-phase BiFeO_3 could be realized at a shortest reaction time of 65 min. The reaction time has strong influences on the phase transformation and the preferred growth facets. - Highlights: • Rapid synthesis (65 min) of BiFeO_3 by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • Reaction time has influence on the purity and preferred growth facets. • FTIR and magnetic measurement further confirm the pure phase.

  3. Rapid determination method of radiocesium in sea water by cesium-selective resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, A.; Yokoyama, H.; Fukushima, M.; Takagi, S.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid and precise method of determining radiocesium corresponding to 5 mrem/y (the Japan AEC's guideline) was proposed. The development and practical performance of cesium-selective resin and the determination method are described in this paper. The resin was prepared by the formation of ammonium molybdophosphate in the structure of Amberlite XAD-7 resin. It took only 3 hours to carry out all the procedures the authors proposed. This value represents 1/10 to 1/2 of the time of the conventional method. The concentration of 137 Cs and 134 Cs in sea water was determined to be 0.13 to 0.16 pCi/l and less than 7.1x10 -2 pCi/l, respectively. (author)

  4. Rapid detection of human fecal Eubacterium species and related genera by nested PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, A; Benno, Y

    2001-01-01

    PCR procedures based on 16S rDNA gene sequence specific for seven Eubacterium spp. and Eggerthella lenta that predominate in the human intestinal tract were developed, and used for direct detection of these species in seven human feces samples. Three species of Eggerthella lenta, Eubacterium rectale, and Eubacterium eligens were detected from seven fecal samples. Eubacterium biforme was detected from six samples. It was reported that E. rectale, E. eligens, and E. biforme were difficult to detect by traditional culture method, but the nested PCR method is available for the detection of these species. This result shows that the nested PCR method utilizing a universal primer pair, followed by amplification with species-specific primers, would allow rapid detection of Eubacterium species in human feces.

  5. Comparison of Enzymatic Method Rapid Yeast Plus System with RFLP-PCR for Identification of Isolated Yeast from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein, Moallaei; Mirhendi, Seied Hossein; Brandão, João; Mirdashti, Reza; Rosado, Laura

    2011-09-01

    To compare two identification methods, i.e., restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR analysis and enzymatic method Rapid TM Yeast Plus System to identify different species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Vaginal discharges of women who had attended the gynecology outpatient clinic of Mobini Hospital in Sabzevar, Iran were collected using cotton swabs and were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Isolated yeasts were identified by germ-tube testing and Rapid TM Yeast Plus System (Remel USA). For molecular identification, the isolated DNA was amplified with ITS1 and ITS4 universal primers and PCR products digested with the enzyme HpaІІ followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Epidemiological and clinical features of women with respect to identified species were also evaluated. Out of 231 subjects enrolled, 62 VVC cases were detected. The isolated species were identified as follows: Candida albicans, 24 (38.7%), C. glabrata, 15 (24.2%), C. kefyr, 13 (21.0%) C. krusei, 9 (14.5%), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 1 (1.6%) by RFLP-PCR method; whereas findings by Rapid TM Yeast Plus System were C. albicans, 24 (38.7%), C. glabrata, 5 (8%), C. kefyr, 11 (17.7%) C. krusei, 2 (3.2%), S. cerevisiae, 9 (14.5%), and C. tropicalis, 6 (9.6%) as well as other nonpathogenic yeasts, 4 (6.9%). Statistical comparison showed that there is no significant difference in identification of C. albicans by the two methods; although, in this study, it was not true about other species of yeasts. A correlation between clinical and laboratory findings is important as it enables us to administer an appropriate treatment on time.

  6. A method to provide rapid in situ determination of tip radius in dynamic atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Sergio; Guang Li; Souier, Tewfik; Gadelrab, Karim; Chiesa, Matteo; Thomson, Neil H.

    2012-01-01

    We provide a method to characterize the tip radius of an atomic force microscopy in situ by monitoring the dynamics of the cantilever in ambient conditions. The key concept is that the value of free amplitude for which transitions from the attractive to repulsive force regimes are observed, strongly depends on the curvature of the tip. In practice, the smaller the value of free amplitude required to observe a transition, the sharper the tip. This general behavior is remarkably independent of the properties of the sample and cantilever characteristics and shows the strong dependence of the transitions on the tip radius. The main advantage of this method is rapid in situ characterization. Rapid in situ characterization enables one to continuously monitor the tip size during experiments. Further, we show how to reproducibly shape the tip from a given initial size to any chosen larger size. This approach combined with the in situ tip size monitoring enables quantitative comparison of materials measurements between samples. These methods are set to allow quantitative data acquisition and make direct data comparison readily available in the community.

  7. An evaluation of rapid methods for monitoring vegetation characteristics of wetland bird habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernia, Brian G.; Lyons, James E.; Loges, Brian W.; Wilson, Andrew; Collazo, Jaime A.; Runge, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland managers benefit from monitoring data of sufficient precision and accuracy to assess wildlife habitat conditions and to evaluate and learn from past management decisions. For large-scale monitoring programs focused on waterbirds (waterfowl, wading birds, secretive marsh birds, and shorebirds), precision and accuracy of habitat measurements must be balanced with fiscal and logistic constraints. We evaluated a set of protocols for rapid, visual estimates of key waterbird habitat characteristics made from the wetland perimeter against estimates from (1) plots sampled within wetlands, and (2) cover maps made from aerial photographs. Estimated percent cover of annuals and perennials using a perimeter-based protocol fell within 10 percent of plot-based estimates, and percent cover estimates for seven vegetation height classes were within 20 % of plot-based estimates. Perimeter-based estimates of total emergent vegetation cover did not differ significantly from cover map estimates. Post-hoc analyses revealed evidence for observer effects in estimates of annual and perennial covers and vegetation height. Median time required to complete perimeter-based methods was less than 7 percent of the time needed for intensive plot-based methods. Our results show that rapid, perimeter-based assessments, which increase sample size and efficiency, provide vegetation estimates comparable to more intensive methods.

  8. Rapid expansion method (REM) for time‐stepping in reverse time migration (RTM)

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.

    2009-01-01

    We show that the wave equation solution using a conventional finite‐difference scheme, derived commonly by the Taylor series approach, can be derived directly from the rapid expansion method (REM). After some mathematical manipulation we consider an analytical approximation for the Bessel function where we assume that the time step is sufficiently small. From this derivation we find that if we consider only the first two Chebyshev polynomials terms in the rapid expansion method we can obtain the second order time finite‐difference scheme that is frequently used in more conventional finite‐difference implementations. We then show that if we use more terms from the REM we can obtain a more accurate time integration of the wave field. Consequently, we have demonstrated that the REM is more accurate than the usual finite‐difference schemes and it provides a wave equation solution which allows us to march in large time steps without numerical dispersion and is numerically stable. We illustrate the method with post and pre stack migration results.

  9. A Method to Represent Heterogeneous Materials for Rapid Prototyping: The Matryoshka Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shuangyan; Frank, Matthew C; Anderson, Donald D; Brown, Thomas D

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for representing heterogeneous materials using nested STL shells, based, in particular, on the density distributions of human bones. Nested STL shells, called Matryoshka models, are described, based on their namesake Russian nesting dolls. In this approach, polygonal models, such as STL shells, are "stacked" inside one another to represent different material regions. The Matryoshka model addresses the challenge of representing different densities and different types of bone when reverse engineering from medical images. The Matryoshka model is generated via an iterative process of thresholding the Hounsfield Unit (HU) data using computed tomography (CT), thereby delineating regions of progressively increasing bone density. These nested shells can represent regions starting with the medullary (bone marrow) canal, up through and including the outer surface of the bone. The Matryoshka approach introduced can be used to generate accurate models of heterogeneous materials in an automated fashion, avoiding the challenge of hand-creating an assembly model for input to multi-material additive or subtractive manufacturing. This paper presents a new method for describing heterogeneous materials: in this case, the density distribution in a human bone. The authors show how the Matryoshka model can be used to plan harvesting locations for creating custom rapid allograft bone implants from donor bone. An implementation of a proposed harvesting method is demonstrated, followed by a case study using subtractive rapid prototyping to harvest a bone implant from a human tibia surrogate.

  10. A method for the rapid generation of nonsequential light-response curves of chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serôdio, João; Ezequiel, João; Frommlet, Jörg; Laviale, Martin; Lavaud, Johann

    2013-11-01

    Light-response curves (LCs) of chlorophyll fluorescence are widely used in plant physiology. Most commonly, LCs are generated sequentially, exposing the same sample to a sequence of distinct actinic light intensities. These measurements are not independent, as the response to each new light level is affected by the light exposure history experienced during previous steps of the LC, an issue particularly relevant in the case of the popular rapid light curves. In this work, we demonstrate the proof of concept of a new method for the rapid generation of LCs from nonsequential, temporally independent fluorescence measurements. The method is based on the combined use of sample illumination with digitally controlled, spatially separated beams of actinic light and a fluorescence imaging system. It allows the generation of a whole LC, including a large number of actinic light steps and adequate replication, within the time required for a single measurement (and therefore named "single-pulse light curve"). This method is illustrated for the generation of LCs of photosystem II quantum yield, relative electron transport rate, and nonphotochemical quenching on intact plant leaves exhibiting distinct light responses. This approach makes it also possible to easily characterize the integrated dynamic light response of a sample by combining the measurement of LCs (actinic light intensity is varied while measuring time is fixed) with induction/relaxation kinetics (actinic light intensity is fixed and the response is followed over time), describing both how the response to light varies with time and how the response kinetics varies with light intensity.

  11. A method of rapidly evaluating image quality of NED optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Qiu, Chuankai; Yang, Huan

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, with the development of technology of micro-display, advanced optics and the software and hardware, near-to-eye display ( NED) optical system will have a wide range of potential applications in the fields of amusement and virtual reality. However, research on the evaluating image quality of this kind optical system is comparatively lagging behind. Although now there are some methods and equipment for evaluation, they can't be applied in commercial production because of their complex operation and inaccuracy. In this paper, an academic method is proposed and a Rapid Evaluation System (RES) is designed to evaluate the image of optical system rapidly and exactly. Firstly, a set of parameters that eyes are sensitive to and also express the quality of system should be extracted and quantized to be criterion, so the evaluation standards can be established. Then, some parameters can be detected by RES consisted of micro-display, CCD camera and computer and so on. By process of scaling, the measuring results of the RES are exact and creditable, relationship between object measurement, subjective evaluation and the RES will be established. After that, image quality of optical system can be evaluated just by detecting parameters of that. The RES is simple and the results of evaluation are exact and keeping with human vision. So the method can be used not only for optimizing design of optical system, but also for evaluation in commercial production.

  12. A rapid method for measuring soil water content in the field with a areometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calbo Adonai Gimenez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of a rapid method to evaluate the soil water content (U can be an important tool to determine the moment to irrigate. The soil areometer consists of an elongated hydrostatic balance with a weighing pan, a graduated neck, a float and a pynometric flask. In this work an areometer was adapted to rapidly measure soil water content without the need of drying the soil. The expression U = (M A - M AD/(M M -M A was used to calculate the soil water content. In this equation M M is the mass to level the areometer with the pycnometric flask filled with water, M A the mass to level the areometer with a mass M M of soil in the pycnometer, the volume being completed with water, and similarly M AD the mass added to the pan to level the areometer with a mass M M of dried soil in the pycnometric flask. The convenience of this method is that the values M M and M AD are known. Consequently, the decision on irrigation can be made after a measurement that takes, about, ten minutes. The procedure involves only stirring the soil with water for at least 2 minutes to remove the adhered air. The soil water content data obtained with the areometric method were similar to those obtained weighing the soil before and after drying to constant weight, in an oven at 105º C.

  13. ADVANCED AND RAPID DEVELOPMENT OF DYNAMIC ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Villazón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-level bytecode instrumentation techniques are widely used in many software-engineering tools for the Java Virtual Machine (JVM, that perform some form of dynamic program analysis, such as profilers or debuggers. While program manipulation at the bytecode level is very flexible, because the possible bytecode transformations are not restricted, tool development based on this technique is tedious and error-prone. As a promising alternative, the specification of bytecode instrumentation at a higher level using aspect-oriented programming (AOP can reduce tool development time and cost. Unfortunately, prevailing AOP frameworks lack some features that are essential for certain dynamic analyses. In this article, we focus on three common shortcomings in AOP frameworks with respect to the development of aspect-based tools - (1 the lack of mechanisms for passing data between woven advices in local variables, (2 the support for user-defined static analyses at weaving time, and (3 the absence of pointcuts at the level of individual basic blocks of code. We propose @J, an annotation-based AOP language and weaver that integrates support for these three features. The benefits of the proposed features are illustrated with concrete examples.

  14. Automated Tracking of Cell Migration with Rapid Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuChez, Brian J

    2017-09-01

    Cell migration is essential for many biological processes including development, wound healing, and metastasis. However, studying cell migration often requires the time-consuming and labor-intensive task of manually tracking cells. To accelerate the task of obtaining coordinate positions of migrating cells, we have developed a graphical user interface (GUI) capable of automating the tracking of fluorescently labeled nuclei. This GUI provides an intuitive user interface that makes automated tracking accessible to researchers with no image-processing experience or familiarity with particle-tracking approaches. Using this GUI, users can interactively determine a minimum of four parameters to identify fluorescently labeled cells and automate acquisition of cell trajectories. Additional features allow for batch processing of numerous time-lapse images, curation of unwanted tracks, and subsequent statistical analysis of tracked cells. Statistical outputs allow users to evaluate migratory phenotypes, including cell speed, distance, displacement, and persistence, as well as measures of directional movement, such as forward migration index (FMI) and angular displacement. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. A rapid method for the determination on fluoride in geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, M.; Cook, E.B.T.; Dixon, K.

    1977-01-01

    An account is given of a rapid procedure for the determination by use of the specific-ion electrode of fluoride in geological samples. The sample is fused with sodium hydroxide in a nickel crucible in a muffle furnace. The melt is leached with water, a buffer solution of ammonium citrate is added, and the fluoride activity is measured with a specific-ion electrode. All operations are carried out in the crucible, making possible approximately 100 determinations a day. The precision of the method is approximately 10 per cent at a fluoride concentration of 500 p.p.m., which is acceptable for geological-survey work [af

  16. Justification of the averaging method for parabolic equations containing rapidly oscillating terms with large amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenshtam, V B

    2006-01-01

    We justify the averaging method for abstract parabolic equations with stationary principal part that contain non-linearities (subordinate to the principal part) some of whose terms are rapidly oscillating in time with zero mean and are proportional to the square root of the frequency of oscillation. Our interest in the exponent 1/2 is motivated by the fact that terms proportional to lower powers of the frequency have no influence on the average. For linear equations of the same type, we justify an algorithm for the study of the stability of solutions in the case when the stationary averaged problem has eigenvalues on the imaginary axis (the critical case)

  17. Flow method for rapid production of Batio3 nanoparticles in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atashfaraz, M.; Shariati-Niassar, M.; Ohara, Satoshi; Takami, S.; Umetsu, M.; Naka, T.; Adschiri, T.

    2006-01-01

    Fine BaTiO 3 nanoparticles were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis under supercritical conditions with batch and flow type experimental methods. Mixture of barium hydroxide and titanium oxide starting solution was treated in the supercritical wafer at 400 d eg C and 30 MPa. The size of nanoparticles synthesized in the flow type experiment was smaller than that in the batch type. Rapid heating in a flow, reactor is effective to synthesize smaller size and narrower particle size distribution for the BaTiO 3 , nanoparticles. The mechanism for this result was discussed based on the solubility of titanium oxide

  18. Rapid and accurate processing method for amide proton exchange rate measurement in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskela, Harri; Heikkinen, Outi; Kilpelaeinen, Ilkka; Heikkinen, Sami

    2007-01-01

    Exchange between protein backbone amide hydrogen and water gives relevant information about solvent accessibility and protein secondary structure stability. NMR spectroscopy provides a convenient tool to study these dynamic processes with saturation transfer experiments. Processing of this type of NMR spectra has traditionally required peak integration followed by exponential fitting, which can be tedious with large data sets. We propose here a computer-aided method that applies inverse Laplace transform in the exchange rate measurement. With this approach, the determination of exchange rates can be automated, and reliable results can be acquired rapidly without a need for manual processing

  19. Three rapid methods for determination {sup 90}Sr in milk samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasisiara, F.; Attarilar, N. [Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (INRA), Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Environmental Radiation Protection Div., National Radiation Protection Dept. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afshar, N. [Tarbiat Modarres Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Strontium radionuclide {sup 90}Sr is one of the main long-lived components of the radioactive fallout which occurred as a result of previous atmospheric nuclear tests and also nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl accident. Due to chemical and biochemical similarities between strontium and calcium, more than 99% of strontium is efficiently incorporated into bone tissue and teeth and Characterized by along physical and biological half-life, it may cause damage to bone marrow. Since determination of this radionuclide often is a time consuming process, rapid determination methods specially in emergency situations is always desirable. In this work, three rapid methods for determination of this radionuclide in milk samples will be evaluated. All of the methods include two major steps: 1- strontium separation from fats and proteins which can be performed by drying (in case of the fresh milk samples), ashing and leaching by nitric acids or by using exchange or chelating resins which have strong affinity for alkaline earth cations such as Dowex 50W-X8. And 2- Separation of Sr-90 or its daughter product, Y-90. In two methods separation of {sup 90}Sr is performed by extraction of the daughter nuclide, {sup 90}Y, by aid of organic extracting agent, Tributylphosphate or T.B.P., and then Cherenkov counting of the Y-90 extracted. The third method is based on separation of this radionuclide using Crown Ether or Sr -Spec resin. The detailed radiochemical procedures and evaluation of each method advantages or disadvantages will explained in full text paper. (authors)

  20. A rapid and cost-effective fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT) method to analyze protein phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Gou, Jin-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications catalyzed by protein kinases in living organisms. The advance of genome sequencing provided the information of protein kinase families in many organisms, including both model and non-model plants. The development of proteomics technologies also enabled scientists to efficiently reveal a large number of protein phosphorylations of an organism. However, kinases and phosphorylation targets are still to be connected to illustrate the complicated network in life. Here we adapted Pro-Q ® Diamond (Pro-Q ® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain), a widely used phosphoprotein gel-staining fluorescence dye, to establish a rapid, economical and non-radioactive fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT) method to analyze phosphorylated proteins. Taking advantages of high sensitivity and specificity of Pro-Q ® diamond, the FDIT method is also demonstrated to be rapid and reliable, with a suitable linear range for in vitro protein phosphorylation. A significant and satisfactory protein kinase reaction was detected as fast as 15 min from Wheat Kinase START 1.1 (WKS1.1) on a thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX), an established phosphorylation target in our earlier study. The FDIT method saves up to 95% of the dye consumed in a gel staining method. The FDIT method is remarkably quick, highly reproducible, unambiguous and capable to be scaled up to dozens of samples. The FDIT method could serve as a simple and sensitive alternative procedure to determine protein kinase reactions with zero radiation exposure, as a supplementation to other widely used radioactive and in-gel assays.

