WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid aging test

  1. The RAPID-II Neuropsychological Test battery for subjects aged 20 to 49 years: Norms and cognitive profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetruy, M; Mauny, F; Lavaux, M; Meyer, A; Sylvestre, G; Puyraveau, M; Berger, E; Magnin, E; Vandel, P; Galmiche, J; Chopard, G

    2017-06-30

    Cognitive evaluation of young subjects is now widely carried out for non-traumatic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, HIV, or sleep disorders. This evaluation requires normative data based on healthy adult samples. However, most clinicians use a set of tests that were normed in an isolated manner from different samples using different cutoff criteria. Thus, the score of an individual may be considered either normal or impaired according to the norms used. It is well established that healthy adults obtained low-test scores when a battery of tests is administered. Thus, the knowledge of low base rates is required so as to minimize false diagnosis of cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was twofold (1) to provide normative data for RAPID-II battery in healthy adults, and (2) estimate the proportion of healthy adults having low scores across this battery. Norms for the 44 test scores of the RAPID-II test battery were developed using the overall sample of 335 individuals based on three categories of age (20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 40 to 49 years) and two educational levels: Baccalaureate or higher educational degree (high educational level), lower than baccalaureate (low educational level). The 5th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles were calculated from the six age and education subsamples and used to define norms. The frequency of low scores on the RAPID-II battery was calculated by simultaneously examining the performance of 33 primary scores. A low score was defined as less than or equal to the 5th percentile drawn from the six age and education normative subsamples. In addition, the percentages of low scores were also determined when all possible combinations of two-test scores across the RAPID-II were considered in the overall normative sample. Our data showed that 59.4% subjects of the normative sample obtained at least one or more low score. With more than 9 test scores, this percentage was equal to 0% in the normative sample. Among all combinations of two-test

  2. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  3. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  4. Comparative field performance and adherence to test results of four malaria rapid diagnostic tests among febrile patients more than five years of age in Blantyre, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Joaquin Miguel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs can increase availability of laboratory-based diagnosis and improve the overall management of febrile patients in malaria endemic areas. In preparation to scale-up RDTs in health facilities in Malawi, an evaluation of four RDTs to help guide national-level decision-making was conducted. Methods A cross sectional study of four histidine rich-protein-type-2- (HRP2 based RDTs at four health centres in Blantyre, Malawi, was undertaken to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs, assess prescriber adherence to RDT test results and explore operational issues regarding RDT implementation. Three RDTs were evaluated in only one health centre each and one RDT was evaluated in two health centres. Light microscopy in a reference laboratory was used as the gold standard. Results A total of 2,576 patients were included in the analysis. All of the RDTs tested had relatively high sensitivity for detecting any parasitaemia [Bioline SD (97%, First response malaria (92%, Paracheck (91%, ICT diagnostics (90%], but low specificity [Bioline SD (39%, First response malaria (42%, Paracheck (68%, ICT diagnostics (54%]. Specificity was significantly lower in patients who self-treated with an anti-malarial in the previous two weeks (odds ratio (OR 0.5; p-value 15 years old (OR 0.4, p-value Conclusions The results of this evaluation, combined with other published data and global recommendations, have been used to select RDTs for national scale-up. In addition, the study identified some key issues that need to be further delineated: the low field specificity of RDTs, variable RDT performance by different cadres of health workers and the need for a robust quality assurance system. Close monitoring of RDT scale-up will be needed to ensure that RDTs truly improve malaria case management.

  5. Comparative field performance and adherence to test results of four malaria rapid diagnostic tests among febrile patients more than five years of age in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinkhumba, Jobiba; Skarbinski, Jacek; Chilima, Ben; Campbell, Carl; Ewing, Victoria; San Joaquin, Miguel; Sande, John; Ali, Doreen; Mathanga, Don

    2010-07-20

    Malaria rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs) can increase availability of laboratory-based diagnosis and improve the overall management of febrile patients in malaria endemic areas. In preparation to scale-up RDTs in health facilities in Malawi, an evaluation of four RDTs to help guide national-level decision-making was conducted. A cross sectional study of four histidine rich-protein-type-2- (HRP2) based RDTs at four health centres in Blantyre, Malawi, was undertaken to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs, assess prescriber adherence to RDT test results and explore operational issues regarding RDT implementation. Three RDTs were evaluated in only one health centre each and one RDT was evaluated in two health centres. Light microscopy in a reference laboratory was used as the gold standard. A total of 2,576 patients were included in the analysis. All of the RDTs tested had relatively high sensitivity for detecting any parasitaemia [Bioline SD (97%), First response malaria (92%), Paracheck (91%), ICT diagnostics (90%)], but low specificity [Bioline SD (39%), First response malaria (42%), Paracheck (68%), ICT diagnostics (54%)]. Specificity was significantly lower in patients who self-treated with an anti-malarial in the previous two weeks (odds ratio (OR) 0.5; p-value 15 years old (OR 0.4, p-value < 0.001) and when the RDT was performed by a community health worker versus a laboratory technician (OR 0.4; p-value < 0.001). Health workers correctly prescribed anti-malarials for patients with positive RDT results, but ignored negative RDT results with 58% of patients with a negative RDT result treated with an anti-malarial. The results of this evaluation, combined with other published data and global recommendations, have been used to select RDTs for national scale-up. In addition, the study identified some key issues that need to be further delineated: the low field specificity of RDTs, variable RDT performance by different cadres of health workers and the need

  6. [Rapid diagnostic test for malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, S

    2017-02-01

    The rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) whose main interest lies in their implementation without special equipment by unskilled personnel have grown significantly over the past fifteen years to diagnose malaria. They rely on the detection of specific Plasmodium proteins, PfHRP2, pLDH and aldolase. If the detection of PfHRP2 has very good sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the detection of pLDH or aldolase is less efficient for other species, leaving its place to the reference microscopic diagnosis. RDT could not generally be used to monitor therapeutic efficacy because they can remain positive after clinical and parasitological cure. Furthermore, the development of the use of these tests has highlighted the need for quality assurance programs to monitor their production as their use.

  7. Test plan for the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.

    1993-06-01

    This document describes the test plant for demonstrating and testing a set of optically pumped cesium-based total field magnetometers using the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor platform. The proposed testing will be used to assess the function of these magnetometers as deployed on the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor and evaluate the practical utility of high resolution magnetic data for supporting waste retrieval efforts.

  8. A rapid online telepathy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrake, Rupert; Beharee, Ashwin

    2009-06-01

    In an automated online telepathy test, each participant had four senders, two actual and two virtual, generated by the computer. In a series of 12 30-sec. trials, the computer selected one of the senders at random and asked him to write a message to the subject. After 30 sec., the participant was asked to guess who had written a message. After the computer had recorded his guess, it sent him the message. In a total of 6,000 trials, there were 1,559 hits (26.7%), significantly above the chance expectation of 25%. In filmed tests, the hit rate was very similar. The hit rate with actual senders was higher than with virtual senders, but there was a strong guessing bias in favour of actual senders. When high-scoring subjects were retested, hit rates generally declined, but one subject repeatedly scored above chance.

  9. Rapid HIV-1 testing during labor: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulterys, Marc; Jamieson, Denise J; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Cohen, Mardge H; Maupin, Robert; Nesheim, Steven; Webber, Mayris P; Van Dyke, Russell; Wiener, Jeffrey; Branson, Bernard M

    2004-07-14

    Timely testing of women in labor with undocumented human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status could enable immediate provision of antiretroviral prophylaxis. To determine the feasibility and acceptance of rapid HIV testing among women in labor and to assess rapid HIV assay performance. The Mother-Infant Rapid Intervention At Delivery (MIRIAD) study implemented 24-hour counseling and voluntary rapid HIV testing for women in labor at 16 US hospitals from November 16, 2001, through November 15, 2003. A rapid HIV-1 antibody test for whole blood was used. Acceptance of HIV testing; sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the rapid test; time from blood collection to patient notification of results. There were 91,707 visits to the labor and delivery units in the study, 7381 of which were by eligible women without documentation of HIV testing. Of these, 5744 (78%) women were approached for rapid HIV testing and 4849 (84%) consented. HIV-1 test results were positive for 34 women (prevalence = 7/1000). Sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 100% and 99.9%, respectively; positive predictive value was 90% compared with 76% for enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Factors independently associated with higher test acceptance included younger age, being black or Hispanic, gestational age less than 32 weeks, and having had no prenatal care. Lower acceptance was associated with being admitted between 4 pm and midnight, particularly on Friday nights, but this may be explained in part by fewer available personnel. Median time from blood collection to patient notification of result was 66 minutes (interquartile range, 45-120 minutes), compared with 28 hours for EIA (PHIV testing is feasible and delivers accurate and timely test results for women in labor. It provides HIV-positive women prompt access to intrapartum and neonatal antiretroviral prophylaxis, proven to reduce perinatal HIV transmission, and may be particularly applicable to higher-risk populations.

  10. Clostridium difficile ribotype 027: relationship to age, detectability of toxins A or B in stool with rapid testing, severe infection, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Krishna; Micic, Dejan; Natarajan, Mukil; Winters, Spencer; Kiel, Mark J; Walk, Seth T; Santhosh, Kavitha; Mogle, Jill A; Galecki, Andrzej T; LeBar, William; Higgins, Peter D R; Young, Vincent B; Aronoff, David M

    2015-07-15

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can cause severe disease and death, especially in older adults. A better understanding of risk factors for adverse outcomes is needed. This study tests the hypotheses that infection with specific ribotypes and presence of stool toxins independently associate with severity and constructs predictive models of adverse outcomes. Cases of non-recurrent CDI were prospectively included after positive stool tests for toxins A and/or B by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or tcdB by polymerase chain reaction. Outcomes included severe CDI (intensive care unit admission, colectomy, or death attributable to CDI within 30 days of diagnosis) and 30-day all-cause mortality. Adjusted models were developed to test hypotheses and predict outcomes. In total, 1144 cases were included. The toxin EIA was positive in 37.2% and 35.6% of patients were of age >65 years. One of the 137 unique ribotypes was ribotype 027 (16.2%). Detectable stool toxin did not associate with outcomes. Adjusting for covariates, including age, Ribotype 027 was a significant predictor of severe CDI (90 cases; odds ratio [OR], 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.89; P = .037) and mortality (89 cases; OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.19-3.43; P = .009). Concurrent antibiotic use associated with both outcomes. Both multivariable predictive models had excellent performance (area under the curve >0.8). Detection of stool toxin A and/or B by EIA does not predict severe CDI or mortality. Infection with ribotype 027 independently predicts severe CDI and mortality. Use of concurrent antibiotics is a potentially modifiable risk factor for severe CDI. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Investigating portable fluorescent microscopy (CyScope® as an alternative rapid diagnostic test for malaria in children and women of child-bearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa-Figueiredo José

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt and correct diagnosis of malaria is crucial for accurate epidemiological assessment and better case management, and while the gold standard of light microscopy is often available, it requires both expertise and time. Portable fluorescent microscopy using the CyScope® offers a potentially quicker, easier and more field-applicable alternative. This article reports on the strengths, limitations of this methodology and its diagnostic performance in cross-sectional surveys on young children and women of child-bearing age. Methods 552 adults (99% women of child-bearing age and 980 children (99% ≤ 5 years of age from rural and peri-urban regions of Ugandan were examined for malaria using light microscopy (Giemsa-stain, a lateral-flow test (Paracheck-Pf® and the CyScope®. Results from the surveys were used to calculate diagnostic performance (sensitivity and specificity as well as to perform a receiver operating characteristics (ROC analyses, using light microscopy as the gold-standard. Results Fluorescent microscopy (qualitative reads showed reduced specificity (400 parasites/μL blood: sensitivity of 64.2% and specificity of 86.0%. Overall, the diagnostic performance of the CyScope was found inferior to that of Paracheck-Pf®. Discussion Fluorescent microscopy using the CyScope® is certainly a field-applicable and relatively affordable solution for malaria diagnoses especially in areas where electrical supplies may be lacking. While it is unlikely to miss higher parasitaemia, its application in cross-sectional community-based studies leads to many false positives (i.e. small fluorescent bodies of presently unknown origin mistaken as malaria parasites. Without recourse to other technologies, arbitration of these false positives is presently equivocal, which could ultimately lead to over-treatment; something that should be further explored in future investigations if the CyScope® is to be more widely implemented.

  12. Rapid HIV Testing and Counselling in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conseil et le test rapide du VIH pendant le travail dans un milieu du Nigéria du nord Entre avril et aôut. 2004 toutes les femmes en travail à]UTH ont subi le test pour le VIH et ont reçu du conseil avec l'opportunité de refuser le test. Les femmes séro-positives reçu la monothérapie de névirapine standard shéma prophylaxie.

  13. Rapid Assessment of Age-Related Differences in Standing Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kalisch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As life expectancy continues to rise, in the future there will be an increasing number of older people prone to falling. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for comprehensive testing of older individuals to collect data and to identify possible risk factors for falling. Here we use a low-cost force platform to rapidly assess deficits in balance under various conditions. We tested 21 healthy older adults and 24 young adults during static stance, unidirectional and rotational displacement of their centre of pressure (COP. We found an age-related increase in postural sway during quiet standing and a reduction of maximal COP displacement in unidirectional and rotational displacement tests. Our data show that even low-cost computerized assessment tools allow for the comprehensive testing of balance performance in older subjects.

  14. [Rapid antibiotic susceptibility test in Clinical Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; Bratos Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The most widely used antibiotic susceptibility testing methods in Clinical Microbiology are based on the phenotypic detection of antibiotic resistance by measuring bacterial growth in the presence of the antibiotic being tested. These conventional methods take typically 24hours to obtain results. A review is presented here of recently developed techniques for the rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility. Data obtained with different methods such as molecular techniques, flow cytometry, chemiluminescence, mass spectrometry, commercial methods used in routine work, colorimetric methods, nephelometry, microarrays, microfluids, and methods based on cell disruption and sequencing, are analyzed and discussed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. Naturalistic rapid deceleration data: Drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chevalier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research manuscript “Predictors of older drivers’ involvement in rapid deceleration events”, which investigates potential predictors of older drivers’ involvement in rapid deceleration events including measures of vision, cognitive function and driving confidence (A. Chevalier et al., 2016 [1]. In naturalistic driving studies such as this, when sample size is not large enough to allow crashes to be used to investigate driver safety, rapid deceleration events may be used as a surrogate safety measure. Naturalistic driving data were collected for up to 52 weeks from 182 volunteer drivers aged 75–94 years (median 80 years, 52% male living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Accelerometer data were recorded 32 times per second and Global Positioning System (GPS data each second. To measure rapid deceleration behavior, rapid deceleration events (RDEs were defined as having at least one data point at or above the deceleration threshold of 750 milli-g (7.35 m/s2. All events were constrained to a maximum 5 s duration. The dataset provided with this article contains 473 events, with a row per RDE. This article also contains information about data processing, treatment and quality control. The methods and data presented here may assist with planning and analysis of future studies into rapid deceleration behaviour using in-vehicle monitoring.

  16. A rapid diagnostic test for schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Christina Mello-Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an improvement to the Kato-Katz (KK method, making it faster and more efficient for the visualisation of fertile eggs in stool samples. This modified KK method uses sodium acetate formalin as a fixative and reveals the intensity of infection in less than 1 h, reducing the diagnostic time without increasing the cost. This modified method may contribute to future epidemiological studies in both hospitals and the field due to its rapid and precise diagnostic, which allow for immediate treatment.

  17. The rise of targeted HIV oral rapid testing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derek; Stewart, Michael; Smith, Maggie; Price, Tony; Lusk, Jo; Ooi, Catriona; Read, Phillip; Finlayson, Robert

    2015-03-16

    To assess the performance and acceptability of the OraQuick Advance Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test (ORT) in Australia. Cross-sectional study of 1074 men who have sex with men (MSM) and individuals aged 18 years or older at high risk of acquiring HIV infection who attended five public HIV or sexual health services, two general practices and one community clinic in Sydney from 1 January to 31 December 2013. One ORT confirmed by fourth-generation HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA). ORT sensitivity and specificity compared with EIA; acceptabiity of the ORT to participants. 83.5% of participants were MSM, 90.3% were aged under 50 years, and 9% had never been tested for HIV. There were 11 true-positive ORT results, two false-negative (non-reactive) results (both were early infections), and one false-positive (reactive) result (due to reader error). Sensitivity and specificity were 84.6% and 99.8%, respectively (compared with a sensitivity of 99.3% and specificity of 99.8% listed by the manufacturer). Three quarters of participants (74.0%; 730/987) found the ORT less stressful than venous sampling. Those who usually had tests at intervals of greater than 3 months deemed the ORT less stressful than those who had quarterly tests (77.5% v 64.8%; Ptesting. ORT sensitivity is reduced in early HIV infection. The test is highly acceptable and less stressful than venous sampling. Participants are keen to be tested with the ORT in future, would recommend it to peers and would have tests more frequently if the ORT were licensed. TGA approval of this test might slow increasing HIV infection rates among MSM and others by facilitating diagnosis and treatment.

  18. A comparison of rapid diagnostic testing (by plasmodium lactate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold ...

  19. Evaluation of current rapid HIV test algorithms in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiwango, Ronald M; Musoke, Richard; Lubyayi, Lawrence; Ssekubugu, Robert; Kalibbala, Sarah; Ssekweyama, Viola; Mirembe, Viola; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Reynolds, Steven J; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald H; Kigozi, Godfrey

    2013-09-01

    Rapid HIV tests are a crucial component of HIV diagnosis in resource limited settings. In Uganda, the Ministry of Health allows both serial and parallel HIV rapid testing using Determine, Stat-Pak and Uni-Gold. In serial testing, a non-reactive result on Determine ends testing. The performance of serial and parallel algorithms with Determine and Stat-Pak test kits was assessed. A cross-sectional diagnostic test accuracy evaluation using three rapid HIV test kits as per the recommended parallel test algorithm was followed by EIA-WB testing with estimates of the performance of serial testing algorithm. In 2520 participants tested by parallel rapid algorithms, 0.6% had weakly reactive result. Parallel testing had 99.7% sensitivity and 99.8% specificity. If Stat-Pak was used as the first screening test for a serial algorithm, the sensitivity was 99.6% and specificity was 99.7%. However, if Determine was used as the screening test, sensitivity was 97.3% and specificity was 99.9%. Serial testing with Stat-Pak as the initial screening test performed as well as parallel testing, but Determine was a less sensitive screen. Serial testing could be cost saving. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing techniques for mechanical characterization of rapidly solidified materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Mechanical property testing techniques are reviewed for rapidly solidified materials. Mechanical testing of rapidly solidified materials is complicated by the fact that in most cases at least one dimension of the material is very small (less than 100 microns). For some geometries, i.e., powder or thin surface layers, microhardness is the only feasible mechanical test. The ribbon geometry which is obtained by the melt-spinning method, however, has been used for a variety of mechanical property measurements including elastic properties, tensile properties, fracture toughness, creep, and fatigue. These techniques are described with emphasis placed on the precautions required by the restricted geometry of rapidly solidified specimens.

  1. Trichomonas spp. in pigeons: detection by OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Petr; Kunca, Tomas; Langrova, Iva; Hartlova, Helena; Brozova, Adela; Jankovska, Ivana; Kudrnacova, Marie; Sloup, Vladislav

    2013-12-01

    The efficacy of the OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test (developed for rapid diagnosis of human Trichomonas vaginalis) in detection of Trichomonas spp. in pigeons (Columba livia) was investigated. Two oral cavity swabs were taken from 50 farm pigeons. Cultivation in Diamond Trichomonas medium was used as a reference method. According to a morphological determination, Trichomonas gallinae was the only protozoan found; however, no further molecular analysis was conducted. The OSOM Trichomonas test was positive in 39 oral swabs. In comparison with the cultivation method three samples were identified as false negative and one as false positive. Test specificity and sensitivity were established as 93% and 90%, respectively. Using Cohen's Kappa, the concordance between the two testing methods was found to be strong (kappa = 0.7506, 95% CI = 0.5162-0.9850). The OSOM Trichomonas test is not able to distinguish between Trichomonas species; however, results suggest that the test is suitable for the rapid detection of Trichomonas spp. infection in pigeons.

  2. A retrospective evaluation of proficiency testing, and rapid HIV test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Proficiency testing (PT) has been implemented as a form of External Quality Assurance (EQA) by the National HIV Reference Laboratory in Kenya since 2007 in order to monitor and improve on the quality of HIV testing and counselling HTC services. Objective: To compare concordance between National HIV ...

  3. Rapid diagnosis of bacterial meningitis by latex agglutination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, S M; Hassan, E M; Masoud, S; Guirgis, N I

    1989-01-01

    Forty-three patients admitted to Abassia Fever Hospital suffering from meningitis were studied. They were 27 male and 16 female and divided into 3 age groups, as a control, 4 normal CSF samples were collected. A sterile CSF was collected and examined for pressure, aspect, glucose, protein and cellular content. Although all these tests were helpful in differentiating the type of meningitis, a remarkable overlap between the results were detected. Bacteriological study of CSF showed that bacterial culture was more sensitive than the Gram-stained film in (80% and 72% respectively) (p less than 0.05). However, it is a time consuming and its results greatly affected by prior uses of antibiotics. Also the antigen of N. meningitidis A & C, H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were detected by latex agglutination (L.A.) and gave positive results in 76% of cases. It was less sensitive than the culture method. As a conclusion, L.A. test is a rapid and simple method of diagnosis of bacterial meningitis which give immediate information to the clinician. The sensitivity and specificity of L.A. can be greatly improved by using a higher quality of antibody for all serotypes in the locality.

  4. Causes of false-positive HIV rapid diagnostic test results

    OpenAIRE

    Klarkowski, Derryck; O?Brien, Daniel P.; Shanks, Leslie; Singh, Kasha P.

    2014-01-01

    HIV rapid diagnostic tests have enabled widespread implementation of HIV programs in resource-limited settings. If the tests used in the diagnostic algorithm are susceptible to the same cause for false positivity, a false-positive diagnosis may result in devastating consequences. In resource-limited settings, the lack of routine confirmatory testing, compounded by incorrect interpretation of weak positive test lines and use of tie-breaker algorithms, can leave a false-positive diagnosis undet...

  5. Validating a Rapid, Automated Test of Spatial Release From Masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakien, Kasey M; Kampel, Sean D; Stansell, Meghan M; Gallun, Frederick J

    2017-09-21

    age only reached significance for colocated conditions. The SR2 is a reliable and effective method of testing spatial release from masking, suitable for screening abnormal listening abilities and for tracking rehabilitation over time. Future work should focus on developing and validating rapid, automated testing to identify the ability of listeners to benefit from high-frequency amplification, smaller spatial separations, and larger spectral differences among talkers.

  6. Comparison of Rapid Malaria Test and Laboratory Microscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: Blood samples collected from 272 volunteers in two communities of Bayelsa State in the Niger. Delta area were investigated for falciparum malaria parasite using the rapid test based on the detection of soluble antigen and laboratory microscopy test. The data showed that out of the 272 samples collected, ...

  7. Field evaluation of a malaria rapid diagnostic test (ICT Pf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field evaluation of a malaria rapid diagnostic test (ICT Pf) ... province to determine the accuracy of the MRDT currently used in public sector clinics and hospitals. ... The positive predictive value of the test was 98.48 (99% CI 98.41 - 100%), and the negative predictive value was 99.52% (95% CI 96.47 – 100%). Conclusions.

  8. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V

    2015-01-01

    A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick) to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+); for rapid strep== 84(-) and16 (+); For LE== 80(-) and 20(+) From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don't seem to be a random (independent) assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (Pthroat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children.

  9. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara V. Nibhanipudi MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. Methods: All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Results: Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+; for rapid strep== 84(- and16 (+; For LE== 80(- and 20(+ Statistics: From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don’t seem to be a random (independent assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (P<.0.0001 reject Null Hypothesis and Conclude Alternative Conclusions: Leukocyte esterase on throat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children.

  10. A rapid ultrasound particle agglutination method for HIV antibody detection: Comparison with conventional rapid HIV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystryak, Simon; Ossina, Natalya

    2017-11-01

    We present the results of the feasibility and preliminary studies on analytical performance of a rapid test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in human serum or plasma that is an important advance in detecting HIV infection. Current methods for rapid testing of antibodies against HIV are qualitative and exhibit poor sensitivity (limit of detection). In this paper, we describe an ultrasound particle agglutination (UPA) method that leads to a significant increase of the sensitivity of conventional latex agglutination tests for HIV antibody detection in human serum or plasma. The UPA method is based on the use of: 1) a dual mode ultrasound, wherein a first single-frequency mode is used to accelerate the latex agglutination process, and then a second swept-frequency mode of sonication is used to disintegrate non-specifically bound aggregates; and 2) a numerical assessment of results of the agglutination process. The numerical assessment is carried out by optical detection and analysis of moving patterns in the resonator cell during the swept-frequency mode. The single-step UPA method is rapid and more sensitive than the three commercial rapid HIV test kits analyzed in the study: analytical sensitivity of the new UPA method was found to be 510-, 115-, and 80-fold higher than that for Capillus™, Multispot™ and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen HIV antibody rapid test kits, respectively. The newly developed UPA method opens up additional possibilities for detection of a number of clinically significant markers in point-of-care settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kumara V. Nibhanipudi MD

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick) to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. Methods: All patients who come with a complaint of sore t...

  12. Rapid Color Test Identification System for Screening of Counterfeit Fluoroquinolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The protocol of rapid identification system consists of three chemical color reactions; two group tests for fluoroquinolone class and a compound specific test each for norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and sparfloxacin. The group color reactions are based on (a Oxidizing behavior of quinolone and (b Fluorine functional groups, both of which are characteristic of fluoroquinolone class. The compound specific color reactions are developed taking into consideration unique chemical behavior of each compound. The proposed chemical color tests have high selectivity⁄specificity, are ideal for screening purpose. The color of each test was defined by two standard color systems namely CIE lab and Munsell color. A suspected counterfeit tablet of any of the above mentioned drugs can be identified within 10-15 min using this rapid identification system.

  13. Comparison of Reliability of Rapid Diagonostic Test to Microscopy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of Reliability of Rapid Diagonostic Test to Microscopy in the Diagnosis of Malaria at Gulu Regional Referral Hospital. ... East African Medical Journal ... Conclusion: RDTs can be used to quickly confirm the clinical diagnosis of malaria to reduce irrational use of anti-malarials when microscopy is not available ...

  14. Simple and rapid field tests for brucellosis in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoel, Theresia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Cardoso, Regina; Smits, Henk L.

    2008-01-01

    Four simple and rapid field tests for the serodiagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, goat, sheep and swine were developed. The performance of the assays was investigated using serum samples collected in Portugal from animals originating from herds with a defined sanitary status with respect to the

  15. Rapid enzymatic test for phenotypic HIV protease drug resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, D.; Assfalg-Machleidt, Irmgard; Nitschko, H; Helm, K. von der; Koszinowski, U.; Machleidt, Werner

    2003-01-01

    A phenotypic resistance test based on recombinant expression of the active HIV protease in E. coli from patient blood samples was developed. The protease is purified in a rapid onestep procedure as active enzyme and tested for inhibition by five selected synthetic inhibitors (amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir) used presently for chemotherapy of HIVinfected patients. The HPLC system used in a previous approach was replaced by a continuous fluorogenic assay suitable f...

  16. [BREV: a rapid clinical scale for cognitive function evaluation in preschool and school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, C; Vol, S; Livet, M O; Motte, J; Vallée, L; Gillet, P; Marquet, T

    2002-02-01

    BREV, standing for the French "Batterie Rapide d'Evaluation des Fonctions Cognitive", is a rapid test to screen children with disorders of higher functions and to define the patterns of these disorders. We describe here two phases of the validation procedure. The first phase consisted in measuring the internal validity of the scale by testing 500 normal school children free of disability. The validation process provided appropriate values for each of the 18 subtests assessing cognitive functions (oral language, non-verbal abilities, attention and memory, education and memory, educational achievment) in ten age groups from 4 to 8 years. All subtests with the same content for any revealed values which increased significantly with age. Inter-reliability was tested by retesting 70 children. The second phase of validation, comparing BREV results and those from a large classical neuropsychological battery, tested specificity and sensitivity. Each of the BREV subtests were correlated with the similar subtest of the classical battery. Correlations between verbal and non-verbal scores and verbal and performance intellectual quotient (Weschler scale) were very significant. Sensitivity and specificity of BREV were above 75p.100;. This confirms the reliability of this battery for children, with good sensitivity and specificity. BREV is a reliable test, with carefully established norms, appropriate for preschool and school-age children.

  17. Causes of false-positive HIV rapid diagnostic test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarkowski, Derryck; O'Brien, Daniel P; Shanks, Leslie; Singh, Kasha P

    2014-01-01

    HIV rapid diagnostic tests have enabled widespread implementation of HIV programs in resource-limited settings. If the tests used in the diagnostic algorithm are susceptible to the same cause for false positivity, a false-positive diagnosis may result in devastating consequences. In resource-limited settings, the lack of routine confirmatory testing, compounded by incorrect interpretation of weak positive test lines and use of tie-breaker algorithms, can leave a false-positive diagnosis undetected. We propose that heightened CD5+ and early B-lymphocyte response polyclonal cross-reactivity are a major cause of HIV false positivity in certain settings; thus, test performance may vary significantly in different geographical areas and populations. There is an urgent need for policy makers to recognize that HIV rapid diagnostic tests are screening tests and mandate confirmatory testing before reporting an HIV-positive result. In addition, weak positive results should not be recognized as valid except in the screening of blood donors.

  18. Indeterminate and discrepant rapid HIV test results in couples' HIV testing and counselling centres in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Many HIV voluntary testing and counselling centres in Africa use rapid antibody tests, in parallel or in sequence, to establish same-day HIV status. The interpretation of indeterminate or discrepant results between different rapid tests on one sample poses a challenge. We investigated the use of an algorithm using three serial rapid HIV tests in cohabiting couples to resolve unclear serostatuses. Methods Heterosexual couples visited the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group testing centres in Kigali, Rwanda, and Lusaka, Zambia, to assess HIV infection status. Individuals with unclear HIV rapid antibody test results (indeterminate) or discrepant results were asked to return for repeat testing to resolve HIV status. If either partner of a couple tested positive or indeterminate with the screening test, both partners were tested with a confirmatory test. Individuals with indeterminate or discrepant results were further tested with a tie-breaker and monthly retesting. HIV-RNA viral load was determined when HIV status was not resolved by follow-up rapid testing. Individuals were classified based on two of three initial tests as "Positive", "Negative" or "Other". Follow-up testing and/or HIV-RNA viral load testing determined them as "Infected", "Uninfected" or "Unresolved". Results Of 45,820 individuals tested as couples, 2.3% (4.1% of couples) had at least one discrepant or indeterminate rapid result. A total of 65% of those individuals had follow-up testing and of those individuals initially classified as "Negative" by three initial rapid tests, less than 1% were resolved as "Infected". In contrast, of those individuals with at least one discrepant or indeterminate result who were initially classified as "Positive", only 46% were resolved as "Infected", while the remainder was resolved as "Uninfected" (46%) or "Unresolved" (8%). A positive HIV serostatus of one of the partners was a strong predictor of infection in the other partner as 48% of individuals who

  19. Improving prescribing practices with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burchett, Helen E D; Leurent, Baptiste; Baiden, Frank

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The overuse of antimalarial drugs is widespread. Effective methods to improve prescribing practice remain unclear. We evaluated the impact of 10 interventions that introduced rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) on the use of tests and adherence to results in different contexts...... packages, supervision, supplies and community sensitisation. OUTCOME MEASURES: Analysis explored variation in: (1) uptake of mRDTs (% febrile patients tested); (2) provider adherence to positive mRDTs (% Plasmodium falciparum positive prescribed/given Artemisinin Combination Treatment); (3) provider...

  20. Rapid HIV testing for developing countries: the challenge of false-negative tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev, Ram

    2012-06-01

    It is a common practice in resource-constrained countries to accept two positive rapid HIV antibody test results as diagnostic for HIV infection. Because these tests are inexpensive and results are obtained quickly, they are recommended by the WHO to "scale-up" HIV testing to increase the number of people tested. The negative predictive value of rapid HIV tests is so high that negative results are considered conclusive despite the fact that false-negative results can occur in several situations. While the specificity and sensitivity of rapid HIV tests in resource-rich countries is acceptable, there are only limited data about their performance in resource-constrained countries. The challenges of rapid HIV testing in these situations will be discussed.

  1. Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid testing with rapid antigen testing for the diagnosis of influenza A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Michael A; Sahoo, Malaya K; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2012-12-01

    Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen tests, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B, as well as direct fluorescent antibody testing for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse transcriptase PCR as the reference method, influenza A sensitivity was 97.3% for Xpert Flu, 95.9% for direct fluorescent antibody testing, 62.2% for BinaxNOW, and 71.6% for BD Directigen. Influenza B sensitivity was 100% for Xpert Flu and direct fluorescent antibody testing, 54.5% for BinaxNOW, and 48.5% for BD Directigen. Specificity for influenza A was 100% for Xpert Flu, BinaxNOW, and BD Directigen, and 99.2% for direct fluorescent antibody testing. All methods demonstrated 100% specificity for influenza B. These findings support the use of the Xpert Flu assay in settings requiring urgent diagnosis of influenza A and B. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid Visual Tests: Fast and Reliable Detection of Ochratoxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lopez-Ferber

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the early detection strategies that have been employed for the rapid monitoring of ochratoxin A (OTA contamination of food. OTA, a mycotoxin mainly produced by some Aspergillus and Penicillium species, is found in cereals, coffee, wine, pork and grapes. To minimize the entry of this mycotoxin into the food chain, rapid diagnostic tools are required. To this end, the potential use of lateral flow devices has also been developed. In this study, we analyze the robustness of test strips using published methods for colorimetric detection. Different test formats are discussed, and challenges in the development of lateral flow devices for on-site determination of OTA, with requirements such as robustness, speed, and cost-effectiveness, are discussed.

  3. [Rapid test for detection of susceptibility to cefotaxime in Enterobacteriaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Guerra, Gemma; Hoyos-Mallecot, Yannik; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; Navarro-Marí, José María; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José

    In this work an "in house" rapid test based on the change in pH that is due to hydrolysis for detecting Enterobacteriaceae susceptible to cefotaxime is evaluated. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae from 1947 urine cultures were assessed using MicroScan panels and the "in house" test. This rapid test includes red phenol solution and cefotaxime. Using MicroScan panels, 499 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were evaluated, which included 27 isolates of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), 16 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL and 1 isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca ESBL. The "in house" test offers the following values: sensitivity 98% and specificity 97%, with negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 78%. The "in house" test based on the change of pH is useful in our area for detecting presumptively cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. A rapid test for soy aeroallergens exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Simon, Daniel; Cruz, María-Jesús; Untoria, María-Dolores; Muñoz, Xavier; Villalbí, Joan R; Morell, Ferran; Gómez-Ollés, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Determining soy aeroallergens levels is extremely important in the assessment of health risks due to these airborne substances. Currently, soy aeroallergens exposure in the environment is monitored using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) which must be evaluated in a specialized laboratory by skilled personnel. To describe the development and performance of a rapid immunochromatography assay for the detection of soy aeroallergens in environmental samples. A test strip using gold labeled anti-soy hull low molecular weight extract (SHLMWE) antibody for the rapid detection of soy aeroallergens in environmental samples was developed. One hundred nineteen airborne samples were analysed in parallel by the strip assay and the anti-SHLMWE sandwich EIA. The assay results were visually analysed by three independent observers who ranked samples as: -, + or ++. Strips were also scanned and analysed by densitometry. The rapid test detected a range of concentrations from 6.25 to 25 ng/mL. Agreement in strip assay interpretations between evaluators was substantial (Kappa = 0.63; CI 0.544-0.715). Visual interpretation also gave a good concordance with EIA results, with sensitivity ranging from 77.3 to 100 and specificity from 65 to 83.5 depending on the observer. Furthermore, a strong correlation was observed between densitometry results of strip assay and EIA determinations. The strip assay developed is rapid, simple, and sensitive and does not require expensive equipment or specific skills. It has considerable potential in the environmental monitoring field for screening soy aeroallergens levels in port cities where allergen measurements are not currently performed. Due to its simplicity, the test will improve the management of soy allergic patients by controlling environmental allergen exposure without the need for apparatus or skilled personnel.

  5. Sensitivity of HIV rapid tests compared with fourth-generation enzyme immunoassays or HIV RNA tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei Sheng; Chow, Eric P F; Fairley, Christopher K; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Read, Tim R H

    2016-07-31

    Determine the sensitivity of HIV rapid tests compared with fourth-generation enzyme immunoassays (EIA) or nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) in clinical settings. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane reviews and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched until 14 July 2015 for studies of adults comparing point-of-care HIV rapid tests to fourth-generation HIV EIA antibody/p24 antigen or HIV NAAT. From 953 titles, 18 studies were included, involving 110 122 HIV rapid test results. Compared with EIA, the estimated sensitivity (random effects) of HIV rapid tests was 94.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 87.4-97.7]. Compared with NAAT, the sensitivity of HIV rapid tests was 93.7% (95% CI: 88.7-96.5). The sensitivity of HIV rapid tests in high-income countries was 85.7% (95% CI: 81.9-88.9) and in low-income countries was 97.7% (95% CI: 95.2-98.9) compared with either EIA or NAAT (P HIV rapid tests were less sensitive in high-income countries compared with low-income countries, missing about one in seven infections, possibly because of the larger proportion of acute infections in targeted populations. This suggests that in high-income countries, HIV rapid tests should be used in combination with fourth-generation EIA or NAAT tests, except in special circumstances. Prospective Registration of Systematic Reviews registration number CRD42015020154.Supplementary video link: http://links.lww.com/QAD/A924.

  6. [Evaluation of Mascia Brunelli rapid antigen test in the diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barış, Ayşe; Anlıaçık, Nur; Bulut, Mehmet Emin; Deniz, Rıdvan; Yücel, Elif; Aktaş, Elif

    2017-01-01

    Pharyngitis in most cases is due to viral microorganisms however drug therapy without the detection of etiological agent leads to unnecessary use of antibiotics. On the other hand, when the etiologic agent is group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GAS) it is important to identify the etiologic agent rapidly which will guide the treatment with appropriate antibiotics. The use of highly sensitive rapid tests will contribute significantly to early diagnosis and appropriate therapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Mascia Brunelli rapid antigen test for the detection of GAS in throat swab samples. A total of 833 throat swab samples submitted to our laboratory with pre-diagnosis of pharyngitis were assessed between June 2016 and August 2016. The samples were simultaneously cultured and tested by rapid Mascia Brunelli Strep-A Card (Mascia Brunelli S.p.a, Italy). For identification, bacitracin sensitivity, PYR test and latex agglutination test in addition to Bruker MALDI-TOF MS (Daltonics, Germany) system were used. The density of GAS growth in the culture was noted. The samples that were false negative with Mascia Brunelli test were re-tested with QuickVue + Strep A Test (Quidel Corporation, San Diego, USA) rapid antigen test. A total of 833 patients, 376 (45.2%) female and 457 (54.8%) male were included in the study. The age range was between 0-94 years with a mean value of 7.86 ± 6.72. 125 (15%) and 94 (11.28%) of the samples were positive with culture and rapid antigen test, respectively. Mascia Brunelli antigen test gave negative results for 31 culture positive samples. Of these 31 samples, 28 were found positive by QuickVue + Strep A antigen test. As a result, the sensitivity of the test was found to be independent of the inoculum effect. The culture positivity rate in patients between 5-15 years was 18.4%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and the accuracy of Mascia Brunelli antigen test, with

  7. Factors Associated With Receiving Rapid HIV Testing Among Individuals on Probation or Parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S; Carswell, Steven B; Wilson, Monique; Kinlock, Timothy W; Restivo, Lauren; McKenzie, Michelle; Rich, Josiah D

    2016-10-01

    Despite the strong correlation between HIV and corrections, testing and prevention efforts have largely been ignored among community corrections populations. The current study is a secondary analysis to compare characteristics of individuals under community corrections supervision who completed rapid HIV testing with those who refused such testing (N = 2,382) in Baltimore, Maryland, and Providence, Rhode Island. Results indicate that the following variables were significantly associated with the receipt of rapid HIV testing: being female (p = .024), Black race (p = .004), homeless (p = .016), early age of crime onset (p = .001), more drug use during the past 90 days (p = .033), and previously tested for hepatitis C virus/hepatitis B virus (p = .024). Such findings make it especially important that individuals under community supervision be linked with services in the community to ensure that HIV testing and health care planning occur simultaneously. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  9. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  10. A comparison of test statistics for the recovery of rapid growth-based enumeration tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.

    This paper considers five test statistics for comparing the recovery of a rapid growth-based enumeration test with respect to the compendial microbiological method using a specific nonserial dilution experiment. The finite sample distributions of these test statistics are unknown, because they are

  11. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  12. Influence of Age on Patch Tests Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aouatef Mahfoudh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the influence of age on the patch-test results and to compare the profiles of skin sensitizers according to the age groups. Methods: It is an 8-year retrospective study involving entire medical records of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis at the Unity of Dermatology and Allergology in the Department of Occupational Medicine, University Hospital of Sousse in Tunisia. Study population was divided into two age groups (group 1: patients 40 years. The statistical significance level was taken as p<0.05. Results: Among the patients, 586 have had at least one positive reaction to the patch-test. Older individuals were 1.1 times more likely to have at least one positive reaction to the patch-test than younger ones. The most common allergens in both groups are potassium dichromate (34.2% vs. 38%, thiuram mix (6% vs. 11%, cobalt chloride (27% vs. 28.8%, balsam of Peru (6% vs. 11.3% and nickel sulphate (41% vs. 27.3%. A significant variation was noted for potassium dichromate in terms of intensity of skin reaction (p=0.00. Conclusion: More research is needed to elucidate the physiologic mechanisms of age on the patch-test results and to adapt the European Standard Battery to each age group in term of allergen type and their appropriate concentration.

  13. Rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedoru, Lalith; Mallett, Sue; Parry, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    Background Differentiating both typhoid (Salmonella Typhi) and paratyphoid (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infection from other causes of fever in endemic areas is a diagnostic challenge. Although commercial point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for enteric fever are available as alternatives to the current reference standard test of blood or bone marrow culture, or to the widely used Widal Test, their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. If accurate, they could potentially replace blood culture as the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended main diagnostic test for enteric fever. Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy of commercially available rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and prototypes for detecting Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi A infection in symptomatic persons living in endemic areas. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index, IndMED, African Index Medicus, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) up to 4 March 2016. We manually searched WHO reports, and papers from international conferences on Salmonella infections. We also contacted test manufacturers to identify studies. Selection criteria We included diagnostic accuracy studies of enteric fever RDTs in patients with fever or with symptoms suggestive of enteric fever living in endemic areas. We classified the reference standard used as either Grade 1 (result from a blood culture and a bone marrow culture) or Grade 2 (result from blood culture and blood polymerase chain reaction, or from blood culture alone). Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted the test result data. We used a modified QUADAS-2 extraction form to assess methodological quality. We performed a meta-analysis when there were sufficient studies for the test and heterogeneity was reasonable. Main results Thirty-seven studies met the inclusion

  14. The effects of surface treatments on rapid chloride permeability tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2012-08-01

    Surface treatments are commonly applied to improve the chloride resistance of concrete structures exposed to saline environments. Information on chloride ingress to surface-treated concrete is mostly provided by application of the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT); this test is short in duration and provides rapid results. This study presents a numerical formulation, based on the extended Nernst-Plank/Poisson (NPP) equation, to model the effect of the surface treatment on a sample tested by RCPT. Predictions of the model are compared to experimental measurements. The simulations show that the results from RCPT, in terms of ionic profiles and measurement of the electric field, are dependent on the effectiveness of surface treatments. During RCPT, highly effective surface treatments cause both cations and anions to flocculate at the interface between the surface treatment and the concrete, creating a local electric field. Our numerical model includes these phenomena and presents a methodology to obtain more accurate diffusivities of the surface-treated- concrete from RCPT. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Total daily activity declines more rapidly with increasing age in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Aron S; Wilson, Robert S; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Boyle, Patricia A; Bennett, David A

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of objectively measured physical activity are lacking in older adults. We tested whether objective measures of total daily activity decline more rapidly in older adults. This prospective, observational cohort study included 519 community-dwelling older persons from across metropolitan Chicago participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Repeated total daily activity measures (leisure and non-leisure physical activity) were derived from actigraphic recordings for up to 10 days. Generalized estimating equation models which controlled for demographics measures were employed. At baseline, age was inversely related with the level of total daily activity (estimate, -0.014, S.E. 0.002, pdaily activity declined by about 0.070 × 10(5) activity counts/day/yr (estimate -0.065, S.E. 0.005, pdaily activity declined 3% more rapidly for each additional year of age at baseline (estimate -0.002, S.E. 0.001, p=0.027). Thus, total daily activity declined almost twice as fast in an individual 91 years old at baseline versus an individual 71 years old. A higher level of education was associated with a slower rate of decline (estimate 0.004, S.E. 0.002, pdaily activity were unchanged when controlling for baseline level of motor and cognitive function, other late-life activities and chronic health conditions. These data suggest that total daily activity in very old adults declines more rapidly with increasing age. Thus, physical inactivity is likely to become a larger problem in our aging population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baveewo Steven

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Results Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold. However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2% were HIV negative. Conclusion Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.

  17. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baveewo, Steven; Kamya, Moses R; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Fatch, Robin; Bangsberg, David R; Coates, Thomas; Hahn, Judith A; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2012-03-19

    Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold). However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2%) were HIV negative. Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.

  18. Introducing rapid tests for malaria into the retail sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchinson, Eleanor; Hutchison, Coll; Lal, Sham

    2017-01-01

    The observation that many people in Africa seek care for febrile illness in the retail sector has led to a number of public health initiatives to try to improve the quality of care provided in these settings. The potential to support the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (m......RDTs) into drug shops is coming under increased scrutiny. Those in favour argue that it enables the harmonisation of policy around testing and treatment for malaria and maintains a focus on market-based solutions to healthcare. Despite the enthusiasm among many global health actors for this policy option......, there is a limited understanding of the consequences of the introduction of mRDTs in the retail sector. We undertook an interpretive, mixed methods study with drug shop vendors (DSVs), their clients and local health workers to explore the uses and interpretations of mRDTs as they became part of daily practice...

  19. Laboratory and On-Site Tests for Rapid Runway Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Leonelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The attention to rapid pavement repair has grown fast in recent decades: this topic is strategic for the airport management process for civil purposes and peacekeeping missions. This work presents the results of laboratory and on-site tests for rapid runway repair, in order to analyse and compare technical and mechanical performances of 12 different materials currently used in airport. The study focuses on site repairs, a technique adopted most frequently than repairs with modular elements. After describing mechanical and physical properties of the examined materials (2 bituminous emulsions, 5 cement mortars, 4 cold bituminous mixtures and 1 expanding resin, the study presents the results of carried out mechanical tests. The results demonstrate that the best performing material is a one-component fast setting and hardening cement mortar with graded aggregates. This material allows the runway reopening 6 h after the work. A cold bituminous mixture (bicomponent premixed cold asphalt with water as catalyst and the ordinary cement concrete allow the reopening to traffic after 18 h, but both ensure a lower service life (1000 coverages than the cement mortar (10,000 coverages. The obtained results include important information both laboratory level and field, and they could be used by airport management bodies and road agencies when scheduling and evaluating pavement repairs.

  20. Diagnosis of acute mononucleosis in emergency: comparison of rapid tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Scaggiante

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a gammaherpesvirus that causes a number of clinical syndromes, including acute mononucleosis.Acute infection with EBV can vary widely with regard to the severity and presentation of illness, ranging from an asymptomatic infection to a serious, life-threatening version of mononucleosis with associated liver damage and splenomegaly. Additionally, other acute viral syndromes, including those caused by hepatitis viruses and cytomegalovirus (CMV, can lead to similar clinical syndromes. The variety of symptoms and the overlap with other viral infections underscore the importance of laboratory testing in the diagnosis of acute EBV-related disease.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of an agglutination test for the detection of heterophile antibodies (Monotest and two EBV-specific rapid immunochromatographic tests (VCA-IgM and VCA-IgG/EBNA-IgG. Heterophile antibody determination is resulted to have not a real diagnostic utility for the low sensibility and specificity of the test. In our experience the only use of VCA-IgG/EBNA-IgG test is sufficient to discriminate between an acute mononucleosis and a past infection.

  1. An Update on Ovarian Aging and Ovarian Reserve Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migraci Tosun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovaries are the female organs that age more quickly than other tissues such as the uterus, the pituitary gland or pancreas. Different from males, an interesting question is why and how the females lose fertility so rapidly. During the aging process, both the number and quality of the oocytes in the ovaries decrease and reach to a point beyond that no more viable offspring may be produced and the associated cyclic endocrinological activities cease, entering the menopause in females at an average age of 50 years. Females who delayed childbearing with or without their willing until their 30 years or 40 years constitute the largest portion of the total infertility population. Ovarian reserve tests (ORTs provide an indirect estimate of a female�s diminishing ovarian reserve or remaining follicular pool. This article briefly reviews recent progresses in relation to ovarian aging and ORTs.

  2. Integrated rapid-diagnostic-test reader platform on a cellphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudanyali, Onur; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Sikora, Uzair; Padmanabhan, Swati; Navruz, Isa; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-08-07

    We demonstrate a cellphone-based rapid-diagnostic-test (RDT) reader platform that can work with various lateral flow immuno-chromatographic assays and similar tests to sense the presence of a target analyte in a sample. This compact and cost-effective digital RDT reader, weighing only ~65 g, mechanically attaches to the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where various types of RDTs can be inserted to be imaged in reflection or transmission modes under light-emitting diode (LED)-based illumination. Captured raw images of these tests are then digitally processed (within less than 0.2 s per image) through a smart application running on the cellphone for validation of the RDT, as well as for automated reading of its diagnostic result. The same smart application then transmits the resulting data, together with the RDT images and other related information (e.g., demographic data), to a central server, which presents the diagnostic results on a world map through geo-tagging. This dynamic spatio-temporal map of various RDT results can then be viewed and shared using internet browsers or through the same cellphone application. We tested this platform using malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV RDTs by installing it on both Android-based smartphones and an iPhone. Providing real-time spatio-temporal statistics for the prevalence of various infectious diseases, this smart RDT reader platform running on cellphones might assist healthcare professionals and policymakers to track emerging epidemics worldwide and help epidemic preparedness.

  3. A Novel Automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test Reader Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Haydar; Kayhan, Osman Semih

    2016-01-01

    A novel automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) reader platform is designed to analyze and diagnose target disease by using existing consumer cameras of a laptop-computer or a tablet. The RDT reader is useable with numerous lateral immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical tests. The system has two different components, which are 3D-printed, low-cost, tiny, and compact stand and a decision program named RDT-AutoReader 2.0. The program takes the image of RDT, crops the region of interest (ROI), and extracts the features from the control end test lines to classify the results as invalid, positive, or negative. All related patient's personal information, image of ROI, and the e-report are digitally saved and transferred to the related clinician. Condition of the patient and the progress of the disease can be monitored by using the saved data. The reader platform has been tested by taking image from used cassette RDTs of rotavirus (RtV)/adenovirus (AdV) and lateral flow strip RDTs of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) before discarding them. The created RDT reader can also supply real-time statistics of various illnesses by using databases and Internet. This can help to inhibit propagation of contagious diseases and to increase readiness against epidemic diseases worldwide. PMID:27190549

  4. Rapid Immunization Scheme for Spouses of Individuals Estabilished as Hepatitis B Carriers during Premarital Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Tosun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to monitor the cases identified as hepatitis B carriers during premarital tests, to vaccinate their prospective spouses with a rapid vaccination scheme, and to compare the anti-HBs responses with the traditional vaccination scheme. Methods. Blood samples of 1250 couple spouses were tested for HBsAg and anti-HBs. HBsAg positive cases' fiancées which were found HBV negative were administered a rapid three-dose vaccination scheme on days 0, 7, and 21. Forty controls with similar age and gender were also were administered three doses of the same vaccine. Results. Out of 1250 cases (625 couples, 46 (3.6% were HBsAg positive, and 40 of them aged between 18 and 39 were admitted to the rapid vaccination program. Conclusion. Upon determination of HBsAg positivity in premarital tests, a rapid vaccination program provides early protection, but the 6th and 12th month vaccinations are also required. Anti-HBs response should be monitored.

  5. Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES) test: A new measure of rapid picture naming for concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbs, Lucy; Hasanaj, Lisena; Amorapanth, Prin; Rizzo, John-Ross; Nolan, Rachel; Serrano, Liliana; Raynowska, Jenelle; Rucker, Janet C; Jordan, Barry D; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J

    2017-01-15

    This study introduces a rapid picture naming test, the Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES), as a novel, vision-based performance measure for concussion screening. The MULES is a visual-verbal task that includes 54 original photographs of fruits, objects and animals. We piloted MULES in a cohort of volunteers to determine feasibility, ranges of picture naming responses, and the relation of MULES time scores to those of King-Devick (K-D), a rapid number naming test. A convenience sample (n=20, age 34±10) underwent MULES and K-D (spiral bound, iPad versions). Administration order was randomized; MULES tests were audio-recorded to provide objective data on temporal variability and ranges of picture naming responses. Scores for the best of two trials for all tests were 40-50s; average times required to name each MULES picture (0.72±0.14s) was greater than those needed for each K-D number ((spiral: 0.33±0.05s, iPad: 0.36±0.06s, 120 numbers), psystems than more commonly used rapid number naming tasks. Rapid picture naming may require additional processing devoted to color perception, object identification, and categorization. Both tests rely on initiation and sequencing of saccadic eye movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid diagnostic test for identifying group B streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Jonathan; Katz, Allan; Bishop, Karen; Riddle, Gerald; Faro, Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    Neonatal infection with Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) causes significant morbidity and mortality. A truly rapid diagnostic test for identifying GBS would allow for more timely initiation of antibiotic prophylaxis and also reduce the administration of antibiotics for the prevention of early onset neonatal GBS infection. A stock culture was formed from a laboratory reference strain of GBS and was diluted from 10 (7) to 10 (1) bacteria/mL. Specific concentrations were used to inoculate nitrocellulose membranes (NCMs) that had been coated previously with polyclonal rabbit antibody against GBS. After specific times, the NCMs were removed from the sheep blood agar medium, and horseradish-peroxidase conjugate polyclonal antibody against GBS was added. Bound antibody was detected with diaminobenzidine. After 6 hours of incubation, GBS was detected at concentrations from 10 (7) through 10 (4) bacterial/mL. After 4 hours of incubation, GBS was detected at concentrations from 10 (7) through 10 (5) bacteria/mL. GBS was not detected at 2 hours of incubation. Rapid growth and detection of GBS can be performed, and the results can be reliably attained as early as 4 hours. This is in marked contrast to the 48 to 72 hours required by current methods. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  7. [Rapid diagnostic tests for the serodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarozzi, F; Mariconti, M; Covini, I; Brunetti, E

    2017-02-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a parasitic zoonosis especially affecting resource-poor populations in livestock raising areas. Imaging, in particular ultrasound (US), is crucial for the diagnosis, staging, and clinical management of abdominal CE in humans. Serology is a valuable complement to imaging, especially when ultrasound features of CE are absent or unclear. In rural endemic areas, where expertise in US is scant, and conventional serology techniques are unavailable due to lack of laboratory equipment, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) may be very useful. Several reports have described the performance of commercial and experimental RDTs in the diagnosis of CE, including a recent study by our group that compared the diagnostic performances of three commercial RDTs for the diagnosis of hepatic CE. To put RDTs for CE in context, we reviewed the available literature in English on this topic. Overall, RDTs appear to be useful in resourcepoor settings where they may replace conventional serodiagnostic tests. However, like other serodiagnostic tests, RDTs lack standardization and show unsatisfactory sensitivity and specificity. An important issue that needs to be addressed is that studies on the diagnostic performance of RDTs fail to take into account the variables known to influence results such as anatomical location and cyst stage.

  8. Evaluation of a New and Rapid Serologic Test for Detecting Brucellosis: Brucella Coombs Gel Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanci, Hayrunisa; Igan, Hakan; Uyanik, Muhammet Hamidullah

    2017-01-01

    Many serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. A new serological method is identified as Brucella Coombs gel test based on the principle of centrifugation gel system similar to the gel system used in blood group determination. In this system, if Brucella antibodies were present in the serum, antigen and antibody would remain as a pink complex on the gel. Otherwise, the pink Brucella antigens would precipitate at the bottom of the gel card system. In this study, we aimed to compare the Brucella Coombs gel test, a new, rapid screen and titration method for detection of non-agglutinating IgG with the Brucella Coombs test. For this study, a total of 88 serum samples were obtained from 45 healthy persons and 43 individuals who had clinical signs and symptoms of brucellosis. For each specimen, Rose Bengal test, standard agglutination test, Coombs test and Brucella Coombs gel test were carried out. Sensitivity and specificity of Brucella Coombs gel test were found as 100.0 and 82.2%, respectively. Brucella Coombs gel test can be used as a screening test with high sensitivity. By the help of pink Brucella antigen precipitation, the tests' evaluation is simple and objective. In addition, determination of Brucella antibody by rapid titration offers another important advantage.

  9. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Results: From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90% were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics.

  10. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flávio da Silva; Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal de; Crema, Daniela; Pinez, Célia Miranda Nunes; Colmanetti, Thaís Cristina; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumia; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Vieira, Sandra Elisabeth; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Botosso, Viviane Fongaro; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA) as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90%) were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. The sensitivity and the specifity of rapid antigen test in streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurol, Yesim; Akan, Hulya; Izbirak, Guldal; Tekkanat, Zuhal Tazegun; Gunduz, Tehlile Silem; Hayran, Osman; Yilmaz, Gulden

    2010-06-01

    It is aimed to detect the sensitivity and specificity of rapid antigen detection of group A beta hemolytic streptococci from throat specimen compared with throat culture. The other goal of the study is to help in giving clinical decisions in upper respiratory tract infections according to the age group, by detection of sensitivity and positive predictive values of the rapid tests and throat cultures. Rapid antigen detection and throat culture results for group A beta hemolytic streptococci from outpatients attending to our university hospital between the first of November 2005 and 31st of December 2008 were evaluated retrospectively. Throat samples were obtained by swabs from the throat and transported in the Stuart medium and Quickvue Strep A [Quidel, San Diego, USA] cassette test was applied and for culture, specimen was inoculated on 5% blood sheep agar and identified according to bacitracin and trimethoprim-sulphametaxazole susceptibility from beta hemolytic colonies. During the dates between the first of November 2005 and 31st of December 2008, from 453 patients both rapid antigen detection and throat culture were evaluated. Rapid antigen detection sensitivity and specificity were found to be 64.6% and 96.79%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 80.95% whereas negative predictive value was 92.82%. Kappa index was 0.91. When the results were evaluated according to the age groups, the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of rapid antigen detection in children were 70%, 90.3% and in adults 59.4%, 70.4%. When bacterial infection is concerned to prevent unnecessary antibiotic use, rapid streptococcal antigen test (RSAT) is a reliable method to begin immediate treatment. To get the maximum sensitivity of RSAT, the specimen collection technique used and education of the health care workers is important. While giving clinical decision, it must be taken into consideration that the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of the RSAT is quite

  12. Erythrocyte adenosine transport. A rapid screening test for cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, P K; Mosher, S J; Li, R; Farmer, P S; Klassen, G A; Pollak, P T; McMullen, M; Ferrier, G

    1993-11-01

    An erythrocyte (RBC) model based on whole blood was used to investigate the effect of cardiovascular drugs on the uptake of adenosine in vitro. Fresh whole blood obtained from healthy volunteers was allowed to equilibrate with various concentrations (5-1000 microM) of a tested agent. (2-3H)-Adenosine was used as a substrate, and the reaction was terminated after 2 sec of incubation at room temperature by rapid addition of a "Stopping Solution" which was a mixture of erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine, dipyridamole, and EDTA. The mixture was centrifuged (1760 g, 4 degrees C, 10 min), and the radioactivity of an aliquot of the supernatant was determined by a scintillation counter. The results showed that dipyridamole was the most potent agent tested (IC50 = 0.2 microM). Amongst the calcium antagonists studied, isradipine was most potent, followed by verapamil, clentiazem, diltiazem, and then nifedipine. The racemates of two metabolites of diltiazem, MX and MB, were more potent than the parent drug. The antiarrhythmic agents, amiodarone and sotalol, the two new lipid peroxidation inhibitors, U-74389F and U-78517F, and the anxiolytic agent, alprazolam, were as active as verapamil. The beta-receptor antagonist propranolol and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, enalapril, were practically inactive. In addition, the model was stereoselective such that the S(-)-enantiomer of verapamil was considerably more potent than the R(+)-antipote, whereas d(+)-sotalol was practically inactive compared to racemic sotalol.

