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Sample records for rapid acetylator alleles

  1. Predominance of N-acetyl transferase 2 slow acetylator alleles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student

    2016-06-22

    Jun 22, 2016 ... Standard nested PCR followed by restriction enzyme analysis with KpnI, TaqI, and BamHI for detection of polymorphisms in the NAT2 was performed. Allelic frequencies and acetylator phenotypes were compared between participants with or without adverse drug events. The prevalence of slow, ...

  2. Predominance of N-acetyl transferase 2 slow acetylator alleles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard nested PCR followed by restriction enzyme analysis with KpnI, TaqI, and BamHI for detection of polymorphisms in the NAT2 was performed. Allelic frequencies and acetylator phenotypes were compared between participants with or without adverse drug events. The prevalence of slow, intermediate and fast ...

  3. High frequency of NAT2 slow acetylator alleles in the Malay population of Indonesia: an awareness to the anti-tuberculosis drug induced liver injury and cancer

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    Retno W. Susilowati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 polymorphism was previously reported to have association with the risk of drug toxicities and the development of various diseases. Previous research on the Indonesian population, especially Javanese and Sundanese, showed that there were 33% NAT2 slow acetylator phenotype. The aim of this study was to map the NAT2 variation in the Malay ethnic to gain a deeper insight into NAT2 haplotypic composition in this ethnic.Methods: 50 healthy samples from the Indonesian Malay ethnic were obtained. They were interviewed about their ethnic backgrounds for the last three generations. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and NAT2 genotyping was done using the PCR direct Sequencing. Data were compiled according to the genotype and allele frequencies estimated from the observed numbers of each specific allele. Haplotype reconstruction was performed using PHASE v2.1.1 software.Results: We found 7 haplotypes consisting of 6 SNPs and 14 NAT2 genotype variations in Indonesian Malay population. The most frequent allele was NAT2*6A (38% which was classified as a slow acetylator allele. According to bimodal distribution, the predicted phenotype of the Malay population was composed of 62% rapid acetylator and 38% slow acetylator. According to trimodal distribution, the predicted phenotypes for rapid, intermediate and slow acetylators were 10%, 52% and 38% respectively.Conclusion: Our result indicates the presence of the allelic distribution and revealed the most frequent acetylator status and phenotype for the Indonesian Malay population. The result of this study will be helpful for future epidemiological or clinical studies and for understanding the genetic basis of acetylation polymorphism in Indonesia.

  4. Dissociation of the glucose and lipid regulatory functions of FoxO1 by targeted knock-in of acetylation-defective alleles in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alexander S.; Kim-Muller, Ja Young; Mastracci, Teresa L.; Kofler, Natalie M.; Qiang, Li; Haeusler, Rebecca A.; Jurczak, Michael J.; Laznik, Dina; Heinrich, Garrett; Samuel, Varman T.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Papaioannou, Virginia E.; Accili, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    FoxO1 integrates multiple metabolic pathways. Nutrient levels modulate FoxO1 acetylation, but the functional consequences of this posttranslational modification are unclear. To answer this question, we generated mice bearing alleles that encode constitutively acetylated and acetylation-defective FoxO1 proteins. Homozygosity for an allele mimicking constitutive acetylation (Foxo1KQ/KQ) results in embryonic lethality, due to cardiac and angiogenesis defects. In contrast, mice homozygous for a constitutively deacetylated Foxo1 allele (Foxo1KR/KR) display a unique metabolic phenotype of impaired insulin action on hepatic glucose metabolism, but decreased plasma lipid levels and low respiratory quotient, consistent with a state of preferential lipid usage. Moreover, Foxo1KR/KR mice show a dissociation between weight gain and insulin resistance in predisposing conditions (high fat diet, diabetes and Insulin receptor mutations), possibly due to decreased cytokine production in adipose tissue. Thus acetylation inactivates FoxO1 during nutrient excess whereas deacetylation selectively potentiates FoxO1 activity, protecting against excessive catabolism during nutrient deprivation. PMID:22055502

  5. A rapid, highly accurate method for quantifying CALR mutant allele burden in persons with myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiu-Mei; Zhou, Jiao; Gale, Robert Peter; Li, Jin-Lan; Li, Ling-Di; Li, Ning; Chen, Shan-Shan; Ruan, Guo-Rui

    2015-10-01

    Calreticulin (CALR) mutations were recently identified in a substantial proportion of persons with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) without JAK2(V617F). Consequently rapid, sensitive, and specific methods to detect and quantify these mutations are needed. We studied samples from 1088 persons with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including 421 JAK2(V617F) negative subjects with ET, PMF, polycythemia vera (PV), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and hyper-eosinophilic syndrome (HES). Detection of CALR exon 9 mutations was done by PCR amplification followed by fragment length analysis and direct sequencing. Dilution assays were used to determine CALR mutant allele burden. We detected CALR mutations in blood and bone marrow samples from 152 subjects with ET and with PMF but not in samples from normal or persons with PV, CML, or HES. CALR mutant peaks were distinct from wild-type peaks and dilution experiments indicated a sensitivity level of 0.5-5% for a CALR mutant allele in a wild-type background. Diverse types of mutations were detected including deletions, insertions, and complex indels. All mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. We also used dilution experiments to quantify mutant allele burden. We were able to reproducibly detect mutant allele levels as low 5% (0.5-5%) in a wild-type background. PCR amplification followed by fragment length analysis is a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for screening persons with MPNs for CALR mutations, especially those with ET and PMF and for estimating mutant allele burden.

  6. The glossyhead1 allele of acc1 reveals a principal role for multidomain acetyl-coenzyme a carboxylase in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes by Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Shiyou

    2011-09-23

    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C 20:0 or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Rapid ABO genotyping by high-speed droplet allele-specific PCR using crude samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Chiaki; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Takeichi, Naoya; Furukawa, Satomi; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Uehara, Takeshi; Okumura, Nobuo; Honda, Takayuki

    2018-01-01

    ABO genotyping has common tools for personal identification of forensic and transplantation field. We developed a new method based on a droplet allele-specific PCR (droplet-AS-PCR) that enabled rapid PCR amplification. We attempted rapid ABO genotyping using crude DNA isolated from dried blood and buccal cells. We designed allele-specific primers for three SNPs (at nucleotides 261, 526, and 803) in exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene. We pretreated dried blood and buccal cells with proteinase K, and obtained crude DNAs without DNA purification. Droplet-AS-PCR allowed specific amplification of the SNPs at the three loci using crude DNA, with results similar to those for DNA extracted from fresh peripheral blood. The sensitivity of the methods was 5%-10%. The genotyping of extracted DNA and crude DNA were completed within 8 and 9 minutes, respectively. The genotypes determined by the droplet-AS-PCR method were always consistent with those obtained by direct sequencing. The droplet-AS-PCR method enabled rapid and specific amplification of three SNPs of the ABO gene from crude DNA treated with proteinase K. ABO genotyping by the droplet-AS-PCR has the potential to be applied to various fields including a forensic medicine and transplantation medical care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Rapid identification of ST131 Escherichia coli by a novel multiplex real-time allelic discrimination assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Patrice; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Fankhauser, Carolina; Baud, Damien; Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Schrenzel, Jacques; Harbarth, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    Escherichia coli sequence type 131 is increasingly described in severe hospital infections. We developed a rapid real-time allelic discrimination assay for the rapid identification of E. coli ST131 isolates. This rapid assay represents an affordable alternative to sequence-based strategies before completing characterization of potentially highly virulent isolates of E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. FREQ-Seq: a rapid, cost-effective, sequencing-based method to determine allele frequencies directly from mixed populations.

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    Lon M Chubiz

    Full Text Available Understanding evolutionary dynamics within microbial populations requires the ability to accurately follow allele frequencies through time. Here we present a rapid, cost-effective method (FREQ-Seq that leverages Illumina next-generation sequencing for localized, quantitative allele frequency detection. Analogous to RNA-Seq, FREQ-Seq relies upon counts from the >10(5 reads generated per locus per time-point to determine allele frequencies. Loci of interest are directly amplified from a mixed population via two rounds of PCR using inexpensive, user-designed oligonucleotides and a bar-coded bridging primer system that can be regenerated in-house. The resulting bar-coded PCR products contain the adapters needed for Illumina sequencing, eliminating further library preparation. We demonstrate the utility of FREQ-Seq by determining the order and dynamics of beneficial alleles that arose as a microbial population, founded with an engineered strain of Methylobacterium, evolved to grow on methanol. Quantifying allele frequencies with minimal bias down to 1% abundance allowed effective analysis of SNPs, small in-dels and insertions of transposable elements. Our data reveal large-scale clonal interference during the early stages of adaptation and illustrate the utility of FREQ-Seq as a cost-effective tool for tracking allele frequencies in populations.

  10. Rapid successions affect microbial N-acetyl-glucosamine uptake patterns during a lacustrine spring phytoplankton bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Ester M; Salcher, Michaela M; Posch, Thomas; Eugster, Bettina; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2012-03-01

    The vernal successions of phytoplankton, heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and viruses in temperate lakes result in alternating dominance of top-down and bottom-up factors on the bacterial community. This may lead to asynchronous blooms of bacteria with different life strategies and affect the channelling of particular components of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) through microbial food webs. We followed the dynamics of several bacterial populations and of other components of the microbial food web throughout the spring phytoplankton bloom period in a pre-alpine lake, and we assessed bacterial uptake patterns of two constituents of the labile DOM pool (N-acetyl-glucosamine [NAG] and leucine). There was a clear genotypic shift within the bacterial assemblage, from fast growing Cytophaga-Flavobacteria (CF) affiliated with Fluviicola and from Betaproteobacteria (BET) of the Limnohabitans cluster to more grazing resistant AcI Actinobacteria (ACT) and to filamentous morphotypes. This was paralleled by successive blooms of viruses and HNF. We also noted the transient rise of other CF (related to Cyclobacteriaceae and Sphingobacteriaceae) that are not detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization with the general CF probe. Both, the average uptake rates of leucine and the fractions of leucine incorporating bacteria were approximately five to sixfold higher than of NAG. However, the composition of the NAG-active community was much more prone to genotypic successions, in particular of bacteria with different life strategies: While 'opportunistically' growing BET and CF dominated NAG uptake in the initial period ruled by bottom-up factors, ACT constituted the major fraction of NAG active cells during the subsequent phase of high predation pressure. This indicates that some ACT could profit from a substrate that might in parts have originated from the grazing of protists on their bacterial competitors. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing

  11. Rapid fixation of non-native alleles revealed by genome-wide SNP analysis of hybrid tiger salamanders

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    Shaffer H Bradley

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybrid zones represent valuable opportunities to observe evolution in systems that are unusually dynamic and where the potential for the origin of novelty and rapid adaptation co-occur with the potential for dysfunction. Recently initiated hybrid zones are particularly exciting evolutionary experiments because ongoing natural selection on novel genetic combinations can be studied in ecological time. Moreover, when hybrid zones involve native and introduced species, complex genetic patterns present important challenges for conservation policy. To assess variation of admixture dynamics, we scored a large panel of markers in five wild hybrid populations formed when Barred Tiger Salamanders were introduced into the range of California Tiger Salamanders. Results At three of 64 markers, introduced alleles have largely displaced native alleles within the hybrid populations. Another marker (GNAT1 showed consistent heterozygote deficits in the wild, and this marker was associated with embryonic mortality in laboratory F2's. Other deviations from equilibrium expectations were idiosyncratic among breeding ponds, consistent with highly stochastic demographic effects. Conclusion While most markers retain native and introduced alleles in expected proportions, strong selection appears to be eliminating native alleles at a smaller set of loci. Such rapid fixation of alleles is detectable only in recently formed hybrid zones, though it might be representative of dynamics that frequently occur in nature. These results underscore the variable and mosaic nature of hybrid genomes and illustrate the potency of recombination and selection in promoting variable, and often unpredictable genetic outcomes. Introgression of a few, strongly selected introduced alleles should not necessarily affect the conservation status of California Tiger Salamanders, but suggests that genetically pure populations of this endangered species will be difficult to

  12. Rapid transport of muco-inert nanoparticles in cystic fibrosis sputum treated with N-acetyl cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Jung Soo; Lai, Samuel K; Boylan, Nicholas J; Dawson, Michelle R; Boyle, Michael P; Hanes, Justin

    2011-02-01

    Sputum poses a critical diffusional barrier that strongly limits the efficacy of drug and gene carriers in the airways of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Previous attempts to enhance particle penetration of CF sputum have focused on either reducing its barrier properties via mucolytics, or decreasing particle adhesion to sputum constituents by coating the particle surface with non-mucoadhesive polymers, including polyethylene glycol (PEG). Neither approach has enabled particles to penetrate expectorated sputum at rates previously observed for non-mucoadhesive nanoparticles in human cervicovaginal mucus. Here, we sought to investigate whether a common mucolytic, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), in combination with dense PEG coatings on particles, can synergistically enhance particle penetration across fresh undiluted CF sputum. We used high-resolution multiple particle tracking to measure the diffusion of uncoated and PEG-coated nanoparticles in native and NAC-treated CF sputum. We discovered that 200 nm particles, if densely coated with PEG, were able to penetrate CF sputum pretreated with NAC with average speeds approaching their theoretical speeds in water. Based on the rapid penetration of PEG-coated particles in NAC-treated sputum, we determined that the average spacing between sputum mesh elements was increased from 145 ± 50 nm to 230 ± 50 nm upon NAC treatment. Mathematical models based on particle transport rates suggest as much as 75 and 30% of 200 and 500 nm PEG-coated particles, respectively, may penetrate a physiologically thick NAC-treated CF sputum layer within 20 min. Uncoated particles were trapped in CF sputum pretreated with NAC nearly to the same extent as in native sputum, suggesting that NAC treatment alone offered little improvement to particle penetration. NAC facilitated rapid diffusion of PEG-coated, muco-inert nanoparticles in CF sputum. Our results provide a promising strategy to improve drug and gene carrier penetration in CF sputum

  13. Rapid progressing allele HLA-B35 Px restricted anti-HIV-1 CD8+ T cells recognize vestigial CTL epitopes.

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    Christian B Willberg

    Full Text Available The HLA-B*35-Px allele has been associated with rapid disease progression in HIV-1 infection, in contrast to the HLA-B*35-Py allele.Immune responses to two HLA-B*35 restricted HIV-1 specific CTL epitopes and their variants were followed longitudinally during early HIV-1 infection in 16 HLA-B*35+ individuals. Subjects expressing HLA-B*35-Px alleles showed no difference in response to the consensus epitopes compared to individuals with HLA-B*35-Py alleles. Surprisingly, all the HLA-B*35-Px+ individuals responded to epitope-variants even in the absence of a consensus response. Sequencing of the viral population revealed no evidence of variant virus in any of the individuals.This demonstrates a novel phenomenon that distinguishes individuals with the HLA-B*35-Px rapid progressing allele and those with the HLA-B*35-Py slower progressing allele.

  14. Simple, rapid spectrophotometry of urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, with use of a new chromogenic substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, A; Ogawa, Y; Mori, S; Yoshioka, M; Kitakaze, T; Hori, T; Nakamura, M; Miyake, T

    1983-10-01

    We have developed a new spectrophotometric assay for urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) with use of sodio m-cresolsulfonphthaleinyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide (MCP-NAG). MCP-NAG was synthesized from acetochloro-glucosamine and m-cresolsulfonphthalein (MCP) in four steps. MCP-NAG reacts well with NAGase (Km = 0.41 mmol/L) and is highly water soluble. The absorption maximum and molar absorptivity of the aglycone MCP are 580 nm and 40 670, respectively. Spectral overlap of interfering substances at 580 nm is almost negligible, so that the urine blank can be omitted from the assay procedure. The high molar absorptivity of MCP gives sufficient analytical sensitivity at a reaction time of 15 min. The correlation between the MCP-NAG method (y) and the fluorimetric method (x) involving 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide is represented by the equation y = 0.995x - 0.669 (r = 0.991). Thus, the present method provides practical advantages over conventional methods, for use in the routine laboratory.

  15. Rapid, Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Detection of Coeliac Disease Risk Alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlichster, Michael; Tye-Din, Jason A; Varney, Michael D; Skafidas, Efstratios; Kwan, Patrick

    2018-02-16

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping has become a useful investigation in the diagnostic work-up of coeliac disease (CD), with utility in risk stratification and screening. However, broad application of this technology has been hindered by the cost and time burden of conventional laboratory-based assays. We have developed and validated CD-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (CD-LAMP), a LAMP assay, which enables rapid identification of the signature CD risk genotypes, HLA-DQ2.5, HLA-DQ8, HLA-DQ2.2, and HLA-DQA1*05. Sample-to-answer is achieved in approximately 65 minutes without DNA purification, thermal cycling, or specialized analytical equipment. CD-LAMP genotyping of samples was 100% concordant with accredited pathology genotyping on a panel of 40 blood and 20 saliva samples. In a panel of 100 purified DNA samples, genotyping of the high risk DQ2.5 genotype was 100% concordant with accredited pathology genotyping, with slightly reduced sensitivity for the DQ8 genotype (97.1%), and reduced specificity for the DQ8 (93.9%) and DQ2.2 genotypes (95.1%). CD-LAMP results are easily visualized, instrument free, through the addition of a DNA intercalating dye following amplification. Combined with point-of-care antibody testing, CD-LAMP may enable immediate, confident CD diagnosis at a low cost in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Rapid generation of drug-resistance alleles at endogenous loci using CRISPR-Cas9 indel mutagenesis.

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    Jonathan J Ipsaro

    Full Text Available Genetic alterations conferring resistance to the effects of chemical inhibitors are valuable tools for validating on-target effects in cells. Unfortunately, for many therapeutic targets such alleles are not available. To address this issue, we evaluated whether CRISPR-Cas9-mediated insertion/deletion (indel mutagenesis can produce drug-resistance alleles at endogenous loci. This method takes advantage of the heterogeneous in-frame alleles produced following Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage, which we show can generate rare alleles that confer resistance to the growth-arrest caused by chemical inhibitors. We used this approach to identify novel resistance alleles of two lysine methyltransferases, DOT1L and EZH2, which are each essential for the growth of MLL-fusion leukemia cells. We biochemically characterized the DOT1L mutation, showing that it is significantly more active than the wild-type enzyme. These findings validate the on-target anti-leukemia activities of existing DOT1L and EZH2 inhibitors and reveal a simple method for deriving drug-resistance alleles for novel targets, which may have utility during early stages of drug development.

  17. Rapid identification and quantification of methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry coupled with micropulverized extraction, aqueous acetylation and microextraction by packed sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Hajime; Iwata, Yuko T; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kuwayama, Kenji; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2009-05-01

    We developed a rapid identification and quantification method for the toxicological analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hair by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry coupled with a novel combination of micropulverized extraction, aqueous acetylation and microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) named MiAMi-GC/MS. A washed hair sample (1-5 mg) was micropulverized for 5 min in a 2 mL plastic tube with 250 microL of water. An anion-exchange sorbent was added to adsorb anionic interferences. After removing the residue with a membrane-filter unit, sodium carbonate and acetic anhydride was admixed in turn. Acetylation was completed in approximately 20 min at room temperature. The acetylated analytes in the reaction liquid were concentrated to an octadecylsilica sorbent packed in the needle of a syringe by a CombiPAL autosampler. Elution was carried out with 50 microL of methanol, and the entire eluate injected into a gas chromatograph using a programmable temperature vaporizing (PTV) technique. The time required for sample preparation and GC/MS analysis was approximately 1 h from a washed hair sample, and an evaporation process was not required. Ranges for quantification were 0.20-50 (ng/mg) each for methamphetamine and amphetamine using 1 mg of hair. Accuracy and relative standard deviation (RSD) were evaluated intraday and interday at three concentrations, and the results were within the limit of a guidance issued by U.S. Food and Drug Administration. For identification, full-scan mass spectra of methamphetamine and amphetamine were obtained using 5 mg of fortified hair samples at 0.2 ng/mg. The extraction device of MEPS was durable for at least 300 extractions, whereas the liner of the gas chromatograph should be replaced after 20-30 times use. The carry over was estimated to be about 1-2%. This sample-preparation method coupled with GC/MS is fast and labor-saving in comparison with conventional methods.

  18. New recombinant HLA-B alleles in a tribe of South American Amerindians indicate rapid evolution of MHC class I loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, D I; McAdam, S N; Liu, X; Strang, C R; Milford, E L; Levine, C G; Garber, T L; Dogon, A L; Lord, C I; Ghim, S H

    1992-05-28

    Evidence suggests that the New World was colonized only 11,000-40,000 years ago by Palaeo-Indians. The descendants of these Palaeo-Indians therefore provide a unique opportunity to study the effects of selection on major histocompatibility complex class I genes over a short period. Here we analyse the class I alleles of the Waorani of South America and the Zuni of North America. Four of the Waorani HLA-B alleles were new functional variants which could be accounted for by intralocus recombination. In contrast, all of the Zuni HLA-A and -B molecules were present in caucasians and orientals. This suggests that the new Waorani HLA-B variants arose in South America. The description of four new HLA-B alleles in the Waorani and another five new HLA-B alleles from two other tribes of South American Amerindians indicates that the HLA-B locus can evolve rapidly in isolated populations. These studies underline the importance of gathering genetic data on endangered native human populations.

  19. Rapid genotyping assays for the 4-base pair deletion of canine MDR1/ABCB1 gene and low frequency of the mutant allele in Border Collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Chang, Hye-Sook; Yabuki, Akira; Kawamichi, Takuji; Hossain, Mohammad A; Rahman, Mohammad M; Uddin, Mohammad M; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein, encoded by the MDR1 or ABCB1 gene, is an integral component of the blood-brain barrier as an efflux pump for xenobiotics crucial in limiting drug uptake into the central nervous system. Dogs homozygous for a 4-base pair deletion of the canine MDR1 gene show altered expression or function of P-glycoprotein, resulting in neurotoxicosis after administration of the substrate drugs. In the present study, the usefulness of microchip electrophoresis for genotyping assays detecting this deletion mutation was evaluated. Mutagenically separated polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) and real-time PCR assays were newly developed and evaluated. Furthermore, a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of Border Collies dogs in Japan to determine the allele frequency in this breed. Microchip electrophoresis showed advantages in detection sensitivity and time saving over other modes of electrophoresis. The MS-PCR assay clearly discriminated all genotypes. Real-time PCR assay was most suitable for a large-scale survey due to its high throughput and rapidity. The genotyping survey demonstrated that the carrier and mutant allele frequencies were 0.49% and 0.25%, respectively, suggesting that the mutant allele frequency in Border Collies is markedly low compared to that in the susceptible dog breeds such as rough and smooth Collies.

  20. Proteasomal degradation of N-acetyltransferase 1 is prevented by acetylation of the active site cysteine: a mechanism for the slow acetylator phenotype and substrate-dependent down-regulation.

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    Butcher, Neville J; Arulpragasam, Ajanthy; Minchin, Rodney F

    2004-05-21

    Many drugs and chemicals found in the environment are either detoxified by N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1, EC 2.3.1.5) and eliminated from the body or bioactivated to metabolites that have the potential to cause toxicity and/or cancer. NAT1 activity in the body is regulated by genetic polymorphisms as well as environmental factors such as substrate-dependent down-regulation and oxidative stress. Here we report the molecular mechanism for the low protein expression from mutant NAT1 alleles that gives rise to the slow acetylator phenotype and show that a similar process accounts for enzyme down-regulation by NAT1 substrates. NAT1 allozymes NAT1 14, NAT1 15, NAT1 17, and NAT1 22 are devoid of enzyme activity and have short intracellular half-lives ( approximately 4 h) compared with wild-type NAT1 4 and the active allozyme NAT1 24. The inactive allozymes are unable to be acetylated by cofactor, resulting in ubiquitination and rapid degradation by the 26 S proteasome. This was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis of the active site cysteine 68. The NAT1 substrate p-aminobenzoic acid induced ubiquitination of the usually stable NAT1 4, leading to its rapid degradation. From this study, we conclude that NAT1 exists in the cell in either a stable acetylated state or an unstable non-acetylated state and that mutations in the NAT1 gene that prevent protein acetylation produce a slow acetylator phenotype.

  1. Development of a rapid high-efficiency scalable process for acetylated Sus scrofa cationic trypsin production from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingzhi; Wu, Feilin; Xu, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Trypsin is one of the most important enzymatic tools in proteomics and biopharmaceutical studies. Here, we describe the complete recombinant expression and purification from a trypsinogen expression vector construct. The Sus scrofa cationic trypsin gene with a propeptide sequence was optimized according to Escherichia coli codon-usage bias and chemically synthesized. The gene was inserted into pET-11c plasmid to yield an expression vector. Using high-density E. coli fed-batch fermentation, trypsinogen was expressed in inclusion bodies at 1.47 g/L. The inclusion body was refolded with a high yield of 36%. The purified trypsinogen was then activated to produce trypsin. To address stability problems, the trypsin thus produced was acetylated. The final product was generated upon gel filtration. The final yield of acetylated trypsin was 182 mg/L from a 5-L fermenter. Our acetylated trypsin product demonstrated higher BAEE activity (30,100 BAEE unit/mg) than a commercial product (9500 BAEE unit/mg, Promega). It also demonstrated resistance to autolysis. This is the first report of production of acetylated recombinant trypsin that is stable and suitable for scale-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel rapid genotyping assays for neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in Border Collie dogs and high frequency of the mutant allele in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Chang, Hye-Sook; Yabuki, Akira; Kawamichi, Takuji; Kawahara, Natsuko; Hayashi, Daisuke; Hossain, Mohammad A; Rahman, Mohammad M; Uddin, Mohammad M; Yamato, Osamu

    2011-11-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) constitutes a group of recessively inherited lysosomal storage diseases that primarily affect neuronal cells. Such diseases share certain clinical and pathologic features in human beings and animals. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in Border Collie dogs was first detected in Australia in the 1980s, and the pathogenic mutation was shown to be a nonsense mutation (c.619C>T) in exon 4 in canine CLN5 gene. In the present study, novel rapid genotyping assays including polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism, PCR primer-induced restriction analysis, mutagenically separated PCR, and real-time PCR with TaqMan minor groove binder probes, were developed. The utility of microchip electrophoresis was also evaluated. Furthermore, a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of Border Collies in Japan using these assays to determine the current allele frequency in Japan, providing information to control and prevent this disease in the next stage. All assays developed in the current study are available to discriminate these genotypes, and microchip electrophoresis showed a timesaving advantage over agarose gel electrophoresis. Of all assays, real-time PCR was the most suitable for large-scale examination because of its high throughput. The genotyping survey demonstrated that the carrier frequency was 8.1%. This finding suggested that the mutant allele frequency of NCL in Border Collies is high enough in Japan that measures to control and prevent the disease would be warranted. The genotyping assays developed in the present study could contribute to the prevention of NCL in Border Collies.

  3. A rapid, sensitive method for the quantitation of N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine in human urine using isotope-dilution HPLC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, D B; Ashley, D L

    1998-01-01

    Because of increasing concern about exposure to carcinogens and other toxicants, reliable methods for biological monitoring of potentially exposed populations must be developed. For biological monitoring to be useful, appropriate biomarkers of exposures to xenobiotics must be identified, and sensitive, specific methods for quantifying the targeted biomarker must be developed. We have developed a sensitive and selective method for the analysis of N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (HEMA), urinary metabolite of at least three different known human carcinogens (vinyl chloride, ethylene oxide, and ethylene dibromide). The method uses strong anion-exchange solid-phase extraction and isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Our method is simple and is not labor intensive; the preparation time per sample is less than 10 min. Because urine samples vary in both their concentration and ion strength, intersample variability in HEMA recovery during the extraction is large. To overcome this inherent limitation, we use the isotope-dilution technique, which allows a complete correction for the extraction recovery for each sample. The limit of detection of the method is 0.68 microgram/L in a 1-mL urine sample with a coefficient of variation of 22% (determined by replicate analyses at both 4 and 11 micrograms/L) and an accuracy indistinguishable from 100%. Preliminary analyses of urine from a population with no known overt exposure to the parent toxicants show a frequency of detection of approximately 75%, which indicates that this method has the sensitivity to detect urinary HEMA derived from environmental exposure. We are currently using this method to establish a reference range of background exposure to these toxicants in the U.S. population.

  4. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase regulates global histone acetylation.

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    Galdieri, Luciano; Vancura, Ales

    2012-07-06

    Histone acetylation depends on intermediary metabolism for supplying acetyl-CoA in the nucleocytosolic compartment. However, because nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA is also used for de novo synthesis of fatty acids, histone acetylation and synthesis of fatty acids compete for the same acetyl-CoA pool. The first and rate-limiting reaction in de novo synthesis of fatty acids is carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA, catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase. In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acetyl-CoA carboxylase is encoded by the ACC1 gene. In this study, we show that attenuated expression of ACC1 results in increased acetylation of bulk histones, globally increased acetylation of chromatin histones, and altered transcriptional regulation. Together, our data indicate that Acc1p activity regulates the availability of acetyl-CoA for histone acetyltransferases, thus representing a link between intermediary metabolism and epigenetic mechanisms of transcriptional regulation.

  5. Regulation of autophagy by cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariño, Guillermo; Pietrocola, Federico; Eisenberg, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) is a major integrator of the nutritional status at the crossroads of fat, sugar, and protein catabolism. Here we show that nutrient starvation causes rapid depletion of AcCoA. AcCoA depletion entailed the commensurate reduction in the overall acetylation of cytoplasmic p...

  6. N-acetyl cysteine protects anti-melanoma cytotoxic T cells from exhaustion induced by rapid expansion via the downmodulation of Foxo1 in an Akt-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Matthew J; Scurti, Gina; Wyatt, Megan M; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Paulos, Chrystal M; Nishimura, Michael I; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina

    2018-02-02

    Therapeutic outcomes for adoptive cell transfer (ACT) therapy are constrained by the quality of the infused T cells. The rapid expansion necessary to obtain large numbers of cells results in a more terminally differentiated phenotype with decreased durability and functionality. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) protects against activation-induced cell death (AICD) and improves anti-tumor efficacy of Pmel-1 T cells in vivo. Here, we show that these benefits of NAC can be extended to engineered T cells and significantly increases T-cell survival within the tumor microenvironment. The addition of NAC to the expansion protocol of human TIL13838I TCR-transduced T cells that are under evaluation in a Phase I clinical trial, demonstrated that findings in murine cells extend to human cells. Expansion of TIL13838I TCR-transduced T cells in NAC also increased their ability to kill target cells in vitro. Interestingly, NAC did not affect memory subsets, but diminished up-regulation of senescence (CD57) and exhaustion (PD-1) markers and significantly decreased expression of the transcription factors EOMES and Foxo1. Pharmacological inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway ablates the decrease in Foxo1 induced by NAC treatment of activated T cells. This suggests a model in which NAC through PI3K/Akt activation suppresses Foxo1 expression, thereby impacting its transcriptional targets EOMES, PD-1, and granzyme B. Taken together, our results indicate that NAC exerts pleiotropic effects that impact the quality of TCR-transduced T cells and suggest that the addition of NAC to current clinical protocols should be considered.

  7. Brd4 Is Required for Recovery from Antimicrotubule Drug-induced Mitotic Arrest: Preservation of Acetylated ChromatinD⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Akira; Dey, Anup; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Ozato, Keiko

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian bromodomain protein Brd4 interacts with mitotic chromosomes by binding to acetylated histone H3 and H4 and is thought to play a role in epigenetic memory. Mitotic cells are susceptible to antimicrotubule drugs. These drugs activate multiple response pathways and arrest cells at mitosis. We found that Brd4 was rapidly released from chromosomes upon treatment with antimicrotubule drugs, including the reversible agent nocodazole. Yet, when nocodazole was withdrawn, Brd4 was reloaded onto chromosomes, and cells proceeded to complete cell division. However, cells in which a Brd4 allele was disrupted (Brd4+/-), and expressing only half of the normal Brd4 levels, were defective in reloading Brd4 onto chromosomes. Consequently, Brd4+/- cells were impaired in their ability to recover from nocodazole-induced mitotic arrest: a large fraction of +/- cells failed to reach anaphase after drug withdrawal, and those that entered anaphase showed an increased frequency of abnormal chromosomal segregation. The reloading defect observed in Brd4+/- cells coincided with selective hypoacetylation of lysine residues on H3 and H4. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A increased global histone acetylation and perturbed nocodazole-induced Brd4 unloading. Brd4 plays an integral part in a cellular response to drug-induced mitotic stress by preserving a properly acetylated chromatin status. PMID:16339075

  8. Protein acetylation and acetyl coenzyme a metabolism in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdieri, Luciano; Zhang, Tiantian; Rogerson, Daniella; Lleshi, Rron; Vancura, Ales

    2014-12-01

    Cells sense and appropriately respond to the physical conditions and availability of nutrients in their environment. This sensing of the environment and consequent cellular responses are orchestrated by a multitude of signaling pathways and typically involve changes in transcription and metabolism. Recent discoveries suggest that the signaling and transcription machineries are regulated by signals which are derived from metabolism and reflect the metabolic state of the cell. Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) is a key metabolite that links metabolism with signaling, chromatin structure, and transcription. Acetyl-CoA is produced by glycolysis as well as other catabolic pathways and used as a substrate for the citric acid cycle and as a precursor in synthesis of fatty acids and steroids and in other anabolic pathways. This central position in metabolism endows acetyl-CoA with an important regulatory role. Acetyl-CoA serves as a substrate for lysine acetyltransferases (KATs), which catalyze the transfer of acetyl groups to the epsilon-amino groups of lysines in histones and many other proteins. Fluctuations in the concentration of acetyl-CoA, reflecting the metabolic state of the cell, are translated into dynamic protein acetylations that regulate a variety of cell functions, including transcription, replication, DNA repair, cell cycle progression, and aging. This review highlights the synthesis and homeostasis of acetyl-CoA and the regulation of transcriptional and signaling machineries in yeast by acetylation. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian Tate; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Moustafa, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification; however, little is known about the origin and regulation of most sites. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry to analyze acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that acetylation...... accumulated in growth-arrested cells in a manner that depended on acetyl-CoA generation in distinct subcellular compartments. Mitochondrial acetylation levels correlated with acetyl-CoA concentration in vivo and acetyl-CoA acetylated lysine residues nonenzymatically in vitro. We developed a method to estimate...