  1. A rapid and cost-effective fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT method to analyze protein phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications catalyzed by protein kinases in living organisms. The advance of genome sequencing provided the information of protein kinase families in many organisms, including both model and non-model plants. The development of proteomics technologies also enabled scientists to efficiently reveal a large number of protein phosphorylations of an organism. However, kinases and phosphorylation targets are still to be connected to illustrate the complicated network in life. Results Here we adapted Pro-Q® Diamond (Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain, a widely used phosphoprotein gel-staining fluorescence dye, to establish a rapid, economical and non-radioactive fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT method to analyze phosphorylated proteins. Taking advantages of high sensitivity and specificity of Pro-Q® diamond, the FDIT method is also demonstrated to be rapid and reliable, with a suitable linear range for in vitro protein phosphorylation. A significant and satisfactory protein kinase reaction was detected as fast as 15 min from Wheat Kinase START 1.1 (WKS1.1 on a thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX, an established phosphorylation target in our earlier study. Conclusion The FDIT method saves up to 95% of the dye consumed in a gel staining method. The FDIT method is remarkably quick, highly reproducible, unambiguous and capable to be scaled up to dozens of samples. The FDIT method could serve as a simple and sensitive alternative procedure to determine protein kinase reactions with zero radiation exposure, as a supplementation to other widely used radioactive and in-gel assays.

  2. a Method for Preview Vibration Control of Systems Having Forcing Inputs and Rapidly-Switched Dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBeheiry, E. M.

    1998-07-01

    In a variety of applications, especially in large scale dynamic systems, the mechanization of different vibration control elements in different locations would be decided by limitations placed on the modal vibration of the system and the inherent dynamic coupling between its modes. Also, the quality of vibration control to the economy of producing the whole system would be another trade-off leading to a mix of passive, active and semi-active vibration control elements in one system. This termactiveis limited to externally powered vibration control inputs and the termsemi-activeis limited to rapidly switched dampers. In this article, an optimal preview control method is developed for application to dynamic systems having active and semi-active vibration control elements mechanized at different locations in one system. The system is then a piecewise (bilinear) controller in which two independent sets of control inputs appear additively and multiplicatively. Calculus of variations along with the Hamiltonian approach are employed for the derivation of this method. In essence, it requires the active elements to be ideal force generators and the switched dampers to have the property of on-line variation of the damping characteristics to pre-determined limits. As the dampers switch during operation the whole system's structure differs, and then values of the active forcing inputs are adapted to match these rapid changes. Strictly speaking, each rapidly switched damper has pre-known upper and lower damping levels and it can take on any in-between value. This in-between value is to be determined by the method as long as the damper tracks a pre-known fully active control demand. In every damping state of each semi-active damper the method provides the optimal matching values of the active forcing inputs. The method is shown to have the feature of solving simple standard matrix equations to obtain closed form solutions. A comprehensive 9-DOF tractor semi-trailer model is used

  3. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-10

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  4. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  5. Automating X-ray Fluorescence Analysis for Rapid Astrobiology Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R; Flannery, David T; Lanka, Ravi; Allwood, Abigail C; Bue, Brian D; Clark, Benton C; Elam, W Timothy; Estlin, Tara A; Hodyss, Robert P; Hurowitz, Joel A; Liu, Yang; Wade, Lawrence A

    2015-11-01

    A new generation of planetary rover instruments, such as PIXL (Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry) and SHERLOC (Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals) selected for the Mars 2020 mission rover payload, aim to map mineralogical and elemental composition in situ at microscopic scales. These instruments will produce large spectral cubes with thousands of channels acquired over thousands of spatial locations, a large potential science yield limited mainly by the time required to acquire a measurement after placement. A secondary bottleneck also faces mission planners after downlink; analysts must interpret the complex data products quickly to inform tactical planning for the next command cycle. This study demonstrates operational approaches to overcome these bottlenecks by specialized early-stage science data processing. Onboard, simple real-time systems can perform a basic compositional assessment, recognizing specific features of interest and optimizing sensor integration time to characterize anomalies. On the ground, statistically motivated visualization can make raw uncalibrated data products more interpretable for tactical decision making. Techniques such as manifold dimensionality reduction can help operators comprehend large databases at a glance, identifying trends and anomalies in data. These onboard and ground-side analyses can complement a quantitative interpretation. We evaluate system performance for the case study of PIXL, an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Experiments on three representative samples demonstrate improved methods for onboard and ground-side automation and illustrate new astrobiological science capabilities unavailable in previous planetary instruments. Dimensionality reduction-Planetary science-Visualization.

  6. Effectiveness Analysis of a Part-Time Rapid Response System During Operation Versus Nonoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youlim; Lee, Dong Seon; Min, Hyunju; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Eun Young; Song, Inae; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Jo, You Hwan; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Do, Sang Hwan; Lee, Yeon Joo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a part-time rapid response system on the occurrence rate of cardiopulmonary arrest by comparing the times of rapid response system operation versus nonoperation. Retrospective cohort study. A 1,360-bed tertiary care hospital. Adult patients admitted to the general ward were screened. Data were collected over 36 months from rapid response system implementation (October 2012 to September 2015) and more than 45 months before rapid response system implementation (January 2009 to September 2012). None. The rapid response system operates from 7 AM to 10 PM on weekdays and from 7 AM to 12 PM on Saturdays. Primary outcomes were the difference of cardiopulmonary arrest incidence between pre-rapid response system and post-rapid response system periods and whether the rapid response system operating time affects the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence. The overall cardiopulmonary arrest incidence (per 1,000 admissions) was 1.43. Although the number of admissions per month and case-mix index were increased (3,555.18 vs 4,564.72, p times (0.82 vs 0.49/1,000 admissions; p = 0.001) but remained similar during rapid response system nonoperating times (0.77 vs 0.73/1,000 admissions; p = 0.729). The implementation of a part-time rapid response system reduced the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence based on the reduction of cardiopulmonary arrest during rapid response system operating times. Further analysis of the cost effectiveness of part-time rapid response system is needed.

  7. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  8. A novel stent inflation protocol improves long-term outcomes compared with rapid inflation/deflation deployment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallurupalli, Srikanth; Kasula, Srikanth; Kumar Agarwal, Shiv; Pothineni, Naga Venkata K; Abualsuod, Amjad; Hakeem, Abdul; Ahmed, Zubair; Uretsky, Barry F

    2017-08-01

    High-pressure inflation for coronary stent deployment is universally performed. However, the duration of inflation is variable and does not take into account differences in lesion compliance. We developed a standardized "pressure optimization protocol" (POP) using inflation pressure stability rather than an arbitrary inflation time or angiographic balloon appearance for stent deployment. Whether this approach improves long-term outcomes is unknown. 792 patients who underwent PCI using either rapid inflation/deflation (n = 376) or POP (n = 416) between January 2009 and March 2014 were included. Exclusion criteria included PCI for acute myocardial infarction, in-stent restenosis, chronic total occlusion, left main, and saphenous vein graft lesions. Primary endpoint was target vessel failure [TVF = combined end point of target vessel revascularization (TVR), myocardial infarction, and cardiac death]. Outcomes were analyzed in the entire cohort and in a propensity analysis. Stent implantation using POP with a median follow-up of 1317 days was associated with lower TVF compared with rapid inflation/deflation (10.1 vs. 17.8%, P inflation/deflation (10 vs. 18%, P < 0.0001). Stent deployment using POP led to reduced TVF compared to rapid I/D. These results recommend this method to improve long-term outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A rapid response air quality analysis system for use in projects having stringent quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to solve air quality problems which frequently occur during iterations of the baseline change process. From a schedule standpoint, it is desirable to perform this evaluation in as short a time as possible while budgetary pressures limit the size of the staff available to do the work. Without a method in place to deal with baseline change proposal requests the environment analysts may not be able to produce the analysis results in the time frame expected. Using a concept called the Rapid Response Air Quality Analysis System (RAAS), the problems of timing and cost become tractable. The system could be adapted to assess other atmospheric pathway impacts, e.g., acoustics or visibility. The air quality analysis system used to perform the EA analysis (EA) for the Salt Repository Project (part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program), and later to evaluate the consequences of proposed baseline changes, consists of three components: Emission source data files; Emission rates contained in spreadsheets; Impact assessment model codes. The spreadsheets contain user-written codes (macros) that calculate emission rates from (1) emission source data (e.g., numbers and locations of sources, detailed operating schedules, and source specifications including horsepower, load factor, and duty cycle); (2) emission factors such as those published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and (3) control efficiencies

  10. Rapid detection and identification of four major Schistosoma species by high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Lin, RuiQing; Blair, David; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-11-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by blood flukes belonging to several species of the genus Schistosoma, is a serious and widespread parasitic disease. Accurate and rapid differentiation of these etiological agents of animal and human schistosomiasis to species level can be difficult. We report a real-time PCR assay coupled with a high-resolution melt (HRM) assay targeting a portion of the nuclear 18S rDNA to detect, identify, and distinguish between four major blood fluke species (Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, and Schistosoma mekongi). Using this system, the Schistosoma spp. was accurately identified and could also be distinguished from all other trematode species with which they were compared. As little as 10(-5) ng genomic DNA from a Schistosoma sp. could be detected. This process is inexpensive, easy, and can be completed within 3 h. Examination of 21 representative Schistosoma samples from 15 geographical localities in seven endemic countries validated the value of the HRM detection assay and proved its reliability. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 83.65 °C for S. japonicum and S. mekongi, 85.65 °C for S. mansoni, and 85.85 °C for S. haematobium. The present study developed a real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis assay for detection and differential identification of S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mekongi. This method is rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive. It has important implications for epidemiological studies of Schistosoma.

  11. A rapid and efficient two-step gel electrophoresis method for the purification of major rye grass pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, D; Davies, J; O'Hehir, R; Suphioglu, C

    2001-06-01

    Purified proteins are mandatory for molecular, immunological and cellular studies. However, purification of proteins from complex mixtures requires specialised chromatography methods (i.e., gel filtration, ion exchange, etc.) using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems. Such systems are expensive and certain proteins require two or more different steps for sufficient purity and generally result in low recovery. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, inexpensive and efficient gel-electrophoresis-based protein purification method using basic and readily available laboratory equipment. We have used crude rye grass pollen extract to purify the major allergens Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 as the model protein candidates. Total proteins were resolved on large primary gel and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)-stained Lol p 1/5 allergens were excised and purified on a secondary "mini"-gel. Purified proteins were extracted from unstained separating gels and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot analyses. Silver-stained SDS-PAGE gels resolved pure proteins (i.e., 875 microg of Lol p 1 recovered from a 8 mg crude starting material) while immunoblot analysis confirmed immunological reactivity of the purified proteins. Such a purification method is rapid, inexpensive, and efficient in generating proteins of sufficient purity for use in monoclonal antibody (mAb) production, protein sequencing and general molecular, immunological, and cellular studies.

  12. Optimal estimation and scheduling in aquifer management using the rapid feedback control method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanidehno, Hojat; Kokkinaki, Amalia; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Darve, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Management of water resources systems often involves a large number of parameters, as in the case of large, spatially heterogeneous aquifers, and a large number of "noisy" observations, as in the case of pressure observation in wells. Optimizing the operation of such systems requires both searching among many possible solutions and utilizing new information as it becomes available. However, the computational cost of this task increases rapidly with the size of the problem to the extent that textbook optimization methods are practically impossible to apply. In this paper, we present a new computationally efficient technique as a practical alternative for optimally operating large-scale dynamical systems. The proposed method, which we term Rapid Feedback Controller (RFC), provides a practical approach for combined monitoring, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and optimal control for linear and nonlinear systems with a quadratic cost function. For illustration, we consider the case of a weakly nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with a quadratic objective function, specifically a two-dimensional heterogeneous aquifer management problem. To validate our method, we compare our results with the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method, which is the basic approach for feedback control. We show that the computational cost of the RFC scales only linearly with the number of unknowns, a great improvement compared to the basic LQG control with a computational cost that scales quadratically. We demonstrate that the RFC method can obtain the optimal control values at a greatly reduced computational cost compared to the conventional LQG algorithm with small and controllable losses in the accuracy of the state and parameter estimation.

  13. A rapid cleanup method for the isolation and concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dean E; Porter, Andrew; O'Neill, Terry; Harris, Roger K; Rottinghaus, George E

    2004-01-01

    Preparations from comfrey (Symphytum officinale and S. x uplandicum) root and leaf contain varying levels of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Reference compounds for comfrey are not commercially available, and there is currently no rapid extraction or analytical method capable of determining low levels in raw materials or as adulterants in commercially available extracts. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using an Ergosil cleanup column that specifically binds the PAs. With this method, powdered comfrey root was extracted by sonication and shaking with basic chloroform. The extract was applied to the cleanup column under vacuum, washed with 2 mL acetone-chloroform (8 + 2, v/v) followed by 2 mL petroleum ether to remove excess chloroform. The column was dried under vacuum, and the PAs were eluted with 2 successive 1 mL aliquots methanol. Percent recoveries of the PAs following Ergosil SPE had an overall average of 96.8%, with RSD of 3.8% over a range of 1.0 to 25.0 g extracted in 100 mL. Average precision of the method (n = 3 over 4 extraction concentrations) gave an overall RSD of 6.0% for the 5 alkaloids, with a range of 0.8% (5 g in 100 mL) to 11.2% (25 g in 100 mL). Recovery optimization testing showed that 1.0 g comfrey root extracted in 100 mL yielded the greatest recovery (% dry weight) of the PAs, with an extraction efficiency and accuracy of 94.2%, and RSD of 1.7% (n = 9). The unique properties of the Ergosil cleanup column provide rapid sample cleanup, volume reduction, and concentration of PAs from comfrey extracts, and allow the eluant to be analyzed directly by traditional chromatographic methods.

  14. Rapid analysis of seed size in Arabidopsis for mutant and QTL discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin Samantha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabidopsis thaliana is a useful model organism for deciphering the genetic determinants of seed size; however the small size of its seeds makes measurements difficult. Bulk seed weights are often used as an indicator of average seed size, but details of individual seed is obscured. Analysis of seed images is possible but issues arise from variations in seed pigmentation and shadowing making analysis laborious. We therefore investigated the use of a consumer level scanner to facilitate seed size measurements in conjunction with open source image-processing software. Results By using the transmitted light from the slide scanning function of a flatbed scanner and particle analysis of the resulting images, we have developed a method for the rapid and high throughput analysis of seed size and seed size distribution. The technical variation due to the approach was negligible enabling us to identify aspects of maternal plant growth that contribute to biological variation in seed size. By controlling for these factors, differences in seed size caused by altered parental genome dosage and mutation were easily detected. The method has high reproducibility and sensitivity, such that a mutant with a 10% reduction in seed size was identified in a screen of endosperm-expressed genes. Our study also generated average seed size data for 91 Arabidopsis accessions and identified a number of quantitative trait loci from two recombinant inbred line populations, generated from Cape Verde Islands and Burren accessions crossed with Columbia. Conclusions This study describes a sensitive, high-throughput approach for measuring seed size and seed size distribution. The method provides a low cost and robust solution that can be easily implemented into the workflow of studies relating to various aspects of seed development.

  15. Gravimetric and titrimetric methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, R.D.; Bruks, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Gravimetric and titrimetric methods of analysis are considered. Methods of complexometric titration are mentioned, as well as methods of increasing sensitivity in titrimetry. Gravimetry and titrimetry are applied during analysis for traces of geological materials

  16. Evaluation of PDA Technical Report No 33. Statistical Testing Recommendations for a Rapid Microbiological Method Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas; Schwedock, Julie; Nguyen, Kham; Mills, Anna; Jones, David

    2015-01-01

    New recommendations for the validation of rapid microbiological methods have been included in the revised Technical Report 33 release from the PDA. The changes include a more comprehensive review of the statistical methods to be used to analyze data obtained during validation. This case study applies those statistical methods to accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and equivalence data obtained using a rapid microbiological methods system being evaluated for water bioburden testing. Results presented demonstrate that the statistical methods described in the PDA Technical Report 33 chapter can all be successfully applied to the rapid microbiological method data sets and gave the same interpretation for equivalence to the standard method. The rapid microbiological method was in general able to pass the requirements of PDA Technical Report 33, though the study shows that there can be occasional outlying results and that caution should be used when applying statistical methods to low average colony-forming unit values. Prior to use in a quality-controlled environment, any new method or technology has to be shown to work as designed by the manufacturer for the purpose required. For new rapid microbiological methods that detect and enumerate contaminating microorganisms, additional recommendations have been provided in the revised PDA Technical Report No. 33. The changes include a more comprehensive review of the statistical methods to be used to analyze data obtained during validation. This paper applies those statistical methods to analyze accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and equivalence data obtained using a rapid microbiological method system being validated for water bioburden testing. The case study demonstrates that the statistical methods described in the PDA Technical Report No. 33 chapter can be successfully applied to rapid microbiological method data sets and give the same comparability results for similarity or difference as the standard method. © PDA, Inc

  17. A rapid colorimetric method for predicting the storage stability of middle distillate fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshman, S.J. [Defense Research Agency, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Present methods used to predict the storage stability of distillate fuels such as ASTM D2274, ASTM D4625, DEF STAN 05-50 Method 40 and in-house methods are very time consuming, taking a minimum of 16 hours. In addition, some of these methods under- or over-predict the storage stability of the test fuel. A rapid colorimetric test for identifying cracked, straight run or hydrofined fuels was reported at the previous Conference. Further work has shown that while a visual appraisal is acceptable for refinery-fresh fuels, colour development may be masked by other coloured compounds in older fuels. Use of a spectrometric finish to the method has extended the scope of the method to include older fuels. The test can be correlated with total sediment from ASTM D4625 (13 weeks at 43{degrees}C) over a sediment range of 0-60mg/L. A correlation of 0.94 was obtained for 40 fuels.