  13. The availability of research data declines rapidly with article age

    CERN Document Server

    Vines, Timothy; Andrew, Rose; Debarré, Florence; Bock, Dan; Franklin, Michelle; Gilbert, Kimberley; Moore, Jean-Sébastien; Renaut, Sébastien; Rennison, Diana J

    2013-01-01

    Policies ensuring that research data are available on public archives are increasingly being implemented at the government [1], funding agency [2-4], and journal [5,6] level. These policies are predicated on the idea that authors are poor stewards of their data, particularly over the long term [7], and indeed many studies have found that authors are often unable or unwilling to share their data [8-11]. However, there are no systematic estimates of how the availability of research data changes with time since publication. We therefore requested datasets from a relatively homogenous set of 516 articles published between 2 and 22 years ago, and found that availability of the data was strongly affected by article age. For papers where the authors gave the status of their data, the odds of a dataset being extant fell by 17% per year. In addition, the odds that we could find a working email address for the first, last or corresponding author fell by 7% per year. Our results reinforce the notion that, in the long te...

  14. Investigation of false positive results with an oral fluid rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafa, Krishna; Patel, Pragna; Mackellar, Duncan A; Sullivan, Patrick S; Delaney, Kevin P; Sides, Tracy L; Newman, Alexandra P; Paul, Sindy M; Cadoff, Evan M; Martin, Eugene G; Keenan, Patrick A; Branson, Bernard M

    2007-01-31

    In March 2004, the OraQuick rapid HIV antibody test became the first rapid HIV test approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use on oral fluid specimens. Test results are available in 20 minutes, and the oral fluid test is non-invasive. From August 2004-June 2005, we investigated a sudden increase in false-positive results occurring in a performance study of OraQuick oral-fluid rapid HIV tests in Minnesota. In a field investigation, we reviewed performance study data on oral-fluid and whole-blood OraQuick rapid HIV test device lots and expiration dates and assessed test performance and interpretation with oral-fluid and whole-blood specimens by operators who reported false-positive results. We used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate client demographic and risk characteristics associated with false-positive results. Next, we conducted an incidence study of false-positive OraQuick rapid HIV tests in nine US cities and tested both oral-fluid and finger-stick whole-blood specimens from clients; reactive tests were confirmed with Western blot. Sixteen (4.1%) false-positive oral-fluid results occurred in the performance study from April 15, 2004 through August 31, 2004 with unexpired devices from six test lots among 388 HIV-uninfected clients (specificity, 95.9%; 95% CI: 93.4-97.6). Three test operators who had reported false-positive results performed and interpreted the test according to package-insert instructions. In multivariate analysis, only older age was significantly associated with false-positive results (adjusted odds ratio = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.2-25.7). In the incidence study, all valid oral-fluid and whole-blood results from 2,268 clients were concordant and no false-positive results occurred (100% specificity). The field investigation did not identify a cause for the increase in false-positive oral-fluid results, and the incidence study detected no false-positive results. The findings suggest this was an isolated cluster; the test's overall

  15. Investigation of false positive results with an oral fluid rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Jafa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In March 2004, the OraQuick rapid HIV antibody test became the first rapid HIV test approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use on oral fluid specimens. Test results are available in 20 minutes, and the oral fluid test is non-invasive. From August 2004-June 2005, we investigated a sudden increase in false-positive results occurring in a performance study of OraQuick oral-fluid rapid HIV tests in Minnesota. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a field investigation, we reviewed performance study data on oral-fluid and whole-blood OraQuick rapid HIV test device lots and expiration dates and assessed test performance and interpretation with oral-fluid and whole-blood specimens by operators who reported false-positive results. We used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate client demographic and risk characteristics associated with false-positive results. Next, we conducted an incidence study of false-positive OraQuick rapid HIV tests in nine US cities and tested both oral-fluid and finger-stick whole-blood specimens from clients; reactive tests were confirmed with Western blot. Sixteen (4.1% false-positive oral-fluid results occurred in the performance study from April 15, 2004 through August 31, 2004 with unexpired devices from six test lots among 388 HIV-uninfected clients (specificity, 95.9%; 95% CI: 93.4-97.6. Three test operators who had reported false-positive results performed and interpreted the test according to package-insert instructions. In multivariate analysis, only older age was significantly associated with false-positive results (adjusted odds ratio = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.2-25.7. In the incidence study, all valid oral-fluid and whole-blood results from 2,268 clients were concordant and no false-positive results occurred (100% specificity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The field investigation did not identify a cause for the increase in false-positive oral-fluid results, and the incidence study detected no false

  16. Rapid cytometric antibiotic susceptibility testing utilizing adaptive multidimensional statistical metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Hsueh; Ning, Xinghai; Wang, Xiaojian; Murthy, Niren; Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Dickson, Robert M

    2015-02-03

    Flow cytometry holds promise to accelerate antibiotic susceptibility determinations; however, without robust multidimensional statistical analysis, general discrimination criteria have remained elusive. In this study, a new statistical method, probability binning signature quadratic form (PB-sQF), was developed and applied to analyze flow cytometric data of bacterial responses to antibiotic exposure. Both sensitive lab strains (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a multidrug resistant, clinically isolated strain (E. coli) were incubated with the bacteria-targeted dye, maltohexaose-conjugated IR786, and each of many bactericidal or bacteriostatic antibiotics to identify changes induced around corresponding minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC). The antibiotic-induced damages were monitored by flow cytometry after 1-h incubation through forward scatter, side scatter, and fluorescence channels. The 3-dimensional differences between the flow cytometric data of the no-antibiotic treated bacteria and the antibiotic-treated bacteria were characterized by PB-sQF into a 1-dimensional linear distance. A 99% confidence level was established by statistical bootstrapping for each antibiotic-bacteria pair. For the susceptible E. coli strain, statistically significant increments from this 99% confidence level were observed from 1/16x MIC to 1x MIC for all the antibiotics. The same increments were recorded for P. aeruginosa, which has been reported to cause difficulty in flow-based viability tests. For the multidrug resistant E. coli, significant distances from control samples were observed only when an effective antibiotic treatment was utilized. Our results suggest that a rapid and robust antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) can be constructed by statistically characterizing the differences between sample and control flow cytometric populations, even in a label-free scheme with scattered light alone. These distances vs paired controls coupled with rigorous

  17. Comparative effectiveness of single and dual rapid diagnostic tests for syphilis and HIV in antenatal care services in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Duarte, Hernando Guillermo; Newman, Lori; Laverty, Maura; Habib, Ndema Abu; González-Gordon, Lina María; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Abella, Catleya; Barros, Esther Cristina; Rincón, Carlos; Caicedo, Sidia; Gómez, Bertha; Pérez, Freddy

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a dual rapid test compared to a single rapid test for syphilis and HIV screening. A cluster-randomized open-label clinical trial was performed in 12 public antenatal care (ANC) centers in the cities of Bogotá and Cali, Colombia. Pregnant women who were over 14 years of age at their first antenatal visit and who had not been previously tested for HIV and syphilis during the current pregnancy were included. Pregnant women were randomized to single HIV and single syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (Arm A) or to dual HIV and syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (Arm B). The four main outcomes measured were: (1) acceptability of the test, (2) uptake in testing, (3) treatment on the same day (that is, timely treatment), and (4) treatment at any time for positive rapid test cases. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were calculated to adjust for the clustering effect and the period. A total of 1 048 patients were analyzed in Arm A, and 1 166 in Arm B. Acceptability of the rapid tests was 99.8% in Arm A and 99.6% in Arm B. The prevalence of positive rapid tests was 2.21% for syphilis and 0.36% for HIV. Timely treatment was provided to 20 of 29 patients (69%) in Arm A and 16 of 20 patients (80%) in Arm B (relative risk (RR), 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.00 -1.20). Treatment at any time was given to 24 of 29 patients (83%) in Arm A and to 20 of 20 (100%) in Arm B (RR, 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01-1.22). There were no differences in patient acceptability, testing and timely treatment between dual rapid tests and single rapid tests for HIV and syphilis screening in the ANC centers. Same-day treatment depends also on the interpretation of and confidence in the results by the health providers.

  18. Jumping Stand Apparatus Reveals Rapidly Specific Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mouse Lemur Primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Picq

    Full Text Available The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a promising primate model for investigating normal and pathological cerebral aging. The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches. Many reports indicate insufficient adaptation of the mouse lemur to experimental devices used to evaluate its cognition, which is an impediment to the efficient use of this animal in research. In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur. We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12 and aged (n = 8 adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations. All mouse lemurs completed the tasks and only 25 trials, on average, were needed to master the first discrimination problem with no age-related differences. A month later, all mouse lemurs made progress for acquiring the second discrimination problem but only the young group reached immediately the criterion in the retention test of the first discrimination problem. This study shows that the jumping stand apparatus allows rapid and efficient evaluation of cognition in mouse lemurs and demonstrates that about half of the old mouse lemurs display a specific deficit in long-term retention but not in acquisition of visual discrimination.

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of rapid HIV testing of pregnant women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhore, A V; Sastry, J; Patke, D; Gupte, N; Bulakh, P M; Lele, S; Karmarkar, A; Bharucha, K E; Shrotri, A; Pisal, H; Suryawanshi, N; Tripathy, S; Risbud, A R; Paranjape, R S; Shankar, A V; Kshirsagar, A; Phadke, M A; Joshi, P L; Brookmeyer, R S; Bollinger, R C

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to prevent HIV transmission from mother to infants in settings like India may benefit from the availability of reliable methods for rapid and simple HIV screening. Data from India on the reliability of rapid HIV test kits are limited and there are no data on the use of rapid HIV tests for screening of pregnant women. Pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic and delivery room in Pune agreed to participate in an evaluation of five rapid HIV tests, including (a) a saliva brush test (Oraquick HIV-1/2, Orasure Technologies Inc.), (b) a rapid plasma test (Oraquick HIV-1/2) and (c) three rapid finger prick tests (Oraquick HIV-1/2; HIV-1/2 Determine, Abbott; NEVA HIV-1/2 Cadila). Results of the rapid tests were compared with three commercial plasma enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests (Innotest HIV AB EIA, Lab systems/ELISCAN HIV AB EIA, UBI HIV Ab EIA). Between September 2000 and October 1, 2001, 1258 pregnant women were screened for HIV using these rapid tests. Forty-four (3.49%) of the specimens were HIV-antibody-positive by at least two plasma EIA tests. All of the rapid HIV tests demonstrated excellent specificity (96-100%). The sensitivity of the rapid tests ranged from 75-94%. The combined sensitivity and specificity of a two-step algorithm for rapid HIV testing was excellent for a number of combinations of the five rapid finger stick tests. In this relatively low HIV prevalence population of pregnant women in India, the sensitivity of the rapid HIV tests varied, when compared to a dual EIA algorithm. In general, the specificity of all the rapid tests was excellent, with very few false positive HIV tests. Based upon these data, two different rapid HIV tests for screening pregnant women in India would be highly sensitive, with excellent specificity to reliably prevent inappropriate use of antiretroviral therapy for prevention of vertical HIV transmission.

  20. Rapid non-invasive tests for diagnostics of infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    A rapid test for an infectious disease that can be used at point-of-care at a physician's office, a pharmacy, or in the field is critical for the prompt and appropriate therapeutic intervention. Ultimately by treating infections early on will decrease transmission of the pathogen. In contrast to metabolic diseases or cancer where multiple biomarkers are required, infectious disease targets (e.g. antigen, antibody, nucleic acid) are simple and specific for the pathogen causing the disease. Our laboratory has focused on three major infectious disease; HIV, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. These diseases are pandemic in much of the world thus putting natives, tourists and military personnel at risk for becoming infected, and upon returning to the U.S., transmitting these diseases to their contacts. Our devices are designed to detect antigens, antibodies or nucleic acids in blood or saliva samples in less than 30 minutes. An overview describing the current status of each of the three diagnostic platforms is presented. These microfluidic point-of-care devices will be relatively inexpensive, disposable, and user friendly.

  1. Rapid prototyping of replica knee implants for in vitro testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verjans Mark

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the complex biomechanics of the knee is a key for an optimal implant design. To easily investigate the influence of prosthetic designs on knee biomechanics a rapid prototyping workflow for knee implants has been developed and evaluated. Therefore, different manufacturing technologies and post-treatment methods have been examined and overall seven different replica knee implants were manufactured. For evaluation, the manufacturing properties such as surface accuracy and roughness were determined and kinematic behaviour was investigated in a novel knee testing rig. It was carried out that PolyJet-Modelling with a sanded surface resulted in changed kinematic patterns compared to a usual CoCr-UHMWPE implant. However, fused deposition modelling using ABS and subsequent surface smoothening with acetone vapor showed the lowest roughness of the manufactured implants and only minor kinematic differences. For this reason this method constitutes a promising approach towards an optimal implant design for improved patient-satisfaction and long lifetime of the implant. Finally the workflow is not only limited to the knee.

  2. Validation of a rapid conductimetric test for the measurement of wine tartaric stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosso, Antonella; Motta, Silvia; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Guaita, Massimo; Asproudi, Andriani; Panero, Loretta

    2016-12-01

    This work was aimed at optimizing a rapid and reproducible conductivity test for the evaluation of wine tartaric stability, in order to improve the practices for the prevention of tartaric precipitations during bottle aging. The test consists in measuring the drop of conductivity in wines kept under stirring for a fixed time, at low temperature, after the addition of micronized potassium bitartrate crystals (KHT). An experimental design was planned to study three factors affecting the test: temperature, duration and dose of added potassium bitartrate. A standard protocol was defined to produce a micronized potassium bitartrate starting from available commercial products, since the dimensions of the crystals can affect the final conductivity values. After the choice of the best conditions the method was validated. Two different stability thresholds were defined for white wines and for red/rosé wines by comparing the results of the mini-contact test with those of the cold test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of leucocyte esterase reagent strip test for the rapid bedside diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Sithara K; Sainu, Ashik; Thomas, Varghese

    2010-03-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common serious complication of cirrhosis, and carries a high morbidity and mortality. Rapid diagnosis and prompt treatment of this condition may improve survival of such patients. To validate the diagnostic efficacy of a leukocyte esterase reagent (LER) strip test for rapid, bedside diagnosis of SBP. We prospectively studied 175 patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites [mean age 48 (SD 16.4) years; 146 men] between August 2007 and December 2008. Alcohol was the most common (124 of 175; 70.8%) cause of liver cirrhosis. All patients underwent abdominal paracentesis, and the ascitic fluid was processed for cell count, LER strip (Magistik 10) test and culture. Two different cut-offs for calling the LER strip test positive were tried, namely when the color turned light blue [grade 2: >125 polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL)/microL] or it turned purple (grade 3: >500 PMNL/microL). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value were calculated, using PMN count by microscopy exceeding 250 PMNL/microL. LER strip using the more stringent purple-color cut off to diagnose SBP had a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 100%. The corresponding figures using the light-blue color cut-off were 97% and 89%, respectively. LER strip testing of ascitic fluid is a rapid, cheap and sensitive bed side tool for the diagnosis of SBP.

  4. Hepatitis B Surface Antibody (HBsAb Screening with Rapid Test among Teenagers in Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Irfan Hadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis was an inflammation or infection of the liver cells and generally caused by the virus, resulting in the liver swelled. Hepatitis B disease is caused by acute or chronic Hepatitis B virus and includes the most dangerous liver disease. World Health Organization (WHO estimates in 2002 that one billion living individuals are infected with Hepatitis B, so more than 200 million people worldwide are infected, and 1-2 million deaths annually are associated with VHB. In 2008 the number of people infected with VHB was 2 billion, and 350 million people continued to be patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Generally most of Hepatitis B immunization studies that have been conducted in Indonesia only observe the early age group (infant and quite rare for adolescence groups. Those group of teenagers becomes very important subject because they will soon be married and have children in the future. The research aimed to investigated HbsAb-based hepatitis using Rapid test among teenagers. This research was conducted in the Boarding School Health Study Center of Nadhlatul Ulama University Surabaya. Fifty-four teenagers were tested using HbsAb rapid test. The HBsAb rapid test result found 2 teenagers positive to hepatitis.

  5. Epitrochoid Power-Law Nozzle Rapid Prototype Build/Test Project (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Power-Law Nozzle Rapid Prototype Build/Test Project Mr. Eric J. Paulson-Vehicle Analyst Rocket Propulsion Division Combustion devices Branch Systems...to build axisymmetric cold flow nozzle test articles using plastic-based inexpensive rapid additive manufacturing – Feasible to rapid prototype lobed...Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) February 2015-March 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Epitrochoid Power-Law Nozzle Rapid Prototype Build/Test

  6. RAPID TEST METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF ANTIFREEZE ADDITIVE EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gushchin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Usage of chemical additives while executing concrete works at negative temperatures is considered as a convenient and economical method. Range of the used antifreeze additives is rather wide. A great number of new additives are advertised but their characteristics have not been practically studied. Evaluation of the antifreeze additive efficiency is unfortunately rather long process and it does not provide comprehensive data on concrete structure formation processes. Due to this development of rapid and comprehensive methodology for construction companies is urgently required.Freezing processes of antifreeze additive aqueous solutions and hardening of cement paste with them have been investigated in the paper. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of freezing point for aqueous solutions of chemical additives of various applications. Identity of  freezing point for a chemical additive aqueous solution and cement paste with an equal concentration of the additive in the paste pore fluid has been determined while taking  calcium nitrate and sodium formate additives as an example. The paper demonstrates the possibility to evaluate efficiency of antifreeze additive action on the basis of kinetics in temperature changes of the cement paste with additives by its consecutive freezing and defrosting.  A methodology for operational evaluation in the field of chemical additive application for concreting items at negative temperatures has been offered in the paper.  The methodology does not require  deficient and expensive test-equipment. It can be applied at ordinary construction companies and it is comprehensible for personnel of low-qualification.  The paper shows the possibility to develop an original methodology for designing concrete structure which is based on operating efficiency determinations  for single and integrated antifreeze additives.

  7. Patho-TB test for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Alavi-Naini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Despite recent technologic improvements in identifying mycobacterium tuberculosis, we are still facing problems in rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to determine the diagnostic value of a new rapid screening test (Patho-TB™ for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
    • METHODS: Between September 2006 to August 2007, 178 patients were enrolled in the study who were finally classified into two groups; a group of documented pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 67 and a group of non-tuberculous pulmonary infection (n = 111. Patho-TB™ test, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture were done on all specimens.
    • RESULTS: Of all, 43 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were sputum smear positive for acid fast bacilli and the rest were smear negative. Mean age of the patients was 59.8 ± 16.1 years and 44% of them were men. The results of Patho- TB™ test were positive in 40 of smear positive and 20 of smear negative tuberculous patients and 33 cases of nontuberculous control group. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of Patho- TB™ test were estimated 89.5%, 70.2%, 64.5%, 91.7% and 77.5%, respectively.
    • CONCLUSIONS: According to the present study it would be suggested that Patho-TB™ test could be a rapid and inexpensive method for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, given by its high sensitivity and negative predictive value. Concerning the high number of false positive results, using a confirmatory diagnostic procedure is mandatory.
    • KEYWORDS: Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Rapid Diagnosis, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Antigens, Iran

  8. The Validity of Rapid Malaria Test and Microscopy in Detecting Malaria in a Preelimination Region of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Maysa Mohamed Kamel; Samar Sayed Attia; Gomaa Desoky Emam; Naglaa Abd El Khalek Al Sherbiny

    2016-01-01

    Background. Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of malaria would improve control measures and reduce morbidity and mortality. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malaria in high risk foci in Egypt and the effectiveness of rapid diagnostic tests in diagnosis and subsequently control of malaria. Methodology. A total number of 600 cases of both sexes with different ages were included in the present study. Case...

  9. Rapid, high-temperature, field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcium carbonate scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1986-09-01

    A new test method is described that allows the rapid field testing of calcium carbonate scale inhibitors at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). The method evolved from use of a full-flow test loop on a well with a mass flow rate of about 1 x 10/sup 6/ lbm/hr (126 kg/s). It is a simple, effective way to evaluate the effectiveness of inhibitors under field conditions. Five commercial formulations were chosen for field evaluation on the basis of nonflowing, laboratory screening tests at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). Four of these formulations from different suppliers controlled calcium carbonate scale deposition as measured by the test method. Two of these could dislodge recently deposited scale that had not age-hardened. Performance-profile diagrams, which were measured for these four effective inhibitors, show the concentration interrelationship between brine calcium and inhibitor concentrations at which the formulations will and will not stop scale formation in the test apparatus. With these diagrams, one formulation was chosen for testing on the full-flow brine line. The composition was tested for 6 weeks and showed a dramatic decrease in the scaling occurring at the flow-control valve. This scaling was about to force a shutdown of a major, long-term flow test being done for reservoir economic evaluations. The inhibitor stopped the scaling, and the test was performed without interruption.

  10. Comparison of Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Microscopy for Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presumptive treatment of malaria results in significant overuse of antimalarials. This study compared the diagnostic accuracy of Histidine Rich Protein II and plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH)-based Rapid Kits( RDTs)and using expert microscopy as the gold standard for the detection of falciparum and ...

  11. Comparative study of blood smears microscopy and rapid test strips ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate two of the currently available assay methods, specimen from 200 patients admitted on provisional diagnosis of malaria were screened in this study and compared with the smear microscopy method. Our results showed a statistical significant difference (p< 0.05) between the two rapid strip methods of ACON and ...

  12. Evaluation of nine HIV rapid test kits to develop a national HIV testing algorithm in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orji Bassey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-cold chain-dependent HIV rapid testing has been adopted in many resource-constrained nations as a strategy for reaching out to populations. HIV rapid test kits (RTKs have the advantage of ease of use, low operational cost and short turnaround times. Before 2005, different RTKs had been used in Nigeria without formal evaluation. Between 2005 and 2007, a study was conducted to formally evaluate a number of RTKs and construct HIV testing algorithms. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess and select HIV RTKs and develop national testing algorithms. Method: Nine RTKs were evaluated using 528 well-characterised plasma samples. These comprised 198 HIV-positive specimens (37.5% and 330 HIV-negative specimens (62.5%, collected nationally. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with 95% confidence intervals for all nine RTKs singly and for serial and parallel combinations of six RTKs; and relative costs were estimated. Results: Six of the nine RTKs met the selection criteria, including minimum sensitivity and specificity (both ≥ 99.0% requirements. There were no significant differences in sensitivities or specificities of RTKs in the serial and parallel algorithms, but the cost of RTKs in parallel algorithms was twice that in serial algorithms. Consequently, three serial algorithms, comprising four test kits (BundiTM, DetermineTM, Stat-Pak® and Uni-GoldTM with 100.0% sensitivity and 99.1% – 100.0% specificity, were recommended and adopted as national interim testing algorithms in 2007. Conclusion: This evaluation provides the first evidence for reliable combinations of RTKs for HIV testing in Nigeria. However, these RTKs need further evaluation in the field (Phase II to re-validate their performance.

  13. Development and testing of a rapid diagnostic test for bubonic and pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanteau, Suzanne; Rahalison, Lila; Ralafiarisoa, Lalao; Foulon, Jeanine; Ratsitorahina, Mahery; Ratsifasoamanana, Lala; Carniel, Elisabeth; Nato, Farida

    2003-01-18

    Plague is often fatal without prompt and appropriate treatment. It affects mainly poor and remote populations. Late diagnosis is one of the major causes of human death and spread of the disease, since it limits the effectiveness of control measures. We aimed to develop and assess a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for plague. We developed a test that used monoclonal antibodies to the F1 antigen of Yersinia pestis. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed with a range of bacterial cultures and clinical samples, and compared with findings from available ELISA and bacteriological tests for plague. Samples from patients thought to have plague were tested with the RDT in the laboratory and by health workers in 26 pilot sites in Madagascar. The RDT detected concentrations of F1 antigen as low as 0.5 ng/mL in up to 15 min, and had a shelf life of 21 days at 60 degrees C. Its sensitivity and specificity were both 100%. RDT detected 41.6% and 31% more positive clinical specimens than did bacteriological methods and ELISA, respectively. The agreement rate between tests done at remote centres and in the laboratory was 89.8%. With the combination of bacteriological methods and F1 ELISA as reference standard, the positive and negative predictive values of the RDT were 90.6% and 86.7%, respectively. Our RDT is a specific, sensitive, and reliable test that can easily be done by health workers at the patient's bedside, for the rapid diagnosis of pneumonic and bubonic plague. This test will be of key importance for the control of plague in endemic countries.

  14. EU-approved rapid tests might underestimate bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection in goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meloni, Daniela; Bozzetta, Elena; Langeveld, Jan P.M.; Groschup, Martin H.; Goldmann, Wilfred; Andrèoletti, Olivier; Lantier, Isabelle; Keulen, Van Lucien; Bossers, Alex; Pitardi, Danilo; Nonno, Romolo; Sklaviadis, Theodoros; Ingravalle, Francesco; Peletto, Simone; Colussi, Silvia; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2017-01-01

    We report the diagnostic sensitivity of 3 EU-approved rapid tests (ELISAs; 1 from IDEXX and 2 from Bio-Rad) for the detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases in goats. Ninety-eight goat brainstem samples were tested. All the rapid tests had 100% specificity and ≥80% sensitivity,

  15. An Analysis of Test And Evaluation in Rapid Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Outfits DT Developmental Testing DT&E Development Test and Evaluation DTC Developmental Test Command E3 Electromagnetic Environmental Effects...by the OEM and evaluated by the Communication-Electronics Command (CECOM) Safety Office and the former Developmental Test Command ( DTC ) covering all...Force Management School AMC Army Materiel Command AOA Analysis of Alternatives AOR Area of Operation APC Acquisition Program Candidates APG Aberdeen

  16. Evaluation of rapid immunochromatographic tests for norovirus in neonatal and infant faecal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobumasa; Nojima, Ikuko; Araki, Tooru; Takasugi, Mizue; Sakane, Tomoko; Kodera, Aya; Ikeda, Masanori; Tsukahara, Hirokazu

    2015-10-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of two norovirus rapid immunochromatographic kits (QuickNavi(®)-Norovirus [QN] and QuickNavi®-Norovirus 2 [QN2]; Denka Seiken, Niigata, Japan) for neonatal and infant faecal specimens. Monthly faecal samples were collected from infants from birth to 12 months of age, and tested for norovirus using QN and QN2. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used as the gold standard for norovirus detection. The diagnostic performance of the kits was calculated. A total of 343 specimens from 81 infants were analysed. In all samples, the specificity of QN and QN2 was 80% (275/343) and 99% (339/343), respectively. In infants aged norovirus infection in the neonatal and infant period. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Negative results of a rapid antibody test for HIV in a 16-month-old infant with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunzhi; Wang, Jiangrong; Wilson, Gregory J; Tang, Yi-Wei; Lu, Hong-Zhou

    2008-01-01

    In a 16-mo-old infant born to an HIV-infected mother, repeatedly negative results of a HIV rapid antibody test had been reported during the past 6 mo. The infant presented with several HIV-defining illnesses and HIV RT-PCR testing confirmed the presence of HIV infection. There are at least 2 possible explanations for the child's false-negative rapid HIV test results: First, his primary antibody production may have been suppressed by the presence of maternal IgG antibodies. Second, his mother was highly immunosuppressed, so that the low level of maternally derived IgG was only detected by HIV-EIA and Western blot. Our data suggest that the HIV rapid antibody test may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect HIV antibodies in infants aged <18 mo.

  18. Portable Rapid Test Fuel Tank Leak Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    the site-specific test parameters and selects the “Start Test” icon . Leak test final results can be obtained in less than 5 hours. 3.0 PROTOTYPE...the reference tube into section lengths of less than 7 feet for shipping, and 3) downsizing the reference tube diameter to reduce weight and for

  19. Preferences for rapid point-of-care HIV testing in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathaniel M; Gahagan, Jacqueline C; Stein, Carlye

    2013-05-01

    Rapid point-of-care (POC) testing for HIV has been shown to increase the uptake of testing, rates of clients receiving test results, numbers of individuals aware of their status and timely access to care for those who test positive. In addition, several studies have shown that rapid POC testing for HIV is highly acceptable to clients in a variety of clinical and community-based health care settings. Most acceptability studies conducted in North America, however, have been conducted in large, urban environments where concentrations of HIV testing sites and testing innovations are greatest. Using a survey of client preferences at a sexual health clinic in Halifax, Nova Scotia, we suggest that HIV test seekers living in a region outside of Canada's major urban HIV epicentres find rapid POC testing highly acceptable. We compare the results of the Halifax survey with existing acceptability studies of rapid POC HIV testing in North America and suggest ways in which it might be of particular benefit to testing clients and potential clients in Nova Scotia and other regions of Canada that currently have few opportunities for anonymous or rapid testing. Overall, we found that rapid POC HIV testing was highly desirable at this study site and may serve to overcome many of the challenges associated with HIV prevention and testing outside of well-resourced metropolitan environments.

  20. The impact of commercial rapid respiratory virus diagnostic tests on patient outcomes and health system utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fiona; Drews, Steven J

    2017-10-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections due to influenza A/B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Rapid tests for detection of these pathogens include antigen detection point of care tests (POC) and newer easy to use molecular tests. From experience, these assays improve both laboratory workflow and assay interpretation issues. However, the question of the benefits of using rapid test technology compared to routine laboratory testing for respiratory viral pathogens is still often asked. Areas covered: Specifically, this review aims to; 1) identify clinical/patient indicators that can be measured prior to and following the implementation of rapid diagnostic test for influenza and RSV, 2) provide multiple perspectives on the extent of impact of a rapid diagnostic test, including direct and indirect outcomes, and 3) identify the technological advancements in the development of rapid testing, demonstrating a timeline that transitions from antigen-based assays to molecular assays. Expert commentary: Key benefits to the use of either antigen-based or molecular rapid tests for patient care, patient flow within institutions, as well as laboratory utilization are identified. Due to improved test characteristics, the authors feel that rapid molecular tests have greater benefits than antigen-based detection methods.

  1. Increased Sensitivity of a New Coagglutination Test for Rapid Identification of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, Robert J.; West, Loyd A.; Holbrook, Nikki J.; Halkias, Demetrios G.; Paradise, Lois J.; Friedman, Herman

    1981-01-01

    A newly developed rapid coagglutination test for identifying Haemophilus influenzae type b organisms isolated from clinical specimens correlated 100% with the slide agglutination test but was 100- to 200-fold more sensitive.

  2. Evaluation of the OptiMAL Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Malaria | Ujah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the ability of a newly developed rapid test for laboratory diagnosis of malaria. OptiMAL is a rapid test that utilizes a dipstick coated with monoclonal antibodies against the intracellular parasite dehydrogenase (PLDH). The differentiation of Plasmodium species is based on antigenic differences between ...

  3. A new rapid home test for faecal calprotectin in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, M; Burisch, Johan; Hansen, V Voxen

    2010-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a time-consuming method for the measurement of faecal calprotectin. Two new quantitative rapid tests have been developed.......Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a time-consuming method for the measurement of faecal calprotectin. Two new quantitative rapid tests have been developed....

  4. Centrifuge modeling of rapid load tests with open-ended piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.; Van Lottum, H.; Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and static load tests were conducted on open-ended and close-ended piles in the Deltares GeoCentriflige. hi flight, a pile was driven into the soil. Both fme-grained sand and silt beds were tested. Both the rapid and static soil resistances o f a close-ended pile were higher than the soil

  5. Rapid evaluation of the durability of cortical neural implants using accelerated aging with reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takmakov, Pavel; Ruda, Kiersten; Phillips, K. Scott; Isayeva, Irada S.; Krauthamer, Victor; Welle, Cristin G.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. A challenge for implementing high bandwidth cortical brain-machine interface devices in patients is the limited functional lifespan of implanted recording electrodes. Development of implant technology currently requires extensive non-clinical testing to demonstrate device performance. However, testing the durability of the implants in vivo is time-consuming and expensive. Validated in vitro methodologies may reduce the need for extensive testing in animal models. Approach. Here we describe an in vitro platform for rapid evaluation of implant stability. We designed a reactive accelerated aging (RAA) protocol that employs elevated temperature and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to create a harsh aging environment. Commercially available microelectrode arrays (MEAs) were placed in a solution of hydrogen peroxide at 87 °C for a period of 7 days. We monitored changes to the implants with scanning electron microscopy and broad spectrum electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (1 Hz-1 MHz) and correlated the physical changes with impedance data to identify markers associated with implant failure. Main results. RAA produced a diverse range of effects on the structural integrity and electrochemical properties of electrodes. Temperature and ROS appeared to have different effects on structural elements, with increased temperature causing insulation loss from the electrode microwires, and ROS concentration correlating with tungsten metal dissolution. All array types experienced impedance declines, consistent with published literature showing chronic (>30 days) declines in array impedance in vivo. Impedance change was greatest at frequencies <10 Hz, and smallest at frequencies 1 kHz and above. Though electrode performance is traditionally characterized by impedance at 1 kHz, our results indicate that an impedance change at 1 kHz is not a reliable predictive marker of implant degradation or failure. Significance. ROS, which are known to be present in vivo, can create

  6. Determination of HIV status in African adults with discordant HIV rapid tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Jessica M.; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Donohue, Kelsey; Cummings, Vanessa; Marzinke, Mark A.; Clarke, William; Breaud, Autumn; Fiamma, Agnès; Donnell, Deborah; Kulich, Michal; Mbwambo, Jessie K. K.; Richter, Linda; Gray, Glenda; Sweat, Michael; Coates, Thomas J.; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2015-01-01

    Background In resource-limited settings, HIV infection is often diagnosed using two rapid tests. If the results are discordant, a third tie-breaker test is often used to determine HIV status. This study characterized samples with discordant rapid tests and compared different testing strategies for determining HIV status in these cases. Methods Samples were previously collected from 173 African adults in a population-based survey who had discordant rapid test results. Samples were classified as HIV positive or HIV negative using a rigorous testing algorithm that included two fourth-generation tests, a discriminatory test, and two HIV RNA tests. Tie-breaker tests were evaluated, including: rapid tests (one performed in-country), a third-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and two fourth-generation tests. Selected samples were further characterized using additional assays. Results Twenty-nine (16.8%) samples were classified as HIV positive; 24 (82.8%) of those samples had undetectable HIV RNA. Antiretroviral drugs were detected in one sample. Sensitivity was 8.3%–43% for the rapid tests; 24.1% for the third-generation EIA; 95.8% and 96.6% for the fourth-generation tests. Specificity was lower for the fourth-generation tests than the other tests. Accuracy ranged from 79.5–91.3%. Conclusions In this population-based survey, most HIV-infected adults with discordant rapid tests were virally suppressed without antiretroviral drugs. Use of individual assays as tie-breaker tests was not a reliable method for determining HIV status in these individuals. More extensive testing algorithms that use a fourth-generation screening test with a discriminatory test and HIV RNA test are preferable for determining HIV status in these cases. PMID:25835607

  7. Efficacy of a Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test (DRIT) For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabies is an acute, infectious disease mostly transmitted through bites from an infected animal. Dogs majorly transmit rabies to humans. Human rabies is not curable once clinical signs commence, but can be prevented. The aim of this study was to find an appropriate diagnostic test suitable for use in Nigeria and other ...

  8. Comparison of Rapid Malaria Test and Laboratory Microscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Global (p.f) malaria test kit yielded 22 false negative and 35 false positive results when compared with microscopic findings. Only 18 cases shows true positive results. The specificity and sensitivity of the kit was 80% and 45% respectively when the parasite density is below 100 parasite/ µl. These results shows that ...

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of rapid urease test for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The strong association of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with dyspepsia has caused a major paradigm shift in patients' management. It has been observed that histology is usually employed as the routine test for the diagnosing H. pylori in centres where Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) is available in ...

  10. Rapid determination of the hypoxanthine increase in ischemic exercise tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, P. A.; Zwart, R.; Bär, P. R.; de Visser, M.; van der Helm, H. J.

    1988-01-01

    After ischemic exercise tests, performed to detect glycogenoses or myoadenylate deaminase (EC 3.5.4.6) deficiency, the increases in serum lactate and ammonia usually are measured. Determination of hypoxanthine instead of ammonia can also be used to show myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, but HPLC of

  11. THE JOHNS HOPKINS PERCEPTUAL TEST, THE DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID INTELLIGENCE TEST FOR THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSENBERG, LEON A.; AND OTHERS

    IN ORDER TO DEVELOP AN INTELLIGENCE TEST FOR PRESCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN THAT WOULD OVERCOME SOME OF THE LIMITATIONS OF AVAILABLE TESTS, A PERCEPTUAL DISCRIMINATION TEST USING POLYGONAL FORMS HAS BEEN DESIGNED AND TESTED. THE CHILD POINTS TO ONE OF TWO, THREE, OR FIVE FORMS MATCHING A STIMULUS FORM. INITIAL TESTING WITH 44 CHILDREN RANGING IN AGE FROM…

  12. Rapid Diagnostic Testing of Hospitalized Malawian Children Reveals Opportunities for Improved HIV Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaline, Theresa F; Hochman, Sarah E; Seydel, Karl B; Liomba, Alice; Saidi, Alex; Matebule, Grace; Mowrey, Wenzhu B; O'Hare, Bernadette; Milner, Danny A; Kim, Kami

    2017-12-01

    Recent World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-infected people; previously CD4+ T lymphocyte quantification (CD4 count) or clinical staging determined eligibility for children ≥ 5 years old in low- and middle-income countries. We examined positive predictive value (PPV) of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) algorithm and ART eligibility for hospitalized children with newly diagnosed HIV infection. We enrolled 363 hospitalized Malawian children age 2 months to 16 years with two serial positive HIV RDT from 2013 to 2015. Children aged ≤ 18 months whose nucleic acid testing was negative or unavailable were later excluded from the analysis (N = 16). If RNA PCR was undetectable, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and western blot (WB) were performed. Those with negative or discordant EIA and WB were considered HIV negative and excluded from further analysis (N = 6). ART eligibility was assessed using age, CD4 count, and clinical HIV stage. Among 150 patients with HIV RNA PCR results, 15 had undetectable HIV RNA. Of those, EIA and WB were positive in nine patients and negative or discordant in six patients. PPV of serial RDT was 90% versus RNA PCR alone and 96% versus combined RNA PCR, EIA, and WB. Of all patients aged ≥ 5 years, 8.9% were ineligible for ART under previous WHO guidelines. Improved HIV testing algorithms are needed for accurate diagnosis of HIV infection in children as prevalence of pediatric HIV declines. Universal treatment will significantly increase the numbers of older children who qualify for ART.

  13. Rapid climate change did not cause population collapse at the end of the European Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armit, Ian; Swindles, Graeme T; Becker, Katharina; Plunkett, Gill; Blaauw, Maarten

    2014-12-02

    The impact of rapid climate change on contemporary human populations is of global concern. To contextualize our understanding of human responses to rapid climate change it is necessary to examine the archeological record during past climate transitions. One episode of abrupt climate change has been correlated with societal collapse at the end of the northwestern European Bronze Age. We apply new methods to interrogate archeological and paleoclimate data for this transition in Ireland at a higher level of precision than has previously been possible. We analyze archeological (14)C dates to demonstrate dramatic population collapse and present high-precision proxy climate data, analyzed through Bayesian methods, to provide evidence for a rapid climatic transition at ca. 750 calibrated years B.C. Our results demonstrate that this climatic downturn did not initiate population collapse and highlight the nondeterministic nature of human responses to past climate change.

  14. Rapid Runway Repair (RRR) In-House Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    benzoyl peroxide ( BPO ) catalyst, sandbags of crushed stone to extend the Silikal 100 percent, and 5-gallon cans of liquid hardener. Tools in each truck...in that R17/AF has premixed benzoyl peroxide catalyst ( BPO ) and grey powder while R7/AF has separately packaged BPO and grey powder. During the tests...place, but does not meet the "A" quality and cannot be used in place of an "A" level repair. o Repair Upheaval: Repair surface that is above the

  15. Household salt iodine content estimation with the use of rapid test kits and iodometric titration methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Raj Shakya, Prem; Gelal, Basanta; Lamsal, Madhab; Brodie, David A; Baral, Nirmal

    2013-05-01

    Universal salt iodization remains the best strategy for controlling iodine deficiency disorders in Nepal. This study was designed to study the salt types and the household salt iodine content of school aged children in the hilly and the plain districts of eastern Nepal. This cross-sectional study was carried out on school children of seven randomly chosen schools from four districts, namely, Sunsari, Dhankuta, Sankhuwasabha and Tehrathum of eastern Nepal. The school children were requested to bring two teaspoonfuls (approx. 12-15 g) of the salt which was consumed in their households, in a tightly sealed plastic pouch. The salt types were categorized, and the salt iodine content was estimated by using rapid test kits and iodometric titrations. The association of the salt iodine content of the different districts were tested by using the Chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of the rapid test kits were compared with the iodometric titrations. Our study showed that mean±SD values of the salt iodine content in the four districts, namely, Sunsari, Dhankuta, Sankhuwasabha and Tehrathum were 34.2±17.9, 33.2±14.5, 27.4±15.1 and 48.4±15.6 parts per million (ppm). There were 270 (38.2%) households which consumed crystal salt and 437(61.8%) of the households consumed packet salts. Our study recommends a regular monitoring of the salt iodization programs in these regions. More families should be made aware of the need to ensure that each individual consumes iodized salt.

  16. Accuracy of the Ultra-Rapid Urease Test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Adrian Gerald; Ducons, Julio; Barrio, Jesús; Bujanda, Luis; Forné-Bardera, Montserrat; Aparcero, Reyes; Ponce, Julio; Rivera, Robin; Dedeu-Cuso, José María; Garcia-Iglesias, Pilar; Montoro, Miguel; Bejerano, Alicia; Ber-Nieto, Yolanda; Madrigal, Belen; Zapata, Eva; Loras-Alastruey, Carmen; Castro, Manuel; Nevarez, Andrea; Mendez, Isabel; Bory-Ros, Felipe; Miquel-Planas, Mireia; Vera, Isabel; Nyssen, Olga P; Gisbert, Javier P

    2017-09-21

    Rapid Urease Test (RUT) is a simple, cheap and relatively fast method for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection. It is therefore the preferred method used for patients undergoing gastroscopy. Most kits require 24h to give results. The new Ultra-Rapid Urease Test (URUT) kit by Biohit® requires less than 1h. To determine URUT's diagnostic accuracy. Prospective, blind, multi-centre study involving dyspeptic patients. One corpus biopsy and three antral biopsies were obtained during gastroscopy for standard histological analysis, RUT and URUT. The URUT result was checked after 1min, 5min, 30min and 60min and the RUT was checked over the course of 24h. Histology was used as the gold standard test. 144 patients were included, 68% female, with a mean age of 49 years old; 50% were H. pylori positive. RUT and URUT diagnoses were correct in 85.9% and 90% of the cases, respectively. The mean waiting time for a positive RUT result was 6h. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for RUT were, respectively, 82%, 90%, 89% and 84%. The URUT's results were similar (85%, 94%, 94% and 87%). These figures improved when patients taking PPIs were excluded (RUT: 86%, 91%, 93% and 83%; URUT: 91%, 94%, 96% and 89%). No statistically significant differences were found when comparing RUT and URUT distributions of correct diagnoses (McNemar's Test, p=0.3) but there was a tendency towards better results with the URUT. The URUT is equivalent to (or slightly better than) the traditional RUT in diagnosing H. pylori infection, and provides results in less than an hour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Problems with rapid agglutination methods for identification of Staphylococcus aureus when Staphylococcus saprophyticus is being tested.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregson, D B; Low, D E; Skulnick, M; Simor, A E

    1988-01-01

    Six rapid agglutination tests for identification of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated by using 62 strains of S. aureus, 63 strains of S. saprophyticus, and 67 strains of other coagulase-negative staphylococci. S. saprophyticus was responsible for 19 of 26 false-positive results and 20 uninterpretable reactions. Thus, urinary staphylococcal isolates that are positive by rapid agglutination tests may require other confirmatory tests for the identification of possible S. saprophyticus.

  18. Indeterminate rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Matemo, D; Kinuthia, J.; John, F.; Chung, M.; Farquhar, C; John-Stewart, G.; Kiarie, J.

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of rapid HIV-1 tests may be altered during pregnancy and postpartum. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and correlates of false-positive Abbott Determine™ and false-negative Uni-Gold™ rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers attending a primary care clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Mothers were tested for HIV-1 using Abbott Determine™ and non-reactive results were considered HIV-1 antibody negative. Reactive samples by Determine wer...

  19. Evaluation of accuracy of OraQuick ® rapid test in detecting HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The accuracy of OraQuick® rapid test in detecting HIV 1 & 2 antibodies in saliva is evaluated against the blood EIA benchmark tests with confirmatory testing, against which OraQuick® accuracy is determined. Method: Paired samples of saliva and blood from 281 Nigerians were tested for HIV antibodies, and ...

  20. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure... necessary. The test plate should be rocked from side to side a few times to mix the antigen and blood...

  1. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luisa eLorusso; Chiara eCantiani; Massimo eMolteni

    2014-01-01

    The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP) deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of non-verbal tone sequences. Participants were 46 childre...

  2. Impact of round-the-clock, rapid oral fluid HIV testing of women in labor in rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitika Pant Pai

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Testing pregnant women for HIV at the time of labor and delivery is the last opportunity for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT measures, particularly in settings where women do not receive adequate antenatal care. However, HIV testing and counseling of pregnant women in labor is a challenge, especially in resource-constrained settings. In India, many rural women present for delivery without any prior antenatal care. Those who do get antenatal care are not always tested for HIV, because of deficiencies in the provision of HIV testing and counseling services. In this context, we investigated the impact of introducing round-the-clock, rapid, point-of-care HIV testing and counseling in a busy labor ward at a tertiary care hospital in rural India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: After they provided written informed consent, women admitted to the labor ward of a rural teaching hospital in India were offered two rapid tests on oral fluid and finger-stick specimens (OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 tests, OraSure Technologies. Simultaneously, venous blood was drawn for conventional HIV ELISA testing. Western blot tests were performed for confirmatory testing if women were positive by both rapid tests and dual ELISA, or where test results were discordant. Round-the-clock (24 h, 7 d/wk abbreviated prepartum and extended postpartum counseling sessions were offered as part of the testing strategy. HIV-positive women were administered PMTCT interventions. Of 1,252 eligible women (age range 18 y to 38 y approached for consent over a 9 mo period in 2006, 1,222 (98% accepted HIV testing in the labor ward. Of these, 1,003 (82% women presented with either no reports or incomplete reports of prior HIV testing results at the time of admission to the labor ward. Of 1,222 women, 15 were diagnosed as HIV-positive (on the basis of two rapid tests, dual ELISA and Western blot, yielding a seroprevalence of 1.23% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0

  3. Impact of round-the-clock, rapid oral fluid HIV testing of women in labor in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Nitika Pant; Barick, Ritu; Tulsky, Jacqueline P; Shivkumar, Poonam V; Cohan, Deborah; Kalantri, Shriprakash; Pai, Madhukar; Klein, Marina B; Chhabra, Shakuntala

    2008-05-06

    Testing pregnant women for HIV at the time of labor and delivery is the last opportunity for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) measures, particularly in settings where women do not receive adequate antenatal care. However, HIV testing and counseling of pregnant women in labor is a challenge, especially in resource-constrained settings. In India, many rural women present for delivery without any prior antenatal care. Those who do get antenatal care are not always tested for HIV, because of deficiencies in the provision of HIV testing and counseling services. In this context, we investigated the impact of introducing round-the-clock, rapid, point-of-care HIV testing and counseling in a busy labor ward at a tertiary care hospital in rural India. After they provided written informed consent, women admitted to the labor ward of a rural teaching hospital in India were offered two rapid tests on oral fluid and finger-stick specimens (OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 tests, OraSure Technologies). Simultaneously, venous blood was drawn for conventional HIV ELISA testing. Western blot tests were performed for confirmatory testing if women were positive by both rapid tests and dual ELISA, or where test results were discordant. Round-the-clock (24 h, 7 d/wk) abbreviated prepartum and extended postpartum counseling sessions were offered as part of the testing strategy. HIV-positive women were administered PMTCT interventions. Of 1,252 eligible women (age range 18 y to 38 y) approached for consent over a 9 mo period in 2006, 1,222 (98%) accepted HIV testing in the labor ward. Of these, 1,003 (82%) women presented with either no reports or incomplete reports of prior HIV testing results at the time of admission to the labor ward. Of 1,222 women, 15 were diagnosed as HIV-positive (on the basis of two rapid tests, dual ELISA and Western blot), yielding a seroprevalence of 1.23% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61%-1.8%). Of the 15 HIV test-positive women, four (27

  4. Rapid high temperature field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcite scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    A test method is described which allows the rapid field testing of calcite scale inhibitors in high- temperature geothermal brines. Five commercial formulations, chosen on the basis of laboratory screening tests, were tested in brines with low total dissolved solids at ca 500 F. Four were found to be effective; of these, 2 were found to be capable of removing recently deposited scale. One chemical was tested in the full-flow brine line for 6 wks. It was shown to stop a severe surface scaling problem at the well's control valve, thus proving the viability of the rapid test method. (12 refs.)

  5. Parallel rapid HIV testing in pregnant women at Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viani, Rolando M; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Spector, Stephen A

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of parallel rapid HIV testing and the presence of HIV-associated risk factors in pregnant women with unknown HIV status in Baja California, Mexico. Pregnant women attending the delivery unit or the prenatal clinic at Tijuana General Hospital had blood drawn for parallel rapid HIV testing with Determine™ HIV-1/2 and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen(®) HIV. The parallel rapid HIV test performance was compared to the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and western blot. From September 2007 to July 2008, 1,383 (94%) of 1,464 women in labor and 1,992 (96%) of 2,075 women in prenatal care were enrolled. The HIV seroprevalence among women screened during labor (19/1,383, 1.37%, 95% CI: 0.85-2.18%) was significantly higher compared to those seeking prenatal care (5/1,992, 0.25%, 95% CI: 0.09-0.62%; ppositive by parallel rapid HIV testing 24 had a positive confirmatory western blot and one (0.03%) was confirmed as false positive. Additionally, two (0.06%) women had parallel rapid HIV discordant testing results; both tested negative by western blot. All women who tested negative by rapid testing had negative results on pooled EIA antibody testing. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parallel rapid HIV testing were 100%, 99.9%, 96%, and 100%, respectively. These findings document a very high acceptance rate and an excellent performance of the parallel rapid HIV testing strategy during pregnancy.

  6. Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE): Application for Increasing Robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, John; Heater, Daniel; Lee, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) is a Hardware-In-The-Loop (HWIL) facility that provides rapid development, integration, and testing capabilities for small projects (CubeSats, payloads, spacecraft, and launch vehicles). This facility environment focuses on efficient processes and modular design to support rapid prototyping, integration, testing and verification of small projects at an affordable cost, especially compared to larger type HWIL facilities. SPRITE (Figure 1) consists of a "core" capability or "plant" simulation platform utilizing a graphical programming environment capable of being rapidly re-configured for any potential test article's space environments, as well as a standard set of interfaces (i.e. Mil-Std 1553, Serial, Analog, Digital, etc.). SPRITE also allows this level of interface testing of components and subsystems very early in a program, thereby reducing program risk.

  7. False-positive oral fluid rapid HIV tests--New York City, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-20

    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) operates 10 sexually transmitted disease (STD) walk-in clinics offering various free services, including confidential or anonymous testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In January 2004, the STD clinics introduced on-site rapid HIV testing of finger-stick whole-blood specimens using the OraQuick(R) brand test (OraSure Technologies, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania). In March 2005, the clinics replaced finger-stick whole-blood testing with oral fluid testing with the OraQuick Advance Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test. The clinics use Western blot confirmatory tests on serum to confirm all whole-blood or oral fluid reactive (i.e., preliminary positive) rapid tests. In late 2005, an unexpected increase in the number of false-positive oral fluid tests occurred, but the increase subsided after several months. In December 2005, while the cluster of false-positive oral fluid test results was being investigated, the NYC DOHMH Bureau of STD Control suspended oral fluid testing in the clinics for 3 weeks and replaced it with finger-stick whole-blood rapid testing, which produced no false-positive test results. On December 21, 2005, NYC DOHMH resumed oral fluid rapid testing but also introduced the use of immediate follow-up finger-stick whole-blood testing, using a second OraQuick test, after any reactive oral fluid test result. In late 2007, another larger increase in the incidence of false-positive oral fluid rapid test results was observed. The cause for the episodic increases in false-positive oral fluid tests has not yet been determined. NYC DOHMH has again suspended the use of oral fluid testing in STD clinics, and finger-stick whole-blood testing is the only rapid HIV test being used in this setting. These findings underscore the importance of confirming all reactive HIV tests, both from oral fluid and whole-blood specimens. In addition, the results suggest that the NYC DOHMH strategy of following up

  8. Design of aging intervention studies: the NIA interventions testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, N L; Strong, R; Miller, R A; Nelson, J; Javors, M; Sharp, Z D; Peralba, J M; Harrison, D E

    2008-12-01

    The field of biogerontology has made great strides towards understanding the biological processes underlying aging, and the time is ripe to look towards applying this knowledge to the pursuit of aging interventions. Identification of safe, inexpensive, and non-invasive interventions that slow the aging process and promote healthy aging could have a significant impact on quality of life and health care expenditures for the aged. While there is a plethora of supplements and interventions on the market that purport to slow aging, the evidence to validate such claims is generally lacking. Here we describe the development of an aging interventions testing program funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) to test candidate interventions in a model system. The development of this program highlights the challenges of long-term intervention studies and provides approaches to cope with the stringent requirements of a multi-site testing program.

  9. Evaluation of simple rapid HIV assays and development of national rapid HIV test algorithms in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbwana Judica

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suitable algorithms based on a combination of two or more simple rapid HIV assays have been shown to have a diagnostic accuracy comparable to double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or double ELISA with Western Blot strategies. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of five simple rapid HIV assays using whole blood samples from HIV-infected patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors, and to formulate an alternative confirmatory strategy based on rapid HIV testing algorithms suitable for use in Tanzania. Methods Five rapid HIV assays: Determine™ HIV-1/2 (Inverness Medical, SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc., First Response HIV Card 1–2.0 (PMC Medical India Pvt Ltd, HIV1/2 Stat-Pak Dipstick (Chembio Diagnostic System, Inc and Uni-Gold™ HIV-1/2 (Trinity Biotech were evaluated between June and September 2006 using 1433 whole blood samples from hospital patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors. All samples that were reactive on all or any of the five rapid assays and 10% of non-reactive samples were tested on a confirmatory Inno-Lia HIV I/II immunoblot assay (Immunogenetics. Results Three hundred and ninety samples were confirmed HIV-1 antibody positive, while 1043 were HIV negative. The sensitivity at initial testing of Determine, SD Bioline and Uni-Gold™ was 100% (95% CI; 99.1–100 while First Response and Stat-Pak had sensitivity of 99.5% (95% CI; 98.2–99.9 and 97.7% (95% CI; 95.7–98.9, respectively, which increased to 100% (95% CI; 99.1–100 on repeat testing. The initial specificity of the Uni-Gold™ assay was 100% (95% CI; 99.6–100 while specificities were 99.6% (95% CI; 99–99.9, 99.4% (95% CI; 98.8–99.7, 99.6% (95% CI; 99–99.9 and 99.8% (95% CI; 99.3–99.9 for Determine, SD Bioline, First Response and Stat-Pak assays, respectively. There was no any sample which was

  10. A Pilot Study of Rapid Hepatitis C Testing in Probation and Parole Populations in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Nickolas D; Patry, Emily J; Bazerman, Lauri B; Noska, Amanda; Kuo, Irene; Kurth, Ann; Beckwith, Curt G

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects between five and seven million individuals in the United States and chronic infection can lead to liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Probation/parole offices are a novel setting for rapid HCV testing, providing outreach to populations at increased risk for HCV infection and/or transmitting HCV to others. While some correctional facilities offer HCV testing, many individuals who present to probation/parole offices are never or briefly incarcerated and may not access medical services. We conducted a rapid HCV testing pilot at probation/parole offices in Rhode Island. Overall, 130 people accepted rapid HCV testing, of whom 12 had reactive tests. Only four of these individuals presented to a community-based clinic for confirmatory testing, despite being offered a monetary incentive. Identifying and addressing barriers to HCV confirmatory testing and follow-up care is critical to increasing the uptake of HCV care and treatment in this vulnerable population.

  11. Qualification Testing Versus Quantitative Reliability Testing of PV - Gaining Confidence in a Rapidly Changing Technology: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hacke, Peter L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitfield, Kent [Underwriters Laboratories; Phillips, Nancy [DuPont; Sample, Tony [European Commission; Monokroussos, Christos [TUV Rheinland; Hsi, Edward [Swiss RE; Wohlgemuth, John [PowerMark Corporation; Seidel, Peter [First Solar; Jahn, Ulrike [TUV Rheinland; Tanahashi, Tadanori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; Chen, Yingnan [China General Certification Center; Jaeckel, Bengt [Underwriters Laboratories; Yamamichi, Masaaki [RTS Corporation

    2017-10-05

    Continued growth of PV system deployment would be enhanced by quantitative, low-uncertainty predictions of the degradation and failure rates of PV modules and systems. The intended product lifetime (decades) far exceeds the product development cycle (months), limiting our ability to reduce the uncertainty of the predictions for this rapidly changing technology. Yet, business decisions (setting insurance rates, analyzing return on investment, etc.) require quantitative risk assessment. Moving toward more quantitative assessments requires consideration of many factors, including the intended application, consequence of a possible failure, variability in the manufacturing, installation, and operation, as well as uncertainty in the measured acceleration factors, which provide the basis for predictions based on accelerated tests. As the industry matures, it is useful to periodically assess the overall strategy for standards development and prioritization of research to provide a technical basis both for the standards and the analysis related to the application of those. To this end, this paper suggests a tiered approach to creating risk assessments. Recent and planned potential improvements in international standards are also summarized.

  12. Fingertip rapid point-of-care test in adult case-finding in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Alina; Jinga, Mariana; Jurcut, Ciprian; Balaban, Vasile; Bardas, Catalina; Laurila, Kaija; Vasilescu, Florina; Ene, Adina; Anca, Ioana; Mäki, Markku

    2013-07-12

    Coeliac disease (CD), due to its protean clinical manifestation, is still very under diagnosed in adults and delays in diagnosis may take years and even decades. Simple tools to find cases in primary care may help to identify patients for further diagnostic tests. We have evaluated the usefulness of an on site rapid fingertip whole blood point-of-care test (POCT) for such a purpose. As CD is known to run within families, we tested 148 healthy relatives of 70 Romanian index cases with biopsy-proven CD (87% of all first-degree family members, median age 36 years) for the presence of circulating autoantibodies. In addition to performing the POCT (which measures blood erythrocyte self-TG2-autoantibody complexes) on site, blood was drawn for later evaluations of serum IgA-class endomysial antibodies (EMA). EMA-positive sera were further tested for transglutaminase 2 antibodies (TG2-IgA). All serological parameters were analyzed blindly in a centralized laboratory that had no knowledge of the on site POCT result. Endoscopic small intestinal biopsies was recommended for all POCT- or EMA-test positive subjects. In on site testing the POCT was positive in 12/148 first-degree relatives (8%) and all these subjects were also serum EMA-positive. A positive EMA test was found only in one other subject. All remaining 135 healthy first-degree relatives were negative for both POCT and EMA. Four subjects positive for both POCT and EMA were negative for TG2-IgA. Ten out of thirteen of the antibody-positive subjects agreed to undergo endoscopy. The POCT was found to be positive in 8/9 first-degree relatives having coeliac-type mucosal lesions of grade Marsh 2 (n = 3) or Marsh 3 (n = 6). The three POCT-positive subjects not agreeing to undergo endoscopy were also both EMA- and TG2-IgA-positive. The fingertip whole blood rapid POCT might fulfill the unmet need for a simple and cheap case-finding biomarker for early detection and presumptive diagnosis of CD. Confirmatory studies

  13. False positive malaria rapid diagnostic test in returning traveler with typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meatherall, Bonnie; Preston, Keith; Pillai, Dylan R

    2014-07-09

    Rapid diagnostic tests play a pivotal role in the early diagnosis of malaria where microscopy or polymerase chain reaction are not immediately available. We report the case of a 39 year old traveler to Canada who presented with fever, headache, and abdominal pain after visiting friends and relatives in India. While in India, the individual was not ill and had no signs or symptoms of malaria. Laboratory testing upon his return to Canada identified a false positive malaria rapid diagnostic (BinaxNOW® malaria) result for P. falciparum with coincident Salmonella Typhi bacteraemia without rheumatoid or autoimmune factors. Rapid diagnostic test false positivity for malaria coincided with the presence or absence of Salmonella Typhi in the blood. Clinicians should be aware that Salmonella Typhi infection may result in a false positive malaria rapid diagnostic test. The mechanism of this cross-reactivity is not clear.