  10. Preparation of radioactive acetyl-l-carnitine by an enzymatic exchange reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emaus, R.; Bieber, L.L.

    1982-01-15

    A rapid method for the preparation of (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine is described. The method involves exchange of (1-/sup 14/C)acetic acid into a pool of unlabeled acetyl-L-carnitine using the enzymes acetyl-CoA synthetase and carnitine acetyltransferase. After isotopic equilibrium is attained, radioactive acetylcarnitine is separated from the other reaction components by chromatography on Dowex 1 (C1/sup -/) anion exchange resin. One of the procedures used to verify the product (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine can be used to synthesize (3S)-(5-/sup 14/C)citric acid.

  11. Acetylation of chicken feathers for thermoplastic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyan; Reddy, Narendra; Yan, Kelu; Yang, Yiqi

    2011-10-12

    Poultry feathers are renewable resources, inexpensive and abundantly available, but have limited applications. Although keratin extracted from feathers has been chemically modified, there are no reports on the chemical modification or development of thermoplastics from poultry feathers. Acetylation is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly approach to make biopolymers thermoplastic. Several biopolymers have been acetylated and used to produce fibers, films, and extrudates. In this research, chicken feathers were acetylated, and the structure and properties of the acetylated feathers were studied. Acetylation conditions such as concentration of chemicals and catalyst and time and temperature of acetylation were optimized. Acetylation of feathers was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (P-GC-MS). The acetylated feathers were analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to understand their thermal behavior. Acetylated feathers were thermoplastic and could be compression molded to form transparent films despite the relatively low percentage of acetyl content.

  12. Acetylated rice starches films with different levels of amylose: Mechanical, water vapor barrier, thermal, and biodegradability properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Biduski, Bárbara; Prietto, Luciana; Castilhos, Danilo Dufech; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2017-04-15

    Biodegradable films from native or acetylated starches with different amylose levels were prepared. The films were characterized according to the mechanical, water vapor barrier, thermal, and biodegradability properties. The films from acetylated high amylose starches had higher moisture content and water solubility than the native high amylose starch film. However, the acetylation did not affect acid solubility of the films, regardless of the amylose content. Films made from high and medium amylose rice starches were obtained; however low amylose rice starches, whether native or acetylated, did not form films with desirable characteristics. The acetylation decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation of the films. The acetylated starch-based films had a lower decomposition temperature and higher thermal stability than native starch films. Acetylated starches films exhibited more rapid degradation as compared with the native starches films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Regulates Global Histone Acetylation*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdieri, Luciano; Vancura, Ales

    2012-01-01

    Histone acetylation depends on intermediary metabolism for supplying acetyl-CoA in the nucleocytosolic compartment. However, because nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA is also used for de novo synthesis of fatty acids, histone acetylation and synthesis of fatty acids compete for the same acetyl-CoA pool. The first and rate-limiting reaction in de novo synthesis of fatty acids is carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA, catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase. In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acetyl-CoA carboxylase is encoded by the ACC1 gene. In this study, we show that attenuated expression of ACC1 results in increased acetylation of bulk histones, globally increased acetylation of chromatin histones, and altered transcriptional regulation. Together, our data indicate that Acc1p activity regulates the availability of acetyl-CoA for histone acetyltransferases, thus representing a link between intermediary metabolism and epigenetic mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. PMID:22580297

  14. Progressive mitochondrial protein lysine acetylation and heart failure in a model of Friedreich's ataxia cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R Stram

    Full Text Available The childhood heart disease of Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA is characterized by hypertrophy and failure. It is caused by loss of frataxin (FXN, a mitochondrial protein involved in energy homeostasis. FRDA model hearts have increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and impaired sirtuin 3 (SIRT3 deacetylase activity. Protein acetylation is an important regulator of cardiac metabolism and loss of SIRT3 increases susceptibility of the heart to stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy and ischemic injury. The underlying pathophysiology of heart failure in FRDA is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine in detail the physiologic and acetylation changes of the heart that occur over time in a model of FRDA heart failure. We predicted that increased mitochondrial protein acetylation would be associated with a decrease in heart function in a model of FRDA.A conditional mouse model of FRDA cardiomyopathy with ablation of FXN (FXN KO in the heart was compared to healthy controls at postnatal days 30, 45 and 65. We evaluated hearts using echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, histology, protein acetylation and expression.Acetylation was temporally progressive and paralleled evolution of heart failure in the FXN KO model. Increased acetylation preceded detectable abnormalities in cardiac function and progressed rapidly with age in the FXN KO mouse. Acetylation was also associated with cardiac fibrosis, mitochondrial damage, impaired fat metabolism, and diastolic and systolic dysfunction leading to heart failure. There was a strong inverse correlation between level of protein acetylation and heart function.These results demonstrate a close relationship between mitochondrial protein acetylation, physiologic dysfunction and metabolic disruption in FRDA hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and suggest that abnormal acetylation contributes to the pathophysiology of heart disease in FRDA. Mitochondrial protein acetylation may represent a therapeutic target for early

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION ACETYLATION AND OXYGENATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    40 %, and 60 % by weight) as active solid acid catalysts were performed under mild reaction conditions with moderate to good yields and with 100 % selectivity. It is found that the supported. H3PW12O40 was in general 1.4-2.3 times more efficient than the unsupported catalyst in the acetylation and oxygenation reactions.

  16. Processing of acetylated human low-density lipoprotein by parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells. Involvement of calmodulin?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Berkel, Theo J.C.; Nagelkerke, Jan F.; Harkes, Leen; Kruijt, Johan K.

    1982-01-01

    1. Modified lipoproteins have been implicated to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In view of this we studied the fate and mechanism of uptake in vivo of acetylated human low-density lipoprotein (acetyl-LDL). Injected intravenously into rats, acetyl-LDL is rapidly cleared from the blood. At 10min after intravenous injection, 83% of the injected dose is recovered in liver. Separation of the liver into a parenchymal and non-parenchymal cell fraction indicates that ...

  17. Histone acetyl transferases as emerging drug targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Frank J.; Haisma, Hidde J.

    2009-01-01

    Post-translational modifications, such as acetylation or phosphorylation, play a crucial role in the regulation of gene transcription in eukaryotes. Different subtypes of histone acetyl transferases (HATs) catalyze the acetylation of histones on specific lysine residues. A potential role of HATs in

  18. Acetyl-Phosphate Is a Critical Determinant of Lysine Acetylation in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian T; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Wagner, Sebastian A

    2013-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification in bacteria; however, little is known about its origin and regulation. Using the model bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), we found that most acetylation occurred at a low level and accumulated in growth-arrested cells...... acetylate lysine residues in vitro and that AcP levels are correlated with acetylation levels in vivo, suggesting that AcP may acetylate proteins nonenzymatically in cells. These results uncover a critical role for AcP in bacterial acetylation and indicate that most acetylation in E. coli occurs at a low...

  19. Individual Lysine Acetylations on the N Terminus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H2A.Z Are Highly but Not Differentially Regulated*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Monika; Braberg, Hannes; Wang, Shuyi; Lozsa, Anita; Shales, Michael; Solache, Alejandra; Krogan, Nevan J.; Keogh, Michael-Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The multi-functional histone variant Htz1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae H2A.Z) is acetylated on up to four N-terminal lysines at positions 3, 8, 10, and 14. It has thus been posited that specific acetylated forms of the histone could regulate distinct roles. Antibodies against Htz1-K8Ac, -K10Ac, and -K14Ac show that all three modifications are added by Esa1 acetyltransferase and removed by Hda1 deacetylase. Completely unacetylatable htz1 alleles exhibit widespread interactions in genome scale genetic screening. However, singly mutated (e.g. htz1-K8R) or singly acetylable (e.g. the triple mutant htz1-K3R/K10R/K14R) alleles show no significant defects in these analyses. This suggests that the N-terminal acetylations on Htz1 are internally redundant. Further supporting this proposal, each acetylation decays with similar kinetics when Htz1 transcription is repressed, and proteomic screening did not find a single condition in which one Htz1Ac was differentially regulated. However, whereas the individual acetylations on Htz1 may be redundant, they are not dispensable. Completely unacetylatable htz1 alleles display genetic interactions and phenotypes in common with and distinct from htz1Δ. In addition, each Htz1 N-terminal lysine is deacetylated by Hda1 in response to benomyl and reacetylated when this agent is removed. Such active regulation suggests that acetylation plays a significant role in Htz1 function. PMID:20952395

  20. Individual lysine acetylations on the N terminus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H2A.Z are highly but not differentially regulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Monika; Braberg, Hannes; Wang, Shuyi; Lozsa, Anita; Shales, Michael; Solache, Alejandra; Krogan, Nevan J; Keogh, Michael-Christopher

    2010-12-17

    The multi-functional histone variant Htz1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae H2A.Z) is acetylated on up to four N-terminal lysines at positions 3, 8, 10, and 14. It has thus been posited that specific acetylated forms of the histone could regulate distinct roles. Antibodies against Htz1-K8(Ac), -K10(Ac), and -K14(Ac) show that all three modifications are added by Esa1 acetyltransferase and removed by Hda1 deacetylase. Completely unacetylatable htz1 alleles exhibit widespread interactions in genome scale genetic screening. However, singly mutated (e.g. htz1-K8R) or singly acetylable (e.g. the triple mutant htz1-K3R/K10R/K14R) alleles show no significant defects in these analyses. This suggests that the N-terminal acetylations on Htz1 are internally redundant. Further supporting this proposal, each acetylation decays with similar kinetics when Htz1 transcription is repressed, and proteomic screening did not find a single condition in which one Htz1(Ac) was differentially regulated. However, whereas the individual acetylations on Htz1 may be redundant, they are not dispensable. Completely unacetylatable htz1 alleles display genetic interactions and phenotypes in common with and distinct from htz1Δ. In addition, each Htz1 N-terminal lysine is deacetylated by Hda1 in response to benomyl and reacetylated when this agent is removed. Such active regulation suggests that acetylation plays a significant role in Htz1 function.

  1. Cigarette Smoking, N-Acetyltransferase 2 Acetylation Status, and Bladder Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcus, P.M.; Hayes, R.B.; Vineis, P.

    2000-01-01

    Tobacco use is an established cause of bladder cancer. The ability to detoxify aromatic amines, which are present in tobacco and are potent bladder carcinogens, is compromised in persons with the N-acetyltransferase 2 slow acetylation polymorphism. The relationship of cigarette smoking with bladder...... to assess multiplicative gene-environment interaction without inclusion of control subjects. A case-series interaction odds ratio (OR) > 1.0 indicates that the relationship of cigarette smoking and bladder cancer risk is stronger among slow acetylators as compared with rapid acetylators. We observed...

  2. The yeast AMPK homolog SNF1 regulates acetyl coenzyme A homeostasis and histone acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man; Galdieri, Luciano; Vancura, Ales

    2013-12-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key metabolite at the crossroads of metabolism, signaling, chromatin structure, and transcription. Concentration of acetyl-CoA affects histone acetylation and links intermediary metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Here we show that SNF1, the budding yeast ortholog of the mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), plays a role in the regulation of acetyl-CoA homeostasis and global histone acetylation. SNF1 phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the first and rate-limiting reaction in the de novo synthesis of fatty acids. Inactivation of SNF1 results in a reduced pool of cellular acetyl-CoA, globally decreased histone acetylation, and reduced fitness and stress resistance. The histone acetylation and transcriptional defects can be partially suppressed and the overall fitness improved in snf1Δ mutant cells by increasing the cellular concentration of acetyl-CoA, indicating that the regulation of acetyl-CoA homeostasis represents another mechanism in the SNF1 regulatory repertoire.

  3. Analysis of acetylation stoichiometry suggests that SIRT3 repairs nonenzymatic acetylation lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Brian T; Moustafa, Tarek; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Zechner, Rudolf; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2015-11-03

    Acetylation is frequently detected on mitochondrial enzymes, and the sirtuin deacetylase SIRT3 is thought to regulate metabolism by deacetylating mitochondrial proteins. However, the stoichiometry of acetylation has not been studied and is important for understanding whether SIRT3 regulates or suppresses acetylation. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we measured acetylation stoichiometry in mouse liver tissue and found that SIRT3 suppressed acetylation to a very low stoichiometry at its target sites. By examining acetylation changes in the liver, heart, brain, and brown adipose tissue of fasted mice, we found that SIRT3-targeted sites were mostly unaffected by fasting, a dietary manipulation that is thought to regulate metabolism through SIRT3-dependent deacetylation. Globally increased mitochondrial acetylation in fasted liver tissue, higher stoichiometry at mitochondrial acetylation sites, and greater sensitivity of SIRT3-targeted sites to chemical acetylation in vitro and fasting-induced acetylation in vivo, suggest a nonenzymatic mechanism of acetylation. Our data indicate that most mitochondrial acetylation occurs as a low-level nonenzymatic protein lesion and that SIRT3 functions as a protein repair factor that removes acetylation lesions from lysine residues. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  4. Analysis of acetylation stoichiometry suggests that SIRT3 repairs nonenzymatic acetylation lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian T; Moustafa, Tarek; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    Acetylation is frequently detected on mitochondrial enzymes, and the sirtuin deacetylase SIRT3 is thought to regulate metabolism by deacetylating mitochondrial proteins. However, the stoichiometry of acetylation has not been studied and is important for understanding whether SIRT3 regulates...... or suppresses acetylation. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we measured acetylation stoichiometry in mouse liver tissue and found that SIRT3 suppressed acetylation to a very low stoichiometry at its target sites. By examining acetylation changes in the liver, heart, brain, and brown adipose tissue...... of fasted mice, we found that SIRT3-targeted sites were mostly unaffected by fasting, a dietary manipulation that is thought to regulate metabolism through SIRT3-dependent deacetylation. Globally increased mitochondrial acetylation in fasted liver tissue, higher stoichiometry at mitochondrial acetylation...

  5. Acetylation of woody lignocellulose: significance and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Mohan-Anupama Pawar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides constitute approximately one quarter of usable biomass for human exploitation. In contrast to cellulose, these components are usually substituted by O-acetyl groups, which affect their properties and interactions with other polymers, thus affecting their solubility and extractability. However, details of these interactions are still largely obscure. Moreover, polysaccharide hydrolysis to constituent monosaccharides, is hampered by the presence of O-acetyl groups, necessitating either enzymatic (esterase or chemical de-acetylation, increasing the costs and chemical consumption. Reduction of polysaccharide acetyl content in planta is a way to modify lignocellulose towards improved saccharification. In this review we: 1 summarize literature on lignocellulose acetylation in different tree species, 2 present data and current hypotheses concerning the role of O-acetylation in determining woody lignocellulose properties, 3 describe plant proteins involved in lignocellulose O-acetylation, 4 give examples of microbial enzymes capable to de-acetylate lignocellulose, and 5 discuss prospects for exploiting these enzymes in planta to modify xylan acetylation.

  6. The acetylation of hemoglobin by aspirin. In vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, K R; Schmidt, G J; Jensen, M; Cerami, A; Bunn, H F

    1975-01-01

    The chemical modification of hemoglobin by aspirin (ASA) has been studied, both in intact human red cells and in purified hemoglobin solutions. After incubation of red cells with 20 mM [acetyl-1minus14C]ASA, incorporation of radioactivity into hemoglobin was observed in agreement with the results of Klotz and Tam (1973. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 70: 1313-1315). In contrast, no labeling of hemoglobin was seen when [carbosyl-14-C]ASA was used. These results indicate that ASA acetylates hemoglobin. The acetylated hemoglobin was readily separated from unmodified hemoglobin by both gel electrofocusing and by column chromatography. Quantitation of the extent of acetylation by densitometric scanning of gels agreed very well with estimates obtained from radioactivity measurements. Hemolysates prepared from red cells incubated with ASA showed normal oxygen affinity and heme-heme interaction. Purified acetylated hemoglobin had a slightly increased oxygen affinity and decreased heme-heme interaction. There was no difference in the rate of acetylation of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. ASA acetylated column-purified hemoglobin A more readily than hemoglobin in crude hemolysate, but less rapidly than purified human serum albumin. The rate of acetylation of hemoglobulin increased with pH up to approximately pH 8,5. Structural studies were done on hemoglobin incubated with 2.0 mM and 20 mM [acetyl-1-14-C]ASA. Alpha- and beta-chains were acetylated almost equally. Tryptic digests of purified acetylated subunits were fingerprinted on cellulose thin layer plates and autoradiographed. Both alpha- and beta-chains showed a number of radioactive spots that were either ninhydrin negative or weakly ninhydrin positive. These results indicate that hemoglobin is acetylated at a number of sites, probably at the epislon-amino group of lysine residues. To determine whether ASA acetylates hemoglobin in vivo, hemolysates of 14 patients on long-term high-dose ASA therapy were analyzed by gel

  7. The Acetylation of Starch by Reactive Extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Robbert A. de; Broekroelofs, Annet; Janssen, Léon P.B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Potato starch has been acetylated in a counter rotating twin screw extruder using vinylacetate and sodium hydroxide. The desired starch acetylation reaction is accompanied by an undesired parallel base catalysed hydrolysis reaction of vinylacetate and a consecutive hydrolysis reaction of the

  8. Analysis of acetylated wood by electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sander, C.; Beckers, E.P.J.; Militz, H.; Veenendaal, van W.

    2003-01-01

    The properties of acetylated solid wood were investigated earlier, in particular the anti-shrink efficiency and the resistance against decay. This study focuses on the possible changes and damage to the wood structure due to an acetylation process leading to weight per cent gains of up to 20%.

  9. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol), N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide in urine samples from the general population, individuals exposed to aniline and paracetamol users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Modick, Hendrik; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest associations between the use of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) during pregnancy and increased risks of reproductive disorders in the male offspring. Previously we have reported a ubiquitous urinary excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population. Possible sources are (1) direct intake of paracetamol through medication, (2) paracetamol residues in the food chain and (3) environmental exposure to aniline or related substances that are metabolized into N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. In order to elucidate the origins of the excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in urine and to contribute to the understanding of paracetamol and aniline metabolism in humans we developed a rapid, turbulent-flow HPLC-MS/MS method with isotope dilution for the simultaneous quantification of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and two other aniline related metabolites, N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide. We applied this method to three sets of urine samples: (1) individuals with no known exposure to aniline and also no recent paracetamol medication; (2) individuals after occupational exposure to aniline but no paracetamol medication and (3) paracetamol users. We confirmed the omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. Additionally we revealed an omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-2-aminophenol. In contrast, acetanilide was only found after occupational exposure to aniline, not in the general population or after paracetamol use. The results lead to four preliminary conclusions: (1) other sources than aniline seem to be responsible for the major part of urinary N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population; (2) acetanilide is a metabolite of aniline in man and a valuable biomarker for aniline in occupational settings; (3) aniline baseline levels in the general population measured after chemical hydrolysis do not seem to originate from acetanilide and hence not from a direct exposure to aniline itself and (4) N-acetyl-2-aminophenol does not seem to be

  10. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standen, Ismo; Christensen, Ole Fredslund

    2011-01-01

    this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. \\paragraph*{Results:} Theoretical derivations showed that parameter...... coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being the best. \\paragraph*{Conclusions:} Different allele coding methods lead to the same inference in the marker-based and equivalent models when a fixed...

  11. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyun Jeon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.

  12. Acetylation-mediated suppression of transcription-independent memory: bidirectional modulation of memory by acetylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Merschbaecher

    Full Text Available Learning induced changes in protein acetylation, mediated by histone acetyl transferases (HATs, and the antagonistic histone deacetylases (HDACs play a critical role in memory formation. The status of histone acetylation affects the interaction between the transcription-complex and DNA and thus regulates transcription-dependent processes required for long-term memory (LTM. While the majority of studies report on the role of elevated acetylation in memory facilitation, we address the impact of both, increased and decreased acetylation on formation of appetitive olfactory memory in honeybees. We show that learning-induced changes in the acetylation of histone H3 at aminoacid-positions H3K9 and H3K18 exhibit distinct and different dynamics depending on the training strength. A strong training that induces LTM leads to an immediate increase in acetylation at H3K18 that stays elevated for hours. A weak training, not sufficient to trigger LTM, causes an initial increase in acetylation at H3K18, followed by a strong reduction in acetylation at H3K18 below the control group level. Acetylation at position H3K9 is not affected by associative conditioning, indicating specific learning-induced actions on the acetylation machinery. Elevating acetylation levels by blocking HDACs after conditioning leads to an improved memory. While memory after strong training is enhanced for at least 2 days, the enhancement after weak training is restricted to 1 day. Reducing acetylation levels by blocking HAT activity after strong training leads to a suppression of transcription-dependent LTM. The memory suppression is also observed in case of weak training, which does not require transcription processes. Thus, our findings demonstrate that acetylation-mediated processes act as bidirectional regulators of memory formation that facilitate or suppress memory independent of its transcription-requirement.

  13. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Ole F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. Results Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being

  14. Acetylation of rice straw for thermoplastic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangzhi; Huang, Kai; Jiang, Xue; Huang, Dan; Yang, Yiqi

    2013-07-01

    An inexpensive and biodegradable thermoplastic was developed through acetylation of rice straw (RS) with acetic anhydride. Acetylation conditions were optimized. The structure and properties of acetylated RS were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that acetylation of RS has successfully taken place, and comparing with raw RS, the degree of crystallinity decreased and the decomposition rate was slow. The acetylated RS has got thermoplasticity when weight ratio of RS and acetic anhydride was 1:3, using sulphuric acid (9% to RS) as catalyst in glacial acetic acid 35°C for 12h, and the dosage of solvent was 9 times RS, in which weight percent gain (WPG) of the modified RS powder was 35.5% and its percent acetyl content was 36.1%. The acetylated RS could be formed into transparent thin films with different amount of plasticizer diethyl phthalate (DEP) using tape casting technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acetyl Fentanyl Toxicity: Two Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Chelsea; Curtis, Byron; Nichols, Clay; Niblo, Cheryl

    2016-11-01

    Acetyl fentanyl is an illicit fentanyl analog recently appearing in forensic casework. A quantitative method was created for measuring acetyl fentanyl in various biological matrices acquired post-mortem due to recent positive screening results in casework. Initial detection by immunoassay and standard gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods have been previously reported for acetyl fentanyl and are examined further here. A Selective Ion Monitoring (SIM) method was created using a GC/MS for quantitation. In two separate cases, acetyl fentanyl was found to be in similar concentrations to those previously reported and ruled to be the cause of death. Acetyl fentanyl concentrations were determined in blood samples, liver, brain, vitreous humor, and urine. Individual 1 had acetyl fentanyl concentrations as follows: heart blood-285 ng/mL, femoral blood-192 ng/mL, liver-1,100 ng/g, brain-620 ng/g, and urine-3,420 ng/mL. Individual 2 had acetyl fentanyl concentrations as follows: heart blood-210 ng/mL, femoral blood-255 ng/mL, urine-2,720 ng/mL and vitreous humor-140 ng/mL. Experimental conditions for screening and quantitation are provided, using immunoassay and GC/MS methods. Due to the recent emergence of acetyl fentanyl, more data will need to be generated to fully differentiate recreational and fatal concentrations of acetyl fentanyl to assist toxicologists accurately understanding its physiological impact. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Urinary mutagenicity and N-acetylation phenotype in textile industry workers exposed to arylamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinues, B.; Perez, J.; Bernal, M.L.; Saenz, M.A.; Lanuza, J.; Bartolome, M. (Department of Pharmacology, Medical School, University of Zaragoza (Spain))

    1992-09-15

    Primary aromatic amines have been identified epidemiologically as human carcinogens. It has been suggested that the target organ affected by aromatic amines is dependent on the rate of metabolic activation. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between low acetyl transferase activity and bladder cancer risk. On this basis, our working hypothesis was that the slow acetylators could follow in a higher extent the metabolic pathway independent of N-acetylation, leading to the excretion of conjugates of electrophyles with glucuronic acid. The instability of these glucuronides could be responsible for the association between arylamine-induced bladder cancer and slow acetylator phenotype. A total of 153 individuals were included in this study: 70 exposed to arylamines (working in textile industry) and 83 nonexposed. The following parameters were determined in urine: mutagenic index in the absence of metabolic activation, S9; mutagenic index in the presence of S9; and the mutagenic index after incubation of the urine with beta-glucuronidase. All individuals were phenotyped according to their capacity of N-acetylation by using isoniazid as drug test. The results show that the mutagenic index after incubation of the urine with beta-glucuronidase is statistically higher in exposed subjects when compared with nonexposed individuals (P less than 0.001), this parameter being statistically higher among exposed subjects who were slow acetylators than among rapid metabolizers, independent of the fact that they were smokers or nonsmokers. There were no significant differences between groups for the mutagenicity in urine not incubated with beta-glucuronidase.

  17. p53 Acetylation: Regulation and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sara M.; Quelle, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of p53 are critical in modulating its tumor suppressive functions. Ubiquitylation, for example, plays a major role in dictating p53 stability, subcellular localization and transcriptional vs. non-transcriptional activities. Less is known about p53 acetylation. It has been shown to govern p53 transcriptional activity, selection of growth inhibitory vs. apoptotic gene targets, and biological outcomes in response to diverse cellular insults. Yet recent in vivo evidence from mouse models questions the importance of p53 acetylation (at least at certain sites) as well as canonical p53 functions (cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis) to tumor suppression. This review discusses the cumulative findings regarding p53 acetylation, with a focus on the acetyltransferases that modify p53 and the mechanisms regulating their activity. We also evaluate what is known regarding the influence of other post-translational modifications of p53 on its acetylation, and conclude with the current outlook on how p53 acetylation affects tumor suppression. Due to redundancies in p53 control and growing understanding that individual modifications largely fine-tune p53 activity rather than switch it on or off, many questions still remain about the physiological importance of p53 acetylation to its role in preventing cancer. PMID:25545885

  18. p53 Acetylation: Regulation and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Reed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications of p53 are critical in modulating its tumor suppressive functions. Ubiquitylation, for example, plays a major role in dictating p53 stability, subcellular localization and transcriptional vs. non-transcriptional activities. Less is known about p53 acetylation. It has been shown to govern p53 transcriptional activity, selection of growth inhibitory vs. apoptotic gene targets, and biological outcomes in response to diverse cellular insults. Yet recent in vivo evidence from mouse models questions the importance of p53 acetylation (at least at certain sites as well as canonical p53 functions (cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis to tumor suppression. This review discusses the cumulative findings regarding p53 acetylation, with a focus on the acetyltransferases that modify p53 and the mechanisms regulating their activity. We also evaluate what is known regarding the influence of other post-translational modifications of p53 on its acetylation, and conclude with the current outlook on how p53 acetylation affects tumor suppression. Due to redundancies in p53 control and growing understanding that individual modifications largely fine-tune p53 activity rather than switch it on or off, many questions still remain about the physiological importance of p53 acetylation to its role in preventing cancer.

  19. p53 Acetylation: Regulation and Consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Sara M. [Department of Pharmacology, The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Medical Scientist Training Program, The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Quelle, Dawn E., E-mail: dawn-quelle@uiowa.edu [Department of Pharmacology, The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Medical Scientist Training Program, The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Pathology, The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Post-translational modifications of p53 are critical in modulating its tumor suppressive functions. Ubiquitylation, for example, plays a major role in dictating p53 stability, subcellular localization and transcriptional vs. non-transcriptional activities. Less is known about p53 acetylation. It has been shown to govern p53 transcriptional activity, selection of growth inhibitory vs. apoptotic gene targets, and biological outcomes in response to diverse cellular insults. Yet recent in vivo evidence from mouse models questions the importance of p53 acetylation (at least at certain sites) as well as canonical p53 functions (cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis) to tumor suppression. This review discusses the cumulative findings regarding p53 acetylation, with a focus on the acetyltransferases that modify p53 and the mechanisms regulating their activity. We also evaluate what is known regarding the influence of other post-translational modifications of p53 on its acetylation, and conclude with the current outlook on how p53 acetylation affects tumor suppression. Due to redundancies in p53 control and growing understanding that individual modifications largely fine-tune p53 activity rather than switch it on or off, many questions still remain about the physiological importance of p53 acetylation to its role in preventing cancer.

  20. Trichoderma reesei CE16 acetyl esterase and its role in enzymatic degradation of acetylated hemicellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biely, Peter; Cziszarava, Maria; Agger, Jane W.

    2014-01-01

    Results The combined action of GH10 xylanase and acetylxylan esterases (AcXEs) leads to formation of neutral and acidic xylooligosaccharides with a few resistant acetyl groups mainly at their non-reducing ends. We show here that these acetyl groups serve as targets for TrCE16 AcE. The most promin...

  1. Yeast phospholipase C is required for normal acetyl-CoA homeostasis and global histone acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdieri, Luciano; Chang, Jennifer; Mehrotra, Swati; Vancura, Ales

    2013-09-27

    Phospholipase C (Plc1p) is required for the initial step of inositol polyphosphate (InsP) synthesis, and yeast cells with deletion of the PLC1 gene are completely devoid of any InsPs and display aberrations in transcriptional regulation. Here we show that Plc1p is required for a normal level of histone acetylation; plc1Δ cells that do not synthesize any InsPs display decreased acetylation of bulk histones and global hypoacetylation of chromatin histones. In accordance with the role of Plc1p in supporting histone acetylation, plc1Δ mutation is synthetically lethal with mutations in several subunits of SAGA and NuA4 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes. Conversely, the growth rate, sensitivity to multiple stresses, and the transcriptional defects of plc1Δ cells are partially suppressed by deletion of histone deacetylase HDA1. The histone hypoacetylation in plc1Δ cells is due to the defect in degradation of repressor Mth1p, and consequently lower expression of HXT genes and reduced conversion of glucose to acetyl-CoA, a substrate for HATs. The histone acetylation and transcriptional defects can be partially suppressed and the overall fitness improved in plc1Δ cells by increasing the cellular concentration of acetyl-CoA. Together, our data indicate that Plc1p and InsPs are required for normal acetyl-CoA homeostasis, which, in turn, regulates global histone acetylation.

  2. Yeast Phospholipase C Is Required for Normal Acetyl-CoA Homeostasis and Global Histone Acetylation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdieri, Luciano; Chang, Jennifer; Mehrotra, Swati; Vancura, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipase C (Plc1p) is required for the initial step of inositol polyphosphate (InsP) synthesis, and yeast cells with deletion of the PLC1 gene are completely devoid of any InsPs and display aberrations in transcriptional regulation. Here we show that Plc1p is required for a normal level of histone acetylation; plc1Δ cells that do not synthesize any InsPs display decreased acetylation of bulk histones and global hypoacetylation of chromatin histones. In accordance with the role of Plc1p in supporting histone acetylation, plc1Δ mutation is synthetically lethal with mutations in several subunits of SAGA and NuA4 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes. Conversely, the growth rate, sensitivity to multiple stresses, and the transcriptional defects of plc1Δ cells are partially suppressed by deletion of histone deacetylase HDA1. The histone hypoacetylation in plc1Δ cells is due to the defect in degradation of repressor Mth1p, and consequently lower expression of HXT genes and reduced conversion of glucose to acetyl-CoA, a substrate for HATs. The histone acetylation and transcriptional defects can be partially suppressed and the overall fitness improved in plc1Δ cells by increasing the cellular concentration of acetyl-CoA. Together, our data indicate that Plc1p and InsPs are required for normal acetyl-CoA homeostasis, which, in turn, regulates global histone acetylation. PMID:23913687

  3. SIRT3-dependent GOT2 acetylation status affects the malate–aspartate NADH shuttle activity and pancreatic tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Zhou, Lisha; Shi, Qian; Zhao, Yuzheng; Lin, Huaipeng; Zhang, Mengli; Zhao, Shimin; Yang, Yi; Ling, Zhi-Qiang; Guan, Kun-Liang; Xiong, Yue; Ye, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The malate–aspartate shuttle is indispensable for the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria to maintain a high rate of glycolysis and to support rapid tumor cell growth. The malate–aspartate shuttle is operated by two pairs of enzymes that localize to the mitochondria and cytoplasm, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (GOT), and malate dehydrogenases (MDH). Here, we show that mitochondrial GOT2 is acetylated and that deacetylation depends on mitochondrial SIRT3. We have identified that acetylation occurs at three lysine residues, K159, K185, and K404 (3K), and enhances the association between GOT2 and MDH2. The GOT2 acetylation at these three residues promotes the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria and changes the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ redox state to support ATP production. Additionally, GOT2 3K acetylation stimulates NADPH production to suppress ROS and to protect cells from oxidative damage. Moreover, GOT2 3K acetylation promotes pancreatic cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo. Finally, we show that GOT2 K159 acetylation is increased in human pancreatic tumors, which correlates with reduced SIRT3 expression. Our study uncovers a previously unknown mechanism by which GOT2 acetylation stimulates the malate–aspartate NADH shuttle activity and oxidative protection. PMID:25755250

  4. SIRT3-dependent GOT2 acetylation status affects the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle activity and pancreatic tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Zhou, Lisha; Shi, Qian; Zhao, Yuzheng; Lin, Huaipeng; Zhang, Mengli; Zhao, Shimin; Yang, Yi; Ling, Zhi-Qiang; Guan, Kun-Liang; Xiong, Yue; Ye, Dan

    2015-04-15

    The malate-aspartate shuttle is indispensable for the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria to maintain a high rate of glycolysis and to support rapid tumor cell growth. The malate-aspartate shuttle is operated by two pairs of enzymes that localize to the mitochondria and cytoplasm, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (GOT), and malate dehydrogenases (MDH). Here, we show that mitochondrial GOT2 is acetylated and that deacetylation depends on mitochondrial SIRT3. We have identified that acetylation occurs at three lysine residues, K159, K185, and K404 (3K), and enhances the association between GOT2 and MDH2. The GOT2 acetylation at these three residues promotes the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria and changes the mitochondrial NADH/NAD(+) redox state to support ATP production. Additionally, GOT2 3K acetylation stimulates NADPH production to suppress ROS and to protect cells from oxidative damage. Moreover, GOT2 3K acetylation promotes pancreatic cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo. Finally, we show that GOT2 K159 acetylation is increased in human pancreatic tumors, which correlates with reduced SIRT3 expression. Our study uncovers a previously unknown mechanism by which GOT2 acetylation stimulates the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle activity and oxidative protection. © 2015 The Authors.