  18. Developing the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) in the context of impact significance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaes, Asko; Kuitunen, Markku T.; Jalava, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the applicability of the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) is evaluated in the context of impact significance assessment. The methodological issues considered in the study are: 1) to test the possibilities of enlarging the scoring system used in the method, and 2) to compare the significance classifications of RIAM and unaided decision-making to estimate the consistency between these methods. The data used consisted of projects for which funding had been applied for via the European Union's Regional Development Trust in the area of Central Finland. Cases were evaluated with respect to their environmental, social and economic impacts using an assessment panel. The results showed the scoring framework used in RIAM could be modified according to the problem situation at hand, which enhances its application potential. However the changes made in criteria B did not significantly affect the final ratings of the method, which indicates the high importance of criteria A1 (importance) and A2 (magnitude) to the overall results. The significance classes obtained by the two methods diverged notably. In general the ratings given by RIAM tended to be smaller compared to intuitive judgement implying that the RIAM method may be somewhat conservative in character.

  19. A new method for rapid determination of carbohydrate and total carbon concentrations using UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A

    2013-09-12

    A new UV spectrophotometry based method for determining the concentration and carbon content of carbohydrate solution was developed. This method depends on the inherent UV absorption potential of hydrolysis byproducts of carbohydrates formed by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid (furfural derivatives). The proposed method is a major improvement over the widely used Phenol-Sulfuric Acid method developed by DuBois, Gilles, Hamilton, Rebers, and Smith (1956). In the old method, furfural is allowed to develop color by reaction with phenol and its concentration is detected by visible light absorption. Here we present a method that eliminates the coloration step and avoids the health and environmental hazards associated with phenol use. In addition, avoidance of this step was shown to improve measurement accuracy while significantly reducing waiting time prior to light absorption reading. The carbohydrates for which concentrations and carbon content can be reliably estimated with this new rapid Sulfuric Acid-UV technique include: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides with very high molecular weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of two electrical methods for the rapid assessment of freezing resistance in Salix epichloro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsarouhas, V.; Kenney, W.A.; Zsuffa, L. [University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Faculty of Forestry

    2000-09-01

    The importance of early selection of frost-resistant Salix clones makes it desirable to select a rapid and accurate screening method for assessing freezing resistance among several genotypes. Two electrical methods, stem electrical impedance to 1 and 10 khz alternating current, and electrolyte leakage of leaf tissue, were evaluated for detecting freezing resistance on three North America Salix epichloro Michx., clones after subjecting them to five different freezing temperatures (-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 deg C). Differences in the electrical impedance to 1 and 10 kHz, and the ratio of the impedance at the two frequencies (low/high) before and after the freezing treatment (DZ{sub low}, DZ{sub high}, and DZ{sub ratio}, respectively) were estimated. Electrolyte leakage was expressed as relative conductivity (RC{sub t}) and index of injury (IDX{sub t}). Results from the two methods, obtained two days after the freezing stress, showed that both electrical methods were able to detect freezing injury in S. eriocephala. However, the electrolyte leakage method detected injury in more levels of freezing stress (-3, -4, and -5 deg C) than the impedance (-4, and -5 deg C), it assessed clonal differences in S. eriocephala freezing resistance, and it was best suited to correlate electrical methods with the visual assessed freezing injury. No significant impedance or leakage changes were found after the -1 and -2 deg C freezing temperatures. (author)

  1. Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-07-01

    Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems of linear equations, which becomes progressively difficult to tackle for larger scale models and for higher frequency components. On the contrary, the latter approach can be efficiently implemented using explicit time integration methods in conjunction with running summations as the computation progresses. Commonly used explicit time integration methods correspond to the truncated Taylor series approximations that can cause significant errors for large time steps. The rapid expansion method (REM) uses the Chebyshev expansion and offers an optimal solution to the second-order-in-time wave equations. When applying the Fourier transform to the time domain wavefield solution computed by the REM, we can derive a frequency response modeling formula that has the same form as the original time domain REM equation but with different summation coefficients. In particular, the summation coefficients for the frequency response modeling formula corresponds to the Fourier transform of those for the time domain modeling equation. As a result, we can directly compute frequency responses from the Chebyshev expansion polynomials rather than the time domain wavefield snapshots as do other time domain frequency response modeling methods. When combined with the pseudospectral method in space, this new frequency response modeling method can produce spectrally accurate results with high efficiency. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  2. Development of a qPCR method to rapidly assess the function of NKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Silke; Tiper, Irina; Japp, Emily; Sun, Wenji; Tkaczuk, Katherine; Webb, Tonya J

    2014-05-01

    NKT cells comprise a rare, but important subset of T cells which account for ~0.2% of the total circulating T cell population. NKT cells are known to have anti-tumor functions and rapidly produce high levels of cytokines following activation. Several clinical trials have sought to exploit the effector functions of NKT cells. While some studies have shown promise, NKT cells are approximately 50% lower in cancer patients compared to healthy donors of the same age and gender, thus limiting their therapeutic efficacy. These studies indicate that baseline levels of activation should be assessed before initiating an NKT cell based immunotherapeutic strategy. The goal of this study was to develop a sensitive method to rapidly assess NKT cell function. We utilized artificial antigen presenting cells in combination with qPCR in order to determine NKT cell function in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors and breast cancer patients. We found that NKT cell activation can be detected by qPCR, but not by ELISA, in healthy donors as well as in breast cancer patients following four hour stimulation. This method utilizing CD1d-expressing aAPCs will enhance our knowledge of NKT cell biology and could potentially be used as a novel tool in adoptive immunotherapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid fabrication method of a microneedle mold with controllable needle height and width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Lee, I-Chi; Hsu, Wei-Chieh; Hsu, Ching-Hong; Chang, Kai-Ping; Gao, Shao-Syuan

    2016-10-01

    The main issue of transdermal drug delivery is that macromolecular drugs cannot diffuse through the stratum corneum of skin. Many studies have pursued micro-sized needles encapsulated with drugs to overcome this problem, as these needles can pierce the stratum corneum and allow drugs to enter the circulatory system of the human body. However, most microneedle fabrication processes are time-consuming and require expensive equipment. In this study, we demonstrate a rapid method for fabricating a microneedle mold using drawing lithography and a UV-cured resin. The mold was filled with a water-soluble material, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was then demolded to produce a water-soluble microneedle array. The results of an in vitro skin insertion test using PVP microneedles and pig ear skin demonstrated the feasibility of the microneedle mold. In addition, by controlling the viscosity of the UV-cured resin through various heat treatments, microneedles with different heights and aspect ratios were produced. Compared with other methods, this technology significantly simplifies and accelerates the mold fabrication process. In addition, the required equipment is relatively simple and inexpensive. Through this technology, we can rapidly fabricate microneedle molds with controllable dimensions for various applications.

  4. A rapid method for the preparation of 99Tcm hexametazime-labelled leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, K.K.; Mather, S.J.; Janabi, M.A.; Britton, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    99 Tc m (±)-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (HMPAO) ( 99 Tc m Hexametazime) has been recently reported as an alternative for labelling leucocytes. This technique has been modified to give a simpler routine in-house labelling technique. It has three advantages: only about 20 ml of blood is required, the labelling time is just under 1 h and high yields of labelled leucocytes are obtained (mean of 500 MBq per injection dose). The properties of labelled leucocytes using this modified method are; 80% granulocyte-bound radioactivity, a rapid lung transit and a blood granulocyte recovery of 40% at 30 min similar to those described previously. The viability of the labelled leucocytes was tested and confirmed in vitro using a migration technique and in vivo by showing no lung retention on early imaging and high splenic uptake. A rapid in-process chromatography assessment procedure for regulating the protocol has been developed. Successful abscess imaging by 4 h has been achieved in 21 patients with normal results in another 22 patients without abscesses. This simpler method should encourage a more widespread application of scintigraphy using radiolabelled granulocytes. (author)

  5. A rapid, ensemble and free energy based method for engineering protein stabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganathan, Athi N

    2013-05-02

    Engineering the conformational stabilities of proteins through mutations has immense potential in biotechnological applications. It is, however, an inherently challenging problem given the weak noncovalent nature of the stabilizing interactions. In this regard, we present here a robust and fast strategy to engineer protein stabilities through mutations involving charged residues using a structure-based statistical mechanical model that accounts for the ensemble nature of folding. We validate the method by predicting the absolute changes in stability for 138 experimental mutations from 16 different proteins and enzymes with a correlation of 0.65 and importantly with a success rate of 81%. Multiple point mutants are predicted with a higher success rate (90%) that is validated further by comparing meosphile-thermophile protein pairs. In parallel, we devise a methodology to rapidly engineer mutations in silico which we benchmark against experimental mutations of ubiquitin (correlation of 0.95) and check for its feasibility on a larger therapeutic protein DNase I. We expect the method to be of importance as a first and rapid step to screen for protein mutants with specific stability in the biotechnology industry, in the construction of stability maps at the residue level (i.e., hot spots), and as a robust tool to probe for mutations that enhance the stability of protein-based drugs.

  6. Rapid and label-free bioanalytical method of alpha fetoprotein detection using LSPR chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongjoo; Kim, Jinwoon; Kwak, Cheol Hwan; Heo, Nam Su; Oh, Seo Yeong; Lee, Hoomin; Lee, Go-Woon; Vilian, A. T. Ezhil; Han, Young-Kyu; Kim, Woo-Sik; Kim, Gi-bum; Kwon, Soonjo; Huh, Yun Suk

    2017-07-01

    Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a cancer marker, particularly for hepatocellular carcinoma. Normal levels of AFP are less than 20 ng/mL; however, its levels can reach more than 400 ng/mL in patients with HCC. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) have been employed for clinical diagnosis of AFP; however, these methods are time consuming and labor intensive. In this study, we developed a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) based biosensor for simple and rapid detection of AFP. This biosensor consists of a UV-Vis spectrometer, a cuvette cell, and a biosensor chip nanopatterned with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In our LSPR biosensor, binding of AFP to the surface of the sensor chip led to an increasing magnitude of the LSPR signals, which was measured by an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. Our LSPR biosensor showed sufficient detectability of AFP at concentrations of 1 ng/mL to 1 μg/mL. Moreover, the overall procedure for detection of AFP was completed within 20 min. This biosensor could also be utilized for a point of care test (POCT) by employing a portable UV-Vis spectrometer. Owing to the simplicity and rapidity of the detection process, our LSPR biosensor is expected to replace traditional diagnostic methods for the early detection of diseases.

  7. Minimal methylation classifier (MIMIC): A novel method for derivation and rapid diagnostic detection of disease-associated DNA methylation signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, E C; Hicks, D; Rafiee, G; Bashton, M; Gohlke, H; Enshaei, A; Potluri, S; Matthiesen, J; Mather, M; Taleongpong, P; Chaston, R; Silmon, A; Curtis, A; Lindsey, J C; Crosier, S; Smith, A J; Goschzik, T; Doz, F; Rutkowski, S; Lannering, B; Pietsch, T; Bailey, S; Williamson, D; Clifford, S C

    2017-10-18

    Rapid and reliable detection of disease-associated DNA methylation patterns has major potential to advance molecular diagnostics and underpin research investigations. We describe the development and validation of minimal methylation classifier (MIMIC), combining CpG signature design from genome-wide datasets, multiplex-PCR and detection by single-base extension and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, in a novel method to assess multi-locus DNA methylation profiles within routine clinically-applicable assays. We illustrate the application of MIMIC to successfully identify the methylation-dependent diagnostic molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma (the most common malignant childhood brain tumour), using scant/low-quality samples remaining from the most recently completed pan-European medulloblastoma clinical trial, refractory to analysis by conventional genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. Using this approach, we identify critical DNA methylation patterns from previously inaccessible cohorts, and reveal novel survival differences between the medulloblastoma disease subgroups with significant potential for clinical exploitation.

  8. Development of a novel and simple method to evaluate disintegration of rapidly disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoashi, Yohei; Tozuka, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a novel and simple method for evaluating the disintegration time of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) in vitro, since the conventional disintegration test described in the pharmacopoeia produces poor results due to the difference of its environmental conditions from those of an actual oral cavity. Six RDTs prepared in our laboratory and 5 types of commercial RDTs were used as model formulations. Using our original apparatus, a good correlation was observed between in vivo and in vitro disintegration times by adjusting the height from which the solution was dropped to 8 cm and the weight of the load to 10 or 20 g. Properties of RDTs, such as the pattern of their disintegrating process, can be assessed by verifying the load. These findings confirmed that our proposed method for an in vitro disintegration test apparatus is an excellent one for estimating disintegration time and the disintegration profile of RDTs.

  9. Evaluation of two methods of rapid blood-glucose monitoring by unskilled personnel during surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, S; Adelhøj, B; Bigler, Dennis Richard

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of two rapid methods of blood-glucose monitoring without (Haemo-glucotest 1-44) and with a reflectance meter (Hypocount B) was compared using a laboratory method. The assessment was carried out by personnel with no previous experience in measuring blood glucose. Eighty-five percent...... of the 92 measurements obtained with the hypocount B were within +/- 20% of the laboratory glucose values. Using haemo-glucotest 1-44 strips, 74% of the readings were within +/- 20% of the reference laboratory values. For values below 5.5 mmol/l, there was a tendency for results to be too low, with 77......% of the readings below laboratory values -20%. All situations with severe hypoglycaemia were detected with both strips. The study also demonstrates the ineffectiveness of s.c. insulin regimens during surgery. Only 47% of the measured blood glucose values were within the range of 5.5-10 mmol/l and two of ten...

  10. A Rapid Colorimetric Method Reveals Fraudulent Substitutions in Sea Urchin Roe Marketed in Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico; Spina, Antonio; Satta, Gianluca; Chessa, Vittorio

    2016-06-25

    In recent years, besides the consumption of fresh sea urchin specimens, the demand of minimally-processed roe has grown considerably. This product has made frequent consumption in restaurants possible and frauds are becoming widespread with the partial replacement of sea urchin roe with surrogates that are similar in colour. One of the main factors that determines the quality of the roe is its colour and small differences in colour scale cannot be easily discerned by the consumers. In this study we have applied a rapid colorimetric method for reveal the fraudulent partial substitution of semi-solid sea urchin roe with liquid egg yolk. Objective assessment of whiteness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue (h*), and chroma (C*) was carried out with a digital spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* colour measurement system. The colorimetric method highlighted statistically significant differences among sea urchin roe and liquid egg yolk that could be easily discerned quantitatively.

  11. A Rapid Generation Method of Character Doll with Rotatable Limbs Oriented to 3D Printer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin; CHU Xiao-li; Nie Wen-chao

    2014-01-01

    Currently, 3D printing of the character dolls is a very practical application for the average person. But the model of doll which can be obtained is static so the posture of the doll is single. On the other hand, the modification of the model is very difficult to non-professions. This paper proposes an rapid generation method of character doll with rotatable limbs, which is through adding the sphere joint to the doll’s model automatically. After the model is segmented by drawing a line interactively, the sphere joint is created based on the segmentation boundary through entity modeling method. Lastly the two models of the doll and the joint are composited and printed. Some doll’s model are tested on the FDM(Fused Deposition Modeling) 3D printer using this process. The results are more interesting and the efficiency has been greatly improved compared with modifying the model manually.

  12. Rapid synthesis of nitrogen doped titania with mixed crystal lattice via microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peilin; Liu Bin; Yin Shu; Wang Yuhua; Petrykin, Valery; Kakihana, Masato; Sato, Tsugio

    2009-01-01

    A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was employed to synthesize nitrogen doped titania nanoparticles. Due to the high heating efficiency of microwave, rapid synthesis could be achieved in comparison with the conventional oven. Mixed crystal lattice was found existing in the obtained product, and the phase transformation behaviour under calcination was studied by XRD measurement together with Raman spectroscopy in details. The obtained nitrogen doped titania showed high specific surface area, about 300 m 2 g -1 . Photocatalytic activity in destructing NO x gas by the prepared sample exceeded that of commercial titania (P 25) or nitrogen doped titania synthesized by conventional hydrothermal method, under both visible-light and ultraviolet-light irradiation.

  13. A rapid alpha spectrometric method for estimation of 233U in bulk of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.S.; Sankar, R.; Dhami, P.S.; Tripathi, S.C.; Gandhi, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical methods play important role in entire nuclear fuel cycle. Almost all the methods find applications in some way or the other in nuclear industry. Methods which cannot be directly used owing to selectivity, find application after chemical separation of analyte from interfering components. The analytical techniques used in PUREX process are almost well matured whereas in THOREX process the analytical techniques are constantly evolving as regards to simplicity, accuracy and time of analysis

  14. Vibrational spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid, quantitative analysis of bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Daniel P; Andersen, David H; Beatson, Ron A; Gordon, Keith C; Perry, Nigel B

    2014-12-31

    Hops, Humulus lupulus, are grown worldwide for use in the brewing industry to impart characteristic flavor and aroma to finished beer. Breeders produce many varietal crosses with the aim of improving and diversifying commercial hops varieties. The large number of crosses critical to a successful breeding program imposes high demands on the supporting chemical analytical laboratories. With the aim of reducing the analysis time associated with hops breeding, quantitative partial least-squares regression (PLS-R) models have been produced, relating reference data acquired by the industrial standard HPLC and UV methods, to vibrational spectra of the same, chemically diverse hops sample set. These models, produced from rapidly acquired infrared (IR), near-infrared (NIR), and Raman spectra, were appraised using standard statistical metrics. Results demonstrated that all three spectroscopic methods could be used for screening hops for α-acid, total bitter acids, and cohumulone concentrations in powdered hops. Models generated from Raman and IR spectra also showed potential for use in screening hops varieties for xanthohumol concentrations. NIR analysis was performed using both a standard benchtop spectrometer and a portable NIR spectrometer, with comparable results obtained by both instruments. Finally, some important vibrational features of cohumulone, colupulone, and xanthohumol were assigned using DFT calculations, which allow more insightful interpretation of PLS-R latent variable plots.