  14. A simple and rapid test of physical performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albarrati AM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ali Mufraih Albarrati,1 Nichola S Gale,1 Stephanie Enright,1 Margaret M Munnery,2 John R Cockcroft,2 Dennis J Shale2 1Physiotherapy Department, School of Healthcare Sciences, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; 2Cardiorespiratory Medicine Department, Cardio-Respiratory Medicine, Wales Heart Research Institute, Cardiff University, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Impaired physical performance is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but its assessment can be difficult in routine clinical practice. We compared the timed up and go (TUG test and other easily applied assessments of physical performance with the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD. In a longitudinal study of comorbidities in COPD, submaximal physical performance was determined in 520 patients and 150 controls using the TUG test and 6MWD. Spirometry, body composition, handgrip strength, the COPD assessment test, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, and the modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale were also determined. Patients and controls were similar in age, body mass index, and sex proportions. The TUG in the patients was greater than that in the control group, P=0.001, and was inversely related to 6MWD (r=–0.71, P<0.001 and forced expiratory volume in one second predicted (r=–0.19, P<0.01 and was directly related to the SGRQ activity (r=0.39, P<0.001, SGRQ total (r=0.37, P<0.001, and total COPD assessment test scores (r=0.37, P<0.001. The TUG identified the difference in physical performance between patients and controls. The TUG test and validated questionnaires provide a measure of physical performance, which is rapid and could be used in clinical practice. Keywords: COPD, physical inactivity, timed up and go test

  15. Assessment of the validity of rapid diagnostic test kits available in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were collected for serology tests using five (5) different rapid diagnostic test kits from different manufacturers, HIV status determination and evaluation of the haematological parameters we carried out. As a result, there were significant differences in the results obtained between AFB tests and serological ...

  16. Rapid Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Syphilis in High-Risk Populations, Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaken, Adele S.; de Andrade Rodrigues, Ệnio José; Mayaud, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the acceptability and operational suitability of a rapid point-of-care syphilis test and identified barriers to testing among high-risk groups and healthcare professionals in a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil. Use of this test could considerably alleviate the impact of syphilis in hard-to-reach populations in the Amazon region of Brazil. PMID:19331762

  17. Direct, rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test from positive blood cultures based on microscopic imaging analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jungil; Jeong, Hyun Yong; Lee, Gi Yoon; Han, Sangkwon; Han, Shinhun; Jin, Bonghwan; Lim, Taegeun; Kim, Shin; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Hee Chan; Kim, Eui-Chong; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Taek Soo; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2017-01-01

    For the timely treatment of patients with infections in bloodstream and cerebrospinal fluid, a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) is urgently needed. Here, we describe a direct and rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (dRAST) system, which can determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria from a positive blood culture bottle (PBCB) in six hours. The positive blood culture sample is directly mixed with agarose and inoculated into a micropatterned plastic microchip wit...

  18. Preclinical and clinical performance of the Efoora test, a rapid test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Max Q; Mundy, Linda M; Amsterdam, Daniel; Barrett, J Tom; Bigg, Dan; Bruckner, David; Hanna, Bruce; Prince, Harry; Purington, Timothy; Hanna, Todd; Hewitt, Ross; Kalinka, Carolyn; Koppes, Thomas; Maxwell, Sarz; Moe, Ardis; Doymaz, Mehmet; Poulter, Melinda; Saber-Tehrani, Maryam; Simard, Lorenzo; Wilkins-Carmody, Donna; Vidaver, John; Berger, Cheryl; Davis, Alan H; Alzona, Mortimer T

    2005-05-01

    Barriers to effective diagnostic testing for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection can be reduced with simple, reliable, and rapid detection methods. Our objective was to determine the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of a new rapid, lateral-flow immunochromatographic HIV-1 antibody detection device. Preclinical studies were performed using seroconversion, cross-reaction, and interference panels, archived clinical specimens, and fresh whole blood. In a multicenter, prospective clinical trial, a four-sample matrix of capillary (fingerstick) whole-blood specimens and venous whole blood, plasma, and serum was tested for HIV-1 antibodies with the Efoora HIV rapid test (Efoora Inc., Buffalo Grove, IL) and compared with an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Abbott Laboratories) licensed by the Food and Drug Administration. Western blot and nucleic acid test supplemental assays were employed to adjudicate discordant samples. Preclinical testing of seroconversion panels showed that antibodies were often detected earlier by the rapid test than by a reference EIA. No significant interference or cross-reactions were observed. Testing of 4,984 archived specimens yielded a sensitivity of 99.2% and a specificity of 99.7%. A prospective multicenter clinical study with 2,954 adult volunteers demonstrated sensitivity and specificity for the Efoora HIV rapid test of 99.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 99.3 and 99.98%) and 99.0% (95% CI, 98.5 and 99.4%), respectively. Reactive rapid HIV-1 antibody detection was confirmed in 99.6% of those with a known HIV infection (n = 939), 5.2% of those in the high-risk group (n = 1,003), and 0.1% of those in the low-risk group (n = 1,012). For 21 (0.71%) patients, there was discordance between the results of the rapid test and the confirmatory EIA/Western blot tests. We conclude that the Efoora HIV rapid test is a simple, rapid assay for detection of HIV-1 antibodies, with high sensitivity and specificity compared to a standardized

  19. China's rapidly aging population creates policy challenges in shaping a viable long-term care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhanlian; Liu, Chang; Guan, Xinping; Mor, Vincent

    2012-12-01

    In China, formal long-term care services for the large aging population have increased to meet escalating demands as demographic shifts and socioeconomic changes have eroded traditional elder care. We analyze China's evolving long-term care landscape and trace major government policies and private-sector initiatives shaping it. Although home and community-based services remain spotty, institutional care is booming with little regulatory oversight. Chinese policy makers face mounting challenges overseeing the rapidly growing residential care sector, given the tension arising from policy inducements to further institutional growth, a weak regulatory framework, and the lack of enforcement capacity. We recommend addressing the following pressing policy issues: building a balanced system of services and avoiding an "institutional bias" that promotes rapid growth of elder care institutions over home or community-based care; strengthening regulatory oversight and quality assurance with information systems; and prioritizing education and training initiatives to grow a professionalized long-term care workforce.

  20. An Evaluation of Introduction of Rapid HIV Testing in a Perinatal Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Sarah; Tulloch, Karen; Maan, Evelyn J; van Schalkwyk, Julianne; Money, Deborah M

    2017-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the roll-out of rapid HIV testing as part of an emergency Prevention of Perinatal HIV Transmission Program. Specifically, HIV prevalence in this population, the reason(s) for performing the rapid HIV test, and compliance with recommendations for antiretroviral prophylaxis were assessed. Since November 2011, all women presenting to a tertiary labour and delivery unit with unknown HIV status or with ongoing risk of HIV infection since their last HIV test were offered rapid HIV testing. Through retrospective chart review, demographic data, HIV risk and prior testing history, and antiretroviral prophylaxis, data were collected and descriptive statistics were performed. One hundred fourteen rapid HIV tests were conducted and there were two preliminary reactive rapid results (one true positive, one false positive). None of the infants was HIV infected. Sixty-three percent of women had multiple risk factors for HIV acquisition, most commonly intravenous drug use (54%). Forty-four percent of women were within the 4-week seroconversion window at the time of delivery; 25% of these women and 52% of their infants received prophylactic drug therapy. Rapid HIV testing identified a high-risk cohort and enabled aggressive management of a newly diagnosed HIV-positive pregnancy, successfully preventing perinatal HIV transmission. Risk factors for HIV acquisition were ongoing within the seroconversion window for over half of the women, impacting the utility of the test in eliminating unnecessary antiretroviral prophylaxis in this population because prophylaxis is recommended despite a negative rapid HIV test in these cases. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of rapid diagnostic testing for influenza on the reduction of antibiotic use in paediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, E; Cambaz, N; Coşkun, Y; Mete, F; Geyik, M; Samanci, N

    2009-10-01

    To determine the influence of rapid diagnosis of influenza on antibiotic prescribing to children presenting with influenza-like illness in the emergency department in a inner city hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. Patients aged 3 to 14 years presenting to an urban children's teaching hospital emergency department were screened for fever and cough, coryza, myalgias and/or malaise. After obtaining informed consent, patients were allocated into two groups. Group 1: patients were prescribed antibiotics after only physical examination; or Group 2: patients were prescribed antibiotics after rapid influenza testing. Nasopharyngeal swabs obtained from all patients were immediately tested in a single-blind manner with Influenza A/B Rapid Test(R) for influenza A and B. A total of 97 patients were enrolled, and 33 (34%) of these tested positive for influenza. Although frequency of positive results for influenza between the groups was similar (36% vs 32%, respectively), patients in Group 2 were less likely to be prescribed antibiotics when compared to those in Group 1 (32% vs 100%, respectively, p < 0.0001). Rapid diagnosis of influenza in the paediatric emergency department may allow a significant reduction in the over-prescription of antibiotics.

  2. Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: Toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited.

  3. Sensitivity of a rapid immuno-chromatographic test for hepatitis C antibodies detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Delphine; Vaghefi, Parissa; Savary, Jeanine; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2008-02-01

    Enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA) are the most widely used anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening tests but simple, instrument and electricity-free screening tests have been developed with results available in a few minutes. The sensitivity of a rapid immuno-chromatographic assay for the detection of anti-HCV antibodies was evaluated on 421 HCV RNA-positive samples from chronic carriers and compared with ELISA method. The sensitivity of the ELISA method was 99.3% and the sensitivity of the rapid test was 95.5%. False negative results were independent of HCV genotype, but were associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive status. Among HIV-negative people, sensitivities of the rapid test and the EIA assay were 99.2% and 100%, respectively. Whereas among HIV-positive people, sensitivities were 77.5% and 96.3%. The immuno-chromatographic test is rapid and simple, and could be used along with rapid anti-HIV determination, in settings with limited facilities or when rapid results are required.

  4. EU-approved rapid tests might underestimate bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Daniela; Bozzetta, Elena; Langeveld, Jan P M; Groschup, Martin H; Goldmann, Wilfred; Andrèoletti, Olivier; Lantier, Isabelle; Van Keulen, Lucien; Bossers, Alex; Pitardi, Danilo; Nonno, Romolo; Sklaviadis, Theodoros; Ingravalle, Francesco; Peletto, Simone; Colussi, Silvia; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2017-03-01

    We report the diagnostic sensitivity of 3 EU-approved rapid tests (ELISAs; 1 from IDEXX and 2 from Bio-Rad) for the detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases in goats. Ninety-eight goat brainstem samples were tested. All the rapid tests had 100% specificity and ≥80% sensitivity, with the IDEXX test significantly more sensitive than the 2 Bio-Rad tests. All tests detected 100% of samples from goats with clinical scrapie, but missed 8% (IDEXX) to 33% (Bio-Rad SG) of samples from preclinical goats. Importantly, only IDEXX picked up all samples from clinical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected goats, whereas the other 2 rapid tests missed 15% (Bio-Rad SG) to 25% (Bio-Rad SAP). These results show that a fraction of preclinical scrapie infections are likely missed by EU surveillance, with sensitivity of detection strongly dependent on the choice of the rapid test. Moreover, a significant proportion of clinical BSE infections are underestimated by using either Bio-Rad test. Assuming that the same sensitivity on preclinical goats would also occur in BSE-infected goats, our data suggest that IDEXX is likely the most sensitive test for detecting preclinical field cases of BSE infection in goats, although with an 8% failure rate. These results raise some concerns about the reliability of current EU surveillance figures on BSE infection in goats.

  5. Acceptability of Rapid HIV Testing Among Latinos in Washington Heights, New York City, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell-Cunsolo, Tawandra L; Cortes, Yamnia I; Long, Yue; Castro-Rivas, Erida; Liu, Jianfang

    2017-08-01

    In the United States, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a disproportionately large impact on Latino Americans. This study assessed the acceptability of rapid HIV testing among a sample of Latinos from New York City. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 192 participants from The Washington Heights/Inwood Informatics Infrastructure for Community-Centered Comparative Effectiveness Research (WICER) study. Participants were interviewed and offered rapid HIV testing and post-test counseling. Seventy-five percent (n = 143) accepted rapid HIV testing when offered. More religious participants were less likely than less religious participants to undergo testing (RR = 0.73; 95% CI 0.54-0.99). Participants tested for HIV within the past year were less likely than those who had not been tested within the past year to agree to undergo testing (RR = 0.27; 95% CI 0.11-0.66). Community-based rapid HIV testing is feasible among Latinos in urban environments. Outreach efforts to engage religious individuals and encouraging routine testing should be reinforced.

  6. [Development of a rapid test kit for antibody to HIV by nano immunomagnetic lateral flow method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fa-qing; Lee, Tony; Wang, Chao-nan; Sun, Shu-ye; Li, Shan-shan; Tian, Hui

    2010-06-01

    To develop a rapid test kit for antibody to HIV by nano immunomagnetic lateral flow method. A rapid test kit was developed by conjugation of the HIV antigen gp41 and gp36 to 200nm super paramagnetic particles by carbodiimide (EDC) and coating of the HIV antigen gp41 and gp36 to nitrocellulose membrane. Then the kit was evaluated with serials of experiments. The kit was qualified with examination of national reference panel of anti-HIV antibody for colloidal gold diagnostic kit. The sensitivity was 100% by tested with 20 HIV antibody positive sera, the specificity was 98.5% by tested with 600 HIV antibody negative sera, respectively. The stability of the kit was over 12 month by storage at room temperature. A diagnostic kit for antibody to HIV was developed with the advantages of convenience, rapid test, good stability and point of care.

  7. Rapid HIV testing for individuals on probation/parole: outcomes of an intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; McKenzie, Michelle; Wilson, Monique E; Rich, Josiah D

    2013-07-01

    Many probationers and parolees do not receive HIV testing despite being at increased risk for obtaining and transmitting HIV. A two-group randomized controlled trial was conducted between April, 2011 and May, 2012 at probation/parole offices in Baltimore, Maryland and Providence/Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Male and female probationers/parolees were interviewed (n = 1,263) and then offered HIV testing based on random assignment to one of two conditions: (1) On-site rapid HIV testing conducted at the probation/parole office; or (2) Referral for rapid HIV testing off site at a community HIV testing clinic. Outcomes were: (1) undergoing HIV testing; and (2) receipt of HIV testing results. Participants were significantly more likely to be tested on-site at a probation/parole office versus off-site at a HIV testing clinic (p < 0.001). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of receiving HIV testing results. Findings indicate that probationers/parolees are willing to be tested on-site and, independent of testing location, are equally willing to receive their results. Implications for expanding rapid HIV testing to more criminal justice related locations and populations are discussed.

  8. Prospective, multi-centre clinic-based evaluation of four rapid diagnostic tests for syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabey, D; Peeling, R W; Ballard, R; Benzaken, A S; Galbán, E; Changalucha, J; Everett, D; Balira, R; Fitzgerald, D; Joseph, P; Nerette, S; Li, J; Zheng, H

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate prospectively four rapid, point-of-care serological tests for syphilis in prenatal or high risk populations in four countries. Tests were performed on consecutive clinic attenders, using whole blood in the clinic, and whole blood and serum in the laboratory. The sensitivity and specificity of each test was evaluated, using a standard treponemal test (Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) or fluorescent treponemal antibody, absorbed (FTA-ABS) as gold standard. Non-treponemal tests (rapid plasma reagin (RPR) or venereal diseases research laboratory (VDRL) tests) were also performed on all subjects at three sites. The specificity of each rapid test was >95% at each site. Sensitivities varied from 64-100% and, in most cases, were lower when whole blood was used rather than serum. Rapid serological tests for syphilis are an acceptable alternative to conventional laboratory tests. Since they do not require equipment or electricity, they could increase coverage of syphilis screening, and enable treatment to be given at the first clinic visit.

  9. Prospective, multi‐centre clinic‐based evaluation of four rapid diagnostic tests for syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabey, D; Peeling, R W; Ballard, R; Benzaken, A S; Galbán, E; Changalucha, J; Everett, D; Balira, R; Fitzgerald, D; Joseph, P; Nerette, S; Li, J; Zheng, H

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate prospectively four rapid, point‐of‐care serological tests for syphilis in prenatal or high risk populations in four countries. Methods Tests were performed on consecutive clinic attenders, using whole blood in the clinic, and whole blood and serum in the laboratory. The sensitivity and specificity of each test was evaluated, using a standard treponemal test (Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) or fluorescent treponemal antibody, absorbed (FTA‐ABS) as gold standard. Non‐treponemal tests (rapid plasma reagin (RPR) or venereal diseases research laboratory (VDRL) tests) were also performed on all subjects at three sites. Results The specificity of each rapid test was >95% at each site. Sensitivities varied from 64–100% and, in most cases, were lower when whole blood was used rather than serum. Conclusions Rapid serological tests for syphilis are an acceptable alternative to conventional laboratory tests. Since they do not require equipment or electricity, they could increase coverage of syphilis screening, and enable treatment to be given at the first clinic visit. PMID:17215274

  10. Age and Gender factors of Test Anxiety among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This present study examined age and gender as factors of test anxiety among undergraduates from two universities in Nigeria. A total of 281 randomly selected participants participated in the study and they responded to the 20-item Suinn test anxiety behavior scale. For analysis of data the t-test for independent samples ...

  11. Cost-effectiveness of rapid syphilis screening in prenatal HIV testing programs in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R Schackman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available New rapid syphilis tests permit simple and immediate diagnosis and treatment at a single clinic visit. We compared the cost-effectiveness, projected health outcomes, and annual cost of screening pregnant women using a rapid syphilis test as part of scaled-up prenatal testing to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Haiti.A decision analytic model simulated health outcomes and costs separately for pregnant women in rural and urban areas. We compared syphilis syndromic surveillance (rural standard of care, rapid plasma reagin test with results and treatment at 1-wk follow-up (urban standard of care, and a new rapid test with immediate results and treatment. Test performance data were from a World Health Organization-Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases field trial conducted at the GHESKIO Center Groupe Haitien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes in Port-au-Prince. Health outcomes were projected using historical data on prenatal syphilis treatment efficacy and included disability-adjusted life years (DALYs of newborns, congenital syphilis cases, neonatal deaths, and stillbirths. Cost-effectiveness ratios are in US dollars/DALY from a societal perspective; annual costs are in US dollars from a payer perspective. Rapid testing with immediate treatment has a cost-effectiveness ratio of $6.83/DALY in rural settings and $9.95/DALY in urban settings. Results are sensitive to regional syphilis prevalence, rapid test sensitivity, and the return rate for follow-up visits. Integrating rapid syphilis testing into a scaled-up national HIV testing and prenatal care program would prevent 1,125 congenital syphilis cases and 1,223 stillbirths or neonatal deaths annually at a cost of $525,000.In Haiti, integrating a new rapid syphilis test into prenatal care and HIV testing would prevent congenital syphilis cases and stillbirths, and is cost-effective. A similar approach may be beneficial in other resource

  12. Cost-effectiveness of rapid syphilis screening in prenatal HIV testing programs in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schackman, Bruce R; Neukermans, Christopher P; Fontain, Sandy N Nerette; Nolte, Claudine; Joseph, Patrice; Pape, Jean W; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2007-05-01

    New rapid syphilis tests permit simple and immediate diagnosis and treatment at a single clinic visit. We compared the cost-effectiveness, projected health outcomes, and annual cost of screening pregnant women using a rapid syphilis test as part of scaled-up prenatal testing to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Haiti. A decision analytic model simulated health outcomes and costs separately for pregnant women in rural and urban areas. We compared syphilis syndromic surveillance (rural standard of care), rapid plasma reagin test with results and treatment at 1-wk follow-up (urban standard of care), and a new rapid test with immediate results and treatment. Test performance data were from a World Health Organization-Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases field trial conducted at the GHESKIO Center Groupe Haitien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes in Port-au-Prince. Health outcomes were projected using historical data on prenatal syphilis treatment efficacy and included disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of newborns, congenital syphilis cases, neonatal deaths, and stillbirths. Cost-effectiveness ratios are in US dollars/DALY from a societal perspective; annual costs are in US dollars from a payer perspective. Rapid testing with immediate treatment has a cost-effectiveness ratio of $6.83/DALY in rural settings and $9.95/DALY in urban settings. Results are sensitive to regional syphilis prevalence, rapid test sensitivity, and the return rate for follow-up visits. Integrating rapid syphilis testing into a scaled-up national HIV testing and prenatal care program would prevent 1,125 congenital syphilis cases and 1,223 stillbirths or neonatal deaths annually at a cost of $525,000. In Haiti, integrating a new rapid syphilis test into prenatal care and HIV testing would prevent congenital syphilis cases and stillbirths, and is cost-effective. A similar approach may be beneficial in other resource-poor countries

  13. The diagnostic sensitivity of dengue rapid test assays is significantly enhanced by using a combined antigen and antibody testing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Fry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serological tests for IgM and IgG are routinely used in clinical laboratories for the rapid diagnosis of dengue and can differentiate between primary and secondary infections. Dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has been identified as an early marker for acute dengue, and is typically present between days 1-9 post-onset of illness but following seroconversion it can be difficult to detect in serum. AIMS: To evaluate the performance of a newly developed Panbio® Dengue Early Rapid test for NS1 and determine if it can improve diagnostic sensitivity when used in combination with a commercial IgM/IgG rapid test. METHODOLOGY: The clinical performance of the Dengue Early Rapid was evaluated in a retrospective study in Vietnam with 198 acute laboratory-confirmed positive and 100 negative samples. The performance of the Dengue Early Rapid in combination with the IgM/IgG Rapid test was also evaluated in Malaysia with 263 laboratory-confirmed positive and 30 negative samples. KEY RESULTS: In Vietnam the sensitivity and specificity of the test was 69.2% (95% CI: 62.8% to 75.6% and 96% (95% CI: 92.2% to 99.8 respectively. In Malaysia the performance was similar with 68.9% sensitivity (95% CI: 61.8% to 76.1% and 96.7% specificity (95% CI: 82.8% to 99.9% compared to RT-PCR. Importantly, when the Dengue Early Rapid test was used in combination with the IgM/IgG test the sensitivity increased to 93.0%. When the two tests were compared at each day post-onset of illness there was clear differentiation between the antigen and antibody markers. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that using dengue NS1 antigen detection in combination with anti-glycoprotein E IgM and IgG serology can significantly increase the sensitivity of acute dengue diagnosis and extends the possible window of detection to include very early acute samples and enhances the clinical utility of rapid immunochromatographic testing for dengue.

  14. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edson, J.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. The quality of rapid HIV testing in South Africa: an assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of rapid HIV testing in South Africa. Method: A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select HCT sites in eight provinces of South Africa. The study employed both semi-structured interviews with HIV testers and observation of testing sessions as a ...

  16. The quality of rapid HIV testing in South Africa: an assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of rapid HIV testing in South Africa. Method: A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select HCT sites in eight provinces of South Africa. The study employed both semi-structured interviews with HIV testers and observation of testing sessions as a means of ...

  17. Response to “Rapid tests for HIV type discrimination in West Africa may perform differently”

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tchounga, Boris K; Ekouevi, Didier K; Eholie, Serge P

    2015-01-01

    ... of each test used for the initial discrimination of HIV‐positive patients. Our team previously conducted in 2004 a field evaluation of rapid HIV serologic tests in Côte d'Ivoire and highlighted the lower accuracy of Genie II for differentiating between HIV‐1, HIV‐2 and dually reactive patients [ 4 ]. In our most recent study, the initial HIV diag...

  18. Response to "Rapid tests for HIV type discrimination in West Africa may perform differently"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tchounga, Boris K; Ekouevi, Didier K; Eholie, Serge P

    2015-01-01

    ... test used for the initial discrimination of HIV-positive patients. Our team previously conducted in 2004 a field evaluation of rapid HIV serologic tests in Cote d'Ivoire and highlighted the lower accuracy of Genie II for differentiating between HIV-1, HIV-2 and dually reactive patients [4]. In our most recent study, the initial HIV diagnostic te...

  19. Rapid test for fecal calprotectin levels in children with crohn disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolho, K L; Turner, D; Veereman-Wauters, G

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of fecal calprotectin, a surrogate marker of mucosal inflammation, is a promising means to monitor therapeutic response in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease, especially if the result is readily available. We tested the performance of a novel calprotectin rapid test, Quantum Blue...

  20. Prospective evaluation of three rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.A. Goris (Marga); M.M.G. Leeflang (Mariska); M. Lodén (Martin); J.F.P. Wagenaar (Jiri); P.R. Klatser (Paul); R.A. Hartskeerl (Rudy); K.R. Boer (Kimberly)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractDiagnosis of leptospirosis by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) or by culture is confined to specialized laboratories. Although ELISA techniques are more common, they still require laboratory facilities. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) can be used for easy point-of-care

  1. Rapid HIV Testing and Counselling in Labour in a Northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between April and August 2004, all pregnant women in labour at JUTH, were offered rapid HIV testing and counseling with opportunity to decline testing. HIV positive women were offered the standard nevirapine mono-therapy prophylaxis regimen (HIVNET 012). Four hundred and thirty (99.8%) of the 431 pregnant women ...

  2. Utility of point of care test devices for infectious disease testing of blood and oral fluid and application to rapid testing in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen R.; Kardos, Keith W.; Yearwood, Graham D.; Guillon, Geraldine B.; Kurtz, Lisa A.; Mokkapati, Vijaya K.

    2008-04-01

    Rapid, point of care (POC) testing has been increasingly deployed as an aid in the diagnosis of infectious disease, due to its ability to deliver rapid, actionable results. In the case of HIV, a number of rapid test devices have been FDA approved and CLIA-waived in order to enable diagnosis of HIV infection outside of traditional laboratory settings. These settings include STD clinics, community outreach centers and mobile testing units, as well as identifying HIV infection among pregnant women and managing occupational exposure to infection. The OraQuick ® rapid test platform has been widely used to identify HIV in POC settings, due to its simplicity, ease of use and the ability to utilize oral fluid as an alternative specimen to blood. More recently, a rapid test for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been developed on the same test platform which uses serum, plasma, finger-stick blood, venous blood and oral fluid. Clinical testing using this POC test device has shown that performance is equivalent to state of the art, laboratory based tests. These devices may be suitable for rapid field testing of blood and other body fluids for the presence of infectious agents.

  3. Susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi to amphotericin B by a rapid radiometric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, W.G.; Fay, D.; Thumar, B.; Dixon, D.

    1984-01-01

    A rapid, radiometric method was developed to determine the susceptibility of filamentous fungi to amphotericin B. The rapid, radiometric method depended on measurement of the inhibition of /sup 24/CO/sub 2/ production in the presence of amphotericin B. Thirty isolates of filamentous fungi were tested by the rapid, radiometric method and a reference agar dilution method. There was 93% agreement between the two methods when an 80% or greater decrease in CO/sub 2/ production was used to calculate the minimal inhibitory concentration with the rapid, radiometric method. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, based on 80% decrease of CO/sub 2/ production, were achieved within 24 h of incubation with all of the fungi tested.

  4. India Ink Staining, a Rapid and Affordable Test for Diagnosis of Cryptococcal Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Masfiyah Masfiyah

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis incidence has increased along with an increase in incidence of HIV-AIDS. This infection causes increased morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV-AIDS. A rapid diagnosis plays an important role to ensure a prompt therapy of the disease. The cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen test for diagnosis of meningitis is rapid but relatively expensive while culture is time consuming. A 47-year man was admitted to hospital with a headache, fever, nausea, and vomiting and ...

  5. Uniaxial Tension Test of Slender Reinforced Early Age Concrete Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to obtain the tensile properties of early age concrete based on a uniaxial tension test employing RC slender members. First, the paper shows that concrete strain is equal to the strain of rebar at the mid-span of the RC member. The tensile Young’s modulus and the strain capacity of early age concrete are estimated using strain measurements. The experiment indicated that the tensile Young’s modulus at an early age is higher than the compressive modulus. This observation was similar to one found in a previous investigation which used a direct tension test of early age concrete. Moreover, the paper describes how an empirical equation for mature concrete can be applied to the relation between uniaxial tensile strength and splitting tensile strength even in early age concrete. Based on a uniaxial tension test, the paper proposes an empirical equation for the relationship between standard bond stresses and relative slip.

  6. Rapid HIV testing experience at Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System's Homeless Stand Downs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshyar, Dina; Surís, Alina M; Czarnogorski, Maggie; Lepage, James P; Bedimo, Roger; North, Carol S

    2014-01-01

    In the USA, 21% of the estimated 1.1 million people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are unaware they are HIV-infected. In 2011, Veterans Health Administration (VHA)'s Office of Public Health in conjunction with VHA's Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program funded grants to support rapid HIV testing at homeless outreach events because homeless populations are more likely to obtain emergent rather than preventive care and have a higher HIV seroprevalence as compared to the general population. Because of a Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System (VANTHCS)'s laboratory testing requirement, VANTHCS partnered with community agencies to offer rapid HIV testing for the first time at VANTHCS' 2011 Homeless Stand Downs in Dallas, Fort Worth, and Texoma, Texas. Homeless Stand Downs are outreach events that connect Veterans with services. Veterans who declined testing were asked their reasons for declining. Comparisons by Homeless Stand Down site used Pearson χ², substituting Fisher's Exact tests for expected cell sizes Veterans attending the Homeless Stand Downs, 261 Veterans reported reasons for declining HIV testing, and 133 Veterans were tested, where 92% of the tested Veterans obtained their test results at the events - all tested negative. Veterans' reported reasons for declining HIV testing included previous negative result (n=168), no time to test (n=49), no risk factors (n=36), testing is not a priority (n=11), uninterested in knowing serostatus (n=6), and HIV-infected (n=3). Only "no time to test" differed significantly by Homeless Stand Down site. Nonresponse rate was 54%. Offering rapid HIV testing at Homeless Stand Downs is a promising testing venue since 15% of Veterans attending VANTHCS' Homeless Stand Downs were tested for HIV, and majority obtained their HIV test results at point-of-care while further research is needed to determine how to improve these rates.

  7. Performance of the Directigen EZ Flu A+B rapid influenza diagnostic test to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanton, Bobby L; Almradi, Amro; Mehta, Tejal; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The Directigen EZ Flu A+B rapid influenza diagnostic test, as compared to real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, demonstrated suboptimal performance to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009. Age- and viral load-stratified test sensitivity ranged from 33.3 to 84.6% and 0 to 100%, respectively. © 2013.

  8. Community-based rapid oral human immunodeficiency virus testing for tuberculosis patients in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Adrianne K; Caldas, Adolfo; Sebastian, Jose Luis; Muñoz, Maribel; Bonilla, Cesear; Yamanija, Jose; Jave, Oswaldo; Magan, Christina; Saldivar, Judith; Espiritu, Betty; Rosell, Gustavo; Bayona, Jaime; Shin, Sonya

    2012-09-01

    Among tuberculosis patients, timely diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and early antiretroviral treatment are crucial, but are hampered by a myriad of individual and structural barriers. Community-based models to provide counseling and rapid HIV testing are few but offer promise. During November 2009-April 2010, community health workers offered and performed HIV counseling and testing by using the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test to new tuberculosis cases in 22 Ministry of Health establishments and their household contacts (n = 130) in Lima, Peru. Refusal of HIV testing or study participation was low (4.7%). Intervention strengths included community-based approach with participant preference for testing site, use of a rapid, non-invasive test, and accompaniment to facilitate HIV care and family disclosure. We will expand the intervention under programmatic auspices for rapid community-based testing for new tuberculosis cases in high incidence establishments. Other potential target populations include contacts of HIV-positive persons and pregnant women.

  9. Sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care rapid combination syphilis-HIV-HCV tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L Hess

    Full Text Available New rapid point-of-care (POC tests are being developed that would offer the opportunity to increase screening and treatment of several infections, including syphilis. This study evaluated three of these new rapid POC tests at a site in Southern California.Participants were recruited from a testing center in Long Beach, California. A whole blood specimen was used to evaluate the performance of the Dual Path Platform (DPP Syphilis Screen & Confirm, DPP HIV-Syphilis, and DPP HIV-HCV-Syphilis rapid tests. The gold-standard comparisons were Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination (TPPA, rapid plasma reagin (RPR, HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA, and HIV-1/2 EIA.A total of 948 whole blood specimens were analyzed in this study. The sensitivity of the HIV tests ranged from 95.7-100% and the specificity was 99.7-100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the HCV test were 91.8% and 99.3%, respectively. The treponemal-test sensitivity when compared to TPPA ranged from 44.0-52.7% and specificity was 98.7-99.6%. The non-treponemal test sensitivity and specificity when compared to RPR was 47.8% and 98.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of the Screen & Confirm test improved to 90.0% when cases who were both treponemal and nontreponemal positive were compared to TPPA+/RPR ≥ 1 ∶ 8.The HIV and HCV on the multi-infection tests showed good performance, but the treponemal and nontreponemal tests had low sensitivity. These results could be due to a low prevalence of active syphilis in the sample population because the sensitivity improved when the gold standard was limited to those more likely to be active cases. Further evaluation of the new syphilis POC tests is required before implementation into testing programs.

  10. Sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care rapid combination syphilis-HIV-HCV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kristen L; Fisher, Dennis G; Reynolds, Grace L

    2014-01-01

    New rapid point-of-care (POC) tests are being developed that would offer the opportunity to increase screening and treatment of several infections, including syphilis. This study evaluated three of these new rapid POC tests at a site in Southern California. Participants were recruited from a testing center in Long Beach, California. A whole blood specimen was used to evaluate the performance of the Dual Path Platform (DPP) Syphilis Screen & Confirm, DPP HIV-Syphilis, and DPP HIV-HCV-Syphilis rapid tests. The gold-standard comparisons were Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination (TPPA), rapid plasma reagin (RPR), HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and HIV-1/2 EIA. A total of 948 whole blood specimens were analyzed in this study. The sensitivity of the HIV tests ranged from 95.7-100% and the specificity was 99.7-100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the HCV test were 91.8% and 99.3%, respectively. The treponemal-test sensitivity when compared to TPPA ranged from 44.0-52.7% and specificity was 98.7-99.6%. The non-treponemal test sensitivity and specificity when compared to RPR was 47.8% and 98.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of the Screen & Confirm test improved to 90.0% when cases who were both treponemal and nontreponemal positive were compared to TPPA+/RPR ≥ 1 ∶ 8. The HIV and HCV on the multi-infection tests showed good performance, but the treponemal and nontreponemal tests had low sensitivity. These results could be due to a low prevalence of active syphilis in the sample population because the sensitivity improved when the gold standard was limited to those more likely to be active cases. Further evaluation of the new syphilis POC tests is required before implementation into testing programs.

  11. Using ISOS consensus test protocols for development of quantitative life test models in ageing of organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettle, J.; Stoichkov, V.; Kumar, D.

    2017-01-01

    As Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) development matures, the demand grows for rapid characterisation of degradation and application of Quantitative Accelerated Life Tests (QALT) models to predict and improve reliability. To date, most accelerated testing on OPVs has been conducted using ISOS consensus...... standards. This paper identifies some of the problems in using and interpreting the results for predicting ageing based upon ISOS consensus standard test data. Design of Experiments (DOE) in conjunction with data from ISOS consensus standards are used as the basis for developing life test models for OPV...... modules. This is used to study their temperature-humidity and light-induced degradation, which enables failure rates during accelerated testing to be assessed against the typical outdoor operational conditions. The life test models are used to assess the relative severity of the ISOS standards...

  12. Influence of Age and Education on Neuropsychological Tests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of age, education and reading ability on neuropsychological tests in Zambia. Methods and Materials: 324 adult participants were recruited from urban and rural areas in Zambia. They had an age range of 19-65 and education range of 5 – 19 years of schooling.

  13. [Introduction of a rapid HIV test in Sexually Transmitted Infections Units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, María del Mar; López, María del Carmen; Nieto, Paula; Junquera, María Luisa; Varela, José Antonio; Vázquez, Fernando

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the implementation of a rapid HIV test in Asturias (Spain). The study was conducted in two STI Units using the Determine® HIV-1/2 test. A total of 1011 people were tested, of whom 65.3% had never been tested for HIV previously, and 71.4% were heterosexual men. Twenty-one tests were confirmed positive by Enzyme Immunoassay/Western Blot (EIA/WB) assay An increase was observed in the diagnosis of HIV. Awareness campaigns and rapid tests could be effective methods for the early diagnosis of HIV. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Systematic review of the performance of rapid rifampicin resistance testing for drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Arentz

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rapid tests for rifampicin resistance may be useful for identifying isolates at high risk of drug resistance, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB. However, choice of diagnostic test and prevalence of rifampicin resistance may both impact a diagnostic strategy for identifying drug resistant-TB. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the performance of WHO-endorsed rapid tests for rifampicin resistance detection. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library through January 1, 2012. For each rapid test, we determined pooled sensitivity and specificity estimates using a hierarchical random effects model. Predictive values of the tests were determined at different prevalence rates of rifampicin resistance and MDR-TB. RESULTS: We identified 60 publications involving six different tests (INNO-LiPA Rif. TB assay, Genotype MTBDR assay, Genotype MTBDRplus assay, Colorimetric Redox Indicator (CRI assay, Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA and MODS tests: for all tests, negative predictive values were high when rifampicin resistance prevalence was ≤ 30%. However, positive predictive values were considerably reduced for the INNO-LiPA Rif. TB assay, the MTBDRplus assay and MODS when rifampicin resistance prevalence was < 5%. LIMITATIONS: In many studies, it was unclear whether patient selection or index test performance could have introduced bias. In addition, we were unable to evaluate critical concentration thresholds for the colorimetric tests. DISCUSSION: Rapid tests for rifampicin resistance alone cannot accurately predict rifampicin resistance or MDR-TB in areas with a low prevalence of rifampicin resistance. However, in areas with a high prevalence of rifampicin resistance and MDR-TB, these tests may be a valuable component of an MDR-TB management strategy.

  15. Wind Tunnel Model Design and Test Using Rapid Prototype Materials and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-23

    UNCLASSIFIED WIND TUNNEL MODEL DESIGN AND TEST USING RAPID PROTOTYPE MATERIALS AND PROCESSES Richard R. Heisler and Clifford L. Ratliff The Johns Hopkins...deflection, and attach directly to the strongback with screws. A and tolerance deviations when the material was grown. schematic diagram of the RPM...constructed around the clay to contain the I. R. R. Heisler , "Final Test Report for the Wind pouring of silicon resin. Tunnel Test of the JHU/APL WTM-01 at

  16. Leveraging rapid community-based hiv testing campaigns for non-communicable diseases in rural uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Chamie; Dalsone Kwarisiima; Clark, Tamara D; Jane Kabami; Vivek Jain; Elvin Geng; Petersen, Maya L; Harsha Thirumurthy; Moses R Kamya; Havlir, Diane V.; Charlebois, Edwin D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The high burden of undiagnosed HIV in sub-Saharan Africa limits treatment and prevention efforts. Community-based HIV testing campaigns can address this challenge and provide an untapped opportunity to identify non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We tested the feasibility and diagnostic yield of integrating NCD and communicable diseases into a rapid HIV testing and referral campaign for all residents of a rural Ugandan parish. Methods A five-day, multi-disease campaign, offering diag...

  17. Comparison between the Traditional and a Rapid Screening Test for Cryoimmunoglobulins Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Romitelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. A new rapid, automatic, and sensitive screening test useful to detect cryoglobulins in serum samples is proposed. Design and Methods. The increase of turbidity during the cryoglobulin aggregation was monitored spectrophotometrically in sera from 400 patients with clinical evidence of cryoglobulinemia related disorders and 100 controls. Results were correlated to those obtained by the traditional method. Results. Kinetics of the aggregation curves were described by their maximum turbidity increase, lag time, and slope. Despite a partial correspondence between the traditional and the rapid test, patients with symptomatic cryoglobulinemia showed turbidity values significantly higher than the determined cutoff. Moreover, a functional classification of cryoglobulins is proposed. Conclusions. Due to its high reproducibility, operator independence, low cost, and results obtained within 2 hours, the rapid test can be used as a “real time” monitoring of cryoglobulinemia related diseases and for the evaluation of plasmapheresis efficacy.

  18. Indeterminate rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matemo, D; Kinuthia, J; John, F; Chung, M; Farquhar, C; John-Stewart, G; Kiarie, J

    2009-11-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of rapid HIV-1 tests may be altered during pregnancy and postpartum. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and correlates of false-positive Abbott Determine and false-negative Uni-Gold rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers attending a primary care clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Mothers were tested for HIV-1 using Abbott Determine and non-reactive results were considered HIV-1 antibody negative. Reactive samples by Determine were re-tested by Uni-Gold. Vironostika HIV-1 and Uni-FORM II Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to confirm samples that had positive Abbott Determine and negative Uni-Gold. Among 2311 women who accepted HIV-1 testing, 1238 (54%) were tested antenatally and 1073 (46%) were tested postnatally. Of tested women, 274 (12%) women were reactive by Abbott Determine and on retesting with Uni-Gold 30 (11%) had indeterminate results. The prevalence of indeterminate results was significantly higher in antenatal women than in postnatal women (2% versus 1%, P = 0.03). In conclusion, indeterminate rapid HIV-1 test results are more common in the antenatal period and appropriate safeguards to confirm HIV-1 infection status should be implemented in antenatal programmes.

  19. Rapid assessment of malaria transmission using age-specific sero-conversion rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveta Stewart

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria transmission intensity is a crucial determinant of malarial disease burden and its measurement can help to define health priorities. Rapid, local estimates of transmission are required to focus resources better but current entomological and parasitological methods for estimating transmission intensity are limited in this respect. An alternative is determination of antimalarial antibody age-specific sero-prevalence to estimate sero-conversion rates (SCR, which have been shown to correlate with transmission intensity. This study evaluated SCR generated from samples collected from health facility attendees as a tool for a rapid assessment of malaria transmission intensity.The study was conducted in north east Tanzania. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens MSP-1(19 and AMA-1 were measured by indirect ELISA. Age-specific antibody prevalence was analysed using a catalytic conversion model based on maximum likelihood to generate SCR. A pilot study, conducted near Moshi, found SCRs for AMA-1 were highly comparable between samples collected from individuals in a conventional cross-sectional survey and those collected from attendees at a local health facility. For the main study, 3885 individuals attending village health facilities in Korogwe and Same districts were recruited. Both malaria parasite prevalence and sero-positivity were higher in Korogwe than in Same. MSP-1(19 and AMA-1 SCR rates for Korogwe villages ranged from 0.03 to 0.06 and 0.07 to 0.21 respectively. In Same district there was evidence of a recent reduction in transmission, with SCR among those born since 1998 [MSP-1(19 0.002 to 0.008 and AMA-1 0.005 to 0.014 ] being 5 to 10 fold lower than among individuals born prior to 1998 [MSP-1(19 0.02 to 0.04 and AMA-1 0.04 to 0.13]. Current health facility specific estimates of SCR showed good correlations with malaria incidence rates in infants in a contemporaneous clinical trial (MSP-1(19 r(2 = 0.78, p<0.01 & AMA-1 r

  20. [Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou (Bénin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Agbayahoun-Chokki, F; Sissinto Savi de Tove, Y; Biokou Bankole, B; Adinsi de Souza, V; Assogba, M; Kinde-Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of the ImmunoComb® Toxo IgG and ImmunoComb® Toxo IgMassays (rapid diagnostic test) in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou. We interviewed 266 pregnant women, who first answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti T. gondii antibodies with the ImmunoComb toxo assays and with the ARCHITECT CIMA method. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated to determine the performance of the rapid test. The seroprevalences of IgG against T. gondii by CIMA technique and rapid test were respectively 48.9% and 48.5%. The prevalence increased with age. Performances for IgG were: sensitivity 97%, specificity 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 97.10%. For IgM, Sensitivity: 33.3% Specificity: 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 99.2%. Seroprevalence obtained shows that about half of the study population is not immune against T. gondii and requires regular serological monitoring until delivery. According to these results, and given the needs of toxoplasmosis diagnosis on the field characterized by an important decrease of immunized women, this test may be recommended in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in peripheral levels of the health pyramid.

  1. Testing iOS apps with HadoopUnit rapid distributed GUI testing

    CERN Document Server

    Tilley, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Smartphone users have come to expect high-quality apps. This has increased the importance of software testing in mobile software development. Unfortunately, testing apps-particularly the GUI-can be very time-consuming. Exercising every user interface element and verifying transitions between different views of the app under test quickly becomes problematic. For example, execution of iOS GUI test suites using Apple's UI Automation framework can take an hour or more if the app's interface is complicated. The longer it takes to run a test, the less frequently the test can be run, which in turn re

  2. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing with electrokinetics enhanced biosensors for diagnosis of acute bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Lu, Yi; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2014-11-01

    Rapid pathogen detection and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are required in diagnosis of acute bacterial infections to determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Molecular approaches for AST are often based on the detection of known antibiotic resistance genes. Phenotypic culture analysis requires several days from sample collection to result reporting. Toward rapid diagnosis of bacterial infection in non-traditional healthcare settings, we have developed a rapid AST approach that combines phenotypic culture of bacterial pathogens in physiological samples and electrochemical sensing of bacterial 16S rRNA. The assay determines the susceptibility of pathogens by detecting bacterial growth under various antibiotic conditions. AC electrokinetic fluid motion and Joule heating induced temperature elevation are optimized to enhance the sensor signal and minimize the matrix effect, which improve the overall sensitivity of the assay. The electrokinetics enhanced biosensor directly detects the bacterial pathogens in blood culture without prior purification. Rapid determination of the antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli clinical isolates is demonstrated.

  3. Rapid reorganization in ocean biogeochemistry off Peru towards the end of the Little Ice Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gutiérrez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate and ocean ecosystem variability has been well recognized during the twentieth century but it is unclear if modern ocean biogeochemistry is susceptible to the large, abrupt shifts that characterized the Late Quaternary. Time series from marine sediments off Peru show an abrupt centennial-scale biogeochemical regime shift in the early nineteenth century, of much greater magnitude and duration than present day multi-decadal variability. A rapid expansion of the subsurface nutrient-rich, oxygen-depleted waters resulted in the present-day higher biological productivity, including pelagic fish. The shift was likely driven by a northward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the South Pacific Subtropical High to their present day locations, coupled with a strengthening of Walker circulation, towards the end of the Little Ice Age. These findings reveal the potential for large reorganizations in tropical Pacific climate with immediate effects on ocean biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem structure.

  4. Development of Middle Stone Age innovation linked to rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Martin; Simon, Margit H; Hall, Ian R; Barker, Stephen; Stringer, Chris; Zahn, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The development of modernity in early human populations has been linked to pulsed phases of technological and behavioural innovation within the Middle Stone Age of South Africa. However, the trigger for these intermittent pulses of technological innovation is an enigma. Here we show that, contrary to some previous studies, the occurrence of innovation was tightly linked to abrupt climate change. Major innovational pulses occurred at times when South African climate changed rapidly towards more humid conditions, while northern sub-Saharan Africa experienced widespread droughts, as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling. These millennial-scale teleconnections resulted from the bipolar seesaw behaviour of the Atlantic Ocean related to changes in the ocean circulation. These conditions led to humid pulses in South Africa and potentially to the creation of favourable environmental conditions. This strongly implies that innovational pulses of early modern human behaviour were climatically influenced and linked to the adoption of refugia.

  5. Validation of the Puumala virus rapid field test for bank voles in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, D; Imholt, C; Rosenfeld, U M; Drewes, S; Fischer, S; Heuser, E; Petraityte-Burneikiene, R; Ulrich, R G; Jacob, J

    2017-02-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) causes many human infections in large parts of Europe and can lead to mild to moderate disease. The bank vole (Myodes glareolus) is the only reservoir of PUUV in Central Europe. A commercial PUUV rapid field test for rodents was validated for bank-vole blood samples collected in two PUUV-endemic regions in Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Württemberg). A comparison of the results of the rapid field test and standard ELISAs indicated a test efficacy of 93-95%, largely independent of the origin of the antigens used in the ELISA. In ELISAs, reactivity for the German PUUV strain was higher compared to the Swedish strain but not compared to the Finnish strain, which was used for the rapid field test. In conclusion, the use of the rapid field test can facilitate short-term estimation of PUUV seroprevalence in bank-vole populations in Germany and can aid in assessing human PUUV infection risk.

  6. Has introduction of rapid drug susceptibility testing at diagnosis impacted treatment outcomes among previously treated tuberculosis patients in Gujarat, India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Paresh; Vadera, Bhavin; Kumar, Ajay M V; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Modi, Bhavesh; Solanki, Rajesh; Patel, Pranav; Patel, Prakash; Pujara, Kirit; Nimavat, Pankaj; Shah, Amar; Bharaswadkar, Sandeep; Rade, Kiran; Parmar, Malik; Nair, Sreenivas Achuthan

    2015-01-01

    Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) in India recommends that all previously-treated TB (PT) patients are offered drug susceptibility testing (DST) at diagnosis, using rapid diagnostics and screened out for rifampicin resistance before being treated with standardized, eight-month, retreatment regimen. This is intended to improve the early diagnosis of rifampicin resistance and its appropriate management and improve the treatment outcomes among the rest of the patients. In this state-wide study from Gujarat, India, we assess proportion of PT patients underwent rapid DST at diagnosis and the impact of this intervention on their treatment outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort study involving review of electronic patient-records maintained routinely under RNTCP. All PT patients registered for treatment in Gujarat during January-June 2013 were included. Information on DST and treatment outcomes were extracted from 'presumptive DR-TB patient register' and TB treatment register respectively. We performed a multivariate analysis to assess if getting tested is independently associated with unfavourable outcomes (death, loss-to-follow-up, failure, transfer out). Of 5,829 PT patients, 5306(91%) were tested for drug susceptibility with rapid diagnostics. Overall, 71% (4,113) TB patients were successfully treated - 72% among tested versus 60% among non-tested. Patients who did not get tested at diagnosis had a 34% higher risk of unsuccessful outcomes as compared to those who got tested (aRR - 1.34; 95% CI 1.20-1.50) after adjusting for age, sex, HIV status and type of TB. Unfavourable outcomes (particularly failure and switched to category IV) were higher among INH-resistant patients (39%) as compared to INH-sensitive (29%). Offering DST at diagnosis improved the treatment outcomes among PT patients. However, even among tested, treatment outcomes remained suboptimal and were related to INH resistance and high loss-to-follow-up. These need to be addressed urgently

  7. HIV rapid testing in the framework of an STI prevention project on a cohort of vulnerable Italians and immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccella, Ilaria; Petrelli, Alessio; Vescio, Maria Fenicia; De Carolis, Silvia; Fazioli, Cecilia; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Rezza, Gianni

    2017-08-01

    Uptake of HIV tests is a challenging issue in vulnerable populations including immigrants, normally using standard diagnostic tools. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of HIV rapid test; estimate the percentage of newly HIV diagnoses and evaluate knowledge, attitudes and perception (KAP) about HIV/AIDS and other STIs in a specific set of immigrants and vulnerable population in Rome (Italy). All immigrant and Italian people, aged 16-70 years, attending the infectious disease outpatient clinic of the National Institute for Health, Migration and Poverty (INMP) in Rome (Italy), during the period December 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled. HIV rapid testing was provided for free and patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire evaluating KAP about HIV/STIs. All patients with risky sexual behaviours or with a recent diagnosis of STIs were invited to come back after 3-6 months and a post-counselling questionnaire was offered. Out of the total sample, 99.2% (n = 825) accepted the "rapid test" and 10 new HIV diagnoses were found (1.22%; 95% CI 0.58%-2.22%). Three hundred and eighty-five participants (47%) answered the entry questionnaire and 58 (15%) completed the follow-up. Overall, we found high knowledge about HIV/AIDS; however, lower educational level and immigrant status were associated with poor knowledge about HIV, other STIs and prevention methods. Immigrants have lower perception of sexual risk and higher prejudice than Italians. Our study showed high acceptance of rapid test in this specific vulnerable population and this allowed to identify new HIV diagnoses in unaware people. Socioeconomic inequalities observed in the KAP questionnaire suggest the need for actions to support the reduction of cultural differences in knowledge of HIV/AIDS and for policies aimed at improving access to health services and preventions programmes of marginalized populations.

  8. Performance of rapid test in detection of HBsAg in frozen sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Zafer Mengeloglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background — Hepatitis B is a widespread infectious disease throughout the world. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of this infection is important. Rapid test of hepatitis B, known as cassette test, is a useful test that is easy to perform as well as it may have lack of sensitivity and specificity. Materials and Methods — Sera of a total of 55 patients were used for the study. All the sera that were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg using macro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Macro ELISA were stored at -20°C for a maximum period of 3.5 years. The sera were thawed and tested again for HBsAg using the Nanosign rapid test kit (Bioland, South Korea for hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Results — A total of 16 (29.1% sera revealed negative and the rest 39 were positive, meaning of a positivity rate of 70.9%. Rapid test revealed a very low positivity rate of 6.6% in sera with below 100 IU/ml level of HBsAg. In contrast, only two of the rest 40 sera with HBsAg levels above 100 units were negative, meaning of a positivity rate of 95.0% in high HBsAg level samples. A highly significant positive correlation was found between positivity levels and HBsAg levels (R=0.734, P<0.001, correlation is significant at the 0.01 level by 2-tailed analysis. We didn’t find any correlation between positivity and the period passed after freezing. Besides this, no significant difference was observed amongst the groups in terms of the time intervals of freezing. These findings suggest that the time passed after the first freeze of the sera didn’t cause any impact on the results of rapid tests. Conclusion — The findings of the present study suggest that the rapid test of HBV infection is reliable in sera with high levels of HBsAg, and the time passed after freezing of the sample doesn’t change the results of the tests. Besides this, a negative rapid test result doesn’t rule out the infection.

  9. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa eLorusso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of nonverbal tone sequences.Participants were 46 children aged 8 - 14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia. Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length, and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children’s performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children’s difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs long tones and for long vs short ISIs predict nonword and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness.In conclusion, the relationship between nonverbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with

  10. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cantiani, Chiara; Molteni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP) deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of non-verbal tone sequences. Participants were 46 children aged 8-14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia). Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ) (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length), and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children's performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children's difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older) children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs. short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs. long tones and for long vs. short ISIs predict non-word and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness. In conclusion, the relationship between non-verbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with subgroup

  11. Rapid tests for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in patients with suspected disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelaert, Marleen; Verdonck, Kristien; Menten, Joris; Sunyoto, Temmy; van Griensven, Johan; Chappuis, Francois; Rijal, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in patients with fever and a large spleen relies on showing Leishmania parasites in tissue samples and on serological tests. Parasitological techniques are invasive, require sophisticated laboratories, consume time, or lack accuracy. Recently, rapid diagnostic tests that are easy to perform have become available. Objectives To determine the diagnostic accuracy of rapid tests for diagnosing VL in patients with suspected disease presenting at health services in endemic areas. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CIDG SR, CENTRAL, SCI-expanded, Medion, Arif, CCT, and the WHO trials register on 3 December 2013, without applying language or date limits. Selection criteria This review includes original, phase III, diagnostic accuracy studies of rapid tests in patients clinically suspected to have VL. As reference standards, we accepted: (1) direct smear or culture of spleen aspirate; (2) composite reference standard based on one or more of the following: parasitology, serology, or response to treatment; and (3) latent class analysis. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed quality of included studies using the QUADAS-2 tool. Discrepancies were resolved by a third author. We carried out a meta-analysis to estimate sensitivity and specificity of rapid tests, using a bivariate normal model with a complementary log-log link function. We analysed each index test separately. As possible sources of heterogeneity, we explored: geographical area, commercial brand of index test, type of reference standard, disease prevalence, study size, and risk of bias (QUADAS-2). We also undertook a sensitivity analysis to assess the influence of imperfect reference standards. Main results Twenty-four studies containing information about five index tests (rK39 immunochromatographic test (ICT), KAtex latex agglutination test in urine, FAST agglutination test, rK26 ICT, and r

  12. Rapid Bedside Inactivation of Ebola Virus for Safe Nucleic Acid Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstierne, Maiken Worsøe; Karlberg, Helen; Bragstad, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    for nucleic acid extraction inactivates Ebola virus. A rapid bedside inactivation method for nucleic acid tests is obtained by simply adding Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer directly into vacuum blood collection EDTA tubes using a thin needle and syringe prior to sampling. The ready-to-use inactivation vacuum......Rapid bedside inactivation of Ebola virus would be a solution for the safety of medical and technical staff, risk containment, sample transport, and high-throughput or rapid diagnostic testing during an outbreak. We show that the commercially available Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer used...... tubes are stable for more than 4 months, and Ebola virus RNA is preserved in the Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer for at least 5 weeks independent of the storage temperature. We also show that Ebola virus RNA can be manually extracted from Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer-inactivated samples using...

  13. A New Preclinical Paradigm for Testing Anti-Aging Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladiges, Warren; Snyder, Jessica M; Wilkinson, Erby; Imai, Denise M; Snider, Tim; Ge, Xuan; Ciol, Marcia; Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Pillai, Smitha P S; Morton, John; Quarles, Ellen; Rabinovitch, Peter; Niedernhofer, Laura; Liggitt, Denny

    2017-06-01

    Testing drugs for anti-aging effects has historically been conducted in mouse life-span studies, but are costly and time consuming, and more importantly, difficult to recapitulate in humans. In addition, life-span studies in mice are not well suited to testing drug combinations that target multiple factors involved in aging. Additional paradigms for testing therapeutics aimed at slowing aging are needed. A new paradigm, designated as the Geropathology Grading Platform (GGP), is based on a standardized set of guidelines developed to detect the presence or absence of low-impact histopathological lesions and to determine the level of severity of high-impact lesions in organs from aged mice. The GGP generates a numerical score for each age-related lesion in an organ, summed for total lesions, and averaged over multiple mice to obtain a composite lesion score (CLS). Preliminary studies show that the platform generates CLSs that increase with the age of mice in an organ-dependent manner. The CLSs are sensitive enough to detect changes elicited by interventions that extend mouse life span, and thus help validate the GGP as a novel tool to measure biological aging. While currently optimized for mice, the GGP could be adapted to any preclinical animal model. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Comparison of a New and Rapid Method: Brucella Coombs Gel Test With Other Diagnostic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalem, Fatma; Ergün, Ayşe Gül; Durmaz, Süleyman; Doğan, Metin; Ertuğrul, Ömür; Gündem, Seval

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to detect reliability of Brucella Coombs gel test (BCGT) by comparing with with ELISA (IgG + IgM), Standard agglutination test, and Brucella immunocapture agglutination methods in serological diagnosis of brucellosis. Brucella Coombs gel test (BCGT), Brucella ELISA (IgG + IgM), Standard agglutination test, and Brucella immunocapture agglutination tests of 78 patients with presumptive diagnosis of brucellosis which were sent to Microbiology Laboratory of Konya Numune Hospital from various regions of Konya were studied. Of 78 patients with ELISA IgG and IgM, STA, BICA and BCGT; 26, 21, 10, 12 and 12 were positive. When compared with BICA, the sensitivity and specifity of BCGT were 100% and 100%, respectively. According to results BCGT can be used as a diagnostic test in routine laboratories after more comprehensive studies in control groups and patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Evaluation of an inhouse rapid ELISA test for detection of giardia in domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Hankenson, F Claire

    2010-11-01

    Sheep (Ovis aries) are increasingly used at our institution as models of human disease. Within the research environment, routine husbandry and handling of sheep has potential for transmission of zoonotic agents, including Giardia. The prevalence of Giardia in sheep may approach 68%. Classic diagnostic testing involves microscopic examination for fecal cysts or trophozoites; however, limitations of microscopy include time, labor, and potential false-negative results due to intermittent shedding. We wished to determine whether a commercial rapid ELISA used for Giardia detection in dogs and cats could be used in sheep. Fecal samples collected from sheep (n = 93) were tested with a combination of 6 methods: reference laboratory fecal flotation, reference laboratory ELISA, inhouse fecal flotation, and commercially available tests (enzyme immunoassay, direct fluorescence antibody assay, and rapid ELISA). Prevalence of Giardia infection in facility sheep was 11.8% (11 of 93 animals). Of the 11 samples considered positive, 3 were confirmed by multiple testing methods, and 5 were positive by microscopy alone. Inhouse fecal flotation for 8 samples was positive on only 1 of 2 consecutive testing days. The rapid ELISA test exhibited 0% sensitivity for sheep giardiasis. Overall, the examined methods had low sensitivities and low positive predictive values. Despite limitations, microscopic analysis of repeat fecal samples remained the most accurate diagnostic method for ovine giardiasis among the methods tested.