  5. Functional Characterization of ATM Kinase Using Acetylation-Specific Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingli; Du, Fengxia

    2017-01-01

    The activation of ATM is critical in the DNA double strand breaks repair pathway. Acetylation of ATM by Tip60 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) plays a key role in the activation of ATM kinase activity in response to DNA damage. ATM forms a stable complex with Tip60 through the FATC domain of ATM. Tip60 acetylates lysine3016 of ATM, and this acetylation induces the activation of ATM. Several techniques are included in the study of ATM acetylation by Tip60, such as in vitro kinase assay, systematic mutagenesis, western blots. Here, we describe how to study the acetylation of ATM using acetylation-specific antibodies.

  6. Asymmetric distribution of glucose and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol in geostimulated Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momonoki, Y. S.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol occurs in both the kernel and vegetative shoot of germinating Zea mays seedlings. The effect of a gravitational stimulus on the transport of [3H]-5-indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [U-14C]-D-glucose from the kernel to the seedling shoot was studied. Both labeled glucose and labeled indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol become asymmetrically distributed in the mesocotyl cortex of the shoot with more radioactivity occurring in the bottom half of a horizontally placed seedling. Asymmetric distribution of [3H]indole-3-acetic acid, derived from the applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, occurred more rapidly than distribution of total 3H-radioactivity. These findings demonstrate that the gravitational stimulus can induce an asymmetric distribution of substances being transported from kernel to shoot. They also indicate that, in addition to the transport asymmetry, gravity affects the steady state amount of indole-3-acetic acid derived from indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol.

  7. SYNTHESIS AND FUNGICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ACETYL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    2002-02-11

    E.T. Ayodele*, A.A. Olajire, O.S. Amuda and S.O. Oladoye. Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology,. Ogbomoso, Nigeria. (Received February 11, 2002; revised November 22, 2002). ABSTRACT. The synthesis and fungicidal activity of acetyl substituted benzyl disulfides 1(a --- g).

  8. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-processing, food-packing, or food-storage equipment. [42 FR 14491, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 50 FR 3508... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetylated monoglycerides. 172.828 Section 172.828 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  9. Unchanged acetylation of isoniazid by alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T R; Døssing, M; Angelo, H R

    2004-01-01

    SETTING: In 10 healthy subjects, the influence of acute alcohol intake on the pharmacokinetics of isoniazid (INH) was studied. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that alcohol increases the conversion of INH by acetylation into its metabolite acetylisoniazid. DESIGN: In a crossover design, an oral...

  10. Acetylation and oxygenation transformations catalyzed by silica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 40 %, and 60 % by weight) as active solid acid catalysts were performed under mild reaction conditions with moderate to good yields and with 100 % selectivity. It is found that the supported H3PW12O40 was in general 1.4-2.3 times more efficient than the unsupported catalyst in the acetylation and oxygenation reactions.

  11. Acetyl diacylglycerol produced by modified camelina (Camelina sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetyl diacylglyceride (Acetyl-TAG) is a component of a commercial product, ACETEM, manufactured by transesterification reaction of triglycerides, glycerol, and triacetin or by acetylation of mono- and diglycerides with acetic acid anhydride. ACETEM is commonly used as foaming agents and coatings in...

  12. Determination of Isoniazid Acetylator Phenotype and its Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    giving 30% versus 13.6% as slow acetylators, 45% versus 54.5% as intermediate acetylators, and 25% versus 23.2% as fast acetylators respectively. ... losis (MTB) that most often affects the lungs. Over nine million cases of active TB occur ... with MTB (WHO,2013a). The worst aspect of it is that multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of H4K5 acetylation associated with fear memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C Sehwan; Rehrauer, Hubert; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2013-08-08

    Histone acetylation has been implicated in learning and memory in the brain, however, its function at the level of the genome and at individual genetic loci remains poorly investigated. This study examines a key acetylation mark, histone H4 lysine 5 acetylation (H4K5ac), genome-wide and its role in activity-dependent gene transcription in the adult mouse hippocampus following contextual fear conditioning. Using ChIP-Seq, we identified 23,235 genes in which H4K5ac correlates with absolute gene expression in the hippocampus. However, in the absence of transcription factor binding sites 150 bp upstream of the transcription start site, genes were associated with higher H4K5ac and expression levels. We further establish H4K5ac as a ubiquitous modification across the genome. Approximately one-third of all genes have above average H4K5ac, of which ~15% are specific to memory formation and ~65% are co-acetylated for H4K12. Although H4K5ac is prevalent across the genome, enrichment of H4K5ac at specific regions in the promoter and coding region are associated with different levels of gene expression. Additionally, unbiased peak calling for genes differentially acetylated for H4K5ac identified 114 unique genes specific to fear memory, over half of which have not previously been associated with memory processes. Our data provide novel insights into potential mechanisms of gene priming and bookmarking by histone acetylation following hippocampal memory activation. Specifically, we propose that hyperacetylation of H4K5 may prime genes for rapid expression following activity. More broadly, this study strengthens the importance of histone posttranslational modifications for the differential regulation of transcriptional programs in cognitive processes.

  14. NetAcet: prediction of N-terminal acetylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiemer, Lars; Bendtsen, Jannick Dyrløv; Blom, Nikolaj

    2005-01-01

    Summary: We present here a neural network based method for prediction of N-terminal acetylation-by far the most abundant post-translational modification in eukaryotes. The method was developed on a yeast dataset for N-acetyltransferase A (NatA) acetylation, which is the type of N-acetylation for ......Summary: We present here a neural network based method for prediction of N-terminal acetylation-by far the most abundant post-translational modification in eukaryotes. The method was developed on a yeast dataset for N-acetyltransferase A (NatA) acetylation, which is the type of N...

  15. Allele-specific gene expression in carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Krivtsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale genomic studies established the occurrence of multiple DNA sequence variants in genomes of healthy individuals that differ from the reference sequence. Among these variants mostly represented by germline single nucleotide polymorphisms disease-related alleles are detected including alleles which are associated with monogenic disorders, and putative deleterious genetic variants. Apart from functional significance of a particular variant and of a gene harboring it, the penetrance of these allelic variants depends on their expression level and can be determined by preferential expression of a particular allele, or allele-specific expression. It is estimated that 20–30 % of genes present in the human genome display allelic bias in a tissue-specific manner. Allele-specific expression is defined by a range of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms including cis-regulatory polymorphisms, allele-specific binding of transcription factors, allele-specific DNA methylation and regulation through non-coding RNA.Although the data on the issue are scarce, allele-specific expression has been reported to be implicated in several hereditary disorders including benign and malignant tumors of the large intestine. Recent studies that estimate allele-specific expression incidence in tumors and identify wide range of genes displaying allelic imbalance indicate that allele-specific expression might play a significant role in carcinogenesis. Eventually, estimation of transcriptional rate of allelic variants which cause dysfunction of oncogenes and tumor suppressors may prove to be essential for rational choice of antitumor therapeutic strategy. In this review, we outline the main concepts and mechanisms of allele-specific expression and the data on allelic imbalance in tumors.

  16. Acetylation and characterization of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Jìmenez-Aparicio, A; Paredes-López, O

    2000-01-01

    Banana native starch was acetylated and some of its functional properties were evaluated and compared to corn starch. In general, acetylated banana starch presented higher values in ash, protein and fat than corn acetylated starch. The modified starches had minor tendency to retrogradation assessed as % transmittance of starch pastes. At high temperature acetylated starches presented a water retention capacity similar to their native counterpart. The acetylation considerably increased the solubility of starches, and a similar behavior was found for swelling power. When freeze-thaw stability was studied, acetyl banana starch drained approximately 60% of water in the first and second cycles, but in the third and fourth cycles the percentage of separated water was low. However, acetyl corn starch showed lower freeze-thaw stability than the untreated sample. The modification increased the viscosity of banana starch pastes.

  17. Heterogeneous acid catalysts for acetylation in glycerol

    OpenAIRE

    Dosuna Rodríguez, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol is a low value molecule obtained as a sub-product from the manufacture of first generation biodiesel. The surplus of glycerol can be revaluated by its acetylation, forming high value molecules (monoacetin, diacetin and triacetin) which can be used in the polymer industry and as a biodiesel among other possibilities. This work provides a comparative study of the catalytic performances of a large scope of acid solids in the esterification of acetic acid with an excess of glycerol. ...

  18. Acetylation Is Indispensable for p53 Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yi; Zhao, Wenhui; Chen, Yue; Zhao, Yingming; Gu, Wei

    2008-01-01

    The activation of the tumor suppressor p53 facilitates the cellular response to genotoxic stress; however, the p53 response can only be executed if its interaction with its inhibitor Mdm2 is abolished. There have been conflicting reports on the question of whether p53 posttranslational modifications, such as phosphorylation or acetylation, are essential or only play a subtle, fine-tuning role in the p53 response. Thus, it remains unclear whether p53 modification is absolutely required for its...

  19. Enzymatic sequencing of partially acetylated chitosan oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Stefanie Nicole; Moerschbacher, Bruno Maria; Kolkenbrock, Stephan

    2014-06-17

    Chitosan oligosaccharides have diverse biological activities with potentially valuable applications, for example, in the fields of medicine and agriculture. These functionalities are thought to depend on their degree of polymerization and acetylation, and possibly on specific patterns of acetylation. Chitosan oligomers with fully defined architecture are difficult to produce, and their complete analysis is demanding. Analysis is typically done using MS or NMR, requiring access to expensive infrastructure, and yielding unequivocal results only in the case of rather small oligomers. We here describe a simple and cost-efficient method for the sequencing of μg amounts of chitosan oligosaccharides which is based on the sequential action of two recombinant glycosidases, namely an exo-β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (GlcNAcase) from Bacillus subtilis 168 and an exo-β-d-glucosaminidase (GlcNase) from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1. Starting from the non-reducing end, GlcNAcase and GlcNase specifically remove N-acetyl glucosamine (A) and glucosamine (D) units, respectively. By the sequential addition and removal of these enzymes in an alternating way followed by analysis of the products using high-performance thin-layer chromatography, the sequence of chitosan oligosaccharides can be revealed. Importantly, both enzymes work under identical conditions so that no buffer exchange is required between steps, and the enzyme can be removed conveniently using simple ultra-filtration devices. As proof-of-principle, the method was used to sequence the product of enzymatic deacetylation of chitin pentamer using a recombinant chitin deacetylase from Vibrio cholerae which specifically removes the acetyl group from the second unit next to the non-reducing end of the substrate, yielding mono-deacetylated pentamer with the sequence ADAAA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Allelic Frequency Analysis of Chinese Chestnut (Castanea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chengxiang Ai

    alleles, an average of 4.6 alleles per locus, were detected among 17 chestnut populations with the primer. CmTCR10 (NED) and a ... Key words: Fluorescent simple sequence repeats (SSR), chestnut population, bulk sampling, allele frequencies. ..... frequencies: a case study using striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Genetics ...

  1. Assessment of the myostatin Q204X allele using an allelic discrimination assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Sifuentes-Rincón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An allelic discrimination assay was designed and used to determine the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the myostatin (MSTN gene Q204X allele from two Mexican Full-French herds. The assay is a simple high throughput genotyping method that could be applied to investigate the effect of the Q204X allele on the Charolais breed.

  2. O-acetylation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eGille

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed of structurally diverse polymers, many of which are O-acetylated. How plants O-acetylate wall polymers and what its function is remained elusive until recently, when two protein families were identified in the model plant Arabidopsis that are involved in the O-acetylation of wall polysaccharides – the reduced wall acetylation (RWA and the trichome birefringence-like (TBL proteins. This review discusses the role of these two protein families in polysaccharide O-acetylation and outlines the differences and similarities of polymer acetylation mechanisms in plants, fungi, bacteria and mammals. Members of the TBL protein family had been shown to impact pathogen resistance, freezing tolerance, and cellulose biosynthesis. The connection of TBLs to polysaccharide O-acetylation thus gives crucial leads into the biological function of wall polymer O-acetylation.From a biotechnological point understanding the O-acetylation mechanism is important as acetyl-substituents inhibit the enzymatic degradation of wall polymers and released acetate can be a potent inhibitor in microbial fermentations, thus impacting the economic viability of e.g. lignocellulosic based biofuel production.

  3. Diversity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase mutations in resistant Lolium populations: evaluation using clethodim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Collavo, Alberto; Zheng, Ming-Qi; Owen, Mechelle; Sattin, Maurizio; Powles, Stephen B

    2007-10-01

    The acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting cyclohexanedione herbicide clethodim is used to control grass weeds infesting dicot crops. In Australia clethodim is widely used to control the weed Lolium rigidum. However, clethodim-resistant Lolium populations have appeared over the last 5 years and now are present in many populations across the western Australian wheat (Triticum aestivum) belt. An aspartate-2078-glycine (Gly) mutation in the plastidic ACCase enzyme has been identified as the only known mutation endowing clethodim resistance. Here, with 14 clethodim-resistant Lolium populations we revealed diversity and complexity in the molecular basis of resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides (clethodim in particular). Several known ACCase mutations (isoleucine-1781-leucine [Leu], tryptophan-2027-cysteine [Cys], isoleucine-2041-asparagine, and aspartate-2078-Gly) and in particular, a new mutation of Cys to arginine at position 2088, were identified in plants surviving the Australian clethodim field rate (60 g ha(-1)). Twelve combination patterns of mutant alleles were revealed in relation to clethodim resistance. Through a molecular, biochemical, and biological approach, we established that the mutation 2078-Gly or 2088-arginine endows sufficient level of resistance to clethodim at the field rate, and in addition, combinations of two mutant 1781-Leu alleles, or two different mutant alleles (i.e. 1781-Leu/2027-Cys, 1781-Leu/2041-asparagine), also confer clethodim resistance. Plants homozygous for the mutant 1781, 2078, or 2088 alleles were found to be clethodim resistant and cross resistant to a number of other ACCase inhibitor herbicides including clodinafop, diclofop, fluazifop, haloxyfop, butroxydim, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, and pinoxaden. We established that the specific mutation, the homo/heterozygous status of a plant for a specific mutation, and combinations of different resistant alleles plus herbicide rates all are important in contributing to

  4. Mutation of an Arabidopsis NatB N-alpha-terminal acetylation complex component causes pleiotropic developmental defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Ferrández-Ayela

    Full Text Available N-α-terminal acetylation is one of the most common, but least understood modifications of eukaryotic proteins. Although a high degree of conservation exists between the N-α-terminal acetylomes of plants and animals, very little information is available on this modification in plants. In yeast and humans, N-α-acetyltransferase complexes include a single catalytic subunit and one or two auxiliary subunits. Here, we report the positional cloning of TRANSCURVATA2 (TCU2, which encodes the auxiliary subunit of the NatB N-α-acetyltransferase complex in Arabidopsis. The phenotypes of loss-of-function tcu2 alleles indicate that NatB complex activity is required for flowering time regulation and for leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and embryonic development. In double mutants, tcu2 alleles synergistically interact with alleles of ARGONAUTE10, which encodes a component of the microRNA machinery. In summary, NatB-mediated N-α-terminal acetylation of proteins is pleiotropically required for Arabidopsis development and seems to be functionally related to the microRNA pathway.

  5. Obesity, cancer, and acetyl-CoA metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joyce V.; Shah, Supriya A.; Wellen, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    As rates of obesity soar in the Unites States and around the world, cancer attributed to obesity has emerged as major threat to public health. The link between obesity and cancer can be attributed in part to the state of chronic inflammation that develops in obesity. Acetyl-CoA production and protein acetylation patterns are highly sensitive to metabolic state and are significantly altered in obesity. In this article, we explore the potential role of nutrient-sensitive lysine acetylation in r...

  6. Differential patterns of histone acetylation in inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adcock Ian M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Post-translational modifications of histones, particularly acetylation, are associated with the regulation of inflammatory gene expression. We used two animal models of inflammation of the bowel and biopsy samples from patients with Crohn's disease (CD to study the expression of acetylated histones (H 3 and 4 in inflamed mucosa. Acetylation of histone H4 was significantly elevated in the inflamed mucosa in the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid model of colitis particularly on lysine residues (K 8 and 12 in contrast to non-inflamed tissue. In addition, acetylated H4 was localised to inflamed tissue and to Peyer's patches (PP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-treated rat models. Within the PP, H3 acetylation was detected in the mantle zone whereas H4 acetylation was seen in both the periphery and the germinal centre. Finally, acetylation of H4 was significantly upregulated in inflamed biopsies and PP from patients with CD. Enhanced acetylation of H4K5 and K16 was seen in the PP. These results demonstrate that histone acetylation is associated with inflammation and may provide a novel therapeutic target for mucosal inflammation.

  7. Determination of histone acetylation status by chromatin immunoprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdieri, Luciano; Moon, John; Vancura, Ales

    2012-01-01

    Histone acetylation is the most studied posttranslation modification of nucleosomes. Understanding the mechanisms involved in global and promoter-specific histone acetylation will shed light on the control of transcriptional regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation is a powerful technique to study protein-DNA interactions in vivo. Proteins and DNA are cross-linked with formaldehyde, cells are lysed, and DNA is sheared by sonication. Protein-DNA complexes are immunoprecipitated with antibodies specific for total and acetylated histones and the relative occupancy of acetylated and total histones at selected loci is assessed by real-time PCR of the purified DNA.

  8. Probing the acetylation code of histone H4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Diana; Schümann, Michael; Gelato, Kathy; Fischle, Wolfgang; Schwarzer, Dirk; Krause, Eberhard

    2013-10-01

    Histone modifications play crucial roles in genome regulation with lysine acetylation being implicated in transcriptional control. Here we report a proteome-wide investigation of the acetylation-dependent protein-protein interactions of the N-terminal tail of histone H4. Quantitative peptide-based affinity MS experiments using the SILAC approach determined the interactomes of H4 tails monoacetylated at the four known acetylation sites K5, K8, K12, and K16, bis-acetylated at K5/K12, triple-acetylated at K8/12/16 and fully tetra-acetylated. A set of 29 proteins was found enriched on the fully acetylated H4 tail while specific binders of the mono and bis-acetylated tails were barely detectable. These observations are in good agreement with earlier reports indicating that the H4 acetylation state establishes its regulatory effects in a cumulative manner rather than via site-specific recruitment of regulatory proteins. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Solvent-Free Synthesis of Some1-Acetyl Pyrazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirunarayanan, Ganesamoorthy [Annamalai Univ., Tamil Nadu (India); Sekar, Krishnamoorthy Guna [National College, Tiruchirappalli (India)

    2013-10-15

    Some N-acetyl pyrazoles including 1-(3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(substituted phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-{sup 1}H-pyrazole-1-yl) ethanones have been synthesised by solvent free cyclization cum acetylation of chalcones like substituted styryl 3,4-dichlorophenyl ketones using hydrazine hydrate and acetic anhydride in presence of catalytic amount of fly-ash: H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} catalyst. The yield of these N-acetyl pyrazole derivatives are more than 75%. The synthesised N-acetyl pyrazoline derivatives were characterized by their physical constants and spectral data.

  10. Inhibiting p53 Acetylation Reduces Cancer Chemotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shunsheng; Koh, Xin Yu; Goh, Hui Chin; Rahmat, Siti Aishah B; Hwang, Le-Ann; Lane, David P

    2017-08-15

    Chemotoxicity due to unwanted p53 activation in the bone marrow remains an unmet clinical challenge. Doxorubicin, a first-line chemotherapy drug, often causes myelosuppression in patients, thus limiting its effectiveness. In this study, we discovered that C646, a reversible p300 inhibitor, downregulates p53 transcription and selectively protects noncancerous cells from p53-dependent apoptosis. C646 treatment blocked acetylation of specific lysine residues that regulate p53 activity. Exploitation of differential p53 genetic backgrounds between human hematopoietic and colorectal cancer cells improved the therapeutic index of doxorubicin with C646 cotreatment. C646 administration in mice afflicted with p53-mutant tumors protected them from doxorubicin-induced neutropenia and anemia while retaining antitumor efficacy. We deduce that temporary and reversible inhibition of p53 acetylation in cancer subjects, especially those with p53-mutant tumors, may protect them from severe chemotoxicity while allowing treatment regimens to effectively proceed. Cancer Res; 77(16); 4342-54. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Inhibition of glycation of albumin and hemoglobin by acetylation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, M; Nierenberg, J; Brannan, C; Valentine, J L; Stephen, P M; Dodds, S; Mercer, P; Smith, P K; Walder, J

    1986-10-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid or ASA) is known to inhibit glycosylation (glycation) of albumin in vitro. The mechanism has been presumed to be acetylation, but this has never been validated. The new affinity aminophenylboronic acid procedure for determination of glycosylated albumin was used to demonstrate inhibition of glycosylation by aspirin. ASA, but not salicylic acid, inhibited glycation. The inhibition of glycation by equimolar acetic anhydride was greater than that by ASA. Pretreatment of albumin with ASA in the absence of glucose demonstrated that inhibition was extremely rapid, occurring in a matter of minutes. However, the inhibition by ASA could not be prevented by massive acceleration of glycation induced by borohydride reduction. Glycation of hemoglobin was also inhibited by ASA, but the dose requirement was considerably higher. Various analogues of ASA were evaluated for inhibition of glycation. Only acetyl-5-ethylsalicylic acid was more effective than ASA in inhibiting albumin glycation. None of these agents was more potent than ASA in inhibiting glycation of hemoglobin. ASA was fed to diabetic rats in a long-term experiment. Glycohemoglobin and glycoalbumin levels were decreased by ASA administration. We conclude that ASA inhibits glycation by a very rapid acetylation process. This process is apparently quite selective in terms of the protein involved, presumably because of the local environment of affected lysine groups. The phenomenon can be produced in vivo by administration of ASA.

  12. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Globally Enhance H3/H4 Tail Acetylation Without Affecting H3 Lysine 56 Acetylation

    OpenAIRE

    Drogaris, Paul; Villeneuve, Val?rie; Pomi?s, Christelle; Lee, Eun-Hye; Bourdeau, V?ronique; Bonneil, ?ric; Ferbeyre, Gerardo; Verreault, Alain; Thibault, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) represent a promising avenue for cancer therapy. We applied mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the impact of clinically relevant HDACi on global levels of histone acetylation. Intact histone profiling revealed that the HDACi SAHA and MS-275 globally increased histone H3 and H4 acetylation in both normal diploid fibroblasts and transformed human cells. Histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac) recently elicited much interest and controversy due to its p...

  13. Structure Elucidation of New Acetylated Saponins, Lessoniosides A, B, C, D, and E, and Non-Acetylated Saponins, Lessoniosides F and G, from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Bahrami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers produce numerous compounds with a wide range of chemical structural diversity. Among these, saponins are the most diverse and include sulfated, non-sulfated, acetylated and methylated congeners with different aglycone and sugar moieties. In this study, MALDI and ESI tandem mass spectrometry, in the positive ion mode, were used to elucidate the structure of new saponins extracted from the viscera of H. lessoni. Fragmentation of the aglycone provided structural information on the presence of the acetyl group. The presence of the O-acetyl group was confirmed by observing the mass transition of 60 u corresponding to the loss of a molecule of acetic acid. Ion fingerprints from the glycosidic cleavage provided information on the mass of the aglycone (core, and the sequence and type of monosaccharides that constitute the sugar moiety. The tandem mass spectra of the saponin precursor ions [M + Na]+ provided a wealth of detailed structural information on the glycosidic bond cleavages. As a result, and in conjunction with existing literature, we characterized the structure of five new acetylated saponins, Lessoniosides A–E, along with two non-acetylated saponins Lessoniosides F and G at m/z 1477.7, which are promising candidates for future drug development. The presented strategy allows a rapid, reliable and complete analysis of native saponins.

  14. Parallel Mapping of Antibiotic Resistance Alleles in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie J Weiss

    Full Text Available Chemical genomics expands our understanding of microbial tolerance to inhibitory chemicals, but its scope is often limited by the throughput of genome-scale library construction and genotype-phenotype mapping. Here we report a method for rapid, parallel, and deep characterization of the response to antibiotics in Escherichia coli using a barcoded genome-scale library, next-generation sequencing, and streamlined bioinformatics software. The method provides quantitative growth data (over 200,000 measurements and identifies contributing antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility alleles. Using multivariate analysis, we also find that subtle differences in the population responses resonate across multiple levels of functional hierarchy. Finally, we use machine learning to identify a unique allelic and proteomic fingerprint for each antibiotic. The method can be broadly applied to tolerance for any chemical from toxic metabolites to next-generation biofuels and antibiotics.

  15. Parallel Mapping of Antibiotic Resistance Alleles in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sophie J; Mansell, Thomas J; Mortazavi, Pooneh; Knight, Rob; Gill, Ryan T

    2016-01-01

    Chemical genomics expands our understanding of microbial tolerance to inhibitory chemicals, but its scope is often limited by the throughput of genome-scale library construction and genotype-phenotype mapping. Here we report a method for rapid, parallel, and deep characterization of the response to antibiotics in Escherichia coli using a barcoded genome-scale library, next-generation sequencing, and streamlined bioinformatics software. The method provides quantitative growth data (over 200,000 measurements) and identifies contributing antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility alleles. Using multivariate analysis, we also find that subtle differences in the population responses resonate across multiple levels of functional hierarchy. Finally, we use machine learning to identify a unique allelic and proteomic fingerprint for each antibiotic. The method can be broadly applied to tolerance for any chemical from toxic metabolites to next-generation biofuels and antibiotics.

  16. The kinetics of the acetylation of gelatinised potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R.A.; Broekroelofs, G.A.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1995-01-01

    The reaction rates, in the base-catalysed acetylation of gelatinised aqueous starch (4 wt%), by vinylacetate (ViAc), were investigated in a semibatch reactor at temperatures ranging from 20 to 50 degrees C. The desired starch acetylation reaction is accompanied by an undesired parallel

  17. Influence of acetylation on the physicochemical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigates the effect of acetylation on the physicochemical properties of composited starches from sweet potato and water yam. Starch was respectively isolated from both sources, dried and subjected to acetylation at different combination. The result shows that the modified starches were of low percentage of ...

  18. Trichostatin A induced histone acetylation causes decondensation of interphase chromatin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); M. Wachsmuth (Malte); M. Frank-Stöhr (Monika); M. Stöhr (Michael); C.P. Bacher (Christian); K. Rippe (Karsten)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe effect of trichostatin A (TSA)-induced histone acetylation on the interphase chromatin structure was visualized in vivo with a HeLa cell line stably expressing histone H2A, which was fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein. The globally increased histone acetylation caused a

  19. Thermochemical characteristics of cellulose acetates with different degrees of acetylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, V. N.; Ur'yash, V. F.; Kushch, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of cellulose acetates with different degrees of acetylation are determined. It is established that there is a proportional dependence of these thermochemical characteristics vs. the degree of acetylation, weight fraction of bonded acetic acid, and molar mass of the repeating unit of cellulose acetates.

  20. Lysine acetylation in mitochondria: From inventory to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosp, Fabian; Lassowskat, Ines; Santoro, Valeria; De Vleesschauwer, David; Fliegner, Daniela; Redestig, Henning; Mann, Matthias; Christian, Sven; Hannah, Matthew A; Finkemeier, Iris

    2017-03-01

    Cellular signaling pathways are regulated in a highly dynamic fashion in order to quickly adapt to distinct environmental conditions. Acetylation of lysine residues represents a central process that orchestrates cellular metabolism and signaling. In mitochondria, acetylation seems to be the most prevalent post-translational modification, presumably linked to the compartmentation and high turnover of acetyl-CoA in this organelle. Similarly, the elevated pH and the higher concentration of metabolites in mitochondria seem to favor non-enzymatic lysine modifications, as well as other acylations. Hence, elucidating the mechanisms for metabolic control of protein acetylation is crucial for our understanding of cellular processes. Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have considerably increased our knowledge of the regulatory scope of acetylation. Here, we review the current knowledge and functional impact of mitochondrial protein acetylation across species. We first cover the experimental approaches to identify and analyze lysine acetylation on a global scale, we then explore both commonalities and specific differences of plant and animal acetylomes and the evolutionary conservation of protein acetylation, as well as its particular impact on metabolism and diseases. Important future directions and technical challenges are discussed, and it is pointed out that the transfer of knowledge between species and diseases, both in technology and biology, is of particular importance for further advancements in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition effects of acetyl coumarines and thiazole derivatives on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The corrosion inhibition characteristics of acetyl coumarine (AC), bromo acetyl coumarine (BAC) and thiazole derivatives (BTMQ and BTCQ) on the corrosion of zinc in 0.1 M HCl solution were investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance techniques. The inhibition efficiency increased with ...

  2. Acetylated histone H3 increases nucleosome dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marek; Manohar, Mridula; Ottesen, Jennifer; Poirier, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Chromatin's basic unit structure is the nucleosome, i.e. genomic DNA wrapped around a particular class of proteins -- histones -- which due to their physical hindrance, block vital biological processes, such as DNA repair, DNA replication, and RNA transcription. Histone post-translational modifications, which are known to exist in vivo, are hypothesized to regulate these biological processes by directly altering DNA-histone interactions and thus nucleosome structure and stability. Using magnetic tweezers technique we studied the acetylation of histone H3 in the dyad region, i.e. at K115 and K122, on reconstituted arrays of nucleosomes under constant external force. Based on the measured increase in the probability of dissociation of modified nucleosomes, we infer that this double modification could facilitate histone chaperone mediated nucleosome disassembly in vivo.

  3. Metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce high levels of novel acetyl glyceride oils with reduced viscosity, freezing point and calorific value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinjie; Rice, Adam; McGlew, Kathleen; Shaw, Vincent; Park, Hyunwoo; Clemente, Tom; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John; Durrett, Timothy P

    2015-08-01

    Seed oils have proved recalcitrant to modification for the production of industrially useful lipids. Here, we demonstrate the successful metabolic engineering and subsequent field production of an oilseed crop with the highest accumulation of unusual oil achieved so far in transgenic plants. Previously, expression of the Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) gene in wild-type Arabidopsis seeds resulted in the accumulation of 45 mol% of unusual 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acetyl-TAGs) in the seed oil (Durrett et al., 2010 PNAS 107:9464). Expression of EaDAcT in dgat1 mutants compromised in their ability to synthesize regular triacylglycerols increased acetyl-TAGs to 65 mol%. Camelina and soybean transformed with the EaDAcT gene accumulate acetyl-triacylglycerols (acetyl-TAGs) at up to 70 mol% of seed oil. A similar strategy of coexpression of EaDAcT together with RNAi suppression of DGAT1 increased acetyl-TAG levels to up to 85 mol% in field-grown transgenic Camelina. Additionally, total moles of triacylglycerol (TAG) per seed increased 20%. Analysis of the acetyl-TAG fraction revealed a twofold reduction in very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), consistent with their displacement from the sn-3 position by acetate. Seed germination remained high, and seedlings were able to metabolize the stored acetyl-TAGs as rapidly as regular triacylglycerols. Viscosity, freezing point and caloric content of the Camelina acetyl-TAG oils were reduced, enabling use of this oil in several nonfood and food applications. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Acetylated triterpene saponins from the Thai medicinal plant, Sapindus emarginatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanapoom, T; Kasai, R; Yamasaki, K

    2001-09-01

    From the pericarps of Sapindus emarginatus (Sapindaceae), three new acetylated triterpene saponins were isolated together with hederagenin and five known triterpene saponins, as well as one known sweet acyclic sesquiterpene glycoside, mukurozioside IIb. The structures of new compounds were elucidated as hederagenin 3-O-(2-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, 23-O-acetyl-hederagenin 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside and oleanolic acid 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside by chemical and spectroscopic data.

  5. Antemortem stress regulates protein acetylation and glycolysis in postmortem muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwen; Li, Xin; Wang, Zhenyu; Shen, Qingwu W; Zhang, Dequan

    2016-07-01

    Although exhaustive research has established that preslaughter stress is a major factor contributing to pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat, questions remain regarding the biochemistry of postmortem glycolysis. In this study, the influence of preslaughter stress on protein acetylation in relationship to glycolysis was studied. The data show that antemortem swimming significantly enhanced glycolysis and the total acetylated proteins in postmortem longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of mice. Inhibition of protein acetylation by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors eliminated stress induced increase in glycolysis. Inversely, antemortem injection of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and nicotinamide (NAM), further increased protein acetylation early postmortem and the glycolysis. These data provide new insight into the biochemistry of postmortem glycolysis by showing that protein acetylation regulates glycolysis, which may participate in the regulation of preslaughter stress on glycolysis in postmortem muscle. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Protein lysine acetylation analysis: current MS-based proteomic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Tian, Shanshan; Fan, Enguo

    2013-03-21

    Protein lysine acetylation (Kac), including histone acetylation and non-nuclear protein acetylation, is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification for cellular regulation. The modified proteins play a key role in regulating chromatin structure, transcriptional activity and metabolic pathways, thus contributing to diverse cellular processes like transcription, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and senescence. Therefore, targeting protein acetylation represents a potentially promising strategy for certain diseases, such as cancer. However, global identification of protein acetylation is a major bottleneck due to its dynamic property and rather low abundance. Tremendous efforts have been made to develop mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic technologies for this purpose from diverse cellular sources. The present review has tried to provide an overview of current strategies employed for Kac identification from histone to system-wide Kac analysis, including enrichment techniques, chromatographic separation strategies, and mass spectrometry methods.