  15. A rapid and highly selective method for the estimation of pyro-, tri- and orthophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, D R; Savant, V V; Sathyanarayana, D N

    1995-03-01

    A rapid, highly selective and simple method has been developed for the quantitative determination of pyro-, tri- and orthophosphates. The method is based on the formation of a solid complex of bis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) species with pyrophosphate at pH 4.2-4.3, with triphosphate at pH 2.0-2.1 and with orthophosphate at pH 8.2-8.6. The proposed method for pyro- and triphosphates differs from the available method, which is based on the formation of an adduct with tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) species. The complexes have the composition [Co(en)(2)HP(2)O(7)]4H(2)O and [Co(en)(2)H(2)P(3)O(10)]2H(2)O, respectively. The precipitation is instantaneous and quantitative under the recommended optimum conditions giving 99.5% gravimetric yield in both cases. There is no interferences from orthophosphate, trimetaphosphate and pyrophosphate species in the triphosphate estimation up to 5% of each component. The efficacy of the method has been established by determining pyrophosphate and triphosphate contents in various matrices. In the case of orthophosphate, the proposed method differs from the available methods such as ammonium phosphomolybdate, vanadophosphomolybdate and quinoline phosphomolybdate, which are based on the formation of a precipitate, followed by either titrimetry or gravimetry. The precipitation is instantaneous and the method is simple. Under the recommended pH and other reaction conditions, gravimetric yields of 99.6-100% are obtainable. The method is applicable to orthophosphoric acid and a variety of phosphate salts.

  16. [Research on rapid and quantitative detection method for organophosphorus pesticide residue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan-Xin; Chen, Bing-Tai; Yi, Sen; Sun, Ming

    2014-05-01

    The methods of physical-chemical inspection is adopted in the traditional pesticide residue detection, which require a lot of pretreatment processes, are time-consuming and complicated. In the present study, the authors take chlorpyrifos applied widely in the present agricultural field as the research object and propose a rapid and quantitative detection method for organophosphorus pesticide residues. At first, according to the chemical characteristics of chlorpyrifos and comprehensive chromogenic effect of several colorimetric reagents and secondary pollution, the pretreatment of the scheme of chromogenic reaction of chlorpyrifos with resorcin in a weak alkaline environment was determined. Secondly, by analyzing Uv-Vis spectrum data of chlorpyrifos samples whose content were between 0. 5 and 400 mg kg-1, it was confirmed that the characteristic information after the color reaction mainly was concentrated among 360 approximately 400 nm. Thirdly, the full spectrum forecasting model was established based on the partial least squares, whose correlation coefficient of calibration was 0. 999 6, correlation coefficient of prediction reached 0. 995 6, standard deviation of calibration (RMSEC) was 2. 814 7 mg kg-1, and standard deviation of verification (RMSEP) was 8. 012 4 mg kg-1. Fourthly, the wavelengths whose center wavelength is 400 nm was extracted as characteristic region to build a forecasting model, whose correlation coefficient of calibration was 0. 999 6, correlation coefficient of prediction reached 0. 999 3, standard deviation of calibration (RMSEC) was 2. 566 7 mg kg-1 , standard deviation of verification (RMSEP) was 4. 886 6 mg kg-1, respectively. At last, by analyzing the near infrared spectrum data of chlorpyrifos samples with contents between 0. 5 and 16 mg kg-1, the authors found that although the characteristics of the chromogenic functional group are not obvious, the change of absorption peaks of resorcin itself in the neighborhood of 5 200 cm

  17. Pyroprinting: a rapid and flexible genotypic fingerprinting method for typing bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Michael W; VanderKelen, Jennifer; Montana, Aldrin; Dekhtyar, Alexander; Neal, Emily; Goodman, Anya; Kitts, Christopher L

    2014-10-01

    Bacterial strain typing is commonly employed in studies involving epidemiology, population ecology, and microbial source tracking to identify sources of fecal contamination. Methods for differentiating strains generally use either a collection of phenotypic traits or rely on some interrogation of the bacterial genotype. This report introduces pyroprinting, a novel genotypic strain typing method that is rapid, inexpensive, and discriminating compared to the most sensitive methods already in use. Pyroprinting relies on the simultaneous pyrosequencing of polymorphic multicopy loci, such as the intergenic transcribed spacer regions of rRNA operons in bacterial genomes. Data generated by sequencing combinations of variable templates are reproducible and intrinsically digitized. The theory and development of pyroprinting in Escherichia coli, including the selection of similarity thresholds to define matches between isolates, are presented. The pyroprint-based strain differentiation limits and phylogenetic relevance compared to other typing methods are also explored. Pyroprinting is unique in its simplicity and, paradoxically, in its intrinsic complexity. This new approach serves as an excellent alternative to more cumbersome or less phylogenetically relevant strain typing methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Rapid and Efficient Screening Method for Antibacterial Compound-Producing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Sachithra; Lee, Su-Jin; Lee, Youngdeuk; Kwon, Young-Kyung; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Moon, Song; Jo, Eunyoung; Kim, Taeho; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong

    2017-08-28

    Antibacterial compounds are widely used in the treatment of human and animal diseases. The overuse of antibiotics has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria, making the development of new antibacterial compounds essential. This study focused on developing a fast and easy method for identifying marine bacteria that produce antibiotic compounds. Eight randomly selected marine target bacterial species ( Agrococcus terreus, Bacillus algicola, Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens, Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra, P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida, P. rubra , and Zunongwangia atlantica ) were tested for production of antibacterial compounds against four strains of test bacteria ( B. cereus, B. subtilis, Halomonas smyrnensis , and Vibrio alginolyticus ). Colony picking was used as the primary screening method. Clear zones were observed around colonies of P. flavipulchra, P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida , and P. rubra tested against B. cereus, B. subtilis , and H. smyrnensis . The efficiency of colony scraping and broth culture methods for antimicrobial compound extraction was also compared using a disk diffusion assay. P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida , and P. rubra showed antagonistic activity against H. smyrnensis, B. cereus , and B. subtilis , respectively, only in the colony scraping method. Our results show that colony picking and colony scraping are effective, quick, and easy methods of screening for antibacterial compound-producing bacteria.

  19. SASqPCR: robust and rapid analysis of RT-qPCR data in SAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijun Ling

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR is a key method for measurement of relative gene expression. Analysis of RT-qPCR data requires many iterative computations for data normalization and analytical optimization. Currently no computer program for RT-qPCR data analysis is suitable for analytical optimization and user-controllable customization based on data quality, experimental design as well as specific research aims. Here I introduce an all-in-one computer program, SASqPCR, for robust and rapid analysis of RT-qPCR data in SAS. This program has multiple macros for assessment of PCR efficiencies, validation of reference genes, optimization of data normalizers, normalization of confounding variations across samples, and statistical comparison of target gene expression in parallel samples. Users can simply change the macro variables to test various analytical strategies, optimize results and customize the analytical processes. In addition, it is highly automatic and functionally extendable. Thus users are the actual decision-makers controlling RT-qPCR data analyses. SASqPCR and its tutorial are freely available at http://code.google.com/p/sasqpcr/downloads/list.

  20. Automated pre-processing and multivariate vibrational spectra analysis software for rapid results in clinical settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, T.; Kumar, P.; Fillipe, L.

    2018-02-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy, especially FTIR and Raman, has shown enormous potential in disease diagnosis, especially in cancers. Their potential for detecting varied pathological conditions are regularly reported. However, to prove their applicability in clinics, large multi-center multi-national studies need to be undertaken; and these will result in enormous amount of data. A parallel effort to develop analytical methods, including user-friendly software that can quickly pre-process data and subject them to required multivariate analysis is warranted in order to obtain results in real time. This study reports a MATLAB based script that can automatically import data, preprocess spectra— interpolation, derivatives, normalization, and then carry out Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) of the first 10 PCs; all with a single click. The software has been verified on data obtained from cell lines, animal models, and in vivo patient datasets, and gives results comparable to Minitab 16 software. The software can be used to import variety of file extensions, asc, .txt., .xls, and many others. Options to ignore noisy data, plot all possible graphs with PCA factors 1 to 5, and save loading factors, confusion matrices and other parameters are also present. The software can provide results for a dataset of 300 spectra within 0.01 s. We believe that the software will be vital not only in clinical trials using vibrational spectroscopic data, but also to obtain rapid results when these tools get translated into clinics.

  1. Rapid assessment of populations trends of invasive species: Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA, ED

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA is a powerful analytical approach for biodi-versity management. Its main advan-tages are due to its intuitive processing and visualization, since mathematical workflow is conceptually similar to the widely accepted Principal Components Analysis. Detailed analyses of popula-tion trends with mathematical tools are often difficult to achieve for managers by a number of reasons (large numbers or areas monitored, large number of species, insufficient statistics skills, strong knowledge level in demographic analyses, etc.. SSA has been used since the 1970’s in signal processing to clarify signal vs. noisy information, but it has also been used in climate change analy-sis and other developmental areas. Be-sides, SSA is a rapid-learning method for technicians and managers with medium level of mathematical knowledge. Free software in Unix environment is avail-able. Unfortunately, no free and friendly software is available for Win-dows SO. Although R package may offer solutions for really advanced users, it does not fit real work situations for managers of biological invasions. Cater-pillar (Gistat Group, Ltd is by now, the best option found by the author in terms of price, facility for results inter-pretation and time consumed in learn-ing. The main disadvantage is the poor content of tutorial files

  2. Learning Over Time: Using Rapid Prototyping Generative Analysis Experts and Reduction of Scope to Operationalize Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    during the Vietnam Conflict. 67 David A. Kolb , Experiential Learning : Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. (Upper Saddle River, NJ...Essentials for Military Applications. Newport Paper #10. Newport: Newport War College Press. 1996. Kolb , David A. Experiential Learning : Experience... learning over analysis. A broad review of design theory suggests that four techniques - rapid prototyping, generative analysis, use of experts, and

  3. A rapid method of detecting motor blocks in patients with Parkinson's disease during volitional hand movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Mirjana B.

    2002-01-01

    -5%; 56% had MBT% 5-10%; 22% had MBT% 10-15%; 5.5% had MBT% 15-20°% and 2% had MBT% 20-25%. No block lasted more than 25% from the whole movement duration. Table 2 is the summary of mean variability for kinematic indicators of motor block (N, mbt%, t% and for the movement duration T during a 7 day-testing of patients #3. The analysis of calculated data for eight tested PD patients revealed a significant difference (p < 0.01 between healthy controls and three PD patients; data on five PD patients were not significantly different (ns. This method clustered 3 PD patients in the group that experience motor blocks, while the rest were in the group without their significant occurrence. DISCUSSION This algorithm is an additional instrument in classical evaluation of PD patients during their clinical evaluation and treatment. It provides to clinician a rapid feedback on the changes of voluntary hand movements in everyday progress of illness. Furthermore, this method could be of assistance for developing strategies to overcome motor blocks in arm movements at their beginning, as well as for the feedback of the success of drug therapy.

  4. Automated rapid analysis for dioxins and PCBs in food, feedingstuff and environmental matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelscher, K.; Maulshagen, A.; Behnisch, P.A. [eurofins-GfA, Muenster (Germany); Shirkhan, H. [Fluid Management Systems Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Lieck, G. [University of Applied Science, Steinfurt (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Today there is a need to develop high throughput specific and sensitive methods for the determination of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator-PCBs to ensure their rapid and reliable quantification in several kinds of food and feedingstuffs. Ideally one method would fit for several matrices with highest quality standards and with the possibility of a cost/time-effective samplehandling. However, generally in case of the numerous different PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator-PCBs as well as the large concentration range to cover this is quite difficult to fulfill. The implementation of an automated sample-treatment flow process (''dioxin street''), which contains an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), a Power-Prep workstation (Fluid Management Systems, FMS) for automated clean-up, a Syncore Polyvap (Buechi, Switzerland) for solvent evaporation and a HRGC/HRMS (VG AutoSpec) analysis as detection method for several kinds of different matrices is described here. The aim of the present study is to confirm the high quality, low limits of quantification (LOQ), low PCB background levels and reliability of the Power-Prep system in combination with ASE extraction for dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator-PCBs.

  5. A Method to Represent Heterogeneous Materials for Rapid Prototyping: The Matryoshka Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shuangyan; Frank, Matthew C.; Anderson, Donald D.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for representing heterogeneous materials using nested STL shells, based, in particular, on the density distributions of human bones. Design/methodology/approach Nested STL shells, called Matryoshka models, are described, based on their namesake Russian nesting dolls. In this approach, polygonal models, such as STL shells, are “stacked” inside one another to represent different material regions. The Matryoshka model addresses the challenge of representing different densities and different types of bone when reverse engineering from medical images. The Matryoshka model is generated via an iterative process of thresholding the Hounsfield Unit (HU) data using computed tomography (CT), thereby delineating regions of progressively increasing bone density. These nested shells can represent regions starting with the medullary (bone marrow) canal, up through and including the outer surface of the bone. Findings The Matryoshka approach introduced can be used to generate accurate models of heterogeneous materials in an automated fashion, avoiding the challenge of hand-creating an assembly model for input to multi-material additive or subtractive manufacturing. Originality/Value This paper presents a new method for describing heterogeneous materials: in this case, the density distribution in a human bone. The authors show how the Matryoshka model can be used to plan harvesting locations for creating custom rapid allograft bone implants from donor bone. An implementation of a proposed harvesting method is demonstrated, followed by a case study using subtractive rapid prototyping to harvest a bone implant from a human tibia surrogate. PMID:26120277

  6. A Rapid and Improved Method to Generate Recombinant Dengue Virus Vaccine Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Guan, Liming; Meschino, Steven; Fridman, Arthur; Bagchi, Ansu; Pak, Irene; ter Meulen, Jan; Casimiro, Danilo R; Bett, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne infections accounting for severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, the tetravalent chimeric live attenuated Dengue vaccine Dengvaxia® was approved for use in several dengue endemic countries. In general, live attenuated vaccines (LAV) are very efficacious and offer long-lasting immunity against virus-induced disease. Rationally designed LAVs can be generated through reverse genetics technology, a method of generating infectious recombinant viruses from full length cDNA contained in bacterial plasmids. In vitro transcribed (IVT) viral RNA from these infectious clones is transfected into susceptible cells to generate recombinant virus. However, the generation of full-length dengue virus cDNA clones can be difficult due to the genetic instability of viral sequences in bacterial plasmids. To circumvent the need for a single plasmid containing a full length cDNA, in vitro ligation of two or three cDNA fragments contained in separate plasmids can be used to generate a full-length dengue viral cDNA template. However, in vitro ligation of multiple fragments often yields low quality template for IVT reactions, resulting in inconsistent low yield RNA. These technical difficulties make recombinant virus recovery less efficient. In this study, we describe a simple, rapid and efficient method of using LONG-PCR to recover recombinant chimeric Yellow fever dengue (CYD) viruses as potential dengue vaccine candidates. Using this method, we were able to efficiently generate several viable recombinant viruses without introducing any artificial mutations into the viral genomes. We believe that the techniques reported here will enable rapid and efficient recovery of recombinant flaviviruses for evaluation as vaccine candidates and, be applicable to the recovery of other RNA viruses.

  7. A Rapid and Improved Method to Generate Recombinant Dengue Virus Vaccine Candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasekaran Govindarajan

    Full Text Available Dengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne infections accounting for severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, the tetravalent chimeric live attenuated Dengue vaccine Dengvaxia® was approved for use in several dengue endemic countries. In general, live attenuated vaccines (LAV are very efficacious and offer long-lasting immunity against virus-induced disease. Rationally designed LAVs can be generated through reverse genetics technology, a method of generating infectious recombinant viruses from full length cDNA contained in bacterial plasmids. In vitro transcribed (IVT viral RNA from these infectious clones is transfected into susceptible cells to generate recombinant virus. However, the generation of full-length dengue virus cDNA clones can be difficult due to the genetic instability of viral sequences in bacterial plasmids. To circumvent the need for a single plasmid containing a full length cDNA, in vitro ligation of two or three cDNA fragments contained in separate plasmids can be used to generate a full-length dengue viral cDNA template. However, in vitro ligation of multiple fragments often yields low quality template for IVT reactions, resulting in inconsistent low yield RNA. These technical difficulties make recombinant virus recovery less efficient. In this study, we describe a simple, rapid and efficient method of using LONG-PCR to recover recombinant chimeric Yellow fever dengue (CYD viruses as potential dengue vaccine candidates. Using this method, we were able to efficiently generate several viable recombinant viruses without introducing any artificial mutations into the viral genomes. We believe that the techniques reported here will enable rapid and efficient recovery of recombinant flaviviruses for evaluation as vaccine candidates and, be applicable to the recovery of other RNA viruses.

  8. Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie XUE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress. Results: The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. . Conclusions: Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction.

  9. Rapid methods for dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs in food and feedingstuffs. State of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnisch, P.A. [eurofins-GfA, Muenster (Germany); Hoogenboom, R. [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    The increasing number of local dioxin crises since 2002 becoming more and more apparent due to stricter controls of feed and food in the European Union and the globally increasing number of countries applying similar guidelines make it necessary to establish reliable, time and cost-effective screening methods for the dioxin intake through nutritional pathways. Five years after the last overview presentation about all kinds of different bio-analytical detection methods (BDMs) and the establishment of quality guidelines for screening methods, time has come to include as well the improvements in the chemical methods to speed up the analysis. This review gives an overview about the state-of-the-art improvements and gives a future outlook for both methods, chemical and bio-analytical approach for rapid analyses of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Now several new ways of improvement are currently in the pipeline of research and testing, such as PCR, proteomic biomarkers and in case of the clean-up ASE11, PowerPrep and different detection methods as well as different other ways of indicators for dioxins (e.g. correlations to fatty acids).