  16. Correlations between tests of aging in Hiroshima subjects: an attempt to define physiologic age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J.W.; Hashizume, Asaji; Jablon, Seymour

    1964-12-01

    Nine physiologic functions which change with age were measured in 437 subjects during their regular visits to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission clinic in Hiroshima, Japan. This pilot study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of collecting such data in a population sample physiologic age score. Tests conducted consisted of: skin elasticity, systolic blood pressure, vital capacity, hand grip strength, light extinction time, vibrometer, visual activity, audiometry, and serum cholesterol. The study demonstrated that adequate sample data could be obtained, and that statistical treatment could construct a physiologic age for individual subjects. However, the tests were of limited value below age 40, and the validation of the concept of physiologic age requires eventual correlation with mortality. Since the ABCC program includes a highly accurate mortality survey, it is hoped that data on physiologic aging can be collected and eventually related to mortality. 11 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Investigating Recent Testing among MSM: Results from Community-Based HIV Rapid Testing Attendees in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Lorente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to identify factors associated with recent HIV testing in MSM who attended two experimental community-based and nonmedicalized voluntary counselling and testing programmes (CB-VCT targeting MSM in France. Methods. This analysis was based on data collected in 2009–2011 through a self-administered pretesting questionnaire. An index measuring the level of participants’ sexual orientation disclosure was built: the higher the index, the greater the disclosure. Factors associated with recent HIV testing (last test ≤ 1 year were identified using a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for the CB-VCT programme of enrolment. Results. 716 MSM provided data on testing history. Overall, 49% were recently tested for HIV and 51% were not. Recently tested MSM had a higher homosexuality disclosure index (adjusted OR [95% confidence interval]: aOR = 1.2 [1.1–1.4], reported more inconsistent condom use during anal sex with men (aOR = 1.6 [1.2–2.1], and were less likely to have sex under the influence of club drugs (aOR = 0.6 [0.4–1.0]. Conclusion. New testing strategies should focus on those who live their homosexuality relatively secretly and those who use club drugs before sex. Governments should develop policies which encourage improved social acceptance of homosexuality as concealment of sexual orientation represents a major barrier to testing.

  18. Rapid prototyping of centrifugal microfluidic modules for point of care blood testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, Phophi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present modular centrifugal microfluidic devices that enable a series of blood tests to be performed towards a full blood count. The modular approach allows for rapid prototyping of device components in a generic format to complete different...

  19. HIV-Selectest enzyme immunoassay and rapid test: ability to detect seroconversion following HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender; Norris, Philip J; Busch, Michael P; Haynes, Barton F; Park, Susan; Sasono, Pretty; Mlisana, Koleka; Salim, Abdool Karim; Hecht, Frederick M; Mulenga, Joseph; Chomba, Elwyn; Hunter, Eric; Allen, Susan; Nemo, George; Rodriguez-Chavez, Isaac R; Margolick, Joseph B; Golding, Hana

    2010-01-01

    HIV-Selectest is a serodiagnostic enzyme immunoassay (EIA), containing p6 and gp41 peptides, designed to differentiate between vaccine-induced antibodies and true infections. A rapid test version of the HIV-Selectest was developed. Both assays detected HIV antibodies in men and women within 2 to 4 weeks of infection, with sensitivity similar to third-generation EIAs.

  20. A Global Comparative Evaluation of Commercial Immunochromatographic Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Visceral Leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, Jane; Hasker, Epco; Das, Pradeep; El Safi, Sayda; Goto, Hiro; Mondal, Dinesh; Mbuchi, Margaret; Mukhtar, Maowia; Rabello, Ana; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Wasunna, Monique; Adams, Emily; Menten, Joris; Peeling, Rosanna; Boelaert, Marleen; Khanal, Basudha; Das, Murari; Oliveira, Edward; de Assis, Tália Machado; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Bhaskar, Khondaker Rifathassan; Huda, M. Mamun; Hassan, Mukidul; Abdoun, Asim Osman; Awad, Aymen; Osman, Mohamed; Prajapati, Dinesh Kumar; Gidwani, Kamlesh; Tiwary, Puja; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Celeste, Beatriz Julieta; Jacquet, Diane; Magiri, Charles; Muia, A.; Kesusu, J.; Ageed, Al Farazdag; Galal, Nuha; Osman, Osman Salih; Gupta, A. K.; Bimal, Afrad S.; Das, V. N. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Poor access to diagnosis stymies control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Antibody-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can be performed in peripheral health settings. However, there are many brands available and published reports of variable accuracy. Methods. Commercial VL RDTs

  1. Cost-effectiveness of rapid susceptibility testing against second-line drugs for tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowdy, D. W.; van't Hoog, A.; Shah, M.; Cobelens, F.

    2014-01-01

    Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against second-line tuberculosis drugs (SLDs) is essential for improving outcomes among multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) cases. To evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of rapid DST for SLDs. We constructed a

  2. APTEC: aptamer-tethered enzyme capture as a novel rapid diagnostic test for malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkzwager, Roderick M; Kinghorn, Andrew B; Richards, Jack S; Tanner, Julian A

    2015-03-18

    We report the rapid diagnosis of malaria by aptamer-tethered enzyme capture (APTEC) whereby an aptamer captures biomarker Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) then activity is measured colorimetrically. The robust test was sensitive (limit of detection = 4.9 ng mL(-1)) and could reliably diagnose malaria in clinical blood samples.

  3. A cluster randomised trial introducing rapid diagnostic tests into registered drug shops in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham

    2015-01-01

    the impact of introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) in registered drug shops in Uganda, with the aim to increase appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in patients seeking treatment for fever in drug shops. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial...

  4. [Introduction of rapid syphilis and HIV testing in prenatal care in Colombia: qualitative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Manjarrés, María Teresa; Gaitán-Duarte, Hernando Guillermo; Caicedo, Sidia; Gómez, Berta; Pérez, Freddy

    2016-12-01

    Interpret perceptions of Colombian health professionals concerning factors that obstruct and facilitate the introduction of rapid syphilis and HIV testing in prenatal care services. A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews was carried out. A convenience sample was selected with 37 participants, who included health professionals involved in prenatal care services, programs for pregnant women, clinical laboratories, and directors of health care units or centers, as well as representatives from regional departments and the Ministry of Health. Colombia does not do widespread screening with rapid syphilis and HIV tests in prenatal care. The professionals interviewed stated they did not have prior experience in the use of rapid tests-except for laboratory staff-or in the course of action in response to a positive result. The insurance system hinders access to timely diagnosis and treatment. Health authorities perceive a need to review existing standards, strengthen the first level of care, and promote comprehensive prenatal care starting with contracts between insurers and health service institutional providers. Participants recommended staff training and integration between health-policymaking and academic entities for updating training programs. The market approach and the characteristics of the Colombian health system constitute the main barriers to implementation of rapid testing as a strategy for elimination of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis and HIV. Measures identified include making changes in contracts between insurers and health service institutional providers, adapting the timing and duration of prenatal care procedures, and training physicians and nurses involved in prenatal care.

  5. Comparison of blood smear microscopy to a rapid diagnostic test for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic performance of microscopy using Giemsastained thick and thin blood smears to a rapid malaria dipstick test (RDT) in detecting P. falciparum malaria in Kenyan school children. Design: Randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial from 1998-2001. Setting: Rural Embu district, Kenya ...

  6. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates by digital time-lapse microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, M; Rosenvinge, F S; Spillum, E

    2015-01-01

    Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is essential for early and appropriate therapy. Methods with short detection time enabling same-day treatment optimisation are highly favourable. In this study, we evaluated the potential of a digital time-lapse microscope system, the oCelloScope s...

  7. Rapid catalase supplemental test for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    OpenAIRE

    Chester, B; Moskowitz, L B

    1987-01-01

    A simple, rapid, semiquantitative slide catalase test useful for differentiating members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is described. Judging by the time required for appearance of oxygen bubbles in 3% hydrogen peroxide, the immediate catalase reactors were Yersinia, Serratia, Proteus, Morganella, Providencia, Cedecea, and Hafnia spp. The delayed catalase reactors were Escherichia, Shigella, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, Kluyvera, and Tatumella spp. This i...

  8. The impact of introducing malaria rapid diagnostic tests on fever case management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruxvoort, Katia J; Leurent, Baptiste; Chandler, Clare I R

    2017-01-01

    Since 2010, the World Health Organization has been recommending that all suspected cases of malaria be confirmed with parasite-based diagnosis before treatment. These guidelines represent a paradigm shift away from presumptive antimalarial treatment of fever. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs...

  9. Rapid Generation and Testing of a Lassa Fever Vaccine Using VaxCelerate Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-28

    981959472 222357 In silico analysis of Mtb HSP70 subdomains for modification University of Washington 1100 NE 45th Street, Suite 300 Seattle WA 981054696...222357 In silico analysis of Mtb HSP70 subdomains for modification 1 a. 1 a. 6 Grant Title: Rapid Generation and Testing of a Lassa Fever Vaccine...14 Figure 6: Linear Structure of the Mtb HSP70 Variants

  10. The role of rapid diagnostic tests in managing adults with pneumonia in low-resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Aston

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In well-resourced settings the systematic use of rapid diagnostics tests (e.g. pneumococcal urinary antigen test that define the causal pathogen to direct therapy has not resulted in significantly improved outcomes in adults with pneumonia. The management of pneumonia in many low-resource settings is complicated by a substantial burden of tuberculosis and HIV-associated opportunistic infections, in addition to the usual spectrum of pathogens seen in well-resourced settings. Clinical features alone do not reliably distinguish between these different aetiologies and physicians often have to treat empirically. Given the limitations in diagnostic laboratory capability present in most low-resource settings, rapid and point-of-care diagnostic tests could become valuable tools to guide treatment decisions. Pneumococcal and Legionella urinary antigen tests are specific and moderately sensitive, but their utility in low-resource settings is uncertain. The Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, USA platform and rapid assays for urinary lipoarabinomannan can substantially speed up tuberculosis diagnosis; the current challenge is to translate this into earlier treatment and hopefully improve patient outcome. In HIV-infected patients, 1-3-β-D-glucan is a serum marker of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection with excellent sensitivity. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of these rapid diagnostic assays when they are incorporated into treatment algorithms.

  11. Human Plasmodium knowlesi infection detected by rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); M. Rutten (Martine); R. Koelewijn (Rob); A.M. Zeeman (Anne Marie); J. Verweij (Jaap); P.J. Wismans (Pieter); C.H. Kocken (Clemens); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe describe a PCR-confirmed case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection with a high parasitemia level and clinical signs of severe malaria in a migrant worker from Malaysian Borneo in the Netherlands. Investigations showed that commercially available rapid antigen tests for detection of human

  12. Factors associated with refusal of rapid HIV testing in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisculli, Mary L; Reichmann, William M; Losina, Elena; Donnell-Fink, Laurel A; Arbelaez, Christian; Katz, Jeffrey N; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2011-05-01

    HIV screening studies in the emergency department (ED) have demonstrated rates of HIV test refusal ranging from 40-67%. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with refusal to undergo routine rapid HIV testing in an academic ED in Boston. HIV counselors offered routine testing to 1,959 patients; almost one-third of patients (29%) refused. Data from a self-administered survey were used to determine independent correlates of HIV testing refusal. In multivariate analysis, women and patients with annual household incomes of $50,000 or more were more likely to refuse testing, as were those who reported not engaging in HIV risk behaviors, those previously HIV tested and those who did not perceive a need for testing. Enrollment during morning hours was also associated with an increased risk of refusal. Increased educational efforts to convey the rationale and benefits of universal screening may improve testing uptake among these groups.

  13. Rapid point-of-care HIV testing in pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Nitika Pant; Tulsky, Jacqueline Peterson; Cohan, Deborah; Colford, John M; Reingold, Arthur L

    2007-02-01

    Rapid, point-of-care human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing has the potential to enhance strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV infection. Rapid tests need minimal laboratory infrastructure and can be performed by health workers with minimal training. In our systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to summarize the overall diagnostic accuracy of rapid HIV tests in pregnancy, and outcomes such as acceptability, patient preference, feasibility and impact of rapid testing. We searched four major databases, identified and screened 1377 citations, and included 17 studies that met our eligibility criteria. Analyses of these studies suggested that the overall sensitivity and specificity of blood-based rapid tests was high compared with oral rapid tests. A two-step testing strategy, particularly parallel testing, was found to be superior to single-test strategy in labour and delivery settings. Acceptability of rapid tests and patient preference was variable across studies. Overall, rapid HIV testing was highly accurate compared with conventional tests and offer a clear advantage of enabling the implementation of timely interventions to reduce MTCT of HIV. To improve diagnostic accuracy and to reduce false-positive results, it may be necessary to use two rapid tests during labour and delivery.

  14. Rapid detection of avian influenza A virus by immunochromatographic test using a novel fluorescent dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Seon-Ju; Cuc, Bui Thi; Kim, Soon-Ai; Kim, Do Thi Hoang; Bao, Duong Tuan; Tien, Trinh Thi Thuy; Anh, Nguyen Thi Viet; Choi, Do-Young; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Kim, Hak Sung; Park, Hyun

    2017-08-15

    Sensitive and rapid diagnostic systems for avian influenza (AI) virus are required to screen large numbers of samples during a disease outbreak and to prevent the spread of infection. In this study, we employed a novel fluorescent dye for the rapid and sensitive recognition of AI virus. The styrylpyridine phosphor derivative was synthesized by adding allyl bromide as a stable linker and covalently immobilizing it on latex beads with antibodies generating the unique Red dye 53-based fluorescent probe. The performance of the innovative rapid fluorescent immnunochromatographic test (FICT) employing Red dye 53 in detecting the AI virus (A/H5N3) was 4-fold and 16-fold higher than that of Europium-based FICT and the rapid diagnostic test (RDT), respectively. In clinical studies, the presence of human nasopharyngeal specimens did not alter the performance of Red dye 53-linked FICT for the detection of H7N1 virus. Furthermore, in influenza A virus-infected human nasopharyngeal specimens, the sensitivity of the Red dye 53-based assay and RDT was 88.89% (8/9) and 55.56% (5/9) relative to rRT-PCR, respectively. The photostability of Red dye 53 was higher than that of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), showing a stronger fluorescent signal persisting up to 8min under UV. The Red dye 53 could therefore be a potential probe for rapid fluorescent diagnostic systems that can recognize AI virus in clinical specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ageing tests for the MEG II drift chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, M., E-mail: marco.venturini@pi.infn.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Baldini, A.M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Baracchini, E. [ICEPP, University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Cei, F.; D' Onofrio, A. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dussoni, S.; Galli, L.; Grassi, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Nicolò, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Signorelli, G.; Tenchini, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Zermini, A. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    The MEG II drift chamber will track positrons from μ{sup +} decays in a very harsh environment. For testing the robustness of the chamber to ageing effects an irradiation facility was set up at INFN Pisa. - Highlights: • We built up an X-ray facility for ageing studies of particle detectors. • Stable irradiation conditions were obtained over one-month timescale. • A moderate gain loss is expected for the MEG II drift chamber.

  16. Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-05-04

    Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

  17. Vocabulary test format and differential relations to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ryan P; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2008-06-01

    Although vocabulary tests are generally considered interchangeable, regardless of format, different tests can have different relations to age and to other cognitive abilities. In this study, 4 vocabulary test formats were examined: multiple-choice synonyms, multiple-choice antonyms, produce the definition, and picture identification. Results indicated that, although they form a single coherent vocabulary knowledge factor, the formats have different relations to age. In earlier adulthood, picture identification had the strongest growth, and produce the definition had the weakest. In later adulthood, picture identification had the strongest decline, and multiple-choice synonyms had the least. The formats differed in their relation to other cognitive variables, including reasoning, spatial visualization, memory, and speed. After accounting for the differential relations to other cognitive variables, differences in relation to age were eliminated with the exception of differences for the picture identification test. No theory of the aging of vocabulary knowledge fully explains these findings. These results suggest that using a single indicator of vocabulary may yield incomplete and somewhat misleading results about the aging of vocabulary knowledge.

  18. Evaluation of dengue NS1 antigen rapid tests and ELISA kits using clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhamoy Pal

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV infection can improve clinical outcomes by ensuring close follow-up, initiating appropriate supportive therapies and raising awareness to the potential of hemorrhage or shock. Non-structural glycoprotein-1 (NS1 has proven to be a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of dengue. A number of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs targeting NS1 antigen (Ag are now commercially available. Here we evaluated these tests using a well-characterized panel of clinical samples to determine their effectiveness for early diagnosis.Retrospective samples from South America were used to evaluate the following tests: (i "Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP" and (ii "Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag ELISA" (Bio-Rad, France, (iii "Dengue NS1 Detect Rapid Test (1st Generation" and (iv "DENV Detect NS1 ELISA" (InBios International, United States, (v "Panbio Dengue Early Rapid (1st generation" (vi "Panbio Dengue Early ELISA (2nd generation" and (vii "SD Bioline Dengue NS1 Ag Rapid Test" (Alere, United States. Overall, the sensitivity of the RDTs ranged from 71.9%-79.1% while the sensitivity of the ELISAs varied between 85.6-95.9%, using virus isolation as the reference method. Most tests had lower sensitivity for DENV-4 relative to the other three serotypes, were less sensitive in detecting secondary infections, and appeared to be most sensitive on Day 3-4 post symptom onset. The specificity of all evaluated tests ranged from 95%-100%.ELISAs had greater overall sensitivity than RDTs. In conjunction with other parameters, the performance data can help determine which dengue diagnostics should be used during the first few days of illness, when the patients are most likely to present to a clinic seeking care.

  19. Economic analysis of rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing for meningitis/encephalitis in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Steve; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Ginocchio, Christine C; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Zimmer, Louise; Bozzette, Samuel A

    2018-01-10

    We assessed the possible economic impact of a rapid test in pediatric patients with suspected community-acquired meningitis/encephalitis. Modeling simulated diagnosis, clinical decisions, resource use/costs of standard of care (SOC) and two cerebrospinal fluid testing strategies using FilmArray ® (FA), a US FDA-cleared system that provides results in approximately 1 h. Pathogens detected by FA caused approximately 75% of cases, 97% of which would be accurately diagnosed with FA.  Mean cost/case ranged from $17,599 to $22,025.  Syndromic testing is less expensive than SOC. Testing all suspected cases yielded greater savings ($3481/case) than testing only those with abnormal cerebrospinal fluid ($2157/case). Greater economic benefits are achievable with syndromic testing of all cases, rather than SOC or targeted syndromic testing.

  20. Value of rapid antigen test for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Murat; Gençpinar, Pinar; Ozbek, Ozgen Alpay; Ozdemir, Durgül; Sayiner, A Arzu

    2013-05-01

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza is the predominant influenza virus circulating in Turkey in 2009. Because of the clinical manifestations of influenza overlap with those attributable to other common respiratory illnesses of childhood, establishing a diagnosis of influenza requires confirmatory testing. The aim of our study was to define the predictive value of rapid influenza antigen detection test in children presenting to a pediatric emergency care department with influenza-like illness and to compare with clinical signs and symptoms. From October to November 2009, 3646 patients presented with influenza-like illness to the pediatric emergency department. Influenza-like illness is defined as fever with cough or sore throat in the absence of a known cause other than influenza. Enrollment criteria included fever and at least one of the following symptoms: coryza, cough, headache, sore throat, or myalgia. All 322 enrolled patients received a nasal wash for rapid influenza diagnostic tests, and the results were compared with clinical signs. Rapid influenza detection test result was found positive in 167 (51.9%) of 322 patients. Clinical findings included fever as the presenting complaint (100%), fever (≥38 °C) (93.4%), cough (91.3%), rhinorrhea (66.1%), sore throat (35.1%), vomiting-diarrhea (22.4%), myalgia (20.2%), headache (18%) and shortness of breath (12.1%). There were 211 patients (65.5%) at high risk for the development of complications of pandemic H1N1 influenza A such as chronic lung disease (asthma) (n = 103, 48.8%), age younger than 2 years (n = 78, 37%), and neurologic disease (n = 10, 4.7%). The positivity rate and sensitivity of the test increase up to 70% in patients, who had the high body temperature (≥39 °C). The rapid test achieved the highest sensitivity in patients, who have high fever (≥39 °C), myalgia, vomiting, and diarrhea. We found that if the patients have high fever (≥39 °C), myalgia, and vomiting-diarrhea together, the likelihood of

  1. Diagnosing dengue virus infection: rapid tests and the role of micro/nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bei; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette B; Nigo, Maurice Mutro; Weidmann, Manfred; Hunziker, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Due to the progressive spread of the dengue virus and a rising incidence of dengue disease, its rapid diagnosis is important for developing countries and of increasing relevance for countries in temperate climates. Recent advances in bioelectronics, micro- and nanofabrication technologies have led to new miniaturized point-of-care devices and analytical platforms suited for rapid detection of infections. Starting from the available tests for dengue diagnosis, this review examines emerging rapid, micro/nanotechnologies-based tools, including label-free biosensor methods, microarray and microfluidic platforms, which hold significant potential, but still need further development and evaluation. The epidemiological and clinical setting as key determinants for selecting the best analytical strategy in patients presenting with fever is then discussed. This review is aimed at the clinicians and microbiologists to deepen understanding and enhance application of dengue diagnostics, and also serves as knowledge base for researchers and test developers to overcome the challenges posed by this disease. Dengue disease remains a significant problem in many developing countries. Unfortunately rapid diagnosis with easy and low cost tests for this disease is currently still not realized. In this comprehensive review, the authors highlighted recent advances in nanotechnology which would enable development in this field, which would result in beneficial outcomes to the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on antibiotic prescribing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Heidi; Bruxvoort, Katia J; Cairns, Matthew E

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the impact of use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on prescribing of antimicrobials, specifically antibiotics, for acute febrile illness in Africa and Asia.Design Analysisof nine preselected linked and codesigned observational and randomised studies (eight cluster...... or individually randomised trials and one observational study).Setting Public and private healthcare settings, 2007-13, in Afghanistan, Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda.Participants 522 480 children and adults with acute febrile illness.Interventions Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.Main outcome...... in different settings.Results Antibiotics were prescribed to 127 052/238 797 (53%) patients in control groups and 167 714/283 683 (59%) patients in intervention groups. Antibiotics were prescribed to 40% (35 505/89 719) of patients with a positive test result for malaria and to 69% (39 400/57 080) of those...

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria by microdilution - Experience of a tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Set R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM isolated from various clinically suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, from January 2007 to April 2008, at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: The specimens were processed for microscopy and culture using the standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by broth microdilution, using Sensititre CA MHBT. Susceptibility testing was also carried out on Mueller Hinton agar by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 1062 specimens received for mycobacterial cultures, 104 (9.79% grew mycobacteria. Of the mycobacterial isolates, six (5.76% were rapid growers. M. abscessus and M. chelonae appeared to be resistant organisms, with M. chelonae showing intermediate resistance to amikacin and minocycline. However, all the six isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin and gentamicin by the disc diffusion test. Also all three isolates of M. abscessus were sensitive to piperacillin and erythromycin. Further studies are required to test their sensitivity to these four antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution test, before they can be prescribed to patients. Conclusions: We wish to emphasize that reporting of rapidly growing mycobacteria from clinical settings, along with their sensitivity patterns, is an absolute need of the hour.

  4. Optimization of a rapid diagnostic test for detection of group B streptococcus from antepartum patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Jonathan P; Bishop, Karen; Riddle, Gerald; Katz, Allan; Faro, Sebastian

    2012-07-01

    We analyzed the performance of a new rapid diagnostic test for use in determining group B streptococcus colonization in pregnancy. Vaginal-rectal specimens were compared by the rapid test, a commercial laboratory culture result, and an in-house culture. Of 150 patient samples, 72 were positive by the rapid test, giving a prevalence of 48.0% versus 24.7% by traditional culture. Characterization of these results showed cross-reactivity with Enterococcus. The addition of bacitracin reduced this interference, and when reanalyzed, a colonization rate of 31.3% was found (P = 0.3961, chi-square), as well as a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 89.1-100) and a specificity of 93.6% (95% CI 86.9-97.2). The addition of bacitracin greatly improves the reliability of this diagnostic test and demonstrates a novel approach to reduce interference. An accurate determination of the test's sensitivity and specificity, however, awaits enrollment of the remaining subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 4-Second Exercise Test: Reference Values for Ages 18-81 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Claudio Gil; Castro, Claudia Lucia Barros de; Franca, João Felipe; Ramos, Plínio Santos

    2015-05-01

    Physiological reflexes modulated primarily by the vagus nerve allow the heart to decelerate and accelerate rapidly after a deep inspiration followed by rapid movement of the limbs. This is the physiological and pharmacologically validated basis for the 4-s exercise test (4sET) used to assess the vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. To present reference data for 4sET in healthy adults. After applying strict clinical inclusion/exclusion criteria, 1,605 healthy adults (61% men) aged between 18 and 81 years subjected to 4sET were evaluated between 1994 and 2014. Using 4sET, the cardiac vagal index (CVI) was obtained by calculating the ratio between the duration of two RR intervals in the electrocardiogram: 1) after a 4-s rapid and deep breath and immediately before pedaling and 2) at the end of a rapid and resistance-free 4-s pedaling exercise. CVI varied inversely with age (r = -0.33, p age were similar for men and women (p > 0.05). Considering the heteroscedasticity and the asymmetry of the distribution of the CVI values according to age, we chose to express the reference values in percentiles for eight age groups (years): 18-30, 31-40, 41-45, 46-50, 51-55, 56-60, 61-65, and 66+, obtaining progressively lower median CVI values ranging from 1.63 to 1.24. The availability of CVI percentiles for different age groups should promote the clinical use of 4sET, which is a simple and safe procedure for the evaluation of vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism.

  6. Evaluation of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Treponemal Antibody Test Comparing the Treponema Pallidum Particle Agglutination Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Han; Lim, Chae Seung; Lee, Min-Geol; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2015-09-01

    In addition to conventional tests, several methods for detection of treponema-specific antibodies in clinical settings have been recently introduced. We aim to comparatively evaluate a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) for Treponema pallidum specific antibody (SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0) and the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay. In all, 132 serum samples from 78 syphilis patients and 54 syphilis-negative controls were analyzed. SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0 test (Standard Diagnostic, Inc., Yongin, Korea) was evaluated and compared to Serodia TPPA assay (Fujirebio, Inc., Tokyo, Japan). All discrepant results between the two assays were repeatedly tested and evaluated by the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) assay. Test reproducibility and 95% limit of detection of SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0 were determined across three different lots for seven consecutive days in triplicate. Interference due to autoantibodies and pregnancy was also tested. Percent agreement between SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0 and TPPA assays was 99.2%. Sensitivity and specificity were 100%, respectively. In TPPA assay, test-to-test, day-to-day, and lot-to-lot variations were not identified until 1:320 titer (eightfold dilutions). There was no interference due to the presence of antinuclear antibodies or samples or pregnancy. Percent agreement of SD Syphilis 3.0 and TPPA was very good. Sensitivity and specificity were appropriate for T. pallidum antibody detection. Thus, a rapid ICT could be suitable for syphilis antibody detection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The use of the rapid osmotic fragility test as an additional test to diagnose canine immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paes, Geert; Paepe, Dominique; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    hyperlipemic dogs (group 3), 10 dogs with lymphoma (group 4), 8 dogs with an infection (group 5) and 13 healthy dogs (group 6) were included. In all dogs, blood smear examination, in-saline auto-agglutination test, Coombs' test, COFT and ROFT were performed. In the COFT, OF5, OF50 and OF90 were defined......Background: Diagnosing canine immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) is often challenging because all currently available tests have their limitations. Dogs with IMHA often have an increased erythrocyte osmotic fragility (OF), a characteristic that is sometimes used in the diagnosis of IMHA....... Since the classic osmotic fragility test (COFT) is time-consuming and requires specialized equipment, an easy and less labour-intensive rapid osmotic fragility test (ROFT) has been used in some countries, but its diagnostic value has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to evaluate erythrocyte...

  8. Testing the white matter retrogenesis hypothesis of cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, Adam M; Meier, Irene B; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Provenzano, Frank A; Grieve, Stuart M; Siedlecki, Karen L; Wasserman, Ben T; Williams, Leanne M; Zimmerman, Molly E

    2012-08-01

    The retrogenesis hypothesis postulates that late-myelinated white matter fibers are most vulnerable to age- and disease-related degeneration, which in turn mediate cognitive decline. While recent evidence supports this hypothesis in the context of Alzheimer's disease, it has not been tested systematically in normal cognitive aging. In the current study, we examined the retrogenesis hypothesis in a group (n = 282) of cognitively normal individuals, ranging in age from 7 to 87 years, from the Brain Resource International Database. Participants were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and were imaged with diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (DA), measures of white matter coherence, were computed in 2 prototypical early-myelinated fiber tracts (posterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebral peduncles) and 2 prototypical late-myelinated fiber tracts (superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus) chosen to parallel previous studies; mean summary values were also computed for other early- and late-myelinated fiber tracts. We examined age-associated differences in FA, RD, and DA in the developmental trajectory (ages 7-30 years) and degenerative trajectory (ages 31-87 years), and tested whether the measures of white matter coherence mediated age-related cognitive decline in the older group. FA and DA values were greater for early-myelinated fibers than for late-myelinated fibers, and RD values were lower for early-myelinated than late-myelinated fibers. There were age-associated differences in FA, RD, and DA across early- and late-myelinated fiber tracts in the younger group, but the magnitude of differences did not vary as a function of early or late myelinating status. FA and RD in most fiber tracts showed reliable age-associated differences in the older age group, but the magnitudes were greatest for the late-myelinated tract summary measure, inferior

  9. Evaluation of Xenostrip-Tv, a rapid diagnostic test for Trichomonas vaginalis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, A; Lewis, J; Ballard, R C

    2004-08-01

    An immunochromatographic strip test, Xenostrip-Tv, was compared to wet mount and PCR for the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in women. Of 428 specimens tested, 54 (12.6%) were positive by an "expanded gold standard," defined as either a positive wet mount and PCR test with primers TVK3 and TVK7 and/or a positive PCR test confirmed by a second PCR assay with primers TVA5-1 and TVA6; 26 (6%) were positive by wet mount, and 36 (8.4%) were positive by Xenostrip-Tv test. Since the Xenostrip-Tv test is rapid and easy to perform and proved to be more sensitive than wet mount, it should be considered as an alternative to wet mount for point-of-care diagnosis of trichomoniasis, especially in settings where microscopy is impractical.

  10. Acceptability of rapid oral fluid HIV testing among male injection drug users in Taiwan, 1997 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Shu-Yu; Morisky, Donald E; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Twu, Shiing-Jer; Peng, Eugene Yu-Chang; Malow, Robert M

    2011-04-01

    Rapid oral fluid HIV testing (rapid oral testing) is in the process of being adapted in Taiwan and elsewhere given its advantages over prior HIV testing methods. To guide this process, we examined the acceptability of rapid oral testing at two time points (i.e., 1997 and 2007) among one of the highest risk populations, male injection drug users (IDUs). For this purpose, an anonymous self-administered survey was completed by HIV-negative IDUs involved in the criminal justice system in 1997 (N (1)=137 parolees) and 2007 (N (2)=106 prisoners). A social marketing model helped guide the design of our questionnaire to assess the acceptability of rapid oral testing. This included assessing a new product, across four marketing dimensions: product, price, promotion, and place. Results revealed that in both 1997 and 2007, over 90% indicated that rapid oral testing would be highly acceptable, particularly if the cost was under US$6, and that a pharmacy would be the most appropriate and accessible venue for selling the rapid oral testing kits. The vast majority of survey respondents believed that the cost of rapid oral testing should be federally subsidized and that television and newspaper advertisements would be the most effective media to advertise for rapid oral testing. Both the 1997 and 2007 surveys suggested that rapid oral HIV testing would be particularly accepted in Taiwan by IDUs after release from the criminal justice system.

  11. Performance of an oral fluid rapid HIV-1/2 test: experience from four CDC studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Kevin P; Branson, Bernard M; Uniyal, Apurva; Kerndt, Peter R; Keenan, Patrick A; Jafa, Krishna; Gardner, Ann D; Jamieson, Denise J; Bulterys, Marc

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the performance of a rapid HIV antibody test used with whole blood and oral fluid in settings where the test is likely to be used. In four separate studies, we compared the accuracy of the rapid test performed on whole blood and oral fluid specimens with the results of conventional HIV tests. Oral fluid and whole blood from persons of unknown HIV status recruited from clinics, labor and delivery units, and outreach venues were tested with the OraQuick Advance rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test. Sensitivity and specificity were compared with results of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Western blot algorithm used by the study sites. OraQuick sensitivity was 99.7% with whole blood and 99.1% with oral fluid from 327 persons who were HIV antibody positive by the conventional algorithm. OraQuick specificity was 99.9% with whole blood and 99.6% with oral fluid from 12 010 HIV-negative persons; EIA specificity was 99.7%. A cluster of 16 false-positive oral fluid tests occurred in one study, in which specificity was lower (99.0%) than in the other three studies (99.6-99.8%). In diverse settings in four studies, the OraQuick test showed high sensitivity and specificity for HIV antibody in whole blood and oral fluid specimens. Slightly more false-positive and false-negative results occurred with oral fluid than with whole blood, but performance with both specimen types was similar to, or better than, that of conventional EIAs.

  12. Evaluation of rapid tests for anti-HIV detection in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Junior, Orlando C; Ferreira, Cristine; Riedel, Maristela; Widolin, Marcya Regina Visinoni; Barbosa-Júnior, Aristides

    2005-10-01

    This assessment in Brazil was to evaluate the performance of commercially available HIV rapid test (RT) against the gold standard testing and to establish a highly sensitive and specific RT algorithm for HIV diagnosis. A prospective, anonymous and unlinked study. An evaluation of seven commercially available RT to compare their performance against the gold standard tests for Brazil. This includes two competing enzyme immunoassays plus a Western blot for confirmation. After informed consent, whole blood samples were collected from volunteers in voluntary counselling and testing sites (n = 400), antenatal clinics (n = 500) and from HIV-positive controls in AIDS treatment centres (n = 200). Two seroconversion panels, one HIV-1 subtype (B, B', C and F) panel and an operational assay performance evaluation were also part of the study parameters. For the seven RT the clinical sensitivity ranged from 97.74 to 100% and clinical specificity from 99.43 to 100%. However, only four RT were considered acceptable after full evaluation. The two EIA had a clinical sensitivity of 100% and clinical specificity of 99.32 and 99.66%. Two RT had the same performance on the seroconversions panels as the EIA. The operational assay performance evaluation for the RT indicated that Hexagon and Capillus could not be classified as simple assays. We have provided evidence that RT assays can perform equally or better than EIA for the detection of HIV antibodies. The simplicity and rapidity of the RT warrants its utilization in an algorithm for a rapid diagnosis of HIV infection.

  13. Rapid diagnostic testing for community-acquired pneumonia: can innovative technology for clinical microbiology be exploited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Victor L; Stout, Janet E

    2009-12-01

    Two nonsynchronous events have affected the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): spiraling empiricism for CAP and the "golden era" of clinical microbiology. The development of broad-spectrum antibiotics has led to widespread empiric use without ascertaining the etiology of the infecting microbe. Unfortunately, this approach clashes with the second event, which is the advent of molecular-based microbiology that can identify the causative pathogen rapidly at the point of care. The urinary antigen is a most effective rapid test that has allowed targeted therapy for Legionnaire disease at the point of care. The high specificity (> 90%) allows the clinician to administer appropriate anti-Legionella therapy based on a single rapid test; however, its low sensitivity (76%) means that a notable number of cases of Legionnaire disease will go undiagnosed if other tests, especially culture, are not performed. Further, culture for Legionella is not readily available. If a culture is not performed, epidemiologic identification of the source of the bacterium cannot be ascertained by molecular fingerprinting of the patient and the putative source strain. We recommend resurrection of the basic principles of infectious disease, which are to identify the microbial etiology of the infection and to use narrow, targeted antimicrobial therapy. To reduce antimicrobial overuse with subsequent antimicrobial resistance, these basic principles must be applied in concert with traditional and newer tests in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

  14. Are participants in a street-based HIV testing program able to perform their own rapid test and interpret the results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis de la Fuente

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Availability of over-the-counter rapid HIV tests could improve access to testing those reluctant or unable to use current services. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of HIV self-testing using a finger-stick whole-blood rapid test (Determine™ HIV Combo to detect both antigen and antibody. METHODS: Before being tested, 313 participants in a street-based testing program were given adapted instructions and a test kit, and performed the self-test without supervision. These participants, together with another 207 who performed supervised self-testing, received additional instructions on how to interpret the test results shown in six colour photos and filled out a questionnaire. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: About 8.0% (95%CI:4.8%-11.2% obtained an invalid self-test. An invalid result was inversely associated with male participants who had sex with men (OR=0.3;95%CI:0.1-1.0. Of the 3111 photos interpreted,4.9% (95%CI:4.1-5.7 were incorrect. Only 1.1% (95%CI:0.3-1.8 of the positive results were interpreted as negative. Age 30 or older (OR=2.1; 95%CI:1.2-3.7, having been born in Latin America (OR=1.6; 95%CI:1.1-2.2,and not having university education (OR=2.1;95%CI:1.2-3.7 were associated with misinterpreting test results in the GEE. Participant's perceptions of both their proficiency when conducting the test and interpretation were related with actual outcomes. Most participants (83.9% were more motivated than before to use the self-test in the future, and 51.7% would pay >10 Euros for the test if it was sold in pharmacies. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study showing that blood-based self-testing with current technology is feasible in HIV-negative participants demanding the test and without prior training or supervision. Bearing in mind that it was conducted under difficult weather conditions and using a complex kit, over-the-counter tests could be a feasible

  15. Are participants in a street-based HIV testing program able to perform their own rapid test and interpret the results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Luis; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Hoyos, Juan; Pulido, José; Santos, Sara; Bravo, María José; Barrio, Gregorio; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; Belza, María José

    2012-01-01

    Availability of over-the-counter rapid HIV tests could improve access to testing those reluctant or unable to use current services. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of HIV self-testing using a finger-stick whole-blood rapid test (Determine™ HIV Combo) to detect both antigen and antibody. Before being tested, 313 participants in a street-based testing program were given adapted instructions and a test kit, and performed the self-test without supervision. These participants, together with another 207 who performed supervised self-testing, received additional instructions on how to interpret the test results shown in six colour photos and filled out a questionnaire. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used in the statistical analysis. About 8.0% (95%CI:4.8%-11.2%) obtained an invalid self-test. An invalid result was inversely associated with male participants who had sex with men (OR=0.3;95%CI:0.1-1.0). Of the 3111 photos interpreted,4.9% (95%CI:4.1-5.7) were incorrect. Only 1.1% (95%CI:0.3-1.8) of the positive results were interpreted as negative. Age 30 or older (OR=2.1; 95%CI:1.2-3.7), having been born in Latin America (OR=1.6; 95%CI:1.1-2.2),and not having university education (OR=2.1;95%CI:1.2-3.7) were associated with misinterpreting test results in the GEE. Participant's perceptions of both their proficiency when conducting the test and interpretation were related with actual outcomes. Most participants (83.9%) were more motivated than before to use the self-test in the future, and 51.7% would pay >10 Euros for the test if it was sold in pharmacies. This is the first study showing that blood-based self-testing with current technology is feasible in HIV-negative participants demanding the test and without prior training or supervision. Bearing in mind that it was conducted under difficult weather conditions and using a complex kit, over-the-counter tests could be a feasible option to complement current diagnostic strategies

  16. Treatment guided by rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in Tanzanian children: safety and alternative bacterial diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sykes Alma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WHO guidelines for the treatment of young children with suspected malaria have recently changed from presumptive treatment to anti-malarial treatment guided by a blood slide or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT. However, there is limited evidence of the safety of this policy in routine outpatient settings in Africa. Methods Children 3-59 months of age with a non-severe febrile illness and no obvious cause were enrolled over a period of one year in a malaria endemic area of Tanzania. Treatment was determined by the results of a clinical examination and RDT result, and blood culture and serum lactate were also collected. RDT-negative children were followed up over 14 days. Results Over the course of one year, 965 children were enrolled; 158 (16.4% were RDT-positive and treated with artemether-lumefantrine and 807 (83.4% were RDT-negative and treated with non-anti-malarial medicines. Compared with RDT-positives, RDT-negative children were on average younger with a lower axillary temperature and more likely to have a history of cough or difficulty in breathing. Six (0.6% children became RDT-positive after enrolment, all of whom were PCR-negative for Plasmodium falciparum DNA at enrolment. In addition, 12 (1.2% children were admitted to hospital, one with possible malaria, none of whom died. A bacterial pathogen was identified in 9/965 (0.9% children, eight of whom were RDT-negative and one was RDT-positive, but slide-negative. Excluding three children with Salmonella typhi, all of the children with bacteraemia were ≤12 months of age. Compared to double-read research slide results RDTs had a sensitivity of 97.8% (95%CI 96.9-98.7 and specificity of 96.3% (95%CI 96.3-98.4. Conclusions Use of RDTs to direct the use of anti-malarial drugs in young children did not result in any missed diagnoses of malaria although new infections soon after a consultation with a negative RDT result may undermine confidence in results. Invasive

  17. Aging of vestibular function evaluated using correlational vestibular autorotation test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh LC

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Li-Chun Hsieh,1,2 Hung-Ching Lin,2,3 Guo-She Lee4,5 1Institute of Brain Science, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Otolaryngology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Audiology and Speech Language Pathology, Mackay Memorial Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Otolaryngology, Taipei City Hospital, Ren-Ai Branch, Taipei, Taiwan Background: Imbalance from degeneration of vestibular end organs is a common problem in the elderly. However, the decline of vestibular function with aging was revealed in few vestibular function tests such as vestibular autorotation test (VAT. In the current VAT, there are drawbacks of poor test–retest reliability, slippage of the sensor at high-speed rotations, and limited data about the effect of aging. We developed a correlational-VAT (cVAT system that included a small, light sensor (less than 20 g with wireless data transmission technique to evaluate the aging of vestibular function. Material and methods: We enrolled 53 healthy participants aged between 25 and 75 years and divided them into five age groups. The test conditions were vertical and horizontal head autorotations of frequencies from 0 to 3 Hz with closed eyes or open eyes. The cross-correlation coefficient (CCC between eye velocity and head velocity was obtained for the head autorotations between 1 Hz and 3 Hz. The mean of the CCCs was used to represent the vestibular function. Results: Age was significantly and negatively correlated with the mean CCC for all test conditions, including horizontal or vertical autorotations with open eyes or closed eyes (P<0.05. The mean CCC with open eyes declined significantly at 55–65 years old and the mean CCC with closed eyes declined significantly at 65–75 years old.Conclusion: Vestibular function evaluated using mean CCC revealed a decline with

  18. Accuracy and user-acceptability of HIV self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oon Tek Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The United States FDA approved an over-the-counter HIV self-test, to facilitate increased HIV testing and earlier linkage to care. We assessed the accuracy of self-testing by untrained participants compared to healthcare worker (HCW testing, participants' ability to interpret sample results and user-acceptability of self-tests in Singapore. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study, involving 200 known HIV-positive patients and 794 unknown HIV status at-risk participants was conducted. Participants (all without prior self-test experience performed self-testing guided solely by visual instructions, followed by HCW testing, both using the OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV 1/2 Antibody Test, with both results interpreted by the HCW. To assess ability to interpret results, participants were provided 3 sample results (positive, negative, and invalid to interpret. Of 192 participants who tested positive on HCW testing, self-testing was positive in 186 (96.9%, negative in 5 (2.6%, and invalid in 1 (0.5%. Of 794 participants who tested negative on HCW testing, self-testing was negative in 791 (99.6%, positive in 1 (0.1%, and invalid in 2 (0.3%. Excluding invalid tests, self-testing had sensitivity of 97.4% (95% CI 95.1% to 99.7% and specificity of 99.9% (95% CI: 99.6% to 100%. When interpreting results, 96%, 93.1% and 95.2% correctly read the positive, negative and invalid respectively. There were no significant demographic predictors for false negative self-testing or wrongly interpreting positive or invalid sample results as negative. Eighty-seven percent would purchase the kit over-the-counter; 89% preferred to take HIV tests in private. 72.5% and 74.9% felt the need for pre- and post-test counseling respectively. Only 28% would pay at least USD15 for the test. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-testing was associated with high specificity, and a small but significant number of false negatives. Incorrectly identifying model results as

  19. Accuracy and user-acceptability of HIV self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Oon Tek; Chow, Angela L; Lee, Vernon J; Chen, Mark I C; Win, Mar Kyaw; Tan, Hiok Hee; Chua, Arlene; Leo, Yee Sin

    2012-01-01

    The United States FDA approved an over-the-counter HIV self-test, to facilitate increased HIV testing and earlier linkage to care. We assessed the accuracy of self-testing by untrained participants compared to healthcare worker (HCW) testing, participants' ability to interpret sample results and user-acceptability of self-tests in Singapore. A cross-sectional study, involving 200 known HIV-positive patients and 794 unknown HIV status at-risk participants was conducted. Participants (all without prior self-test experience) performed self-testing guided solely by visual instructions, followed by HCW testing, both using the OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV 1/2 Antibody Test, with both results interpreted by the HCW. To assess ability to interpret results, participants were provided 3 sample results (positive, negative, and invalid) to interpret. Of 192 participants who tested positive on HCW testing, self-testing was positive in 186 (96.9%), negative in 5 (2.6%), and invalid in 1 (0.5%). Of 794 participants who tested negative on HCW testing, self-testing was negative in 791 (99.6%), positive in 1 (0.1%), and invalid in 2 (0.3%). Excluding invalid tests, self-testing had sensitivity of 97.4% (95% CI 95.1% to 99.7%) and specificity of 99.9% (95% CI: 99.6% to 100%). When interpreting results, 96%, 93.1% and 95.2% correctly read the positive, negative and invalid respectively. There were no significant demographic predictors for false negative self-testing or wrongly interpreting positive or invalid sample results as negative. Eighty-seven percent would purchase the kit over-the-counter; 89% preferred to take HIV tests in private. 72.5% and 74.9% felt the need for pre- and post-test counseling respectively. Only 28% would pay at least USD15 for the test. Self-testing was associated with high specificity, and a small but significant number of false negatives. Incorrectly identifying model results as invalid was a major reason for incorrect result interpretation. Survey

  20. Rapid urinary trypsinogen-2 test strip in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Chen, Chun-Chia; Wang, Sun-Sang; Chang, Full-Young; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2005-04-01

    Early diagnosis of acute pancreatitis remains a challenge. A rapid dipstick screening test for acute pancreatitis has been developed. This prospective study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic value and time course of the rapid urinary trypsinogen-2 test strip in acute pancreatitis, with comparisons with serum amylase and serum lipase. A total of 165 patients with acute abdominal pain (67 with acute pancreatitis and 98 with other acute abdominal diseases) attending our emergency unit were included. All patients were tested with the urinary trypsinogen-2 test strip, and serum amylase and serum lipase concentrations were determined simultaneously. To measure the time course of the urinary trypsinogen-2 test, 32 patients with acute pancreatitis were tested with a urinary trypsinogen-2 test strip on days 1, 2, 3, and 4 after admission. Using a cutoff level of 50 microg/L for urinary trypsinogen-2, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the urinary trypsinogen-2 test strip for recognition of acute pancreatitis were 89.6%, 85.7%, and 87.3%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy rates of serum amylase and serum lipase were 88.5% and 93.3%, using cutoff values of 3 times the upper normal limits for serum amylase and serum lipase, respectively. All but one of the 17 patients with severe acute pancreatitis was detected by the test strip (sensitivity, 94.1%). The time-course study of the urinary trypsinogen-2 test strip revealed that the sensitivity on days 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 90.6%, 81.2%, 59.4%, and 50%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity between urinary trypsinogen-2 and serum lipase; however, the sensitivity values of serum lipase were significantly higher than those of serum amylase from days 1 to 4. The rapid urinary trypsinogen-2 test is a reliable and simple method for the early diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. A positive test identifies patients in need of further diagnostic measures. The urinary trypsinogen-2 test can be

  1. Does rapid HIV testing result in an early diagnosis and reduce the waiting time for patients to receive medical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Magaly Carvalho Vieira de; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Falcão, Ilka Veras; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of rapid HIV testing in Brazil began in 2006 for specific groups, and from 2009 was extended to the Counseling and Testing Centers (CTC) in certain Brazilian capitals. The aim of this study was to compare two groups of individuals: those diagnosed with HIV infection by conventional testing and those diagnosed with rapid testing, with respect to: the waiting time before receiving medical care, the time of the first laboratory tests and the virological, immune and clinical status. This is a cross-sectional study to compare a group with individuals diagnosed by conventional testing (2006-2008) and another with those diagnosed by rapid testing (2010-2011).The median time between blood collection and diagnosis of HIV in the conventional test group was 76 days, while in the rapid test group 94.2% of the subjects received their results on the same day of blood collection (p test group, the median period of time before the first consultation with an infectious disease specialist was 99 days, and for the rapid test group the time was 14 days (p test group (p test group (472) was higher than in the conventional test group (397) (p = 0.01). The introduction of rapid HIV testing as a diagnostic strategy has reduced the waiting times for medical care and laboratory tests and also allowed earlier diagnosis of HIV infection than with the conventional test.

  2. Rapid maxillary expansion screws on the test bench--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchitsch, Alfred Peter; Wendl, B; Winsauer, H; Pichelmayer, M; Payer, M

    2011-06-01

    In order to apply high, short-term forces during rapid maxillary expansion (RME) to the sutures of the maxilla with minimum loss of force and without causing unwanted side-effects (dentoalveolar tipping, etc.), the appliance should be as rigid as possible. The retention arms of the RME screws, representing a particularly vulnerable and stressed weak point of RME appliances, were the focus of this laboratory technical study. Retention arms of 16 types of RME screws comprising four arms and one with eight arms were examined using a three-point bending test. According to their ability to absorb the applied bending loads, the screws were classified in product groups from 1 (highest) to 6 (lowest). Fifteen of the tested retention arms (stainless steel), despite having the same diameter (1.48-1.49 mm), differed up to 69.81 per cent between the highest (288.0 N) and lowest (169.6 N) maximum force parameters and up to 66.40 per cent between the highest (3325.9 N/mm(2)) and lowest (1998.7 N/mm(2)) maximum bending stress parameters. Due to optimum formability, though reduced rigidity, a titanium screw for nickel-sensitive patients (group 6) displayed the lowest force and bending tension values. The stainless steel double arms of the eight-arm screw device welded on both ends displayed the highest force data. The mean ductilities of the groups with the most and least rigid single steel arms differed by 22.77 per cent. Statistical analysis using the Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significant indirect correlation between ductility and both maximum force (r = -0.780, P < 0.001) and maximum bending stress (r = -0.778, P < 0.001). The SUPERscrews, the Tiger Dental four-arm screw (group 1), and the eight-arm screw displayed the highest capacity to absorb an applied bending load. The screws in groups 3-6 appear acceptable for RME during the pre-pubertal period, whereas in the pubertal and post-pubertal period, groups 1 and 2 are sufficient. In early adulthood only the

  3. Multifrequency excitation method for rapid and accurate dynamic test of micromachined gyroscope chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Zhou, Bin; Xing, Chao; Zhang, Rong

    2014-10-17

    A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE) method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE) method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and 600-Hz bandwidth was dramatically reduced from 10 min to 6 s. A multifrequency signal with an equal amplitude and initial linear-phase-difference distribution was generated to ensure test repeatability and accuracy. The current test system based on LabVIEW using the SFE method was modified to use the MFE method without any hardware changes. The experimental results verified that the MFE method can be an ideal solution for large-scale dynamic testing of gyroscope chips and gyroscopes.

  4. An under-recognized influenza epidemic identified by rapid influenza testing, southern Sri Lanka, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillekeratne, L Gayani; Bodinayake, Champica K; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Vidanagama, Dhammika; Devasiri, Vasantha; Arachchi, Wasantha Kodikara; Kurukulasooriya, Ruvini; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan; Østybe, Truls; Reller, Megan E; Woods, Christopher W

    2015-05-01

    Influenza accounts for a large burden of acute respiratory tract infections in high-income countries; data from lower-income settings are limited due to lack of confirmatory testing. Consecutive outpatients presenting to the largest tertiary care hospital in southern Sri Lanka were surveyed for influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as acute onset of fever ≥ 38.0°C and cough. Patients were administered a questionnaire and nasal/nasopharyngeal sampling for rapid influenza A/B testing. We enrolled 311 patients with ILI from March to November 2013: 170 (54.7%) children and 172 (55.3%) males. Approximately half (147, 47.3%) tested positive for influenza, but 253 (81.4%) were prescribed antibiotics. On bivariable analysis, symptoms associated with influenza included pain with breathing (P testing to identify an influenza epidemic in a setting in which testing is not routinely available. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Multifrequency Excitation Method for Rapid and Accurate Dynamic Test of Micromachined Gyroscope Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Deng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and 600-Hz bandwidth was dramatically reduced from 10 min to 6 s. A multifrequency signal with an equal amplitude and initial linear-phase-difference distribution was generated to ensure test repeatability and accuracy. The current test system based on LabVIEW using the SFE method was modified to use the MFE method without any hardware changes. The experimental results verified that the MFE method can be an ideal solution for large-scale dynamic testing of gyroscope chips and gyroscopes.

  6. Implementation of broad screening with Ebola rapid diagnostic tests in Forécariah, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantz Jean Louis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory-enhanced surveillance is critical for rapidly detecting the potential re-emergence of Ebola virus disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for Ebola antigens could expand diagnostic capacity for Ebola virus disease.Objectives: The Guinean National Coordination for Ebola Response conducted a pilot implementation to determine the feasibility of broad screening of patients and corpses with the OraQuick® Ebola RDT.Methods: The implementation team developed protocols and trained healthcare workers to screen patients and corpses in Forécariah prefecture, Guinea, from 15 October to 30 November 2015. Data collected included number of consultations, number of fevers reported or measured, number of tests performed for patients or corpses and results of confirmatory RT-PCR testing. Data on malaria RDT results were collected for comparison. Feedback from Ebola RDT users was collected informally during supervision visits and forums.Results: There were 3738 consultations at the 15 selected healthcare facilities; 74.6% of consultations were for febrile illness. Among 2787 eligible febrile patients, 2633 were tested for malaria and 1628 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were performed. A total of 322 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were conducted on corpses. All Ebola tests on eligible patients were negative.Conclusions: Access to Ebola testing was expanded by the implementation of RDTs in an emergency situation. Feedback from Ebola RDT users and lessons learned will contribute to improving quality for RDT expansion.

  7. Reliable screening for acute pancreatitis with rapid urine trypsinogen-2 test strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylänpää-Bäck, M; Kemppainen, E; Puolakkainen, P; Hedström, J; Haapiainen, R; Perhoniemi, V; Kivilaakso, E; Korvuo, A; Stenman, U

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the validity of a new rapid urinary trypsinogen-2 test strip (Actim Pancreatitis) for detection of acute pancreatitis in patients with acute abdominal pain. A total of 525 consecutive patients presenting with abdominal pain at two emergency units was included prospectively and tested with the Actim Pancreatitis test strip. Urine trypsinogen-2 concentrations were also determined by a quantitative method. The diagnosis and assessment of severity of acute pancreatitis was based on raised serum and urinary amylase levels, clinical features and findings on dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography. In 45 patients the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis could be established. The Actim Pancreatitis test strip result was positive in 43 of them resulting in a sensitivity of 96 per cent. Thirty-seven false-positive Actim Pancreatitis test strips were obtained in patients with non-pancreatic abdominal pain resulting in a specificity of 92 per cent. Nine patients with severe acute pancreatitis were all detected by the dipstick. A negative Actim Pancreatitis strip result excludes acute pancreatitis with high probability. Positive results indicate the need for further evaluation, i.e. other enzyme measurements and/or radiological examinations. The test is easy and rapid to perform, unequivocal in its interpretation and can be used in healthcare units lacking laboratory facilities.

  8. Implementation of broad screening with Ebola rapid diagnostic tests in Forécariah, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantz Jean Louis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory-enhanced surveillance is critical for rapidly detecting the potential re-emergence of Ebola virus disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for Ebola antigens could expand diagnostic capacity for Ebola virus disease. Objectives: The Guinean National Coordination for Ebola Response conducted a pilot implementation to determine the feasibility of broad screening of patients and corpses with the OraQuick® Ebola RDT. Methods: The implementation team developed protocols and trained healthcare workers to screen patients and corpses in Forécariah prefecture, Guinea, from 15 October to 30 November 2015. Data collected included number of consultations, number of fevers reported or measured, number of tests performed for patients or corpses and results of confirmatory RT-PCR testing. Data on malaria RDT results were collected for comparison. Feedback from Ebola RDT users was collected informally during supervision visits and forums. Results: There were 3738 consultations at the 15 selected healthcare facilities; 74.6% of consultations were for febrile illness. Among 2787 eligible febrile patients, 2633 were tested for malaria and 1628 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were performed. A total of 322 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were conducted on corpses. All Ebola tests on eligible patients were negative. Conclusions: Access to Ebola testing was expanded by the implementation of RDTs in an emergency situation. Feedback from Ebola RDT users and lessons learned will contribute to improving quality for RDT expansion.

  9. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis : Its utility in resource poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poojary A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the rapid colorimetric nitrate reductase based antibiotic susceptibility (CONRAS test performed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with the conventional method i.e., the proportion method. Methods: One hundred clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were tested for susceptibility to isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RIF by the conventional proportion method and CONRAS in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid medium enriched with growth supplements (MB7H9S. Results: The performance of the CONRAS test was evaluated using proportion method as the gold standard. The sensitivity (ability to detect true drug resistance and specificity (ability to detect true drug susceptibility of the CONRAS test to INH was 93.75 and 98.52% and for RIF it was 96.10 and 100% respectively. The mean time for reporting was 6.3 days and the test showed excellent reproducibility. The kappa (k value for INH was 0.92 and for RIF was 0.99, indicating excellent agreement between the two methods. Conclusions: CONRAS test is a rapid and reliable method of drug susceptibility for M. tuberculosis.

  10. Field accuracy of fourth-generation rapid diagnostic tests for acute HIV-1: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Joseph M; MacPherson, Peter; Adams, Emily R.; Ochodo, Eleanor; Sands, Anita; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fourth-generation HIV-1 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect HIV-1 p24 antigen to screen for acute HIV-1. However, diagnostic accuracy during clinical use may be suboptimal. Methods: Clinical sensitivity and specificity of fourth-generation RDTs for acute HIV-1 were collated from field evaluation studies in adults identified by a systematic literature search. Results: Four studies with 17?381 participants from Australia, Swaziland, the United Kingdom and Malawi were identified. ...

  11. Dried Plasmodium falciparum-infected samples as positive controls for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    OpenAIRE

    Aidoo Michael; Patel Jaymin C; Barnwell John W

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are central to fulfilling the WHO’s recommendation for parasitologic confirmation of all suspected cases of malaria. RDT performance may be compromised when exposed to the high temperature conditions typical of most malaria endemic regions. However, a systematic method to monitor RDT quality and performance in endemic countries is lacking at the present time. Current methods to monitor RDT performance in the field include comparing results fro...

  12. [Rapid-tests detection evaluation of Clostridium difficile toxins and microbiological investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Risa; Iinuma, Yoshitsugu; Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Shirano, Michinori; Matsushima, Aki; Nagao, Miki; Saito, Takashi; Takakura, Shunji; Ito, Yutaka; Higuchi, Takeshi; Tanaka, Michio; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated two rapid toxin tests for C. difficile combined with stool specimen cultures used from January 2006 to March 2009. Stool specimens numbered 877, 102 among which were from the cases of diagnosed clinical C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). Rapid toxin A 'Uniquick' detection kits were used until October 2007 and toxin A&B 'TOX A/B' detection kits thereafter. Clinical CDAD was considered the detection gold standard. Uniquick sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 54.3%, 99.1%, 90.5%, and 93.2% while those for TOX A/B were 46.2%, 97.6%, 65.2%, and 95.0% and for culture 42.2%, 95.5%, 55.1%, and 92.6%. Rapid toxin tests tended to have better sensitivity than culture results although not significantly so, and Uniquick showed significantly better positive predictive value than TOX A/B or culture results. Among clinical CDAD cases, concordance with culture was 24.3% for Uniquick and 53.1% for TOX A/B. For stored strains, 27 were typed toxin A+B+ (48.1%), toxin A-B+ (37.0%) and toxin A-B- (14.8%) with toxin gene detection by PCR. Eight of the 10 toxin A-B+ strains were classified into two cluster by ribotyping, and 7 of those were detected in two hospital wards, indicated the possibility of nosocomial toxin A-B+ strain spread. The rapid toxin test for both toxins A and B should be used if toxin A-B+ predominate. Simultaneous culture testing may be useful for detecting clinical CDAD more accurately, however.

  13. Operational response to malaria epidemics: are rapid diagnostic tests cost-effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, E; Checchi, F; Pinoges, L.; Balkan, S; Guthmann, J P; Guerin, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-effectiveness of malaria treatment based on presumptive diagnosis with that of malaria treatment based on rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). METHODS: We calculated direct costs (based on experience from Ethiopia and southern Sudan) and effectiveness (in terms of reduced over-treatment) of a free, decentralised treatment programme using artesunate plus amodiaquine (AS + AQ) or artemether-lumefantrine (ART-LUM) in a Plasmodium falciparum epidemic. Our main cost-effect...

  14. Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test based on simple surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Ying Liu; Yin-Yi Han; Po-Han Shih; Wei-Nan Lian; Huai-Hsien Wang; Chi-Hung Lin; Po-Ren Hsueh; Juen-Kai Wang; Yuh-Lin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurement are important to help reduce the widespread misuse of antibiotics and alleviate the growing drug-resistance problem. We discovered that, when a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli is exposed to an antibiotic, the intensity of specific biomarkers in its surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra drops evidently in two hours. The discovery has been exploi...