  7. Hypermethylated SUPERMAN epigenetic alleles in arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, S E; Meyerowitz, E M

    1997-08-22

    Mutations in the SUPERMAN gene affect flower development in Arabidopsis. Seven heritable but unstable sup epi-alleles (the clark kent alleles) are associated with nearly identical patterns of excess cytosine methylation within the SUP gene and a decreased level of SUP RNA. Revertants of these alleles are largely demethylated at the SUP locus and have restored levels of SUP RNA. A transgenic Arabidopsis line carrying an antisense methyltransferase gene, which shows an overall decrease in genomic cytosine methylation, also contains a hypermethylated sup allele. Thus, disruption of methylation systems may yield more complex outcomes than expected and can result in methylation defects at known genes. The clark kent alleles differ from the antisense line because they do not show a general decrease in genomic methylation.

  8. Spectrum of pneumococcal serotype 11A variants results from incomplete loss of capsule O-acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calix, Juan J; Brady, Allison M; Du, Victor Y; Saad, Jamil S; Nahm, Moon H

    2014-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a significant bacterial pathogen that expresses >90 capsule serotypes. Conventional serotyping methods assume that each serotype is a genetically and antigenically distinct entity; however, recent investigations have revealed pneumococcal isolates that cannot be unambiguously serotyped because they share the properties of more than one serotype. Here, we employed a novel serotyping method and NMR spectroscopy to examine clinical isolates sharing properties of serotypes 11A and 11E. These ambiguous clinical isolates were provisionally named 11A variant (11Av) isolates. Serotype 11A pneumococci characteristically express capsule β-galactose-6-O-acetylation (βGal6OAc) mediated by the capsule synthesis gene wcjE, while 11E strains contain loss-of-function mutations in wcjE and completely lack the expression of βGal6OAc. Although 11Av isolates also contained mutated wcjE alleles, 11Av clinical isolates were composed of antigenically homogeneous bacteria expressing reduced amounts of 11A-specific capsule antigen. NMR data confirmed reduced but detectable amounts of βGal6OAc on 11Av capsule polysaccharide. Furthermore, the transformation of strains with wcjE alleles from 11Av strains was sufficient to restore partial βGal6OAc in an 11E background. We conclude that, instead of being distinct entities, serotypes 11A and 11E represent two extremes of an antigenic spectrum resulting from variable capsule O-acetylation secondary to heterologous wcjE mutations. These findings challenge whether all clinically relevant pneumococci can be definitively categorized into distinct serotypes.

  9. The biology of lysine acetylation integrates transcriptional programming and metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujtaba Shiraz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biochemical landscape of lysine acetylation has expanded from a small number of proteins in the nucleus to a multitude of proteins in the cytoplasm. Since the first report confirming acetylation of the tumor suppressor protein p53 by a lysine acetyltransferase (KAT, there has been a surge in the identification of new, non-histone targets of KATs. Added to the known substrates of KATs are metabolic enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, molecular chaperones, ribosomal proteins and nuclear import factors. Emerging studies demonstrate that no fewer than 2000 proteins in any particular cell type may undergo lysine acetylation. As described in this review, our analyses of cellular acetylated proteins using DAVID 6.7 bioinformatics resources have facilitated organization of acetylated proteins into functional clusters integral to cell signaling, the stress response, proteolysis, apoptosis, metabolism, and neuronal development. In addition, these clusters also depict association of acetylated proteins with human diseases. These findings not only support lysine acetylation as a widespread cellular phenomenon, but also impel questions to clarify the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms governing target selectivity by KATs. Present challenges are to understand the molecular basis for the overlapping roles of KAT-containing co-activators, to differentiate between global versus dynamic acetylation marks, and to elucidate the physiological roles of acetylated proteins in biochemical pathways. In addition to discussing the cellular 'acetylome', a focus of this work is to present the widespread and dynamic nature of lysine acetylation and highlight the nexus that exists between epigenetic-directed transcriptional regulation and metabolism.

  10. Distinct roles of carbohydrate esterase family CE16 acetyl esterases and polymer-acting acetyl xylan esterases in xylan deacetylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutaniemi, S.; Gool, van M.P.; Juvonen, M.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Schols, H.A.; Tenkanen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis was used to compare the roles of two acetyl esterases (AE, carbohydrate esterase family CE16) and three acetyl xylan esterases (AXE, families CE1 and CE5) in deacetylation of natural substrates, neutral (linear) and 4-O-methyl glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) substituted

  11. Extraction and properties of protein from camelina engineered to produce acetyl-triacylglycerols (camelina acetyl-TAG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa, Brassicaceae) has attracted interest for its seed oil as alternative feedstock for biofuels production. Researchers at Michigan State University successfully engineered camelina to produce seeds with oil containing high levels of acetyl-triacylglerol (acetyl-TAG) by incorp...

  12. Role of Histone Acetylation in Cell Cycle Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprinarova, Miglena; Schnekenburger, Michael; Diederich, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Core histone acetylation is a key prerequisite for chromatin decondensation and plays a pivotal role in regulation of chromatin structure, function and dynamics. The addition of acetyl groups disturbs histone/DNA interactions in the nucleosome and alters histone/histone interactions in the same or adjacent nucleosomes. Acetyl groups can also provide binding sites for recruitment of bromodomain (BRD)-containing non-histone readers and regulatory complexes to chromatin allowing them to perform distinct downstream functions. The presence of a particular acetylation pattern influences appearance of other histone modifications in the immediate vicinity forming the "histone code". Although the roles of the acetylation of particular lysine residues for the ongoing chromatin functions is largely studied, the epigenetic inheritance of histone acetylation is a debated issue. The dynamics of local or global histone acetylation is associated with fundamental cellular processes such as gene transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair or chromatin condensation. Therefore, it is an essential part of the epigenetic cell response to processes related to internal and external signals.

  13. NAT gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease: identification of a novel NAT1 allelic variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budge Marc

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease is multifactorial, having environmental, toxicological and genetic risk factors. Impaired folate and homocysteine metabolism has been hypothesised to increase risk. In addition to its xenobiotic-metabolising capacity, human arylamine N-acetyltransferase type-1 (NAT1 acetylates the folate catabolite para-aminobenzoylglutamate and is implicated in folate metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine whether polymorphisms in the human NAT genes influence susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease. Methods Elderly individuals with and without Alzheimer's disease were genotyped at the polymorphic NAT1 (147 cases; 111 controls and NAT2 (45 cases; 63 controls loci by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and the genotype and allele frequencies were compared using the chi-squared test. Results Although a trend towards fast NAT2 acetylator-associated Alzheimer's disease susceptibility was indicated and the NAT1*10/1*10 genotype was observed only in cases of Alzheimer's disease (6/147, 4.1%, no significant difference in the frequency of NAT2 (p = 0.835 or NAT1 (p = 0.371 genotypes was observed between cases and controls. In addition, a novel NAT1 variant, NAT1*11B, was identified. Conclusions These results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in NAT1 and NAT2 do not influence susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease, although the increase in frequency of the NAT1*10 allele in Alzheimer's disease is worthy of further investigation. Due to its similarity with the NAT1*11A allele, NAT1*11B is likely to encode an enzyme with reduced NAT1 activity.

  14. Predicting post-translational lysine acetylation using support vector machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Florian; Ren, Shubin; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2010-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a post-translational protein modification and a primary regulatory mechanism that controls many cell signaling processes. Lysine acetylation sites are recognized by acetyltransferases and deacetylases through sequence patterns (motifs). Recently, we used high-resolution mass...... spectrometry to identify 3600 lysine acetylation sites on 1750 human proteins covering most of the previously annotated sites and providing the most comprehensive acetylome so far. This dataset should provide an excellent source to train support vector machines (SVMs) allowing the high accuracy in silico...

  15. Allele Age Under Non-Classical Assumptions is Clarified by an Exact Computational Markov Chain Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Bianca; Krukov, Ivan; de Koning, A P Jason

    2017-09-19

    Determination of the age of an allele based on its population frequency is a well-studied problem in population genetics, for which a variety of approximations have been proposed. We present a new result that, surprisingly, allows the expectation and variance of allele age to be computed exactly (within machine precision) for any finite absorbing Markov chain model in a matter of seconds. This approach makes none of the classical assumptions (e.g., weak selection, reversibility, infinite sites), exploits modern sparse linear algebra techniques, integrates over all sample paths, and is rapidly computable for Wright-Fisher populations up to N e  = 100,000. With this approach, we study the joint effect of recurrent mutation, dominance, and selection, and demonstrate new examples of "selective strolls" where the classical symmetry of allele age with respect to selection is violated by weakly selected alleles that are older than neutral alleles at the same frequency. We also show evidence for a strong age imbalance, where rare deleterious alleles are expected to be substantially older than advantageous alleles observed at the same frequency when population-scaled mutation rates are large. These results highlight the under-appreciated utility of computational methods for the direct analysis of Markov chain models in population genetics.

  16. Spinach Leaf Acetyl-Coenzyme a Synthetase: Purification and Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carolyn A. Zeiher; Douglas D. Randall

    1991-01-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase was purified 364-fold from leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by ion exchange, dye-ligand, and gel permeation chromatography...

  17. Can changes in histone acetylation contribute to memory formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Atalaya, Jose P; Barco, Angel

    2014-12-01

    Neuronal histone acetylation has been postulated to be a mnemonic substrate and a target for memory enhancers and neuropsychiatric drugs. Here we critically evaluate this view and examine the apparent conflict between the proposed instructive role for histone acetylation in memory-related transcription and the insights derived from genomic and genetic studies in other systems. We next discuss the suitability of activity-dependent neuronal histone acetylation as a mnemonic substrate and debate alternative interpretations of current evidence. We believe that further progress in our understanding of the role of histone acetylation and other epigenetic modifications in neuronal plasticity, memory, and neuropsychiatric disorders requires a clear discrimination between cause and effect so that novel epigenetics-related processes can be distinguished from classical transcriptional mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards a functional understanding of protein N-terminal acetylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Arnesen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein N-terminal acetylation is a major modification of eukaryotic proteins. Its functional implications include regulation of protein-protein interactions and targeting to membranes, as demonstrated by studies of a handful of proteins. Fifty years after its discovery, a potential general function of the N-terminal acetyl group carried by thousands of unique proteins remains enigmatic. However, recent functional data suggest roles for N-terminal acetylation as a degradation signal and as a determining factor for preventing protein targeting to the secretory pathway, thus highlighting N-terminal acetylation as a major determinant for the life and death of proteins. These contributions represent new and intriguing hypotheses that will guide the research in the years to come.

  19. Synthesis of spiro [indolo-1, 5-benzodiazepines] from 3-acetyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3'-hydroxy-2'-oxo indolo) acetyl coumarins (3), which on dehydration afforded the corresponding ,-unsaturated ketones (4). Cyclocondensation of (4) with substituted -phenylene diamines resulted in novel 3-coumarinyl spiro[indolo-1 ...

  20. Generation of nitryl chloride from chlorotrimethylsilane-acetyl nitrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    amyl nitrate does not yield NO2Cl with silicon reagent. However, acetyl nitrate reacts successfully with chlorotrimethylsi- lane to give nitryl chloride, which is characterized by its UV spectrum. If it is generated in presence of ketoximes ...

  1. 17β-Estradiol regulates histone alterations associated with memory consolidation and increases Bdnf promoter acetylation in middle-aged female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortress, Ashley M; Kim, Jaekyoon; Poole, Rachel L; Gould, Thomas J; Frick, Karyn M

    2014-09-01

    Histone acetylation is essential for hippocampal memory formation in young adult rodents. Although dysfunctional histone acetylation has been associated with age-related memory decline in male rodents, little is known about whether histone acetylation is altered by aging in female rodents. In young female mice, the ability of 17β-estradiol (E2) to enhance object recognition memory consolidation requires histone H3 acetylation in the dorsal hippocampus. However, the extent to which histone acetylation is regulated by E2 in middle-aged females is unknown. The mnemonic benefits of E2 in aging females appear to be greatest in middle age, and so pinpointing the molecular mechanisms through which E2 enhances memory at this age could lead to the development of safer and more effective treatments for maintaining memory function without the side effects of current therapies. Here, we show that dorsal hippocampal infusion of E2 rapidly enhanced object recognition and spatial memory, and increased histone H3 acetylation in the dorsal hippocampus, while also significantly reducing levels of histone deacetylase (HDAC2 and HDAC3) proteins. E2 specifically increased histone H3 acetylation at Bdnf promoters pII and pIV in the dorsal hippocampus of both young and middle-aged mice, despite age-related decreases in pI and pIV acetylation. Furthermore, levels of mature BDNF and pro-BDNF proteins in the dorsal hippocampus were increased by E2 in middle-aged females. Together, these data suggest that the middle-aged female dorsal hippocampus remains epigenetically responsive to E2, and that E2 may enhance memory in middle-aged females via epigenetic regulation of Bdnf. © 2014 Fortress et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Steering myelopoiesis: a role for protein acetylation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481833X

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes have been identified as important factors in the pathogenesis of haematological malignancies, which has resulted in a rapid increase in the use of chromatin modulating drugs, including lysine deacetylase inhibitors (KDACi, or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors). While the

  3. Abnormal segregation of alleles in CEPH pedigree DNAs arising from allele loss in lymphoblastoid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, N J; Armour, J A; Crosier, M; Jeffreys, A J

    1993-01-01

    Somatic events that result in the reduction to hemi- or homozygosity at all loci affected by the event have been identified in lymphoblastoid DNA from mothers of two CEPH families. Using suitably informative probes, the allele deficiencies were detected by the abnormal transmission of alleles from grandparents to grandchildren, with the apparent absence of the alleles from the parent. Undetected somatic deficiencies in family DNAs could result in misscoring of recombination events and consequently introduce errors into linkage analysis.

  4. Abnormal segregation of alleles in CEPH pedigree DNAs arising from allele loss in lymphoblastoid DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royle, N.J.; Armour, J.A.L.; Crosier, M.; Jeffreys, A.J. (Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    Somatic events that result in the reduction to hemior homozygosity at all loci affected by the event have been identified in lymphoblastoid DNA from mothers of two CEPH families. Using suitably informative probes, the allele deficiencies were detected by the abnormal transmission of alleles from grandparents to grandchildren, with the apparent absence of the alleles from the parent. Undetected somatic deficiencies in family DNAs could result in misscoring of recombination events and consequently introduce errors into linkage analysis. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Allele Workbench: transcriptome pipeline and interactive graphics for allele-specific expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Soderlund

    Full Text Available Sequencing the transcriptome can answer various questions such as determining the transcripts expressed in a given species for a specific tissue or condition, evaluating differential expression, discovering variants, and evaluating allele-specific expression. Differential expression evaluates the expression differences between different strains, tissues, and conditions. Allele-specific expression evaluates expression differences between parental alleles. Both differential expression and allele-specific expression have been studied for heterosis (hybrid vigor, where the hybrid has improved performance over the parents for one or more traits. The Allele Workbench software was developed for a heterosis study that evaluated allele-specific expression for a mouse F1 hybrid using libraries from multiple tissues with biological replicates. This software has been made into a distributable package, which includes a pipeline, a Java interface to build the database, and a Java interface for query and display of the results. The required input is a reference genome, annotation file, and one or more RNA-Seq libraries with optional replicates. It evaluates allelic imbalance at the SNP and transcript level and flags transcripts with significant opposite directional allele-specific expression. The Java interface allows the user to view data from libraries, replicates, genes, transcripts, exons, and variants, including queries on allele imbalance for selected libraries. To determine the impact of allele-specific SNPs on protein folding, variants are annotated with their effect (e.g., missense, and the parental protein sequences may be exported for protein folding analysis. The Allele Workbench processing results in transcript files and read counts that can be used as input to the previously published Transcriptome Computational Workbench, which has a new algorithm for determining a trimmed set of gene ontology terms. The software with demo files is available

  6. Mechanistic insights into the regulation of metabolic enzymes by acetylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The activity of metabolic enzymes is controlled by three principle levels: the amount of enzyme, the catalytic activity, and the accessibility of substrates. Reversible lysine acetylation is emerging as a major regulatory mechanism in metabolism that is involved in all three levels of controlling metabolic enzymes and is altered frequently in human diseases. Acetylation rivals other common posttranslational modifications in cell regulation not only in the number of substrates it modifies, but also the variety of regulatory mechanisms it facilitates. PMID:22826120

  7. Nucleosome Dancing at the Tempo of Histone Tail Acetylation

    OpenAIRE

    Angélique Galvani; Christophe Thiriet

    2015-01-01

    The impact of histone acetylation on transcription was revealed over 50 years ago by Allfrey and colleagues. However, it took decades for an understanding of the fine mechanism by which this posttranslational modification affects chromatin structure and promotes transcription. Here, we review breakthroughs linking histone tail acetylation, histone dynamics, and transcription. We also discuss the histone exchange during transcription and highlight the important function of a pool of non-chroma...

  8. Nucleosome Dancing at the Tempo of Histone Tail Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélique Galvani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of histone acetylation on transcription was revealed over 50 years ago by Allfrey and colleagues. However, it took decades for an understanding of the fine mechanism by which this posttranslational modification affects chromatin structure and promotes transcription. Here, we review breakthroughs linking histone tail acetylation, histone dynamics, and transcription. We also discuss the histone exchange during transcription and highlight the important function of a pool of non-chromatinized histones in chromatin dynamics.

  9. Nucleosome Dancing at the Tempo of Histone Tail Acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, Angélique; Thiriet, Christophe

    2015-07-15

    The impact of histone acetylation on transcription was revealed over 50 years ago by Allfrey and colleagues. However, it took decades for an understanding of the fine mechanism by which this posttranslational modification affects chromatin structure and promotes transcription. Here, we review breakthroughs linking histone tail acetylation, histone dynamics, and transcription. We also discuss the histone exchange during transcription and highlight the important function of a pool of non-chromatinized histones in chromatin dynamics.

  10. Novel myelin penta- and hexa-acetyl-galactosyl-ceramides: structural characterization and immunoreactivity in cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podbielska, Maria; Dasgupta, Somsankar; Levery, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to be 3-O-acetyl-sphingosine-GalCer derivatives with galactose O-acetyl modifications. FMC-5 and FMC-6 are 3-O-acetyl-sphingosine-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-GalCer with nonhydroxy and hydroxy-N-fatty-acids, while FMC-7 has an additional O...

  11. The growing landscape of lysine acetylation links metabolism and cell signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhary, Chuna Ram; Weinert, Brian Tate; Nishida, Yuya

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a conserved protein post-translational modification that links acetyl-coenzyme A metabolism and cellular signalling. Recent advances in the identification and quantification of lysine acetylation by mass spectrometry have increased our understanding of lysine acetylation, im...

  12. Acetylated alpha-tubulin in Trypanosoma cruzi: immunocytochemical localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Souto-Padron

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available We have used monoclonal antibodies specific for acetylated and non-acetylated alpha-tubulin to localize microtubules containing acetylated alpha-tubulin in all developmental forms of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi. This was demonstrated using immunofluorescence and by transmission electron microscopy of thin sections, negative stained cells, and replicas of whole Triton X-100 extracted cells immunolabeled with antibody-gold complex. The antibody specific for acetylated alpha-tubulin (6-11B-1 binds to the flagellar, as well as to the sub-pellicular microtubules. The extent of labeling of the sub-pellicular microtubules with the monoclonal antibody recognized alpha-acetylated tubulin was smaller than that observed with the antibody which recognizes all tubulin isoforms. In relation to the developmental forms, the extent of labeling of the microtubules with antibody 6-11B-1 was larger in epimastigote and trypomastigote than in amastigote forms. Incubation of the parasites for 1 h at 0º C or in the presence of either colchicine or vinblastine did not interfere with the sub-pellicular microtubules. These observations, in agreement with those reported for Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Schneider et al., 1987; Schulze et al., 1987; Sasse per cent Gull, 1988 indicate that the sub-pellicular microtubules of trypanosomatids represent stable microtubules containing acetylated alpha-tubulin (or the alpha 3-tubulin isotype.

  13. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-10-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  14. Site-specific acetylation of ISWI by GCN5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioda Mariacristina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tight organisation of eukaryotic genomes as chromatin hinders the interaction of many DNA-binding regulators. The local accessibility of DNA is regulated by many chromatin modifying enzymes, among them the nucleosome remodelling factors. These enzymes couple the hydrolysis of ATP to disruption of histone-DNA interactions, which may lead to partial or complete disassembly of nucleosomes or their sliding on DNA. The diversity of nucleosome remodelling factors is reflected by a multitude of ATPase complexes with distinct subunit composition. Results We found further diversification of remodelling factors by posttranslational modification. The histone acetyltransferase GCN5 can acetylate the Drosophila remodelling ATPase ISWI at a single, conserved lysine, K753, in vivo and in vitro. The target sequence is strikingly similar to the N-terminus of histone H3, where the corresponding lysine, H3K14, can also be acetylated by GCN5. The acetylated form of ISWI represents a minor species presumably associated with the nucleosome remodelling factor NURF. Conclusion Acetylation of histone H3 and ISWI by GCN5 is explained by the sequence similarity between the histone and ISWI around the acetylation site. The common motif RKT/SxGx(KacxPR/K differs from the previously suggested GCN5/PCAF recognition motif GKxxP. This raises the possibility of co-regulation of a nucleosome remodelling factor and its nucleosome substrate through acetylation of related epitopes and suggests a direct crosstalk between two distinct nucleosome modification principles.

  15. Effect of protein acetylation on hepatitis B virus replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIA Xiaofang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of protein acetylation in host cells on the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV in hepatocytes, since HBV infection greatly threatens human health and the acetylation of encoding proteins in infected cells plays an important role in HBV replication and infection. MethodsThe deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA and nicotinamide (NAM were used to stimulate HBV replication in HepG2.2.15 and HepAD38 cells, and the HBV replication markers were measured. The pan-acetylysin protein and Ac-H3 were examined by Western Blot. ResultsThe stimulation of cells with TSA and NAM increased the overall acetylation level of proteins in cells, and the acetylation level increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In the HepG2.2.15 and HepAD38 cells, stimulation with TSA and NAM reduced HBsAg level in the supernatant of cell culture and increased HBV DNA level in a time- and dose-dependent manner, while HBeAg in the supernatant of cell culture and DNA in cells did not change significantly. ConclusionAcetylation of host proteins may be involved in and affect HBV replication in cells, and further analysis and determination of host proteins whose acetylation affects HBV replication in cells help to learn more about the regulation of HBV replication and provide new thoughts for the development of specific antiviral strategies.

  16. High-Throughput Screen Fails to Identify Compounds That Enhance Residual Enzyme Activity of Mutant N-Acetyl-α-Glucosaminidase in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, O. L. M.; van den Biggelaar, P.; Ofman, R.; Wijburg, F. A.; van Vlies, N.

    2017-01-01

    In the severe neurodegenerative disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPSIIIB or Sanfilippo disease type B), deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetyl-α-glucosaminidase (NAGLU) results in accumulation of heparan sulfate. Patients present with a severe, rapidly progressing phenotype (RP) or a

  17. Expression of human PTPN22 alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Barington, T; Husby, S

    2007-01-01

    Considering the female predominance in most of the autoimmune disorders that associate with the PTPN22 Trp620 variant and the complexity by which this variant influences immunologic tolerance, the objective of this study was to ascertain if the allele-specific expression of the disease-associated......Considering the female predominance in most of the autoimmune disorders that associate with the PTPN22 Trp620 variant and the complexity by which this variant influences immunologic tolerance, the objective of this study was to ascertain if the allele-specific expression of the disease......-associated Arg620Trp polymorphism is affected by cis-acting or sex-specific trans-acting factor/s (e.g. sex-hormones). The use of the allele-specific transcript quantification of the Arg620Trp encoding 1858T polymorphism revealed no difference in the expression of the 1858C- and T-alleles in non...... and 72 h of activation, respectively, the expression of PTPN22 1858C- and T-alleles increased to the same extent (P=0.64). The present result essentially excludes such phenomena as a partial explanation for the female predominance in most of the autoimmune disorders that associate with the PTPN22 Trp620...

  18. Positional preferences of acetyl esterases from different CE families towards acetylated 4-O-methyl glucuronic acid-substituted xylo-oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumüller, K.G.; Carvalho de Souza, A.; Rijn, van J.H.J.; Streekstra, H.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Acetylation of the xylan backbone restricts the hydrolysis of plant poly- and oligosaccharides by hemicellulolytic enzyme preparations to constituent monosaccharides. The positional preferences and deacetylation efficiencies of acetyl esterases from seven different carbohydrate esterase

  19. Diversity of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase Mutations in Resistant Lolium Populations: Evaluation Using Clethodim1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Collavo, Alberto; Zheng, Ming-Qi; Owen, Mechelle; Sattin, Maurizio; Powles, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    The acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting cyclohexanedione herbicide clethodim is used to control grass weeds infesting dicot crops. In Australia clethodim is widely used to control the weed Lolium rigidum. However, clethodim-resistant Lolium populations have appeared over the last 5 years and now are present in many populations across the western Australian wheat (Triticum aestivum) belt. An aspartate-2078-glycine (Gly) mutation in the plastidic ACCase enzyme has been identified as the only known mutation endowing clethodim resistance. Here, with 14 clethodim-resistant Lolium populations we revealed diversity and complexity in the molecular basis of resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides (clethodim in particular). Several known ACCase mutations (isoleucine-1781-leucine [Leu], tryptophan-2027-cysteine [Cys], isoleucine-2041-asparagine, and aspartate-2078-Gly) and in particular, a new mutation of Cys to arginine at position 2088, were identified in plants surviving the Australian clethodim field rate (60 g ha−1). Twelve combination patterns of mutant alleles were revealed in relation to clethodim resistance. Through a molecular, biochemical, and biological approach, we established that the mutation 2078-Gly or 2088-arginine endows sufficient level of resistance to clethodim at the field rate, and in addition, combinations of two mutant 1781-Leu alleles, or two different mutant alleles (i.e. 1781-Leu/2027-Cys, 1781-Leu/2041-asparagine), also confer clethodim resistance. Plants homozygous for the mutant 1781, 2078, or 2088 alleles were found to be clethodim resistant and cross resistant to a number of other ACCase inhibitor herbicides including clodinafop, diclofop, fluazifop, haloxyfop, butroxydim, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, and pinoxaden. We established that the specific mutation, the homo/heterozygous status of a plant for a specific mutation, and combinations of different resistant alleles plus herbicide rates all are important in contributing to

  20. Modification of oil palm wood using acetylation and impregnation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagiyo, Lambang; Rosamah, Enih; Hesim

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is chemical modification by process of acetylation and impregnation of oil palm wood to improve the dimensional stability. Acetylation process aimed at substituting the hydroxyl groups in a timber with an acetyl group. By increasing the acetyl groups in wood is expected to reduce the ability of wood to absorb water vapor which lead to the dimensions of the wood becomes more stable. Studies conducted on oil palm wood (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) by acetylation and impregnation method. The results showed that acetylated and impregnated wood oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq) were changed in their physical properties. Impregnation with coal ashfly provide the greatest response to changes in weight (in wet conditions) and after conditioning (dry) with the average percentage of weight gain of 198.16% and 66.41% respectively. Changes in volume indicates an increase of volume in the wet condition (imbibition) with the coal ashfly treatment gave highest value of 23.04 %, whereas after conditioning (dry) the highest value obtained in the treatment of gum rosin:ethanol with a volume increase of 13:44%. The highest changes of the density with the coal ashfly impregnation in wet condition (imbibition) in value of 142.32% and after conditioning (dry) of 57.87%. The result of reduction in water absorption (RWA) test showed that in the palm oil wood samples most stable by using of gum rosin : ethanol of 0.97%, whereas the increase in oil palm wood dimensional stability (ASE) is the best of 59.42% after acetylation with Acetic Anhydride: Xylene.

  1. Forensic Loci Allele Database (FLAD): Automatically generated, permanent identifiers for sequenced forensic alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Christophe; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to predict if and when massively parallel sequencing of forensic STR loci will replace capillary electrophoresis as the new standard technology in forensic genetics. The main benefits of sequencing are increased multiplexing scales and SNP detection. There is not yet a consensus on how sequenced profiles should be reported. We present the Forensic Loci Allele Database (FLAD) service, made freely available on http://forensic.ugent.be/FLAD/. It offers permanent identifiers for sequenced forensic alleles (STR or SNP) and their microvariants for use in forensic allele nomenclature. Analogous to Genbank, its aim is to provide permanent identifiers for forensically relevant allele sequences. Researchers that are developing forensic sequencing kits or are performing population studies, can register on http://forensic.ugent.be/FLAD/ and add loci and allele sequences with a short and simple application interface (API). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Limited efficacy of hydroxyurea in lowering of the JAK2 V617F allele burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Pallisgaard, Niels; de Stricker, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Besides being an invaluable marker of clonal disease in chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPDs), the JAK2 V617F mutation and the mutated allele burden have an impact on disease phenotype and may provide information on prognosis. Recently, hydroxyurea (HU) has been shown to induce a rapid...... decline in the JAK2 V617F allele burden. The aim of the present study was to assess the dynamics of the JAK2 V617F allele burden during long-term treatment with HU in a series of patients with CMPDs. The JAK2 V617F allele burden was determined by quantitative PCR in 24 patients of whom 17 received HU......, four received anagrelide and three were followed without any cytoreductive therapy. During a median follow-up of 24.2 months, no significant reductions in the JAK2 V617F allele burden were seen in patients treated with HU. We conclude that HU has only a limited effect on the JAK2 V617F allele burden...

  3. Multiple phosphoglucomutase alleles in Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, H S; Chan, K L; Dhaliwal, S S; Burton, J J; Cheong, W H; Mak, J W

    1980-09-15

    Multiple phosphoglucomutase (E.C. 2.7.5.1) alleles are found in the mosquito Toxorhynchites splendens. The sample studied reveals 3 Pgm alleles whose frequencies are in good accord with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The most frequent allele is that controlling a phenotype with an intermediate electrophoretic mobility. Each Pgm allele determines a two-band electrophoretic pattern.

  4. Targeting O-Acetyl-GD2 Ganglioside for Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Fleurence

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Target selection is a key feature in cancer immunotherapy, a promising field in cancer research. In this respect, gangliosides, a broad family of structurally related glycolipids, were suggested as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy based on their higher abundance in tumors when compared with the matched normal tissues. GD2 is the first ganglioside proven to be an effective target antigen for cancer immunotherapy with the regulatory approval of dinutuximab, a chimeric anti-GD2 therapeutic antibody. Although the therapeutic efficacy of anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies is well documented, neuropathic pain may limit its application. O-Acetyl-GD2, the O-acetylated-derivative of GD2, has recently received attention as novel antigen to target GD2-positive cancers. The present paper examines the role of O-acetyl-GD2 in tumor biology as well as the available preclinical data of anti-O-acetyl-GD2 monoclonal antibodies. A discussion on the relevance of O-acetyl-GD2 in chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy development is also included.

  5. Relationship of histone acetylation to DNA topology and transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, W A; Luchnik, A N

    1991-12-01

    An autonomously replicating plasmid constructed from bovine papiloma virus (BPV) and pBR322 was stably maintained as a nuclear episome in a mouse cell culture. Addition to a cell culture of sodium butyrate (5 mM) induced an increase in plasmid DNA supercoiling of 3-5 turns, an increase in acetylation of cellular histones, and a decrease in plasmid transcription by 2- to 4-fold. After withdrawal of butyrate, DNA supercoiling began to fluctuate in a wave-like manner with an amplitude of up to 3 turns and a period of 3-4 h. These waves gradually faded by 24 h. The transcription of the plasmid and acetylation of cellular histones also oscillated with the same period. The wave-like alterations were not correlated with the cell cycle, for there was no resumption of DNA replication after butyrate withdrawal for at least 24 h. In vitro chemical acetylation of histones with acetyl adenylate also led to an increase in the superhelical density of plasmid DNA. The parallel changes in transcription, histone acetylation, and DNA supercoiling in vivo may indicate a functional innerconnection. Also, the observed in vivo variation in the level of DNA supercoiling directly indicates the possibility of its natural regulation in eukaryotic cells.

  6. Diversity of Lactase Persistence Alleles in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, BL; Raga, TO; Liebert, Anke

    2013-01-01

    The persistent expression of lactase into adulthood in humans is a recent genetic adaptation that allows the consumption of milk from other mammals after weaning. In Europe, a single allele (−13910∗T, rs4988235) in an upstream region that acts as an enhancer to the expression of the lactase gene ...