  10. Multifunctional Collaborative Modeling and Analysis Methods in Engineering Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jonathan B.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Engineers are challenged to produce better designs in less time and for less cost. Hence, to investigate novel and revolutionary design concepts, accurate, high-fidelity results must be assimilated rapidly into the design, analysis, and simulation process. This assimilation should consider diverse mathematical modeling and multi-discipline interactions necessitated by concepts exploiting advanced materials and structures. Integrated high-fidelity methods with diverse engineering applications provide the enabling technologies to assimilate these high-fidelity, multi-disciplinary results rapidly at an early stage in the design. These integrated methods must be multifunctional, collaborative, and applicable to the general field of engineering science and mechanics. Multifunctional methodologies and analysis procedures are formulated for interfacing diverse subdomain idealizations including multi-fidelity modeling methods and multi-discipline analysis methods. These methods, based on the method of weighted residuals, ensure accurate compatibility of primary and secondary variables across the subdomain interfaces. Methods are developed using diverse mathematical modeling (i.e., finite difference and finite element methods) and multi-fidelity modeling among the subdomains. Several benchmark scalar-field and vector-field problems in engineering science are presented with extensions to multidisciplinary problems. Results for all problems presented are in overall good agreement with the exact analytical solution or the reference numerical solution. Based on the results, the integrated modeling approach using the finite element method for multi-fidelity discretization among the subdomains is identified as most robust. The multiple-method approach is advantageous when interfacing diverse disciplines in which each of the method's strengths are utilized. The multifunctional methodology presented provides an effective mechanism by which domains with diverse idealizations are

  11. LC-ESI/MS/MS method for rapid screening and confirmation of 44 exogenous anabolic steroids in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byoung Wook; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Jeong, Eun Sook; Kim, Ho Jun; Jin, Changbae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jaeick

    2011-09-01

    A sensitive and rapid method based on liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) has been developed and validated for the screening and confirmation of 44 exogenous anabolic steroids (29 parent steroids and 15 metabolites) in human urine. The method involves an enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and detection by LC-MS/MS. A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in positive ESI mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode for the screening and product ion scan mode for the confirmation. The protonated molecular ions were used as precursor ions for the SRM analysis and product ion scan. The intraday and interday precisions of the target analytes at concentrations of the minimum required performance levels for the screening were 2-14% and 2-15%, respectively. The limits of detection for the screening and confirmation method were 0.1-10 ng/mL and 0.2-10 ng/mL, respectively, for 44 steroids. This method was successfully applied to analysis of urine samples from suspected anabolic steroid abusers.

  12. Comprehensive and Methodical: Diagnostic and Management Approaches to Rapidly Progressive Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Supriya; Appleby, Brian S

    2017-09-30

    Purpose of review The sudden emergence of a change in cognitive abilities or behavior is an important symptom that warrants medical evaluation and may represent the early stages of a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). To correctly ascertain the cause of RPD in a given patient, the clinician must be methodical and knowledgeable about the range of potential causes and must move forward with supportive treatment, and in some cases empiric treatment, based on clinical features alone. Recent findings Significant advances in prion disease biomarkers, the molecular features of rapidly progressive Alzheimer's disease, and new detection of autoimmune limbic encephalitis disease entities have caused a shift in the diagnostic and treatment framework of RPD. Additionally, in the past decade, emerging retrospective data have led to suggested treatments in autoimmune encephalitis that, if instituted early, can protect patients against residual deficits and disease relapse. Summary Here, we provide an integrative clinical and diagnostic treatment approach that is applicable to the various forms of RPD. We have highlighted the clinical features of selected types of RPD that have experienced advances in the last 10-15 years.

  13. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-09

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance of a Micro-UAV lifting system built with the usage of rapid prototyping methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalewski, R T; Gumowski, K; Barczak, T; Godek, J

    2014-01-01

    This article presents results of the aerodynamic testing of a micro unmanned aerial vehicle rotor efficiency. The rotors were prepared as a set of two rotors in a counter-rotating ducted drive. Prototypes of the drives were made using two rapid prototyping techniques – FDM – fused deposition modelling method and SLS – selective laser sintering. Rotors were made then treated by introducing additional finishing cyanoacrylate coating and abrasive processing. Main differences between those models were observed in fan shape, porosity, surface roughness and mechanical properties – stiffness. An influence of these factors was observed on an aerodynamic efficiency. For the obtained prototypes both simulations and experimental testing were conducted with thrust, power, torque measurements, as well as the measurement of velocity and pressure distribution at the outlet of the duct. The results show the possibility of using rapid prototyping techniques to produce prototypes of drives operating in the low and medium Reynolds numbers (6000-60000), and the aerodynamic shape relevant factors affecting the preparation and performance of such drives. In addition, simulation studies were performed using the Fluent environment where experimental results were confronted with the results of simulation studies.

  15. A rapid method for infectivity titration of Andes hantavirus using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Gonzalo P; Martínez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Galeno, Héctor; Ferrés, Marcela; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    The focus assay is currently the most commonly used technique for hantavirus titer determination. This method requires an incubation time of between 5 and 11 days to allow the appearance of foci after several rounds of viral infection. The following work presents a rapid Andes virus (ANDV) titration assay, based on viral nucleocapsid protein (N) detection in infected cells by flow cytometry. To this end, an anti-N monoclonal antibody was used that was developed and characterized previously. ANDV N could be detected as early as 6 h post-infection, while viral release was not observed until 24-48 h post-infection. Given that ANDV detection was performed during its first round of infection, a time reduction for titer determination was possible and provided results in only two days. The viral titer was calculated from the percentage of N positive cells and agreed with focus assay titers. Furthermore, the assay was applied to quantify the inhibition of ANDV cell entry by patient sera and by preventing endosome acidification. This novel hantavirus titration assay is a highly quantitative and sensitive tool that facilitates infectivity titration of virus stocks, rapid screening for antiviral drugs, and may be further used to detect and quantify infectious virus in human samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid and Sensitive Lateral Flow Immunoassay Method for Procalcitonin (PCT Based on Time-Resolved Immunochromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yang Shao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Procalcitonin (PCT is a current, frequently-used marker for severe bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid quantitative and on-site detection of PCT. To develop the new PCT quantitative detecting kit, a double-antibody sandwich immunofluorescent assay was employed based on time-resolved immunofluorescent assay (TRFIA combined with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA. The performance of the new developed kit was evaluated in the aspects of linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity. Two-hundred thirty-four serum samples were enrolled to carry out the comparison test. The new PCT quantitative detecting kit exhibited a higher sensitivity (0.08 ng/mL. The inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV and the intra-assay CV were 5.4%–7.7% and 5.7%–13.4%, respectively. The recovery rates ranged from 93% to 105%. Furthermore, a high correlation (n = 234, r = 0.977, p < 0.0001 and consistency (Kappa = 0.875 were obtained when compared with the PCT kit from Roche Elecsys BRAHMS. Thus, the new quantitative method for detecting PCT has been successfully established. The results indicated that the newly-developed system based on TRFIA combined with LFIA was suitable for rapid and on-site detection for PCT, which might be a useful platform for other biomarkers in point-of-care tests.

  17. Rapid and simple colorimetric method for the quantification of AI-2 produced from Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanavanitchakorn, Siriluck; Prakitchaiwattana, Cheunjit; Thamyongkit, Patchanita

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Fe(III) ion reduction for the simple and rapid quantification of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) produced from bacteria using Salmonella Typhimurium as a model. Since the molecular structure of AI-2 is somewhat similar to ascorbic acid it was expected that AI-2 would also act as a reducing agent and reduce Fe(III) ions in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline to form the colored [(o-phen)3 Fe(II)]SO4 ferroin complex that could be quantified colorimetrically. In support of this, colony rinses and cell free supernatants from cultures of all tested AI-2 producing strains, but not the AI-2 negative Sinorhizobium meliloti, formed a colored complex with a λmax of 510nm. The OD510 values of these culture supernatants or colony rinses were in broad agreement with the % activity observed in the same samples using the standard Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence assay for AI-2 detection, and with previously reported results. This methodology could potentially be developed as an alternative method for the simple and rapid quantification of AI-2 levels produced in bacterial cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Quach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP, which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and -resistant (MRSA clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71 within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS S. aureus strains (n = 20 within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice.

  19. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  20. Rapid method for measuring protease activity in milk using radiolabeled casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    A rapid means to detect the presence of protease activity in raw milk could be useful in predicting keeping ability of products made from that milk. A 30-min assay has been developed and compared with three other methods of detecting protease. Casein, [methyl- 14 C]-methylated-alpha was purchased from a radioisotope supplier. Concentrations of substrate from 2 to 20 nCi gave counts per minute, which increased linearly when counted with the Charm analyzer. There was not a significant difference in counting times of 10, 20, or 30 min. A mixture of sodium acetate and acetic acid precipitated nonhydrolyzed substrate with an efficiency of 97%. Comparison of the [ 14 C] casein assay, a casein fluorescein isothiocyanate assay, trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid procedure, and the Hull procedure using protease from psychrotrophic bacteria revealed that the [ 14 C] casein and casein fluorescein isothiocyanate methods were roughly equivalent and that the radiometric procedure was 10 times more sensitive than the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid assay. The radiometric procedure was approximately 10(4) times more sensitive than the Hull procedure. The [ 14 C] casein and casein fluorescein isothiocyanate methods were similar in time required, about 30 min, while the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid assay and Hull method required about 1 h plus reagent preparation time. The [ 14 C] casein procedure was most expensive per test; the other three were cheaper and similar to each other in cost

  1. Rapid and efficient method to extract metagenomic DNA from estuarine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Kashif; Sharma, Jaya; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Metagenomic DNA from sediments of selective estuaries of Goa, India was extracted using a simple, fast, efficient and environment friendly method. The recovery of pure metagenomic DNA from our method was significantly high as compared to other well-known methods since the concentration of recovered metagenomic DNA ranged from 1185.1 to 4579.7 µg/g of sediment. The purity of metagenomic DNA was also considerably high as the ratio of absorbance at 260 and 280 nm ranged from 1.88 to 1.94. Therefore, the recovered metagenomic DNA was directly used to perform various molecular biology experiments viz. restriction digestion, PCR amplification, cloning and metagenomic library construction. This clearly proved that our protocol for metagenomic DNA extraction using silica gel efficiently removed the contaminants and prevented shearing of the metagenomic DNA. Thus, this modified method can be used to recover pure metagenomic DNA from various estuarine sediments in a rapid, efficient and eco-friendly manner.

  2. A rapid method combining Golgi and Nissl staining to study neuronal morphology and cytoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilati, Nadia; Barker, Matthew; Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Donga, Revers; Hamann, Martine

    2008-06-01

    The Golgi silver impregnation technique gives detailed information on neuronal morphology of the few neurons it labels, whereas the majority remain unstained. In contrast, the Nissl staining technique allows for consistent labeling of the whole neuronal population but gives very limited information on neuronal morphology. Most studies characterizing neuronal cell types in the context of their distribution within the tissue slice tend to use the Golgi silver impregnation technique for neuronal morphology followed by deimpregnation as a prerequisite for showing that neuron's histological location by subsequent Nissl staining. Here, we describe a rapid method combining Golgi silver impregnation with cresyl violet staining that provides a useful and simple approach to combining cellular morphology with cytoarchitecture without the need for deimpregnating the tissue. Our method allowed us to identify neurons of the facial nucleus and the supratrigeminal nucleus, as well as assessing cellular distribution within layers of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. With this method, we also have been able to directly compare morphological characteristics of neuronal somata at the dorsal cochlear nucleus when labeled with cresyl violet with those obtained with the Golgi method, and we found that cresyl violet-labeled cell bodies appear smaller at high cellular densities. Our observation suggests that cresyl violet staining is inadequate to quantify differences in soma sizes.

  3. Technical note: Rapid image-based field methods improve the quantification of termite mound structures and greenhouse-gas fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Nauer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Termite mounds (TMs mediate biogeochemical processes with global relevance, such as turnover of the important greenhouse gas methane (CH4. However, the complex internal and external morphology of TMs impede an accurate quantitative description. Here we present two novel field methods, photogrammetry (PG and cross-sectional image analysis, to quantify TM external and internal mound structure of 29 TMs of three termite species. Photogrammetry was used to measure epigeal volume (VE, surface area (AE and mound basal area (AB by reconstructing 3-D models from digital photographs, and compared against a water-displacement method and the conventional approach of approximating TMs by simple geometric shapes. To describe TM internal structure, we introduce TM macro- and micro-porosity (θM and θμ, the volume fractions of macroscopic chambers, and microscopic pores in the wall material, respectively. Macro-porosity was estimated using image analysis of single TM cross sections, and compared against full X-ray computer tomography (CT scans of 17 TMs. For these TMs we present complete pore fractions to assess species-specific differences in internal structure. The PG method yielded VE nearly identical to a water-displacement method, while approximation of TMs by simple geometric shapes led to errors of 4–200 %. Likewise, using PG substantially improved the accuracy of CH4 emission estimates by 10–50 %. Comprehensive CT scanning revealed that investigated TMs have species-specific ranges of θM and θμ, but similar total porosity. Image analysis of single TM cross sections produced good estimates of θM for species with thick walls and evenly distributed chambers. The new image-based methods allow rapid and accurate quantitative characterisation of TMs to answer ecological, physiological and biogeochemical questions. The PG method should be applied when measuring greenhouse-gas emissions from TMs to avoid large errors from inadequate shape

  4. A Simple and Rapid Method to Evaluate Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen in Sewage Sludge Amended Calcareous Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Lotfi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN can be usually considered as labile nitrogen. Measurement of PMN is expensive and time consuming; therefore, a simpler and more rapid alternative may facilitate routine laboratory analysis. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between PMN and biological index of nitrogen availability (BINA. The studied soil was previously treated with 0, 25, and 100 tons ha-1 of sewage sludge with 0, 1, 2 and 3 consecutive years of application. Soil samples were taken 6 months after the latest application. PMN was measured according to Stanford and Smith procedure (20 weeks of aerobic incubation with 2 weeks leaching intervals and BINA measured as described by Bundy and Meisinger (7 days of anaerobic incubation at 40˚ C followed by extraction of NH4+. Results showed that PMN was significantly correlated with BINA (r = 0.938, P

  5. Analysis methods (from 301 to 351)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis methods of materials used in the nuclear field (uranium, plutonium and their compounds, zirconium, magnesium, water...) and determination of impurities. Only reliable methods are selected [fr

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF THE RAPID GROWTH FACTORS PRESENTED IN THE LITERATURE OF THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALB MARIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main rapid growth factors, as encountered in literature and discusses the importance and contribution of these factors in achieving the rapid growth, respectively if this growth phenomenon may be achieved in the absence of the aforesaid factors. The paper examines the factors and subfactors considered or found by scholars to have an effect on or be in connection with the rapid growth. A comparative analysis was performed on several studies concerning the rapid growth companies. Among the main factors influencing the rapid growth are those related to the human resources management, the entrepreneur characteritics and the characteristics of the business. The paper also discusses several issues related to the will of the manager or the entrepreneur, repectively the need to understand the role of the factors that intervene when the growth is not wanted and still obtained or when the growth is targeted but not achieved. The conclusion is in agreement with other scholars’ findings reported in the literature. Certain factors correlated with the appropriate actions may lead to the rapid growth. The paper represents a starting point for the study of those management related aspects enabling companies to grow rapidly in the Romanian business environment.

  7. A PCR detection method for rapid identification of Melissococcus pluton in honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govan, V A; Brözel, V; Allsopp, M H; Davison, S

    1998-05-01

    Melissococcus pluton is the causative agent of European foulbrood, a disease of honeybee larvae. This bacterium is particularly difficult to isolate because of its stringent growth requirements and competition from other bacteria. PCR was used selectively to amplify specific rRNA gene sequences of M. pluton from pure culture, from crude cell lysates, and directly from infected bee larvae. The PCR primers were designed from M. pluton 16S rRNA sequence data. The PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed as originating from M. pluton by sequencing in both directions. Detection was highly specific, and the probes did not hybridize with DNA from other bacterial species tested. This method enabled the rapid and specific detection and identification of M. pluton from pure cultures and infected bee larvae.

  8. A rapid and economic in-house DNA purification method using glass syringe filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Purity, yield, speed and cost are important considerations in plasmid purification, but it is difficult to achieve all of these at the same time. Currently, there are many protocols and kits for DNA purification, however none maximize all four considerations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now describe a fast, efficient and economic in-house protocol for plasmid preparation using glass syringe filters. Plasmid yield and quality as determined by enzyme digestion and transfection efficiency were equivalent to the expensive commercial kits. Importantly, the time required for purification was much less than that required using a commercial kit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method provides DNA yield and quality similar to that obtained with commercial kits, but is more rapid and less costly.

  9. A rapid method for whole mount preparations of mammalian oocytes and early embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, R M; Masui, Y

    1994-05-01

    Whole mounts of mouse oocytes and embryos are useful for observing intracellular structures while preserving morphological integrity. This method is inconvenient for rapid processing of a large number of specimens because washing each specimen in a protein-free solution is required prior to transfer into the fixative. We have developed a new fixative which does not cause protein precipitation which can be added directly to the culture medium. Specimens can be preserved in culture dishes for at least one month, and processed for cytological observation at a convenient time. When stained with hematoxylin, details of cellular structures such as nuclei, nucleoli, chromosomes and spindle microtubules can be observed while maintaining the organization of the organelles.

  10. NATO Advanced Research Workshop, 19-22 May 1997: Rapid Method for Monitoring the Environment for Biological Hazards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Workshop met for the purpose of bringing to light rapid methods for monitoring the environment for biological hazards such as biological warfare agents, naturally occurring...

  11. Rapid radiometric methods to detect and differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis from other mycobacterial species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Hwangbo, C.C.; Silcox, V.; Good, R.C.; Snider, D.E. Jr.; Middlebrook, G.