  15. Evaluation of BacLite Rapid MRSA, a rapid culture based screening test for the detection of ciprofloxacin and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA from screening swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyrme Margaret

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. The need for accurate and rapid screening methods to detect MRSA carriers has been clearly established. The performance of a novel assay, BacLite Rapid MRSA (Acolyte Biomedica, UK for the rapid detection (5 h and identification of hospital associated ciprofloxacin resistant strains of MRSA directly from nasal swab specimens was compared to that obtained by culture on Mannitol salt agar containing Oxacillin (MSAO after 48 h incubation. Results A total of 1382 nasal screening swabs were tested by multiple operators. The BacLite Rapid MRSA test detected 142 out of the 157 confirmed MRSA that were detected on MSAO giving a diagnostic sensitivity of 90.4, diagnostic specificity of 95.7% and a negative predictive value of 98.7%. Of the 15 false negatives obtained by the BacLite Rapid MRSA test, seven grew small amounts ( Conclusion The Baclite MRSA test is easy to use and provides a similar level of sensitivity to conventional culture for the detection of nasal carriage of MRSA with the advantage that the results are obtained much more rapidly.

  16. Field evaluation of a dual rapid diagnostic test for HIV infection and syphilis in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Claire C; Leon, Segundo R; Huang, Emily; Brown, Brandon J; Ramos, Lourdes B; Vargas, Silver K; Flores, Juan A; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-05-01

    Screening for HIV and syphilis in key populations is recommended by the WHO to reduce the morbidity, mortality and transmission associated with undiagnosed and untreated infections. Rapid point-of-care tests that can detect multiple infections with a single fingerprick whole blood specimen using a single device are gaining popularity. We evaluated the field performance of a rapid dual HIV and syphilis test in people at high risk of HIV and syphilis infections. Participants included men who have sex with men and transgender women recruited in Lima, Peru. Reference standard testing for detection of HIV and syphilis infections, conducted using blood samples from venipuncture, included Treponema pallidum particle agglutination and fourth-generation HIV enzyme immunoassay for which positive results had a confirmation HIV Western blot test. For the evaluation test, SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test (Standard Diagnostics, Korea), a fingerprick blood specimen was used. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and the exact binomial method was used to determine 95% CIs. A total of 415 participants were recruited for the study. The dual test sensitivity for detection of T. pallidum infection was 89.2% (95% CI 83.5% to 93.5%) and specificity 98.8% (95% CI 96.5% to 99.8%). For detection of HIV infection, the sensitivity of the dual test was 99.1% (95% CI 94.8% to 100%) and specificity 99.4% (95% CI 97.7% to 99.9%). This high performing dual test should be considered for the use in clinical settings to increase uptake of simultaneous testing of HIV and syphilis and accelerate time to treatment for those who need it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Comparison of rapid diagnostic tests to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis disseminated infection in bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Tajbakhsh, Samaneh; Mosavari, Nader

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis in cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants. The presence of MAP in tissues other than intestines and associated lymph nodes, such as meat and liver, is a potential public health concern. In the present study, the relationship between the results of rapid diagnostic tests of the Johne's disease, such as serum ELISA, rectal scraping PCR, and acid-fast staining, and the presence of MAP in liver was evaluated. Blood, liver, and rectal scraping samples were collected from 200 slaughtered cattle with unknown Johne's disease status. ELISA was performed to determine the MAP antibody activity in the serum. Acid-fast staining was performed on rectal scraping samples, and PCR was performed on rectal scraping and liver samples. PCR-positive liver samples were used for mycobacterial culture. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that MAP can be detected and cultured from liver of slaughtered cattle and rapid diagnostic tests of Johne's disease have limited value in detecting cattle with MAP infection in liver. These findings show that the presence of MAP in liver tissue may occur in cows with negative results for rapid diagnostic tests and vice versa. Hence, liver might represent another possible risk of human exposure to MAP. Given concerns about a potential zoonotic role for MAP, these results show the necessity to find new methods for detecting cattle with MAP disseminated infection.

  18. GSMA: Gene Set Matrix Analysis, An Automated Method for Rapid Hypothesis Testing of Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Cheadle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microarray technology has become highly valuable for identifying complex global changes in gene expression patterns. The assignment of functional information to these complex patterns remains a challenging task in effectively interpreting data and correlating results from across experiments, projects and laboratories. Methods which allow the rapid and robust evaluation of multiple functional hypotheses increase the power of individual researchers to data mine gene expression data more efficiently.Results: We have developed (gene set matrix analysis GSMA as a useful method for the rapid testing of group-wise up- or downregulation of gene expression simultaneously for multiple lists of genes (gene sets against entire distributions of gene expression changes (datasets for single or multiple experiments. The utility of GSMA lies in its flexibility to rapidly poll gene sets related by known biological function or as designated solely by the end-user against large numbers of datasets simultaneously.Conclusions: GSMA provides a simple and straightforward method for hypothesis testing in which genes are tested by groups across multiple datasets for patterns of expression enrichment.

  19. Application tests of a new-type LNG rapid gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied natural gas (LNG is stored under low temperature and high pressure. It has to be gasified before it is used. Therefore, LNG gasification unit is essential and it is vital to the high-efficiency utilization of LNG. In this paper, a new-type LNG rapid gasification unit was developed. Adopted in this unit are some innovative technologies authorized with the national patent of invention, such as the umbrella-shape gas flow circle unit, the flue gas circulation system and the water feeding system, which help to guarantee its operation safety and increase its operation efficiency. After it was justified in lab test, the unit for industrial application was designed and manufactured and then tested to verify its design rationality. The results show that the new-type LNG rapid gasification unit meets the design requirements in the aspect of efficiency, exhaust gas loss, radiation loss and fuel gas consumption rate; at a load of 1800–2200 m3/h, its efficiency is over 95%; at a load of 1976.0 m3/h which is close to the design value of 2000 m3/h, its efficiency is 96.34% or even up to 2800 m3/h. This new-type LNG rapid gasification unit is adaptable to a large range of loads and can adapt to the rapid increase of external load. Its fuel gas consumption rate is only 1.5%, which is in the range of energy conservation. It presents the advantages of high heating efficiency, rapid startup, high gasification rate, compact structure, small land occupation and invulnerability to the environment, therefore, it is applicable to the middle and small independent regions which cannot be connected to the natural gas supply pipeline networks due to various reasons.

  20. Usefulness of a rapid faecal calprotectin test to predict relapse in Crohn's disease patients on maintenance treatment with adalimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Iglesias, Rocio; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; Lorenzo-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Dominguez-Muñoz, Juan Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Predicting relapse in Crohn's disease (CD) patients by measuring non-invasive biomarkers could allow for early changes of treatment. Data are scarce regarding the utility of monitoring calprotectin to predict relapse. The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive value of a rapid test of faecal calprotectin (FC) to predict for flares in CD patients on maintenance treatment with adalimumab (ADA). A prospective, observational cohort study was designed. Inclusion criteria were CD patients in clinical remission on a standard dose of ADA therapy. Fresh FC was measured using a rapid test. Thirty patients were included (median age 38 years, 56.7% female). After the 4 months follow-up, 70.0% patients remained in clinical remission and 30.0% had a relapse. FC concentration at inclusion was significantly higher in those patients who relapsed during the follow-up (625 μg/g) compared to those who stayed in remission (45 μg/g). The optimal cut-off for FC to predict relapse was 204 μg/g. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.968. Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive value of FC to predict relapse were 100%, 85.7%, 74.1%, and 100%, respectively. In CD patients on ADA maintenance therapy, FC levels measured with a rapid test allow relapse over the following months to be predicted with high accuracy. Low FC levels exclude relapse within at least 4 months after testing, whereas high levels are associated with relapse in three out of every four patients.

  1. Age dependence of the rapid antidepressant and synaptic effects of acute NMDA receptor blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eNosyreva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is a NMDA receptor antagonist that produces rapid antidepressant responses in individuals with major depressive disorder. The antidepressant action of ketamine has been linked to blocking NMDA receptor activation at rest, which inhibits eukaryotic elongation factor2 kinase leading to desuppression of protein synthesis and synaptic potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Here, we investigated ketamine mediated antidepressant response and the resulting synaptic potentiation in juvenile animals. We found that ketamine did not produce an antidepressant response in juvenile animals in the novelty suppressed feeding or the forced swim test. In addition ketamine application failed to trigger synaptic potentiation in hippocampal slices obtained from juvenile animals, unlike its action in slices from older animals (6-9 weeks old. The inability of ketamine to trigger an antidepressant response or subsequent synaptic plasticity processes suggests a developmental component to ketamine mediated antidepressant efficacy. We also show that the NMDAR antagonist AP5 triggers synaptic potentiation in mature hippocampus similar to the action of ketamine, demonstrating that global competitive blockade of NMDA receptors is sufficient to trigger this effect. These findings suggest that global blockade of NMDA receptors in developmentally mature hippocampal synapses are required for the antidepressant efficacy of ketamine.

  2. The rapid slide agglutination test in the diagnosis of typhoid fevers and typhus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbin, B. Z.; Kasher, A.

    1961-01-01

    Of 10,000 sera examined for infectious diseases by both the rapid slide agglutination and the tube agglutination tests, 128 were found positive for typhus fever and 257 for typhoid and paratyphoid infections. Of 84 of the last mentioned cases of typhoid and paratyphoid, which were confirmed by cultural examination, 45 (53·5%) were negative to the tube test, whereas only one (1·2%) was negative to the slide test. Taking the total of 385 cases in which the clinical picture was typical and either one of the two serological tests positive, the tube test was negative in 183 cases (47·2%) whereas the slide test was negative once only (0·3%). Of 201 cases in which both the slide and tube tests were positive, the slide test gave the result, on an average, six days earlier in 19 cases (10%). A control test of 139 sera from patients suffering from various other diseases gave a negative result on the slide test. PMID:13784408

  3. Multivariate Analyses of Balance Test Performance, Vestibular Thresholds, and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Karmali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We previously published vestibular perceptual thresholds and performance in the Modified Romberg Test of Standing Balance in 105 healthy humans ranging from ages 18 to 80 (1. Self-motion thresholds in the dark included roll tilt about an earth-horizontal axis at 0.2 and 1 Hz, yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis at 1 Hz, y-translation (interaural/lateral at 1 Hz, and z-translation (vertical at 1 Hz. In this study, we focus on multiple variable analyses not reported in the earlier study. Specifically, we investigate correlations (1 among the five thresholds measured and (2 between thresholds, age, and the chance of failing condition 4 of the balance test, which increases vestibular reliance by having subjects stand on foam with eyes closed. We found moderate correlations (0.30–0.51 between vestibular thresholds for different motions, both before and after using our published aging regression to remove age effects. We found that lower or higher thresholds across all threshold measures are an individual trait that account for about 60% of the variation in the population. This can be further distributed into two components with about 20% of the variation explained by aging and 40% of variation explained by a single principal component that includes similar contributions from all threshold measures. When only roll tilt 0.2 Hz thresholds and age were analyzed together, we found that the chance of failing condition 4 depends significantly on both (p = 0.006 and p = 0.013, respectively. An analysis incorporating more variables found that the chance of failing condition 4 depended significantly only on roll tilt 0.2 Hz thresholds (p = 0.046 and not age (p = 0.10, sex nor any of the other four threshold measures, suggesting that some of the age effect might be captured by the fact that vestibular thresholds increase with age. For example, at 60 years of age, the chance of failing is roughly 5% for the lowest roll tilt

  4. Multivariate Analyses of Balance Test Performance, Vestibular Thresholds, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Faisal; Bermúdez Rey, María Carolina; Clark, Torin K; Wang, Wei; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    We previously published vestibular perceptual thresholds and performance in the Modified Romberg Test of Standing Balance in 105 healthy humans ranging from ages 18 to 80 (1). Self-motion thresholds in the dark included roll tilt about an earth-horizontal axis at 0.2 and 1 Hz, yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis at 1 Hz, y-translation (interaural/lateral) at 1 Hz, and z-translation (vertical) at 1 Hz. In this study, we focus on multiple variable analyses not reported in the earlier study. Specifically, we investigate correlations (1) among the five thresholds measured and (2) between thresholds, age, and the chance of failing condition 4 of the balance test, which increases vestibular reliance by having subjects stand on foam with eyes closed. We found moderate correlations (0.30-0.51) between vestibular thresholds for different motions, both before and after using our published aging regression to remove age effects. We found that lower or higher thresholds across all threshold measures are an individual trait that account for about 60% of the variation in the population. This can be further distributed into two components with about 20% of the variation explained by aging and 40% of variation explained by a single principal component that includes similar contributions from all threshold measures. When only roll tilt 0.2 Hz thresholds and age were analyzed together, we found that the chance of failing condition 4 depends significantly on both (p = 0.006 and p = 0.013, respectively). An analysis incorporating more variables found that the chance of failing condition 4 depended significantly only on roll tilt 0.2 Hz thresholds (p = 0.046) and not age (p = 0.10), sex nor any of the other four threshold measures, suggesting that some of the age effect might be captured by the fact that vestibular thresholds increase with age. For example, at 60 years of age, the chance of failing is roughly 5% for the lowest roll tilt thresholds in

  5. Cost and Impact on Patient Length of Stay of Rapid Molecular Testing for Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Bernadette; Rees, Eugene; Thomas, Ian; Ch'ng, Chin Lye; Isaac, Mike; Berry, Nidhika

    2014-12-01

    A study was performed to assess the cost of a rapid molecular assay (PCR) for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the impact of its routine use on patient length of stay (LOS) in comparison with cell culture cytotoxin neutralization assay (CCNA). From March 2011 to September 2011, Xpert(®) C. difficile (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) PCR was used on patients with suspicion of CDI in two acute care hospitals in Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board, Swansea, Wales, UK. Test results were used for patient management. LOS and time to reportable result were compared for negative and positive prospective patients tested by PCR and historic control patients tested by CCNA during March 2010 to September 2010. Tests were priced using micro-costing and a cost comparison analysis was undertaken. In total, 506 patients were included. Time to reportable result for PCR samples was 1.53 h compared to 46.54 h for CCNA negatives and 22.45 h for CCNA positives. Patients tested by CCNA stayed 4.88 days longer in hospital compared to PCR patients if they tested positive and 7.03 days if tests were negative. The mean reduction in LOS observed in our study has the potential to generate cost savings of up to £2,292.62 for every patient with suspected CDI, if samples were to be tested routinely with PCR instead of CCNA. A rapid molecular test for C. difficile in an acute hospital setting produced quick results that led to a decrease in LOS compared to historic CCNA control patients. This could result in considerable savings through reduced excess inpatient days.

  6. Comparison of Rapid Point-of-Care Tests for Detection of Antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dennis G; Hess, Kristen L; Erlyana, Erlyana; Reynolds, Grace L; Cummins, Catherine A; Alonzo, Todd A

    2015-09-01

    Background.  Hepatitis C is one of the most prevalent blood-borne diseases in the United States. Despite the benefits of early screening, among 3.2 million Americans who are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), 50%-70% are unaware of their infection status. Methods.  Data were collected between 2011 and 2014, from 1048 clients who were in the following groups: (1) injection drug users, (2) women at sexual risk, (3) gay and bisexual men, and (4) transgender individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care tests included (1) the MedMira rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV antibody test, (2) MedMira hepatitis B (HBV)/HIV/HCV antibody test, (3) Chembio HCV Screen Assay used with both whole blood and (4) oral specimens, (5) Chembio HIV-HCV Assay also used with both whole blood and (6) oral specimens, (7) Chembio HIV-HCV-Syphilis Assay, and (8) OraSure HCV Rapid Antibody Test used with whole blood. The gold standard for the HCV tests were HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) 2.0. Results.  OraSure had the highest sensitivity at 92.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 88.8%-96.5%) followed closely by Chembio's 3 blood tests at 92.1% (95% CI = 87.7%-96.4%), 91.5% (95% CI = 87.2%-95.7%), and 92.3% (95% CI = 88.4%-96.2%). The sensitivities of MedMira HIV/HCV and MedMira HIV/HCV/HBV tests were the lowest, at 79.1% (95% CI = 72.6%-85.5%), and 81.5% (95% CI = 75.2%-87.8%), respectively. Specificity for the OraSure was 99.8% (95% CI = 99.4%-100%); specificity for the Chembio blood tests was 99.2% (95% CI = 98.6%-99.9%), 99.4% (95% CI = 98.8%-99.9%), and 99.3% (95% CI = 98.8%-99.9%); and specificity for the MedMira was100% and 100%. False-negative results were associated with HIV and hepatitis B core antibody serostatus. Conclusions.  The OraSure and Chembio blood tests (including those multiplexed with HIV and syphilis) appear to good performance characteristics. This study has identified potential limitations of rapid testing in those testing positive for

  7. Application of Titration-Based Screening for the Rapid Pilot Testing of High-Throughput Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Hu; Kang, Zhao B; Ardayfio, Ophelia; Ho, Pei-i; Smith, Thomas; Wallace, Iain; Bowes, Scott; Hill, W Adam; Auld, Douglas S

    2014-06-01

    Pilot testing of an assay intended for high-throughput screening (HTS) with small compound sets is a necessary but often time-consuming step in the validation of an assay protocol. When the initial testing concentration is less than optimal, this can involve iterative testing at different concentrations to further evaluate the pilot outcome, which can be even more time-consuming. Quantitative HTS (qHTS) enables flexible and rapid collection of assay performance statistics, hits at different concentrations, and concentration-response curves in a single experiment. Here we describe the qHTS process for pilot testing in which eight-point concentration-response curves are produced using an interplate asymmetric dilution protocol in which the first four concentrations are used to represent the range of typical HTS screening concentrations and the last four concentrations are added for robust curve fitting to determine potency/efficacy values. We also describe how these data can be analyzed to predict the frequency of false-positives, false-negatives, hit rates, and confirmation rates for the HTS process as a function of screening concentration. By taking into account the compound pharmacology, this pilot-testing paradigm enables rapid assessment of the assay performance and choosing the optimal concentration for the large-scale HTS in one experiment. © 2013 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  8. Repair mortars based on lime. Accelerated aging tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour under different accelerated aging tests (freeze/thaw and crystallization cycles of a new lime mortar with biocide properties destinated to monumental repair has been studied. New mortars (which have the biocide impregnated in a clay called sepiolite have a similar behaviour to lime mortars used as a reference. After the aging tests, the biocide properties of the mortars have been tried.

    Se ha estudiado el comportamiento frente a distintos ensayos de envejecimiento acelerado (ciclos de hielo/deshielo y cristalización de sales de un nuevo mortero de cal con propiedades biocidas, destinado a la reparación monumental. Se ha comprobado que los nuevos morteros (que llevan incorporado el biocida impregnado en una arcilla denominada sepiolita tienen un comportamiento muy similar a los morteros de cal utilizados como referencia. Tras los ensayos de envejecimiento se ha visto que las propiedades biocidas de los morteros se mantienen.

  9. Feasibility of utilizing the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 rapid test in onchocerciasis surveillance in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieye, Yakou; Storey, Helen L; Barrett, Kelsey L; Gerth-Guyette, Emily; Di Giorgio, Laura; Golden, Allison; Faulx, Dunia; Kalnoky, Michael; Ndiaye, Marie Khemesse Ngom; Sy, Ngayo; Mané, Malang; Faye, Babacar; Sarr, Mamadou; Dioukhane, Elhadji Mamadou; Peck, Roger B; Guinot, Philippe; de Los Santos, Tala

    2017-10-01

    As effective onchocerciasis control efforts in Africa transition to elimination efforts, different diagnostic tools are required to support country programs. Senegal, with its long standing, successful control program, is transitioning to using the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 (Ov16) rapid test over traditional skin snip microscopy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating the Ov16 rapid test into onchocerciasis surveillance activities in Senegal, based on the following attributes of acceptability, usability, and cost. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 13 villages in southeastern Senegal in May 2016. Individuals 5 years and older were invited to participate in a demographic questionnaire, an Ov16 rapid test, a skin snip biopsy, and an acceptability interview. Rapid test technicians were interviewed and a costing analysis was conducted. Of 1,173 participants, 1,169 (99.7%) agreed to the rapid test while 383 (32.7%) agreed to skin snip microscopy. The sero-positivity rate of the rapid test among those tested was 2.6% with zero positives 10 years and younger. None of the 383 skin snips were positive for Ov microfilaria. Community members appreciated that the rapid test was performed quickly, was not painful, and provided reliable results. The total costs for this surveillance activity was $22,272.83, with a cost per test conducted at $3.14 for rapid test, $7.58 for skin snip microscopy, and $13.43 for shared costs. If no participants had refused skin snip microscopy, the total cost per method with shared costs would have been around $16 per person tested. In this area with low onchocerciasis sero-positivity, there was high acceptability and perceived value of the rapid test by community members and technicians. This study provides evidence of the feasibility of implementing the Ov16 rapid test in Senegal and may be informative to other country programs transitioning to Ov16 serologic tools.

  10. A COMPARISON OF RAPID DIAGNOSTIC TESTING (BY PLASMODIUM LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE), AND QUANTITATIVE BUFFY COAT TECHNIQUE IN MALARIA DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifeorah, Ifeanyi Kanayo; Brown, Biobele J; Sodeinde, Olugbemiro O

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold standard. The study involved children ages 0-5 years who presented with a history of fever at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Blood was collected from each patient and used for RDT, QBC and Giemsa-stained blood films for malaria parasites (MP). Results of QBC and RDT were compared with microscopy results for the diagnosis of malaria. A total of 370 cases (194 boys and 176 girls) were studied giving a male: female ratio of 1.1:1. Of the 370 cases tested using Giemsa-stained thick blood films for MP, 78 (21 %) were positive. For the QBC test, 78 (21%) of the cases were positive with sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 70.5 %, 92.1%, 70.5 % and 92.1 % respectively. Seventy-six (20%) of the cases were positive by RDT with sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 84.2 %, 95.2 %, 82.1 %, and 95.9 % respectively. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity of QBC compared with the RDT. Both the QBC and the pfLDH (RDT) performed reasonably well in this study Malaria rapid diagnostic tests are recommended in malaria endemic clinical settings to avoid unnecessary antimalarial treatment. List of Abbreviations: AO: Acridine orange, AIDS: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, ACT: Artemisinin-based combination therapy, CM:Cerebral malaria, BCP:Benzothiocarboxypurine, DDT:Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, DNA:DeoxyriboNucleic Acid, ELAM-1: Endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule, G6PD: Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, HIV: Human immuno deficiency virus, HRP 2: Histidine Rich Protein 2, ICAM -1: Inter cellular adhesion molecule1, ICER: Incremental cost effectiveness ratio, IL-1: Interleukin -1, IFN

  11. Accelerated Aging Test for Plastic Scintillator Gamma Ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-12

    Polyvinyl toluene (PVT) and polystyrene (PS), collectively referred to as “plastic scintillator,” are synthetic polymer materials used to detect gamma radiation, and are commonly used in instrumentation. Recent studies have revealed that plastic scintillator undergoes an environmentally related material degradation that adversely affects performance under certain conditions and histories. A significant decrease in gamma ray sensitivity has been seen in some detectors in systems as they age. The degradation of sensitivity of plastic scintillator over time is due to a variety of factors, and the term “aging” is used to encompass all factors. Some plastic scintillator samples show no aging effects (no significant change in sensitivity over more than 10 years), while others show severe aging (significant change in sensitivity in less than 5 years). Aging effects arise from weather (variations in heat and humidity), chemical exposure, mechanical stress, light exposure, and loss of volatile components. The damage produced by these various causes can be cumulative, causing observable damage to increase over time. Damage may be reversible up to some point, but becomes permanent under some conditions. It has been demonstrated that exposure of plastic scintillator in an environmental chamber to 30 days of high temperature and humidity (90% relative humidity and 55°C) followed by a single cycle to cold temperature (-30°C) will produce severe fogging in all PVT samples. This thermal cycle will be referred to as the “Accelerated Aging Test.” This document describes the procedure for performing this Accelerated Aging Test.

  12. Rapid susceptibility testing and microcolony analysis of Candida spp. cultured and imaged on porous aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Colin J; Boonstra, Sjoukje; Levels, Suzanne; de Lange, Marit; Meis, Jacques F; Schneeberger, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Acquired resistance to antifungal agents now supports the introduction of susceptibility testing for species-drug combinations for which this was previously thought unnecessary. For pathogenic yeasts, conventional phenotypic testing needs at least 24 h. Culture on a porous aluminum oxide (PAO) support combined with microscopy offers a route to more rapid results. Microcolonies of Candida species grown on PAO were stained with the fluorogenic dyes Fun-1 and Calcofluor White and then imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images were captured by a charge-coupled device camera and processed by publicly available software. By this method, the growth of yeasts could be detected and quantified within 2 h. Microcolony imaging was then used to assess the susceptibility of the yeasts to amphotericin B, anidulafungin and caspofungin (3.5 h culture), and voriconazole and itraconazole (7 h culture). Overall, the results showed good agreement with EUCAST (86.5% agreement; n = 170) and E-test (85.9% agreement; n = 170). The closest agreement to standard tests was found when testing susceptibility to amphotericin B and echinocandins (88.2 to 91.2%) and the least good for the triazoles (79.4 to 82.4%). Furthermore, large datasets on population variation could be rapidly obtained. An analysis of microcolonies revealed subtle effects of antimycotics on resistant strains and below the MIC of sensitive strains, particularly an increase in population heterogeneity and cell density-dependent effects of triazoles. Additionally, the method could be adapted to strain identification via germ tube extension. We suggest PAO culture is a rapid and versatile method that may be usefully adapted to clinical mycology and has research applications.

  13. [Field assessment of the new rapid diagnostic test Ebola eZYSCREEN®].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, F; Gay-Andrieu, F; Picot, V; Magassouba, N; Mély, S; Peyrefitte, C N; Bellanger, L

    2017-02-01

    During the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2014, the World Health Organization has pointed out the need for rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid, equipment-free, and deliverable. The rapid diagnostic test (Lateral Flow Assay) Ebola eZYSCREEN® was developed in this emergency frame using monoclonal antibodies against the envelope glycoprotein of the virus. Two distinct versions have been industrialized, one for whole-blood samples and the other for serum/plasma samples. Both versions have an analytical detection limit of 10 5 pfu/ml, the stability is at least 393 days at 30°C and 120 days at 45°C. The nonretrospective and independent validation study was carried out in the course of the outbreak in Conakry and at the Ebola Treatment Center of Coyah (Guinea) on 144 patients. In this study, the RDT showed a sensitivity of 65.3% and a specificity of 98.9% on whole blood, a sensitivity of 74.5% and a specificity of 100% on serum. Results from the whole-blood version must be analyzed with caution because of the delay between the blood collection and the completion of the tests, which was out of specification (3 days on average instead of 2 h). In contrast to laboratory tests, this easy to use field test does not require sophisticated instrumentation or even electricity and can contribute to the diagnostic chain of Ebola virus disease taking into account its benefits, high stability, and specificity but also its limit of sensitivity compared to laboratory techniques RT-qPCR (Real-Time reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), which remain the reference for the diagnosis of Ebola. The RDT Ebola eZYSCREEN® was granted EC IVD (IVD = In Vitro Diagnostic) marking.

  14. Rapid susceptibility testing and microcolony analysis of Candida spp. cultured and imaged on porous aluminum oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Ingham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance to antifungal agents now supports the introduction of susceptibility testing for species-drug combinations for which this was previously thought unnecessary. For pathogenic yeasts, conventional phenotypic testing needs at least 24 h. Culture on a porous aluminum oxide (PAO support combined with microscopy offers a route to more rapid results. METHODS: Microcolonies of Candida species grown on PAO were stained with the fluorogenic dyes Fun-1 and Calcofluor White and then imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images were captured by a charge-coupled device camera and processed by publicly available software. By this method, the growth of yeasts could be detected and quantified within 2 h. Microcolony imaging was then used to assess the susceptibility of the yeasts to amphotericin B, anidulafungin and caspofungin (3.5 h culture, and voriconazole and itraconazole (7 h culture. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the results showed good agreement with EUCAST (86.5% agreement; n = 170 and E-test (85.9% agreement; n = 170. The closest agreement to standard tests was found when testing susceptibility to amphotericin B and echinocandins (88.2 to 91.2% and the least good for the triazoles (79.4 to 82.4%. Furthermore, large datasets on population variation could be rapidly obtained. An analysis of microcolonies revealed subtle effects of antimycotics on resistant strains and below the MIC of sensitive strains, particularly an increase in population heterogeneity and cell density-dependent effects of triazoles. Additionally, the method could be adapted to strain identification via germ tube extension. We suggest PAO culture is a rapid and versatile method that may be usefully adapted to clinical mycology and has research applications.

  15. Rapid diagnostic tests duo as alternative to conventional serological assays for conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egüez, Karina E; Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Terán, Carolina; Chipana, Zenobia; García, Wilson; Torrico, Faustino; Gascon, Joaquim; Lozano-Beltran, Daniel-Franz; Pinazo, María-Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects several million people, mainly in Latin America, and severe cardiac and/or digestive complications occur in ~30% of the chronically infected patients. Disease acute stage is mostly asymptomatic and infection goes undiagnosed. In the chronic phase direct parasite detection is hampered due to its concealed presence and diagnosis is achieved by serological methods, like ELISA or indirect hemagglutination assays. Agreement in at least two tests must be obtained due to parasite wide antigenic variability. These techniques require equipped labs and trained personnel and are not available in distant regions. As a result, many infected people often remain undiagnosed until it is too late, as the two available chemotherapies show diminished efficacy in the advanced chronic stage. Easy-to-use rapid diagnostic tests have been developed to be implemented in remote areas as an alternative to conventional tests. They do not need electricity, nor cold chain, they can return results within an hour and some even work with whole blood as sample, like Chagas Stat-Pak (ChemBio Inc.) and Chagas Detect Plus (InBIOS Inc.). Nonetheless, in order to qualify a rapidly diagnosed positive patient for treatment, conventional serological confirmation is obligatory, which might risk its start. In this study two rapid tests based on distinct antigen sets were used in parallel as a way to obtain a fast and conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis using whole blood samples. Chagas Stat-Pak and Chagas Detect Plus were validated by comparison with three conventional tests yielding 100% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity over 342 patients seeking Chagas disease diagnosis in a reference centre in Sucre (Bolivia). Combined used of RDTs in distant regions could substitute laborious conventional serology, allowing immediate treatment and favouring better adhesion to it.

  16. TECRA Unique test for rapid detection of Salmonella in food: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D; Dailianis, A E; Hill, L; McIntyre, D A; Anderson, A

    2001-01-01

    The TECRA Unique Salmonella test uses the principle of immunoenrichment to allow rapid detection of Salmonellae in food. A collaborative study was conducted to compare the TECRA Salmonella Unique test with the reference culture method given in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Three food types (milk powder, pepper, and soy flour) were analyzed in Australia and 2 food types (milk chocolate and dried egg) were analyzed in the United States. Forty-one collaborators participated in the study. For each of the 5 foods at each of the 3 levels, a comparison showed no significant differences (p > or = 0.05) in the proportion of positive test samples for Unique and that for the reference method using the Chi-square test for independence with continuity correction.

  17. Initial Accuracy of HIV Rapid Test Kits Stored in Suboptimal Conditions and Validity of Delayed Reading of Oral Fluid Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choko, Augustine T; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; MacPherson, Peter; Cocker, Derek; Khundi, McEwen; Thindwa, Deus; Sambakunsi, Rodrick S; Kumwenda, Moses K; Chiumya, Kondwani; Malema, Owen; Makombe, Simon D; Webb, Emily L; Corbett, Elizabeth L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of storing commonly used rapid diagnostic tests above manufacturer-recommended temperature (at 37°C), and the accuracy of delayed reading of oral fluid kits with relevance to HIV self-testing programmes. A quality assurance study of OraQuick (OraSure), Determine HIV 1/2™ (Alere) and Uni-Gold™ (Recombigen®). Consecutive adults (≥18y) attending Ndirande Health Centre in urban Blantyre, Malawi in January to April 2012 underwent HIV testing with two of each of the three rapid diagnostic test kits stored for 28 days at either 18°C (optimally-stored) or at 37°C (pre-incubated). Used OraQuick test kits were stored in a laboratory for delayed day 1 and subsequent monthly re-reading was undertaken for one year. Of 378 individuals who underwent parallel testing, 5 (1.3%) were dropped from the final analysis due to discordant or missing reference standard results (optimally-stored Determine and Uni-Gold). Compared to the diagnostic reference standard, OraQuick had a sensitivity of 97.2% (95% CI: 93.6-99.6). There were 7 false negative results among all test kits stored at 37°C and three false negatives among optimally stored kits. Excellent agreement between pre-incubated tests and optimally-stored tests with Kappa values of 1.00 for Determine and Uni-Gold; and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95; 1.00) for OraQuick were observed. There was high visual stability on re-reading of OraQuick, with only 1/375 pre-incubated and 1/371 optimally-stored OraQuick kits changing from the initial result over 12 months. Erroneous results observed during HIV testing in low income settings are likely to be due to factors other than suboptimal storage conditions. Re-reading returned OraQuick kits may offer a convenient and accurate quality assurance approach, including in HIV self-testing programmes.

  18. The Charlie Sheen Effect on Rapid In-home Human Immunodeficiency Virus Test Sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Leas, Eric C; Caputi, Theodore L; Dredze, Mark; Althouse, Benjamin M; Noar, Seth M; Ayers, John W

    2017-07-01

    One in eight of the 1.2 million Americans living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are unaware of their positive status, and untested individuals are responsible for most new infections. As a result, testing is the most cost-effective HIV prevention strategy and must be accelerated when opportunities are presented. Web searches for HIV spiked around actor Charlie Sheen's HIV-positive disclosure. However, it is unknown whether Sheen's disclosure impacted offline behaviors like HIV testing. The goal of this study was to determine if Sheen's HIV disclosure was a record-setting HIV prevention event and determine if Web searches presage increases in testing allowing for rapid detection and reaction in the future. Sales of OraQuick rapid in-home HIV test kits in the USA were monitored weekly from April 12, 2014, to April 16, 2016, alongside Web searches including the terms "test," "tests," or "testing" and "HIV" as accessed from Google Trends. Changes in OraQuick sales around Sheen's disclosure and prediction models using Web searches were assessed. OraQuick sales rose 95% (95% CI, 75-117; p < 0.001) of the week of Sheen's disclosure and remained elevated for 4 more weeks (p < 0.05). In total, there were 8225 more sales than expected around Sheen's disclosure, surpassing World AIDS Day by a factor of about 7. Moreover, Web searches mirrored OraQuick sales trends (r = 0.79), demonstrating their ability to presage increases in testing. The "Charlie Sheen effect" represents an important opportunity for a public health response, and in the future, Web searches can be used to detect and act on more opportunities to foster prevention behaviors.

  19. Effects of Reference Performance Testing During Aging Using Commercial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chinh D. Ho; David Howell

    2005-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program, under the oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, is investigating lithium-ion batteries for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Cells are aged under various test conditions, including temperatures and states-of-charge. Life testing is interrupted at regular intervals to conduct reference performance tests (RPTs), which are used to measure changes in the electrical performance of the cells and then to determine cell degradation as a function of test time. Although designed to be unobtrusive, data from the Advanced Technology Development Gen 2 cells indicated that RPTs actually contributed to cell degradation and failure. A study was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory using commercially available lithium-ion cells to determine the impact of RPTs on life. A series of partial RPTs were performed at regular intervals during life testing and compared to a control group that was life tested without RPT interruption. It was determined that certain components of the RPT were detrimental, while others appeared to improve cell performance. Consequently, a new "mini" RPT was designed as an unobtrusive alternative. Initial testing with commercial cells indicates that the impact of the mini RPT is significantly less than the Gen 2 cell RPT.

  20. Comparison of a Micro-Neutralization Test with the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for Measuring Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd G. Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT is routinely used in the United States to measure rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA. RFFIT has a long history of reproducible and reliable results. The test has been modified over the years to use smaller volumes of reagents and samples, but requires a 50 μL minimum volume of test serum. To conduct pathogenesis studies, small laboratory animals such as mice are regularly tested for rVNA, but the minimum volume for a standard RFFIT may be impossible to obtain, particularly in scenarios of repeated sampling. To address this problem, a micro-neutralization test was developed previously. In the current study, the micro-neutralization test was compared to the RFFIT using 129 mouse serum samples from rabies vaccine studies. Using a cut-off value of 0.1 IU/mL, the sensitivity, specificity, and concordance of the micro-neutralization test were 100%, 97.5%, and 98%, respectively. The geometric mean titer of all samples above the cut-off was 2.0 IU/mL using RFFIT and 3.4 IU/mL using the micro-neutralization test, indicating that titers determined using the micro-neutralization test are not equivalent to RFFIT titers. Based on four rVNA-positive hamster serum samples, the intra-assay coefficient of variability was 24% and inter-assay coefficient of variability was 30.4%. These results support continued use of the micro-neutralization test to determine rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers for low-volume serum samples.

  1. [Detection of HIV infection in pregnant women by rapid testing: a successful strategy to reduce its vertical transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quian, Jorge; Visconti, Ana; Gutiérrez, Stella; Galli, Ana; Maturo, María; Galeano, Virginia; Serra, Margarita; Lioni, Marta

    2005-12-01

    A high percentage of Uruguayan pregnant women are not under medical control. As a consequence, vertically transmission of HIV infection reaches to 50%. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women who did not know their serological status and to decrease mother-to-child transmission. from January 2002 to January 2004 the HIV rapid test was performed to every pregnant woman that assisted to a public Uruguayan hospital unaware of her condition. The proper prophylactic decisions were adopted according to gestational age. The newborn infants were classified according to CDC criteria. HIV infection prevalence in pregnant women and in their newborn infants was calculated. there were 34,338 obstetric consultations and 4,599 rapid tests were performed. Fifty-nine turned out positive in 58 women, 8 of them knew their serological status previously. The HIV infection prevalence was 1.1% (IC95% 0.8-1.4). Five cases were discharged: 1 false positive and 3 miscarriages and 1 abortion. Ten women dropped out in the follow up. Twelve women received TARV during pregnancy for over a week. Thirty-nine infants could be controlled: 33 seroreverted, 4 were exposed and 2 became infected. Mother-to-child transmission was 5.1%. If all patients who dropped out the follow up were infected, the transmission rate should be of 20.4%; therefore the infection would have been prevented in 16 children. As many women and children were lost, other complementary actions as counseling and social worker interview should be adopted in order to improve the yield of rapid test screening strategy.

  2. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, economic, and rapid manner. Our assay platform miniaturizes the standard broth microdilution method on a microfluidic device (20 × 20 mm that generates an antibiotic concentration gradient and delivers antibiotic-containing culture media to eight 30-nL chambers for cell culture. When tested with 20 μL samples of a model bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922 treated with ampicillin or streptomycin, our method allows for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with the microdilution test in three hours, which is almost a factor of ten more rapid than the standard method.

  3. Performance of a rapid self-test for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in South Africa and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Heidi E.; Lippman, Sheri A.; Caiaffa-Filho, Helio H.; Young, Taryn; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Women participating in studies in Brazil (n = 695) and South Africa (n = 230) performed rapid point-of-care tests for Trichomonas vaginalis on self-collected vaginal swabs. Using PCR as the gold standard, rapid self-testing achieved high specificity (99.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 98.2 to

  4. Operational response to malaria epidemics: are rapid diagnostic tests cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Estelle; Checchi, Francesco; Pinoges, Loretxu; Balkan, Suna; Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Guerin, Philippe J

    2006-04-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of malaria treatment based on presumptive diagnosis with that of malaria treatment based on rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). We calculated direct costs (based on experience from Ethiopia and southern Sudan) and effectiveness (in terms of reduced over-treatment) of a free, decentralised treatment programme using artesunate plus amodiaquine (AS + AQ) or artemether-lumefantrine (ART-LUM) in a Plasmodium falciparum epidemic. Our main cost-effectiveness measure was the incremental cost per false positive treatment averted by RDTs. As malaria prevalence increases, the difference in cost between presumptive and RDT-based treatment rises. The threshold prevalence above which the RDT-based strategy becomes more expensive is 21% in the AS + AQ scenario and 55% in the ART-LUM scenario, but these thresholds increase to 58 and 70%, respectively, if the financing body tolerates an incremental cost of 1 euro per false positive averted. However, even at a high (90%) prevalence of malaria consistent with an epidemic peak, an RDT-based strategy would only cost moderately more than the presumptive strategy: +29.9% in the AS + AQ scenario and +19.4% in the ART-LUM scenario. The treatment comparison is insensitive to the age and pregnancy distribution of febrile cases, but is strongly affected by variation in non-biomedical costs. If their unit price were halved, RDTs would be more cost-effective at a malaria prevalence up to 45% in case of AS + AQ treatment and at a prevalence up to 68% in case of ART-LUM treatment. In most epidemic prevalence scenarios, RDTs would considerably reduce over-treatment for only a moderate increase in costs over presumptive diagnosis. A substantial decrease in RDT unit price would greatly increase their cost-effectiveness, and should thus be advocated. A tolerated incremental cost of 1 euro is probably justified given overall public health and financial benefits. The RDTs should be considered for malaria epidemics if

  5. A Method to Teach Age-Specific Demography with Field Grown Rapid Cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Martin G.; Terrana, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that rapid cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants) can be used in inquiry-based, student ecological fieldwork. We are the first to describe age-specific survival for field-grown Fast Plants and identify life history traits associated with individual survival. This experiment can be adapted by educators as a…

  6. Early rapid growth : no association with later cognitive functions in children born not small for gestational age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Ness, Andrew R.; Streuling, Ina; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; von Kries, Ruediger

    Background: There is an association between rapid growth in early life and overweight in childhood. This adverse association needs to be balanced against potential beneficial effects on cognitive functioning observed in children who are born small for gestational age (SGA). Objective: We examined

  7. Rapid DNA haplotyping using a multiplex heteroduplex approach: application to Duchenne muscular dystrophy carrier testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, T W; Wenger, G D; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Bartolo, C; Moore, J W; Highsmith, W E

    1995-01-01

    A new strategy has been developed for rapid haplotype analysis based on an initial multiplex amplification of several polymorphic sites, followed by heteroduplex detection. Heteroduplexes formed between two different alleles are detected because they migrate differently than the corresponding homoduplexes in Hydrolink-MDE gel. This simple, rapid method does not depend on specific sequences such as restriction enzyme sites or CA boxes and does not require the use of isotope. This approach has been tested using commonly occurring polymorphisms spanning the dystrophin gene as a model. We describe the use of the method to assign the carrier status of females in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) pedigrees. The method may be used for other genetic diseases when mutations are unknown or there are few dinucleotide markers in the gene proximity, and for the identification of haplotype backgrounds of mutant alleles.

  8. A sudden-stop vestibulovisual test for rapid assessment of motion sickness manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A sudden-stop vestibulovisual (SSV) test employing a rotating chair centered in a striped cylindrical enclosure is discussed. A subject, with his eyes covered, is accelerated clockwise at 15 degrees per second squared and maintained at this velocity for 30 sec. The chair is then brought to rest within 1.5 sec and remains at rest for 30 sec while physiological parameters and motion sickness symptoms are recorded. The procedure is repeated until a predetermined motion sickness endpoint (slight nausea) is reached or 20 stops have been made. The scores made by 14 subjects in 4 sessions in terms of susceptibility to motion sickness are presented, and the pattern of all scores indicates rates of acquisition and decay of adaptation effects. It is concluded that at sea or in flight training good retention of adaptation is more important than is a rapid rate of acquiring adaptation, but in Spacelab, where early missions will be brief, rapid acquisition is all-important.

  9. Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test based on simple surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ying; Han, Yin-Yi; Shih, Po-Han; Lian, Wei-Nan; Wang, Huai-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Hung; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin

    2016-03-01

    Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurement are important to help reduce the widespread misuse of antibiotics and alleviate the growing drug-resistance problem. We discovered that, when a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli is exposed to an antibiotic, the intensity of specific biomarkers in its surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra drops evidently in two hours. The discovery has been exploited for rapid AST and MIC determination of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and wild-type E. coli as well as clinical isolates. The results obtained by this SERS-AST method were consistent with that by the standard incubation-based method, indicating its high potential to supplement or replace existing time-consuming methods and help mitigate the challenge of drug resistance in clinical microbiology.

  10. Diagnostic performance of rapid diagnostic tests versus blood smears for malaria in US clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William M; Cartwright, Charles P; Olson, Douglas A; Juni, Billie Anne; Taylor, Charlotte M; Bowers, Susan H; Hanson, Kevan L; Rosenblatt, Jon E; Boulware, David R

    2009-09-15

    Approximately 4 million US travelers to developing countries are ill enough to seek health care, with 1500 malaria cases reported in the United States annually. The diagnosis of malaria is frequently delayed because of the time required to prepare malaria blood films and lack of technical expertise. An easy, reliable rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with high sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV), particularly for Plasmodium falciparum, would be clinically useful. The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of a RDT approved by the US Food and Drug Administration compared with traditional thick and thin blood smears for malaria diagnosis. This prospective study tested 852 consecutive blood samples that underwent thick and thin smears and blinded malaria RDTs at 3 hospital laboratories during 2003-2006. Polymerase chain reaction verified positive test results and discordant results. Malaria was noted in 95 (11%) of the 852 samples. The RDT had superior performance than the standard Giemsa thick blood smear (p = .003). The RDT's sensitivity for all malaria was 97% (92 of 95 samples), compared with 85% (81 of 95) for the blood smear, and the RDT had a superior NPV of 99.6%, compared with 98.2% for the blood smear (p = .001). The P. falciparum performance was excellent, with 100% rapid test sensitivity, compared with only 88% (65 of 74) by blood smear (p = .003). This operational study demonstrates that the US Food and Drug Administration-approved RDT for malaria is superior to a single set of blood smears performed under routine US clinical laboratory conditions. The most valuable clinical role of the RDT is in the rapid diagnosis or the exclusion of P. falciparum malaria, which is particularly useful in outpatient settings when evaluating febrile travelers.

  11. A Rapidly-Incremented Tethered-Swimming Test for Defining Domain-Specific Training Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessôa Filho Dalton M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a tethered-swimming incremental test comprising small increases in resistive force applied every 60 seconds could delineate the isocapnic region during rapidly-incremented exercise. Sixteen competitive swimmers (male, n = 11; female, n = 5 performed: (a a test to determine highest force during 30 seconds of all-out tethered swimming (Favg and the ΔF, which represented the difference between Favg and the force required to maintain body alignment (Fbase, and (b an incremental test beginning with 60 seconds of tethered swimming against a load that exceeded Fbase by 30% of ΔF followed by increments of 5% of ΔF every 60 seconds. This incremental test was continued until the limit of tolerance with pulmonary gas exchange (rates of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production and ventilatory (rate of minute ventilation data collected breath by breath. These data were subsequently analyzed to determine whether two breakpoints defining the isocapnic region (i.e., gas exchange threshold and respiratory compensation point were present. We also determined the peak rate of O2 uptake and exercise economy during the incremental test. The gas exchange threshold and respiratory compensation point were observed for each test such that the associated metabolic rates, which bound the heavy-intensity domain during constant-work-rate exercise, could be determined. Significant correlations (Spearman’s were observed for exercise economy along with (a peak rate of oxygen uptake (ρ = .562; p < 0.025, and (b metabolic rate at gas exchange threshold (ρ = −.759; p < 0.005. A rapidly-incremented tethered-swimming test allows for determination of the metabolic rates that define zones for domain-specific constant-work-rate training.

  12. Comparison of the NIDS® rapid assay with ELISA methods in immunogenicity testing of two biotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing; Small, Thomas; Qin, Dujie; Li, Shawn; Wang, Li; Chen, Dave; Pauley, Cindy; Verch, Thorsten; Kaplanski, Catherine; Bakhtiar, Ray; Vallejo, Yli Remo; Yin, Ray

    2011-01-01

    Rapid lateral flow immunogenicity assays for the detection of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) to two biotherapeutic antibodies, an anti-HER2 antibody and an anti-TNF-α antibody, were developed using ANP Technologies, Inc.'s proprietary Nano-Intelligent Detection System (NIDS®) and compared to their ELISA counterparts. Biotin and hapten-labeled drugs are incubated with the patient serum sample to allow ADA to form a bridge complex with each drug conjugate. The reaction mixture is then added to a test strip with an anti-hapten capture zone which captures the mixed bridge complex. The bridge-complexed biotinylated drug then reacts with streptavidin-labeled gold particles in situ. The signal developed at the capture zone, which is directly proportional to ADA in the sample, is then quantitatively measured with a handheld reader. The counterpart ELISAs were run using the same reagents. Dose-response, specificity/free drug depletion, and screening cut-point assays were performed using both methods. The rapid assays' performance compare very closely to their ELISA counterparts'. Both types of assays identified the same positive samples in screening a limited population of 50 normal serum samples for the anti-HER2 antibody. In the case of anti-TNF-α, both assays identified the same positive samples out of 50 normal and 20 rheumatoid arthritis patient serum samples but differed in the assessment of two others. The rapid assay correctly identified as negative an ELISA false positive sample, and correctly tested as positive an ELISA false negative sample. Positive results were verified with a specificity/free drug depletion assay. The NIDS® rapid immunogenicity assay offers distinct advantages over current methods in simplicity, low cost, and short time to result. More importantly, the method requires no sample dilution and no washing steps which can perturb fragile complexes formed by low-affinity ADAs. Thus, the assay can potentially detect ADAs with various affinities

  13. Rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing uncomplicated non-falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Katharine; Kirkham, Amanda J; Olliaro, Piero L; Deeks, Jonathan J; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul; Takwoingi, Yemisi

    2014-01-01

    Background In settings where both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection cause malaria, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) need to distinguish which species is causing the patients' symptoms, as different treatments are required. Older RDTs incorporated two test lines to distinguish malaria due to P. falciparum, from malaria due to any other Plasmodium species (non-falciparum). These RDTs can be classified according to which antibodies they use: Type 2 RDTs use HRP-2 (for P. falciparum) and aldolase (all species); Type 3 RDTs use HRP-2 (for P. falciparum) and pLDH (all species); Type 4 use pLDH (fromP. falciparum) and pLDH (all species). More recently, RDTs have been developed to distinguish P. vivax parasitaemia by utilizing a pLDH antibody specific to P. vivax. Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for detecting non-falciparum or P. vivax parasitaemia in people living in malaria-endemic areas who present to ambulatory healthcare facilities with symptoms suggestive of malaria, and to identify which types and brands of commercial test best detect non-falciparum and P. vivax malaria. Search methods We undertook a comprehensive search of the following databases up to 31 December 2013: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE; MEDION; Science Citation Index; Web of Knowledge; African Index Medicus; LILACS; and IndMED. Selection criteria Studies comparing RDTs with a reference standard (microscopy or polymerase chain reaction) in blood samples from a random or consecutive series of patients attending ambulatory health facilities with symptoms suggestive of malaria in non-falciparum endemic areas. Data collection and analysis For each study, two review authors independently extracted a standard set of data using a tailored data extraction form. We grouped comparisons by type of RDT (defined by the combinations of antibodies used), and combined in meta-analysis where appropriate. Average sensitivities and

  14. Field Testing of Rapid Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Control of Steel in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Henry E.; Alexander, Joshua B.; Kupwade-Patil,Kunal; Calle, Luz Marina

    2009-01-01

    This work field tested the use of electrokinetics for delivery of concrete sealing nanoparticles concurrent with the extraction of chlorides. Several cylinders of concrete were batched and placed in immersion at the Kennedy Space Center Beach Corrosion Test Site. The specimens were batched with steel reinforcement and a 4.5 wt.% (weight percent) content of sodium chloride. Upon arrival at Kennedy Space Center, the specimens were placed in the saltwater immersion pool at the Beach Corrosion Test Site. Following 30 days of saltwater exposure, the specimens were subjected to rapid chloride extraction concurrent with electrokinetic nanoparticle treatment. The treatments were operated at up to eight times the typical current density in order to complete the treatment in 7 days. The findings indicated that the short-term corrosion resistance of the concrete specimens was significantly enhanced as was the strength of the concrete.

  15. Electronic vending machines for dispensing rapid HIV self-testing kits: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Klausner, Jeffrey; Fynn, Risa; Bolan, Robert

    2014-02-01

    This short report evaluates the feasibility of using electronic vending machines for dispensing oral, fluid, rapid HIV self-testing kits in Los Angeles County. Feasibility criteria that needed to be addressed were defined as: (1) ability to find a manufacturer who would allow dispensing of HIV testing kits and could fit them to the dimensions of a vending machine, (2) ability to identify and address potential initial obstacles, trade-offs in choosing a machine location, and (3) ability to gain community approval for implementing this approach in a community setting. To address these issues, we contracted a vending machine company who could supply a customized, Internet-enabled machine that could dispense HIV kits and partnered with a local health center available to host the machine onsite and provide counseling to participants, if needed. Vending machines appear to be feasible technologies that can be used to distribute HIV testing kits.

  16. Improving the screening of blood donors with syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkodie, F.; Hassall, O.; Owusu-Dabo, E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma...... reagin (RPR) test at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2014 to January 2015, 5 mL of venous blood samples were taken from 16 016 blood donors and tested with a treponemal RDT; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from 526 consenting initial syphilis sero......-reactive blood donors. These RDT reactive samples were confirmed with an algorithm, applying the Vitros(®) /Abbott-Architect(®) algorithm as gold standard. RESULTS: A total of 478 of 526 RDT reactive donors were confirmed positive for syphilis, making a PPV of 90·9%. Of the 172 (32·7%) donors who were also RPR...

  17. Incorporating Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Testing into Large-Scale Wildlife Rabies Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Middel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Following an incursion of the mid-Atlantic raccoon variant of the rabies virus into southern Ontario, Canada, in late 2015, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test for rabies (dRIT was employed on a large scale to establish the outbreak perimeter and to diagnose specific cases to inform rabies control management actions. In a 17-month period, 5800 wildlife carcasses were tested using the dRIT, of which 307 were identified as rabid. When compared with the gold standard fluorescent antibody test (FAT, the dRIT was found to have a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.2%. Positive and negative test agreement was shown to be 98.3% and 99.1%, respectively, with an overall test agreement of 98.8%. The average cost to test a sample was $3.13 CAD for materials, and hands-on technical time to complete the test is estimated at 0.55 h. The dRIT procedure was found to be accurate, fast, inexpensive, easy to learn and perform, and an excellent tool for monitoring the progression of a wildlife rabies incursion.

  18. Detection of chikungunya virus antigen by a novel rapid immunochromatographic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Tamaki; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Masrinoul, Promsin; Chantawat, Nantarat; Yoksan, Sutee; Nitatpattana, Narong; Chusri, Sarunyou; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Mulyantno, Kris Cahyo; Churrotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Sow, Abdourahmane; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Puiprom, Orapim; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Kurosu, Takeshi; Kato, Seiji; Kosaka, Mieko; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne disease of key public health importance in tropical and subtropical countries. Although severe joint pain is the most distinguishing feature of chikungunya fever, diagnosis remains difficult because the symptoms of chikungunya fever are shared by many pathogens, including dengue fever. The present study aimed to develop a new immunochromatographic diagnosis test for the detection of chikungunya virus antigen in serum. Mice were immunized with isolates from patients with Thai chikungunya fever, East/Central/South African genotype, to produce mouse monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus. Using these monoclonal antibodies, a new diagnostic test was developed and evaluated for the detection of chikungunya virus. The newly developed diagnostic test reacted with not only the East/Central/South African genotype but also with the Asian and West African genotypes of chikungunya virus. Testing of sera from patients suspected to have chikungunya fever in Thailand (n = 50), Laos (n = 54), Indonesia (n = 2), and Senegal (n = 6) revealed sensitivity, specificity, and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) agreement values of 89.4%, 94.4%, and 91.1%, respectively. In our study using serial samples, a new diagnostic test showed high agreement with the RT-PCR within the first 5 days after onset. A rapid diagnostic test was developed using mouse monoclonal antibodies that react with chikungunya virus envelope proteins. The diagnostic accuracy of our test is clinically acceptable for chikungunya fever in the acute phase. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Pretravel consultation: rapid dipstick test as a decision guidance for the application of tetanus booster vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Kundi, Michael; Tomann, Batya; Wiedermann, Ursula; Kollaritsch, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    When deciding whether to administer a tetanus vaccination--for international travel or injury--a subject's vaccination certificate should be investigated. As many people lack valid vaccination cards and are unable to recall their vaccination history, the Tetanos Quick Stick (TQS) test rapidly detects protective tetanus immunoglobulin IgG antibodies in whole blood, serum, or plasma. This immunochromatographic dipstick test yields a positive or negative result. Our study evaluates the effectiveness of the TQS test by comparing the binary TQS test results of 100 sera with the tetanus antibody levels as measured by the standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. We used the TQS test to determine whether a person needed a tetanus booster vaccination. If the test showed a clearly visible line that was similar to the control line, the result was determined to be positive. All positive TQS test results had a concentration of IgG antibodies above 0.5 IU/mL as measured by ELISA, indicating that no booster vaccination was required. Similarly, in all cases with an antibody level below 0.1 IU/mL, where a vaccination would have been recommended based on the ELISA test result, the TQS test yielded a negative result. The positive predictive value and the specificity for the dipstick test were therefore 100%. The TQS test is a reliable, fast, and cost-effective means of identifying subjects with a preexisiting level of tetanus IgG antibodies above approximately 0.5 IU/mL. This can help to avoid unnecessary tetanus vaccinations in travel clinics, emergency departments, and practices of family doctors.

  20. Effect of sweet yeast bread formula on evaluating rapid mix test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dvořáková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to detect how different sweet yeast bread formulas influence results of rapid mix test and by the help of sensory analysis to discover consumer preferences and possible benefit and use in bakery industry. Applied raw materials (ground wheat flour T 530, yeast, sugar, salt, oil, egg, improver Hit along with basic formula were taken from the Varmužova bakery in Boršice by Buchlovice. The basic formula served as a standard (I, other six formulas were then determined (II–VII. In each formula, the rate of yeast, sugar or oil was altered in the range of ± 10% compared with the standard. Flour bread-making quality – Hagberg Falling number [s], Sedimentation index [ml], wet gluten [%], ash [%], moisture [%], binding capacity [%], granulation [%], alveographic energy [10−4J] and alveographic rate P/L – was measured. Rapid mix test and parameters like pastry weight, volume, shape, dough yield, pastry yield, baking loss, penetration and sensory analysis were determined. To establish yeast fermentation activity, Engelke fermentation test was applied. The most evident differences among the samples appeared in the volume and shape. The results of sensory analysis showed that the samples with higher rate of altered raw materials were evaluated as the best.

  1. A Microfluidic Channel Method for Rapid Drug-Susceptibility Testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yoshimi; Grushnikov, Andrey; Kikuchi, Kazuma; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Akihito; Yagi, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    The recent global increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and lack of development of new therapeutic agents emphasize the importance of selecting appropriate antimicrobials for the treatment of infections. However, to date, the development of completely accelerated drug susceptibility testing methods has not been achieved despite the availability of a rapid identification method. We proposed an innovative rapid method for drug susceptibility testing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa that provides results within 3 h. The drug susceptibility testing microfluidic (DSTM) device was prepared using soft lithography. It consisted of five sets of four microfluidic channels sharing one inlet slot, and the four channels are gathered in a small area, permitting simultaneous microscopic observation. Antimicrobials were pre-introduced into each channel and dried before use. Bacterial suspensions in cation-adjusted Mueller–Hinton broth were introduced from the inlet slot and incubated for 3 h. Susceptibilities were microscopically evaluated on the basis of differences in cell numbers and shapes between drug-treated and control cells, using dedicated software. The results of 101 clinically isolated strains of P. aeruginosa obtained using the DSTM method strongly correlated with results obtained using the ordinary microbroth dilution method. Ciprofloxacin, meropenem, ceftazidime, and piperacillin caused elongation in susceptible cells, while meropenem also induced spheroplast and bulge formation. Morphological observation could alternatively be used to determine the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to these drugs, although amikacin had little effect on cell shape. The rapid determination of bacterial drug susceptibility using the DSTM method could also be applicable to other pathogenic species, and it could easily be introduced into clinical laboratories without the need for expensive instrumentation. PMID:26872134

  2. A Microfluidic Channel Method for Rapid Drug-Susceptibility Testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The recent global increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and lack of development of new therapeutic agents emphasize the importance of selecting appropriate antimicrobials for the treatment of infections. However, to date, the development of completely accelerated drug susceptibility testing methods has not been achieved despite the availability of a rapid identification method. We proposed an innovative rapid method for drug susceptibility testing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa that provides results within 3 h. The drug susceptibility testing microfluidic (DSTM device was prepared using soft lithography. It consisted of five sets of four microfluidic channels sharing one inlet slot, and the four channels are gathered in a small area, permitting simultaneous microscopic observation. Antimicrobials were pre-introduced into each channel and dried before use. Bacterial suspensions in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth were introduced from the inlet slot and incubated for 3 h. Susceptibilities were microscopically evaluated on the basis of differences in cell numbers and shapes between drug-treated and control cells, using dedicated software. The results of 101 clinically isolated strains of P. aeruginosa obtained using the DSTM method strongly correlated with results obtained using the ordinary microbroth dilution method. Ciprofloxacin, meropenem, ceftazidime, and piperacillin caused elongation in susceptible cells, while meropenem also induced spheroplast and bulge formation. Morphological observation could alternatively be used to determine the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to these drugs, although amikacin had little effect on cell shape. The rapid determination of bacterial drug susceptibility using the DSTM method could also be applicable to other pathogenic species, and it could easily be introduced into clinical laboratories without the need for expensive instrumentation.