  7. Paul Joyce and the infinite alleles model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Stephen M

    2017-10-14

    Paul Joyce's work touched on a variety of topics in population genetics-from mathematical models of idealized systems to working closely with biologists on experimental evolution and landscape genetics. I will focus on his earlier mathematical/statistical work that centered on the infinite alleles model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatiotemporal allele organization by allele-specific CRISPR live-cell imaging (SNP-CLING).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Philipp G; Barutcu, A Rasim; Shechner, David M; Weiner, Catherine L; Melé, Marta; Rinn, John L

    2018-02-01

    Imaging and chromatin capture techniques have provided important insights into our understanding of nuclear organization. A limitation of these techniques is the inability to resolve allele-specific spatiotemporal properties of genomic loci in living cells. Here, we describe an allele-specific CRISPR live-cell DNA imaging technique (SNP-CLING) to provide the first comprehensive insights into allelic positioning across space and time in mouse embryonic stem cells and fibroblasts. With 3D imaging, we studied alleles on different chromosomes in relation to one another and relative to nuclear substructures such as the nucleolus. We find that alleles maintain similar positions relative to each other and the nucleolus; however, loci occupy unique positions. To monitor spatiotemporal dynamics by SNP-CLING, we performed 4D imaging and determined that alleles are either stably positioned or fluctuating during cell state transitions, such as apoptosis. SNP-CLING is a universally applicable technique that enables the dissection of allele-specific spatiotemporal genome organization in live cells.

  9. Hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI Down-Regulates Acetylation of Histone H4 at Lysine 16 through Induction of Stressor Protein Nupr1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danqi Chen

    Full Text Available The environmental and occupational carcinogen Hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI has been shown to cause lung cancer in humans when inhaled. In spite of a considerable research effort, the mechanisms of Cr(VI-induced carcinogenesis remain largely unknown. Nupr1 (nuclear protein 1 is a small, highly basic, and unfolded protein with molecular weight of 8,800 daltons and is induced by a variety of stressors. Studies in animal models have suggested that Nupr1 is a key factor in the development of lung and pancreatic cancers, with little known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here we report that the level of Nupr1 is significantly increased in human bronchial epithelial BEAS2B cells following exposure to Cr(VI through epigenetic mechanisms. Interestingly, Cr(VI exposure also results in the loss of acetylation at histone H4K16, which is considered a 'hallmark' of human cancer. Cr(VI-induced reduction of H4K16 acetylation appears to be caused by the induction of Nupr1, since (a overexpression of Nupr1 decreased the levels of both H4K16 acetylation and the histone acetyltransferase MOF (male absent on the first; also known as Kat8, Myst 1, which specifically acetylates H4K16; (b the loss of acetylation of H4K16 upon Cr(VI exposure is greatly compromised by knockdown of Nupr1. Moreover, Nupr1-induced reduction of H4K16 acetylation correlates with the transcriptional down-regulation at several genomic loci. Notably, overexpression of Nupr1 induces anchorage-independent cell growth and knockdown of Nupr1 expression prevents Cr(VI-induced cell transformation. We propose that Cr(VI induces Nupr1 and rapidly perturbs gene expression by downregulating H4K16 acetylation, thereby contributing to Cr(VI-induced carcinogenesis.

  10. Phosphorylation and Acetylation of Acyl-CoA Synthetase- I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frahm, Jennifer L; Li, Lei O; Grevengoed, Trisha J

    2011-01-01

    -translational regulation. In order to investigate the post-translational modifications of ACSL1 under different physiological conditions, we overexpressed ACSL1 in hepatocytes, brown adipocytes, and 3T3-L1 differentiated adipocytes, treated these cells with different hormones, and analyzed the resulting phosphorylated...... and acetylated amino acids by mass spectrometry. We then compared these results to the post-translational modifications observed in vivo in liver and brown adipose tissue after mice were fasted or exposed to a cold environment. We identified universal N-terminal acetylation, 15 acetylated lysines, and 25......-translationally. Several of these modifications would be expected to alter enzymatic function, but others may affect protein stability or protein-protein interactions....

  11. Estimating the probability of allelic drop-out of STR alleles in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2009-01-01

    In crime cases with available DNA evidence, the amount of DNA is often sparse due to the setting of the crime. In such cases, allelic drop-out of one or more true alleles in STR typing is possible. We present a statistical model for estimating the per locus and overall probability of allelic drop......-out using the results of all STR loci in the case sample as reference. The methodology of logistic regression is appropriate for this analysis, and we demonstrate how to incorporate this in a forensic genetic framework....

  12. Allele-specific programming of Npy and epigenetic effects of physical activity in a genetic model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melas, P A; Lennartsson, A; Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, H; Wei, Y; Åberg, E; Werme, M; Rogdaki, M; Mannervik, M; Wegener, G; Brené, S; Mathé, A A; Lavebratt, C

    2013-05-07

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated in depression, emotional processing and stress response. Part of this evidence originates from human single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) studies. In the present study, we report that a SNP in the rat Npy promoter (C/T; rs105431668) affects in vitro transcription and DNA-protein interactions. Genotyping studies showed that the C-allele of rs105431668 is present in a genetic rat model of depression (Flinders sensitive line; FSL), while the SNP's T-allele is present in its controls (Flinders resistant line; FRL). In vivo experiments revealed binding of a transcription factor (CREB2) and a histone acetyltransferase (Ep300) only at the SNP locus of the FRL. Accordingly, the FRL had increased hippocampal levels of Npy mRNA and H3K18 acetylation; a gene-activating histone modification maintained by Ep300. Next, based on previous studies showing antidepressant-like effects of physical activity in the FSL, we hypothesized that physical activity may affect Npy's epigenetic status. In line with this assumption, physical activity was associated with increased levels of Npy mRNA and H3K18 acetylation. Physical activity was also associated with reduced mRNA levels of a histone deacetylase (Hdac5). Conclusively, the rat rs105431668 appears to be a functional Npy SNP that may underlie depression-like characteristics. In addition, the achieved epigenetic reprogramming of Npy provides molecular support for the putative effectiveness of physical activity as a non-pharmacological antidepressant.

  13. Potentiometric studies of Nickel (II) and copper (II) acetyl acetonato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potentiometric studies of Nickel (II) and copper (II) acetyl acetonato complexes. HN Aliyu, A Mustapha. Abstract. The dissociation constant pKa of acetylacetone has been determined potentiometrically. The pKa value obtained is 9.40, indicating a weak acid. The stability constants of the complex compounds formed from the ...

  14. Ethanol intoxication increases hepatic N-lysyl protein acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklo, Matthew J

    2008-11-21

    The acetylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine to form N-acetyl lysine (N-AcLys)-modified proteins regulates the activity of metabolic proteins. Because of the multiple effects of ethanol upon hepatic metabolism, it was hypothesized that ethanol exposure increases the hepatic content of N-AcLys-modified proteins. To test this hypothesis, rats or mice were exposed to ethanol using a liquid diet regimen. Content of N-AcLys-modified proteins was elevated more than 5-fold after 6 weeks of ethanol exposure and persisted after ethanol withdrawal. Use of CYP2E1-knockout mice demonstrated that ethanol-induced acetylation was not dependent solely on CYP2E1 expression. The mitochondrial content of N-AcLys-modified proteins was elevated almost 5-fold following 6 weeks of ethanol exposure. Mitochondrial content of the deacetylase Sirt3 was unchanged by 6 weeks of ethanol exposure. These data indicate ethanol intoxication changes the acetylation status of, and likely the activity of, multiple mitochondrial proteins.

  15. Determination of NAT2 acetylation status in the Greenlandic population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geller, Frank; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is a well-studied phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme relevant in drug metabolism and cancerogenesis. NAT2 activity is largely determined by genetic polymorphisms in the coding region of the corresponding gene. We investigated NAT2 acetylation status in 1556 indiv...

  16. Page 1 Acetylation of Phenols Using Acetic Acid 351 Resorcinol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and 12g of glacial acetic acid, only 15g. of diacetyl resorcinol, boiling at. 278° C., was obtained. Since there was the chance for mono-acetylation also to take place, the alkaline extract from the ethereal Solution containing the reaction products was diluted with water to 200 c.c., acidified with hydrochloric acid and then.

  17. Effect Of Nicotine And Tobacco Consumption On Brain Acetyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of nicotine and tobacco consumption on brain acetyl cholinesterase and serum alkaline phosphatase in rats was studied. Rats were divided into three groups and the first group was fed rat chow and water ad libitum and an oral administration of 2ml of 0.1%(v/v) nicotine per 100g body weight of rats per day.

  18. Determination of Isoniazid Acetylator Phenotype and its Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose was to determine the normal profile of the isoniazid acetylator phenotype, the effect of tuberculosis (TB) on the profile, and the impact of the profile on early clinical responses following a treatment with the first line drug regimen. The study sample comprised 20 healthy volunteers and 22 TB naive patients.

  19. Acetylated starch of Ofada rice as a sustained polymer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acetylated starches with degrees of substitution (DS) of > 2 have been found suitable for sustained release applications because of their hydrophobic nature and thermoplasticity. The short half-life and high dosing frequency of repaglinide make it an ideal candidate for sustained release. Objectives: To ...

  20. Targeting Histone Acetylation: Readers and Writers in Leukemia and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Christopher B; Fiskus, Warren; Bhalla, Kapil N

    Chromatin packaging of DNA provides a framework for transcriptional regulation. Modifications to DNA and histone proteins in nucleosomes lead to conformational changes, alterations in the recruitment of transcriptional complexes, and ultimately modulation of gene expression. We provide a focused review of control mechanisms that help modulate the activation and deactivation of gene transcription specifically through histone acetylation writers and readers in cancer. The chemistry of these modifications is subject to clinically actionable targeting, including state-of-the-art strategies to inhibit basic oncogenic mechanisms related to histone acetylation. Although discussed in the context of acute leukemia, the concepts of acetylation writers and readers are not cell-type-specific and are generalizable to other cancers. We review the challenges and resistance mechanisms encountered to date in the development of such therapeutics and postulate how such challenges may be overcome. Because these fundamental cellular mechanisms are dysregulated in cancer biology, continued research and in-depth understanding of histone acetylation reading and writing are desired to further define optimal therapeutic strategies to affect gene activity to target cancer effectively.

  1. Acetylation of wood components and fourier transform infra-red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... Acetylation of wood components and fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy studies. Nihat Sami Cetin* and Nilgul Ozmen. Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey. Accepted 21 March, 2011. In this study, the reactivity of wood components with acetic anhydride ...

  2. Mitochondrial acetyl-CoA utilization pathway for terpenoid productions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jifeng; Ching, Chi-Bun

    2016-11-01

    Acetyl-CoA is a central molecule in the metabolism of the cell, which is also a precursor molecule to a variety of value-added products such as terpenoids and fatty acid derived molecules. Considering subcellular compartmentalization of metabolic pathways allows higher concentrations of enzymes, substrates and intermediates, and bypasses competing pathways, mitochondrion-compartmentalized acetyl-CoA utilization pathways might offer better pathway activities with improved product yields. As a proof-of-concept, we sought to explore a mitochondrial farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) biosynthetic pathway for the biosynthesis of amorpha-4,11-diene in budding yeast. In the present study, the eight-gene FPP biosynthetic pathway was successfully expressed inside yeast mitochondria to enable high-level amorpha-4,11-diene production. In addition, we also found the mitochondrial compartment serves as a partial barrier for the translocation of FPP from mitochondria into the cytosol, which would potentially allow minimized loss of FPP to cytosolic competing pathways. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to harness yeast mitochondria for terpenoid productions from the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA pool. We envision subcellular metabolic engineering might also be employed for an efficient production of other bio-products from the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA in other eukaryotic organisms. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The potential role of wood acetylation in climate change mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Lugt, P.; Vogtländer, J.G.; Alexander, J.; Bongers, F.; Stebbins, H.

    2014-01-01

    In a carbon footprint assessment, the greenhouse gas emissions during the life cycle of a material can be measured, and compared to alternative products in terms of kg CO2 equivalent. If applied correctly, wood acetylation opens up a range of new innovative applications in which high performance yet

  4. Efficient acetylation of primary amines and amino acids in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    moderately reactive acetic anhydride2 is the reagent of choice for this purpose, even though this reagent itself is often prepared from acetyl chloride.3 A num- ber of conditions including aqueous medium have been put forward for the acylation of amines using acetic anhydride, such as, acetic anhydride in acetic acid,3.

  5. Evaluation of the Effect of Acetylation and Oxidation on Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations were observed in the functional properties of the starch as swelling power ranged from 10.3-10.9, solubility index 6.2-7.6% and apparent amylase content 16.05-21.02%. Oxidized starch showed higher paste clarity than the acetylated and native starches at pH 12. The paste clarity of both native and modified ...

  6. Acetylation of wood components and fourier transform infra-red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the reactivity of wood components with acetic anhydride or vinyl acetate was studied. It was found that the reactivity of wood components was virgin wood flour > holocellulose >> a-cellulose. Acetylation of Turkish pine or cedar wood flour with acetic anhydride was significantly improved in the presence of ...

  7. DNA Damage-Induced Acetylation of Lysine 3016 of ATM Activates ATM Kinase Activity▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yingli; Ye XU; Roy, Kanaklata; Price, Brendan D

    2007-01-01

    The ATM protein kinase is essential for cells to repair and survive genotoxic events. The activation of ATM's kinase activity involves acetylation of ATM by the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase. In this study, systematic mutagenesis of lysine residues was used to identify regulatory ATM acetylation sites. The results identify a single acetylation site at lysine 3016, which is located in the highly conserved C-terminal FATC domain adjacent to the kinase domain. Antibodies specific for acetyl-ly...

  8. Evolutionary dynamics of sporophytic self-incompatibility alleles in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Vekemans, X; Christiansen, F B

    1997-01-01

    The stationary frequency distribution and allelic dynamics in finite populations are analyzed through stochastic simulations in three models of single-locus, multi-allelic sporophytic self-incompatibility. The models differ in the dominance relationships among alleles. In one model, alleles act...... of gametophytic self-incompatibility, but the selection intensity is stronger. With dominance, dominant alleles invade the population more easily than recessive alleles and have a lower frequency at equilibrium. In the SSIdom model, recessive alleles have both a higher allele frequency and higher expected life...... is closely approximated by a random walk on a dominance ladder. Implications of the results for experimental studies of sporophytic self-incompatibility in natural populations are discussed. Udgivelsesdato: 1997-Oct...

  9. Allele specific expression and methylation in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Lonsdale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The social hymenoptera are emerging as models for epigenetics. DNA methylation, the addition of a methyl group, is a common epigenetic marker. In mammals and flowering plants methylation affects allele specific expression. There is contradictory evidence for the role of methylation on allele specific expression in social insects. The aim of this paper is to investigate allele specific expression and monoallelic methylation in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. We found nineteen genes that were both monoallelically methylated and monoallelically expressed in a single bee. Fourteen of these genes express the hypermethylated allele, while the other five express the hypomethylated allele. We also searched for allele specific expression in twenty-nine published RNA-seq libraries. We found 555 loci with allele-specific expression. We discuss our results with reference to the functional role of methylation in gene expression in insects and in the as yet unquantified role of genetic cis effects in insect allele specific methylation and expression.

  10. Allele-specific KRT1 expression is a complex trait

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tao, Heng; Cox, David R; Frazer, Kelly A

    2006-01-01

    ... responsible for allele-specific expression differences. We have used a variety of experimental approaches to identify and characterize cis-regulatory polymorphisms responsible for the extreme allele-specific expression differences of keratin-1 (KRT1...

  11. The Acetyl Group Buffering Action of Carnitine Acetyltransferase Offsets Macronutrient-Induced Lysine Acetylation of Mitochondrial Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Davies

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation (AcK, a posttranslational modification wherein a two-carbon acetyl group binds covalently to a lysine residue, occurs prominently on mitochondrial proteins and has been linked to metabolic dysfunction. An emergent theory suggests mitochondrial AcK occurs via mass action rather than targeted catalysis. To test this hypothesis, we performed mass spectrometry-based acetylproteomic analyses of quadriceps muscles from mice with skeletal muscle-specific deficiency of carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT, an enzyme that buffers the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA pool by converting short-chain acyl-CoAs to their membrane permeant acylcarnitine counterparts. CrAT deficiency increased tissue acetyl-CoA levels and susceptibility to diet-induced AcK of broad-ranging mitochondrial proteins, coincident with diminished whole body glucose control. Sub-compartment acetylproteome analyses of muscles from obese mice and humans showed remarkable overrepresentation of mitochondrial matrix proteins. These findings reveal roles for CrAT and L-carnitine in modulating the muscle acetylproteome and provide strong experimental evidence favoring the nonenzymatic carbon pressure model of mitochondrial AcK.

  12. Reduced Wall Acetylation Proteins Play Vital and Distinct Roles in Cell Wall O-Acetylation in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Gille, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    , triple, and quadruple loss-of-function mutants of all four members of the RWA family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In contrast to rwa2, the triple and quadruple rwa mutants display severe growth phenotypes revealing the importance of wall acetylation for plant growth and development...

  13. Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis of Lysine Acetylation in the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and highly conserved post-translational modification that plays a critical role in regulating diverse cellular processes. Trichinella spiralis is a foodborne parasite with a considerable socio-economic impact. However, to date, little is known regarding the role of lysine acetylation in this parasitic nematode. In this study, we utilized a proteomic approach involving anti-acetyl lysine-based enrichment and highly sensitive mass spectrometry to identify the global acetylated proteome and investigate lysine acetylation in T. spiralis. In total, 3872 lysine modification sites were identified in 1592 proteins that are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Consistent with the results of previous studies, a large number of the acetylated proteins appear to be involved in metabolic and biosynthetic processes. Interestingly, according to the functional enrichment analysis, 29 acetylated proteins were associated with phagocytosis, suggesting an important role of lysine acetylation in this process. Among the identified proteins, 15 putative acetylation motifs were detected. The presence of serine downstream of the lysine acetylation site was commonly observed in the regions surrounding the sites. Moreover, protein interaction network analysis revealed that various interactions are regulated by protein acetylation. These data represent the first report of the acetylome of T. spiralis and provide an important resource for further explorations of the role of lysine acetylation in this foodborne pathogen.

  14. DMPD: Acetylation of MKP-1 and the control of inflammation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18922786 Acetylation of MKP-1 and the control of inflammation. Chi H, Flavell RA. S...ci Signal. 2008 Oct 14;1(41):pe44. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Acetylation of MKP-1 and the control of inflammation.... PubmedID 18922786 Title Acetylation of MKP-1 and the control of inflammation. Authors Chi H,

  15. Proteomic analysis of lysine acetylation sites in rat tissues reveals organ specificity and subcellular patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Hansen, Kasper Lage; Weinert, Brian Tate

    2012-01-01

    that the subcellular acetylation distribution is tissue-type dependent and that acetylation targets tissue-specific pathways involved in fundamental physiological processes. We compare lysine acetylation patterns for rat as well as human skeletal muscle biopsies and demonstrate its general involvement in muscle...

  16. Allele-Specific KRT1 Expression Is a Complex Trait

    OpenAIRE

    Heng Tao; David R Cox; Frazer, Kelly A

    2006-01-01

    The differential expression of alleles occurs commonly in humans and is likely an important genetic factor underlying heritable differences in phenotypic traits. Understanding the molecular basis of allelic expression differences is thus an important challenge. Although many genes have been shown to display differential allelic expression, this is the first study to examine in detail the cumulative effects of multiple cis-regulatory polymorphisms responsible for allele-specific expression dif...

  17. Sequential Dy(OTf)3-Catalyzed Solvent-Free Per-O-Acetylation and Regioselective Anomeric De-O-Acetylation of Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yi-Ling; Guo, Jiun-Rung; Liang, Chien-Fu

    2017-09-19

    Dysprosium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate-catalyzed per-O-acetylation and regioselective anomeric de-O-acetylation of carbohydrates can be tuned by adjusting the reaction medium. In this study, the per-O-acetylation of unprotected sugars by using a near-stoichiometric amount of acetic anhydride under solvent-free conditions resulted in the exclusive formation of acetylated saccharides as anomeric mixtures, whereas anomeric de-O-acetylation in methanol resulted in a moderate-to-excellent yield. Reactions with various unprotected monosaccharides or disaccharides followed by a semi-one-pot sequential conversion into the corresponding acetylated glycosyl hemiacetal also resulted in high yields. Furthermore, the obtained hemiacetals could be successfully transformed into trichloroimidates after Dy(OTf) 3 -catalyzed glycosylation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Allelic variation of the ACCase gene and response to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in pinoxaden-resistant Lolium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarabel, Laura; Panozzo, Silvia; Varotto, Serena; Sattin, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    The repeated use of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibiting herbicides to control grass weeds has selected for resistance in Lolium spp. populations in Italy. The efficacy of pinoxaden, a recently marketed phenylpyrazoline herbicide, is of concern where resistance to ACCase inhibitors has already been ascertained. ACCase mutations associated with pinoxaden resistance were investigated, and the cross-resistance pattern to clodinafop, haloxyfop, sethoxydim, clethodim and pinoxaden was established on homo/heterozygous plants for four mutant ACCase alleles. Seven different mutant ACCase alleles (1781-Leu, 1999-Leu, 2041-Asn, 2041-Val, 2078-Gly, 2088-Arg and 2096-Ala) and 13 combinations with two types of mutation were detected in the pinoxaden-resistant plants. The 1781-Leu allele appears to confer a dominant resistance to pinoxaden, clodinafop, haloxyfop, sethoxydim and clethodim at 60 g AI ha(-1) . The 2041-Asn and 2041-Val alleles are associated with dominant or partially dominant resistance to FOPs, no substantial resistance to DIMs and a moderate resistance to pinoxaden. The 2088-Arg allele endows a partially dominant resistance to clodinafop, sethoxydim and most likely to pinoxaden. In addition, non-target-site resistance mechanisms seem to be involved in pinoxaden resistance. Almost all the ACCase mutations selected in the field by other ACCase inhibitors are likely to confer resistance to pinoxaden. Although pinoxaden is sometimes able to control FOP-resistant populations, it should not be considered as a sustainable ACCase resistance management tool. The presence of non-ACCase-based resistance mechanisms that could confer resistance to herbicides with different modes of action further complicates the resistance management strategies. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Borrowed alleles and convergence in serpentine adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Brian J; Lahner, Brett; DaCosta, Jeffrey M; Weisman, Caroline M; Hollister, Jesse D; Salt, David E; Bomblies, Kirsten; Yant, Levi

    2016-07-19

    Serpentine barrens represent extreme hazards for plant colonists. These sites are characterized by high porosity leading to drought, lack of essential mineral nutrients, and phytotoxic levels of metals. Nevertheless, nature forged populations adapted to these challenges. Here, we use a population-based evolutionary genomic approach coupled with elemental profiling to assess how autotetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa adapted to a multichallenge serpentine habitat in the Austrian Alps. We first demonstrate that serpentine-adapted plants exhibit dramatically altered elemental accumulation levels in common conditions, and then resequence 24 autotetraploid individuals from three populations to perform a genome scan. We find evidence for highly localized selective sweeps that point to a polygenic, multitrait basis for serpentine adaptation. Comparing our results to a previous study of independent serpentine colonizations in the closely related diploid Arabidopsis lyrata in the United Kingdom and United States, we find the highest levels of differentiation in 11 of the same loci, providing candidate alleles for mediating convergent evolution. This overlap between independent colonizations in different species suggests that a limited number of evolutionary strategies are suited to overcome the multiple challenges of serpentine adaptation. Interestingly, we detect footprints of selection in A. arenosa in the context of substantial gene flow from nearby off-serpentine populations of A. arenosa, as well as from A. lyrata In several cases, quantitative tests of introgression indicate that some alleles exhibiting strong selective sweep signatures appear to have been introgressed from A. lyrata This finding suggests that migrant alleles may have facilitated adaptation of A. arenosa to this multihazard environment.

  20. Inheritance of allelic blueprints for methylation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A J; White, R

    1988-07-15

    We have developed a strategy to distinguish between the methylation patterns of homologous chromosomes in tissues, and to follow these patterns in human pedigrees. This genetic approach uncovered evidence of variation in the methylation of allelic sites on homologous chromosomes. This variation was tissue-specific and reproducible after transmission through the germ line, demonstrating that homologous chromosomes have distinct blueprints for the tissue-specific regulation of methylation. Furthermore, this approach can be used to study the relationship between parental imprinting and methylation in native mammalian loci.

  1. [An allelism test for quantitative trait genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiriaev, A V

    2011-04-01

    Analytical modeling has been used to test assumptions on the mode of inheritance of a quantitative trait in the course of diallel crossing between pure strains that are sufficient for adequacy of a simple regression model. This model frequently proved to be adequate in analysis of numerous data on diallel crossings of wheat and maize. An allelism test for quantitative trait genes has been suggested. Computer simulation has been used to estimate the effect of random experimental errors and deviations from the suggested model.

  2. Allelic genealogies in sporophytic self-incompatibility systems in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Vekemans, X; Christiansen, F B

    1998-01-01

    Expectations for the time scale and structure of allelic genealogies in finite populations are formed under three models of sporophytic self-incompatibility. The models differ in the dominance interactions among the alleles that determine the self-incompatibility phenotype: In the SSIcod model...... action, and the most recessive extant allele is likely to be the most recent common ancestor. Despite these asymmetries, the expected shape of the allele genealogies does not deviate markedly from the shape of a neutral gene genealogy. The application of the results to sequence surveys of alleles...

  3. Structures of aminoacylase 3 in complex with acetylated substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jennifer M.; Tsirulnikov, Kirill; Sawaya, Michael R.; Magilnick, Nathaniel; Abuladze, Natalia; Kurtz, Ira; Abramson, Jeff; Pushkin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most widespread environmental contaminants, which is metabolized to N-acetyl-S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-l-cysteine (NA-DCVC) before being excreted in the urine. Alternatively, NA-DCVC can be deacetylated by aminoacylase 3 (AA3), an enzyme that is highly expressed in the kidney, liver, and brain. NA-DCVC deacetylation initiates the transformation into toxic products that ultimately causes acute renal failure. AA3 inhibition is therefore a target of interest to prevent TCE induced nephrotoxicity. Here we report the crystal structure of recombinant mouse AA3 (mAA3) in the presence of its acetate byproduct and two substrates: Nα-acetyl-l-tyrosine and NA-DCVC. These structures, in conjunction with biochemical data, indicated that AA3 mediates substrate specificity through van der Waals interactions providing a dynamic interaction interface, which facilitates a diverse range of substrates. PMID:20921362

  4. The acetyl code in rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolilli, Chiara; Baeten, Dominique L; Radstake, Timothy R; Reedquist, Kris A

    2017-04-01

    Growing evidence supports the idea that aberrancies in epigenetic processes contribute to the onset and progression of human immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Epigenetic regulators of histone tail modifications play a role in chromatin accessibility and transcriptional responses to inflammatory stimuli. Among these, histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate the acetylation status of histones and nonhistone proteins, essential for immune responses. Broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitors are well-known anti-inflammatory agents and reduce disease severity in animal models of arthritis; however, selective HDAC inhibitors remain poorly studied. In this review, we describe emerging findings regarding the aberrant acetyl code in RA and other rheumatic disorders which may help identify not only novel diagnostic and prognostic clinical biomarkers for RA, but also new targets for epigenetic pharmacological applications.

  5. Acetylation site specificities of lysine deacetylase inhibitors in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schölz, Christian; Weinert, Brian Tate; Wagner, Sebastian A

    2015-01-01

    Lysine deacetylases inhibitors (KDACIs) are used in basic research, and many are being investigated in clinical trials for treatment of cancer and other diseases. However, their specificities in cells are incompletely characterized. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) to obtain...... acetylation signatures for 19 different KDACIs, covering all 18 human lysine deacetylases. Most KDACIs increased acetylation of a small, specific subset of the acetylome, including sites on histones and other chromatin-associated proteins. Inhibitor treatment combined with genetic deletion showed...... that the effects of the pan-sirtuin inhibitor nicotinamide are primarily mediated by SIRT1 inhibition. Furthermore, we confirmed that the effects of tubacin and bufexamac on cytoplasmic proteins result from inhibition of HDAC6. Bufexamac also triggered an HDAC6-independent, hypoxia-like response by stabilizing HIF...

  6. Ubiquitination of Notch1 is regulated by MAML1-mediated p300 acetylation of Notch1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popko-Scibor, Anita E.; Lindberg, Mikael J.; Hansson, Magnus L.; Holmlund, Teresa [Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Wallberg, Annika E., E-mail: Annika.Wallberg@ki.se [Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p300 acetylates conserved lysines within Notch1 C-terminal nuclear localization signal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAML1 and CSL, components of Notch transcription complex, increase Notch acetylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAML1-dependent acetylation of Notch1 by p300 decreases the ubiquitination of Notch1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDK8 inhibits Notch acetylation and Notch transcription enhanced by p300. -- Abstract: Earlier studies demonstrated the involvement of the p300 histone acetyltransferase in Notch signaling but the precise mechanisms by which p300 might modulate Notch function remains to be investigated. In this study, we show that p300 acetylates Notch1 ICD in cell culture assay and in vitro, and conserved lysines located within the Notch C-terminal nuclear localization signal are essential for Notch acetylation. MAML1 and CSL, which are components of the Notch transcription complex, enhance Notch acetylation and we suggest that MAML1 increases Notch acetylation by potentiating p300 autoacetylation. Furthermore, MAML1-dependent acetylation of Notch1 ICD by p300 decreases the ubiquitination of Notch1 ICD in cellular assays. CDK8 has been shown to target Notch1 for ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. We show that CDK8 inhibits Notch acetylation and Notch transcription enhanced by p300. Therefore, we speculate that acetylation of Notch1 might be a mechanism to regulate Notch activity by interfering with ubiquitin-dependent pathways.

  7. ACETYLATION INCREASES EWS-FLI1 DNA BINDING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke eSchlottmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ewing Sarcoma (ES is associated with a balanced chromosomal translocation that in most cases leads to the expression of the oncogenic fusion protein and transcription factor EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 has been shown to be crucial for ES cell survival and tumor growth. However, its regulation is still enigmatic. To date, no functionally significant posttranslational modifications of EWS-FLI1 have been shown. Since ES are sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibitors, and these inhibitors are advancing in clinical trials, we sought to identify if EWS-FLI1 is directly acetylated. We convincingly show acetylation of the C-terminal FLI1 (FLI1-CTD domain, which is the DNA binding domain of EWS-FLI1. In vitro acetylation studies showed that acetylated FLI1-CTD has higher DNA binding activity than the non-acetylated protein. Over-expression of PCAF or treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI increased the transcriptional activity of EWS-FLI1, when co-expressed in COS7 cells. However, our data that evaluates the acetylation of ful-length EWS-FLI1 remains unclear, despite creating acetylation specific antibodies to four potential acetylation sites. We conclude that EWS-FLI1 may either gain access to chromatin as a result of histone acetylation or undergo regulation by direct acetylation. These data should be considered when patients are treated with HDAC inhibitors. Further investigation of this phenomenon will reveal if this potential acetylation has an impact on tumor response.

  8. Stoichiometry of site-specific lysine acetylation in an entire proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Josue; Dowell, James A; Smallegan, Michael J; Fan, Jing; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Khan, Zia; Denu, John M

    2014-08-01

    Acetylation of lysine ϵ-amino groups influences many cellular processes and has been mapped to thousands of sites across many organisms. Stoichiometric information of acetylation is essential to accurately interpret biological significance. Here, we developed and employed a novel method for directly quantifying stoichiometry of site-specific acetylation in the entire proteome of Escherichia coli. By coupling isotopic labeling and a novel pairing algorithm, our approach performs an in silico enrichment of acetyl peptides, circumventing the need for immunoenrichment. We investigated the function of the sole NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, CobB, on both site-specific and global acetylation. We quantified 2206 peptides from 899 proteins and observed a wide distribution of acetyl stoichiometry, ranging from less than 1% up to 98%. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that metabolic enzymes, which either utilize or generate acetyl-CoA, and proteins involved in transcriptional and translational processes displayed the highest degree of acetylation. Loss of CobB led to increased global acetylation at low stoichiometry sites and induced site-specific changes at high stoichiometry sites, and biochemical analysis revealed altered acetyl-CoA metabolism. Thus, this study demonstrates that sirtuin deacetylase deficiency leads to both site-specific and global changes in protein acetylation stoichiometry, affecting central metabolism. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Stoichiometry of Site-specific Lysine Acetylation in an Entire Proteome*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Josue; Dowell, James A.; Smallegan, Michael J.; Fan, Jing; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Khan, Zia; Denu, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of lysine ϵ-amino groups influences many cellular processes and has been mapped to thousands of sites across many organisms. Stoichiometric information of acetylation is essential to accurately interpret biological significance. Here, we developed and employed a novel method for directly quantifying stoichiometry of site-specific acetylation in the entire proteome of Escherichia coli. By coupling isotopic labeling and a novel pairing algorithm, our approach performs an in silico enrichment of acetyl peptides, circumventing the need for immunoenrichment. We investigated the function of the sole NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, CobB, on both site-specific and global acetylation. We quantified 2206 peptides from 899 proteins and observed a wide distribution of acetyl stoichiometry, ranging from less than 1% up to 98%. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that metabolic enzymes, which either utilize or generate acetyl-CoA, and proteins involved in transcriptional and translational processes displayed the highest degree of acetylation. Loss of CobB led to increased global acetylation at low stoichiometry sites and induced site-specific changes at high stoichiometry sites, and biochemical analysis revealed altered acetyl-CoA metabolism. Thus, this study demonstrates that sirtuin deacetylase deficiency leads to both site-specific and global changes in protein acetylation stoichiometry, affecting central metabolism. PMID:24917678

  10. [Changes in chemistry component structure and microstructure characterization of acetylated wood before and after UV radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhan; Liu, Yi; Xing, Fang-Ru; Guo, Hong-Wu

    2014-11-01

    The poplar powder was acetylated with different duration as sample, processed ray radiation by using ultraviolet test box, contrasting the influences to lightfastness of wood with different acetylation degree, analyzing changing rules of characteristic peaks' intensity which belonged to the chemistry components of samples based on FTIR spectra, and the relationship between duration of acetylation and changes of chemistry components was established, The results showed that: Before UV radiation, the characteristic peaks' intensity of acetylated poplar powder at 1 739 cm(-1) which belonged to C = O in saturated esters compounds and 1 385 cm(-1) which belonged to C-H in acetate were higher than untreated ones', the poplar powder with 40 min's acetylation has the highest characteristic peaks' intensity, highest weight gain rate, remarkable acetylation effect; After UV radiation, characteristic peaks' intensity of Benzene at 1 504 cm(-1) which belonged to lignin of poplar powder was obviously higher than untreated ones', and characteristic peaks' intensity of poplar powder with 40 min's acetylation was the highest, this showed that acetylation could effectively reduce the light degradation of wood chemistry components, in order to improve the lightfastness, especially the poplar powder with 40 min's acetylation; SEM photos showed that, the fibrous surface of acetylated poplar powder was more smooth and had more narrow particle size than untreated ones', so acetylation can effectively improve the stability of wood.