    1984-01-01

    Rapid methods for the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis (TB complex) from other mycobacteria (MOTT bacilli) were developed and evaluated in a three-phase study. In the first phase, techniques for identification of Mycobacterium species were developed by using radiometric technology and BACTEC Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Based on 14 CO 2 evolution, characteristic growth patterns were established for 13 commonly encountered mycobacterial species. Mycobacteria belonging to the TB complex were differentiated from other mycobacteria by cellular morphology and rate of 14 CO 2 evolution. For further differentiation, radiometric tests for niacin production and inhibition by Q-nitro-alpha-acetyl amino-beta-hydroxy-propiophenone (NAP) were developed. In the second phase, 100 coded specimens on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as members of the TB complex, MOTT bacilli, bacteria other than mycobacteria, or ''no viable organisms'' within 3 to 12 (average 6.4) days of receipt from the Centers for Disease Control. Isolation and identification of mycobacteria from 20 simulated sputum specimens were carried out in phase III. Out of 20 sputum specimens, 16 contained culturable mycobacteria, and all of the positives were detected by the BACTEC method in an average of 7.3 days. The positive mycobacterial cultures were isolated and identified as TB complex or MOTT bacilli in an average of 12.8 days. The radiometric NAP test was found to be highly sensitive and specific for a rapid identification of TB complex, whereas the radiometric niacin test was found to have some inherent problems. Radiometric BACTEC and conventional methodologies were in complete agreement in Phase II as well as in Phase III

  12. A new rapid method for direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnini, Simona; Brucculeri, Veronica; Morici, Paola; Ghelardi, Emilia; Florio, Walter; Lupetti, Antonella

    2016-08-12

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the causative agent(s) of bloodstream infections can lead to prompt appropriate antimicrobial therapy. To shorten species identification, in this study bacteria were recovered from monomicrobial blood cultures by serum separator tubes and spotted onto the target plate for direct MALDI-TOF MS identification. Proper antibiotics were selected for direct AST based on species identification. In order to obtain rapid AST results, bacteria were recovered from positive blood cultures by two different protocols: by serum separator tubes (further referred to as PR1), or after a short-term subculture in liquid medium (further referred to as PR2). The results were compared with those obtained by the method currently used in our laboratory consisting in identification by MALDI-TOF and AST by Vitek 2 or Sensititre on isolated colonies. The direct MALDI-TOF method concordantly identified with the current method 97.5 % of the Gram-negative bacteria and 96.1 % of the Gram-positive cocci contained in monomicrobial blood cultures. The direct AST by PR1 and PR2 for all isolate/antimicrobial agent combinations was concordant/correct with the current method for 87.8 and 90.5 % of Gram-negative bacteria and for 93.1 and 93.8 % of Gram-positive cocci, respectively. In particular, 100 % categorical agreement was found with levofloxacin for Enterobacteriaceae by both PR1 and PR2, and 99.0 and 100 % categorical agreement was observed with linezolid for Gram-positive cocci by PR1 and PR2, respectively. There was no significant difference in accuracy between PR1 and PR2 for Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive cocci. This newly described method seems promising for providing accurate AST results. Most importantly, these results would be available in a few hours from blood culture positivity, which would help clinicians to promptly confirm or streamline an effective antibiotic therapy in patients with bloodstream

  13. A rapid minor groove binder PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus 104M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Qin, Lide; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2018-01-24

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Gram-negative Brucella bacteria. Immunisation with attenuated vaccine is an effective method of prevention, but it can interfere with diagnosis. Live, attenuated Brucella abortus strain 104M has been used for the prevention of human brucellosis in China since 1965. However, at present, no fast and reliable method exists that can distinguish this strain from field strains. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based assays offer a new approach for such discrimination. SNP-based minor groove binder (MGB) and Cycleave assays have been used for rapid identification of four Brucella vaccine strains (B. abortus strains S19, A19 and RB51, and B. melitensis Rev1). The main objective of this study was to develop a PCR assay for rapid and specific detection of strain 104M. We developed a SNP-based MGB PCR assay that could successfully distinguish strain 104M from 18 representative strains of Brucella (B. abortus biovars 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9, B. melitensis biovars 1, 2 and 3, B. suis biovars 1, 2, 3 and 4, B. canis, B. neotomae, and B. ovis), four Brucella vaccine strains (A19, S19, S2, M5), and 55 Brucella clinical field strains. The assay gave a negative reaction with four non-Brucella species (Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus suis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The minimum sensitivity of the assay, evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA, was 220 fg for the 104M strain and 76 fg for the single non-104M Brucella strain tested (B. abortus A19). The assay was also reproducible (intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation = 0.006-0.022 and 0.012-0.044, respectively). A SNP-based MGB PCR assay was developed that could straightforwardly and unambiguously distinguish B. abortus vaccine strain 104M from non-104M Brucella strains. Compared to the classical isolation and identification approaches of bacteriology, this real-time PCR assay has substantial advantages in terms of

  14. Direct chromatographic methods for the rapid determination of homogentisic acid in strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanu, Roberta; Spano, Nadia; Panzanelli, Angelo; Pilo, Maria I; Piu, Paola C; Sanna, Gavino; Tapparo, Andrea

    2005-10-07

    Two rapid and direct chromatographic methods based on reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and ion chromatography (IC) were developed for the determination of homogentisic acid (HA) in honey. This is the marker of the botanic origin of strawberry tree honey. The methods were validated and tested using 22 samples from Sardinia, Italy. The IC method is faster than the RP-HPLC one (6 min versus 13 min of total run), but it is slightly less sensitive (the limit of detection (LOD), is 26 mg kg(-1) versus 15 mg kg(-1)) and reproducible (relative standard deviation, RSD, of 10.4 and 4.4%, respectively). The whole dataset of validation parameters allows both the proposed methods to be considered as bias-free (by recovery tests, comparison of analytical results of the two independent methods and analysis of a synthetic sample) and precise (both the techniques show a repeatability better than 2% repeatability in the range between 70 and 600 mg kg(-1)).

  15. Rapid Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Method Quantifies Oxygen-Rich Lignin Compound in Complex Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Kelsey S.; Roberts, Michael S.; Vinueza, Nelson R.

    2018-03-01

    Complex mixture analysis is a costly and time-consuming task facing researchers with foci as varied as food science and fuel analysis. When faced with the task of quantifying oxygen-rich bio-oil molecules in a complex diesel mixture, we asked whether complex mixtures could be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed on a single mass spectrometer with mid-range resolving power without the use of lengthy separations. To answer this question, we developed and evaluated a quantitation method that eliminated chromatography steps and expanded the use of quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry from primarily qualitative to quantitative as well. To account for mixture complexity, the method employed an ionization dopant, targeted tandem mass spectrometry, and an internal standard. This combination of three techniques achieved reliable quantitation of oxygen-rich eugenol in diesel from 300 to 2500 ng/mL with sufficient linearity (R2 = 0.97 ± 0.01) and excellent accuracy (percent error = 0% ± 5). To understand the limitations of the method, it was compared to quantitation attained on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, the gold standard for quantitation. The triple quadrupole quantified eugenol from 50 to 2500 ng/mL with stronger linearity (R2 = 0.996 ± 0.003) than the quadrupole-time-of-flight and comparable accuracy (percent error = 4% ± 5). This demonstrates that a quadrupole-time-of-flight can be used for not only qualitative analysis but also targeted quantitation of oxygen-rich lignin molecules in complex mixtures without extensive sample preparation. The rapid and cost-effective method presented here offers new possibilities for bio-oil research, including: (1) allowing for bio-oil studies that demand repetitive analysis as process parameters are changed and (2) making this research accessible to more laboratories. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Understanding rapid theoretical change in particle physics: a month-by-month co-citation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, D.; Koester, D.; White, D.H.; Kern, R.

    1979-01-01

    While co-citation analysis has proved a powerful tool in the study of changes in intellectual foci in science, no one has ever used the technique to study very rapid changes in the theoretical structure of a scientific field. This paper presents month-by-month co-citation analyses of key phases in the weak-electromagnetic unification research program within particle physics, and shows that these analyses capture and illuminate very rapid intellectual changes. These data provide yet another illustration of the utility of co-citation analysis for understanding the history of science. 8 figures

  17. A Method for Rapid Measurement of Contrast Sensitivity on Mobile Touch-Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Touch-screen displays in cell phones and tablet computers are now pervasive, making them an attractive option for vision testing outside of the laboratory or clinic. Here we de- scribe a novel method in which subjects use a finger swipe to indicate the transition from visible to invisible on a grating which is swept in both contrast and frequency. Because a single image can be swiped in about a second, it is practical to use a series of images to zoom in on particular ranges of contrast or frequency, both to increase the accuracy of the measurements and to obtain an estimate of the reliability of the subject. Sensitivities to chromatic and spatio-temporal modulations are easily measured using the same method. A proto- type has been developed for Apple Computer's iPad/iPod/iPhone family of devices, implemented using an open-source scripting environment known as QuIP (QUick Image Processing, http://hsi.arc.nasa.gov/groups/scanpath/research.php). Preliminary data show good agreement with estimates obtained from traditional psychophysical methods as well as newer rapid estimation techniques. Issues relating to device calibration are also discussed.

  18. Aptamer-mediated colorimetric method for rapid and sensitive detection of chloramphenicol in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Zhang, Jing; Yao, Li; Xue, Feng; Lu, Jianfeng; Li, Baoguang; Chen, Wei

    2018-09-15

    We report an aptamer-mediated colorimetric method for sensitive detection of chloramphenicol (CAP). The aptamer of CAP is immobilized by the hybridization with pre-immobilized capture probe in the microtiter plate. The horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is covalently attached to the aptamer by the biotin-streptavidin system for signal production. CAP will preferably bind with aptamer due to the high binding affinity, which attributes to the release of aptamer and HRP and thus, affects the optical signal intensity. Quantitative determination of CAP is successfully achieved in the wide range from 0.001 to 1000 ng/mL with detection limit of 0.0031 ng/mL, which is more sensitive than traditional immunoassays. This method is further validated by measuring the recovery of CAP spiked in two different food matrices (honey and fish). The aptamer-mediated colorimetric method can be a useful protocol for rapid and sensitive screening of CAP, and may be used as an alternative means for traditional immunoassays. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural transformation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A rapid method to create genetic deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimalapati, Suneeta; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Servage, Kelly; De Nisco, Nicole J; Dalia, Ankur B; Orth, Kim

    2018-03-19

    The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an opportunistic human pathogen and the leading cause of seafood borne acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, this bacterium was implicated as the etiologic agent of a severe shrimp disease with consequent devastating outcomes to shrimp farming. In both cases, acquisition of genetic material via horizontal transfer provided V. parahaemolyticus with new virulence tools to cause disease. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus pathogenesis often requires manipulating its genome. Classically, genetic deletions in V. parahaemolyticus are performed using a laborious, lengthy, multi-step process. Herein, we describe a fast and efficient method to edit this bacterium's genome based on V. parahaemolyticus natural competence. Although this method is similar to one previously described, V. parahaemolyticus requires counter selection for curing of acquired plasmids due to its recalcitrant nature of retaining extrachromosomal DNA. We believe this approach will be of use to the Vibrio community. Importance Spreading of Vibrios throughout the world correlates with increased global temperatures. As they spread, they find new niches to survive, proliferate and invade. Therefore, genetic manipulation of Vibrios is of utmost importance for studying these species. Herein, we have delineated and validated a rapid method to create genetic deletions in Vibrio parahaemolyticus This study provides insightful methodology for studies with other Vibrio species. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Rapid, high-temperature, field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcium carbonate scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1986-09-01

    A new test method is described that allows the rapid field testing of calcium carbonate scale inhibitors at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). The method evolved from use of a full-flow test loop on a well with a mass flow rate of about 1 x 10/sup 6/ lbm/hr (126 kg/s). It is a simple, effective way to evaluate the effectiveness of inhibitors under field conditions. Five commercial formulations were chosen for field evaluation on the basis of nonflowing, laboratory screening tests at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). Four of these formulations from different suppliers controlled calcium carbonate scale deposition as measured by the test method. Two of these could dislodge recently deposited scale that had not age-hardened. Performance-profile diagrams, which were measured for these four effective inhibitors, show the concentration interrelationship between brine calcium and inhibitor concentrations at which the formulations will and will not stop scale formation in the test apparatus. With these diagrams, one formulation was chosen for testing on the full-flow brine line. The composition was tested for 6 weeks and showed a dramatic decrease in the scaling occurring at the flow-control valve. This scaling was about to force a shutdown of a major, long-term flow test being done for reservoir economic evaluations. The inhibitor stopped the scaling, and the test was performed without interruption.

  1. Development of a rapid HRM genotyping method for detection of dog-derived Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liping; Yu, Xingang; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Wu, Sheng; Zheng, Guochao; Hu, Wei; Song, Meiran; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Biao; Li, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a zoonotic flagellate protozoan in the intestine of human and many mammals including dogs. To assess a threat of dog-derived G. lamblia to humans, the common dog-derived G. lamblia assemblages A, C, and D were genotyped by high-resolution melting (HRM) technology. According to β-giardin gene sequence, the qPCR-HRM primers BG5 and BG7 were designed. A series of experiments on the stability, sensitivity, and accuracy of the HRM method were also tested. Results showed that the primers BG5 and BG7 could distinguish among three assemblages A, C, and D, which Tm value differences were about 1 °C to each other. The melting curves of intra-assay reproducibility were almost coincided, and those of inter-assay reproducibility were much the same shape. The lowest detection concentration was about 5 × 10(-6)-ng/μL sample. The genotyping results from 21 G. lamblia samples by the HRM method were in complete accordance with sequencing results. It is concluded that the HRM genotyping method is rapid, stable, specific, highly sensitive, and suitable for clinical detection and molecular epidemiological survey of dog-derived G. lamblia.

  2. Rapid, Simple, and Sensitive Spectrofluorimetric Method for the Estimation of Ganciclovir in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Balwani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate, and affordable spectrofluorimetric method was developed and validated for the estimation of ganciclovir in bulk as well as in marketed formulations. The method was based on measuring the native fluorescence of ganciclovir in 0.2 M hydrochloric acid buffer of pH 1.2 at 374 nm after excitation at 257 nm. The calibration graph was found to be rectilinear in the concentration range of 0.25–2.00 μg mL−1. The limit of quantification and limit of detection were found to be 0.029 μg mL−1 and 0.010 μg mL−1, respectively. The method was fully validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise, and reproducible (relative standard deviation <2% and can be successfully applied for the determination of ganciclovir in its commercial capsules with average percentage recovery of 101.31 ± 0.90.

  3. Rapid maxillary expansion effects: An alternative assessment method by means of cone-beam tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aims to develop a method to assess the changes in palatal and lingual cross-sectional areas in patients submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME. METHODS: The sample comprised 31 Class I malocclusion individuals submitted to RME and divided into two groups treated with Haas (17 patients and Hyrax (14 patients expanders. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired at T0 (before expansion and T1 (six months after screw stabilization. Maxillary and mandibular cross-sectional areas were assessed at first permanent molars and first premolars regions and compared at T0 and T1. Mandibular occlusal area was also analyzed. RESULTS: Maxillary cross-sectional areas increased in 56.18 mm2 and 44.32 mm2 for the posterior and anterior regions. These values were smaller for the mandible, representing augmentation of 40.32 mm2 and 39.91 mm2 for posterior and anterior sections. No differences were found when comparing both expanders. Mandibular occlusal area increased 43.99mm2 and mandibular incisors proclined. Increments of 1.74 mm and 1.7 mm occurred in mandibular intermolar and interpremolar distances. These same distances presented increments of 5.5 mm and 5.57 mm for the maxillary arch. CONCLUSION: Occlusal and cross-sectional areas increased significantly after RME. The method described seems to be reliable and precise to assess intraoral area changes.

  4. Development of a new rapid HPLC method for the fractionation of histones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurley, L.R.; Valdez, J.G.; Prentice, D.A.; Spall, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    To study histone functions, it is necessary to fractionate the histones into their five classes (H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) and then to subfractionate these classes into variants having slightly different primary structures and into different phosphorylated and acetylated forms. With the advent of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), it was hoped that laborious and time-consuming conventional methods could be replaced by a simple, rapid, high-resolving HPLC method for fractionating histones. However, problems of irreversible adsorption of the histones to HPLC column packings discouraged this development. Our laboratory has now determined that the strong adsorption of histones to HPLC columns results from two different forces: (1) polar interactions between the histones and the silanol groups of silica-based HPLC column packing, and (2) hydrophobic interactions between the histones and the bound organic phase of the column packings. By minimizing these forces, we have succeeded in developing an HPLC method suitable for histone studies

  5. A simple and rapid chromatographic method to determine unauthorized basic colorants (rhodamine B, auramine O, and pararosaniline) in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Chiye; Zhong, Xining; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Kubota, Hiroki; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to determine basic colorants such as pararosaniline (PA), auramine O (AO), and rhodamine B (RB) in various processed foods was developed. Linearity of the calibration curves ranged from 0.05 to 50 μg/mL for PA and 0.05-100 μg/mL for AO and RB. The detection and quantification limits (LOD and LOQ) of the basic colorants, which were evaluated as signal-to-noise ratios of 3 for LOD and 10 for LOQ, ranged from 0.0125 to 0.05 and 0.025 to 0.125 μg/g, respectively. The recoveries and relative standard deviations of three basic colorants in six processed foods, namely, chili sauce, curry paste, gochujang (hot pepper paste), tandoori chicken (roasted chicken prepared with yogurt and spices), powder soup, and shrimp powder ranged from 70.2% to 102.8% and 0.8% to 8.0%, respectively. The intraday precision of the recovery test ranged from 1.7% to 4.5%, whereas the interday precision ranged from 3.7% to 7.7%. The reported method has been successfully applied to basic colorant determination in various processed foods such as fat-based food matrices (curry paste and tandoori chicken), chili products (gochujang and chili sauce), and protein-based products (shrimp powder and powder soup). Thin layer chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methods for the determination of basic colorants in processed foods were also developed for rapid analysis and identification, respectively. These methods are very useful for monitoring unauthorized basic colorants in inspection centers or quarantine laboratories in many countries.