  3. [Use of a rapid rotavirus test in prescription of antibiotics in acute diarrhea in pediatrics: an observational, randomized, controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Andrea; Rivara, Gustavo; Briceño, Diego; Huicho, Luis

    2012-01-01

    To determine the impact of a rapid and accurate rotavirus test in the emergency ward on the reduction of antibiotic prescription in children under 5 years old with acute diarrhea at "Arzobispo Loayza National Hospital", Lima, Peru. We performed an observational prospective randomized controlled study, from July 2008 to January 2009. Stool samples from patients with diarrhea lasting less than 5 days were analyzed. Out of 201 cases, 101 were classified in Group A (with fecal leukocytes test performed) and 100 in Group B (with fecal leukocytes test and rotavirus/adenovirus test performed). We aimed to associate the signs and symptoms with the decision of prescribing antibiotics and with hospitalization risk. Both groups were comparable with regard to age, weight and illness duration. In patients with rotavirus infection, fecal leukocytes were positive in 46.9% of cases. Frequency of antibiotic use was directly associated with the number of fecal leukocytes (Pdiarrhea-attributable deaths were reported. The use of rotavirus test in the pediatric emergency room decreased antibiotic prescription in children with diarrhea.

  4. Introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into drug shops in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal; Chandler, Clare Ir

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An intervention was designed to introduce rapid diagnostics tests for malaria (mRDTs) into registered drug shops in Uganda to encourage rational and appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). We conducted participatory training of drug shop...... through a cluster randomized trial. In this paper, we present detailed design, implementation and evaluation experiences in order to help inform future studies of a complex nature. METHODS: Three preparatory studies (formative, baseline and willingness-to-pay) were conducted to explore perceptions...

  5. Testing the consistency between cosmological measurements of distance and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remya Nair

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a model independent method to test the consistency between cosmological measurements of distance and age, assuming the distance duality relation. We use type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and observational Hubble data, to reconstruct the luminosity distance DL(z, the angle-averaged distance DV(z and the Hubble rate H(z, using Gaussian processes regression technique. We obtain estimate of the distance duality relation in the redshift range 0.1

  6. False positive rate of rapid oral fluid HIV tests increases as kits near expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facente, Shelley N; Dowling, Teri; Vittinghoff, Eric; Sykes, Deanna L; Colfax, Grant N

    2009-12-14

    Because a recent cluster of false positive results on the OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test occurred in San Francisco on test kits close to their expiration date, we decided to assess the relationship between time to expiration and rate of false positive results from tests used with oral fluid. We analyzed results of 20,904 tests with either an initial HIV-negative result (n = 20,828) or a preliminary positive result that was then negative on confirmatory tests (n = 76). We computed specificity for kits with time to expiration from or = 6 months, with exact binomial confidence intervals, then used logistic regression to estimate the independent association of time to expiration with false positive results, adjusting for site and technician effects. For 1,108 kits used in the last month before expiration, specificity was 98.83% (95% exact binomial confidence interval (CI) 98.00%-99.37%); the upper bound is below the claimed specificity of 99.60%. After adjustment using regression standardization for the effects of site, test lot, and technician factors, adjusted specificity in the last month before expiration was 99.18% (95% bootstrap confidence interval 98.60-99.57%). We found that specificity of the OraQuick ADVANCE with oral fluid declined significantly with < or = 1 month remaining to expiration, leaving little margin for error from other sources.

  7. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing in a microfluidic pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanyan; Zhen, Li; Liu, Jingqing; Wu, Jianmin

    2013-03-05

    For appropriate selection of antibiotics in the treatment of pathogen infection, rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) is urgently needed in clinical practice. This study reports the utilization of a microfluidic pH sensor for monitoring bacterial growth rate in culture media spiked with different kinds of antibiotics. The microfluidic pH sensor was fabricated by integration of pH-sensitive chitosan hydrogel with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic channels. For facilitating the reflectometric interference spectroscopic measurements, the chitosan hydrogel was coated on an electrochemically etched porous silicon chip, which was used as the substrate of the microfluidic channel. Real-time observation of the pH change in the microchannel can be realized by Fourier transform reflectometric interference spectroscopy (FT-RIFS), in which the effective optical thickness (EOT) was selected as the optical signal for indicating the reversible swelling process of chitosan hydrogel stimulated by pH change. With this microfluidic pH sensor, we demonstrate that confinement of bacterial cells in a nanoliter size channel allows rapid accumulation of metabolic products and eliminates the need for long-time preincubation, thus reducing the whole detection time. On the basis of this technology, the whole bacterial growth curve can be obtained in less than 2 h, and consequently rapid AST can be realized. Compared with conventional methods, the AST data acquired from the bacterial growth curve can provide more detailed information for studying the antimicrobial behavior of antibiotics during different stages. Furthermore, the new technology also provides a convenient method for rapid minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) determination of individual antibiotics or the combinations of antibiotics against human pathogens that will find application in clinical and point-of-care medicine.

  8. The diagnostic accuracy of three rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid fever at Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Rapeephan R; de Jong, Hanna K; Wijedoru, Lalith; Fukushima, Masako; Ghose, Aniruddha; Samad, Rasheda; Hossain, Mohammed Amir; Karim, Mohammed Rezaul; Faiz, Mohammed Abul; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of three rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for typhoid fever in febrile hospitalised patients in Bangladesh. Febrile adults and children admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh, were investigated with Bact/Alert(®) blood cultures and real-time PCR to detect Salmonella enterica Typhi and Paratyphi A and assays for Rickettsia, leptospirosis and dengue fever. Acute serum samples were examined with the LifeAssay (LA) Test-it™ Typhoid IgM lateral flow assay detecting IgM antibodies against S. Typhi O antigen, CTKBiotech Onsite Typhoid IgG/IgM Combo Rapid-test cassette lateral flow assay detecting IgG and IgM antibodies against S. Typhi O and H antigens and SD Bioline line assay for IgG and IgM antibodies against S. Typhi proteins. In 300 malaria smear-negative febrile patients [median (IQR) age of 13.5 (5-31) years], 34 (11.3%) had confirmed typhoid fever: 19 positive by blood culture for S. Typhi (three blood PCR positive) and 15 blood culture negative but PCR positive for S. Typhi in blood. The respective sensitivity and specificity of the three RDTs in patients using a composite reference standard of blood culture and/or PCR-confirmed typhoid fever were 59% and 61% for LifeAssay, 59% and 74% for the CTK IgM and/or IgG, and 24% and 96% for the SD Bioline RDT IgM and/or IgG. The LifeAssay RDT had a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 91% when modified with a positive cut-off of ≥2+ and analysed using a Bayesian latent class model. These typhoid RDTs demonstrated moderate diagnostic accuracies, and better tests are needed. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of rapid aging and lower participation rate among younger adults on the short-term trend of physical activity in the National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Nobuo; Yoshizawa, Takeshi; Okuda, Nagako

    2017-10-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, has annually monitored two indicators of physical activity in adults. They are contrasting in the association with age; the prevalence of exercise habit is lower and step counts are higher among younger participants. The present study aimed to examine the effects of rapid aging of the Japanese population and the lower participation rate among younger adults on the short-term trend of two indicators of physical activity using tabulated data. The prevalence of exercise habit and step counts by age groups (≥20 years) from 2003 to 2010 were estimated using tabulated data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey by calculating sex-specific means weighted by age-specific Japanese population data for each year (population-weighted estimates) and for a fixed year (2005; age-standardized estimates). Linear regression analyses were used to test the statistical significance of their trends. Statistically significant increasing trends in the prevalence of exercise habit were observed for the crude means (P = 0.029), the population-weighted estimates (P = 0.007) and the age-standardized estimates (P = 0.016) only in men. Statistically significant decreasing trends in the step counts were observed for the crude means (P = 0.006 in men and P = 0.033 in women) and the population-weighted estimates (P = 0.008 in men and P = 0.049 in women) both in men and women, but for the age-standardized estimates (P = 0.039) only in men. The effects of rapid aging of the Japanese population and the lower participation rate among younger adults on the short-term trend are not small, and age-standardization is necessary to observe even the short-term trend of physical activity data. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1677-1682. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Evaluation of oral fluid enzyme immunoassay for confirmation of a positive rapid human immunodeficiency virus test result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, L G; Sanchez, T; MacKellar, D A; Branson, B M; Ethridge, S F; Constantine, N; Ketema, F; Sullivan, P S

    2009-07-01

    The CDC recommends that a reactive rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test be confirmed with an approved supplemental test; the performance of an intermediate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is optional. In support of this recommendation, it was found that of 1,431 reactive rapid HIV test results, 2 (0.1%) had false-negative oral fluid Western blot results and both had false-negative EIA results.

  11. Evaluation of Oral Fluid Enzyme Immunoassay for Confirmation of a Positive Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus Test Result▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wesolowski, L. G.; Sanchez, T.; MacKellar, D. A.; Branson, B. M.; Ethridge, S. F.; Constantine, N.; Ketema, F.; Sullivan, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    The CDC recommends that a reactive rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test be confirmed with an approved supplemental test; the performance of an intermediate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is optional. In support of this recommendation, it was found that of 1,431 reactive rapid HIV test results, 2 (0.1%) had false-negative oral fluid Western blot results and both had false-negative EIA results.

  12. Rapid identification of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii using a modified Carba NP test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bakour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical tests have been previously developed to identify carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. (Carba NP test and Acinetobacter spp. (CarbAcineto NP test. We evaluated a modified Carba NP test to detect carbapenemase production in Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter species using a single protocol with rapid results and found good reliability and speed.

  13. Rapid prototyping compliant arterial phantoms for in-vitro studies and device testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biglino Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compliant vascular phantoms are desirable for in-vitro patient-specific experiments and device testing. TangoPlus FullCure 930® is a commercially available rubber-like material that can be used for PolyJet rapid prototyping. This work aims to gather preliminary data on the distensibility of this material, in order to assess the feasibility of its use in the context of experimental cardiovascular modelling. Methods The descending aorta anatomy of a volunteer was modelled in 3D from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR images and rapid prototyped using TangoPlus. The model was printed with a range of increasing wall thicknesses (0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mm, keeping the lumen of the vessel constant. Models were also printed in both vertical and horizontal orientations, thus resulting in a total of ten specimens. Compliance tests were performed by monitoring pressure variations while gradually increasing and decreasing internal volume. Knowledge of distensibility was thus derived and then implemented with CMR data to test two applications. Firstly, a patient-specific compliant model of hypoplastic aorta suitable for connection in a mock circulatory loop for in-vitro tests was manufactured. Secondly, the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT of a patient necessitating pulmonary valve replacement was printed in order to physically test device insertion and assess patient’s suitability for percutaneous pulmonary valve intervention. Results The distensibility of the material was identified in a range from 6.5 × 10-3 mmHg-1 for the 0.6 mm case, to 3.0 × 10-3 mmHg-1 for the 1.5 mm case. The models printed in the vertical orientation were always more compliant than their horizontal counterpart. Rapid prototyping of a compliant hypoplastic aorta and of a RVOT anatomical model were both feasible. Device insertion in the RVOT model was successful. Conclusion Values of distensibility, compared with literature data, show that Tango

  14. A Laboratory-Based Evaluation of Four Rapid Point-of-Care Tests for Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causer, Louise M.; Kaldor, John M.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Donovan, Basil; Karapanagiotidis, Theo; Leslie, David E.; Robertson, Peter W.; McNulty, Anna M.; Anderson, David; Wand, Handan; Conway, Damian P.; Denham, Ian; Ryan, Claire; Guy, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Syphilis point-of-care tests may reduce morbidity and ongoing transmission by increasing the proportion of people rapidly treated. Syphilis stage and co-infection with HIV may influence test performance. We evaluated four commercially available syphilis point-of-care devices in a head-to-head comparison using sera from laboratories in Australia. Methods Point-of-care tests were evaluated using sera stored at Sydney and Melbourne laboratories. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by standard methods, comparing point-of-care results to treponemal immunoassay (IA) reference test results. Additional analyses by clinical syphilis stage, HIV status, and non-treponemal antibody titre were performed. Non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals (CI) were considered statistically significant differences in estimates. Results In total 1203 specimens were tested (736 IA-reactive, 467 IA-nonreactive). Point-of-care test sensitivities were: Determine 97.3%(95%CI:95.8–98.3), Onsite 92.5%(90.3–94.3), DPP 89.8%(87.3–91.9) and Bioline 87.8%(85.1–90.0). Specificities were: Determine 96.4%(94.1–97.8), Onsite 92.5%(90.3–94.3), DPP 98.3%(96.5–99.2), and Bioline 98.5%(96.8–99.3). Sensitivity of the Determine test was 100% for primary and 100% for secondary syphilis. The three other tests had reduced sensitivity among primary (80.4–90.2%) compared to secondary syphilis (94.3–98.6%). No significant differences in sensitivity were observed by HIV status. Test sensitivities were significantly higher among high-RPR titre (RPR≥8) (range: 94.6–99.5%) than RPR non-reactive infections (range: 76.3–92.9%). Conclusions The Determine test had the highest sensitivity overall. All tests were most sensitive among high-RPR titre infections. Point-of-care tests have a role in syphilis control programs however in developed countries with established laboratory infrastructures, the lower sensitivities of some tests observed in primary syphilis suggest these would

  15. A laboratory-based evaluation of four rapid point-of-care tests for syphilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise M Causer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syphilis point-of-care tests may reduce morbidity and ongoing transmission by increasing the proportion of people rapidly treated. Syphilis stage and co-infection with HIV may influence test performance. We evaluated four commercially available syphilis point-of-care devices in a head-to-head comparison using sera from laboratories in Australia. METHODS: Point-of-care tests were evaluated using sera stored at Sydney and Melbourne laboratories. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by standard methods, comparing point-of-care results to treponemal immunoassay (IA reference test results. Additional analyses by clinical syphilis stage, HIV status, and non-treponemal antibody titre were performed. Non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals (CI were considered statistically significant differences in estimates. RESULTS: In total 1203 specimens were tested (736 IA-reactive, 467 IA-nonreactive. Point-of-care test sensitivities were: Determine 97.3%(95%CI:95.8-98.3, Onsite 92.5%(90.3-94.3, DPP 89.8%(87.3-91.9 and Bioline 87.8%(85.1-90.0. Specificities were: Determine 96.4%(94.1-97.8, Onsite 92.5%(90.3-94.3, DPP 98.3%(96.5-99.2, and Bioline 98.5%(96.8-99.3. Sensitivity of the Determine test was 100% for primary and 100% for secondary syphilis. The three other tests had reduced sensitivity among primary (80.4-90.2% compared to secondary syphilis (94.3-98.6%. No significant differences in sensitivity were observed by HIV status. Test sensitivities were significantly higher among high-RPR titre (RPR ≥ 8 (range: 94.6-99.5% than RPR non-reactive infections (range: 76.3-92.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The Determine test had the highest sensitivity overall. All tests were most sensitive among high-RPR titre infections. Point-of-care tests have a role in syphilis control programs however in developed countries with established laboratory infrastructures, the lower sensitivities of some tests observed in primary syphilis suggest these would need to be

  16. Evaluation of the rapid RIDAQUICK Campylobacter® test in a general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Camarasa, Cristina; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier Moises; Sampedro-Martínez, Antonio; Sorlózano-Puerto, Antonio; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2014-02-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the new rapid immunochromatographic test RIDAQUICK Campylobacter® (r-biopharm AG, Darmstadt, Germany) for the qualitative detection of Campylobacter antigens in pathologic feces from primary and specialist care patients. Three hundred feces samples were studied from patients with diarrhea, 50.6% from adults and 49.4% from children, which were received by our microbiology laboratory for coproculture. Campylobacter culture results, with or without PCR data, served as reference values for the comparative evaluation of RIDAQUICK Campylobacter® findings. Campylobacter was detected in 12.3% of samples. The diagnostic accuracy values of the RidaQuick Campylobacter® versus culture were: sensitivity of 87%, specificity of 97%, and positive and negative predictive values of 77% and 98%, respectively. RIDAQUICK Campylobacter® is a rapid test for the diagnosis of enteritis due to Campylobacter and could be an option for the clinical diagnosis of one of the main causes of bacterial enteritis in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Quach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP, which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and -resistant (MRSA clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71 within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS S. aureus strains (n = 20 within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice.

  18. Bacteriophage-based latex agglutination test for rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Walther, Thomas; Molinaro, Sonja; Li, Xuehua; Xia, Guoqing; Wieser, Andreas; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas; Becker, Karsten

    2014-09-01

    Rapid diagnosis is essential for the management of Staphylococcus aureus infections. A host recognition protein from S. aureus bacteriophage phiSLT was recombinantly produced and used to coat streptavidin latex beads to develop a latex agglutination test (LAT). The diagnostic accuracy of this bacteriophage-based test was compared with that of a conventional LAT, Pastorex Staph-Plus, by investigating a clinical collection of 86 S. aureus isolates and 128 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from deep tissue infections. All of the clinical S. aureus isolates were correctly identified by the bacteriophage-based test. While most of the CoNS were correctly identified as non-S. aureus isolates, 7.9% of the CoNS caused agglutination. Thus, the sensitivity of the bacteriophage-based LAT for identification of S. aureus among clinical isolates was 100%, its specificity was 92.1%, its positive predictive value (PPV) was 89.6%, and its negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the Pastorex LAT for the identification of S. aureus were 100%, 99.2%, 98.9%, and 100%, respectively. Among the additionally tested 35 S. aureus and 91 non-S. aureus staphylococcal reference and type strains, 1 isolate was false negative by each system; 13 and 8 isolates were false positive by the bacteriophage-based and Pastorex LATs, respectively. The ability of the phiSLT protein to detect S. aureus was dependent on the presence of wall teichoic acid (WTA) and corresponded to the production of ribitol phosphate WTA, which is found in most S. aureus clones but only a small minority of CoNS. Bacteriophage-based LAT identification is a promising strategy for rapid pathogen identification. Finding more specific bacteriophage proteins would increase the specificity of this novel diagnostic approach. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seok Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA. When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96 of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146 of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  20. Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test for yaws infection in a community surveillance setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yaws is a non-venereal treponemal infection caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue. The WHO has launched a worldwide control programme, which aims to eradicate yaws by 2020. The development of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT for serological diagnosis in the isolated communities affected by yaws is a key requirement for the successful implementation of the WHO strategy. We conducted a study to evaluate the utility of the DPP test in screening for yaws, utilizing samples collected as part of a community prevalence survey conducted in the Solomon Islands. 415 serum samples were tested using both traditional syphilis serology (TPPA and quantitative RPR and the Chembio DPP Syphilis Screen and Confirm RDT. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the RDT as compared to gold standard serology. The sensitivity of the RDT against TPPA was 58.5% and the specificity was 97.6%. The sensitivity of the RDT against RPR was 41.7% and the specificity was 95.2%. The sensitivity of the DPP was strongly related to the RPR titre with a sensitivity of 92.0% for an RPR titre of >1/16. Wider access to DPP testing would improve our understanding of worldwide yaws case reporting and the test may play a key role in assessing patients presenting with yaws like lesions in a post-mass drug administration (MDA setting.

  1. Ecosytem Services: A Rapid Assessment Method Tested at 35 Sites of the LTER-Europe Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Jan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of parameters to monitor the ecosystem services delivered at a site is fundamental to the concept’s adoption as a useful policy instrument at local, national and international scales. In this paper we (i describe the process of developing a rapid comprehensive ecosystem service assessment methodology and (ii test the applicability of the protocol at 35 long-term research (LTER sites across 14 countries in the LTER-Europe network (www.lter-europe.net including marine, urban, agricultural, forest, desert and conservation sites. An assessment of probability of occurrence with estimated confidence score using 83 ecosystem service parameters was tested. The parameters were either specific services like food production or proxies such as human activities which were considered surrogates for cultural diversity and economic activity. This initial test of the ecosystem service parameter list revealed that the parameters tested were relatively easy to score by site managers with a high level of certainty (92% scored as either occurring or not occurring at the site with certainty of over 90%. Based on this assessment, we concluded that (i this approach to operationalise the concept of ecosystem services is practical and applicable by many sectors of civil society as a first screen of the ecosystem services present at a site, (ii this study has direct relevance to land management and policy decision makers as a transparent vehicle to focus testing scenarios and target data gathering, but (iii further work beyond the scale investigated here is required to ensure global applicability.

  2. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kang, Go-Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man

    2016-01-01

    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA). When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96) of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146) of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  3. [Evaluation of an immunochromatographic fourth generation test for the rapid diagnosis of acute HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, Takuya; Nagashima, Mami; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kojima, Yoko; Mori, Haruyo

    2013-07-01

    The early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is important to provide effective antiviral treatment and to prevent transmission of HIV. One of the key issues to achieve this goal is to shorten the so-called "diagnostic window period" when the humoral immune response toward the virus is not fully developed during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. In 2008, the Espline HIV Ag/Ab test kit (E4G, Fujirebio Inc. Japan) was marketed in Japan belonging to the fourth generation of HIV test kits characterized by its ability to detect both viral antigens (Ag) and anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies (Ab). E4G is the first and only fourth generation immunochromatographic HIV test kit approved in Japan at present. To evaluate its performance to diagnose acute HIV infection (AHI), E4G was compared with fourth generation Ag/Ab ELISA test kits, a third generation PA test kit, WB and real-time PCR for the testing of 25 AHI clinical specimens. E4G detected HIV infection in 18/25 specimens (sensitivity : 72.0%), of which the viral Ag was detected in only 2 specimens (8.0%) bearing a viral load > 10 million copies/mL. No spesimens were simultaneously reactive to both Ag and Ab against HIV. The third generation PA achieved a positive score of 17/ 25 specimens (68.0%), which was almost the same as the E4G figure. In contrast the fourth generation Ag/ Ab ELISA scored all the 25 AHI specimens positive (sensitivity : 100%). Overall, although having the merit of offering a rapid diagnostic test for HIV infection, E4G does not provide a sensitivity in AHI diagnosis superior to test kits currently available.

  4. Rapid Geriatric Assessment: Secondary Prevention to Stop Age-Associated Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, John E

    2017-08-01

    The Rapid Geriatric Assessment (RGA) measures frailty, sarcopenia, anorexia, cognition, and advanced directives. The RGA is a screen for primary care physicians to be able to detect geriatric syndromes. Early intervention when geriatric syndromes are recognized can decrease disability, hospitalization, and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Kate E.; Riedner, Brady A.; Smith, Richard F.; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J.; Benca, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel) electroencephalography (EEG) during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18–65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson’s coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor. PMID:26901503

  6. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Kate E; Riedner, Brady A; Smith, Richard F; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J; Benca, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel) electroencephalography (EEG) during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18-65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson's coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor.

  7. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E Sprecher

    Full Text Available Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel electroencephalography (EEG during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18-65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson's coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor.

  8. Small Project Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) An Innovation Space for Small Projects Design, Development, Integration, and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ashley; Rackoczy, John; Heater, Daniel; Sanders, Devon; Tashakkor, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  9. Integrated Biosensor Assay for Rapid Uropathogen Identification and Phenotypic Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, Emanuela; Mohan, Ruchika; Mach, Kathleen E; Sin, Mandy Lai Yi; Anikst, Victoria; Buscarini, Maurizio; Wong, Pak Kin; Gau, Vincent; Banaei, Niaz; Liao, Joseph C

    2017-04-01

    Standard diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) via urine culture for pathogen identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) takes 2-3 d. This delay results in empiric treatment and contributes to the misuse of antibiotics and the rise of resistant pathogens. A rapid diagnostic test for UTI may improve patient care and antibiotic stewardship. To develop and validate an integrated biosensor assay for UTI diagnosis, including pathogen ID and AST, with determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ciprofloxacin. Urine samples positive for Enterobacteriaceae (n=84) or culture-negative (n=23) were obtained from the Stanford Clinical Microbiology Laboratory between November 2013 and September 2014. Each sample was diluted and cultured for 5h with and without ciprofloxacin, followed by quantitative detection of bacterial 16S rRNA using a single electrochemical biosensor array functionalized with a panel of complementary DNA probes. Pathogen ID was determined using universal bacterial, Enterobacteriaceae (EB), and pathogen-specific probes. Phenotypic AST with ciprofloxacin MIC was determined using an EB probe to measure 16S rRNA levels as a function of bacterial growth. Electrochemical signals for pathogen ID at 6 SD over background were considered positive. An MIC signal of 0.4 log units lower than the no-antibiotic control indicated sensitivity. Results were compared to clinical microbiology reports. For pathogen ID, the assay had 98.5% sensitivity, 96.6% specificity, 93.0% positive predictive value, and 99.3% negative predictive value. For ciprofloxacin MIC the categorical and essential agreement was 97.6%. Further automation, testing of additional pathogens and antibiotics, and a full prospective study will be necessary for translation to clinical use. The integrated biosensor platform achieved microbiological results including MIC comparable to standard culture in a significantly shorter assay time. Further assay automation

  10. Ageing tests study on wood-based sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo, Raquel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite lightweight wood panels are being increasingly used in construction in Spain. Their growing use should be accompanied by necessary guarantees based on studies of their properties. As it is prescriptive and in addition to others tests, in the present work is examinated the durability of these panels when exposed to the climatic conditions, a characteristic of great importance for wood products, according to Guide ETAG 016, the current standard defining the ageing tests to be used. However, due to the use class of this material, there are indications that the testing outlined in this Guide is inappropriate for assessing the ageing of wood-based sandwich panels. Alternative tests are here proposed that recreate rather better the real conditions under which these products are used. Covering the samples in a waterproof sheeting permeable to the outward movement of water vapour, which is in fact used in the installation, provided the best procedure for testing these panels.

    Los paneles sándwich de madera son un producto de creciente aplicación en la edificación de nuestro país. Este ascendente uso del material debe estar acompañado de las garantías necesarias avaladas por un estudio previo de sus prestaciones. Como es preceptivo y entre otros, se evalúa su durabilidad frente a las condiciones climatológicas, clave en los productos derivados de la madera, acorde a la normativa actual definida con tal fin, la Guía ETAG 016. Sin embargo, debido a la clase de uso del material, se ha detectado que dicha normativa tal y como está concebida no es capaz de valorar su envejecimiento adecuadamente. En este trabajo se proponen ensayos alternativos al establecido tras exhaustivos análisis que recrean las condiciones reales de uso y más acordes a los productos de madera. Se concluye que la incorporación de una lámina impermeable pero permeable al vapor de agua hacia el exterior, como las utilizadas en el montaje, aportan el mejor

  11. Use of rapid carbohydrate utilisation test for identifying "Streptococcus milleri group".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, J M; Ross, P W; Poxton, I R

    1991-01-01

    A short series of biochemical and serological tests were developed for the rapid presumptive identification of "Streptococcus milleri group" isolates. One hundred and seventy seven streptococcal isolates were recovered from the mouths of 10 out of 12 healthy adult volunteers by use of a simple sampling procedure and a single selective medium. In all, 127 oral "S milleri group" isolates were identified by biochemical and serological tests, confirming the indigenous nature of these streptococci in the mouth. Most (70.1%) of "S milleri group" isolates were non-haemolytic, 26% were alpha-haemolytic, and 3.9% beta-haemolytic. Fifty four (42.5%) were serologically typable, of which 46 were Lancefield group F, suggesting that the mouth is an important source of Lancefield group F streptococci. A collection of group F streptococci from a range of sources was indistinguishable from a collection of oral "S milleri group" isolates on the basis of the tests used, supporting the general synonymity of group F streptococcus with the broader "S milleri group". The battery of tests was cheap and simple to perform, and was capable of identifying "S milleri group" isolates from a range of sources, including variants with wide sugar fermentation patterns. PMID:2030154

  12. ON THE RELATIVISTIC PRECESSION AND OSCILLATION FREQUENCIES OF TEST PARTICLES AROUND RAPIDLY ROTATING COMPACT STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachon, Leonardo A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Rueda, Jorge A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Universita di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A., E-mail: leonardo.pachon@fisica.udea.edu.co, E-mail: jorge.rueda@icra.it, E-mail: cesar.valenzuela@correounivalle.edu.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Santiago de Cali (Colombia)

    2012-09-01

    Whether or not analytic exact vacuum (electrovacuum) solutions of the Einstein (Einstein-Maxwell) field equations can accurately describe the exterior space-time of compact stars still remains an interesting open question in relativistic astrophysics. As an attempt to establish their level of accuracy, the radii of the innermost stable circular orbits (ISCOs) of test particles given by analytic exterior space-time geometries have been compared with those given by numerical solutions for neutron stars (NSs) obeying a realistic equation of state (EOS). It has been so shown that the six-parametric solution of Pachon et al. (PRS) more accurately describes the NS ISCO radii than other analytic models do. We propose here an additional test of accuracy for analytic exterior geometries based on the comparison of orbital frequencies of neutral test particles. We compute the Keplerian, frame-dragging, and precession and oscillation frequencies of the radial and vertical motions of neutral test particles for the Kerr and PRS geometries and then compare them with the numerical values obtained by Morsink and Stella for realistic NSs. We identify the role of high-order multipole moments such as the mass quadrupole and current octupole in the determination of the orbital frequencies, especially in the rapid rotation regime. The results of this work are relevant to cast a separatrix between black hole and NS signatures and to probe the nuclear-matter EOS and NS parameters from the quasi-periodic oscillations observed in low-mass X-ray binaries.

  13. Modified agar dilution method for rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, C W; Martin, W J

    1978-01-01

    A simplified method has been developed for agar dilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria, designed to economize on time and money when only a few isolates need to be tested. The procedure is based on the principle of using filter paper disks as carriers of the antibiotic and 35- by 10-mm petri dishes which, when inoculated with the Steers replicator, can test up to four organisms per plate. The procedure was run in parallel with conventional agar dilution techniques and showed 95% agreement to within one dilution for all minimal inhibitory concentrations recorded on fresh anaerobic isolates from clinical specimens. The technique was further simplified by using commercially available antibiotic-containing disks, thereby alleviating the tedious and time-consuming procedure of preparing the disks. The data indicated that 48- to 72-h diffusion periods were sufficient to achieve a uniform concentration of the antibiotic in the petri plate and that the antibiotics were stable at room temperature for that period of time. In terms of applicability and relevance to the needs of the clinical microbiology laboratory, the modified agar dilution method for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing of individual anaerobic isolates was found to be superior to the broth dilution method since it was easier to read and required considerably less set up time. PMID:400819

  14. Warm-ups for military fitness testing: rapid evidence assessment of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeno, Stacey A; Purvis, Dianna; Crawford, Cindy; Lee, Courtney; Lisman, Peter; Deuster, Patricia A

    2013-07-01

    Warm-up exercises are commonly used before exercise as a method to physiologically prepare for strenuous physical activity. Various warm-up exercises are often implemented but without scientific merit and, at times, may be detrimental to performance. To date, no systematic reviews have examined the effectiveness of warm-up exercises for military physical fitness test (PFT) or combat fitness test (CFT). The purpose of this rapid evidence assessment of the literature was to examine the quantity, quality, and effectiveness of warm-up exercises for PFT and identify those that might increase PFT and/or CFT scores, as reported in the literature. Literature searches of randomized controlled trials were performed across various databases from database inception to May 2011. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) 50 criteria for randomized controlled trial designs, and studies were individually described. Subject matter experts summarized the results applicable or generalizable to military testing. The search yielded a total of 1177 citations, with 37 fitting our inclusion criteria. Cardiovascular warm-ups increased sprint/running time, but dynamic stretching and dynamic warm-ups had the most positive outcome for the various exercise tests examined. Systematically, static stretching had no beneficial or detrimental effect on exercise performance but did improve range of movement exercises. Selected warm-up exercise may increase PFT and possibly CFT scores. Further research is needed to investigate the efficacy of dynamic stretching and dynamic warm-ups.

  15. Merging of the alpha and beta relaxations and aging via the Johari–Goldstein modes in rapidly quenched metallic glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Hachenberg, Jörg; Bedorf, Dennis; Samwer, Konrad; Richert, Ranko; Kahl, Annelen; Demetriou, Marios D.; Johnson, William L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides evidence that the physical aging of deeply and rapidly quenched metallic glasses is promoted by the Johari–Goldstein slow beta relaxation, resulting in a significant irreversible increase in the mechanical modulus on initial heating. Dynamic mechanical analysis has been used to characterize relaxation phenomena of a strong and a fragile metallic glass. In addition, we can extrapolate the temperature dependence of beta- and alpha-relaxation peaks to higher temperatures and ...

  16. ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test kit for point-of-care and laboratory-based testing for Ebola virus disease: a field validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Mara Jana; Kelly, John Daniel; Miller, Ann; Semper, Amanda; Bailey, Daniel; Groppelli, Elisabetta; Simpson, Andrew; Brooks, Tim; Hula, Susan; Nyoni, Wilfred; Sankoh, Alhaji B; Kanu, Santigi; Jalloh, Alhaji; Ton, Quy; Sarchet, Nicholas; George, Peter; Perkins, Mark D; Wonderly, Betsy; Murray, Megan; Pollock, Nira R

    2015-08-29

    At present, diagnosis of Ebola virus disease requires transport of venepuncture blood to field biocontainment laboratories for testing by real-time RT-PCR, resulting in delays that complicate patient care and infection control efforts. Therefore, an urgent need exists for a point-of-care rapid diagnostic test for this disease. In this Article, we report the results of a field validation of the Corgenix ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test kit. We performed the rapid diagnostic test on fingerstick blood samples from 106 individuals with suspected Ebola virus disease presenting at two clinical centres in Sierra Leone. Adults and children who were able to provide verbal consent or assent were included; we excluded patients with haemodynamic instability and those who were unable to cooperate with fingerstick or venous blood draw. Two independent readers scored each rapid diagnostic test, with any disagreements resolved by a third. We compared point-of-care rapid diagnostic test results with clinical real-time RT-PCR results (RealStar Filovirus Screen RT-PCR kit 1·0; altona Diagnostics GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) for venepuncture plasma samples tested in a Public Health England field reference laboratory (Port Loko, Sierra Leone). Separately, we performed the rapid diagnostic test (on whole blood) and real-time RT-PCR (on plasma) on 284 specimens in the reference laboratory, which were submitted to the laboratory for testing from many clinical sites in Sierra Leone, including our two clinical centres. In point-of-care testing, all 28 patients who tested positive for Ebola virus disease by RT-PCR were also positive by fingerstick rapid diagnostic test (sensitivity 100% [95% CI 87·7-100]), and 71 of 77 patients who tested negative by RT-PCR were also negative by the rapid diagnostic test (specificity 92·2% [95% CI 83·8-97·1]). In laboratory testing, all 45 specimens that tested positive by RT-PCR were also positive by the rapid diagnostic test (sensitivity 100% [95% CI 92·1

  17. Physical aging of molecular glasses studied by a device allowing for rapid thermal equilibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina; Olsen, Niels Boye; Niss, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    Aging to the equilibrium liquid state of organic glasses is studied. The glasses were prepared by cooling the liquid to temperatures just below the glass transition. Aging following a temperature jump was studied by measuring the dielectric loss at a fixed frequency using a microregulator in which...... temperature is controlled by means of a Peltier element. Compared to conventional equipment, the new device adds almost two orders of magnitude to the span of observable aging times. Data for the following five glass-forming liquids are presented: dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, 2,3-epoxy propyl......-phenyl-ether, 5-polyphenyl-ether, and triphenyl phosphite. The aging data were analyzed using the Tool–Narayanaswamy formalism. The following features are found for all five liquids: (1) The liquid has an “internal clock,” a fact that is established by showing that aging is controlled by the same material time...

  18. The role and reliability of rapid bedside diagnostic test in early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Debata, Pradeep Kumar; Ranjan, Amitabh; Gaind, Rajani

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the role and reliability of rapid bedside diagnostic test in early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis in children using reagent strips. This prospective, single blinded study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi in collaboration with the Department of Microbiology of VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, over a period of 15 mo (August 2009 to Nov 2010). Seventy-five children aged 3 mo to 12 y admitted in the pediatric ward with suspected diagnosis of acute meningitis were included. All enroled patients underwent lumbar puncture. CSF samples were taken and divided in 2 parts for laboratory evaluation and rapid strip analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and the negative predictive values of the reagent strips for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis were calculated. Accuracy of the reagent strips was established using kappa statistics. Latex agglutination for antigen detection and microbiological culture were also done. Highly significant association was observed between CSF examination in routine laboratory method and dipstick method. The number of laboratory values that correlated were- for cells 71(94.63%), for protein 68 (90.67%), for glucose 68(90.67%) out of total 75 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of reagent strip in diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis were 96.7% and 97.8% respectively. The positive predictive and negative predictive values of reagent strip in diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis were 96.7% and 97.8% respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most common organism isolated (50%). Thus reagent strip analysis is a very rapid, reliable and effective method for diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in children. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism isolated.

  19. Prospective evaluation of three rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga G A Goris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of leptospirosis by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT or by culture is confined to specialized laboratories. Although ELISA techniques are more common, they still require laboratory facilities. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs can be used for easy point-of-care diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the RDTs LeptoTek Dri Dot, LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and Leptocheck-WB, prospectively. METHODOLOGY: During 2001 to 2012, one or two of the RDTs at the same time have been applied prior to routine diagnostics (MAT, ELISA and culture on serum specimens from participants sent in for leptospirosis diagnosis. The case definition was based on MAT, ELISA and culture results. Participants not fulfilling the case definition were considered not to have leptospirosis. The diagnostic accuracy was determined based on the 1(st submitted sample and paired samples, either in an overall analysis or stratified according to days post onset of illness. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity for the LeptoTek Dri Dot was 75% respectively 96%, for the LeptoTek Lateral Flow 78% respectively 95%, and for the Leptocheck-WB 78% respectively 98%. Based on the 1(st submitted sample the sensitivity was low (51% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 69% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 55% for Leptocheck-WB, but substantially increased when the results of paired samples were combined, although accompanied by a lower specificity (82% respectively 91% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 86% respectively 84% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 80% respectively 93% for Leptocheck-WB. CONCLUSIONS: All three tests present antibody tests contributing to the diagnosis of leptospirosis, thus supporting clinical suspicion and contributing to awareness. Since the overall sensitivity of the tested RDTs did not exceed 80%, one should be cautious to rely only on an RDT result, and confirmation by reference tests is strongly recommended.

  20. Misdiagnosis of HIV infection during a South African community-based survey: implications for rapid HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufa, Tendesayi; Kharsany, Ayesha Bm; Cawood, Cherie; Khanyile, David; Lewis, Lara; Grobler, Anneke; Chipeta, Zawadi; Bere, Alfred; Glenshaw, Mary; Puren, Adrian

    2017-08-29

    We describe the overall accuracy and performance of a serial rapid HIV testing algorithm used in community-based HIV testing in the context of a population-based household survey conducted in two sub-districts of uMgungundlovu district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, against reference fourth-generation HIV-1/2 antibody and p24 antigen combination immunoassays. We discuss implications of the findings on rapid HIV testing programmes. Cross-sectional design: Following enrolment into the survey, questionnaires were administered to eligible and consenting participants in order to obtain demographic and HIV-related data. Peripheral blood samples were collected for HIV-related testing. Participants were offered community-based HIV testing in the home by trained field workers using a serial algorithm with two rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in series. In the laboratory, reference HIV testing was conducted using two fourth-generation immunoassays with all positives in the confirmatory test considered true positives. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and false-positive and false-negative rates were determined. Of 10,236 individuals enrolled in the survey, 3740 were tested in the home (median age 24 years (interquartile range 19-31 years), 42.1% males and HIV positivity on RDT algorithm 8.0%). From those tested, 3729 (99.7%) had a definitive RDT result as well as a laboratory immunoassay result. The overall accuracy of the RDT when compared to the fourth-generation immunoassays was 98.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 98.5-99.2). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 91.1% (95% CI 87.5-93.7), 99.9% (95% CI 99.8-100), 99.3% (95% CI 97.4-99.8) and 99.1% (95% CI 98.8-99.4) respectively. The false-positive and false-negative rates were 0.06% (95% CI 0.01-0.24) and 8.9% (95% CI 6.3-12.53). Compared to true positives, false negatives were more likely to be recently infected on

  1. Misdiagnosis of HIV infection during a South African community-based survey: implications for rapid HIV testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufa, Tendesayi; Kharsany, Ayesha BM; Cawood, Cherie; Khanyile, David; Lewis, Lara; Grobler, Anneke; Chipeta, Zawadi; Bere, Alfred; Glenshaw, Mary; Puren, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: We describe the overall accuracy and performance of a serial rapid HIV testing algorithm used in community-based HIV testing in the context of a population-based household survey conducted in two sub-districts of uMgungundlovu district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, against reference fourth-generation HIV-1/2 antibody and p24 antigen combination immunoassays. We discuss implications of the findings on rapid HIV testing programmes. Methods: Cross-sectional design: Following enrolment into the survey, questionnaires were administered to eligible and consenting participants in order to obtain demographic and HIV-related data. Peripheral blood samples were collected for HIV-related testing. Participants were offered community-based HIV testing in the home by trained field workers using a serial algorithm with two rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in series. In the laboratory, reference HIV testing was conducted using two fourth-generation immunoassays with all positives in the confirmatory test considered true positives. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and false-positive and false-negative rates were determined. Results: Of 10,236 individuals enrolled in the survey, 3740 were tested in the home (median age 24 years (interquartile range 19–31 years), 42.1% males and HIV positivity on RDT algorithm 8.0%). From those tested, 3729 (99.7%) had a definitive RDT result as well as a laboratory immunoassay result. The overall accuracy of the RDT when compared to the fourth-generation immunoassays was 98.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 98.5–99.2). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 91.1% (95% CI 87.5–93.7), 99.9% (95% CI 99.8–100), 99.3% (95% CI 97.4–99.8) and 99.1% (95% CI 98.8–99.4) respectively. The false-positive and false-negative rates were 0.06% (95% CI 0.01–0.24) and 8.9% (95% CI 6.3–12.53). Compared to true positives

  2. India Ink Staining, a Rapid and Affordable Test for Diagnosis of Cryptococcal Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masfiyah Masfiyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis incidence has increased along with an increase in incidence of HIV-AIDS. This infection causes increased morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV-AIDS. A rapid diagnosis plays an important role to ensure a prompt therapy of the disease. The cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen test for diagnosis of meningitis is rapid but relatively expensive while culture is time consuming. A 47-year man was admitted to hospital with a headache, fever, nausea, and vomiting and a HIV history for the last 6 months. On physical examination, he was compos mentis, meningeal’s stimuli signs (+, where as on examination of craniales nerves, motor and sensibility was in a normal range. Routine blood was normal, 60 CD4 cells/mm3. Laboratory finding included a clowdy/turbid Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, low glucose level (CSF glucose 43 mg / dl vs. blood glucose 293 mg / dl, elevated protein concentration (137.1 mg / dl, and polymorphonuclear pleocytosis. India ink stain showed encapsulated yeasts. Cryptococcus sp is the only encapsulated yeast, while C. neoformans is the most common cause of Cryptococcosis in patients with HIV-AIDS. The patient was diagnosed with Cryptococcal meningitis by indian ink staining, and immediately given anti-fungal theraphy.

  3. Rapid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, L.E.; Hoffner, S.E.; Ansehn, S.

    1988-08-01

    Mycobacterial growth was monitored by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP. Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and of 25 clinical isolates of the same species were exposed to serial dilutions of ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin. A suppression of ATP, indicating growth inhibition, occurred for susceptible but not resistant strains within 5 to 7 days of incubation. Breakpoint concentrations between susceptibility and resistance were determined by comparing these results with those obtained by reference techniques. Full agreement was found in 99% of the assays with the resistance ratio method on Lowenstein-Jensen medium, and 98% of the assays were in full agreement with the radiometric system (BACTEC). A main advantage of the bioluminescence method is its rapidity, with results available as fast as with the radiometric system but at a lower cost and without the need for radioactive culture medium. The method provides kinetic data concerning drug effects within available in vivo drug concentrations and has great potential for both rapid routine susceptibility testing and research applications in studies of drug effects on mycobacteria.

  4. Usefulness of clinical data and rapid diagnostic tests to identify bacterial etiology in adult respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Toledano-Sierra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections are a common complaint and most of them, such as common cold and laryngitis, are viral in origin, so antibiotic use should be exceptional. However, there are other respiratory tract infections (sinusitis, pharyngitis, lower respiratory tract infections, and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease where a bacterial etiology is responsible for a non-negligible percentage, and antibiotics are often empirically indicated. The aim of the study is to identify the strength of the data obtained from the symptoms, physical examination and rapid diagnostic methods in respiratory infections in which antibiotic use is frequently proposed in order to improve diagnosis and influence the decision to prescribe these drugs. The review concludes that history, physical examination and rapid tests are useful to guide the need for antibiotic treatment in diseases such as acute sinusitis, acute pharyngitis, exacerbation of lower respiratory tract infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, no isolated data is accurate enough by itself to confirm or rule out the need for antibiotics. Therefore, clinical prediction rules bring together history and physical examination, thereby improving the accuracy of the decision to indicate or not antibiotics.

  5. Multisite Clinical Evaluation of a Rapid Test for Entamoeba histolytica in Stool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerke, Hans P.; Hanbury, Blake; Siddique, Abdullah; Samie, Amidou; Haque, Rashidul; Herbein, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Rapid point-of-care detection of enteric protozoa in diarrheal stool is desirable in clinical and research settings to efficiently determine the etiology of diarrhea. We analyzed the ability of the third-generation E. histolytica Quik Chek assay developed by Techlab to detect amebic antigens in fecal samples collected from independent study populations in South Africa and Bangladesh. We compared the performance of this recently released rapid test to that of the commercially available ProSpecT Entamoeba histolytica microplate assay from Remel and the E. histolytica II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from Techlab, using real-time and nested-PCR for Entamoeba species to resolve any discrepant results. After discrepant resolution, The E. histolytica Quik Chek assay exhibited sensitivity and specificity compared to the E. histolytica II ELISA of 98.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.9% to 99.8%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.0% to 100%), respectively. Compared to the ProSpecT microplate assay, the E. histolytica Quik Chek (Quik Chek) assay exhibited 97.0% sensitivity (95% CI, 91.5% to 99.4%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 99.0% to 100%). Our results indicate that the Quik Chek is a robust assay for the specific detection of E. histolytica trophozoites in unfixed frozen clinical stool samples. PMID:25428152

  6. Appropriate targeting of artemisinin-based combination therapy by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), used by community health workers (CHWs), on the proportion of children artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), vs. presumptive treatment. METHODS: Cluster...

  7. Aging tests of full scale CMS muon cathode strip chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Acosta et al.

    2003-10-15

    Two CMS production Cathode Strip Chambers were tested for aging effects in the high radiation environment at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. The chambers were irradiated over a large area: in total, about 2.1 m{sup 2} or 700 m of wire in each chamber. The 40% Ar+50%CO{sub 2}+10%CF{sub 4} gas mixture was provided by an open-loop gas system for one of the chambers and by closed-loop recirculating gas system for the other. After accumulating 0.3-0.4 C per centimeter of a wire, which is equivalent to operation during about 30-50 years at the peak LHC luminosity, no significant changes in gas gain, chamber efficiency, and wire signal noise were observed for either of the two chambers. The only consistent signs of aging were a small increase in dark current from {approx}2 nA to {approx}10 nA per plane of 600 wires and a decrease of strip-to-strip resistance from 1000 G{Omega} to 10-100 G{Omega}. Disassembly of the chambers revealed deposits on the cathode planes, while the anode wires remained fairly clean.

  8. Improving the screening of blood donors with syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkodie, F; Hassall, O; Owusu-Dabo, E; Owusu-Ofori, S; Bates, I; Bygbjerg, I C; Owusu-Ofori, A; Harritshøj, L H; Ullum, H

    2017-02-01

    Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. From February 2014 to January 2015, 5 mL of venous blood samples were taken from 16 016 blood donors and tested with a treponemal RDT; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from 526 consenting initial syphilis sero-reactive blood donors. These RDT reactive samples were confirmed with an algorithm, applying the Vitros ® /Abbott-Architect ® algorithm as gold standard. A total of 478 of 526 RDT reactive donors were confirmed positive for syphilis, making a PPV of 90·9%. Of the 172 (32·7%) donors who were also RPR positive, 167 were confirmed, resulting in a PPV of 97·1%. The PPV of the combined RDT and RPR (suspected active syphilis) testing algorithm was highest among donors at an enhanced risk of syphilis, family/replacement donors (99·9%), and among voluntary donors above 25 years (98·6%). Screening of blood donors by combining syphilis RDT and RPR with relatively good PPV may provide a reasonable technology for LMIC that has a limited capacity for testing and can contribute to the improvement of blood safety with a minimal loss of donors. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  9. Field accuracy of fourth-generation rapid diagnostic tests for acute HIV-1: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joseph M; Macpherson, Peter; Adams, Emily R; Ochodo, Eleanor; Sands, Anita; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-11-28

    Fourth-generation HIV-1 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect HIV-1 p24 antigen to screen for acute HIV-1. However, diagnostic accuracy during clinical use may be suboptimal. Clinical sensitivity and specificity of fourth-generation RDTs for acute HIV-1 were collated from field evaluation studies in adults identified by a systematic literature search. Four studies with 17 381 participants from Australia, Swaziland, the United Kingdom and Malawi were identified. All reported 0% sensitivity of the HIV-1 p24 component for acute HIV-1 diagnosis; 26 acute infections were missed. Specificity ranged from 98.3 to 99.9%. Fourth-generation RDTs are currently unsuitable for the detection of acute HIV-1.

  10. Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE): Application for Increasing Robutness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ashley; Rakoczy, John; Heather, Daniel; Sanders, Devon

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  11. The impact of introducing malaria rapid diagnostic tests on fever case management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruxvoort, Katia J; Leurent, Baptiste; Chandler, Clare I R

    2017-01-01

    , to evaluate the impact of mRDT introduction on case management across settings that vary in malaria endemicity and healthcare provider type. This synthesis includes 562,368 outpatient encounters (study size range 2,400-432,513). mRDTs were associated with significantly lower ACT prescription (range 8......Since 2010, the World Health Organization has been recommending that all suspected cases of malaria be confirmed with parasite-based diagnosis before treatment. These guidelines represent a paradigm shift away from presumptive antimalarial treatment of fever. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (m......RDTs) are central to implementing this policy, intended to target artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) to patients with confirmed malaria and to improve management of patients with nonmalarial fevers. The ACT Consortium conducted ten linked studies, eight in sub-Saharan Africa and two in Afghanistan...

  12. Introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into registered drug shops in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Clarke, Sîan E; Lal, Sham

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in Uganda and the current policy recommends introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDTs) to facilitate effective case management. However, provision of RDTs in drug shops potentially raises a new set of issues, such as adherence...... to RDTs results, management of severe illnesses, referral of patients, and relationship with caretakers. The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of introducing RDTs in registered drug shops in Uganda and document lessons and policy implications for future scale-up of malaria control...... in the private health sector. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial introducing RDTs into registered drug shops was implemented in central Uganda from October 2010 to July 2012. An evaluation was undertaken to assess the impact and the processes involved with the introduction of RDTs into drug shops, the lessons...

  13. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cantiani, Chiara; Molteni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    .... Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity...

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cervical cancer prevention based on a rapid human papillomavirus screening test in a high-risk region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Carol E; Sellors, John; Shi, Ju-Fang; Ma, Li; Qiao, You-lin; Ortendahl, Jesse; O'Shea, Meredith K H; Goldie, Sue J

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of a new, rapid human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA screening test for cervical cancer prevention in the high-risk region of Shanxi, China. Using micro-costing methods, we estimated the resources needed to implement preventive strategies using cervical cytology or HPV-DNA testing, including the Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) test (QIAGEN Corp., Gaithersburg, MD) and the rapid HPV-DNA careHPV test (QIAGEN). Data were used in a previously published model and empirically calibrated to country-specific epidemiological data. Strategies differed by initial test, targeted age, frequency of screening, number of clinic visits required (1, 2 or 3) and service delivery setting (national, county and township levels). Outcomes included lifetime risk of cancer, years of life saved (YLS), lifetime costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (cost per YLS). For all screening frequencies, the most efficient strategy used 2-visit rapid HPV-DNA testing at the county level, including screening and diagnostics in the first visit, and treatment in the second visit. Screening at ages 35, 40 and 45 reduced cancer risk by 50% among women compliant with all 3 screening rounds, and was US$ 150 per YLS, compared with this same strategy applied twice per lifetime. This would be considered very cost-effective evaluated against China's per-capita gross domestic product (US$ 1,702). By enhancing the linkage between screening and treatment through a reduced number of visits, rapid HPV-DNA testing 3 times per lifetime is more effective than traditional cytology, and is likely to be cost-effective in high-risk regions of China.

  15. Aptamer-Based Lateral Flow Test Strip for Rapid Detection of Zearalenone in Corn Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shijia; Liu, Lihong; Duan, Nuo; Li, Qian; Zhou, You; Wang, Zhouping

    2018-02-28

    An aptamer-based lateral flow test strip was developed for the detection of zearalenone (ZEN). This assay was based on the competition for the aptamer between ZEN and its complementary sequence. Several experimental conditions that could influence sensitivity have been investigated, including the concentration of aptamer and NaCl used in the probe preparation, the mole ratio of streptavidin and biotinylated DNA used in the preparation of test line and control line, and the loading quantity of gold nanoparticles-aptamer conjugates (AuNPs-Apt). Under the optimal experimental conditions, we successfully detected ZEN within a detection range of 5-200 ng/mL and the visual limit of detection of 20 ng/mL. This aptamer-based strip was successfully applied to the determination of ZEN in spiked corn samples, and the recoveries were from 93.4% to 114.2%. All detections can be achieved within 5 min. The results demonstrated that the developed aptamer-based lateral flow test strip is a potential alternative tool for the rapid and sensitive detection of ZEN.

  16. Evaluation of a rapid antigen test for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Angel; Fairley, Derek; McKenna, James; Coyle, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using lateral flow immunochromatography tests (ICTs) is an effective, rapid and low-cost method to diagnose pneumococcal meningitis. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the Uni-Gold ICT to detect pneumococcal antigen in CSF specimens, compared with gold standard bacteriology and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) testing. CSF specimens (n=69) from patients with suspected bacterial meningitis were included in the study. 13/69 (19%) were positive and 56/69 (81%) were negative for pneumococcus by the gold standard tests. The ICT had sensitivity of 85% (55%-98%), specificity of 96% (88%-100%), positive likelihood ratio of 23.7 (6-94) and negative likelihood ratio of 0.16 (0.04-0.57). Overall, a strong correlation between the ICT and qPCR results was seen (κ=0.81). In contrast, CSF microscopy and culture were exceptionally insensitive. The ICT method is sufficiently robust and accurate for use in algorithms to diagnose bacterial meningitis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Clinical usefulness of multiplex PCR lateral flow in MRSA detection: a novel, rapid genetic testing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihonyanagi, Shin; Kanoh, Yuhsaku; Okada, Kiyomi; Uozumi, Toshiki; Kazuyama, Yukumasa; Yamaguchi, Tokiko; Nakazaki, Nobuhiko; Sakurai, Keizou; Hirata, Yasuyoshi; Munekata, Shinichi; Ohtani, Shinichi; Takemoto, Tsuyoshi; Bandoh, Yuki; Akahoshi, Tohru

    2012-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with exogenous cassette DNA containing the methicillin-resistant gene mecA (SCCmec) poses a problem as a drug-resistant bacterium responsible for hospital- and community-acquired infections. The frequency of MRSA detection has recently been increasing rapidly in Japan, and SCCmec has also been classified more diversely into types I-V. A rapid test is essential for early diagnosis and treatment of MRSA infections, but detection by conventional methods requires at least two days. The newly developed multiplex PCR lateral flow method allows specific amplification of femA to detect S. aureus, mecA to detect SCCmec, and kdpC to detect SCCmec type II; moreover, PCR products can be evaluated visually in about 3 h. In the present study, we developed a PCR lateral flow method for MRSA using this method and investigated its clinical usefulness in the detection of MRSA. The results showed a diagnostic concordance rate of 91.7% for MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus between bacteriological examination and PCR lateral flow, and a high level of specificity in PCR lateral flow. In addition, a higher detection rate for S. aureus using the same sample was observed for PCR lateral flow (70.2%) than for bacteriological tests (48.6%). The above results show that PCR lateral flow for MRSA detection has high sensitivity, specificity, and speed, and its clinical application as a method for early diagnosis of MRSA infections appears to be feasible.

  18. Rapid Isolation and Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using a New Solid Medium, LVW Agar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Paris, Daniel H.; Langla, Sayan; Thaipadunpanit, Janjira; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Smythe, Lee D.; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp., the causative agents of leptospirosis, are slow-growing Gram-negative spirochetes. Isolation of Leptospira from clinical samples and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility are difficult and time-consuming. Here, we describe the development of a new solid medium that facilitates more-rapid growth of Leptospira spp. and the use of this medium to evaluate the Etest's performance in determining antimicrobial MICs to drugs in common use for leptospirosis. The medium was developed by evaluating the effects of numerous factors on the growth rate of Leptospira interrogans strain NR-20157. These included the type of base agar, the concentration of rabbit serum (RS), and the concentration and duration of CO2 incubation during the initial period of culture. The highest growth rate of NR-20157 was achieved using a Noble agar base supplemented with 10% RS (named LVW agar), with an initial incubation at 30°C in 5% CO2 for 2 days prior to continuous culture in air at 30°C. These conditions were used to develop the Etest for three species, L. interrogans (NR-20161), L. kirschnerii (NR-20327), and L. borgpetersenii (NR-20151). The MICs were read on day 7 for all samples. The Etest was then performed on 109 isolates of pathogenic Leptospira spp. The MIC90 values for penicillin G, doxycycline, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol were 0.64 units/ml and 0.19, 0.047, 0.5, and 2 μg/ml, respectively. The use of LVW agar, which enables rapid growth, isolation of single colonies, and simple antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Leptospira spp., provides an opportunity for new areas of fundamental and applied research. PMID:23114772

  19. Analysis of α-glucosidase enzyme activity used in a rapid test for steam sterilization assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlow, B; Korza, G; Setlow, P

    2016-05-01

    This study was to determine the sources, location and identity of α-glucosidases in dormant/germinating/outgrowing spores and growing cells of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953, an enzymatic activity in spores used in rapid tests of steam sterilization. α-Glucosidase activity in spores and cells was determined measuring methylumbelliferyl-α-d-glucoside (α-MUG) or α-MUG-6-phosphate hydrolysis fluorometrically. While α-MUG-6-phosphate was not hydrolysed by cell or spore extracts, assays with α-MUG showed that: (1) the α-glucosidase activity was inside and outside spores, and the activity outside spores was largely removed by buffer washes or heat activation, whereas α-glucosidase activity was only inside vegetative cells; (2) most α-glucosidase activity in cells and spores was soluble; (3) Western blots and enzyme inhibition using an anti-α-glucosidase antiserum identified ≥2 α-glucosidases in spores and growing cells; (4) α-glucosidase-specific activities were similar in dormant, germinated and outgrowing spore and growing cell extracts; and (5) significant α-glucosidase was synthesized during spore germination and outgrowth and cell growth, this synthesis was not repressed by glucose nor induced by α-MUG, but glucose inhibited α-MUG uptake. α-MUG hydrolysis by G. stearothermophilus is by α-MUG uptake and hydrolysis by ≥2 α-glucosidases associated with dormant spores and synthesized by germinating and outgrowing spores. The enzyme activity observed by sterilization assurance assays appears likely to come from heat-stable enzyme in the spore core and enzyme(s) synthesized in spore outgrowth. The results of this work provide new insight into the science behind a rapid test for steam sterilization assurance. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Accuracy of individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis of gambiense sleeping sickness in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Jamonneau

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis (RDT of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT are particularly suited for passive screening and surveillance. However, so far, no large scale evaluation of RDTs has been performed for diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT in West Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 2 commercial HAT-RDTs on stored plasma samples from West Africa.SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set were performed on 722 plasma samples originating from Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire, including 231 parasitologically confirmed HAT patients, 257 healthy controls, and 234 unconfirmed individuals whose blood tested antibody positive in the card agglutination test but negative by parasitological tests. Immune trypanolysis was performed as a reference test for trypanosome specific antibody presence. Sensitivities in HAT patients were respectively 99.6% for SD Bioline HAT, and 99.1% for HAT Sero-K-Set, specificities in healthy controls were respectively 87.9% and 88.3%. Considering combined positivity in both RDTs, increased the specificity significantly (p ≤ 0.0003 to 93.4%, while 98.7% sensitivity was maintained. Specificities in controls were 98.7-99.6% for the combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis, maintaining a sensitivity of at least 98.1%.The observed specificity of the single RDTs was relatively low. Serial application of SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set might offer superior specificity compared to a single RDT, maintaining high sensitivity. The combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis seems promising for HAT surveillance.