  11. Demography can favour female-advantageous alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harts, Anna M F; Schwanz, Lisa E; Kokko, Hanna

    2014-09-07

    When female fecundity is relatively independent of male abundance, while male reproduction is proportional to female abundance, females have a larger effect on population dynamics than males (i.e. female demographic dominance). This population dynamic phenomenon might not appear to influence evolution, because male and female genomes still contribute equally much to the next generation. However, here we examine two evolutionary scenarios to provide a proof of principle that spatial structure can make female demographic dominance matter. Our two simulation models combine dispersal evolution with local adaptation subjected to intralocus sexual conflict and environmentally driven sex ratio biases, respectively. Both models have equilibria where one environment (without being intrinsically poorer) has so few reproductive females that trait evolution becomes disproportionately determined by those environments where females survive better (intralocus sexual conflict model), or where daughters are overproduced (environmental sex determination model). Surprisingly, however, the two facts that selection favours alleles that benefit females, and population growth is improved when female fitness is high, together do not imply that all measures of population performance are improved. The sex-specificity of the source-sink dynamics predicts that populations can evolve to fail to persist in habitats where alleles do poorly when expressed in females. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasminogen alleles influence susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee K Zaas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a common and life-threatening infection in immunocompromised individuals. A number of environmental and epidemiologic risk factors for developing IA have been identified. However, genetic factors that affect risk for developing IA have not been clearly identified. We report that host genetic differences influence outcome following establishment of pulmonary aspergillosis in an exogenously immune suppressed mouse model. Computational haplotype-based genetic analysis indicated that genetic variation within the biologically plausible positional candidate gene plasminogen (Plg; Gene ID 18855 correlated with murine outcome. There was a single nonsynonymous coding change (Gly110Ser where the minor allele was found in all of the susceptible strains, but not in the resistant strains. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (Asp472Asn was also identified in the human homolog (PLG; Gene ID 5340. An association study within a cohort of 236 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients revealed that alleles at this SNP significantly affected the risk of developing IA after HSCT. Furthermore, we demonstrated that plasminogen directly binds to Aspergillus fumigatus. We propose that genetic variation within the plasminogen pathway influences the pathogenesis of this invasive fungal infection.

  13. Allele-specific KRT1 expression is a complex trait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Tao

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The differential expression of alleles occurs commonly in humans and is likely an important genetic factor underlying heritable differences in phenotypic traits. Understanding the molecular basis of allelic expression differences is thus an important challenge. Although many genes have been shown to display differential allelic expression, this is the first study to examine in detail the cumulative effects of multiple cis-regulatory polymorphisms responsible for allele-specific expression differences. We have used a variety of experimental approaches to identify and characterize cis-regulatory polymorphisms responsible for the extreme allele-specific expression differences of keratin-1 (KRT1 in human white blood cells. The combined data from our analyses provide strong evidence that the KRT1 allelic expression differences result from the haplotypic combinations and interactions of five cis-regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs whose alleles differ in their affinity to bind transcription factors and modulate KRT1 promoter activity. Two of these cis-regulatory SNPs bind transcriptional activators with the alleles on the high-expressing KRT1 haplotype pattern having a higher affinity than the alleles on the low-expressing haplotype pattern. In contrast, the other three cis-regulatory SNPs bind transcriptional inhibitors with the alleles on the low-expressing haplotype pattern having a higher affinity than the alleles on the high-expressing haplotype pattern. Our study provides important new insights into the degree of complexity that the cis-regulatory sequences responsible for allele-specific transcriptional regulation have. These data suggest that allelic expression differences result from the cumulative contribution of multiple DNA sequence polymorphisms, with each having a small effect, and that allele-specific expression can thus be viewed as a complex trait.

  14. Allele-specific KRT1 expression is a complex trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Heng; Cox, David R; Frazer, Kelly A

    2006-06-01

    The differential expression of alleles occurs commonly in humans and is likely an important genetic factor underlying heritable differences in phenotypic traits. Understanding the molecular basis of allelic expression differences is thus an important challenge. Although many genes have been shown to display differential allelic expression, this is the first study to examine in detail the cumulative effects of multiple cis-regulatory polymorphisms responsible for allele-specific expression differences. We have used a variety of experimental approaches to identify and characterize cis-regulatory polymorphisms responsible for the extreme allele-specific expression differences of keratin-1 (KRT1) in human white blood cells. The combined data from our analyses provide strong evidence that the KRT1 allelic expression differences result from the haplotypic combinations and interactions of five cis-regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) whose alleles differ in their affinity to bind transcription factors and modulate KRT1 promoter activity. Two of these cis-regulatory SNPs bind transcriptional activators with the alleles on the high-expressing KRT1 haplotype pattern having a higher affinity than the alleles on the low-expressing haplotype pattern. In contrast, the other three cis-regulatory SNPs bind transcriptional inhibitors with the alleles on the low-expressing haplotype pattern having a higher affinity than the alleles on the high-expressing haplotype pattern. Our study provides important new insights into the degree of complexity that the cis-regulatory sequences responsible for allele-specific transcriptional regulation have. These data suggest that allelic expression differences result from the cumulative contribution of multiple DNA sequence polymorphisms, with each having a small effect, and that allele-specific expression can thus be viewed as a complex trait.

  15. EWSR1 regulates mitosis by dynamically influencing microtubule acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Long; Chen, Hui; Zhan, Yi-Qun; Yin, Rong-Hua; Li, Chang-Yan; Ge, Chang-Hui; Yu, Miao; Yang, Xiao-Ming

    2016-08-17

    EWSR1, participating in transcription and splicing, has been identified as a translocation partner for various transcription factors, resulting in translocation, which in turn plays crucial roles in tumorigenesis. Recent studies have investigated the role of EWSR1 in mitosis. However, the effect of EWSR1 on mitosis is poorly understood. Here, we observed that depletion of EWSR1 resulted in cell cycle arrest in the mitotic phase, mainly due to an increase in the time from nuclear envelope breakdown to metaphase, resulting in a high percentage of unaligned chromosomes and multipolar spindles. We also demonstrated that EWSR1 is a spindle-associated protein that interacts with α-tubulin during mitosis. EWSR1 depletion increased the cold-sensitivity of spindle microtubules, and decreased the rate of spindle assembly. EWSR1 regulated the level of microtubule acetylation in the mitotic spindle; microtubule acetylation was rescued in EWSR1-depleted mitotic cells following suppression of HDAC6 activity by its specific inhibitor or siRNA treatment. In summary, these results suggest that EWSR1 regulates the acetylation of microtubules in a cell cycle-dependent manner through its dynamic location on spindle MTs, and may be a novel regulator for mitosis progress independent of its translocation.

  16. HLA B27 allele types in homogeneous groups of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guseinova Dinara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a heterogeneous condition and therapeutic strategies vary in different JIA types. The routinely accepted practice to start with Sulphasalazine (SS as the first line treatment in patients with HLA B27 positive JIA proves to be ineffective in a large proportion of children. Objective to investigate HLA B27 positive JIA patients clinical characteristics, determined HLA B27 allele types and their connection with antirheumatic treatment in homogenous patient groups. Materials and methods 56 patients diagnosed with JIA and observed over the period 2006 to 2009 included in the study. HLAB27 allele types were determined using PCR method. Results In HLA B27 positive JIA patients mean disease onset was 12.34 ± 3.3 years. Most common (44% JIA type was enthesitis related arthritis. Positive response to the treatment with SS was found in 32% of patients, Methotrexate (MTX - in 43%, combined treatment - SS with MTX was effective in 12.5%. 12.5% of patients required combination MTX with Enbrel. Eight HLA B27 allele types were found in JIA patients in Latvia: *2702, *2703, *2704, *2705, *2710, *2715, *2717, *2728. The most common was *2705 - in 55% of cases. Among all the patients enthesitis related arthritis most commonly occurred in patients with HLAB*2705 allele (OR = 2.01, p Conclusions There are 8 different HLA B27 alleles in JIA patients in Latvia and the most common is *2705, but in order to assert them to be disease associated alleles, more extensive studies are needed, including control group of HLA B27 positive healthy individuals. Standard treatment approach with SS proves to be unsatisfactory in the majority of JIA patients. To improve children's quality of life achieving rapid disease control, the first line treatment in HLA B27 positive patients should be MTX. In order to start with the most appropriate drug it is necessary to determine HLAB 27 type at the onset of disease.

  17. Mechanism of action of clostridial glycine reductase: Isolation and characterization of a covalent acetyl enzyme intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkowitz, R.A.; Abeles, R.H. (Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (USA))

    1991-04-23

    Clostridial glycine reductase consists of proteins A, B, and C and catalyzes the reaction glycine + P{sub i} + 2e{sup {minus}} {yields} acetyl phosphate + NH{sub 4}{sup +}. Evidence was previously obtained that is consistent with the involvement of an acyl enzyme intermediate in this reaction. The authors now demonstrate that protein C catalyzes exchange of ({sup 32}P)P{sub i} into acetyl phosphate, providing additional support for an acetyl enzyme intermediate on protein C. Furthermore, they have isolated acetyl protein C and shown that it is qualitatively, catalytically competent. Acetyl protein C can be obtained through the forward reaction from protein C and Se-(carboxymethyl)selenocysteine-protein A, which is generated by the reaction of glycine with proteins A and B. Acetyl protein C can also be generated through the reverse reaction by the addition of acetyl phosphate to protein C. Both procedures lead to the same acetyl enzyme. The acetyl enzyme reacts with P{sub i} to give acetyl phosphate. When ({sup 14}C)acetyl protein C is denaturated with TCA and redissolved with urea, radioactivity remained associated with the protein. Treatment with KBH{sub 4} removes all the radioactivity associated with protein C, resulting in the formation of ({sup 14}C)ethanol. They conclude that a thiol group on protein C is acetylated. Proteins A and C together catalyze the exchange of tritium atoms from ({sup 3}H)H{sub 2}O into acetyl phosphate. This exchange reaction supports the proposal that an enol of the acetyl enzyme is an intermediate in the reaction sequence.

  18. Crystal structure of tabtoxin resistance protein complexed with acetyl coenzyme A reveals the mechanism for {beta}-lactam acetylation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H.; Ding, Y.; Bartlam, M.; Sun, F.; Le, Y.; Qin, X.; Tang, H.; Zhang, R.; Joachimiak, A.; Liu, J.; Zhao, N.; Rao, Z.; Biosciences Division; Tsinghua Univ.; Chinese Academy of Science

    2003-01-31

    Tabtoxin resistance protein (TTR) is an enzyme that renders tabtoxin-producing pathogens, such as Pseudomonas syringae, tolerant to their own phytotoxins. Here, we report the crystal structure of TTR complexed with its natural cofactor, acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), to 1.55 {angstrom} resolution. The binary complex forms a characteristic 'V' shape for substrate binding and contains the four motifs conserved in the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily, which also includes the histone acetyltransferases (HATs). A single-step mechanism is proposed to explain the function of three conserved residues, Glu92, Asp130 and Tyr141, in catalyzing the acetyl group transfer to its substrate. We also report that TTR possesses HAT activity and suggest an evolutionary relationship between TTR and other GNAT members.

  19. The Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP Allele Nomenclature website: a peer-reviewed database of CYP variants and their associated effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Sarah C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacogenetics affects both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, thereby influencing an individual's response to drugs, both in terms of response and adverse reactions. Within the area of pharmacogenetics, findings of genetic variation influencing drug levels have been more prevalent, and variation in the cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes is one of the most common causes. Much of the work concerning sequence variations in CYPs aims at finding biomarkers of use for individualised treatment, thereby increasing the treatment response, lowering the number of side effects and decreasing the overall cost of treatment regimens. For over ten years, the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature (CYP-allele website (http://www.cypalleles.ki.se/ has offered a database of genetic information on CYP variants, along with effects at the molecular as well as clinical level. Thus, this database serves as an assembly of past, current and soon-to-be published information on CYP alleles and their outcome effects. The website is used by academic researchers and companies (eg as a tool in drug development and for outlining new research projects. By providing peer-reviewed genetic information on CYP enzymes, the CYP-allele website has become increasingly popular and widely used. Recently, NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR, the electron donor for CYP enzymes, was included on the website, which already contains 29 CYP genes, hence POR alleles are now also designated using the star allele (POR* nomenclature. Although most CYPs on the CYP-allele website are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, polymorphic enzymes with endogenous functions are also included. Each gene on the CYP-allele website has its own webpage that lists the different alleles with their nucleotide changes, their functional consequences and links to publications in which the allele has been identified and/or characterised. Thus, the CYP-allele website offers a rapid online

  20. Genetic Analysis of Teosinte Alleles for Kernel Composition Traits in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Karn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis is the wild ancestor of modern maize (Zea mays ssp. mays. Teosinte contains greater genetic diversity compared with maize inbreds and landraces, but its use is limited by insufficient genetic resources to evaluate its value. A population of teosinte near isogenic lines (NILs was previously developed to broaden the resources for genetic diversity of maize, and to discover novel alleles for agronomic and domestication traits. The 961 teosinte NILs were developed by backcrossing 10 geographically diverse parviglumis accessions into the B73 (reference genome inbred background. The NILs were grown in two replications in 2009 and 2010 in Columbia, MO and Aurora, NY, respectively, and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance calibrations were developed and used to rapidly predict total kernel starch, protein, and oil content on a dry matter basis in bulk whole grains of teosinte NILs. Our joint-linkage quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping analysis identified two starch, three protein, and six oil QTL, which collectively explained 18, 23, and 45% of the total variation, respectively. A range of strong additive allelic effects for kernel starch, protein, and oil content were identified relative to the B73 allele. Our results support our hypothesis that teosinte harbors stronger alleles for kernel composition traits than maize, and that teosinte can be exploited for the improvement of kernel composition traits in modern maize germplasm.

  1. Dynamics of adaptive alleles in divergently selected body weight lines of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Mats E; Johansson, Anna M; Siegel, Paul B; Carlborg, Orjan

    2013-12-09

    By studying genomic changes over time in populations subjected to strong artificial directional selection, we can gain insights to the dynamics of beneficial alleles originating from the founder population or emerging as novel mutations undergoing ongoing selection. The Virginia lines are a chicken resource population generated by long-term bi-directional, single-trait selection for juvenile body weight. We studied genome-wide allele frequency changes from generation 40 to 53 using genome-wide genotypes from directional and relaxed selection lines. Overall, there were small changes in allele frequencies at individual loci over the studied time period; but, on average, the changes were greater in lines with larger phenotypic changes. This is consistent with previous findings that much of the response to selection over the first 40 years of selection was attributable to utilization of standing genetic variation at many loci in the genome, indicating a mostly polygenic architecture for body weight. Over the course of the selection experiment, the largest phenotypic response to selection was observed in the high-weight selected line, and in this line we detected a single locus where the allele frequency changed rapidly during a late stage of the experiment. This locus likely contains a novel, beneficial mutation that appeared between generations 40 and 45 and was driven to fixation in 5 to 10 generations. This result illustrates the dependence of continued long-term selection response on standing genetic variation at many loci as well as strong, novel, beneficial mutations.

  2. Mechanism of action of clostridial glycine reductase: isolation and characterization of a covalent acetyl enzyme intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkowitz, R A; Abeles, R H

    1991-04-23

    Clostridial glycine reductase consists of proteins A, B, and C and catalyzes the reaction glycine + Pi + 2e(-)----acetyl phosphate + NH4+. Evidence was previously obtained that is consistent with the involvement of an acyl enzyme intermediate in this reaction. We now demonstrate that protein C catalyzes exchange of [32P]Pi into acetyl phosphate, providing additional support for an acetyl enzyme intermediate on protein C. Furthermore, we have isolated acetyl protein C and shown that it is qualitatively catalytically competent. Acetyl protein C can be obtained through the forward reaction from protein C and Se-(carboxymethyl)selenocysteine-protein A, which is generated by the reaction of glycine with proteins A and B [Arkowitz, R. A., & Abeles, R. H. (1990) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 870-872]. Acetyl protein C can also be generated through the reverse reaction by the addition of acetyl phosphate to protein C. Both procedures lead to the same acetyl enzyme. The acetyl enzyme reacts with Pi to give acetyl phosphate. When [14C]acetyl protein C is denaturated with TCA and redissolved with urea, radioactivity remained associated with the protein. At pH 11.5 radioactivity was released with t1/2 = 57 min, comparable to the hydrolysis rate of thioesters. Exposure of 4 N neutralized NH2OH resulted in the complete release of radioactivity. Treatment with KBH4 removes all the radioactivity associated with protein C, resulting in the formation of [14C]ethanol. We conclude that a thiol group on protein C is acetylated. Proteins A and C together catalyze the exchange of tritium atoms from [3H]H2O into acetyl phosphate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. MASTR: A Technique for Mosaic Mutant Analysis with Spatial and Temporal Control of Recombination Using Conditional Floxed Alleles in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Lao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosaic mutant analysis, the study of cellular defects in scattered mutant cells in a wild-type environment, is a powerful approach for identifying critical functions of genes and has been applied extensively to invertebrate model organisms. A highly versatile technique has been developed in mouse: MASTR (mosaic mutant analysis with spatial and temporal control of recombination, which utilizes the increasing number of floxed alleles and simultaneously combines conditional gene mutagenesis and cell marking for fate analysis. A targeted allele (R26MASTR was engineered; the allele expresses a GFPcre fusion protein following FLP-mediated recombination, which serves the dual function of deleting floxed alleles and marking mutant cells with GFP. Within 24 hr of tamoxifen administration to R26MASTR mice carrying an inducible FlpoER transgene and a floxed allele, nearly all GFP-expressing cells have a mutant allele. The fate of single cells lacking FGF8 or SHH signaling in the developing hindbrain was analyzed using MASTR, and it was revealed that there is only a short time window when neural progenitors require FGFR1 for viability and that granule cell precursors differentiate rapidly when SMO is lost. MASTR is a powerful tool that provides cell-type-specific (spatial and temporal marking of mosaic mutant cells and is broadly applicable to developmental, cancer, and adult stem cell studies.

  4. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  5. Allele Frequency - JSNP | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nd 39 SNPs are assayed in three (POP_*) and two (RIKEN_japanese_*) panels, respectively. Derived from Flat f... assay (JBIC-allele and RIKEN_japanese_*), TaqMan assay (RIKEN-allele) or direct sequencing / allelic discri...unteers under informed consent RIKEN_japanese_normal_weight - 711 unrelated japanese normal weight volunteer...s ( body mass index RIKEN_japanese_obese - 796 unrelated japanese obese patients

  6. DQB1*06:02 allele-specific expression varies by allelic dosage, not narcolepsy status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiner Lachmi, Karin; Lin, Ling; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2012-01-01

    The association of narcolepsy-cataplexy, a sleep disorder caused by the loss of hypocretin/orexin neurons in the hypothalamus, with DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 is one of the tightest known single-allele human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations. In this study, we explored genome-wide expression...... in peripheral white blood cells of 50 narcolepsy versus 47 controls (half of whom were DQB1*06:02 positive) and observed the largest differences between the groups in the signal from HLA probes. Further studies of HLA-DQ expression (mRNA and protein in a subset) in 125 controls and 147 narcolepsy cases did...... indicate that allelic dosage is transmitted into changes in heterodimer availability, a phenomenon that may explain the increased risk for narcolepsy in DQB1*06:02 homozygotes versus heterozygotes....

  7. Proteome-wide analysis of lysine acetylation suggests its broad regulatory scope in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Peter; Wagner, Sebastian Alexander; Weinert, Brian Tate

    2012-01-01

    -containing histone H2B deubiquitylase complex. Our data provides the first global survey of acetylation in budding yeast, and suggests a wide-ranging regulatory scope of this modification. The provided dataset may serve as an important resource for the functional analysis of lysine acetylation in eukaryotes.......Post-translational modification of proteins by lysine acetylation plays important regulatory roles in living cells. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used unicellular eukaryotic model organism in biomedical research. S. cerevisiae contains several evolutionary conserved lysine...... acetyltransferases and deacetylases. However, only a few dozen acetylation sites in S. cerevisiae are known, presenting a major obstacle for further understanding the regulatory roles of acetylation in this organism. Here we use high resolution mass spectrometry to identify about 4000 lysine acetylation sites in S...

  8. Destabilization of Fatty Acid Synthase by Acetylation Inhibits De Novo Lipogenesis and Tumor Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huai-Peng; Cheng, Zhou-Li; He, Ruo-Yu; Song, Lei; Tian, Meng-Xin; Zhou, Li-Sha; Groh, Beezly S; Liu, Wei-Ren; Ji, Min-Biao; Ding, Chen; Shi, Ying-Hong; Guan, Kun-Liang; Ye, Dan; Xiong, Yue

    2016-12-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is the terminal enzyme in de novo lipogenesis and plays a key role in cell proliferation. Pharmacologic inhibitors of FASN are being evaluated in clinical trials for treatment of cancer, obesity, and other diseases. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of FASN regulation involving its acetylation by KAT8 and its deacetylation by HDAC3. FASN acetylation promoted its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. FASN acetylation enhanced its association with the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM21. Acetylation destabilized FASN and resulted in decreased de novo lipogenesis and tumor cell growth. FASN acetylation was frequently reduced in human hepatocellular carcinoma samples, which correlated with increased HDAC3 expression and FASN protein levels. Our results suggest opportunities to target FASN acetylation as an anticancer strategy. Cancer Res; 76(23); 6924-36. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Epigenetic Readers of Lysine Acetylation Regulate Cocaine-Induced Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Gregory C; Powell, Samuel K; Brothers, Shaun P; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2015-11-11

    Epigenetic processes that regulate histone acetylation play an essential role in behavioral and molecular responses to cocaine. To date, however, only a small fraction of the mechanisms involved in the addiction-associated acetylome have been investigated. Members of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of epigenetic "reader" proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT) bind acetylated histones and serve as a scaffold for the recruitment of macromolecular complexes to modify chromatin accessibility and transcriptional activity. The role of BET proteins in cocaine-induced plasticity, however, remains elusive. Here, we used behavioral, pharmacological, and molecular techniques to examine the involvement of BET bromodomains in cocaine reward. Of the BET proteins, BRD4, but not BRD2 or BRD3, was significantly elevated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice and rats following repeated cocaine injections and self-administration. Systemic and intra-accumbal inhibition of BRD4 with the BET inhibitor, JQ1, attenuated the rewarding effects of cocaine in a conditioned place preference procedure but did not affect conditioned place aversion, nor did JQ1 alone induce conditioned aversion or preference. Investigating the underlying mechanisms, we found that repeated cocaine injections enhanced the binding of BRD4, but not BRD3, to the promoter region of Bdnf in the NAc, whereas systemic injection of JQ1 attenuated cocaine-induced expression of Bdnf in the NAc. JQ1 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of BRD4 in vitro also reduced expression of Bdnf. These findings indicate that disrupting the interaction between BET proteins and their acetylated lysine substrates may provide a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of drug addiction. Proteins involved in the "readout" of lysine acetylation marks, referred to as BET bromodomain proteins (including BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT), have been shown to be key regulators of chromatin dynamics and disease, and BET inhibitors are currently

  10. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) stimulates the PAF-synthesizing enzyme acetyl-CoA:1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine O2-acetyltransferase and PAF synthesis in neutrophils.

    OpenAIRE

    Doebber, T W; Wu, M S

    1987-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; PAF) induced in isolated rat peritoneal and human peripheral neutrophils a rapid and potent activation of the PAF biosynthetic enzyme acetyl-CoA:1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine O2-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.67). The PAF-induced activation of the neutrophil acetyltransferase (8-10 times basal neutrophil activity) was maximal within 30 sec after PAF addition, as was the PAF-stimulated degranulation. After 1 min of PA...

  11. Lysine Acetylation of CREBH Regulates Fasting-Induced Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunbae; Mendez, Roberto; Chen, Xuequn; Fang, Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 3, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a hepatic transcription factor that functions as a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Here, we defined a regulatory CREBH posttranslational modification process, namely, lysine-specific acetylation, and its functional involvement in fasting-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. Fasting induces CREBH acetylation in mouse livers in a time-dependent manner, and this event is critical for CREBH transcriptional activity in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis. The histone acetyltransferase PCAF-mediated acetylation and the deacetylase sirtuin-1-mediated deacetylation coexist to maintain CREBH acetylation states under fasting conditions. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses revealed that the lysine (K) residue at position 294 (K294) within the bZIP domain of the CREBH protein is the site where fasting-induced acetylation/deacetylation occurs. Introduction of the acetylation-deficient (K294R) or acetylation-mimicking (K294Q) mutation inhibited or enhanced CREBH transcriptional activity, respectively. Importantly, CREBH acetylation at lysine 294 was required for the interaction and synergy between CREBH and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in activating their target genes upon fasting or glucagon stimulation. Introduction of the CREBH lysine 294 mutation in the liver leads to hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in animals under prolonged fasting. In summary, our study reveals a molecular mechanism by which fasting or glucagon stimulation modulates lipid homeostasis through acetylation of CREBH. PMID:26438600

  12. Conserved Lysine Acetylation within the Microtubule-Binding Domain Regulates MAP2/Tau Family Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Hwang

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation has emerged as a dominant post-translational modification (PTM regulating tau proteins in Alzheimer's disease (AD and related tauopathies. Mass spectrometry studies indicate that tau acetylation sites cluster within the microtubule-binding region (MTBR, a region that is highly conserved among tau, MAP2, and MAP4 family members, implying that acetylation could represent a conserved regulatory mechanism for MAPs beyond tau. Here, we combined mass spectrometry, biochemical assays, and cell-based approaches to demonstrate that the tau family members MAP2 and MAP4 are also subject to reversible acetylation. We identify a cluster of lysines in the MAP2 and MAP4 MTBR that undergo CBP-catalyzed acetylation, many of which are conserved in tau. Similar to tau, MAP2 acetylation can occur in a cysteine-dependent auto-regulatory manner in the presence of acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, tubulin reduced MAP2 acetylation, suggesting tubulin binding dictates MAP acetylation status. Taken together, these results uncover a striking conservation of MAP2/Tau family post-translational modifications that could expand our understanding of the dynamic mechanisms regulating microtubules.

  13. Aspirin-mediated acetylation induces structural alteration and aggregation of bovine pancreatic insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Reza; Taheri, Behnaz; Alavi, Parnian; Shahsavani, Mohammad Bagher; Asadi, Zahra; Ghahramani, Maryam; Niazi, Ali; Alavianmehr, Mohammad Mehdi; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    The simple aggregation of insulin under various chemical and physical stresses is still an important challenge for both pharmaceutical production and clinical formulation. In the storage form, this protein is subjected to various chemical modifications which alter its physicochemical and aggregation properties. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) which is the most widely used medicine worldwide has been indicated to acetylate a large number of proteins both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, as insulin treated with aspirin at 37°C, a significant level of acetylation was observed by flourescamine and o-phthalaldehyde assay. Also, different spectroscopic techniques, gel electrophoresis, and microscopic assessment were applied to compare the structural variation and aggregation/fibrillation propensity among acetylated and non-acetylated insulin samples. The results of spectroscopic assessments elucidate that acetylation induces insulin unfolding which is accompanied with the exposure of protein hydrophobic patches, a transition from alpha-helix to beta-sheet and increased propensity of the protein for aggregation. The kinetic studies propose that acetylation increases aggregation rate of insulin under both thermal and chemical stresses. Also, gel electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering experiments suggest that acetylation induces insulin oligomerization. Additionally, the results of Thioflavin T fluorescence study, Congo red absorption assessment, and microscopic analysis suggest that acetylation with aspirin enhances the process of insulin fibrillation. Overall, the increased susceptibility of acetylated insulin for aggregation may reflect the fact that this type of modification has significant structural destabilizing effect which finally makes the protein more vulnerable for pathogenic aggregation/fibrillation.

  14. Acetylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is mediated by GCN5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juhyung; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Chiho [Department of Systems Biology, Yonsei University College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Min-Young; Park, Kang-Sik [Department of Physiology and Biomedical Science Institute, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young J., E-mail: yjoh@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Systems Biology, Yonsei University College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is present as an acetylated form. • CDK5 is acetylated by GCN5. • CDK5’s acetylation site is mapped at Lys33. • Its acetylation may affect CDK5’s kinase activity. - Abstract: Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a member of atypical serine/threonine cyclin-dependent kinase family, plays a crucial role in pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Its kinase activity and substrate specificity are regulated by several independent pathways including binding with its activator, phosphorylation and S-nitrosylation. In the present study, we report that acetylation of CDK5 comprises an additional posttranslational modification within the cells. Among many candidates, we confirmed that its acetylation is enhanced by GCN5, a member of the GCN5-related N-acetyl-transferase family of histone acetyltransferase. Co-immunoprecipitation assay and fluorescent localization study indicated that GCN5 physically interacts with CDK5 and they are co-localized at the specific nuclear foci. Furthermore, liquid chromatography in conjunction with a mass spectrometry indicated that CDK5 is acetylated at Lys33 residue of ATP binding domain. Considering this lysine site is conserved among a wide range of species and other related cyclin-dependent kinases, therefore, we speculate that acetylation may alter the kinase activity of CDK5 via affecting efficacy of ATP coordination.

  15. Treadmill exercise induces selective changes in hippocampal histone acetylation during the aging process in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meireles, Louisiana Carolina Ferreira; Bertoldi, Karine; Cechinel, Laura Reck; Schallenberger, Bruna Luisa; da Silva, Vanessa Kappel; Schröder, Nadja; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2016-11-10

    Physical exercise and the aging process have been shown to induce opposite effects on epigenetic marks, such as histone acetylation. The impact of exercise on hippocampal histone acetylation on specific lysine residues, especially during the aging process, is rarely studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treadmill exercise (20min/day during 2 weeks) on H3K9, H4K5 and H4K12 acetylation levels in hippocampi of young adult and aged rats. Male Wistar rats aged 3 or 20-21 months were assigned to sedentary and exercise groups. Single-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance conditioning was employed as an aversive memory paradigm. Hippocampal H3K9, H4K5 and H4K12 acetylation was determined by Western blotting. The daily moderate exercise protocol improved the aversive memory performance and increased hipocampal H4K12 acetylation levels in both tested ages. Exercise was also able to increase H3K9 acetylation levels in aged rats. An age-related decline in memory performance was observed, without any effect of the aging process on histone acetylation state. Our data suggest that treadmill exercise can impact hippocampal the histone acetylation profile in an age- and lysine-dependent manner. In addition, higher hippocampal H4K12 acetylation levels at both ages may be related to improvement of aversive memory performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Allelic ladder characterization of the short tandem repeat polymorphism located in the 5{prime} flanking region to the human coagulation factor XIII A subunit gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puers, C. [Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States)]|[Institute for Forensic Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Lins, A.M.; Sprecher, C.J. [Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism present within the 5{prime} untranslated region of the human coagulation factor XIII A subunit gene, HUM-F13A01 [AAAG]{sub n}, was evaluated using an allelic ladder, i.e., a standard size marker consisting of amplified alleles from the locus. The allelic ladder was constructed by pooling 12 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified alleles identified by their differential migration in denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This standard marker was used to distinguish 14 different alleles observed at this locus. Sequence analyses indicate that 13 of the alleles contain 4 through 16 iterations of the tandemly repeated AAAG sequence, respectively. The remaining allele carries four repeats and displays a deletion of two consecutive nucleotides (GT), one base distal to the repeat region. The allelic ladder was employed to type 326 F13A01 chromosomes rapidly and reliably in representatives of a German Caucasian population. Population data were analyzed with respect to Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) and compared with those of a previously studied Houston, Texas, Caucasian population. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The Metabolic Fate of Deoxynivalenol and Its Acetylated Derivatives in a Wheat Suspension Culture: Identification and Detection of DON-15-O-Glucoside, 15-Acetyl-DON-3-O-Glucoside and 15-Acetyl-DON-3-Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Schmeitzl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a protein synthesis inhibitor produced by the Fusarium species, which frequently contaminates grains used for human or animal consumption. We treated a wheat suspension culture with DON or one of its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3-ADON, 15-acetyl-DON (15-ADON and 3,15-diacetyl-DON (3,15-diADON, and monitored the metabolization over a course of 96 h. Supernatant and cell extract samples were analyzed using a tailored LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of DON metabolites. We report the formation of tentatively identified DON-15-O-β-D-glucoside (D15G and of 15-acetyl-DON-3-sulfate (15-ADON3S as novel deoxynivalenol metabolites in wheat. Furthermore, we found that the recently identified 15-acetyl-DON-3-O-β-D-glucoside (15-ADON3G is the major metabolite produced after 15-ADON challenge. 3-ADON treatment led to a higher intracellular content of toxic metabolites after six hours compared to all other treatments. 3-ADON was exclusively metabolized into DON before phase II reactions occurred. In contrast, we found that 15-ADON was directly converted into 15-ADON3G and 15-ADON3S in addition to metabolization into deoxynivalenol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (D3G. This study highlights significant differences in the metabolization of DON and its acetylated derivatives.