  6. Rapid analysis of fungal cultures and dried figs for secondary metabolites by LC/TOF-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senyuva, Hamide Z. [Ankara Test and Analysis Laboratory, Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Ankara 06330 (Turkey)], E-mail: hamide.senyuva@tubitak.gov.tr; Gilbert, John [Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom); Oztuerkoglu, Sebnem [Ankara Test and Analysis Laboratory, Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Ankara 06330 (Turkey)

    2008-06-09

    A liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS) method has been developed for profiling fungal metabolites. The performance of the procedure in terms of mass accuracy, selectivity (specificity) and repeatability was established by spiking aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes and other metabolites into blank growth media. After extracting, and carrying out LC/TOF-MS analysis, the standards were correctly identified by searching a specially constructed database of 465 secondary metabolites. To demonstrate the viability of this approach 11 toxigenic and four non-toxigenic fungi from reference collections were grown on various media, for 7-14 days. The method was also applied to two toxigenic fungi, A. flavus (200-138) and A. parasiticus (2999-465) grown on gamma radiation sterilised dried figs, for 7-14 days. The fungal hyphae plus a portion of growth media or portions of dried figs were solvent extracted and analysed by LC/TOF-MS using a rapid resolution microbore LC column. Data processing based on cluster analysis, showed that electrospray ionization (ESI)-TOF-MS could be used to unequivocally identify metabolites in crude extracts. Using the elemental metabolite database, it was demonstrated that from culture collection isolates, anticipated metabolites. The speed and simplicity of the method has meant that levels of these metabolites could be monitored daily in sterilised figs. Over a 14-day period, levels of aflatoxins and kojic acid maximised at 5-6 days, whilst levels of 5-methoxysterigmatocystin remained relatively constant. In addition to the known metabolites expected to be produced by these fungi, roquefortine A, fumagillin, fumigaclavine B, malformins (peptides), aspergillic acid, nigragillin, terrein, terrestric acid and penicillic acid were also identified.

  7. Extractive Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization (EAPPI) Mass Spectrometry: Rapid Analysis of Chemicals in Complex Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyuan; Yang, Jiuzhong; Wang, Jian; Hu, Yonghua; Zhao, Wan; Zhou, Zhongyue; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Extractive atmospheric pressure photoionization (EAPPI) mass spectrometry was designed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemicals in complex matrices. In this method, an ultrasonic nebulization system was applied to sample extraction, nebulization, and vaporization. Mixed with a gaseous dopant, vaporized analytes were ionized through ambient photon-induced ion-molecule reactions, and were mass-analyzed by a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). After careful optimization and testing with pure sample solution, EAPPI was successfully applied to the fast screening of capsules, soil, natural products, and viscous compounds. Analysis was completed within a few seconds without the need for preseparation. Moreover, the quantification capability of EAPPI for matrices was evaluated by analyzing six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. The correlation coefficients (R (2) ) for standard curves of all six PAHs were above 0.99, and the detection limits were in the range of 0.16-0.34 ng/mg. In addition, EAPPI could also be used to monitor organic chemical reactions in real time. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  8. Rapid planar chromatographic analysis of 25 water-soluble dyes used as food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, Gertrud E; Oellig, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    A rapid planar chromatographic method for identification and quantification of 25 water-soluble dyes in food was developed. In a horizontal developing chamber, the chromatographic separation on silica gel 60F254 high-performance thin-layer chromatography plates took 12 min for 40 runs in parallel, using 8 mL ethyl acetate-methanol-water-acetic acid (65 + 23 + 11 + 1, v/v/v/v) mobile phase up to a migration distance of 50 mm. However, the total analysis time, inclusive of application and evaluation, took 60 min for 40 runs. Thus, the overall time/run can be calculated as 1.5 min with a solvent consumption of 200 microL. A sample throughput of 1000 runs/8 h day can be reached by switching between the working stations (application, development, and evaluation) in a 20 min interval, which triples the analysis throughput. Densitometry was performed by absorption measurement using the multiwavelength scan mode in the UV and visible ranges. Repeatabilities [relative standard deviation (RSD), 4 determinations] at the first or second calibration level showed precisions of mostly or = 0.9987) and RSD values ( or = 0.9996). If necessary for confirmation, online mass spectra were recorded within a minute.

  9. Rapid Classification and Identification of Microcystis aeruginosa Strains Using MALDI-TOF MS and Polygenetic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Sun

    Full Text Available Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS was used to establish a rapid, simple, and accurate method to differentiate among strains of Microcystis aeruginosa, one of the most prevalent types of bloom-forming cyanobacteria. M. aeruginosa NIES-843, for which a complete genome has been sequenced, was used to characterize ribosomal proteins as biomarkers and to optimize conditions for observing ribosomal proteins as major peaks in a given mass spectrum. Thirty-one of 52 ribosomal subunit proteins were detected and identified along the mass spectrum. Fifty-five strains of M. aeruginosa from different habitats were analyzed using MALDI-TOF MS; among these samples, different ribosomal protein types were observed. A polygenetic analysis was performed using an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means and different ribosomal protein types to classify the strains into five major clades. Two clades primarily contained toxic strains, and the other three clades contained exclusively non-toxic strains. This is the first study to differentiate cyanobacterial strains using MALDI-TOF MS.

  10. Rapid Classification and Identification of Microcystis aeruginosa Strains Using MALDI-TOF MS and Polygenetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Wei; Jiang, Wen-Jing; Sato, Hiroaki; Kawachi, Masanobu; Lu, Xi-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to establish a rapid, simple, and accurate method to differentiate among strains of Microcystis aeruginosa, one of the most prevalent types of bloom-forming cyanobacteria. M. aeruginosa NIES-843, for which a complete genome has been sequenced, was used to characterize ribosomal proteins as biomarkers and to optimize conditions for observing ribosomal proteins as major peaks in a given mass spectrum. Thirty-one of 52 ribosomal subunit proteins were detected and identified along the mass spectrum. Fifty-five strains of M. aeruginosa from different habitats were analyzed using MALDI-TOF MS; among these samples, different ribosomal protein types were observed. A polygenetic analysis was performed using an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means and different ribosomal protein types to classify the strains into five major clades. Two clades primarily contained toxic strains, and the other three clades contained exclusively non-toxic strains. This is the first study to differentiate cyanobacterial strains using MALDI-TOF MS.

  11. A Rapid Method for Quantifying Viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cellular Infection Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, Hannah B.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Begg, Douglas J.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Determining the viability of bacteria is a key outcome of in vitro cellular infection assays. Currently, this is done by culture, which is problematic for fastidious slow-growing bacteria such as Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, where it can take up to 4 months to confirm growth. This study aimed to identify an assay that can rapidly quantify the number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in a cellular sample. Three commercially available bacterial viability assays along with a modified liquid culture method coupled with high-throughput quantitative PCR growth detection were assessed. Criteria for assessment included the ability of each assay to differentiate live and dead M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms and their accuracy at low bacterial concentrations. Using the culture-based method, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth was reliably detected and quantified within 2 weeks. There was a strong linear association between the 2-week growth rate and the initial inoculum concentration. The number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in an unknown sample was quantified based on the growth rate, by using growth standards. In contrast, none of the commercially available viability assays were suitable for use with samples from in vitro cellular infection assays. IMPORTANCE Rapid quantification of the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in samples from in vitro cellular infection assays is important, as it allows these assays to be carried out on a large scale. In vitro cellular infection assays can function as a preliminary screening tool, for vaccine development or antimicrobial screening, and also to extend findings derived from experimental animal trials. Currently, by using culture, it takes up to 4 months to obtain quantifiable results regarding M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability after an in vitro infection assay; however, with the quantitative PCR and liquid culture method

  12. Validity and feasibility of a satellite imagery-based method for rapid estimation of displaced populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checchi, Francesco; Stewart, Barclay T; Palmer, Jennifer J; Grundy, Chris

    2013-01-23

    Estimating the size of forcibly displaced populations is key to documenting their plight and allocating sufficient resources to their assistance, but is often not done, particularly during the acute phase of displacement, due to methodological challenges and inaccessibility. In this study, we explored the potential use of very high resolution satellite imagery to remotely estimate forcibly displaced populations. Our method consisted of multiplying (i) manual counts of assumed residential structures on a satellite image and (ii) estimates of the mean number of people per structure (structure occupancy) obtained from publicly available reports. We computed population estimates for 11 sites in Bangladesh, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya and Mozambique (six refugee camps, three internally displaced persons' camps and two urban neighbourhoods with a mixture of residents and displaced) ranging in population from 1,969 to 90,547, and compared these to "gold standard" reference population figures from census or other robust methods. Structure counts by independent analysts were reasonably consistent. Between one and 11 occupancy reports were available per site and most of these reported people per household rather than per structure. The imagery-based method had a precision relative to reference population figures of layout. For each site, estimates were produced in 2-5 working person-days. In settings with clearly distinguishable individual structures, the remote, imagery-based method had reasonable accuracy for the purposes of rapid estimation, was simple and quick to implement, and would likely perform better in more current application. However, it may have insurmountable limitations in settings featuring connected buildings or shelters, a complex pattern of roofs and multi-level buildings. Based on these results, we discuss possible ways forward for the method's development.

  13. Improved Savitzky-Golay-method-based fluorescence subtraction algorithm for rapid recovery of Raman spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2014-08-20

    In this paper, we propose an improved subtraction algorithm for rapid recovery of Raman spectra that can substantially reduce the computation time. This algorithm is based on an improved Savitzky-Golay (SG) iterative smoothing method, which involves two key novel approaches: (a) the use of the Gauss-Seidel method and (b) the introduction of a relaxation factor into the iterative procedure. By applying a novel successive relaxation (SG-SR) iterative method to the relaxation factor, additional improvement in the convergence speed over the standard Savitzky-Golay procedure is realized. The proposed improved algorithm (the RIA-SG-SR algorithm), which uses SG-SR-based iteration instead of Savitzky-Golay iteration, has been optimized and validated with a mathematically simulated Raman spectrum, as well as experimentally measured Raman spectra from non-biological and biological samples. The method results in a significant reduction in computing cost while yielding consistent rejection of fluorescence and noise for spectra with low signal-to-fluorescence ratios and varied baselines. In the simulation, RIA-SG-SR achieved 1 order of magnitude improvement in iteration number and 2 orders of magnitude improvement in computation time compared with the range-independent background-subtraction algorithm (RIA). Furthermore the computation time of the experimentally measured raw Raman spectrum processing from skin tissue decreased from 6.72 to 0.094 s. In general, the processing of the SG-SR method can be conducted within dozens of milliseconds, which can provide a real-time procedure in practical situations.

  14. DTI analysis methods : Voxel-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; Emsell, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Voxel-based analysis (VBA) of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data permits the investigation of voxel-wise differences or changes in DTI metrics in every voxel of a brain dataset. It is applied primarily in the exploratory analysis of hypothesized group-level alterations in DTI parameters, as it does

  15. Use of PCR-Based Methods for Rapid Differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriani, Sandra; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Dellaglio, Franco

    1999-01-01

    Two PCR-based methods, specific PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR), were used for rapid and reliable differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. PCR with a single combination of primers which targeted the proline iminopeptidase (pepIP) gene of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus allowed amplification of genomic fragments specific for the two subspecies when either DNA from a single colony or cells extracted from dairy products were used. A numerical analysis of the RAPD-PCR patterns obtained with primer M13 gave results that were consistent with the results of specific PCR for all strains except L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii LMG 6412T, which clustered with L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains. In addition, RAPD-PCR performed with primer 1254 provided highly polymorphic profiles and thus was superior for distinguishing individual L. delbrueckii strains. PMID:10508059

  16. Use of PCR-based methods for rapid differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriani, S; Zapparoli, G; Dellaglio, F

    1999-10-01

    Two PCR-based methods, specific PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR), were used for rapid and reliable differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. PCR with a single combination of primers which targeted the proline iminopeptidase (pepIP) gene of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus allowed amplification of genomic fragments specific for the two subspecies when either DNA from a single colony or cells extracted from dairy products were used. A numerical analysis of the RAPD-PCR patterns obtained with primer M13 gave results that were consistent with the results of specific PCR for all strains except L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii LMG 6412(T), which clustered with L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains. In addition, RAPD-PCR performed with primer 1254 provided highly polymorphic profiles and thus was superior for distinguishing individual L. delbrueckii strains.

  17. Towards a method of rapid extraction of strontium-90 from urine: urine pretreatment and alkali metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dietz, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kaminski, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mertz, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shkrob, I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A technical program to support the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention is being developed to provide an analytical method for rapid extraction of Sr-90 from urine, with the intent of assessing the general population’s exposure during an emergency response to a radiological terrorist event. Results are presented on the progress in urine sample preparation and chemical separation steps that provide an accurate and quantitative detection of Sr-90 based upon an automated column separation sequence and a liquid scintillation assay. Batch extractions were used to evaluate the urine pretreatment and the column separation efficiency and loading capacity based upon commercial, extractant-loaded resins. An efficient pretreatment process for decolorizing and removing organics from urine without measurable loss of radiostrontium from the sample was demonstrated. In addition, the Diphonix® resin shows promise for the removal of high concentrations of common strontium interferents in urine as a first separation step for Sr-90 analysis.

  18. A rapid, reliable method of evaluating growth and viability of intraerythrocytic protozoan hemoparasites using fluorescence flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W C; Wyatt, C R; Hamilton, M J; Goff, W L

    1992-01-01

    Fluorescence flow cytometry was employed to assess the potential of a vital dye, hydroethidine, for use in the detection and monitoring of the viability of hemoparasites in infected erythrocytes, using Babesia bovis as a model parasite. The studies demonstrated that hydroethidine is taken up by B. bovis and metabolically converted to the DNA binding fluorochrome, ethidium. Following uptake of the dye, erythrocytes containing viable parasites were readily distinguished and quantitated. Timed studies with the parasiticidal drug, Ganaseg, showed that it is possible to use the fluorochrome assay to monitor the effects of the drug on the rate of replication and viability of B. bovis in culture. The assay provides a rapid method for evaluation of the in vitro effect of drugs on hemoparasites and for analysis of the effect of various components of the immune response, such as lymphokines, monocyte products, antibodies, and effector cells (T, NK, LAK, ADCC) on the growth and viability of intraerythrocytic parasites.

  19. A rapid, reliable method of evaluating growth and viability of intraerythrocytic protozoan hemoparasites using fluorescence flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Davis

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence flow cytometry was employed to assess the potential of a vital dye, hydroethiedine, for use in the detection and monitoring of the viability of hemoparasites in infected erythrocytes, using Babesia bovis as a model parasite. The studies demonstrated that hydroethidine is taken up by B. bovis and metabolically converted to the DNA binding fluorochrone, ethidium. Following uptake of the dye, erythrocytes contamine viable parasites were readily distinguished and quantitated. Timed studies with the parasiticidal drug, Ganaseg, showed that it is possible to use the fluorochrome assay to monitor the effects of the drug on the rate of replication and viability of B. bovis in culture. The assay provides a rapid method for evaluation of the in vitro effect of drugs on hemoparasites and for analysis of the effect of various components of the immune response, such as lymphokines, monocyte products, antibodies, and effector cells (T, NK, LAK, ADCC on the growth and viability of intraerythrocytic parasites.

  20. Bayesian methods for data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, Bradley P.

    2009-01-01

    Approaches for statistical inference Introduction Motivating Vignettes Defining the Approaches The Bayes-Frequentist Controversy Some Basic Bayesian Models The Bayes approach Introduction Prior Distributions Bayesian Inference Hierarchical Modeling Model Assessment Nonparametric Methods Bayesian computation Introduction Asymptotic Methods Noniterative Monte Carlo Methods Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods Model criticism and selection Bayesian Modeling Bayesian Robustness Model Assessment Bayes Factors via Marginal Density Estimation Bayes Factors

  1. Rapid deletion plasmid construction methods for protoplast and Agrobacterium based fungal transformation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing availability of genomic data and sophistication of analytical methodology in fungi has elevated the need for functional genomics tools in these organisms. Gene deletion is a critical tool for functional analysis. The targeted deletion of genes requires both a suitable method for the trans...

  2. Method validation in pharmaceutical analysis: from theory to practical optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Kaleian Eserian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The validation of analytical methods is required to obtain high-quality data. For the pharmaceutical industry, method validation is crucial to ensure the product quality as regards both therapeutic efficacy and patient safety. The most critical step in validating a method is to establish a protocol containing well-defined procedures and criteria. A well planned and organized protocol, such as the one proposed in this paper, results in a rapid and concise method validation procedure for quantitative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis.   Type: Commentary

  3. Rapid NMR method for the quantification of organic compounds in thin stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Shen, Jianheng; Jia, Yunhua; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin J T

    2011-10-12

    Thin stillage contains organic and inorganic compounds, some of which may be valuable fermentation coproducts. This study describes a thorough analysis of the major solutes present in thin stillage as revealed by NMR and HPLC. The concentration of charged and neutral organic compounds in thin stillage was determined by excitation sculpting NMR methods (double pulse field gradient spin echo). Compounds identified by NMR included isopropanol, ethanol, lactic acid, 1,3-propanediol, acetic acid, succinic acid, glycerophosphorylcholine, betaine, glycerol, and 2-phenylethanol. The concentrations of lactic and acetic acid determined with NMR were comparable to those determined using HPLC. HPLC and NMR were complementary, as more compounds were identified using both methods. NMR analysis revealed that stillage contained the nitrogenous organic compounds betaine and glycerophosphorylcholine, which contributed as much as 24% of the nitrogen present in the stillage. These compounds were not observed by HPLC analysis.