  1. Buffer substitution in malaria rapid diagnostic tests causes false-positive results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Ende Jef

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are kits that generally include 20 to 25 test strips or cassettes, but only a single buffer vial. In field settings, laboratory staff occasionally uses saline, distilled water (liquids for parenteral drugs dilution or tap water as substitutes for the RDT kit's buffer to compensate for the loss of a diluent bottle. The present study assessed the effect of buffer substitution on the RDT results. Methods Twenty-seven RDT brands were run with EDTA-blood samples of five malaria-free subjects, who were negative for rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies. Saline, distilled water and tap water were used as substitute liquids. RDTs were also run with distilled water, without adding blood. Results were compared to those obtained with the RDT kit's buffer and Plasmodium positive samples. Results Only eight cassettes (in four RDT brands showed no control line and were considered invalid. Visible test lines occurred for at least one malaria-free sample and one of the substitutes in 20/27 (74% RDT brands (saline: n = 16; distilled water: n = 17; and tap water: n = 20, and in 15 RDTs which were run with distilled water only. They occurred for all Plasmodium antigens and RDT formats (two-, three- and four-band RDTs. Clearance of the background of the strip was excellent except for saline. The aspects (colour, intensity and crispness of the control and the false-positive test lines were similar to those obtained with the RDT kits' buffer and Plasmodium positive samples. Conclusion Replacement of the RDT kit's dedicated buffer by saline, distilled water and tap water can cause false-positive test results.

  2. Rapid word-learning in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children: effects of age, receptive vocabulary, and high-frequency amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, A L; Lewis, D E; Hoover, B M; Stelmachowicz, P G

    2005-12-01

    This study examined rapid word-learning in 5- to 14-year-old children with normal and impaired hearing. The effects of age and receptive vocabulary were examined as well as those of high-frequency amplification. Novel words were low-pass filtered at 4 kHz (typical of current amplification devices) and at 9 kHz. It was hypothesized that (1) the children with normal hearing would learn more words than the children with hearing loss, (2) word-learning would increase with age and receptive vocabulary for both groups, and (3) both groups would benefit from a broader frequency bandwidth. Sixty children with normal hearing and 37 children with moderate sensorineural hearing losses participated in this study. Each child viewed a 4-minute animated slideshow containing 8 nonsense words created using the 24 English consonant phonemes (3 consonants per word). Each word was repeated 3 times. Half of the 8 words were low-pass filtered at 4 kHz and half were filtered at 9 kHz. After viewing the story twice, each child was asked to identify the words from among pictures in the slide show. Before testing, a measure of current receptive vocabulary was obtained using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III). The PPVT-III scores of the hearing-impaired children were consistently poorer than those of the normal-hearing children across the age range tested. A similar pattern of results was observed for word-learning in that the performance of the hearing-impaired children was significantly poorer than that of the normal-hearing children. Further analysis of the PPVT and word-learning scores suggested that although word-learning was reduced in the hearing-impaired children, their performance was consistent with their receptive vocabularies. Additionally, no correlation was found between overall performance and the age of identification, age of amplification, or years of amplification in the children with hearing loss. Results also revealed a small increase in performance for both

  3. Advantages of the rapid HIV-1 test in occupational accidents with potentially contaminated material among health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACHADO Alcyone Artioli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In occupational accidents involving health professionals handling potentially contaminated material, the decision to start or to continue prophylactic medication against infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV has been based on the ELISA test applied to a blood sample from the source patient. In order to rationalize the prophylactic use of antiretroviral agents, a rapid serologic diagnostic test of HIV infection was tested by the enzymatic immunoabsorption method (SUDS HIV 1+2, MUREX® and compared to conventional ELISA (Abbott HIV-1/ HIV-2 3rd Generation plus EIA®. A total of 592 cases of occupational accidents were recorded at the University Hospital of Ribeirão Preto from July 1998 to April 1999. Of these, 109 were simultaneously evaluated by the rapid test and by ELISA HIV. The rapid test was positive in three cases and was confirmed by ELISA and in one the result was inconclusive and later found to be negative by ELISA. In the 106 accidents in which the rapid test was negative no prophylactic medication was instituted, with an estimated reduction in costs of US$ 2,889.35. In addition to this advantage, the good correlation of the rapid test with ELISA, the shorter duration of stress and the absence of exposure of the health worker to the adverse effects of antiretroviral agents suggest the adoption of this test in Programs of Attention to Accidents with Potentially Contaminated Material.

  4. Comparison of two commercial rapid in-clinic serological tests for detection of antibodies against Leishmania spp. in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Labrini V; Petanides, Theodoros A; Chatzis, Manolis K; Kasabalis, Dimitrios; Apostolidis, Kosmas N; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2014-03-01

    Antibodies against Leishmania spp. are detected in most dogs with clinical signs of leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum. Accurate, rapid in-clinic serological tests may permit immediate confirmation of the diagnosis and implementation of therapeutic measures. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 2 commercial, rapid in-clinic serological tests for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in sera of dogs, the Snap Canine Leishmania Antibody Test kit (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, Maine) and the ImmunoRun Antibody Detection kit (Biogal Galed Labs, Kibbutz Galed, Israel), using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) as the reference method. A total of 109 sera collected from 65 seropositive and 44 seronegative dogs were used. The sensitivities of the Snap and ImmunoRun kits were 89.23% (95% confidence interval: 79.05-95.54%) and 86.15% (95% confidence interval: 75.33-93.45%), respectively, and the specificity of both tests was 100%. A good agreement between each of the rapid in-clinic serological tests and IFAT and between the 2 rapid in-clinic serological tests was witnessed. Both rapid in-clinic serological tests showed an adequate diagnostic accuracy and can be used for the fast detection of antibodies against L. infantum in dogs.

  5. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  6. A microfluidic platform for rapid, stress-induced antibiotic susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, Maxim; Lee, Jean C; Campbell, Jennifer; Sharon, Andre; Sauer-Budge, Alexis F

    2012-11-07

    The emergence and spread of bacterial resistance to ever increasing classes of antibiotics intensifies the need for fast phenotype-based clinical tests for determining antibiotic susceptibility. Standard susceptibility testing relies on the passive observation of bacterial growth inhibition in the presence of antibiotics. In this paper, we present a novel microfluidic platform for antibiotic susceptibility testing based on stress-activation of biosynthetic pathways that are the primary targets of antibiotics. We chose Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as a model system due to its clinical importance, and we selected bacterial cell wall biosynthesis as the primary target of both stress and antibiotic. Enzymatic and mechanical stresses were used to damage the bacterial cell wall, and a β-lactam antibiotic interfered with the repair process, resulting in rapid cell death of strains that harbor no resistance mechanism. In contrast, resistant bacteria remained viable under the assay conditions. Bacteria, covalently-bound to the bottom of the microfluidic channel, were subjected to mechanical shear stress created by flowing culture media through the microfluidic channel and to enzymatic stress with sub-inhibitory concentrations of the bactericidal agent lysostaphin. Bacterial cell death was monitored via fluorescence using the Sytox Green dead cell stain, and rates of killing were measured for the bacterial samples in the presence and absence of oxacillin. Using model susceptible (Sanger 476) and resistant (MW2) S. aureus strains, a metric was established to separate susceptible and resistant staphylococci based on normalized fluorescence values after 60 min of exposure to stress and antibiotic. Because this ground-breaking approach is not based on standard methodology, it circumvents the need for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurements and long wait times. We demonstrate the successful development of a rapid microfluidic-based and stress

  7. Viral hepatitis and rapid diagnostic test based screening for HBsAg in HIV-infected patients in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzeck, Fabian C; Ngwale, Ramadhani; Msongole, Bernadeta; Hamisi, Marian; Abdul, Omary; Henning, Lars; Letang, Emilio; Mwaigomole, Geoffrey; Battegay, Manuel; Hatz, Christoph; Tanner, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is highly prevalent in people living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. Screening for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) before initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is recommended. However, it is not part of diagnostic routines in HIV programs in many resource-limited countries although patients could benefit from optimized antiretroviral therapy covering both infections. Screening could be facilitated by rapid diagnostic tests for HBsAg. Operating experience with these point of care devices in HIV-positive patients in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely lacking. We determined the prevalence of HBV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection as well as the diagnostic accuracy of the rapid test device Determine HBsAg in an HIV cohort in rural Tanzania. Prospectively collected blood samples from adult, HIV-1 positive and antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients in the Kilombero and Ulanga antiretroviral cohort (KIULARCO) in rural Tanzania were analyzed at the point of care with Determine HBsAg, a reference HBsAg EIA and an anti-HCV EIA. Samples of 272 patients were included. Median age was 38 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-47), 169/272 (63%) subjects were females and median CD4+ count was 250 cells/µL (IQR 97-439). HBsAg was detected in 25/272 (9.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2-13.0%) subjects. Of these, 7/25 (28%) were positive for HBeAg. Sensitivity of Determine HBsAg was rated at 96% (95% CI 82.8-99.6%) and specificity at 100% (95% CI, 98.9-100%). Antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) were found in 10/272 (3.7%, 95% CI 2.0-6.4%) of patients. This study reports a high prevalence of HBV in HIV-positive patients in a rural Tanzanian setting. The rapid diagnostic test Determine HBsAg is an accurate assay for screening for HBsAg in HIV-1 infected patients at the point of care and may further help to guide cART in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Viral hepatitis and rapid diagnostic test based screening for HBsAg in HIV-infected patients in rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian C Franzeck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV is highly prevalent in people living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. Screening for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg before initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART is recommended. However, it is not part of diagnostic routines in HIV programs in many resource-limited countries although patients could benefit from optimized antiretroviral therapy covering both infections. Screening could be facilitated by rapid diagnostic tests for HBsAg. Operating experience with these point of care devices in HIV-positive patients in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely lacking. We determined the prevalence of HBV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection as well as the diagnostic accuracy of the rapid test device Determine HBsAg in an HIV cohort in rural Tanzania. METHODS: Prospectively collected blood samples from adult, HIV-1 positive and antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients in the Kilombero and Ulanga antiretroviral cohort (KIULARCO in rural Tanzania were analyzed at the point of care with Determine HBsAg, a reference HBsAg EIA and an anti-HCV EIA. RESULTS: Samples of 272 patients were included. Median age was 38 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-47, 169/272 (63% subjects were females and median CD4+ count was 250 cells/µL (IQR 97-439. HBsAg was detected in 25/272 (9.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2-13.0% subjects. Of these, 7/25 (28% were positive for HBeAg. Sensitivity of Determine HBsAg was rated at 96% (95% CI 82.8-99.6% and specificity at 100% (95% CI, 98.9-100%. Antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV were found in 10/272 (3.7%, 95% CI 2.0-6.4% of patients. CONCLUSION: This study reports a high prevalence of HBV in HIV-positive patients in a rural Tanzanian setting. The rapid diagnostic test Determine HBsAg is an accurate assay for screening for HBsAg in HIV-1 infected patients at the point of care and may further help to guide cART in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Rapid Syphilis Tests as Catalysts for Health Systems Strengthening: A Case Study from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Patricia J; Cárcamo, César P; Chiappe, Marina; Valderrama, Maria; La Rosa, Sayda; Holmes, King K; Mabey, David C W; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2013-01-01

    Untreated maternal syphilis leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes. The use of point of care tests (POCT) offers an opportunity to improve screening coverage for syphilis and other aspects of health systems. Our objective is to present the experience of the introduction of POCT for syphilis in Peru and describe how new technology can catalyze health system strengthening. The study was implemented from September 2009-November 2010 to assess the feasibility of the use of a POCT for syphilis for screening pregnant women in Lima, Peru. Outcomes measured included access to syphilis screening, treatment coverage, partner treatment, effect on patient flow and service efficiency, acceptability among providers and patients, and sustainability. Before the introduction of POCT, a pregnant woman needed 6 visits to the health center in 27 days before she received her syphilis result. We trained 604 health providers and implemented the POCT for syphilis as the "two for one strategy", offering with one finger stick both syphilis and HIV testing. Implementation of the POCT resulted in testing and treatment on the first visit. Screening and treatment coverages for syphilis improved significantly compared with the previous year. Implementation of POCT has been scaled up nationally since the study ended, and coverages for screening, treatment and partner treatment have remained over 92%. Implementation of POCT for syphilis proved feasible and acceptable, and led to improvement in several aspects of health services. For the process to be effective we highlight the importance of: (1) engaging the authorities; (2) dissipating tensions between providers and identifying champions; (3) training according to the needs; (4) providing monitoring, supervision, support and recognition; (5) sharing results and discussing actions together; (6) consulting and obtaining feedback from users; and (7) integrating with other services such as with rapid HIV testing.

  10. Identifying HIV infection in South African women: How does a fourth generation HIV rapid test perform?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapila Bhowan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV rapid tests (RT play an important role in tackling the HIV pandemic in South Africa. Third generation RT that detect HIV antibodies are currently used to diagnose HIV infection at the point of care. Determine Combo (DC is the first fourth generation RT that detects both p24 antigen (p24Ag and HIV antibodies (Ab, theoretically reducing the window period and increasing detection rates. Early detection of maternal HIV infection is important to mitigate the high risk of vertical transmission associated with acute maternal infection. Objectives: We assessed the performance of the DC RT against third generation RT in antenatal and post-partum women. Methods: Third generation RT Advance Quality and Acon were used in a serial algorithm to diagnose HIV infection in antenatal and post-partum women over six months at a tertiary hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. This data provided the reference against which the DC RT was compared on plasma and whole blood samples. Results: The 1019 participants comprised 345 (34% antenatal and 674 (66% post-partum women. Ninety women (8.8% tested HIV-positive of whom 59 (66% were tested antenatally, and 31 (34% post-partum yielding prevalence rates of 17.1% and 4.6% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the Ab component of DC on plasma antenatally was 100% (93.8% – 100% and 100% (98.6% – 100% respectively and post-partum was 100% (88.9% – 100% and 99.6% (98.8% – 99.9% respectively. One false positive and not a single true positive p24Ag was detected. Of 505 post-partum women who tested HIV-negative 6–12 months prior to enrolment, 12 (2.4% seroconverted. Conclusion: The fourth generation DC offered no advantage over current third generation RT in the diagnosis of HIV infection.

  11. Modified preparation and rapid quality control test for technetium-99m-tetrofosmin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M; Owunwanne, A; Tuli, M; al-Za'abi, K; al-Mohannadi, S; Sa'ad, M; Jahan, S; Jacob, A; al-Bunny, A

    1998-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to: modify the preparation of 99mTc-tetrofosmin by using twice the amount of 99mTcO4- recommended by the manufacturer; evaluate the use of miniaturized rapid paper chromatography (MRPC) for quality control (QC) testing; and determine the in vitro stability of the modified preparation using MRPC. Two preparations of 99mTc-tetrofosmin were made: one with 4.4-8.8 GBq (120-240 mCi) and the other with 13.9-17.6 GBq (380-480 mCi) 99mTcO4-, referred to as regular and modified preparations, respectively. Routine QC tests were performed using MRPC and instant thin-layer chromatography/silica-gel (ITLC/SG) systems. The preparations were injected into 58 patients. Planar and SPECT images of stress and rest studies were obtained. The technical quality of the SPECT images was graded visually by four observers. Heart-to-lung and heart-to-background ratios were calculated from the planar images. The QC testing procedure took 4.18 +/- 0.15 min with MRPC and 54 +/- 5.3 min with ITLC/SG systems. The percent labeling efficiency, as determined by both techniques, ranged from 95.6 +/- 1.6 to 97.2% +/- 0.8%. Both preparations were stable up to 6 hr after reconstitution. There was no difference between the cardiac-to-lung and cardiac-to-background ratios of the two preparations. The results indicate that MRPC is a faster and effective chromatographic technique for routine QC testing of 99mTc-tetrofosmin. Doubling the amount of 99mTcO4- used in preparing 99mTc-tetrofosmin did not affect its in vitro stability, its efficacious use in patients or the technical quality of the images.

  12. Assessment of the diagnostic value of a urinary adipsin rapid strip test for pre-eclampsia: A prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bing; Zhang, Li; Yan, Jianying; Qi, Hongbo; Zhang, Weiyuan; Fan, Ling; Hu, Yayi; Lin, Li; Li, Xiaotian; Hu, Rong; Xie, Lan; Zhang, Jianping; Wu, Yanqiao; Li, Li; Zhou, Rong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical value of the rapid strip test of urinary adipsin for the quick diagnosis of pre-eclampsia. In a multicenter diagnostic test study, we studied the diagnostic accuracy of the rapid strip test of urinary adipsin in women presenting with pre-eclampsia. A total of 204 pre-eclampsia patients and 254 healthy pregnant women were recruited for this study, respectively. The rapid strip test of urinary adipsin was used to detect the adipsin in the urine of each patient. The diagnostic value of the rapid strip test of urinary adipsin for pre-eclampsia was demonstrated by its high sensitivity and specificity (95.10% and 97.64%, respectively). The diagnostic accuracy was 96.51%. The consistency analysis showed that the kappa value was 0.93 compared with the gold standard diagnosis of pre-eclampsia. The rapid strip test of urinary adipsin is a non-invasive test for the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia with high sensitivity and specificity. It could help the quick diagnosis of pre-eclampsia in clinical practice greatly. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. On the stochastic nature of the rapid climate shifts during the last ice age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Peter Dalager; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2009-01-01

    The rapid climate shifts observed in the glacial climate are analysed. The transitions into the warm interstadial states, the onsets, are easy identifiable in the record. The distribution of waiting times between consecutive onsets is well fitted assuming the remaining residence time in each state...... to exponential distributions with mean waiting times of around 800 y in the warm state and around 1600 y in the cold state. This observation is an important piece in the climate puzzle, since the fact that the climate is a no memory process indicates that the transitions are noise induced and the mean residence...... to be independent on the past. That implies that it has a simple no memory exponential waiting time distribution, but with mean waiting time depending on the climate state. The mean waiting time from one onset to the next is around 2400 y. The most likely (maximum likelihood) distribution derived solely from...

  14. Leveraging rapid community-based HIV testing campaigns for non-communicable diseases in rural Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Chamie

    Full Text Available The high burden of undiagnosed HIV in sub-Saharan Africa limits treatment and prevention efforts. Community-based HIV testing campaigns can address this challenge and provide an untapped opportunity to identify non-communicable diseases (NCDs. We tested the feasibility and diagnostic yield of integrating NCD and communicable diseases into a rapid HIV testing and referral campaign for all residents of a rural Ugandan parish.A five-day, multi-disease campaign, offering diagnostic, preventive, treatment and referral services, was performed in May 2011. Services included point-of-care screening for HIV, malaria, TB, hypertension and diabetes. Finger-prick diagnostics eliminated the need for phlebotomy. HIV-infected adults met clinic staff and peer counselors on-site; those with CD4 ≤ 100/µL underwent intensive counseling and rapid referral for antiretroviral therapy (ART. Community participation, case-finding yield, and linkage to care three months post-campaign were analyzed.Of 6,300 residents, 2,323/3,150 (74% adults and 2,020/3,150 (69% children participated. An estimated 95% and 52% of adult female and male residents participated respectively. Adult HIV prevalence was 7.8%, with 46% of HIV-infected adults newly diagnosed. Thirty-nine percent of new HIV diagnoses linked to care. In a pilot subgroup with CD4 ≤ 100, 83% linked and started ART within 10 days. Malaria was identified in 10% of children, and hypertension and diabetes in 28% and 3.5% of adults screened, respectively. Sixty-five percent of hypertensives and 23% of diabetics were new diagnoses, of which 43% and 61% linked to care, respectively. Screening identified suspected TB in 87% of HIV-infected and 19% of HIV-uninfected adults; 52% percent of HIV-uninfected TB suspects linked to care.In an integrated campaign engaging 74% of adult residents, we identified a high burden of undiagnosed HIV, hypertension and diabetes. Improving male attendance and optimizing linkage to care

  15. Rapid Communication: Large exploitable genetic variability exists to shorten age at slaughter in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Cromie, A R; Judge, M M

    2017-10-01

    Apprehension among consumers is mounting on the efficiency by which cattle convert feedstuffs into human edible protein and energy as well as the consequential effects on the environment. Most (genetic) studies that attempt to address these issues have generally focused on efficiency metrics defined over a certain time period of an animal's life cycle, predominantly the period representing the linear phase of growth. The age at which an animal reaches the carcass specifications for slaughter, however, is also known to vary between breeds; less is known on the extent of the within-breed variability in age at slaughter. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to quantify the phenotypic and genetic variability in the age at which cattle reach a predefined carcass weight and subcutaneous fat cover. A novel trait, labeled here as the deviation in age at slaughter (DAGE), was represented by the unexplained variability from a statistical model, with age at slaughter as the dependent variable and with the fixed effects, among others, of carcass weight and fat score (scale 1 to 15 scored by video image analysis of the carcass at slaughter). Variance components for DAGE were estimated using either a 2-step approach (i.e., the DAGE phenotype derived first and then variance components estimated) or a 1-step approach (i.e., variance components for age at slaughter estimated directly in a mixed model that included the fixed effects of, among others, carcass weight and carcass fat score as well as a random direct additive genetic effect). The raw phenotypic SD in DAGE was 44.2 d. The genetic SD and heritability for DAGE estimated using the 1-step or 2-step models varied from 14.2 to 15.1 d and from 0.23 to 0.26 (SE 0.02), respectively. Assuming the (genetic) variability in the number of days from birth to reaching a desired carcass specifications can be exploited without any associated unfavorable repercussions, considerable potential exists to improve not only the

  16. Disparity between online and offline tests in accelerated aging tests of LED lamps under electric stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Jing, Lei; Ke, Hong-Liang; Hao, Jian; Gao, Qun; Wang, Xiao-Xun; Sun, Qiang; Xu, Zhi-Jun

    2016-09-20

    The accelerated aging tests under electric stress for one type of LED lamp are conducted, and the differences between online and offline tests of the degradation of luminous flux are studied in this paper. The transformation of the two test modes is achieved with an adjustable AC voltage stabilized power source. Experimental results show that the exponential fitting of the luminous flux degradation in online tests possesses a higher fitting degree for most lamps, and the degradation rate of the luminous flux by online tests is always lower than that by offline tests. Bayes estimation and Weibull distribution are used to calculate the failure probabilities under the accelerated voltages, and then the reliability of the lamps under rated voltage of 220 V is estimated by use of the inverse power law model. Results show that the relative error of the lifetime estimation by offline tests increases as the failure probability decreases, and it cannot be neglected when the failure probability is less than 1%. The relative errors of lifetime estimation are 7.9%, 5.8%, 4.2%, and 3.5%, at the failure probabilities of 0.1%, 1%, 5%, and 10%, respectively.

  17. A tool for rapid assessment of product usability and universal design: development and preliminary psychometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenker, James A; Nasarwanji, Mahiyar; Paquet, Victor; Feathers, David

    2011-01-01

    While there are many available tools and methods to evaluate product usability, few have been tested on user groups with disabilities and even fewer systematically consider universal design principles. This paper describes the development and preliminary psychometric testing of the Rapid Assessment of Product Usability & Universal Design (RAPUUD), a 12-item user-report tool based on the seven principles of universal design. A preliminary set of items was created to elicit ratings of diverse product characteristics (e.g., physical effort, cognitive effort, assistance required, safety). Data were gathered from 61 participants who rated the usability of products they use in their own environments. Each item elicited a full range of responses, with no apparent floor or ceiling effects. Collectively, the 12 items achieved a high internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.80). The data indicate that the tool was sensitive to differences in functional abilities, as well as differences in product characteristics. The instrument was usable for a range of consumer products, though not all items were appropriate for each and every product. The results suggest that the instrument could become a pragmatic tool for designers to identify usability problems experienced by a diversity of user populations. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved

  18. Detecting Malaria Hotspots: A Comparison of Rapid Diagnostic Test, Microscopy, and Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogeni, Polycarp; Williams, Thomas N; Omedo, Irene; Kimani, Domtila; Ngoi, Joyce M; Mwacharo, Jedida; Morter, Richard; Nyundo, Christopher; Wambua, Juliana; Nyangweso, George; Kapulu, Melissa; Fegan, Gregory; Bejon, Philip

    2017-11-27

    Malaria control strategies need to respond to geographical hotspots of transmission. Detection of hotspots depends on the sensitivity of the diagnostic tool used. We conducted cross-sectional surveys in 3 sites within Kilifi County, Kenya, that had variable transmission intensities. Rapid diagnostic test (RDT), microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to detect asymptomatic parasitemia, and hotspots were detected using the spatial scan statistic. Eight thousand five hundred eighty-one study participants were surveyed in 3 sites. There were statistically significant malaria hotspots by RDT, microscopy, and PCR for all sites except by microscopy in 1 low transmission site. Pooled data analysis of hotspots by PCR overlapped with hotspots by microscopy at a moderate setting but not at 2 lower transmission settings. However, variations in degree of overlap were noted when data were analyzed by year. Hotspots by RDT were predictive of PCR/microscopy at the moderate setting, but not at the 2 low transmission settings. We observed long-term stability of hotspots by PCR and microscopy but not RDT. Malaria control programs may consider PCR testing to guide asymptomatic malaria hotspot detection once the prevalence of infection falls.

  19. Miniaturized rotating disc rheometer test for rapid screening of drag reducing marine coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennington, Simon; Mekkhunthod, Ponkrit; Rides, Martin; Gibbs, David; Salta, Maria; Stoodley, Victoria; Wharton, Julian; Stoodley, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Frictional drag from the submerged hull surface of a ship is a major component of the resistance experienced when moving through water. Techniques for measuring frictional drag on test surfaces include towing tanks, flow tunnels and rotating discs. These large-scale methods present practical difficulties that hinder their widespread adoption and they are not conducive to rapid throughput. In this study a miniaturized benchtop rotating disc method is described that uses test discs 25 mm in diameter. A highly sensitive analytical rheometer is used to measure the torque acting on the discs rotating in water. Frictional resistance changes are estimated by comparing momentum coefficients. Model rough surfaces were prepared by attaching different grades of sandpaper to the disc surface. Discs with experimental antifouling coatings applied were exposed in the marine environment for the accumulation of microbial fouling, and the rotor was capable of detecting the increased drag due to biofilm formation. The drag due to biofilm was related to an equivalent sand roughness.

  20. Efficiency of a rapid test for detection of tetrodotoxin in puffer fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thattiyaphong, Aree; Unahalekhaka, Jirapa; Mekha, Nanthawan; Nispa, Wansatip; Kluengklangdon, Panawan; Rojanapantip, Laddawan

    2014-01-01

    The selling and importing of puffer fish species and their products was banned in Thailand in 2002, because of possible neurotoxic effects. However, the sale of their flesh is still happening in Thai markets. Standard methods for toxin quantification (HPLC and LC-MS) have significant limitations, therefore a lateral flow, immuno-chromatographic test (TTX-IC) was developed as a tool for rapid detection of toxin. A total of 750 puffer fishes (387 Lagocephalus lunaris(LL), and 363 Lagocephalus spadiceus (LS)) and 100 edible fishes were caught in Thailand from June 2011-February 2012. Screening of TTX from their flesh by TTX-IC revealed that 69 samples (17.8%) of LL possessed TTX at dangerous levels but LS and edible fishes did not. A selected 339 samples were quantified by LC-MS/MS, showing 50 LL possessed TTX at dangerous levels. Comparison of results with LC-MS/MS showed the TTX-IC to have 94.0% sensitivity and 92.4% specificity. The TTX-IC will be a useful tool for TTX screening of a large number of samples, reducing the testing required by LC-MS/MS, thus reducing costs. All positive cases found should be confirmed by standard methods.

  1. Rapid identification of vibrio-cholerae O1 by coaglutination test using mono-specifis antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazargan SA

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In our investigation, rabbit hyper-immune serum to V.cholerae ogawa was absorbed with V.cholerae inaba whole-cells and vice versa. Applying ammonium sulphate precipitation method, mono-specific g globulins were purified and concentrated from the absorbed whole serum. These antibodies were fixed on staphylococcus cowan 1 NCTC-8325 whole-cells, using different chemical fixatives. It was observed that maximum fixation of g globulin to protein-A was achieved by 1-propanol 50% at 3 hours, which revealed through single radial immuno-diffusion techniqe. The rectal swab samples were cultured in an enrichment bile-peptons broth. After 5 hours 37°C while agitations, one drop of each sample was mixed with one drop of vibrio-cholerae bivalent mono-specific coagglutination reagent (VBCR. The results were read after 2 to 3 minutes. Finally though statistical analysis sensitivity and specificity of coagglutination test were calculated to be 95.1% and 99.2% respectively, when compared to positive & negative controls and conventional culture methods. Using VBCR, coagglutination test can be therefore considered as a simple, reliable and rapid method to detect V.cholerae O1 in the stool of patients in endemic area and less equipped laboratories

  2. Ultra-portable, wireless smartphone spectrometer for rapid, non-destructive testing of fruit ripeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anshuman J.; Wahi, Akshat; Kothari, Ishan; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate a smartphone based spectrometer design that is standalone and supported on a wireless platform. The device is inherently low-cost and the power consumption is minimal making it portable to carry out a range of studies in the field. All essential components of the device like the light source, spectrometer, filters, microcontroller and wireless circuits have been assembled in a housing of dimensions 88 mm × 37 mm × 22 mm and the entire device weighs 48 g. The resolution of the spectrometer is 15 nm, delivering accurate and repeatable measurements. The device has a dedicated app interface on the smartphone to communicate, receive, plot and analyze spectral data. The performance of the smartphone spectrometer is comparable to existing bench-top spectrometers in terms of stability and wavelength resolution. Validations of the device were carried out by demonstrating non-destructive ripeness testing in fruit samples. Ultra-Violet (UV) fluorescence from Chlorophyll present in the skin was measured across various apple varieties during the ripening process and correlated with destructive firmness tests. A satisfactory agreement was observed between ripeness and fluorescence signals. This demonstration is a step towards possible consumer, bio-sensing and diagnostic applications that can be carried out in a rapid manner.

  3. Development and validation of a rapid test system for detection of pork meat and collagen residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiri, J; Benoit, L; Barrios-Lopez, B; Thienes, C; Meshgi, M; Agapov, A; Dobritsa, A; Nadala, C; Samadpour, M

    2016-11-01

    Mislabeling, contamination, and economic adulteration of meat products with undeclared pork tissues are illegal under regulations promulgated by numerous regulatory agencies. Nonetheless, analysis of the European meat industry has revealed pervasive meat adulteration, necessitating more extensive application of meat authentication testing. As existing methods for meat speciation require specialized equipment and/or training, we developed a detection system based on a lateral flow device (LFD) assay format capable of rapidly (~35min) identifying porcine residues derived from raw meat, cooked meat, and gelatin down to 0.01%, 1.0%, and 2.5% contamination, respectively. Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with meat derived from chicken, turkey, horse, beef, lamb, or goat. Comparison with a commercial ELISA kit and PCR method revealed similar if not improved sensitivity, with the added feature that the LFD-based system required considerably less time to perform. Accordingly, this test system should aid the food industry and food control authorities in monitoring for adulteration with pork. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Minimising invasiveness in diagnostics: developing a rapid urine-based monoclonal antibody dipstick test for malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakpo, Uri S; Bosompem, Kwabena M; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Danso-Appiah, Anthony; Essuman, Edward E; Anyan, William K; Suzuki, Mitsuko; Stephens, Judith K; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Asmah, Richard H; Ofori, Michael F; Madjitey, Parnor; Danquah, Jonas B; Frempong, Naa Adjeley; Kwofie, Kofi D; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Sullivan, David; Fobil, Julius N; Quakyi, Isabella A

    2016-10-01

    To generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for developing a rapid malaria diagnostic urine-based assay (RUBDA), using Plasmodium-infected human urinary antigens. Plasmodium-infected human urinary (PAgHU) and cultured parasite (CPfAg) antigens were used to generate mouse MAbs. The reactivity and accuracy of the MAbs produced were then evaluated using microplate ELISA, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting assay, microscopy and immunochromatographic tests. Ninety-six MAb clones were generated, of which 68.8% reacted to both PAgHU and CPfAg, 31.3% reacted to PAgHU only, and none reacted to CPfAg only. One promising MAb (UCP4W7) reacted in WBA, to both PAgHU and CPfAg, but not to Plasmodium-negative human urine and blood, Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni antigens nor measles and poliomyelitis vaccines. MAb UCP4W7 seems promising for diagnosing Plasmodium infection. Urine is a reliable biomarker source for developing non-invasive malaria diagnostic tests. SDS-PAGE and MAb-based WBA appear explorable in assays for detecting different levels of Plasmodium parasitaemia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cellular evidence for selfish spermatogonial selection in aged human testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, G J; Goriely, A; Wilkie, A O M

    2014-05-01

    Owing to a recent trend for delayed paternity, the genomic integrity of spermatozoa of older men has become a focus of increased interest. Older fathers are at higher risk for their children to be born with several monogenic conditions collectively termed paternal age effect (PAE) disorders, which include achondroplasia, Apert syndrome and Costello syndrome. These disorders are caused by specific mutations originating almost exclusively from the male germline, in genes encoding components of the tyrosine kinase receptor/RAS/MAPK signalling pathway. These particular mutations, occurring randomly during mitotic divisions of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), are predicted to confer a selective/growth advantage on the mutant SSC. This selective advantage leads to a clonal expansion of the mutant cells over time, which generates mutant spermatozoa at levels significantly above the background mutation rate. This phenomenon, termed selfish spermatogonial selection, is likely to occur in all men. In rare cases, probably because of additional mutational events, selfish spermatogonial selection may lead to spermatocytic seminoma. The studies that initially predicted the clonal nature of selfish spermatogonial selection were based on DNA analysis, rather than the visualization of mutant clones in intact testes. In a recent study that aimed to identify these clones directly, we stained serial sections of fixed testes for expression of melanoma antigen family A4 (MAGEA4), a marker of spermatogonia. A subset of seminiferous tubules with an appearance and distribution compatible with the predicted mutant clones were identified. In these tubules, termed 'immunopositive tubules', there is an increased density of spermatogonia positive for markers related to selfish selection (FGFR3) and SSC self-renewal (phosphorylated AKT). Here we detail the properties of the immunopositive tubules and how they relate to the predicted mutant clones, as well as discussing the utility of

  6. Evaluation of the Rapid Polymyxin NP Test for Polymyxin B Resistance Detection Using Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simar, Shelby; Sibley, Diane; Ashcraft, Deborah; Pankey, George

    2017-10-01

    Polymyxin resistance is an increasing problem worldwide. Currently, determining susceptibility to polymyxins is problematic and lengthy. Polymyxins diffuse poorly into agar, potentially giving inaccurate disk diffusion and Etest results. A rapid screening test (2 h) for the detection of polymyxin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, developed by P. Nordmann and L. Poirel (rapid polymyxin NP test) in 2016, detects glucose metabolization in the presence of polymyxin E (PE) and PB via pH-induced color change. The sensitivity and specificity were 99.3 and 95.4%, respectively, with results obtained in ≤2 h. Our goal was to evaluate this test using PB against larger numbers of Enterobacter A total of 143 nonduplicate Enterobacter isolates (102 E. cloacae complex, 41 E. aerogenes) were tested, including 136 collected from Ochsner Health System patients from March to May 2016 and 7 previously determined PB-resistant E. cloacae isolates from JMI Laboratories. MICs were determined via broth microdilution. For the rapid polymyxin NP test, a color change from orange to yellow is positive; a weak/no color change is deemed negative after 4 h. Of 143 Enterobacter isolates, 25 were determined to be PB resistant by broth microdilution (MIC > 2 μg/ml), including all 7 JMI isolates. Of these 25, 7 were positive by the rapid polymyxin NP test (included 3/7 JMI isolates). All 118 isolates determined to be PB susceptible by broth microdilution were NP test negative. The sensitivity and specificity for the rapid polymyxin NP test were 25 and 100%, respectively, compared to broth microdilution. Although the rapid polymyxin NP test is a much faster method (2 to 4 h) for polymyxin resistance determination compared to broth microdilution (16 to 20 h), our study indicates that it may be subject to limitations when testing Enterobacter. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Performance of rapid point-of-care and laboratory tests for acute and established HIV infection in San Francisco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Pilcher

    Full Text Available Current laboratory and point-of-care tests for HIV detect different analytes and use different sample types. Some have fast turnaround times (<1 hour. We investigated how HIV test choice could impact case finding by testing programs.We analyzed 21,234 consecutive HIV tests with venous blood obtained by San Francisco HIV testing programs from 2003 to 2008. For a subset, oral fluid (n = 6446 or fingerstick blood (n = 8127 samples were also obtained for rapid testing. In all cases, HIV status was determined using an HIV antibody-plus-RNA test algorithm. We assessed how the screening antibody tests performed individually versus the gold standard of the full algorithm. We then evaluated the potential ability of other tests (including new tests to detect more cases, by re-testing all specimens that had negative/discrepant antibody results on initial screening.The antibody-RNA algorithm identified 58 acute and 703 established HIV infection cases. 1(st-generation (Vironostika and 3(rd-generation (Genetic Systems immunoassays had 92 and 96 percent sensitivity, respectively. The Oraquick rapid test had clinical sensitivity of only 86 percent on oral fluid samples, but 92 percent on finger-stick blood. Newer 4(th-generation, antigen-antibody combo rapid immunoassay (ARCHITECT detected HIV in 87 percent of all the acute cases that had been missed by one of the previous screening assays. A point-of-care 4(th generation antigen-antibody combo rapid test (Determine detected about 54 percent of such acute cases.Our study suggests that some rapid antibody blood tests will give similar case detection to laboratory antibody tests, but that oral fluid testing greatly reduces ability to detect HIV. New 4(th-generation combo tests can detect the majority of acute infections detectable by HIV RNA but with rapid results. Using these tests as a primary screening assay in high-risk HIV testing programs could reduce or eliminate the need for HIV RNA testing.

  8. Prenatal marijuana exposure and intelligence test performance at age 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L

    2008-03-01

    This is a prospective study of the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on the intelligence test performance of 648 children at a 6-year follow-up. Women were interviewed about the amount and frequency of their marijuana use at 4 and 7 months of pregnancy and at delivery. Participants were light to moderate users of marijuana and represented a lower income population. Children were assessed with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale by examiners blind to exposure status. Multiple regression was applied to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intelligence after partialing out the effects of other significant predictors. There was a significant nonlinear relationship between marijuana exposure and child intelligence. Heavy marijuana use (one or more cigarettes per day) during the first trimester was associated with lower verbal reasoning scores on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Heavy use during the second trimester predicted deficits in the composite, short-term memory, and quantitative scores. Third-trimester heavy use was negatively associated with the quantitative score. Other significant predictors of intelligence included maternal IQ, home environment, and social support. These findings indicate that prenatal marijuana exposure has a significant effect on school-age intellectual development.

  9. Preferences for oral fluid rapid HIV self-testing among social media-using young black, Hispanic, and white men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM): implications for future interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, R C; Clark, M A; Liu, T; Rosenberger, J G; Romanoff, J; Bauermeister, J; Mayer, K H

    2017-04-01

    We assessed preferences of social media-using young black, Hispanic and white men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM) for oral fluid rapid HIV self-testing, as compared to other currently available HIV testing options. We also identified aspects of the oral fluid rapid HIV self-test that might influence preferences for using this test instead of other HIV testing options and determined if consideration of HIV testing costs and the potential future availability of fingerstick rapid HIV self-testing change HIV testing preferences. Anonymous online survey. HIV-uninfected YMSM across the United States recruited from multiple social media platforms completed an online survey about willingness to use, opinions about and their preferences for using oral fluid rapid HIV self-testing and five other currently available HIV testing options. In a pre/post questionnaire format design, participants first indicated their preferences for using the six HIV testing options (pre) before answering questions that asked their experience with and opinions about HIV testing. Although not revealed to participants and not apparent in the phrasing of the questions or responses, the opinion questions concerned aspects of oral fluid rapid HIV self-testing (e.g. its possible advantages/disadvantages, merits/demerits, and barriers/facilitators). Afterward, participants were queried again about their HIV testing preferences (post). After completing these questions, participants were asked to re-indicate their HIV testing preferences when considering they had to pay for HIV testing and if fingerstick blood sample rapid HIV self-testing were an additional testing option. Aspects about the oral fluid rapid HIV self-test associated with increased preference for using the test (post-assessment vs pre-assessment of opinion topics) were identified through multivariable regression models that adjusted for participant characteristics. Of the 1975 YMSM participants, the median age was 22 years (IQR 20-23); 19

  10. Evaluation of rapid alternative methods for drug susceptibility testing in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Mengatto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to compare the performance of a commercial method (MGIT and four inexpensive drug susceptibility methods: nitrate reductase assay (NRA, microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS assay, MTT test, and broth microdilution method (BMM. A total of 64 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were studied. The Lowenstein-Jensen proportion method (PM was used as gold standard. MGIT, NRA, MODS, and MTT results were available on an average of less than 10 days, whereas BMM results could be reported in about 20 days. Most of the evaluated tests showed excellent performance for isoniazid and rifampicin, with sensitivity and specificity values > 90%. With most of the assays, sensitivity for ethambutol was low (62-87% whereas for streptomycin, sensitivity values ranged from 84 to 100%; NRA-discrepancies were associated with cultures with a low proportion of EMB-resistant organisms while most discrepancies with quantitative tests (MMT and BMM were seen with isolates whose minimal inhibitory concentrations fell close the cutoff. MGIT is reliable but still expensive. NRA is the most inexpensive and easiest method to perform without changing the organization of the routine PM laboratory performance. While MODS, MTT, and BMM, have the disadvantage from the point of view of biosafety, they offer the possibility of detecting partial resistant strains. This study shows a very good level of agreement of the four low-cost methods compared to the PM for rapid detection of isoniazid, rifampicin and streptomycin resistance (Kappa values > 0.8; more standardization is needed for ethambutol.

  11. Method and apparatus using selected superparamagnetic labels for rapid quantification of immunochromatographic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika PA Laitinen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mika PA Laitinen1, Jari Salmela2, Leona Gilbert1, Risto Kaivola1, Topi Tikkala2, Christian Oker-Blom1, Jukka Pekola3, Matti Vuento11Department of Biological and Environmental Science; 2Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland; 3Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, FinlandAbstract: A rapid method and instrumentation for quantification of immunochromatographic tests (ICT are described. The principle and performance of the method was demonstrated by measuring the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG present in urine. The test format was a sandwich assay using two distinct monoclonal antibodies directed against hCG. The first anti-hCG antibody was labeled with superparamagnetic particles whereas the second was immobilized as a narrow detection zone on a porous membrane. The human urine sample was mixed with superparamagnetic particles coated with the first anti-hCG antibody, and the mixture was allowed to migrate past the detection zone containing the second anti-hCG antibody. Capillary forces facilitated migration of the immune complexes along the porous membrane. The amount of superparamagnetic particle-labelled monoclonal anti-hCG bound to the detection zone was directly proportional to the amount of hCG present in the sample as detected by measuring magnetization in the detector coil. The method had a practical detection limit of 20 U/l (54 nM of hCG per 5 μl of human urine and a linear range of three decades from 20 U/l to 10 000 U/l. In addition, the analysis was completed within less than 10 minutes. Thus, the test format should be suitable for fast detection and monitoring of a large variety of clinically important parameters and analytes.Keywords: affinity, biosensor, hCG, immunochromatography, magnetization, superparamagnetic

  12. Diagnosis of tetanus immunization status: multicenter assessment of a rapid biological test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombet, Isabelle; Saguez, Colette; Sanson-Le Pors, Marie-José; Coudert, Benoît; Chatellier, Gilles; Espinoza, Pierre

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of tetanus immunization status by medical interview of patients with wounds is poor. Many protected patients receive unnecessary vaccine or immunoglobulin, and unprotected patients may receive nothing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of the Tetanos Quick Stick (TQS) rapid finger prick stick test in the emergency department for determining immunization status. We designed a prospective multicenter study for blinded comparison of TQS with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Adults referred for open wounds in 37 French hospital emergency departments had the TQS after receiving standard care (emergency-TQS). TQS was also performed in the hospital laboratory on total blood (blood/lab-TQS) and serum (serum/lab-TQS). ELISA was performed with the same blood sample at a central laboratory. We assessed concordance between emergency-TQS and blood/lab-TQS by the kappa test and the diagnostic accuracy (likelihood ratios) of medical interview, emergency-TQS, and lab-TQS. ELISA was positive in 94.6% of the 988 patients included. Concordance between blood/emergency-TQS and blood/lab-TQS results was moderate (kappa=0.6), with a high proportion of inconclusive blood/emergency-TQS tests (9.8%). Likelihood ratios for immunization were 3.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 5.1), 36.6 (95% CI, 5.3 to 255.3), 89.1 (95% CI, 5.6 to 1,405.0), and 92.7 (95% CI, 5.9 to 1,462.0) for medical interview, blood/emergency-TQS, blood/lab-TQS, and serum/lab-TQS, respectively. The sensitivity of the blood/emergency-TQS was 76.7%, and the specificity was 98% by reference to the ELISA. TQS use in the emergency room could make tetanus prevention more accurate if its technical feasibility were improved, and our assessment will be supplemented by a cost effectiveness study.

  13. Laboratory evaluation of immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests for cholera in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo R Matias

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for cholera are promising tools for detecting cholera in areas with limited laboratory infrastructure. However, evidence on the characteristics of the many available RDTs is scarce, and their use has been limited by suboptimal performance. We evaluated the performance characteristics of three cholera RDTs from Span Diagnostics, Artron Laboratories, and Standard Diagnostics in a regional laboratory in Haiti.We retrospectively reviewed records from May 2014 to October 2015 of a laboratory-based surveillance program for Vibrio cholerae at Hôpital Saint-Nicolas in Saint-Marc, Haiti. We compared the results of 511 Crystal VC, 129 Artron and 451 SD Bioline RDTs to bacterial culture as the gold standard. Of 905 cultures, 477 (52.7% were positive for V. cholerae O1, of which 27.7% were serotype Inaba. No cultures grew V. cholerae O139. Sensitivity and specificity of Crystal VC were 98.6% (95%CI: 96.5%-99.6% and 71.1% (95%CI: 64.7%-76.9%, respectively. Artron demonstrated a sensitivity of 98.6% (95%CI: 92.7%-100% and specificity of 69.1% (95%CI: 55.2%-80.9%. SD Bioline demonstrated a sensitivity of 81.1% (95%CI: 75.6%-85.8% and specificity of 92.8% (95%CI: 88.4%-95.9%. Crystal VC and Artron frequently showed false positive O139 bands, whereas none were seen with SD Bioline.There is significant variation in the performance of different cholera diagnostic RDTs. Artron and Crystal VC RDTs have high sensitivity and low specificity, while SD Bioline RDT has low to moderate sensitivity and high specificity when performed by laboratory technicians in Haiti. Study limitations included its retrospective design. The suboptimal characteristics of these tests limit their use as clinical point-of-care tests; however, they may be useful in outbreak response, surveillance, and research in resource-limited settings.

  14. Use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests by community health workers in Afghanistan: cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Toby; Rowland, Mark; Mikhail, Amy; Cundill, Bonnie; Willey, Barbara; Alokozai, Asif; Mayan, Ismail; Hasanzai, Anwar; Baktash, Sayed Habibullah; Mohammed, Nader; Wood, Molly; Rahimi, Habib-U-Rahman; Laurent, Baptiste; Buhler, Cyril; Whitty, Christopher J M

    2017-07-07

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends parasitological diagnosis of malaria before treatment, but use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) by community health workers (CHWs) has not been fully tested within health services in south and central Asia. mRDTs could allow CHWs to diagnose malaria accurately, improving treatment of febrile illness. A cluster randomised trial in community health services was undertaken in Afghanistan. The primary outcome was the proportion of suspected malaria cases correctly treated for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed malaria and PCR negative cases receiving no antimalarial drugs measured at the level of the patient. CHWs from 22 clusters (clinics) received standard training on clinical diagnosis and treatment of malaria; 11 clusters randomised to the intervention arm received additional training and were provided with mRDTs. CHWs enrolled cases of suspected malaria, and the mRDT results and treatments were compared to blind-read PCR diagnosis. In total, 256 CHWs enrolled 2400 patients with 2154 (89.8%) evaluated. In the intervention arm, 75.3% (828/1099) were treated appropriately vs. 17.5% (185/1055) in the control arm (cluster adjusted risk ratio: 3.72, 95% confidence interval 2.40-5.77; p malaria (PCR negative) being treated vs. 10.0% (95/947) in the intervention arm, p malaria negative patients in the intervention arm and 15.0% in the control arm. While introducing mRDT reduced overuse of antimalarials, this action came with risks that need to be considered before use at scale: an appreciable proportion of malaria cases will be missed by those using current mRDTs. Higher sensitivity tests could be used to detect all cases. Overtreatment with antimalarial drugs in the control arm was replaced with increased antibiotic prescription in the intervention arm, resulting in a probable overuse of antibiotics. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01403350 . Prospectively registered.

  15. Acceptability and feasibility of universal offer of rapid point of care testing for HIV in an acute admissions unit: results of the RAPID project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Burns

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: UK guidance recommend all acute medical admissions be offered an HIV test. Our aim was to determine whether a dedicated staff member using a multimedia tool, a model found to be effective in the USA, is an acceptable, feasible, and cost-effective model when translated to a UK setting. DESIGN: Between 14(th Jan to 12(th May 2010, a Health advisor (HA approached 19-65 year olds at a central London acute medical admissions unit (AAU and offered a rapid HIV point of care test (POCT with the aid of an educational video. Patients with negative results had the option to watch a post-test video providing risk-reduction information. For reactive results the HA arranged a confirmatory test, and ensured linkage into HIV specialist care. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed through surveys and uptake rates. Costs per case of HIV identified were established. RESULTS: Of the 606 eligible people admitted during the pilot period, 324 (53.5% could not be approached or testing was deemed inappropriate. In total 23.0% of eligible admissions had an HIV POCT. Of the patients who watched the video and had not recently tested for HIV, 93.6% (131/140 agreed to an HIV test; four further patients had an HIV test but did not watch the video. Three tests (2.2%, 3/135 were reactive and all were confirmed HIV positive on laboratory testing. 97.5% felt HIV testing in this setting was appropriate, and 90.1% liked receiving the information via video. The cost per patient of the intervention was £21. DISCUSSION: Universal POCT HIV testing in an acute medical setting, facilitated by an educational video and dedicated staff appears to be acceptable, feasible, effective, and low cost. These findings support the recommendation of HIV testing all admissions to AAU in high prevalence settings, although with the model used a significant proportion remained untested.

  16. Performance of a Rapid and Simple HIV Testing Algorithm in a Multicenter Phase III Microbicide Clinical Trial▿

    OpenAIRE

    Crucitti, Tania; Taylor, Doug; Beelaert, Greet; Fransen, Katrien; Van Damme, Lut

    2011-01-01

    A multitest sequential algorithm based on rapid and simple (R/S) assays was applied for the diagnosis of HIV infection among participants in a phase 3 microbicide effectiveness trial. HIV testing was performed on finger-prick blood samples obtained from patients after their enrollment in the trial. The specimens were tested in a serial procedure using three different rapid tests (Determine HIV-1/2 [Abbott], SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0 [Standard Diagnostics], and Uni-Gold HIV [Trinity Biotech]). In...

  17. Vertical Jumping Tests versus Wingate Anaerobic Test in Female Volleyball Players: The Role of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Single and continuous vertical jumping tests, as well as the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, are commonly used to assess the short-term muscle power of female volleyball players; however, the relationship among these tests has not been studied adequately. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of single and continuous vertical jumps with the WAnT in female volleyball players. Seventy adolescent (age 16.0 ± 1.0 years, body mass 62.5 ± 7.1 kg, height 170.4 ± 6.1 cm, body fat 24.2% ± 4.3% and 108 adult female volleyball players (age 24.8 ± 5.2 years, body mass 66.5 ± 8.7 kg, height 173.2 ± 7.4 cm, body fat 22.0% ± 5.1% performed the squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, Abalakov jump (AJ, 30 s Bosco test and WAnT (peak power, Ppeak; mean power, Pmean. Mean power in the Bosco test was correlated (low to large magnitude with Pmean of the WAnT (r = 0.27, p = 0.030 in adolescents versus r = 0.56, p < 0.001 in adults. SJ, CMJ and AJ also correlated with Ppeak (0.28 ≤ r ≤ 0.46 in adolescents versus 0.58 ≤ r ≤ 0.61 in adults and with Pmean (0.43 ≤ r ≤ 0.51 versus 0.67 ≤ r ≤ 0.71, respectively of the WAnT (p < 0.05. In summary, the impact of the Bosco test and WAnT on muscle power varied, especially in the younger age group. Single jumping tests had larger correlations with WAnT in adults than in adolescent volleyball players. These findings should be taken into account by volleyball coaches and fitness trainers during the assessment of short-term muscle power of their athletes.

  18. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  19. Randomised controlled trial of CRP rapid test as a guide to treatment of respiratory infections in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, H Z; Skamling, M; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2000-01-01

    To assess whether the frequency of antibiotic prescriptions to patients with respiratory infections is reduced when general practitioners (GPs) use a C-reactive protein (CRP) rapid test in support of their clinical assessment, and to study whether using the test will have any effect on the course...

  20. The cost-effectiveness of rapid HIV testing in substance abuse treatment: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schackman, Bruce R; Metsch, Lisa R; Colfax, Grant N; Leff, Jared A; Wong, Angela; Scott, Callie A; Feaster, Daniel J; Gooden, Lauren; Matheson, Tim; Haynes, Louise F; Paltiel, A David; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2013-02-01

    The President's National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for coupling HIV screening and prevention services with substance abuse treatment programs. Fewer than half of US community-based substance abuse treatment programs make HIV testing available on-site or through referral. We measured the cost-effectiveness of three HIV testing strategies evaluated in a randomized trial conducted in 12 community-based substance abuse treatment programs in 2009: off-site testing referral, on-site rapid testing with information only, on-site rapid testing with risk-reduction counseling. Data from the trial included patient demographics, prior testing history, test acceptance and receipt of results, undiagnosed HIV prevalence (0.4%) and program costs. The Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC) computer simulation model was used to project life expectancy, lifetime costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for HIV-infected individuals. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (2009 US $/QALY) were calculated after adding costs of testing HIV-uninfected individuals; costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. Referral for off-site testing is less efficient (dominated) compared to offering on-site testing with information only. The cost-effectiveness ratio for on-site testing with information is $60,300/QALY in the base case, or $76,300/QALY with 0.1% undiagnosed HIV prevalence. HIV risk-reduction counseling costs $36 per person more without additional benefit. A strategy of on-site rapid HIV testing offer with information only in substance abuse treatment programs increases life expectancy at a cost-effectiveness ratio substance abuse treatment leaders should seek funding to implement on-site rapid HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs for those not recently tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of the rapid antigen detection test in diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngotonsillitis in a pediatric emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Débora Morais; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Hsin, Shieh Huei; Machado, Beatriz Marcondes; de Paulis, Milena; Lotufo, João Paulo B; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Grisi, Sandra Josefina E

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the routine use of rapid antigen detection test in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngotonsillitis in children. This is a prospective and observational study, with a protocol compliance design established at the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of Universidade de São Paulo for the care of children and adolescents diagnosed with acute pharyngitis. 650 children and adolescents were enrolled. Based on clinical findings, antibiotics would be prescribed for 389 patients (59.8%); using the rapid antigen detection test, they were prescribed for 286 patients (44.0%). Among the 261 children who would not have received antibiotics based on the clinical evaluation, 111 (42.5%) had positive rapid antigen detection test. The diagnosis based only on clinical evaluation showed 61.1% sensitivity, 47.7% specificity, 44.9% positive predictive value, and 57.5% negative predictive value. The clinical diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis had low sensitivity and specificity. The routine use of rapid antigen detection test led to the reduction of antibiotic use and the identification of a risk group for complications of streptococcal infection, since 42.5% positive rapid antigen detection test patients would not have received antibiotics based only on clinical diagnosis.

  2. Rapid screening test for detection of oxytetracycline residues in milk using lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Laxmana; Sharma, Rajan; Mann, Bimlesh; Lata, Kiran; Rajput, Y S; Surendra Nath, B

    2017-03-15

    A rapid, semi-quantitative lateral flow assay (LFA) was developed to screen the oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotics residues in milk samples. In this study a competitive immuno-assay format was established. Colloidal gold nano-particles (GNP) were prepared and used as labelling material in LFA. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against OTC molecule (anti-OTC), purified and the quality was assessed by enzyme linked immuno sorbet assay. For the first time membrane components required for LFA in milk system was optimized. GNP and anti-OTC stable conjugate preparation method was standardized, and then these components were placed over the conjugate pad. OTC coupled with carrier protein was placed on test line; species specific secondary antibodies were placed on the control line of the membrane matrix. Assay was validated by spiking OTC to antibiotic free milk samples and results could be accomplished within 5min. without need of any equipment. The visual detection limit was 30ppb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening test for rapid food safety evaluation by menadione-catalysed chemiluminescent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashoji, Shiro; Yoshikawa, Naoko; Kirihara, Masayuki; Tsuneyoshi, Toshihiro

    2013-06-15

    The chemiluminescent assay of menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells was proposed to be useful for rapid food safety evaluation. The tested foods were extracted with water, ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide, and each extract was incubated with NIH3T3, Neuro-2a and HepG2 cells for 4h. Menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells exposed to each extract was determined by the chemiluminescent assay requiring only 10 min, and the viability of the cells was estimated as percentage based on H2O2 production by intact cells. In this study the cytotoxicity of food was rated in order of inhibitory effect on H2O2 production by intact cells. The well known natural toxins such as Fusarium mycotoxin, tomato toxin tomatine, potato toxin solanine and marine toxins terodotoxin and brevetoxin could be detected by the above chemiluminescent assay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detailed analysis of the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test, revised version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Yasushi; Yoshino, Aihide; Muramatsu, Taro; Mimura, Masaru

    2017-11-01

    The number-transcoding task on the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test (RDST-J) requires mutual conversion between Arabic and Chinese numerals (209 to , 4054 to , to 681, to 2027). In this task, question and answer styles of Chinese numerals are written horizontally. We investigated the impact of changing the task so that Chinese numerals are written vertically. Subjects were 211 patients with very mild to severe Alzheimer's disease and 42 normal controls. Mini-Mental State Examination scores ranged from 26 to 12, and Clinical Dementia Rating scores ranged from 0.5 to 3. Scores of all four subtasks of the transcoding task significantly improved in the revised version compared with the original version. The sensitivity and specificity of total scores ≥9 on the RDST-J original and revised versions for discriminating between controls and subjects with Clinical Dementia Rating scores of 0.5 were 63.8% and 76.6% on the original and 60.1% and 85.8% on revised version. The revised RDST-J total score had low sensitivity and high specificity compared with the original RDST-J for discriminating subjects with Clinical Dementia Rating scores of 0.5 from controls. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  5. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baik Fred

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Methods Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. Results There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. Conclusion None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind.

  6. Isolation, amplification and characterization of foodborne pathogen disease bacteria gene for rapid kit test development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjayadi, M.; Santoso, I.; Kartika, I. R.; Kurniadewi, F.; Saamia, V.; Sofihan, W.; Nurkhasanah, D.

    2017-07-01

    There is a lot of public concern over food safety. Food-safety cases recently, including many food poisoning cases in both the developed and developing countries, considered to be the national security threats which involved police investigation. Quick and accurate detection methods are needed to handle the food poisoning cases with a big number of sufferers at the same time. Therefore, the research is aimed to develop a specific, sensitive, and rapid result molecular detection tool for foodborne pathogen bacteria. We, thus, propose genomic level approach with Polymerase Chain Reaction. The research has successfully produced a specific primer to perform amplification to fim-C S. typhi, E. coli, and pef Salmonella typhimurium genes. The electrophoresis result shows that amplification products are 95 base pairs, 121 base pairs, and 139 base pairs; and all three genes are in accordance with the size of the in silico to third genes bacteria. In conclusion, the research has been successfully designed a specific detection tool to three foodborne pathogen bacteria genes. Further stages test and the uses of Real-time PCR in the detection are still in the trial process for better detection method.

  7. [The primary application of direct rapid immunohistochemical test to rabies diagnosis in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao-Yan; Niezgoda, Michael; Du, Jia-Liang; Li, Hao; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Huang, Ying; Jiao, Yang; Cao, Lei; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2008-06-01

    Evaluation of the direct rapid immumohistochemical test (DRIT) for laboratory surveillance of rabies. 72 brain specimens of domestic dogs or patients collected from Guizhou, Guangxi, Hunan, Anhui, Jiangsu and Yunnan provinces were detected by conventional methods including Direct Fluorescent-antibody Assay (DFA) and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), and by DRIT which was newly developed in the Rabies Section of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. The sensitivity and specificity of DRIT were evaluated by compare of the three results. By analysis of the index including cost of experiment, technique requirement and so on, the advancement and applicability of DRIT were discussed. Compared with DFA and RT-PCR, DRIT will be more applicable for laboratories with limited funds and weak techniques because of its lower cost needed and simpler techniques required while its sensitivity and specificity are equal to the other two methods. DRIT is more valuable in rabies diagnosis and more applicable for extension and popularization in rabies laboratory surveillance in local CDC.