  18. Rescue of progeria in trichothiodystrophy by homozygous lethal Xpd alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaan-Olle Andressoo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Although compound heterozygosity, or the presence of two different mutant alleles of the same gene, is common in human recessive disease, its potential to impact disease outcome has not been well documented. This is most likely because of the inherent difficulty in distinguishing specific biallelic effects from differences in environment or genetic background. We addressed the potential of different recessive alleles to contribute to the enigmatic pleiotropy associated with XPD recessive disorders in compound heterozygous mouse models. Alterations in this essential helicase, with functions in both DNA repair and basal transcription, result in diverse pathologies ranging from elevated UV sensitivity and cancer predisposition to accelerated segmental progeria. We report a variety of biallelic effects on organismal phenotype attributable to combinations of recessive Xpd alleles, including the following: (i the ability of homozygous lethal Xpd alleles to ameliorate a variety of disease symptoms when their essential basal transcription function is supplied by a different disease-causing allele, (ii differential developmental and tissue-specific functions of distinct Xpd allele products, and (iii interallelic complementation, a phenomenon rarely reported at clinically relevant loci in mammals. Our data suggest a re-evaluation of the contribution of "null" alleles to XPD disorders and highlight the potential of combinations of recessive alleles to affect both normal and pathological phenotypic plasticity in mammals.

  19. Apolipoprotein E4 allele does not influence serum triglyceride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated how the APOε4 allele affects the serum triglyceride response after a fatmeal in apparently healthy black South African young adults. Sixty students were successfully screened for APOE genotype using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and were divided into four groups; the ε2 allele ...

  20. KRAS Allelic Imbalance: Strengths and Weaknesses in Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Gary J; Kerr, Emma M; Martins, Carla P

    2017-05-01

    The identification of therapeutic vulnerabilities in mutant KRAS tumors has proven difficult to achieve. Burgess and colleagues recently reported in Cell that mutant/wild-type Kras allelic dosage determines clonal fitness and MEK inhibitor sensitivity in a leukemia model, demonstrating that KRAS allelic imbalance is likely an important and overlooked variable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Experiments to Demonstrate Change in Allelic Frequency by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    1. Experiments were conducted with four different populations (A, B, C and D) having four different alleles, which were represented by color beads. 2. The alleles of each populations were placed in a plastic bowl which represents an island. 3. PopulationAwas represented with a large plastic bowl with 100 individuals (25 ...

  2. Determination of allele frequencies in nine short tandem repeat loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Matching probability was below 0.2 hence power of discrimination was high, indicating that the alleles from the five subpopulations can be used in human identifications. The present study is the first reported attempt at determining allele frequencies of subpopulations in Botswana and could possibly be used in developing a ...

  3. Comparison of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 allele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... et al. (1992) involving polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and endonuclease restriction fragment length polymor- phism (RFLP). The BoLA-DRB3.2 locus is highly polymorphic; more than 30 different alleles have been reported. Gelhaus et al. (1995) identified fourteen additional novel BoLA-. DRB3.2 alleles.

  4. Observations Suggesting Allelism of the Achondroplasia and Hypochondroplasia Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKusick, Victor A.; Kelly, Thaddeus E.; Dorst, John P.

    1973-01-01

    It is argued that there are at least two alleles at the achondroplasia locus: one responsible for classic achondroplasia and one responsible for hypochondroplasia. Homozygosity for the achondroplasia gene produces a lethal skeletal dysplasia; homozygosity for hypochondroplasia has not been described. We report here a child considered to be a genetic compound for the achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia alleles. Images PMID:4697848

  5. Allelic prevalence of intron 3 insertion/deletion genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelic prevalence of intron 3 insertion/deletion genetic polymorphism of DNA double-strand break repair gene XRCC4 in four healthy Iranian populations. ... Conclusion: Although there is a significant heterogeneity between Iranian populations, the Del allele shows high prevalence among Iranian populations, which is ...

  6. Common breast cancer risk alleles and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund-Koch, C; Nordestgaard, B G; Bojesen, S E

    2017-01-01

    general population were followed in Danish health registries for up to 21 years after blood sampling. After genotyping 72 breast cancer risk loci, each with 0-2 alleles, the sum for each individual was calculated. We used the simple allele sum instead of the conventional polygenic risk score...... cancer risks ≤ 1.5%. Using polygenic risk score led to similar results. CONCLUSION: Common breast cancer risk alleles are associated with incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the general population, but not with other cancers. After including breast cancer allele sum in risk assessment, 25......BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that common breast cancer risk alleles are associated with incidences of breast cancer and other cancers in the general population, and identify low risk women among those invited for screening mammography. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: 35,441 individuals from the Danish...

  7. Allelic variants of hereditary prions: The bimodularity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhodeyev, Oleg N; Tarasov, Oleg V; Bondarev, Stanislav A

    2017-01-02

    Modern biology requires modern genetic concepts equally valid for all discovered mechanisms of inheritance, either "canonical" (mediated by DNA sequences) or epigenetic. Applying basic genetic terms such as "gene" and "allele" to protein hereditary factors is one of the necessary steps toward these concepts. The basic idea that different variants of the same prion protein can be considered as alleles has been previously proposed by Chernoff and Tuite. In this paper, the notion of prion allele is further developed. We propose the idea that any prion allele is a bimodular hereditary system that depends on a certain DNA sequence (DNA determinant) and a certain epigenetic mark (epigenetic determinant). Alteration of any of these 2 determinants may lead to establishment of a new prion allele. The bimodularity principle is valid not only for hereditary prions; it seems to be universal for any epigenetic hereditary factor.

  8. Assigning breed origin to alleles in crossbred animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L; Sevillano, Claudia A; Windig, Jack J; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2016-08-22

    For some species, animal production systems are based on the use of crossbreeding to take advantage of the increased performance of crossbred compared to purebred animals. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may differ between purebred and crossbred animals for several reasons: (1) differences in linkage disequilibrium between SNP alleles and a quantitative trait locus; (2) differences in genetic backgrounds (e.g., dominance and epistatic interactions); and (3) differences in environmental conditions, which result in genotype-by-environment interactions. Thus, SNP effects may be breed-specific, which has led to the development of genomic evaluations for crossbred performance that take such effects into account. However, to estimate breed-specific effects, it is necessary to know breed origin of alleles in crossbred animals. Therefore, our aim was to develop an approach for assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals (termed BOA) without information on pedigree and to study its accuracy by considering various factors, including distance between breeds. The BOA approach consists of: (1) phasing genotypes of purebred and crossbred animals; (2) assigning breed origin to phased haplotypes; and (3) assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals based on a library of assigned haplotypes, the breed composition of crossbred animals, and their SNP genotypes. The accuracy of allele assignments was determined for simulated datasets that include crosses between closely-related, distantly-related and unrelated breeds. Across these scenarios, the percentage of alleles of a crossbred animal that were correctly assigned to their breed origin was greater than 90 %, and increased with increasing distance between breeds, while the percentage of incorrectly assigned alleles was always less than 2 %. For the remaining alleles, i.e. 0 to 10 % of all alleles of a crossbred animal, breed origin could not be assigned. The BOA approach accurately assigns

  9. Mutations of Arabidopsis TBL32 and TBL33 Affect Xylan Acetylation and Secondary Wall Deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youxi Yuan

    Full Text Available Xylan is a major acetylated polymer in plant lignocellulosic biomass and it can be mono- and di-acetylated at O-2 and O-3 as well as mono-acetylated at O-3 of xylosyl residues that is substituted with glucuronic acid (GlcA at O-2. Based on the finding that ESK1, an Arabidopsis thaliana DUF231 protein, specifically mediates xylan 2-O- and 3-O-monoacetylation, we previously proposed that different acetyltransferase activities are required for regiospecific acetyl substitutions of xylan. Here, we demonstrate the functional roles of TBL32 and TBL33, two ESK1 close homologs, in acetyl substitutions of xylan. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32 and TBL33 resulted in a significant reduction in xylan acetyl content and endoxylanase digestion of the mutant xylan released GlcA-substituted xylooligomers without acetyl groups. Structural analysis of xylan revealed that the tbl32 tbl33 mutant had a nearly complete loss of 3-O-acetylated, 2-O-GlcA-substituted xylosyl residues. A reduction in 3-O-monoacetylated and 2,3-di-O-acetylated xylosyl residues was also observed. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32, TBL33 and ESK1 resulted in a severe reduction in xylan acetyl level down to 15% of that of the wild type, and concomitantly, severely collapsed vessels and stunted plant growth. In particular, the S2 layer of secondary walls in xylem vessels of tbl33 esk1 and tbl32 tbl33 esk1 exhibited an altered structure, indicating abnormal assembly of secondary wall polymers. These results demonstrate that TBL32 and TBL33 play an important role in xylan acetylation and normal deposition of secondary walls.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Proteome-Wide Lysine Acetylation in Juvenile and Adult Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a devastating parasitic disease caused by tremotodes of the genus Schistosoma. Eggs produced by sexually mature schistosomes are the causative agents of for pathogenesis and transmission. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of schistosome development and sexual maturation would facilitate the prevention and control of schistosomiasis. Acetylation of lysine is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification playing keys role in many biological processes including development in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. To investigate the impacts of lysine acetylation on Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum development and sexual maturation, we used immunoaffinity-based acetyllysine peptide enrichment combined with mass spectrometry (MS, to perform the first comparative analysis of proteome-wide lysine acetylation in both female and male, juvenile (18 days post infection, 18 dpi and adult (28 dpi schistosome samples. In total, we identified 874 unique acetylated sites in 494 acetylated proteins. The four samples shared 47 acetylated sites and 46 proteins. More acetylated sites and proteins shared by both females and males were identified in 28 dpi adults (189 and 143, respectively than in 18 dpi schistosomula (76 and 59, respectively. More stage-unique acetylated sites and proteins were also identified in 28 dpi adults (494 and 210, respectively than in 18 dpi schistosomula (73 and 44, respectively. Functional annotation showed that in different developmental stages and genders, a number of proteins involving in muscle movement, glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, environmental stress resistance, antioxidation, etc., displayed distinct acetylation profiles, which was in accordance with the changes of their biological functions during schistosome development, suggesting that lysine acetylation modification exerted important regulatory roles in schistosome development. Taken together, our data provided the first

  11. Detection of Hb E mutation (beta(26), GAG-AAG, Glu-Lys) using allelic discrimination analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangkitporn, S; Sangkitporn, S K; Sangnoi, A; Duangruang, S

    2009-02-01

    A method for detection of hemoglobin (Hb) E mutation was developed based on allelic discrimination analysis. Two probes labeled with different fluorescent reporter dyes were designed to specifically detect variation of a single nucleic acid polymorphism (SNP) site in the target template sequence. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of normal allele and mutant allele were detected directly by analyzing fluorescent signal of each probe. This method was validated in term of accuracy (by comparing with sequence analysis) and reproducibility. The % CV between run precision was 5.16-8.86%. The narrow scatter of the results confirmed the reproducibility of the assay. This technique is a rapid, reliable and cost-effective method to differentiate Hb E homozygosity from beta(0)-thalassemia/Hb E in populations with a high frequency of beta-thalassemia and Hb E.

  12. AllelicImbalance: An R/ bioconductor package for detecting, managing, and visualizing allele expression imbalance data from RNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gådin, Jesper R.; van't Hooft, Ferdinand M.; Eriksson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background: One aspect in which RNA sequencing is more valuable than microarray-based methods is the ability to examine the allelic imbalance of the expression of a gene. This process is often a complex task that entails quality control, alignment, and the counting of reads over heterozygous single......-nucleotide polymorphisms. Allelic imbalance analysis is subject to technical biases, due to differences in the sequences of the measured alleles. Flexible bioinformatics tools are needed to ease the workflow while retaining as much RNA sequencing information as possible throughout the analysis to detect and address...... the possible biases. Results: We present AllelicImblance, a software program that is designed to detect, manage, and visualize allelic imbalances comprehensively. The purpose of this software is to allow users to pose genetic questions in any RNA sequencing experiment quickly, enhancing the general utility...

  13. The conversion of nickel-bound CO into an acetyl thioester: organometallic chemistry relevant to the acetyl coenzyme A synthase active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Bettina; Limberg, Christian; Herwig, Christian; Mebs, Stefan

    2011-12-23

    When three become one: Within one nickel-based model system, the three reactants CO, MeI, and PhSH have been assembled to yield an acetyl thioester. The reactivity is of relevance for the functioning of the acetyl coenzyme A synthase active site and provides insights into possible binding sequences. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. CD4+ T-cell alloreactivity toward mismatched HLA class II alleles early after double umbilical cord blood transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Cor H J; Wijers, Rebecca; van Bergen, Cornelis A M; Somers, Judith A E; Braakman, Eric; Gratama, Jan Willem; Debets, Reno; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Cornelissen, Jan J

    2016-10-27

    Although double umbilical cord blood transplantation (dUCBT) in adult patients may be associated with less graft failure compared with single UCBT, hematopoietic recovery generally originates from a single cord blood unit (CBU). CBU predominance is still incompletely understood. We recently showed that blood CD4 + T-cell numbers rapidly increase after dUCBT, and early CD4 + T-cell chimerism predicts for graft predominance. Given the frequent HLA class II allele mismatches between CBUs in dUCBT, we hypothesized that alloreactive HLA class II-specific CD4 + T cells from the "winning" CBU may contribute to rejection of the "loser" CBU. We evaluated whether CD4 + T cells originating from the predominant (PD)-CBU would recognize HLA class II allele mismatches, expressed by the nonengrafting (NE)-CBU. Alloreactive effector CD4 + T cells toward 1 or more mismatched HLA class II alleles of the NE-CBU were detected in 11 of 11 patients, with reactivity toward 29 of 33 (88%) tested mismatches, and the strongest reactivity toward DR and DQ alleles early after dUCBT. Mismatched HLA class II allele-specific CD4 + T cells recognized primary leukemic cells when the mismatched HLA class II allele was shared between NE-CBU and patient. Our results suggest that cytotoxicity exerted by CD4 + T cells from the PD-CBU drives the rapid rejection of the NE-CBU, whose alloreactive effect might also contribute to graft-versus-leukemia. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Coactivator-dependent acetylation stabilizes members of the SREBP family of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandomenico, Valeria; Simonsson, Maria; Grönroos, Eva; Ericsson, Johan

    2003-04-01

    Members of the SREBP family of transcription factors control cholesterol and lipid homeostasis and play important roles during adipocyte differentiation. The transcriptional activity of SREBPs is dependent on the coactivators p300 and CBP. We now present evidence that SREBPs are acetylated by the intrinsic acetyltransferase activity of p300 and CBP. In SREBP1a, the acetylated lysine residue resides in the DNA-binding domain of the protein. Coexpression with p300 dramatically increases the expression of both SREBP1a and SREBP2, and this effect is dependent on the acetyltransferase activity of p300, indicating that acetylation of SREBPs regulates their stability. Indeed, acetylation or mutation of the acetylated lysine residue in SREBP1a stabilizes the protein. We demonstrate that the acetylated residue in SREBP1a is also targeted by ubiquitination and that acetylation inhibits this process. Thus, our studies define acetylation-dependent stabilization of transcription factors as a novel mechanism for coactivators to regulate gene expression.

  16. A bioinformatics-based overview of protein Lys-Ne-acetylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among posttranslational modifications, there are some conceptual similarities between Lys-N'-acetylation and Ser/Thr/Tyr O-phosphorylation. Herein we present a bioinformatics-based overview of reversible protein Lys-acetylation, including some comparisons with reversible protein phosphorylation. T...

  17. The Effect of Hypochlorite Oxidation and Acetylation on Some of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the effect of hypochlorite oxidation and acetylation on some physicochemical properties of Icacina trichantha starch. The native and modified (oxidized and acetylated) starches were studied with respect to Infrared spectroscopy(IR), microscopy, gelatinization, swelling power, solubility index, amylose ...

  18. Effects of acetylation on the emulsifying properties of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjun; Hu, Xinzhong; Li, Xiaoping; Ma, Zhen

    2016-06-25

    In the present study, polysaccharides extracted from Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. seeds (ASKP) were acetylated to improve the emulsifying properties of the macromolecules. Several methods were applied for the acetylation purpose, among which the acetic anhydride-pyridine method with formamide as solvent was found to be the most effective one. Acetylated ASKPs with various degree of substitution (DS) were successfully produced and structurally characterized using HPSEC-MALS, FTIR and (1)H NMR techniques in this study. Results showed that acetylation treatment could cause the degradation of ASKP. Moreover, with the increase of DS, both the molecular weight and radius of gyration increased, as well as the molecular conformation trended to be more compact. Low DS (DS: 0.04 and 0.13) conferred acetylated ASKP a lower viscosity than that of ASKP. With the increase of DS, the viscosity of acetylated ASKPs increased and exceeded that of ASKP. Compared with ASKP, acetylated ASKPs could reduce the surface tension to a greater extent and demonstrated a much smaller droplet size (ZD) in an oil/water emulsion system. Acetylated ASKPs were capable of stabilizing the oil/water emulsion for 3 days at 60°C, whose performance was as good as that of gum acacia. In conclusion, such a hydrophobic modification on ASKP conferred it better emulsifying properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protein acetylation affects acetate metabolism, motility and acid stress response in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal, Vicente; Post, Harm; Fuhrer, Tobias; Cappadona, Salvatore; Sánchez-Díaz, Nerea C; Sauer, Uwe; Heck, Albert J R; Altelaar, A F Maarten; Cánovas, Manuel

    2014-11-27

    Although protein acetylation is widely observed, it has been associated with few specific regulatory functions making it poorly understood. To interrogate its functionality, we analyzed the acetylome in Escherichia coli knockout mutants of cobB, the only known sirtuin-like deacetylase, and patZ, the best-known protein acetyltransferase. For four growth conditions, more than 2,000 unique acetylated peptides, belonging to 809 proteins, were identified and differentially quantified. Nearly 65% of these proteins are related to metabolism. The global activity of CobB contributes to the deacetylation of a large number of substrates and has a major impact on physiology. Apart from the regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase, we found that CobB-controlled acetylation of isocitrate lyase contributes to the fine-tuning of the glyoxylate shunt. Acetylation of the transcription factor RcsB prevents DNA binding, activating flagella biosynthesis and motility, and increases acid stress susceptibility. Surprisingly, deletion of patZ increased acetylation in acetate cultures, which suggests that it regulates the levels of acetylating agents. The results presented offer new insights into functional roles of protein acetylation in metabolic fitness and global cell regulation. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  20. Multi-step rearrangement mechanism for acetyl cedrene to the hydrocarbon follower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paknikar, Shashikumar Keshav; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    Conversion of acetyl cedrene (2) to its follower (3) using acetic anhydride and polyphosphoric acid involves a multi-step cationic molecular rearrangement, which is consistent with deuteriation and 1-13C labeling studies of acetyl cedrene. The key step involves cyclopropylcarbinyl cation-cyclopro...

  1. Nε-lysine acetylation of a bacterial transcription factor inhibits Its DNA-binding activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Thao

    Full Text Available Evidence suggesting that eukaryotes and archaea use reversible N(ε-lysine (N(ε-Lys acetylation to modulate gene expression has been reported, but evidence for bacterial use of N(ε-Lys acetylation for this purpose is lacking. Here, we report data in support of the notion that bacteria can control gene expression by modulating the acetylation state of transcription factors (TFs. We screened the E. coli proteome for substrates of the bacterial Gcn5-like protein acetyltransferase (Pat. Pat acetylated four TFs, including the RcsB global regulatory protein, which controls cell division, and capsule and flagellum biosynthesis in many bacteria. Pat acetylated residue Lys180 of RcsB, and the NAD(+-dependent Sir2 (sirtuin-like protein deacetylase (CobB deacetylated acetylated RcsB (RcsB(Ac, demonstrating that N(ε-Lys acetylation of RcsB is reversible. Analysis of RcsB(Ac and variant RcsB proteins carrying substitutions at Lys180 provided biochemical and physiological evidence implicating Lys180 as a critical residue for RcsB DNA-binding activity. These findings further the likelihood that reversible N(ε-Lys acetylation of transcription factors is a mode of regulation of gene expression used by all cells.

  2. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Analysis of Acetyl-CoA Activation of Staphylococcus aureus Pyruvate Carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, Lauren E; Bridges, Lance C; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Zeczycki, Tonya N

    2017-07-11

    Allosteric regulation of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) activity is pivotal to maintaining metabolic homeostasis. In contrast, dysregulated PC activity contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, rendering PC a possible target for allosteric therapeutic development. Recent research efforts have focused on demarcating the role of acetyl-CoA, one of the most potent activators of PC, in coordinating catalytic events within the multifunctional enzyme. Herein, we report a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of acetyl-CoA activation of the Staphylococcus aureus PC (SaPC)-catalyzed carboxylation of pyruvate to identify novel means by which acetyl-CoA synchronizes catalytic events within the PC tetramer. Kinetic and linked-function analysis, or thermodynamic linkage analysis, indicates that the substrates of the biotin carboxylase and carboxyl transferase domain are energetically coupled in the presence of acetyl-CoA. In contrast, both kinetic and energetic coupling between the two domains is lost in the absence of acetyl-CoA, suggesting a functional role for acetyl-CoA in facilitating the long-range transmission of substrate-induced conformational changes within the PC tetramer. Interestingly, thermodynamic activation parameters for the SaPC-catalyzed carboxylation of pyruvate are largely independent of acetyl-CoA. Our results also reveal the possibility that global conformational changes give rise to observed species-specific thermodynamic activation parameters. Taken together, our kinetic and thermodynamic results provide a possible allosteric mechanism by which acetyl-CoA coordinates catalysis within the PC tetramer.

  3. Requirements for Carnitine Shuttle-Mediated Translocation of Mitochondrial Acetyl Moieties to the Yeast Cytosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmen M. van Rossum

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In many eukaryotes, the carnitine shuttle plays a key role in intracellular transport of acyl moieties. Fatty acid-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells employ this shuttle to translocate acetyl units into their mitochondria. Mechanistically, the carnitine shuttle should be reversible, but previous studies indicate that carnitine shuttle-mediated export of mitochondrial acetyl units to the yeast cytosol does not occur in vivo. This apparent unidirectionality was investigated by constitutively expressing genes encoding carnitine shuttle-related proteins in an engineered S. cerevisiae strain, in which cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA synthesis could be switched off by omitting lipoic acid from growth media. Laboratory evolution of this strain yielded mutants whose growth on glucose, in the absence of lipoic acid, was l-carnitine dependent, indicating that in vivo export of mitochondrial acetyl units to the cytosol occurred via the carnitine shuttle. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was identified as the predominant source of acetyl-CoA in the evolved strains. Whole-genome sequencing revealed mutations in genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (MCT1, nuclear-mitochondrial communication (RTG2, and encoding a carnitine acetyltransferase (YAT2. Introduction of these mutations into the nonevolved parental strain enabled l-carnitine-dependent growth on glucose. This study indicates intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA concentration and constitutive expression of carnitine shuttle genes as key factors in enabling in vivo export of mitochondrial acetyl units via the carnitine shuttle.

  4. Histone Acetylation is Recruited in Consolidation as a Molecular Feature of Stronger Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Noel; Fustinana, Maria Sol; Romano, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression is a key process for memory consolidation. Recently, the participation of epigenetic mechanisms like histone acetylation was evidenced in long-term memories. However, until now the training strength required and the persistence of the chromatin acetylation recruited are not well characterized. Here we studied whether histone…

  5. Total levels of hippocampal histone acetylation predict normal variability in mouse behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addie May I Nesbitt

    Full Text Available Genetic, pharmacological, and environmental interventions that alter total levels of histone acetylation in specific brain regions can modulate behaviors and treatment responses. Efforts have been made to identify specific genes that are affected by alterations in total histone acetylation and to propose that such gene specific modulation could explain the effects of total histone acetylation levels on behavior - the implication being that under naturalistic conditions variability in histone acetylation occurs primarily around the promoters of specific genes.Here we challenge this hypothesis by demonstrating with a novel flow cytometry based technique that normal variability in open field exploration, a hippocampus-related behavior, was associated with total levels of histone acetylation in the hippocampus but not in other brain regions.Results suggest that modulation of total levels of histone acetylation may play a role in regulating biological processes. We speculate in the discussion that endogenous regulation of total levels of histone acetylation may be a mechanism through which organisms regulate cellular plasticity. Flow cytometry provides a useful approach to measure total levels of histone acetylation at the single cell level. Relating such information to behavioral measures and treatment responses could inform drug delivery strategies to target histone deacetylase inhibitors and other chromatin modulators to places where they may be of benefit while avoiding areas where correction is not needed and could be harmful.

  6. Protective Effects of Acetylation on the Pathological Reactions of the Lens Crystallins with Homocysteine Thiolactone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Moafian

    Full Text Available Various post-translational lens crystallins modifications result in structural and functional insults, contributing to the development of lens opacity and cataract disorders. Lens crystallins are potential targets of homocysteinylation, particularly under hyperhomocysteinemia which has been indicated in various eye diseases. Since both homocysteinylation and acetylation primarily occur on protein free amino groups, we applied different spectroscopic methods and gel mobility shift analysis to examine the possible preventive role of acetylation against homocysteinylation. Lens crystallins were extensively acetylated in the presence of acetic anhydride and then subjected to homocysteinylation in the presence of homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL. Extensive acetylation of the lens crystallins results in partial structural alteration and enhancement of their stability, as well as improvement of α-crystallin chaperone-like activity. In addition, acetylation partially prevents HCTL-induced structural alteration and aggregation of lens crystallins. Also, acetylation protects against HCTL-induced loss of α-crystallin chaperone activity. Additionally, subsequent acetylation and homocysteinylation cause significant proteolytic degradation of crystallins. Therefore, further experimentation is required in order to judge effectively the preventative role of acetylation on the structural and functional insults induced by homocysteinylation of lens crystallins.

  7. The Effect of Hypochlorite Oxidation and Acetylation on Some of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The native and modified (oxidized and acetylated) starches were studied with respect to Infrared spectroscopy(IR), microscopy, gelatinization, swelling power, solubility index, amylose content, paste clarity and proximate compositions. Oxidized starch had the highest paste clarity, followed by the acetylated starch. The paste ...

  8. Identification of lysine K18 acetylation on histone H3 peptide using gold nanoparticles' aggregation behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Sutarlie, Laura; Lew, Qiao Jing; Chao, Sheng-Hao; Su, Xiaodi

    2016-04-01

    Acetylation of histones, the major protein component of eukaryotic chromosomes, contributes to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and is also involved in cancer development. A recent study revealed the correlation between tumour formation and acetylation level of lysine K18 on histone H3. In this study, we developed two colorimetric in vitro assays using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for identification of lysine K18 acetylation on histone H3 peptide. In assay I, citrate ion-capped AuNP without further modification was employed. Simply mixing the K18 peptide with AuNP solution leads to distinct particle aggregation, relative to that by non-acetylated or lysine K14 acetylated control peptides. In assay II, an AuNP-peptide-antibody composite was synthesized and used as both the sensing probe and the transducing element. By mixing the sample peptides with the composite solution followed by PBS screening, different aggregation behaviours were observed between the K18 acetylated target peptide and the control sequences. Both assays are capable of identifying the acetylated peptides, and also differentiating the distinctive acetylation positions that differ merely by a distance of three amino acids.

  9. Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhary, Chuna Ram; Kumar, Chanchal; Gnad, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a reversible posttranslational modification of proteins and plays a key role in regulating gene expression. Technological limitations have so far prevented a global analysis of lysine acetylation's cellular roles. We used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify 3600 ly...

  10. Cyclic AMP Inhibits the Activity and Promotes the Acetylation of Acetyl-CoA Synthetase through Competitive Binding to the ATP/AMP Pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaobiao; Shen, Liqiang; Wang, Qijun; Cen, Xufeng; Wang, Jin; Wu, Meng; Li, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Guoping

    2017-01-27

    The high-affinity biosynthetic pathway for converting acetate to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is catalyzed by the central metabolic enzyme acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (Acs), which is finely regulated both at the transcriptional level via cyclic AMP (cAMP)-driven trans-activation and at the post-translational level via acetylation inhibition. In this study, we discovered that cAMP directly binds to Salmonella enterica Acs (SeAcs) and inhibits its activity in a substrate-competitive manner. In addition, cAMP binding increases SeAcs acetylation by simultaneously promoting Pat-dependent acetylation and inhibiting CobB-dependent deacetylation, resulting in enhanced SeAcs inhibition. A crystal structure study and site-directed mutagenesis analyses confirmed that cAMP binds to the ATP/AMP pocket of SeAcs, and restrains SeAcs in an open conformation. The cAMP contact residues are well conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, suggesting a general regulatory mechanism of cAMP on Acs. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Detection of MPLW515L/K Mutations and Determination of Allele Frequencies with a Single-Tube PCR Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hiraku; Morishita, Soji; Araki, Marito; Edahiro, Yoko; Sunami, Yoshitaka; Hironaka, Yumi; Noda, Naohiro; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Ohsaka, Akimichi; Komatsu, Norio

    2014-01-01

    A gain-of-function mutation in the myeloproliferative leukemia virus (MPL) gene, which encodes the thrombopoietin receptor, has been identified in patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, subgroups of classic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The presence of MPL gene mutations is a critical diagnostic criterion for these diseases. Here, we developed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective method of detecting two major MPL mutations, MPLW515L/K, in a single PCR assay; we termed this method DARMS (dual amplification refractory mutation system)-PCR. DARMS-PCR is designed to produce three different PCR products corresponding to MPLW515L, MPLW515K, and all MPL alleles. The amplicons are later detected and quantified using a capillary sequencer to determine the relative frequencies of the mutant and wild-type alleles. Applying DARMS-PCR to human specimens, we successfully identified MPL mutations in MPN patients, with the exception of patients bearing mutant allele frequencies below the detection limit (5%) of this method. The MPL mutant allele frequencies determined using DARMS-PCR correlated strongly with the values determined using deep sequencing. Thus, we demonstrated the potential of DARMS-PCR to detect MPL mutations and determine the allele frequencies in a timely and cost-effective manner. PMID:25144224

  12. Detection of MPLW515L/K mutations and determination of allele frequencies with a single-tube PCR assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Takei

    Full Text Available A gain-of-function mutation in the myeloproliferative leukemia virus (MPL gene, which encodes the thrombopoietin receptor, has been identified in patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, subgroups of classic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs. The presence of MPL gene mutations is a critical diagnostic criterion for these diseases. Here, we developed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective method of detecting two major MPL mutations, MPLW515L/K, in a single PCR assay; we termed this method DARMS (dual amplification refractory mutation system-PCR. DARMS-PCR is designed to produce three different PCR products corresponding to MPLW515L, MPLW515K, and all MPL alleles. The amplicons are later detected and quantified using a capillary sequencer to determine the relative frequencies of the mutant and wild-type alleles. Applying DARMS-PCR to human specimens, we successfully identified MPL mutations in MPN patients, with the exception of patients bearing mutant allele frequencies below the detection limit (5% of this method. The MPL mutant allele frequencies determined using DARMS-PCR correlated strongly with the values determined using deep sequencing. Thus, we demonstrated the potential of DARMS-PCR to detect MPL mutations and determine the allele frequencies in a timely and cost-effective manner.

  13. Acetylated Hyaluronic Acid: Enhanced Bioavailability and Biological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Saturnino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA, a macropolysaccharidic component of the extracellular matrix, is common to most species and it is found in many sites of the human body, including skin and soft tissue. Not only does HA play a variety of roles in physiologic and in pathologic events, but it also has been extensively employed in cosmetic and skin-care products as drug delivery agent or for several biomedical applications. The most important limitations of HA are due to its short half-life and quick degradation in vivo and its consequently poor bioavailability. In the aim to overcome these difficulties, HA is generally subjected to several chemical changes. In this paper we obtained an acetylated form of HA with increased bioavailability with respect to the HA free form. Furthermore, an improved radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activity has been evidenced, respectively, on ABTS radical cation and murine monocyte/macrophage cell lines (J774.A1.

  14. Selective targeting of HDAC1/2 elicits anticancer effects through Gli1 acetylation in preclinical models of SHH Medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coni, Sonia; Mancuso, Anna Barbara; Di Magno, Laura; Sdruscia, Giulia; Manni, Simona; Serrao, Silvia Maria; Rotili, Dante; Spiombi, Eleonora; Bufalieri, Francesca; Petroni, Marialaura; Kusio-Kobialka, Monika; De Smaele, Enrico; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Capalbo, Carlo; Mai, Antonello; Niewiadomski, Pawel; Screpanti, Isabella; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Canettieri, Gianluca

    2017-03-09

    SHH Medulloblastoma (SHH-MB) is a pediatric brain tumor characterized by an inappropriate activation of the developmental Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. SHH-MB patients treated with the FDA-approved vismodegib, an Hh inhibitor that targets the transmembrane activator Smoothened (Smo), have shown the rapid development of drug resistance and tumor relapse due to novel Smo mutations. Moreover, a subset of patients did not respond to vismodegib because mutations were localized downstream of Smo. Thus, targeting downstream Hh components is now considered a preferable approach. We show here that selective inhibition of the downstream Hh effectors HDAC1 and HDAC2 robustly counteracts SHH-MB growth in mouse models. These two deacetylases are upregulated in tumor and their knockdown inhibits Hh signaling and decreases tumor growth. We demonstrate that mocetinostat (MGCD0103), a selective HDAC1/HDAC2 inhibitor, is a potent Hh inhibitor and that its effect is linked to Gli1 acetylation at K518. Of note, we demonstrate that administration of mocetinostat to mouse models of SHH-MB drastically reduces tumor growth, by reducing proliferation and increasing apoptosis of tumor cells and prolongs mouse survival rate. Collectively, these data demonstrate the preclinical efficacy of targeting the downstream HDAC1/2-Gli1 acetylation in the treatment of SHH-MB.