  4. Nanoscale Structural and Mechanical Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Spores Inactivated with Rapid Dry Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Daniel L.; Burggraf, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    Effective killing of Bacillus anthracis spores is of paramount importance to antibioterrorism, food safety, environmental protection, and the medical device industry. Thus, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of spore resistance and inactivation is highly desired for developing new strategies or improving the known methods for spore destruction. Previous studies have shown that spore inactivation mechanisms differ considerably depending upon the killing agents, such as heat (wet heat, dry heat), UV, ionizing radiation, and chemicals. It is believed that wet heat kills spores by inactivating critical enzymes, while dry heat kills spores by damaging their DNA. Many studies have focused on the biochemical aspects of spore inactivation by dry heat; few have investigated structural damages and changes in spore mechanical properties. In this study, we have inactivated Bacillus anthracis spores with rapid dry heating and performed nanoscale topographical and mechanical analysis of inactivated spores using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results revealed significant changes in spore morphology and nanomechanical properties after heat inactivation. In addition, we also found that these changes were different under different heating conditions that produced similar inactivation probabilities (high temperature for short exposure time versus low temperature for long exposure time). We attributed the differences to the differential thermal and mechanical stresses in the spore. The buildup of internal thermal and mechanical stresses may become prominent only in ultrafast, high-temperature heat inactivation when the experimental timescale is too short for heat-generated vapor to efficiently escape from the spore. Our results thus provide direct, visual evidences of the importance of thermal stresses and heat and mass transfer to spore inactivation by very rapid dry heating. PMID:24375142

  5. A rapid quantification method for the screening indicator for β-thalassemia with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiemei; Peng, Lijun; Han, Yun; Yao, Lijun; Zhang, Jing; Pan, Tao

    2018-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was applied to rapidly analyse haemoglobin A2 (HbA2) for β-thalassemia screening in human haemolysate samples. The relative content indicator HbA2 was indirectly quantified by simultaneous analysis of two absolute content indicators (Hb and Hb • HbA2). According to the comprehensive prediction effect of the multiple partitioning of calibration and prediction sets, the parameters were optimized to achieve modelling stability, and the preferred models were validated using the samples not involved in modelling. Savitzky-Golay smoothing was firstly used for the spectral pretreatment. The absorbance optimization partial least squares (AO-PLS) was used to eliminate high-absorption wave-bands appropriately. The equidistant combination PLS (EC-PLS) was further used to optimize wavelength models. The selected optimal models were I = 856 nm, N = 16, G = 1 and F = 6 for Hb and I = 988 nm, N = 12, G = 2 and F = 5 for Hb • HbA2. Through independent validation, the root-mean-square errors and correlation coefficients for prediction (RMSEP, RP) were 3.50 g L- 1 and 0.977 for Hb and 0.38 g L- 1 and 0.917 for Hb • HbA2, respectively. The predicted values of relative percentage HbA2 were further calculated, and the calculated RMSEP and RP were 0.31% and 0.965, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for β-thalassemia both reached 100%. Therefore, the prediction of HbA2 achieved high accuracy for distinguishing β-thalassemia. The local optimal models for single parameter and the optimal equivalent model sets were proposed, providing more models to match possible constraints in practical applications. The NIR analysis method for the screening indicator of β-thalassemia was successfully established. The proposed method was rapid, simple and promising for thalassemia screening in a large population.

  6. Rapid assessment of insect fauna based on local knowledge: comparing ecological and ethnobiological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Daniele Cristina de Oliveira; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; da Silva, Henrique Costa Hermenegildo; Alves, Angelo Giuseppe Chaves

    2016-03-01

    The rapid assessment of biodiversity making use of surveys of local knowledge has been successful for different biological taxa. However, there are no reports on the testing of such tools for sampling insect fauna. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different ethnobiological techniques for rapid sampling of insect fauna. Field research for the conventional survey of insect fauna was conducted on a private farm (9 ° 43'38.95 "S, 37 ° 45'11.97" W) , where there was intensive cultivation of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench)). The survey of local entomological knowledge was conducted among all the producers of okra living in the rural villages Pereira, Santa Luzia, and Nassau de Souza, within the Jacaré Curituba irrigated settlement scheme. The combined use of the techniques "free list" and projective interviews was analyzed, using two types of visual stimuli: stock photos and an entomological box. During the conventional survey of insect fauna, the species Bemisia tabaci biotype B, Aphis gossypii, Phenacoccus sp., Icerya purchasi and Lagria villosa were the primary pests found in the okra crop. Regarding the survey of insect pests, the results were convergent  in both techniques (conventional sampling and free list). Comparing the interview with visual stimuli (pictures) and specimen witnesses (entomological box) revealed that the latter was more effective. Techniques based on the recording and analysis of local knowledge about insects are effective for quick sampling of pest insects, but ineffective in sampling predator insects. The utilization of collected insects, infested branches, or photos of the symptoms of damage caused by pests in projective interviews is recommended.

  7. Rapid analysis of the main components of the total glycosides of Ranunculus japonicus by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Wen; Chen, Hongyuan; Tan, Yuzhi; Zhong, Yanmei; Feng, Yifan

    2010-05-01

    A rapid method for the analysis of the main components of the total glycosides of Ranunculus japonicus (TGOR) was developed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). The separation analysis was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC system and the accurate mass of molecules and their fragment ions were determined by Q-TOF MS. Twenty compounds, including lactone glycosides, flavonoid glycosides and flavonoid aglycones, were identified and tentatively deduced on the basis of their elemental compositions, MS/MS data and relevant literature. The results demonstrated that lactone glycosides and flavonoids were the main constituents of TGOR. Furthermore, an effective and rapid pattern was established allowing for the comprehensive and systematic characterization of the complex samples.

  8. A rapid method for simultaneous quantification of 13 sugars and sugar alcohols in food products by UPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Wan; Park, Jae-Woong; Lim, Jung-Hoon; Yea, Myeong-Jai; Bang, Dae-Young

    2018-02-01

    A novel, rapid, simultaneous analysis method for five sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose) and eight sugar alcohols (erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, inositol, maltitol, lactitol, and isomalt) was developed using UPLC-ELSD, without derivatization. The analysis conditions, including the gradient conditions, modifier concentration and column length, were optimized. Thirteen sugars and sugar alcohols were separated well and the resolution of their peaks was above 1.0. Their optimum analysis condition can be analyzed within 15min. Standard curves for sugars and sugar alcohols with concentrations of 5.0-0.1% and 2.0-0.05% are presented herein, and their correlation coefficients are found to be above 0.999 and the limit of detection (LOD) was around 0.006-0.018%. This novel analysis system can be used for foodstuffs such as candy, chewing gum, jelly, chocolate, processed chocolate products, and snacks containing 0.21-46.41% of sugars and sugar alcohols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optical Coherence Tomography in the UK Biobank Study - Rapid Automated Analysis of Retinal Thickness for Large Population-Based Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearse A Keane

    Full Text Available To describe an approach to the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging in large, population-based studies, including methods for OCT image acquisition, storage, and the remote, rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness.In UK Biobank, OCT images were acquired between 2009 and 2010 using a commercially available "spectral domain" OCT device (3D OCT-1000, Topcon. Images were obtained using a raster scan protocol, 6 mm x 6 mm in area, and consisting of 128 B-scans. OCT image sets were stored on UK Biobank servers in a central repository, adjacent to high performance computers. Rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness was performed using custom image segmentation software developed by the Topcon Advanced Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (TABIL. This software employs dual-scale gradient information to allow for automated segmentation of nine intraretinal boundaries in a rapid fashion.67,321 participants (134,642 eyes in UK Biobank underwent OCT imaging of both eyes as part of the ocular module. 134,611 images were successfully processed with 31 images failing segmentation analysis due to corrupted OCT files or withdrawal of subject consent for UKBB study participation. Average time taken to call up an image from the database and complete segmentation analysis was approximately 120 seconds per data set per login, and analysis of the entire dataset was completed in approximately 28 days.We report an approach to the rapid, automated measurement of retinal thickness from nearly 140,000 OCT image sets from the UK Biobank. In the near future, these measurements will be publically available for utilization by researchers around the world, and thus for correlation with the wealth of other data collected in UK Biobank. The automated analysis approaches we describe may be of utility for future large population-based epidemiological studies, clinical trials, and screening programs that employ OCT imaging.

  10. Rapid Methods to Distinguish Heterodera schachtii from Heterodera glycines Using PCR Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Rai Ko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop rapid methods for distinguishing between Heterodera schachtii and H. glycines detected from chinese cabbage fields of highland in Gangwon, Korea. To do this, we performed PCR-RFLP and PCR with the primers set developed in this study for GC147, GC408 and PM001 population, H. schachtii, and YS224, DA142 and BC115 population, H. glycines. Eight restriction enzymes generated RFLP profiles of mtDNA COI region for populations of H. schachtii and H. glycines, repectively. As a result, treatment of two restriction enzymes, RsaI and HinfI, were allowed to distinguish H. schachtii from H. glycines based on the differences of DNA band patterns. The primer set, #JBS1, #JBG1 and #JB3R, amplified specific fragments with 277 and 339 bp of H. schachtii, 339 bp of H. glycines, respectively, while it did not amplify fragments from three root-knot nematodes and two root-lesion nematodes. Thus, the primer set developed in this study could be a good method, which is used to distinguish between H. schachtii and H. glycines.

  11. Rapid filtration separation-based sample preparation method for Bacillus spores in powdery and environmental matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabel, Sandra; Boissinot, Maurice; Charlebois, Isabelle; Fauvel, Chantal M; Shi, Lu-E; Lévesque, Julie-Christine; Paquin, Amélie T; Bastien, Martine; Stewart, Gale; Leblanc, Eric; Sato, Sachiko; Bergeron, Michel G

    2012-03-01

    Authorities frequently need to analyze suspicious powders and other samples for biothreat agents in order to assess environmental safety. Numerous nucleic acid detection technologies have been developed to detect and identify biowarfare agents in a timely fashion. The extraction of microbial nucleic acids from a wide variety of powdery and environmental samples to obtain a quality level adequate for these technologies still remains a technical challenge. We aimed to develop a rapid and versatile method of separating bacteria from these samples and then extracting their microbial DNA. Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii was used as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. We studied the effects of a broad variety of powdery and environmental samples on PCR detection and the steps required to alleviate their interference. With a benchmark DNA extraction procedure, 17 of the 23 samples investigated interfered with bacterial lysis and/or PCR-based detection. Therefore, we developed the dual-filter method for applied recovery of microbial particles from environmental and powdery samples (DARE). The DARE procedure allows the separation of bacteria from contaminating matrices that interfere with PCR detection. This procedure required only 2 min, while the DNA extraction process lasted 7 min, for a total of sample preparation procedure allowed the recovery of cleaned bacterial spores and relieved detection interference caused by a wide variety of samples. Our procedure was easily completed in a laboratory facility and is amenable to field application and automation.

  12. Rapid processing method for solution deposited YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawley, J.T.; Clem, P.G.; Boyle, T.J.; Ottley, L.M.; Overmyer, D.L.; Siegal, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) films, deposited on buffered metal substrates, are the primary candidate for second-generation superconducting (SC) wires, with applications including expanded power grid transmission capability, compact motors, and enhanced sensitivity magnetic resonance imaging. Feasibility of manufacturing such superconducting wires is dependent on high processing speed, often a limitation of vapor and solution-based YBCO deposition processes. In this work, YBCO films were fabricated via a new diethanolamine-modified trifluoroacetic film solution deposition method. Modifying the copper chemistry of the YBCO precursor solution with diethanolamine enables a hundredfold decrease in the organic pyrolysis time required for MA/cm 2 current density (J c ) YBCO films, from multiple hours to ∼20 s in atmospheric pressure air. High quality, ∼0.2 μm thick YBCO films with J c (77 K) values ≥2 MA/cm 2 at 77 K are routinely crystallized from these rapidly pyrolyzed films deposited on LaAlO 3 . This process has also enabled J c (77 K)=1.1 MA/cm 2 YBCO films via 90 m/h dip-coating on Oak Ridge National Laboratory RABiTS textured metal tape substrates. This new YBCO solution deposition method suggests a route toward inexpensive and commercializable ∼$10/kA m solution deposited YBCO coated conductor wires

  13. Comparing rapid and culture indicator bacteria methods at inland lake beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Kephart, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    A rapid method, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), for quantifying indicator bacteria in recreational waters is desirable for public health protection. We report that replacing current Escherichia coli standards with new US Environmental Protection Agency beach action values (BAVs) for enterococci by culture or qPCR may result in more advisories being posted at inland recreational lakes. In this study, concentrations of E. coli and enterococci by culture methods were compared to concentrations of Enterococcus spp. by qPCR at 3 inland lake beaches in Ohio. The E. coli and enterococci culture results were significantly related at all beaches; however, the relations between culture results and Enterococcus spp. qPCR results were not always significant and differed among beaches. All the qPCR results exceeded the new BAV for Enterococcus spp. by qPCR, whereas only 23.7% of culture results for E. coli and 79% of culture results for enterococci exceeded the current standard for E. coli or BAV for enterococci.

  14. Development of a Rapid and Simple Method to Remove Polyphenols from Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imali Ranatunge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants, which are responsible for prevention of many diseases. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP has a high affinity towards polyphenols. This method involves the use of PVPP column to remove polyphenols under centrifugal force. Standards of gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, vanillin, and tea extracts (Camellia sinensis were used in this study. PVPP powder was packed in a syringe with different quantities. The test samples were layered over the PVPP column and subjected to centrifugation. Supernatant was tested for the total phenol content. The presence of phenolic compounds and caffeine was screened by HPLC and measuring the absorbance at 280. The antioxidant capacity of standards and tea extracts was compared with the polyphenol removed fractions using DPPH scavenging assay. No polyphenols were found in polyphenolic standards or tea extracts after PVPP treatment. The method described in the present study to remove polyphenols is simple, inexpensive, rapid, and efficient and can be employed to investigate the contribution of polyphenols present in natural products to their biological activity.

  15. A rapid and quantitative method to determine the tritium content in DNA from small tissue sampes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasche, V.; Zoellner, R.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid and quantitative two-step procedure to isolate double-strand DNA from small (10-100 mg) animal tissue samples is presented. The method is developed for investigations to evaluate the relative importance of organically bound tritium for the dose factors used to calculate dose commitments due to this nuclide. In the first step the proteins in the homogenized sample are hydrolysed, at a high pH (9.0) and ionic strength (1.5) to dissociate protein from DNA, using immobilized Proteinase K as a proteolytic enzyme. The DNA is then absorbed to hydroxylapatite and separated from impurities by step-wise elution with buffers of increasing ionic strength. More than 90% of the DNA in the samples could be isolated in double-strand form by this procedure. The method has been applied to determine pool-sizes and biological half-life times of tritium in DNA from various animal (mouse) tissues. It has also been shown to be suitable in other radiobiological studies where effects on DNA are investigated. (author)

  16. A method of LED free-form tilted lens rapid modeling based on scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yidan

    2017-10-01

    According to nonimaging optical principle and traditional LED free-form surface lens, a new kind of LED free-form tilted lens was designed. And a method of rapid modeling based on Scheme language was proposed. The mesh division method was applied to obtain the corresponding surface configuration according to the character of the light source and the desired energy distribution on the illumination plane. Then 3D modeling software and the Scheme language programming are used to generate lens model respectively. With the help of optical simulation software, a light source with the size of 1mm*1mm*1mm in volume is used in experiment, and the lateral migration distance of illumination area is 0.5m, in which total one million rays are computed. We could acquire the simulated results of both models. The simulated output result shows that the Scheme language can prevent the model deformation problems caused by the process of the model transfer, and the degree of illumination uniformity is reached to 82%, and the offset angle is 26°. Also, the efficiency of modeling process is greatly increased by using Scheme language.

  17. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D

    1981-01-01

    .... Such methods include those based upon spectrophotometry, flame emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, as well as gravimetry, titrimetry and the use of ion-selective electrodes...

  18. Evaluation of Blood-Based Antibody Rapid Testing for HIV Early Therapy: A Meta-Analysis of the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Huang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWestern blot (WB assay is considered the gold standard test for HIV infection confirmation. However, it requires technical expertise and is quite time-consuming. WHO recommends blood-based rapid diagnosis to achieve same-day test and treatment. However, this rapid testing strategy has not been promoted worldwide due to inadequate research evaluating the effectiveness of rapid tests (RTs as an alternative confirmatory HIV test for WB. This study aims to compare the diagnostic performance of rapid HIV tests compared with WB.MethodsPubMed and Web of Science were searched for publications on rapid HIV tests using blood specimen. A meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively evaluate the diagnostic performance of rapid HIV tests compared with the WB assay in terms of pooled sensitivity, specificity, area under summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC curve, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR.ResultsTwenty articles involving 27,343 fresh specimens for rapid HIV tests were included in the meta-analysis. Regarding Capillus HIV-1/HIV-2, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, area under SROC curve, and DOR derived from six studies were 0.999 (95% CI, 0.956–1.000, 0.999 (95% CI, 0.991–1.00, 1.00 (95% CI, 0.99–1.00, and 1.0 × 106 (95% CI, 2.6 × 104–3.9 × 107 compared with the WB assay, respectively. With respect to Determine HIV-1/2, the pooled sensitivity, specificity area under SROC, and DOR derived from eight studies were 1.00 (95% CI, 0.789–1.000, 0.992 (95% CI, 0.985–0.996, 1.00 (95% CI, 0.99–1.00, and 1.8 × 106 (95% CI 406.049–7.8 × 109 compared with the WB assay, respectively. Regarding two-step serial RTs, the pooled sensitivity, specificity area under SROC, and DOR derived from eight studies were 0.998 (95% CI, 0.991–1.000, 0.998 (95% CI, 0.994–0.999, and 1.00 (95% CI 0.99–1.00 compared with the WB assay, respectively.ConclusionOur meta-analysis results may provide evidenced-based support

  19. Extraction and identification of cyclobutanones from irradiated cheese employing a rapid direct solvent extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewfik, Ihab

    2008-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (cyclobutanones) are accepted as chemical markers for irradiated foods containing lipid. However, current extraction procedures (Soxhlet-florisil chromatography) for the isolation of these markers involve a long and tedious clean-up regime prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry identification. This paper outlines an alternative isolation and clean-up method for the extraction of cyclobutanones in irradiated Camembert cheese. The newly developed direct solvent extraction method enables the efficient screening of large numbers of food samples and is not as resource intensive as the BS EN 1785:1997 method. Direct solvent extraction appears to be a simple, robust method and has the added advantage of a considerably shorter extraction time for the analysis of foods containing lipid.

  20. A parylene-based dual channel microelectrophoresis system for rapid mutation detection via heteroduplex analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukas, S.; Erson, Ayse Elif; Sert, Cuneyt; Kulah, Haluk

    2008-01-01

    A new dual channel micro-electrophoresis system for rapid mutation detection based on heteroduplex analysis was designed and implemented. Mutation detection was successfully achieved in a total separation length of 250 μm in less than 3 min for a 590 bp DNA sample harboring a 3 bp mutation causing