  8. Introducing malaria rapid diagnostic tests in private medicine retail outlets: A systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoor Visser

    Full Text Available Many patients with malaria-like symptoms seek treatment in private medicine retail outlets (PMR that distribute malaria medicines but do not traditionally provide diagnostic services, potentially leading to overtreatment with antimalarial drugs. To achieve universal access to prompt parasite-based diagnosis, many malaria-endemic countries are considering scaling up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs in these outlets, an intervention that may require legislative changes and major investments in supporting programs and infrastructures. This review identifies studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs and examines study outcomes and success factors to inform scale up decisions.Published and unpublished studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs were systematically identified and reviewed. Literature published before November 2016 was searched in six electronic databases, and unpublished studies were identified through personal contacts and stakeholder meetings. Outcomes were extracted from publications or provided by principal investigators.Six published and six unpublished studies were found. Most studies took place in sub-Saharan Africa and were small-scale pilots of RDT introduction in drug shops or pharmacies. None of the studies assessed large-scale implementation in PMRs. RDT uptake varied widely from 8%-100%. Provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for patients testing positive ranged from 30%-99%, and was more than 85% in five studies. Of those testing negative, provision of antimalarials varied from 2%-83% and was less than 20% in eight studies. Longer provider training, lower RDT retail prices and frequent supervision appeared to have a positive effect on RDT uptake and provider adherence to test results. Performance of RDTs by PMR vendors was generally good, but disposal of medical waste and referral of patients to public facilities were common challenges.Expanding services of PMRs to include malaria diagnostic

  9. Introducing malaria rapid diagnostic tests in private medicine retail outlets: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Theodoor; Bruxvoort, Katia; Maloney, Kathleen; Leslie, Toby; Barat, Lawrence M; Allan, Richard; Ansah, Evelyn K; Anyanti, Jennifer; Boulton, Ian; Clarke, Siân E; Cohen, Jessica L; Cohen, Justin M; Cutherell, Andrea; Dolkart, Caitlin; Eves, Katie; Fink, Günther; Goodman, Catherine; Hutchinson, Eleanor; Lal, Sham; Mbonye, Anthony; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Petty, Nora; Pontarollo, Julie; Poyer, Stephen; Schellenberg, David; Streat, Elizabeth; Ward, Abigail; Wiseman, Virginia; Whitty, Christopher J M; Yeung, Shunmay; Cunningham, Jane; Chandler, Clare I R

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with malaria-like symptoms seek treatment in private medicine retail outlets (PMR) that distribute malaria medicines but do not traditionally provide diagnostic services, potentially leading to overtreatment with antimalarial drugs. To achieve universal access to prompt parasite-based diagnosis, many malaria-endemic countries are considering scaling up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in these outlets, an intervention that may require legislative changes and major investments in supporting programs and infrastructures. This review identifies studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs and examines study outcomes and success factors to inform scale up decisions. Published and unpublished studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs were systematically identified and reviewed. Literature published before November 2016 was searched in six electronic databases, and unpublished studies were identified through personal contacts and stakeholder meetings. Outcomes were extracted from publications or provided by principal investigators. Six published and six unpublished studies were found. Most studies took place in sub-Saharan Africa and were small-scale pilots of RDT introduction in drug shops or pharmacies. None of the studies assessed large-scale implementation in PMRs. RDT uptake varied widely from 8%-100%. Provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for patients testing positive ranged from 30%-99%, and was more than 85% in five studies. Of those testing negative, provision of antimalarials varied from 2%-83% and was less than 20% in eight studies. Longer provider training, lower RDT retail prices and frequent supervision appeared to have a positive effect on RDT uptake and provider adherence to test results. Performance of RDTs by PMR vendors was generally good, but disposal of medical waste and referral of patients to public facilities were common challenges. Expanding services of PMRs to include malaria diagnostic services may hold

  10. Malaria rapid diagnostic test transport and storage conditions in Burkina Faso, Senegal, Ethiopia and the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertini Audrey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As more point of care diagnostics become available, the need to transport and store perishable medical commodities to remote locations increases. As with other diagnostics, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs must be highly reliable at point of use, but exposure to adverse environmental conditions during distribution has the potential to degrade tests and accuracy. In remote locations, poor quality diagnostics and drugs may have significant negative health impact that is not readily detectable by routine monitoring. This study assessed temperature and humidity throughout supply chains used to transport and store health commodities, such as RDTs. Methods Monitoring devices capable of recording temperature and humidity were deployed to Burkina Faso (8, Senegal (10, Ethiopia (13 and the Philippines (6 over a 13-month period. The devices travelled through government supply chains, usually alongside RDTs, to health facilities where RDTs are stored, distributed and used. The recording period spanned just over a year, in order to avoid any biases related to seasonal temperature variations. Results In the four countries, storage and transport temperatures regularly exceeded 30.0°C; maximum humidity level recorded was above 94% for the four countries. In three of the four countries, temperatures recorded at central storage facilities exceeded pharmaceutical storage standards for over 20% of the time, in another case for a majority of the time; and sometimes exceeded storage temperatures at peripheral sites. Conclusions Malaria RDTs were regularly exposed to temperatures above recommended limits for many commercially-available RDTs and other medical commodities such as drugs, but rarely exceeded the recommended storage limits for particular products in use in these countries. The results underline the need to select RDTs, and other commodities, according to expected field conditions, actively manage the environmental conditions in

  11. Rapid antigen group A streptococcus test to diagnose pharyngitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily H Stewart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharyngitis management guidelines include estimates of the test characteristics of rapid antigen streptococcus tests (RAST using a non-systematic approach. OBJECTIVE: To examine the sensitivity and specificity, and sources of variability, of RAST for diagnosing group A streptococcal (GAS pharyngitis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cochrane Reviews, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Scopus, SciELO, CINAHL, guidelines, 2000-2012. STUDY SELECTION: Culture as reference standard, all languages. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Study characteristics, quality. MAIN OUTCOME(S AND MEASURE(S: Sensitivity, specificity. RESULTS: We included 59 studies encompassing 55,766 patients. Forty three studies (18,464 patients fulfilled the higher quality definition (at least 50 patients, prospective data collection, and no significant biases and 16 (35,634 patients did not. For the higher quality immunochromatographic methods in children (10,325 patients, heterogeneity was high for sensitivity (inconsistency [I(2] 88% and specificity (I(2 86%. For enzyme immunoassay in children (342 patients, the pooled sensitivity was 86% (95% CI, 79-92% and the pooled specificity was 92% (95% CI, 88-95%. For the higher quality immunochromatographic methods in the adult population (1,216 patients, the pooled sensitivity was 91% (95% CI, 87 to 94% and the pooled specificity was 93% (95% CI, 92 to 95%; however, heterogeneity was modest for sensitivity (I(2 61% and specificity (I(2 72%. For enzyme immunoassay in the adult population (333 patients, the pooled sensitivity was 86% (95% CI, 81-91% and the pooled specificity was 97% (95% CI, 96 to 99%; however, heterogeneity was high for sensitivity and specificity (both, I(2 88%. CONCLUSIONS: RAST immunochromatographic methods appear to be very sensitive and highly specific to diagnose group A streptococcal pharyngitis among adults but not in children. We could not identify sources of variability among higher quality studies. The

  12. Rapid antigen group A streptococcus test to diagnose pharyngitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Emily H; Davis, Brian; Clemans-Taylor, B Lee; Littenberg, Benjamin; Estrada, Carlos A; Centor, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Pharyngitis management guidelines include estimates of the test characteristics of rapid antigen streptococcus tests (RAST) using a non-systematic approach. To examine the sensitivity and specificity, and sources of variability, of RAST for diagnosing group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. MEDLINE, Cochrane Reviews, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Scopus, SciELO, CINAHL, guidelines, 2000-2012. Culture as reference standard, all languages. Study characteristics, quality. Sensitivity, specificity. We included 59 studies encompassing 55,766 patients. Forty three studies (18,464 patients) fulfilled the higher quality definition (at least 50 patients, prospective data collection, and no significant biases) and 16 (35,634 patients) did not. For the higher quality immunochromatographic methods in children (10,325 patients), heterogeneity was high for sensitivity (inconsistency [I(2)] 88%) and specificity (I(2) 86%). For enzyme immunoassay in children (342 patients), the pooled sensitivity was 86% (95% CI, 79-92%) and the pooled specificity was 92% (95% CI, 88-95%). For the higher quality immunochromatographic methods in the adult population (1,216 patients), the pooled sensitivity was 91% (95% CI, 87 to 94%) and the pooled specificity was 93% (95% CI, 92 to 95%); however, heterogeneity was modest for sensitivity (I(2) 61%) and specificity (I(2) 72%). For enzyme immunoassay in the adult population (333 patients), the pooled sensitivity was 86% (95% CI, 81-91%) and the pooled specificity was 97% (95% CI, 96 to 99%); however, heterogeneity was high for sensitivity and specificity (both, I(2) 88%). RAST immunochromatographic methods appear to be very sensitive and highly specific to diagnose group A streptococcal pharyngitis among adults but not in children. We could not identify sources of variability among higher quality studies. The present systematic review provides the best evidence for the wide range of sensitivity included in current guidelines.

  13. Public health services and their relationship with rapid HIV test utilization and access for key populations in Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jesús Conde González

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In 2009, 4 749 rapid HIV tests were run in Morelos, Mexico, despite lacking evidence on their results. This article seeks to analyze how public health organization relates to utility of rapid HIV test among healthcare users. Materials and methods. Joint study: comparison of differences in applied test and positive results for each group with the Bonferroni statistical tool, observational study in 34 health subsystems, and 11 interviews with public healthcare users. Results. Each subsystem processes influenced the use and usefulness of screening; for instance, primary care centers test only pregnant women and exclude men who have sex with men (MSM. That group shows significant differences (p<0.007 in the HIV-positive test with respect to other groups. Conclusions. Despite the availability of rapid detection tests and epidemiological evidence, the way public health services are organized impedes an efficient diagnosis in the group with higher risk, namely MSM. The distribution of rapid HIV tests was guided by stigmatization.

  14. Counselling in STD/HIV/AIDS in the context of rapid test: Perception of users and health professionals at a counselling and testing centre in Porto Alegre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernanda T; Both, Nalu S; Alnoch, Edi M; Conz, Jaqueline; Rocha, Katia B

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the perceptions of professionals and users about counselling practices at a counselling and testing centre in Porto Alegre/RS based on interviews with 27 service users and 14 members of the staff. The following categories emerged from thematic analysis: professionals' perceptions on counselling, users' perceptions on counselling and changes in counselling due to the introduction of rapid test procedures. The results show that, although initially there were some imprecision and apparent contradictions in its use, rapid testing was considered an invitation to rethink practices, bringing service closer to users' needs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C

    2016-04-27

    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  16. Corrosion of metals in wood : comparing the results of a rapid test method with long-term exposure tests across six wood treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Donald S. Stone

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares two methods of measuring the corrosion of steel and galvanized steel in wood: a long-term exposure test in solid wood and a rapid test method where fasteners are electrochemically polarized in extracts of wood treated with six different treatments. For traditional wood preservatives, the electrochemical extract method correlates with solid wood...

  17. Willingness to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunan Xu

    Full Text Available Early detection of HIV infection enables timely care and treatment. However, many men who have sex with men (MSM remain unaware of their HIV status because they do not or are unable to access HIV testing services. Oral fluid HIV rapid tests have the potential to increase HIV testing. This study is the first to evaluate willingness to use the oral fluid test among MSM in China.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing from July to October, 2012. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires.Of 262 who participated in the survey, 223(85.1% reported that they were willing to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test. Willingness to use the oral fluid test was associated with higher education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.13-5.10, lack of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI with male partners in the past one month (AOR: 2.38; 95% 95%CI: 1.15-4.95, having taken more than 4 HIV tests (AOR: 3.54; 95%CI:1.52-8.28, and having ever heard of the oral fluid HIV rapid test from gay friends or gay organizations (AOR: 3.24, 95%CI: 1.40-7.51. Among those who expressed willingness to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test, the median amount of money they were willing to pay was 8 dollars. Among the 39 participants who were unwilling to use the oral fluid test, 79.5% (31/39 expressed concerns about the accuracy of the oral fluid HIV rapid test results and 17.9%(7/39 reported that they were not familiar with the oral fluid test and did not know how to use such a test.A high proportion of MSM in Beijing appear to be willing to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test. Appropriate cost and education measures could help improve acceptance of the oral fluid test.

  18. Dried Plasmodium falciparum-infected samples as positive controls for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidoo Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are central to fulfilling the WHO’s recommendation for parasitologic confirmation of all suspected cases of malaria. RDT performance may be compromised when exposed to the high temperature conditions typical of most malaria endemic regions. However, a systematic method to monitor RDT quality and performance in endemic countries is lacking at the present time. Current methods to monitor RDT performance in the field include comparing results from RDTs to diagnoses made by light microscopy and observing health workers perform tests. These methods are not substitutes for direct quality control. In this study, the suitability of dried Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood as quality control samples for malaria RDTs was evaluated. Methods Three cultured strains of P. falciparum at 200 and 2,000 parasites/μl were tested on 10 brands of RDT. After baseline testing to determine initial reactivity, aliquots of parasite-infected blood were air dried, stored at 35°C, room temperature (~25°C or 4°C for one, four and 12 weeks and were then tested on the 10 RDTs after rehydration. Extended stability testing of dried blood stored at 4°C was done using P. falciparum strain 3D7 at 1,000 and 2,000 parasites/μl. Results All dried blood samples at 2,000 parasites/μl retained reactivity (100% sensitivity at all three temperatures and time points for all nine RDT brands that detect histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2. The dried blood samples with 200 parasites/μl were detected by six of the nine HRP2-based RDTs at all storage temperatures and time points. The sensitivity for two of the three remaining HRP2-based RDTs was 100% up to four weeks of storage at all temperatures but dropped to 87.5% at week 12. Of the four RDTs that detect plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH in a pan-specific manner, alone or in combination with HRP2, the detection of pLDH in samples with 2,000 parasites/μL was 100% for two RDTs and

  19. Testing survey-based methods for rapid monitoring of child mortality, with implications for summary birth history data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Eoghan; Hill, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Under-five mortality estimates are increasingly used in low and middle income countries to target interventions and measure performance against global development goals. Two new methods to rapidly estimate under-5 mortality based on Summary Birth Histories (SBH) were described in a previous paper and tested with data available. This analysis tests the methods using data appropriate to each method from 5 countries that lack vital registration systems. SBH data are collected across many countries through censuses and surveys, and indirect methods often rely upon their quality to estimate mortality rates. The Birth History Imputation method imputes data from a recent Full Birth History (FBH) onto the birth, death and age distribution of the SBH to produce estimates based on the resulting distribution of child mortality. DHS FBHs and MICS SBHs are used for all five countries. In the implementation, 43 of 70 estimates are within 20% of validation estimates (61%). Mean Absolute Relative Error is 17.7.%. 1 of 7 countries produces acceptable estimates. The Cohort Change method considers the differences in births and deaths between repeated Summary Birth Histories at 1 or 2-year intervals to estimate the mortality rate in that period. SBHs are taken from Brazil's PNAD Surveys 2004-2011 and validated against IGME estimates. 2 of 10 estimates are within 10% of validation estimates. Mean absolute relative error is greater than 100%. Appropriate testing of these new methods demonstrates that they do not produce sufficiently good estimates based on the data available. We conclude this is due to the poor quality of most SBH data included in the study. This has wider implications for the next round of censuses and future household surveys across many low- and middle- income countries.

  20. Clinical and virologic factors associated with reduced sensitivity of rapid influenza diagnostic tests in hospitalized elderly patients and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Martin C W; Lee, Nelson; Ngai, Karry L K; Leung, Ting F; Chan, Paul K S

    2014-02-01

    Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) are commonly used by clinicians to guide patient management. Data on sensitivities among hospitalized patients are limited. Here, we evaluated the clinical and virologic factors affecting the sensitivities of 2 commercially available RIDTs (BinaxNOW Influenza A&B and QuickVue Influenza A+B) on nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) specimens collected from elderly patients and young children hospitalized for influenza. Influenza cases and age-matched negative controls were prospectively enrolled during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Hong Kong. NPA specimens were collected at presentation before antiviral treatment. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) results were used as references for the sensitivity analyses. One hundred patients (57 influenza cases and 43 controls) were studied. Both RIDTs had 100% specificities. The sensitivities of the BinaxNOW Influenza A&B and QuickVue Influenza A+B tests were 70% and 82%, respectively. For both tests, the sensitivities were lower in cases with presentation times beyond 2 days of illness onset than for those within this time (50 to 71% versus 85 to 91%, respectively). There were trends toward lower sensitivities for influenza B than for influenza A (66 to 81% versus 76 to 84%, respectively), among young children than among the elderly patients (63 to 78% versus 80 to 88%, respectively), and among cases with pneumonia than those without pneumonia (75% versus 82 to 94%, respectively). The sensitivities of the RIDTs decreased with reduced NPA viral RNA levels (5.6 to 15.0% reduction per 1-log decrease), which declined progressively after illness onset (Spearman's rho, -0.47 [P < 0.05] and -0.66 [P < 0.001] for influenza A and B, respectively). Collectively, late presentation, a low NPA viral load, and probably lower respiratory manifestation are factors associated with reduced sensitivities of RIDTs for diagnosing influenza in hospitalized patients. A negative RIDT result should be

  1. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests: a revolution and a challenge for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Febrile patients in malaria-endemic areas need rapid and accurate diagnosis to ensure prompt access to antimalarial treatment to avoid severe disease. As most fevers in malaria-endemic areas of South Africa are not caused by malaria, and symptom-based diagnosis is highly nonspecific, rapid demonstration of the ...

  2. Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.

  3. Test for age-specificity in survival of the common tern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, I.C.T.; Cam, E.

    2002-01-01

    Much effort in life-history theory has been addressed to the dependence of life-history traits on age, especially the phenomenon of senescence and its evolution. Although senescent declines in survival are well documented in humans and in domestic and laboratory animals, evidence for their occurrence and importance in wild animal species remains limited and equivocal. Several recent papers have suggested that methodological issues may contribute to this problem, and have encouraged investigators to improve sampling designs and to analyse their data using recently developed approaches to modelling of capture-mark-recapture data. Here we report on a three-year, two-site, mark-recapture study of known-aged common terns (Sterna hirundo) in the north-eastern USA. The study was nested within a long-term ecological study in which large numbers of chicks had been banded in each year for > 25 years. We used a range of models to test the hypothesis of an influence of age on survival probability. We also tested for a possible influence of sex on survival. The cross-sectional design of the study (one year's parameter estimates) avoided the possible confounding of effects of age and time. The study was conducted at a time when one of the study sites was being colonized and numbers were increasing rapidly. We detected two-way movements between the sites and estimated movement probabilities in the year for which they could be modelled. We also obtained limited data on emigration from our study area to more distant sites. We found no evidence that survival depended on either sex or age, except that survival was lower among the youngest birds (ages 2-3 years). Despite the large number of birds included in the study (1599 known-aged birds, 2367 total), confidence limits on estimates of survival probability were wide, especially for the oldest age-classes, so that a slight decline in survival late in life could not have been detected. In addition, the cross-sectional design of this

  4. Comparison of a rapid immunochromatographic assay with an immunofluorescent antibody test for detection of Leishmania infantum antibodies in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva; Perego, Roberta; Baggiani, Luciana; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Migliazzo, Antonella; Vitale, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    Identification of Leishmania infantum-infected dogs is crucial for control of canine leishmaniosis. In particular, in areas where access to specialized laboratories is limited, the availability of reliable and rapid in-clinic serologic tests may support immediate diagnosis in suspected cases and permit detection of asymptomatic canine carriers of L infantum infection. The purpose of the study was to validate the immunochromatographic test (ICT) Anigen Rapid Leishmania Ab Test kit for detection of L infantum antibodies in naturally exposed dogs in comparison with the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Serum samples from 66 dogs, including 20 healthy control dogs and 46 dogs suspected or confirmed with canine leishmaniosis, were measured by both tests. Anti-Leishmania IgG titers ≥ 1:40 by IFAT were considered positive. Kappa statistic with a 95% CI was calculated to evaluate agreement between the 2 testing methods, and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated. Anti-L infantum IgG antibodies were found in 35 of 66 samples using the IFAT test (titers 1:40-1:5120). Thirty-one out of 66 samples tested positive with the qualitative ICT. Four IFAT-positive (titers ICT-negative. The Kappa value of 0.853 demonstrated very good agreement between the 2 tests. The Anigen Rapid Leishmania Ab Test kit reliably identified canine sera with anti-L infantum IgG antibody titers ≥ 1:40. The ICT requires neither special preparation of the serum nor specialized equipment and can be stored at ambient temperature. The test is applicable as a field test because it is easy to use and provides rapid results. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  5. Accuracy of commercially available c-reactive protein rapid tests in the context of undifferentiated fevers in rural Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phommasone, Koukeo; Althaus, Thomas; Souvanthong, Phonesavanh; Phakhounthong, Khansoudaphone; Soyvienvong, Laxoy; Malapheth, Phatthaphone; Mayxay, Mayfong; Pavlicek, Rebecca L; Paris, Daniel H; Dance, David; Newton, Paul; Lubell, Yoel

    2016-02-04

    C-Reactive Protein (CRP) has been shown to be an accurate biomarker for discriminating bacterial from viral infections in febrile patients in Southeast Asia. Here we investigate the accuracy of existing rapid qualitative and semi-quantitative tests as compared with a quantitative reference test to assess their potential for use in remote tropical settings. Blood samples were obtained from consecutive patients recruited to a prospective fever study at three sites in rural Laos. At each site, one of three rapid qualitative or semi-quantitative tests was performed, as well as a corresponding quantitative NycoCard Reader II as a reference test. We estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the three tests against a threshold of 10 mg/L and kappa values for the agreement of the two semi-quantitative tests with the results of the reference test. All three tests showed high sensitivity, specificity and kappa values as compared with the NycoCard Reader II. With a threshold of 10 mg/L the sensitivity of the tests ranged from 87-98 % and the specificity from 91-98 %. The weighted kappa values for the semi-quantitative tests were 0.7 and 0.8. The use of CRP rapid tests could offer an inexpensive and effective approach to improve the targeting of antibiotics in remote settings where health facilities are basic and laboratories are absent. This study demonstrates that accurate CRP rapid tests are commercially available; evaluations of their clinical impact and cost-effectiveness at point of care is warranted.

  6. Are rapid diagnostic tests more accurate in diagnosis of plasmodium falciparum malaria compared to microscopy at rural health centres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnussen Pascal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt, accurate diagnosis and treatment with artemisinin combination therapy remains vital to current malaria control. Blood film microscopy the current standard test for diagnosis of malaria has several limitations that necessitate field evaluation of alternative diagnostic methods especially in low income countries of sub-Saharan Africa where malaria is endemic. Methods The accuracy of axillary temperature, health centre (HC microscopy, expert microscopy and a HRP2-based rapid diagnostic test (Paracheck was compared in predicting malaria infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR as the gold standard. Three hundred patients with a clinical suspicion of malaria based on fever and or history of fever from a low and high transmission setting in Uganda were consecutively enrolled and provided blood samples for all tests. Accuracy of each test was calculated overall with 95% confidence interval and then adjusted for age-groups and level of transmission intensity using a stratified analysis. The endpoints were: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV. This study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00565071. Results Of the 300 patients, 88(29.3% had fever, 56(18.7% were positive by HC microscopy, 47(15.7% by expert microscopy, 110(36.7% by Paracheck and 89(29.7% by PCR. The overall sensitivity >90% was only shown by Paracheck 91.0% [95%CI: 83.1-96.0]. The sensitivity of expert microscopy was 46%, similar to HC microscopy. The superior sensitivity of Paracheck compared to microscopy was maintained when data was stratified for transmission intensity and age. The overall specificity rates were: Paracheck 86.3% [95%CI: 80.9-90.6], HC microscopy 93.4% [95%CI: 89.1-96.3] and expert microscopy 97.2% [95%CI: 93.9-98.9]. The NPV >90% was shown by Paracheck 95.8% [95%CI: 91.9-98.2]. The overall PPV was Conclusion The HRP2-based RDT has shown superior sensitivity compared to

  7. Impact of rapid urine antigen tests to determine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, Felipe; Domínguez, José; Ruiz, Juan; Blanco, Silvia; Arellano, Elisabet; Prat, Cristina; Morera, Josep; Ausina, Vicente

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the rapid urine antigen tests, including a new rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the detection of the Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen and an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of the Legionella antigen, in order to improve the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults. Prospective study. A tertiary hospital in Spain. We consecutively recruited 107 adults with CAP evaluated at our hospital. The analyses included blood and sputum cultures, pleural fluid culture (if present) and serologic studies. The detection of the Legionella pneumophila urinary antigen was performed by EIA, and the detection of S. pneumoniae antigen in urine samples was performed by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) and a rapid ICT. Using conventional microbiologic tests we succeeded in performing the etiologic diagnosis of 39 out of the 107 cases (36.4%). The inclusion of rapid antigen detection techniques increased the percentage of diagnosis to 54.2%, which represents a total increase of 17.8% (P=0.034). The data obtained in this study indicate that rapid urine antigen tests are very useful to determine CAP etiology in adults and, consequently, to quickly identify a group of patients in whom narrow spectrum antibiotics may be used.

  8. Community acceptability of use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria by community health workers in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waiswa Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many malarious countries plan to introduce artemisinin combination therapy (ACT at community level using community health workers (CHWs for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Use of ACT with reliance on presumptive diagnosis may lead to excessive use, increased costs and rise of drug resistance. Use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs could address these challenges but only if the communities will accept their use by CHWs. This study assessed community acceptability of the use of RDTs by Ugandan CHWs, locally referred to as community medicine distributors (CMDs. Methods The study was conducted in Iganga district using 10 focus group discussions (FGDs with CMDs and caregivers of children under five years, and 10 key informant interviews (KIIs with health workers and community leaders. Pre-designed FGD and KII guides were used to collect data. Manifest content analysis was used to explore issues of trust and confidence in CMDs, stigma associated with drawing blood from children, community willingness for CMDs to use RDTs, and challenges anticipated to be faced by the CMDs. Results CMDs are trusted by their communities because of their commitment to voluntary service, access, and the perceived effectiveness of anti-malarial drugs they provide. Some community members expressed fear that the blood collected could be used for HIV testing, the procedure could infect children with HIV, and the blood samples could be used for witchcraft. Education level of CMDs is important in their acceptability by the community, who welcome the use of RDTs given that the CMDs are trained and supported. Anticipated challenges for CMDs included transport for patient follow-up and picking supplies, adults demanding to be tested, and caregivers insisting their children be treated instead of being referred. Conclusion Use of RDTs by CMDs is likely to be acceptable by community members given that CMDs are properly trained, and receive regular technical

  9. Prevalence of H. Pylori in Tonsillar Tissue of Patients with Chronic Recurrent Tonsillitis Using Rapid Urease Test in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Sub Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochung'o, O Peter; Mugwe, P; Masinde, P; Waweru, W

    2015-09-01

    There has been conflicting results regarding the presence of H. pylori in tonsillar tissue. Our objective was to analyze for the presence of H. pylori in tonsillar tissue in patients undergoing tonsillectomy for chronic recurrent tonsillitis using rapid urease test in a Tertiary care academic medical center in a sub Saharan hospital. A prospective cross-sectional analysis of 39 consecutive cases of patients undergoing tonsillectomy secondary to chronic recurrent tonsilitis was done. Rapid urease test was conducted on each tonsillectomy tissue and results were determined using color change at specific time intervals within 24 h. Average age of the patients was 4.3 years. Among the 39 tonsillar tissues analysed using rapid urease test, H. pylori was present in 30.5 % of the samples. Colonisation by H. pylori of the palatine tonsils is a new frontier with conflicting results depending on the accuracy of the test method used and population studied. More studies need to be performed to ascertain the different rates of colonisation based on geographical regions.

  10. Influence of Age and Education on Neuropsychological Tests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    intelligence such as 'nzelu' include being cautious and thoughtful, which often results in slower, more deliberate test-taking. In the context of traditional. African values, interpreting slow test taking as a symptom of cognitive impairment could lead to misinterpretation of neuropsychological test performance relative to Western ...

  11. [Use of Rapid Antigen Detection Test (RADT) among general practitioner teachers at the Paris Descartes University: 2005-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, C; Robinet, J; Partouche, H

    2009-06-01

    The distribution of the Rapid Antigen Detection Test (RADT) and the National Health Insurance's information campaign should efficiently reduce the unjustified use antibiotic. However, a preliminary survey among GP trainers at the Paris Descartes University indicated that the RADT was seldom used. This study had for aim to describe the RADT use trend among trainers since 2005 and the main obstacles to its widespread use, and to assess the Mac Isaac score use and antibiotic prescriptions. Between February and May 2007, a survey was carried out among 66 GPs who were required to report their first ten patients over three years of age presenting with pharyngitis. RADT use and antibiotic prescriptions were compared with those of the 2005 survey. RADT use had decreased (52.5% [48.2-56.8] versus 57.5% [52.1-68.8], p<0.05). GPs did not use the RADT because they considered it "useless in decision making". Clinical findings were sufficient in most cases. The Mac Isaac score was not widely used by GPs (28.3%) and antibiotic prescription had increased except for macrolides which had decreased (10% vs 15%). Among patients with a negative RADT, 11.9% (vs 10.5% en 2005, p<0.001) were prescribed antibiotics. The RADT use decreased in two years among GP trainers. GPs still prescribe treatment according to clinical findings, most without using diagnostic tools.

  12. Periodontal disease and Helicobacter pylori infection: a community-based study using serology and rapid urease test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, Krishnavilasom J; Nandakumar, Krishnankutty; Shenoy, Kottacherry T; Janam, Presanthila

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal disease and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and their associations within a predefined Indian population. A community-based cross-sectional study of 500 selected individuals using a questionnaire, oral examination, rapid urease testing of dental plaque, and serological examination for immunoglobulin G antibody to H. pylori was carried out. Periodontal disease and H. pylori infection were prevalent in more than 50% of the population. Age, smoking, and diabetic status of the individuals were risk factors for periodontal disease after multivariate analysis, and a lack of proper sewage and waste disposal facilities were found to increase the risk of H. pylori infection. Although there was no association between periodontal disease and H. pylori seropositivity in the community, a highly-significant association was found between periodontal disease and colonization of H. pylori in dental plaque. Because periodontal disease is associated with the increased colonization of H. pylori, new treatment modalities, such as plaque control measures, should be employed for the complete management of H. pylori-associated gastric disease. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Comparison of two dengue NS1 rapid tests for sensitivity, specificity and relationship to viraemia and antibody responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrar Jeremy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Rapid and easy diagnosis of dengue can assist patient triage and care-management. The detection of DENV NS1 on rapid lateral flow tests offers a fast route to a presumptive dengue diagnosis but careful evaluations are urgently needed as more and more people use them. Methods The sensitivity and specificity of the Bio-Rad NS1 Ag Strip and SD Dengue Duo (NS1/IgM/IgG lateral flow rapid tests were evaluated in a panel of plasma samples from 245 Vietnamese patients with RT-PCR confirmed dengue and 47 with other febrile illnesses. Results The NS1 rapid tests had similar diagnostic sensitivities (respectively 61.6% and 62.4% in confirmed dengue cases but were 100% specific. When IgM/IgG results from the SD Dengue Duo were included in the test interpretation, the sensitivity improved significantly from 62.4% with NS1 alone to 75.5% when NS1 and/or IgM was positive and 83.7% when NS1 and/or IgM and/or IgG was positive. Both NS1 assays were significantly more sensitive for primary than secondary dengue. NS1 positivity was associated with the underlying viraemia as NS1-positive samples had a significantly higher viraemia than NS1-negative samples. Conclusions These data suggest that the NS1 test component of these assays are highly specific and have similar levels of sensitivity. The IgM parameter in the SD Duo test improved overall test sensitivity without compromising specificity. The SD Dengue Duo lateral flow rapid test deserves further prospective evaluation in dengue endemic settings.

  14. Real-Time Digital Bright Field Technology for Rapid Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Chiara; Spillum, Erik; Valvik, Martin; Agersnap, Niels; Olesen, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Optical scanning through bacterial samples and image-based analysis may provide a robust method for bacterial identification, fast estimation of growth rates and their modulation due to the presence of antimicrobial agents. Here, we describe an automated digital, time-lapse, bright field imaging system (oCelloScope, BioSense Solutions ApS, Farum, Denmark) for rapid and higher throughput antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of up to 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time. The imaging system consists of a digital camera, an illumination unit and a lens where the optical axis is tilted 6.25° relative to the horizontal plane of the stage. Such tilting grants more freedom of operation at both high and low concentrations of microorganisms. When considering a bacterial suspension in a microwell, the oCelloScope acquires a sequence of 6.25°-tilted images to form an image Z-stack. The stack contains the best-focus image, as well as the adjacent out-of-focus images (which contain progressively more out-of-focus bacteria, the further the distance from the best-focus position). The acquisition process is repeated over time, so that the time-lapse sequence of best-focus images is used to generate a video. The setting of the experiment, image analysis and generation of time-lapse videos can be performed through a dedicated software (UniExplorer, BioSense Solutions ApS). The acquired images can be processed for online and offline quantification of several morphological parameters, microbial growth, and inhibition over time.

  15. Rapid toxicity assessment of sediments from estuarine ecosystems: A new tandem in vitro testing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. Thomas; Long, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    Microtox?? and Mutatox?? were used to evaluate the acute toxicity and genotoxicity, respectively, of organic sediment extracts from Pensacola Bay and St. Andrew Bay, two estuaries that cover about 273 and 127 km2, respectively, along the Gulf coast of Florida, USA. The sensitivity and selectivity of these two bioluminescent toxicity assays were demonstrated in validation studies with over 50 pesticides, genotoxins, and industrial pollutants, both as single compounds and in complex mixtures. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of insecticides, petroleum products, and polychlorinated biphenyls determined by Microtox all tended to group around the mean EC50 value of 1.2 (0.8) mg/L. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sensitivity of Mutatox was in general similar to that reported in the Ames test. Surficial sediment samples were collected, extracted with dichloromethane, evaporated and concentrated under nitrogen, dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, assayed for acute toxicity and genotoxicity, and compared with reference sediments. Samples with low EC50 values, and determined to be genotoxic, were detected in Massalina Bayou, Watson Bayou, East Bay, and St. Andrew Bay-East in St. Andrew Bay as well as Bayou Grande, Bayou Chico, and Bayou Texar in Pensacola Bay. An overview of these data sets analyzed by Spearman rank correlation showed a significant correlation between acute toxicity and genotoxicity (p < 0.05). Microtox and Mutatox in tandem was a sensitive, cost-effective, and rapid (<24 h) screening tool that identified troublesome areas of pollution and assessed the potential sediment toxicity of lipophilic contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Insulation Condition Assessment of Power Transformers Using Accelerated Ageing Tests

    OpenAIRE

    MIRZAIE, Mohammad; Gholami, Ahmad; TAYEBI, Hamid Reza

    2009-01-01

    Thermal stress due to losses and environment temperature causes degradation to paper/oil insulation systems in transformers, even at operating temperature. Experience indicates that thermal ageing of oil and paper in power transformers leads to the change of some insulation characteristics. In this paper, insulating papers immersed in oil have been acceleratory aged at 140, 150, and 160 °C under laboratory conditions. Some of the oil properties, such as water content, breakdown vo...

  17. The evaluation of a rapid in situ HIV confirmation test in a programme with a high failure rate of the WHO HIV two-test diagnostic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarkowski, Derryck B; Wazome, Joseph M; Lokuge, Kamalini M; Shanks, Leslie; Mills, Clair F; O'Brien, Daniel P

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about false-positive HIV results led to a review of testing procedures used in a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) HIV programme in Bukavu, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. In addition to the WHO HIV rapid diagnostic test algorithm (RDT) (two positive RDTs alone for HIV diagnosis) used in voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) sites we evaluated in situ a practical field-based confirmation test against western blot WB. In addition, we aimed to determine the false-positive rate of the WHO two-test algorithm compared with our adapted protocol including confirmation testing, and whether weakly reactive compared with strongly reactive rapid test results were more likely to be false positives. 2864 clients presenting to MSF VCT centres in Bukavu during January to May 2006 were tested using Determine HIV-1/2 and UniGold HIV rapid tests in parallel by nurse counsellors. Plasma samples on 229 clients confirmed as double RDT positive by laboratory retesting were further tested using both WB and the Orgenics Immunocomb Combfirm HIV confirmation test (OIC-HIV). Of these, 24 samples were negative or indeterminate by WB representing a false-positive rate of the WHO two-test algorithm of 10.5% (95%CI 6.6-15.2). 17 of the 229 samples were weakly positive on rapid testing and all were negative or indeterminate by WB. The false-positive rate fell to 3.3% (95%CI 1.3-6.7) when only strong-positive rapid test results were considered. Agreement between OIC-HIV and WB was 99.1% (95%CI 96.9-99.9%) with no false OIC-HIV positives if stringent criteria for positive OIC-HIV diagnoses were used. The WHO HIV two-test diagnostic algorithm produced an unacceptably high level of false-positive diagnoses in our setting, especially if results were weakly positive. The most probable causes of the false-positive results were serological cross-reactivity or non-specific immune reactivity. Our findings show that the OIC-HIV confirmation test is practical and effective in field contexts

  18. The evaluation of a rapid in situ HIV confirmation test in a programme with a high failure rate of the WHO HIV two-test diagnostic algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derryck B Klarkowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concerns about false-positive HIV results led to a review of testing procedures used in a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF HIV programme in Bukavu, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. In addition to the WHO HIV rapid diagnostic test algorithm (RDT (two positive RDTs alone for HIV diagnosis used in voluntary counselling and testing (VCT sites we evaluated in situ a practical field-based confirmation test against western blot WB. In addition, we aimed to determine the false-positive rate of the WHO two-test algorithm compared with our adapted protocol including confirmation testing, and whether weakly reactive compared with strongly reactive rapid test results were more likely to be false positives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 2864 clients presenting to MSF VCT centres in Bukavu during January to May 2006 were tested using Determine HIV-1/2 and UniGold HIV rapid tests in parallel by nurse counsellors. Plasma samples on 229 clients confirmed as double RDT positive by laboratory retesting were further tested using both WB and the Orgenics Immunocomb Combfirm HIV confirmation test (OIC-HIV. Of these, 24 samples were negative or indeterminate by WB representing a false-positive rate of the WHO two-test algorithm of 10.5% (95%CI 6.6-15.2. 17 of the 229 samples were weakly positive on rapid testing and all were negative or indeterminate by WB. The false-positive rate fell to 3.3% (95%CI 1.3-6.7 when only strong-positive rapid test results were considered. Agreement between OIC-HIV and WB was 99.1% (95%CI 96.9-99.9% with no false OIC-HIV positives if stringent criteria for positive OIC-HIV diagnoses were used. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO HIV two-test diagnostic algorithm produced an unacceptably high level of false-positive diagnoses in our setting, especially if results were weakly positive. The most probable causes of the false-positive results were serological cross-reactivity or non-specific immune reactivity. Our findings show that the OIC

  19. Rapid Tests for Influenza, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, and Other Respiratory Viruses: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Andrea H L; Leeflang, Mariska M G; Vos, Johanna M B W; Spijker, Rene; de Jong, Menno D; Wolthers, Katja C; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2017-09-15

    Rapid diagnosis of respiratory virus infections contributes to patient care. This systematic review evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of rapid tests for the detection of respiratory viruses. We searched Medline and EMBASE for studies evaluating these tests against polymerase chain reaction as the reference standard. Of 179 studies included, 134 evaluated rapid tests for influenza viruses, 32 for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and 13 for other respiratory viruses. We used the bivariate random effects model for quantitative meta-analysis of the results. Most tests detected only influenza viruses or RSV. Summary sensitivity and specificity estimates of tests for influenza were 61.1% and 98.9%. For RSV, summary sensitivity was 75.3%, and specificity, 98.7%. We assessed the quality of studies using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) checklist. Because of incomplete reporting, the risk of bias was often unclear. Despite their intended use at the point of care, 26.3% of tests were evaluated in a laboratory setting. Although newly developed tests seem more sensitive, high-quality evaluations of these tests are lacking. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Quality of home-based rapid HIV testing by community lay counsellors in a rural district of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Jackson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lack of universal, annual testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in health facilities suggests that expansion of HIV testing and counselling (HTC to non-clinical settings is critical to the achievement of national goals for prevention, care and treatment. Consideration should be given to the ability of lay counsellors to perform home-based HTC in community settings. Methods: We implemented a community cluster randomized controlled trial of home-based HTC in Sisonke District, South Africa. Trained lay counsellors conducted door-to-door HIV testing using the same rapid tests used by the local health department at the time of the study (SD Bioline and Sensa. To monitor testing quality and counsellor skill, additional dry blood spots were taken and sent for laboratory-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA testing. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the laboratory result as the gold standard. Results and discussion: From 3986 samples, the counsellor and laboratory results matched in all but 23 cases. In 18 cases, the counsellor judged the result as indeterminate, whereas the laboratory judged 10 positive, eight negative and three indeterminate, indicating that the counsellor may have erred on the side of caution. Sensitivity was 98.0% (95% CI: 96.3–98.9%, and specificity 99.6% (95% CI: 99.4–99.7%, for the lay counsellor field-based rapid tests. Both measures are high, and the lower confidence bound for specificity meets the international standard for assessing HIV rapid tests. Conclusions: These findings indicate that adequately trained lay counsellors are capable of safely conducting high-quality rapid HIV tests and interpreting the results as per the kit guidelines. These findings are important given the likely expansion of community and home-based testing models and the shortage of clinically trained professional staff.

  1. High incidence of community-acquired pneumonia among rapidly aging population in Japan: a prospective hospital-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Masahiro; Nakama, Takahiro; Ishida, Masayuki; Morimoto, Hitomi; Nagasaki, Yuka; Shiramizu, Rina; Hamashige, Naohisa; Chikamori, Masayuki; Yoshida, Laymyint; Ariyoshi, Koya; Suzuki, Motoi; Morimoto, Konosuke

    2014-01-01

    The age-group-specific incidence and etiological patterns of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) have not been fully established in Japan. A 2-year prospective surveillance was conducted in Kochi city, Western Japan. All CAP patients aged ≥15 years who visited a community-based hospital were enrolled in the study. Clinical samples were examined by conventional bacterial culture and urinary antigen tests, and 6 bacterial pathogens and 16 respiratory viruses were identified from sputum samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays. The age-group-specific incidence of CAP was estimated using a population-based data set of the total number of outpatients in the whole city. Ninety of the 131 enrolled patients, 68.7% were positive for respiratory pathogens. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the leading bacterial pathogen identified (28.2%). Respiratory viruses were identified in 36 patients (27.5%), and human entero-rhinovirus was the most common (13.3%) among them. The estimated overall incidence of adult CAP in Kochi was 9.6 per 1,000 person-years (PY); the estimated age group-specific incidence was 3.4, 10.7, and 42.9 per 1,000 PY for those aged 15-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years, respectively. The high incidence of CAP in these rural city of Japan, probably reflects the substantial aged population. S. pneumoniae and respiratory viruses play important roles in CAP in all age groups.

  2. Rapid Analysis of Geographical Origins and Age of Torreya grandis Seeds by NIR Spectroscopy and Pattern Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a rapid method for discriminating the geographical origins and age of roasted Torreya grandis seeds by near infrared (NIR spectroscopic analysis and pattern recognition. 337 samples were collected from three main producing areas and produced in the last two years. The objective of geographical origins analysis is to discriminate the seeds from Fengqiao with a protected geographical indication (PGI from those of another two provinces. Age classification is aimed to detect the old seeds produced in the last year from the freshly produced ones. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA was used to develop classification models, and the influence of data preprocessing methods on classification performance was also investigated. Taking second-order derivatives of the raw spectra proves to be the most proper and effective preprocessing method, which can remove baselines and backgrounds and reduce model complexity. With second derivative spectra, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.939 and 0.871 for age discrimination, respectively. Perfect classification was obtained, and both sensitivity and specificity were 1 for discrimination of geographical origins.

  3. Utility of a rapid immunochromatographic strip test in detecting canine parvovirus infection compared with polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaran S. Tinky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV in fecal samples of diarrheic dogs by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunochromatographic (IC strip test and to compare the diagnostic potential of these tests. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 fecal samples collected from diarrheic dogs suspected for CPV infection were subjected to PCR using CPV-555 primer amplifying the gene coding for the VP1 protein. These samples were also tested by IC strip test using a commercial rapid Ag test kit. The results were statistically analyzed using McNemar test. Results: A total of 22 samples (44% were detected as positive by PCR, which yielded a specific amplicon of 583 bp. In IC strip test, 18 (36% samples were found to be positive. The sensitivity of the test as compared to PCR was found to be 72.22% and specificity was 92.86%. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of IC strip test was found to be 88.89% and 81.25%, respectively. Statistical analysis of the results of PCR and IC assay using McNemar test revealed no significant difference (p>0.05. Conclusion: The IC strip test could be employed as a rapid field level diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of canine parvoviral diarrhea.

  4. Repeat confirmatory testing for persons with discordant whole blood and oral fluid rapid HIV test results: findings from post marketing surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura G Wesolowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB, immunofluorescent assay (IFA or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result, repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons with discordant results. METHODOLOGY: Post-marketing surveillance was conducted in 368 testing sites affiliated with 14 state and 2 city health departments from August 11, 2004 to June 30, 2005 and one health department through December 31, 2005. For persons with discordant results, data were collected on demographics, risk behaviors, HIV test results and specimen types. Persons with repeat confirmatory results were classified as HIV-infected or uninfected. Regression models were created to assess risk factors for not having repeat testing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 167,371 rapid tests conducted, 2589 (1.6% were reactive: of these, 2417 (93% had positive WB/IFA, 172 (7% had negative or indeterminate WB/IFA. Of 89/172 (52% persons with a repeat confirmatory test: 17 (19% were HIV-infected, including 3 with indeterminate WB and positive NAAT; 72 (81% were uninfected, including 12 with repeat indeterminate WB. Factors associated with HIV-infection included having an initial indeterminate WB/IFA (vs. negative (p<0.001 and having an initial oral fluid WB (vs. serum (p<0.001. Persons who had male-female sex (vs. male-male sex were at increased risk for not having a repeat test [adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.3, 4.9]. CONCLUSIONS: Though only half of persons with discordant results had repeat confirmatory testing, of those who did, nearly one in five were HIV-infected. These findings underscore the need for rapid HIV testing programs to increase repeat confirmatory testing for

  5. Communication: Direct tests of single-parameter aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina; Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents accurate data for the physical aging of organic glasses just below the glass transition probed by monitoring the following quantities after temperature up and down jumps: the shear-mechanical resonance frequency (∼360 kHz), the dielectric loss at 1 Hz, the real part of the die......This paper presents accurate data for the physical aging of organic glasses just below the glass transition probed by monitoring the following quantities after temperature up and down jumps: the shear-mechanical resonance frequency (∼360 kHz), the dielectric loss at 1 Hz, the real part...... Tool-Narayanaswamy aging formalism, which makes it possible to calculate one relaxation curve directly from another without any fitting to analytical functions....

  6. Design of a biological method for rapid detection of presence of PCR inhibitors in aged bone DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Akram; Mahdieh, Nejat; Tavallaei, Mahmood; Aslani, Mohammad Mehdi; Zafari, Zahra; Shirkavand, Atefeh; Farzad, Maryam Sharafi; Naderi, Mahdi; Azariyan, Sajjad Habibi; Zeinali, Sirous

    2012-01-01

    Molecular human identification is one of the most important tests performed in forensic laboratories. Some of these tests are applied for identification of human remains from natural disasters, wars, etc., but problems may occur as a result of DNA degradation and external DNA contamination. We investigated effects of bacterial DNA on identifying the presence or absence of PCR inhibitors in aged bone DNA. DNA samples were extracted from blood, bone remains and Escherichia coli. These DNA were amplified using human and bacterial specific primers. Using different blood, aged bone, and bacterial DNA dilutions along with PCR based methods; we checked their positive, negative effects, or detecting presence of inhibitors in aged bone DNA by PCR method. Our observation indicated that the addition of bacterial DNA could be a valid biological method for testing the quality of bone DNA to enable us to obtain a usable profile for the identification of human remains. This method will help to test the presence of inhibitors, quantity or even quality of DNA which are of importance in profiling archeological remains. Our method will help to determine if PCR failure is due to presence of inhibitors or lack of amplifiable DNA either because of degradation, minute amount or absence of human DNA.

  7. Rapid northward shift of the Indian Monsoon on the Tibetan Plateau at the end of the Little Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Xu, Baiqing; Günther, Franziska; Witt, Roman; Wang, Mo; Xie, Ying; Zhao, Huabiao; Li, Jiule; Gleixner, Gerd

    2017-09-01

    Variations in the Indian Monsoon (IM) and Westerlies (WS) significantly affect the climate on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and have widespread ecological and socioeconomic impacts on the whole of Asian society. So far, however, the rate and magnitude of changes in the IM have still remained unclear. Here we report for the first time that the IM rapidly shifted northward at the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA). We used sediment proxies for humidity and moisture sources from the Taro Co Lake, which is located in the transition zone between the WS and IM. Our comprehensive survey of climate records for the TP and its peripheral mountain ranges revealed that the northern boundary of the IM (i.e., the southern boundary of the WS) lay along the southern slope of the Gandise Range ( 29.5°N) in the late LIA. In contrast, it passed quickly over the Gandise Range by at least 1.5° in latitude at the end of the LIA. Our results suggest that this rapid climatic shift was potentially triggered by the counteracting effects of blocking by the TP and its marginal orography, which hindered the northward movement of the IM, and the pulling thermal gradient of the TP.

  8. Nursing Leadership in a Rapidly Aging Society: Implications of “The Future of Nursing” Report in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Harue; Nagae, Hiroko; Teshima, Megumi; Izumi, Shigeko

    2012-01-01

    The recent US Institute of Medicine (IOM) report about the future of nursing highlights the areas where nurses can serve, contribute, and move forward to improve health care in the United States. Japanese nursing scholars examined the IOM report for its implications in the Japanese context and explored the future of nursing in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to provide support for the premise that the report's recommendations could have implications for the future of nursing outside of the United States, especially in Japan. Particular areas and activities by nurses in Japan will be presented as examples of nurses taking leadership in designing care for the rapidly aging society of Japan. PMID:22830009

  9. Nursing Leadership in a Rapidly Aging Society: Implications of “The Future of Nursing” Report in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harue Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent US Institute of Medicine (IOM report about the future of nursing highlights the areas where nurses can serve, contribute, and move forward to improve health care in the United States. Japanese nursing scholars examined the IOM report for its implications in the Japanese context and explored the future of nursing in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to provide support for the premise that the report’s recommendations could have implications for the future of nursing outside of the United States, especially in Japan. Particular areas and activities by nurses in Japan will be presented as examples of nurses taking leadership in designing care for the rapidly aging society of Japan.

  10. Rapid identification of molecular changes in tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) upon ageing using leaf spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Depanjan; Srimany, Amitava; Pradeep, T

    2012-10-07

    Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is a medicinally important plant. Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are among its major constituents which account for many medicinal activities of the plant. In the present work, we deployed a new ambient ionization method, leaf spray ionization, for rapid detection of UA, OA and their oxidation products from tulsi leaves. Tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been performed on tulsi leaf extracts in methanol to establish the identity of the compounds. We probed changes occurring in the relative amounts of the parent compounds (UA and OA) with their oxidized products and the latter show an increasing trend upon ageing. The findings are verified by ESI-MS analysis of tulsi leaf extracts, which shows the same trend proving the reliability of the leaf spray method.

  11. EU-Approved Rapid Tests for Bovine Spongform Encephalopathy Detect Atypical Forms: A Study for Their Sensitivities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meloni, D.; Davidse, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; varello, K.; Casalone, C.; Corona, C.; Balkema-Buschmann, A.; Groschup, M.; Ingravalle, F.; Bozzetta, E.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004 it become clear that atypical bovine spongiform encephalopthies (BSEs) exist in cattle. Whenever their detection has relied on active surveillance plans implemented in Europe since 2001 by rapid tests, the overall and inter-laboratory performance of these diagnostic systems in the

  12. The Performance of a Rapid Diagnostic Test in Detecting Malaria Infection in Pregnant Women and the Impact of Missed Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, John E.; Cairns, Matthew; Njie, Fanta; Laryea Quaye, Stephen; Awine, Timothy; Oduro, Abraham; Tagbor, Harry; Bojang, Kalifa; Magnussen, Pascal; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Woukeu, Arouna; Milligan, Paul; Chandramohan, Daniel; Greenwood, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent screening and treatment in pregnancy (ISTp) is a potential strategy for the control of malaria during pregnancy. However, the frequency and consequences of malaria infections missed by a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for malaria are a concern. Primigravidae and secundigravidae who

  13. Developing and Validating a Rapid Small-Scale Column Test Procedure for GAC Selection using Reconstituted Lyophilized NOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost effective design and operation of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) facilities requires the selection of GAC that is optimal for a specific site. Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) are widely used for GAC assessment due to several advantages, including the ability to simu...

  14. Evaluation of the Rapid Mastitis Test for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bovine mammary glands.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, J L; Owens, W E

    1988-01-01

    A latex agglutination test system (Rapid Mastitis Test [RMT]; Immucell, Portland, Maine) containing reagents for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae from bovine intramammary infections was evaluated with 527 staphylococcal and 267 streptococcal isolates. The RMT Staphylococcus aureus reagent detected 94.2% of 242 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 80% of 25 Staphylococcus intermedius isolates, and 42.8% of 21 tube coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus isol...

  15. Battery cycling and calendar aging: year one testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report is meant to provide an update on the ongoing battery testing performed by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute to evaluate Electric Vehicle (EV) battery durability and reliability under electric utility grid operations. Commercial EV batte...

  16. Test anxiety and telomere length: Academic stress in adolescents may not cause rapid telomere erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaru; Leong, Waiian; Yao, Mingling; Hu, Xuefei; Lu, Sixiao; Zhu, Xiaowei; Chen, Lianxiang; Tong, Jianjing; Shi, Jingyi; Gilson, Eric; Ye, Jing; Lu, Yiming

    2017-02-14

    Academic stress (AS) is one of the most important health problems experienced by students, but no biomarker of the potential psychological or physical problems associated with AS has yet been identified. As several cross-sectional studies have shown that psychiatric conditions accelerate aging and shorten telomere length (TL), we explored whether AS affected TL.Between June 2014 and July 2014, we recruited 200 junior high school students with imminent final examinations for participation in this study. The students were divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate, and severe anxiety) using the Sarason Test Anxiety Scale (TAS). Saliva samples were collected for TL measurement via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).Students from both a specialized and a general school suffered from anxiety (p > 0.05). A total 35% had severe anxiety (score: 26.09±3.87), 33% had moderate anxiety (16.98±2.64), and 32% had mild anxiety (7.89±1.92). The TAS values differed significantly (p 0.05): 1.14±0.46 for those with severe anxiety, 1.02±0.40 for those with moderate anxiety, and 1.12±0.45 for those with mild anxiety.Previous reports have found that AS is very common in Asian adolescents. We found no immediate telomere shortening in adolescents with AS. Longitudinal observations are required to determine if TL is affected by AS.

  17. A Rapid Molecular Test for Determining Yersinia pestis Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin by the Quantification of Differentially Expressed Marker Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida eSteinberger-Levy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Standard antimicrobial susceptibility tests used to determine bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics are growth dependent and time consuming. The long incubation time required for standard tests may render susceptibility results irrelevant, particularly for patients infected with lethal bacteria that are slow growing on agar but progress rapidly in vivo, such as Yersinia pestis. Here, we present an alternative approach for the rapid determination of antimicrobial susceptibility, based on the quantification of the changes in the expression levels of specific marker genes following exposure to growth-inhibiting concentrations of the antibiotic, using Y. pestis and ciprofloxacin as a model. The marker genes were identified by transcriptomic DNA microarray analysis of the virulent Y. pestis Kimberley53 strain after exposure to specific concentrations of ciprofloxacin for various time periods. We identified several marker genes that were induced following exposure to growth-inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, and we confirmed the marker expression profiles at additional ciprofloxacin concentrations using quantitative RT-PCR. Eleven candidate marker transcripts were identified, of which four mRNA markers were selected for a rapid quantitative RT-PCR susceptibility test that correctly determined the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC values and the categories of susceptibility of several Y. pestis strains and isolates harboring various ciprofloxacin MIC values. The novel molecular susceptibility test requires just 2 h of antibiotic exposure in a 7-h overall test time, in contrast to the 24 h of antibiotic exposure required for a standard microdilution test.

  18. Factors associated with false-positive results from fingerstick OraQuick ADVANCE rapid HIV 1/2 antibody test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Samara B; Owens, Lauren E; Greenwald, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    Identify factors associated with false-positive rapid HIV antibody tests. This retrospective cohort study with nested case-controls involved patients tested for HIV by Boston Medical Center (BMC) affiliates. Cases had a reactive fingerstick OraQuick ADVANCE rapid HIV 1/2 antibody test and a negative Western blot. Controls had nonreactive rapid tests. We compared the prevalence of HIV risk factors between cases and the total nonreactive population and the prevalence of other clinical factors between cases and controls. Of the 15 094 tests, 14 937 (98.9%) were negative and 11 (0.07%) were false positives (specificity of 99.9%). Cases were more likely to have had an HIV-infected sex partner and to be tested at certain sites compared to true negatives. More cases than controls had O-negative blood type. O-negative blood type and sex with an HIV-infected person may increase false-positive HIV fingerstick results. More targeted studies should examine these risk factors.

  19. Field Evaluation of the Determine Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus Diagnostic Test in Honduras and the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Carol J.; Dubon, Jose M.; Koenig, Ellen; Perez, Eddy; Ager, Arba; Jayaweera, Dushyantha; Cuadrado, Raul R.; Rivera, Ada; Rubido, Alex; Palmer, Dennis A.

    1999-01-01

    Rapid detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can result in improved patient care and/or faster implementation of public health preventive measures. A new rapid test, Determine (Abbott, Abbott Park, Ill.), detects HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 antibodies within 15 min by using 50 μl of serum or plasma. No specialized equipment or ancillary supplies are required, and results are read visually. A positive result is noted by the appearance of a red line. An operational control (red line) indicates proper test performance. We evaluated the Determine rapid HIV detection test with a group of well-characterized serum samples (CD4 counts and viral loads were known) and serum samples from HIV-positive individuals at field sites in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. In the field evaluations, the results obtained by the Determine assay were compared to those obtained by local in-country HIV screening procedures. We evaluated serum from 100 HIV-positive patients and 66 HIV-negative patients. All samples gave the expected results. In a companion study, 42 HIV-positive samples from a Miami, Fla., serum bank were tested by the Determine assay. The samples had been characterized in terms of CD4 counts and viral loads. Fifteen patients had CD4 counts 200 cells/mm3. Viral loads ranged from 630 to 873,746 log10 copies/ml. All samples from the Miami serum bank were positive by the Determine test. Combined results from the multicenter studies indicated that the correct results were obtained by the Determine assay for 100% (142 of 142) of the HIV-positive serum samples and 100% (66 of 66) of the HIV-negative serum samples. The Determine test was simple to perform and the results were easy to interpret. The Determine test provides a valuable new method for the rapid identification of HIV-positive individuals, especially in developing countries with limited laboratory infrastructures. PMID:10523577

  20. [Comparison of Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PHP) test and Amsler grid test in the diagnosis of different stages of age-related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeier, J; Zorn, M M; Lang, G K; Botros, Y T; Lang, G E

    2006-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years of age. A rapid loss of vision occurs especially in cases with choroidal neovascularisation. Early detection of ARMD and timely treatment are mandatory. We have prospectively studied the results of two diagnostic self tests for the early detection of metamorphopsia and scotoma, the PHP test and the Amsler grid test, in different stages of ARMD. Patients with ARMD and best corrected visual acuity of 6/30 or better (Snellen charts) were examined with a standardised protocol, including supervised Amsler grid examination and PHP, a new device for metamorphopsia or scotoma measurement, based on the hyperacuity phenomenon in the central 14 degrees of the visual field. The stages of ARMD were independently graded in a masked fashion by stereoscopic ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic fundus colour photographs, fluorescein angiography, and OCT. The patients were subdivided into 3 non-neovascular groups [early, late (RPE atrophy > 175 microm) and geographic atrophy], a neovascular group (classic and occult CNV) and an age-matched control group (healthy volunteers). 140 patients, with ages ranging from 50 to 90 years (median 68 years), were included in the study. Best corrected visual acuity range