  15. Partially acetylated chitosan oligo- and polymers induce an oxidative burst in suspension cultured cells of the gymnosperm Araucaria angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, André Luis Wendt; El Gueddari, Nour Eddine; Trombotto, Stéphane; Moerschbacher, Bruno Maria

    2008-12-01

    Suspension-cultured cells were used to analyze the activation of defense responses in the conifer A. angustifolia , using as an elicitor purified chitosan polymers of different degrees of acetylation (DA 1-69%), chitin oligomers of different degrees of polymerization (DP 3-6), and chitosan oligomer of different DA (0-91%). Suspension cultured cells elicited with chitosan polymers reacted with a rapid and transient generation of H2O2, with chitosans of high DA (60 and 69%) being the most active ones. Chitosan oligomers of high DA (78 and 91%) induced substantial levels of H2O2, but fully acetylated chitin oligomers did not. When cultivated for 24-72 h in the presence of 1-10 microg mL(-1) chitosan (DA 69%), cell cultures did not show alterations in the levels of enzymes related to defense responses, suggesting that, in A. angustifolia , the induction of an oxidative burst is not directly coupled to the induction of other defense reactions.

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of native and acetylated wheat starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangli; Zhou, Xin; Sui, Zhongquan; Bao, Jinsong

    2016-10-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the physicochemical and crystalline properties of the native and acetylated wheat starches were investigated. Peak, hot paste, cool paste and setback viscosities of both native and acetylated wheat starches decreased continuously and significantly with the increase of the irradiation dose, whereas breakdown viscosity increased after irradiation. However, gamma irradiation only exerted slight effects on thermal and retrogradation properties of both native and acetylated wheat starches. X-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that acetylation modification had considerable effects on the molecular structure of wheat starch, and the crystallinity of both untreated and acetylated starches increased slightly with the increase of irradiation dose. However, the V-type crystallinity of amylose-lipid complex was not affected by gamma irradiation treatments with doses up to 9kGy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Libo; Yang, Yongtao; Bode, Liv; Huang, Hua; Liu, Chengyu; Huang, Rongzhong; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Lujun; Liu, Siwen; Zhou, Jingjing; Li, Xin; He, Tieming; Cheng, Zhongyi; Xie, Peng

    2014-09-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Acetyl Group on Mechanical Properties of Chitin/Chitosan Nanocrystal: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhe Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitin fiber is the load-bearing component in natural chitin-based materials. In these materials, chitin is always partially deacetylated to different levels, leading to diverse material properties. In order to understand how the acetyl group enhances the fracture resistance capability of chitin fiber, we constructed atomistic models of chitin with varied acetylation degree and analyzed the hydrogen bonding pattern, fracture, and stress-strain behavior of these models. We notice that the acetyl group can contribute to the formation of hydrogen bonds that can stabilize the crystalline structure. In addition, it is found that the specimen with a higher acetylation degree presents a greater resistance against fracture. This study describes the role of the functional group, acetyl groups, in crystalline chitin. Such information could provide preliminary understanding of nanomaterials when similar functional groups are encountered.

  19. Marker-assisted introgression of opaque2 allele for rapid conversion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Nairobi, Kenya;. *Corresponding author: fh_gpb@yahoo.com. Running title: ..... maydis leaf blight, turcicum leaf blight, banded leaf and sheath blight, polysora rust, common rust, charcoal rot, fusarium stalk rot, sorghum downy mildew, ...

  20. Engineering Recombinant Protein Sensors for Quantifying Histone Acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Oscar F; Mendonca, Agnes; Carneiro, Ana D; Yuan, Chongli

    2017-03-24

    H3K14ac (acetylation of lysine 14 of histone H3) is one of the most important epigentic modifications. Aberrant changes in H3K14ac have been associated with various diseases, including cancers and neurological disorders. Tools that enable detection and quantification of H3K14ac levels in cell extracts and in situ are thus of critical importance to reveal its role in various biological processes. Current detection techniques of specific histone modifications, however, are constrained by tedious sample pretreatments, lack of quantitative accuracy, and reliance on high quality antibodies. To address this issue, we engineered recombinant sensors that are suitable for probing histone acetylation levels using various biological samples. The protein sensor contains recongition domain(s) with sequences derived from the bromodomain of human polybromo-1 (PB1), a natural H3K14ac reader domain. Various sensor designs were tested using nuclear extracts and live cells. The sensor containing dimeric repeats of bromodomain was found most effective in quantifying H3K14ac level in both in vitro and in situ assays. The sensor has a linear detection range of 0.5-50 nM when mixed with nuclear extracts. The sensor colocalizes with H3K14ac antibodies in situ when transfected into human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells and is thus capable of providing spatial details of histone modification within the nucleus. Corrected nuclear fluorescence intensity was used to quantify the modification level in situ and found to correlate well with our in vitro assays. Our sensor offers a novel tool to characterize the histone modification level using nuclear extracts and probe histone modification change in live cells.

  1. Phylogeny, classification and metagenomic bioprospecting of microbial acetyl xylan esterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesioye, Fiyinfoluwa A; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Biely, Peter; Cowan, Don A

    2016-11-01

    Acetyl xylan esterases (AcXEs), also termed xylan deacetylases, are broad specificity Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes) that hydrolyse ester bonds to liberate acetic acid from acetylated hemicellulose (typically polymeric xylan and xylooligosaccharides). They belong to eight families within the Carbohydrate Esterase (CE) class of the CAZy database. AcXE classification is largely based on sequence-dependent phylogenetic relationships, supported in some instances with substrate specificity data. However, some sequence-based predictions of AcXE-encoding gene identity have proved to be functionally incorrect. Such ambiguities can lead to mis-assignment of genes and enzymes during sequence data-mining, reinforcing the necessity for the experimental confirmation of the functional properties of putative AcXE-encoding gene products. Although one-third of all characterized CEs within CAZy families 1-7 and 16 are AcXEs, there is a need to expand the sequence database in order to strengthen the link between AcXE gene sequence and specificity. Currently, most AcXEs are derived from a limited range of (mostly microbial) sources and have been identified via culture-based bioprospecting methods, restricting current knowledge of AcXEs to data from relatively few microbial species. More recently, the successful identification of AcXEs via genome and metagenome mining has emphasised the huge potential of culture-independent bioprospecting strategies. We note, however, that the functional metagenomics approach is still hampered by screening bottlenecks. The most relevant recent reviews of AcXEs have focused primarily on the biochemical and functional properties of these enzymes. In this review, we focus on AcXE phylogeny, classification and the future of metagenomic bioprospecting for novel AcXEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acetylated Lysozyme as Impurity in Lysozyme Crystals: Constant Distribution Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B. R.; Chernov, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    Hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was acetylated to modify molecular charge keeping the molecular size and weight nearly constant. Two derivatives, A and B, more and less acetylated, respectively, were obtained, separated, purified and added to the solution from which crystals of tetragonal HEWL crystals were grown. Amounts of the A or B impurities added were 0.76, 0.38 and 0.1 milligram per millimeter while HEWL concentration were 20, 30 and 40 milligram per milliliter. The crystals grown in 18 experiments for each impurity were dissolved and quantities of A or B additives in these crystals were analyzed by cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography. All the data for each set of 18 samples with the different impurity and regular HEWL concentrations is well described by one distribution coefficient K = 2.15 plus or minus 0.13 for A and K = 3.42 plus or minus 0.25 for B. The observed independence of the distribution coefficient on both the impurity concentration and supersaturation is explained by the dilution model described in this paper. It shows that impurity adsorption and incorporation rate is proportional to the impurity concentration and that the growth rate is proportional to the crystallizing protein in solution. With the kinetic coefficient for crystallization, beta = 5.10(exp -7) centimeters per second, the frequency at which an impurity molecule near the growing interface irreversibly joins a molecular site on the crystal was found to be 3 1 per second, much higher than the average frequency for crystal molecules. For best quality protein crystals it is better to have low microheterogeneous protein impurity concentration and high supers aturation.

  3. Drop-out probabilities of IrisPlex SNP alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Tvedebrink, Torben; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2013-01-01

    In certain crime cases, information about a perpetrator's phenotype, including eye colour, may be a valuable tool if no DNA profile of any suspect or individual in the DNA database matches the DNA profile found at the crime scene. Often, the available DNA material is sparse and allelic drop......-out when the amount of DNA was greater than 125 pg for 29 cycles of PCR and greater than 62 pg for 30 cycles of PCR. With the use of a logistic regression model, we estimated the allele specific probability of drop-out in heterozygote systems based on the signal strength of the observed allele...

  4. Identification and Functional Characterization of N-Terminally Acetylated Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Bertran; Roschitzki, Bernd; Mohanty, Sonali; Niederer, Eva M.; Laczko, Endre; Timmerman, Evy; Lange, Vinzenz; Hafen, Ernst; Aebersold, Ruedi; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Basler, Konrad; Ahrens, Christian H.; Gevaert, Kris; Brunner, Erich

    2009-01-01

    Protein modifications play a major role for most biological processes in living organisms. Amino-terminal acetylation of proteins is a common modification found throughout the tree of life: the N-terminus of a nascent polypeptide chain becomes co-translationally acetylated, often after the removal of the initiating methionine residue. While the enzymes and protein complexes involved in these processes have been extensively studied, only little is known about the biological function of such N-terminal modification events. To identify common principles of N-terminal acetylation, we analyzed the amino-terminal peptides from proteins extracted from Drosophila Kc167 cells. We detected more than 1,200 mature protein N-termini and could show that N-terminal acetylation occurs in insects with a similar frequency as in humans. As the sole true determinant for N-terminal acetylation we could extract the (X)PX rule that indicates the prevention of acetylation under all circumstances. We could show that this rule can be used to genetically engineer a protein to study the biological relevance of the presence or absence of an acetyl group, thereby generating a generic assay to probe the functional importance of N-terminal acetylation. We applied the assay by expressing mutated proteins as transgenes in cell lines and in flies. Here, we present a straightforward strategy to systematically study the functional relevance of N-terminal acetylations in cells and whole organisms. Since the (X)PX rule seems to be of general validity in lower as well as higher eukaryotes, we propose that it can be used to study the function of N-terminal acetylation in all species. PMID:19885390

  5. N-acetyl-aspartate, total creatine, and myo-inositol in the epileptogenic human hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroff, Ognen A C; Errante, Laura D; Kim, Jung H; Spencer, Dennis D

    2003-05-27

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is characterized by hippocampal atrophy, decreased N-acetyl-aspartate, and a low N-acetyl-aspartate/total creatine ratio, often attributed to neuron loss and gliosis. Qualitative studies reported that N-acetyl-aspartate content was significantly lower in hippocampal sclerosis. It was proposed to measure the effects of neuron loss and gliosis on the hippocampal content of N-acetyl-aspartate, total creatine, and myo-inositol in mTLE. Twenty hippocampal specimens were obtained during temporal lobectomy and frozen quickly. Perchloric acid extracts of the small metabolites were prepared and analyzed by proton MRS at 11.75 T. Adjacent samples were used for cell counts. There were no significant associations between hippocampal neuron loss and the cellular content of N-acetyl-aspartate, total creatine, or myo-inositol, despite more than a threefold difference in neuron loss and a twofold increase in glial density. Metabolite concentrations varied two- to fourfold. Variation in the cellular content of total creatine accounted for more than three-quarters of the rank-order variance of the N-acetyl-aspartate concentrations. There were no associations between myo-inositol and N-acetyl-aspartate or total creatine. Overall, mean N-acetyl-aspartate levels were below those reported by in vivo MRS studies of control subjects. These data suggest that decreased N-acetyl-aspartate in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy reflects altered mitochondrial metabolism, not merely neuron loss or gliosis. It is hypothesized that the altered N-acetyl-aspartate and creatine metabolism could reflect mitochondrial dysfunction or proliferation of immature glial cells that could contribute to the epileptogenic state.

  6. The Global Acetylome of the Human Pathogen Vibrio cholerae V52 Reveals Lysine Acetylation of Major Transcriptional Regulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jers, Carsten; Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Lezyk, Mateusz Jakub

    2018-01-01

    involved in metabolic and cellular processes and there was an over-representation of acetylated proteins involved in protein synthesis. Of interest, we demonstrated that many global transcription factors such as CRP, H-NS, IHF, Lrp and RpoN as well as transcription factors AphB, TcpP, and PhoB involved......Protein lysine acetylation is recognized as an important reversible post translational modification in all domains of life. While its primary roles appear to reside in metabolic processes, lysine acetylation has also been implicated in regulating pathogenesis in bacteria. Several global lysine...... of immuno-enrichment of acetylated peptides and high resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 3,402 acetylation sites on 1,240 proteins. Of the acetylated proteins, more than half were acetylated on two or more sites. As reported for other bacteria, we observed that many of the acetylated proteins were...

  7. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  8. ATRA transcriptionally induces nSMase2 through CBP/p300-mediated histone acetylation[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christopher J.; Shamseddine, Achraf A.; Jacob, Joseph J.; Khalife, Gabrielle; Burns, Tara A.; Hannun, Yusuf A.

    2016-01-01

    Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2) is a key ceramide-producing enzyme in cellular stress responses. While many posttranslational regulators of nSMase2 are known, emerging evidence suggests a more protracted regulation of nSMase2 at the transcriptional level. Previously, we reported that nSMase2 is induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in MCF7 cells and implicated nSMase2 in ATRA-induced growth arrest. Here, we further investigated how ATRA regulates nSMase2. We find that ATRA regulates nSMase2 transcriptionally through the retinoic acid receptor-α, but this is independent of previously identified transcriptional regulators of nSMase2 (Sp1, Sp3, Runx2) and is not through increased promoter activity. Epigenetically, the nSMase2 gene is not repressively methylated in MCF7 cells. However, inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) with trichostatin A (TSA) induced nSMase2 comparably to ATRA; furthermore, combined ATRA and TSA treatment was not additive, suggesting ATRA regulates nSMase2 through direct modulation of histone acetylation. Confirming this, the histone acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein and p300 were required for ATRA induction of nSMase2. Finally, use of class-specific HDAC inhibitors suggested that HDAC4 and/or HDAC5 are negative regulators of nSMase2 expression. Collectively, these results identify a novel pathway of nSMase2 regulation and suggest that physiological or pharmacological modulation of histone acetylation can directly affect nSMase2 levels. PMID:27013100

  9. Experiments to Demonstrate Change in Allelic Frequency by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 11. Experiments to Demonstrate Change in Allelic Frequency by Genetic Drift. N B Ramachandra M S Ranjini. Classroom Volume 14 Issue 11 November 2009 pp 1110-1118 ...

  10. Analysis of allelic differential expression in human white blood cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pant, P V Krishna; Tao, Heng; Beilharz, Erica J; Ballinger, Dennis G; Cox, David R; Frazer, Kelly A

    2006-01-01

    .... To identify human genes with allelic expression differences, we genotype DNA and examine mRNA isolated from the white blood cells of 12 unrelated individuals using oligonucleotide arrays containing 8406 exonic SNPs...

  11. Distribution of Lewis (FUT3)genotype and allele: frequencies in a biethnic United States population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, B; Pankow, J S; Salomaa, V; Couper, D; Morris, T L; Brantley, K R; Hiller, K M; Heiss, G; Weston, B W

    2002-10-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of four major single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (T59G, T1067G, T202C, and C314T) of the Lewis ( FUT3)gene in a biethnic United States population. This population-based cross-sectional study was based on data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, which included 761 males and females aged 45-64 years, who had no known/detected clinical atherosclerotic disease (577 Caucasians, 184 African Americans). The main outcome measures were prevalence of the Lewis genotype and allele frequencies for four SNPs of the FUT3gene. The most common genotype was the "wild type" at all four nucleotide positions ( WWWW), which was found to be present in 46.9% of ARIC participants. At least one mutant allele was detected in 51.7% of Caucasians, and 56.7% of African Americans ( P=0.59). The frequencies of mutant alleles ranged from 6.3% to 18.4% at the four FUT3gene sites examined. The distribution of the Lewis genotype and allele frequencies differed significantly by ethnicity at sites 59, 202, and 314. The prevalence of the Lewis genotype suggesting a lack of alpha(1,3/1,4) fucosyltransferase activity was 11.6% in Caucasians and 9.9% in African Americans ( P=0.67). Four specific SNPs of the Lewis genotype are common in the population at large. However, these four SNPs seem to fail to explain the majority of Lewis-negative phenotype in African Americans, given that Lewis-negative genotype prevalence was about one-third of what was expected. Use of rapid DNA sequencing and simultaneous Lewis phenotype determination could avoid the problems associated with haplotype determination and Lewis genotype grouping. Further studies testing SNPs of the Lewisgene are warranted, in particular among African Americans.

  12. Sexual selection by female immunity against paternal antigens can fix loss of function alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Darius; Springer, Stevan A; Ma, Fang; Cohen, Miriam; Secrest, Patrick; Taylor, Rachel E; Varki, Ajit; Gagneux, Pascal

    2011-10-25

    Humans lack the common mammalian cell surface molecule N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) due to a CMAH gene inactivation, which occurred approximately three million years ago. Modern humans produce antibodies specific for Neu5Gc. We hypothesized that anti-Neu5Gc antibodies could enter the female reproductive tract and target Neu5Gc-positive sperm or fetal tissues, reducing reproductive compatibility. Indeed, female mice with a human-like Cmah(-/-) mutation and immunized to express anti-Neu5Gc antibodies show lower fertility with Neu5Gc-positive males, due to prezygotic incompatibilities. Human anti-Neu5Gc antibodies are also capable of targeting paternally derived antigens and mediate cytotoxicity against Neu5Gc-bearing chimpanzee sperm in vitro. Models of populations polymorphic for such antigens show that reproductive incompatibility by female immunity can drive loss-of-function alleles to fixation from moderate initial frequencies. Initially, the loss of a cell-surface antigen can occur due to drift in isolated populations or when natural selection favors the loss of a receptor exploited by pathogens, subsequently the same loss-of-function allele can come under sexual selection because it avoids being targeted by the female immune system. Thus, we provide evidence of a link between sexual selection and immune function: Antigenicity in females can select against foreign paternal antigens on sperm and rapidly fix loss-of-function alleles. Similar circumstances existed when the CMAH null allele was polymorphic in ancestral hominins, just before the divergence of Homo from australopithecines.

  13. A reactivity-selectivity study of the Friedel-Crafts acetylation of 3,3′-dimethylbiphenyl and the oxidation of the acetyl derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titinchi Salam JJ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Friedel-Crafts acetylation is an important route to aromatic ketones, in research laboratories and in industry. The acetyl derivatives of 3,3′-dimethylbiphenyl (3,3′-dmbp have applications in the field of liquid crystals and polymers and may be oxidized to the dicarboxylic acids and derivatives that are of interest in cancer treatment. Findings The effect of solvent and temperature on the selectivity of monoacetylation of 3,3’-dmbp by the Perrier addition procedure was studied using stoichiometric amounts of reagents. 4-Ac-3,3′-dmbp was formed almost quantitatively in boiling 1,2-dichloroethane and this is almost twice the yield hitherto reported. Using instead a molar ratio of substrate:AcCl:AlCl3 equal to 1:4:4 or 1:6:6 in boiling 1,2-dichloroethane, acetylation afforded 4,4′- and 4,6′-diacetyl-3,3′-dmbp in a total yield close to 100%. The acetyl derivatives were subsequently converted to the carboxylic acids by hypochlorite oxidation. The relative stabilities of the isomeric products and the corresponding σ-complexes were studied by DFT calculations and the data indicated that mono- and diacetylation followed different mechanisms. Conclusions Friedel-Crafts acetylation of 3,3′-dmbp using the Perrier addition procedure in boiling 1,2-dichloroethane was found to be superior to other recipes. The discrimination against the 6-acetyl derivative during monoacetylation seems to reflect a mechanism including an AcCl:AlCl3 complex or larger agglomerates as the electrophile, whereas the less selective diacetylations of the deactivated 4-Ac-3,3′-dmbp are suggested to include the acetyl cation as the electrophile. The DFT data also showed that complexation of intermediates and products with AlCl3 does not seem to be important in determining the mechanism.

  14. Aspirin inhibits glucose‑6‑phosphate dehydrogenase activity in HCT 116 cells through acetylation: Identification of aspirin-acetylated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D Ramesh; Alfonso, Lloyd F; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-08-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyzes the first reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway, and generates ribose sugars, which are required for nucleic acid synthesis, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which is important for neutralization of oxidative stress. The expression of G6PD is elevated in several types of tumor, including colon, breast and lung cancer, and has been implicated in cancer cell growth. Our previous study demonstrated that exposure of HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells to aspirin caused acetylation of G6PD, and this was associated with a decrease in its enzyme activity. In the present study, this observation was expanded to HT‑29 colorectal cancer cells, in order to compare aspirin‑mediated acetylation of G6PD and its activity between HCT 116 and HT‑29 cells. In addition, the present study aimed to determine the acetylation targets of aspirin on recombinant G6PD to provide an insight into the mechanisms of inhibition. The results demonstrated that the extent of G6PD acetylation was significantly higher in HCT 116 cells compared with in HT‑29 cells; accordingly, a greater reduction in G6PD enzyme activity was observed in the HCT 116 cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of aspirin‑acetylated G6PD (isoform a) revealed that aspirin acetylated a total of 14 lysine residues, which were dispersed throughout the length of the G6PD protein. One of the important amino acid targets of aspirin included lysine 235 (K235, in isoform a) and this corresponds to K205 in isoform b, which has previously been identified as being important for catalysis. Acetylation of G6PD at several sites, including K235 (K205 in isoform b), may mediate inhibition of G6PD activity, which may contribute to the ability of aspirin to exert anticancer effects through decreased synthesis of ribose sugars and NADPH.

  15. Mitochondrial protein acetylation as a cell-intrinsic, evolutionary driver of fat storage: chemical and metabolic logic of acetyl-lysine modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Sirisha; Grossmann, Ruth E; Brenner, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Hormone systems evolved over 500 million years of animal natural history to motivate feeding behavior and convert excess calories to fat. These systems produced vertebrates, including humans, who are famine-resistant but sensitive to obesity in environments of persistent overnutrition. We looked for cell-intrinsic metabolic features, which might have been subject to an evolutionary drive favoring lipogenesis. Mitochondrial protein acetylation appears to be such a system. Because mitochondrial acetyl-coA is the central mediator of fuel oxidation and is saturable, this metabolite is postulated to be the fundamental indicator of energy excess, which imprints a memory of nutritional imbalances by covalent modification. Fungal and invertebrate mitochondria have highly acetylated mitochondrial proteomes without an apparent mitochondrially targeted protein lysine acetyltransferase. Thus, mitochondrial acetylation is hypothesized to have evolved as a nonenzymatic phenomenon. Because the pKa of a nonperturbed Lys is 10.4 and linkage of a carbonyl carbon to an ε amino group cannot be formed with a protonated Lys, we hypothesize that acetylation occurs on residues with depressed pKa values, accounting for the propensity of acetylation to hit active sites and suggesting that regulatory Lys residues may have been under selective pressure to avoid or attract acetylation throughout animal evolution. In addition, a shortage of mitochondrial oxaloacetate under ketotic conditions can explain why macronutrient insufficiency also produces mitochondrial hyperacetylation. Reduced mitochondrial activity during times of overnutrition and undernutrition would improve fitness by virtue of resource conservation. Micronutrient insufficiency is predicted to exacerbate mitochondrial hyperacetylation. Nicotinamide riboside and Sirt3 activity are predicted to relieve mitochondrial inhibition.

  16. Ach1 is involved in shuttling mitochondrial acetyl units for cytosolic C2 provision in Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking pyruvate decarboxylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun; Zhang, Yiming; Siewers, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acetyl-CoA is compartmentalized in the cytosol, mitochondrion, peroxisome and nucleus, and cannot be directly transported between these compartments. With the acetyl-carnitine or glyoxylate shuttle, acetyl-CoA produced in peroxisomes or the cytoplasm can be transported...

  17. DRD4 dopamine receptor allelic diversity in various primate species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M.; Higley, D. [NIAAA, Rockville, MD (United States); O`Brien, S. [NCI, Frederick, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is uniquely characterized by a 48 bp repeating segment within the coding region, located in exon III. Different DRD4 alleles are produced by the presence of additional 48 bp repeats, each of which adds 16 amino acids to the length of the 3rd intracytoplasmic loop of the receptor. The DRD4 receptor is therefore an intriguing candidate gene for behaviors which are influenced by dopamine function. In several human populations, DRD4 alleles with 2-8 and 10 repeats have previously been identified, and the 4 and 7 repeat alleles are the most abundant. We have determined DRD4 genotypes in the following nonhuman primate species: chimpanzee N=2, pygmy chimpanzee N=2, gorilla N=4, siamang N=2, Gelada baboon N=1, gibbon N=1, orangutan (Bornean and Sumatran) N=62, spider monkey N=4, owl monkey N=1, Colobus monkey N=1, Patas monkey N=1, ruffed lemur N=1, rhesus macaque N=8, and vervet monkey N=28. The degree of DRD4 polymorphism and which DRD4 alleles were present both showed considerable variation across primate species. In contrast to the human, rhesus macaque monkeys were monomorphic. The 4 and 7 repeat allels, highly abundant in the human, may not be present in certain other primates. For example, the four spider monkeys we studied showed the 7, 8 and 9 repeat length alleles and the only gibbon we analyzed was homozygous for the 9 repeat allele (thus far not observed in the human). Genotyping of other primate species and sequencing of the individual DRD4 repeat alleles in different species may help us determine the ancestral DRD4 repeat length and identify connections between DRD4 genotype and phenotype.

  18. Allele diversity for the apoplastic invertase inhibitor gene from potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datir, Sagar S; Latimer, Julie M; Thomson, Susan J; Ridgway, Hayley J; Conner, Anthony J; Jacobs, Jeanne M E

    2012-06-01

    In planta the enzymatic activity of apoplastic and vacuolar invertases is controlled by inhibitory proteins. Although these invertase inhibitors (apoplastic and vacuolar forms) have been implicated as contributing to resistance to cold-induced sweetening (CIS) in tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), there is a lack of information on the structure and allelic diversity of the apoplastic invertase inhibitor genes. We have PCR-isolated and sequenced the alleles of the apoplastic invertase inhibitor gene (Stinh1) from three tetraploid potato genotypes: 1021/1 (a genotype with very high tolerance to CIS), 'Karaka' and 'Summer Delight' (two cultivars that are highly susceptible to CIS). In total, five alleles were identified in these genotypes, of which four (Stinh1-c, Stinh1-d, Stinh1-e, Stinh1-f) were novel. An analysis of allele diversity was conducted by incorporating previously published sequences of apoplastic invertase inhibitors from potato. Eight alleles were assessed for sequence polymorphism in the two exons and the single hypervariable intron. Contrary to the hypervariable intron, only 65 single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed in the exons, of which 42 confer amino acid substitutions. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences indicates that the alleles of the invertase inhibitor are highly conserved amongst members of the Solanaceae family.

  19. The effects of acetylation on properties of flax fibre and its polypropylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Flax fibre was modified with acetylation. The influence of the acetylation on the structure and properties of flax fibre were investigated as well as modified flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites were also prepared. The catalyst was used to accelerate acetylation reaction rate. Flax fibre was characterised after modification. Surface morphology, moisture absorption property, components content, degree of polymerisation, crystallinity of cellulose and thermal stability of flax fibres were studied. Due to acetylation, the flax fibre surface morphology and moisture resistance properties improved remarkably. Flax fibre (modified and unmodified reinforced polypropylene composites were fabricated with 30 wt% fibre loading. The mechanical properties were investigated for those composites. Tensile and flexural strengths of composites were found to increase with increasing degree of acetylation up to 18% and then decreased. Charpy impact strengths of composites were found to decrease with increasing degree of acetylation. Owing to addition of coupling agent (maleated polypropylene -MAH, the tensile and flexural strength properties were found to increase in between 20 to 35% depending on degree of acetylation.

  20. N-terminal acetylation promotes synaptonemal complex assembly in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinmin; Barroso, Consuelo; Zhang, Pan; Kim, Hyun-Min; Li, Shangtong; Labrador, Leticia; Lightfoot, James; Gerashchenko, Maxim V; Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Martinez-Perez, Enrique; Colaiácovo, Monica P

    2016-11-01

    N-terminal acetylation of the first two amino acids on proteins is a prevalent cotranslational modification. Despite its abundance, the biological processes associated with this modification are not well understood. Here, we mapped the pattern of protein N-terminal acetylation in Caenorhabditis elegans, uncovering a conserved set of rules for this protein modification and identifying substrates for the N-terminal acetyltransferase B (NatB) complex. We observed an enrichment for global protein N-terminal acetylation and also specifically for NatB substrates in the nucleus, supporting the importance of this modification for regulating biological functions within this cellular compartment. Peptide profiling analysis provides evidence of cross-talk between N-terminal acetylation and internal modifications in a NAT substrate-specific manner. In vivo studies indicate that N-terminal acetylation is critical for meiosis, as it regulates the assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC), a proteinaceous structure ubiquitously present during meiosis from yeast to humans. Specifically, N-terminal acetylation of NatB substrate SYP-1, an SC structural component, is critical for SC assembly. These findings provide novel insights into the biological functions of N-terminal acetylation and its essential role during meiosis. © 2016 Gao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Histone Acetylation near the Nucleosome Dyad Axis Enhances Nucleosome Disassembly by RSC and SWI/SNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana; North, Justin A; Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Manohar, Mridula; Prasad, Rashmi; Luger, Karolin; Ottesen, Jennifer J; Poirier, Michael G; Bartholomew, Blaine

    2015-12-01

    Signaling associated with transcription activation occurs through posttranslational modification of histones and is best exemplified by lysine acetylation. Lysines are acetylated in histone tails and the core domain/lateral surface of histone octamers. While acetylated lysines in histone tails are frequently recognized by other factors referred to as "readers," which promote transcription, the mechanistic role of the modifications in the lateral surface of the histone octamer remains unclear. By using X-ray crystallography, we found that acetylated lysines 115 and 122 in histone H3 are solvent accessible, but in biochemical assays they appear not to interact with the bromodomains of SWI/SNF and RSC to enhance recruitment or nucleosome mobilization, as previously shown for acetylated lysines in H3 histone tails. Instead, we found that acetylation of lysines 115 and 122 increases the predisposition of nucleosomes for disassembly by SWI/SNF and RSC up to 7-fold, independent of bromodomains, and only in conjunction with contiguous nucleosomes. Thus, in combination with SWI/SNF and RSC, acetylation of lateral surface lysines in the histone octamer serves as a crucial regulator of nucleosomal dynamics distinct from the histone code readers and writers. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Active chromatin domains are defined by acetylation islands revealed by genome-wide mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Tae-Young; Cuddapah, Suresh; Zhao, Keji

    2005-03-01

    The identity and developmental potential of a human cell is specified by its epigenome that is largely defined by patterns of chromatin modifications including histone acetylation. Here we report high-resolution genome-wide mapping of diacetylation of histone H3 at Lys 9 and Lys 14 in resting and activated human T cells by genome-wide mapping technique (GMAT). Our data show that high levels of the H3 acetylation are detected in gene-rich regions. The chromatin accessibility and gene expression of a genetic domain is correlated with hyperacetylation of promoters and other regulatory elements but not with generally elevated acetylation of the entire domain. Islands of acetylation are identified in the intergenic and transcribed regions. The locations of the 46,813 acetylation islands identified in this study are significantly correlated with conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) and many of them are colocalized with known regulatory elements in T cells. TCR signaling induces 4045 new acetylation loci that may mediate the global chromatin remodeling and gene activation. We propose that the acetylation islands are epigenetic marks that allow prediction of functional regulatory elements.

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Lysine Acetylation Sites in Rat Tissues Reveals Organ Specificity and Subcellular Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Lundby

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation is a major posttranslational modification involved in a broad array of physiological functions. Here, we provide an organ-wide map of lysine acetylation sites from 16 rat tissues analyzed by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. We quantify 15,474 modification sites on 4,541 proteins and provide the data set as a web-based database. We demonstrate that lysine acetylation displays site-specific sequence motifs that diverge between cellular compartments, with a significant fraction of nuclear sites conforming to the consensus motifs G-AcK and AcK-P. Our data set reveals that the subcellular acetylation distribution is tissue-type dependent and that acetylation targets tissue-specific pathways involved in fundamental physiological processes. We compare lysine acetylation patterns for rat as well as human skeletal muscle biopsies and demonstrate its general involvement in muscle contraction. Furthermore, we illustrate that acetylation of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase serves as a cellular mechanism to switch off enzymatic activity.

  4. Acetylation of Wood Flour from Four Wood Species Grown in Nigeria Using Vinegar and Acetic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu Azeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of acetylation on pretreated wood flour of four different wood species, Boabab (Adansonia digitata, Mahoganny (Daniella oliveri, African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa and Beech wood (Gmelina arborea, had been investigated. The first batch of wood species were acetylated using acetic anhydride while the second batch were acetylated with commercial vinegar. Both experiments were conducted in the presence of varying amount of CaCl2 as catalyst and at temperature of 120°C for 3 h. The success of acetylation was determined based on Weight Percent Gain for each sample treated with either chemicals used. FT-IR, a veritable tool was used for the analysis of both treated and untreated samples to further investigate the success of acetylation. The results showed the presence of important band such as carbonyl absorptions at 1743, 1744, 1746, 1731, 1718 and 1696 cm−1 as appeared separately in the spectra of acetylated samples, confirming esterification occurred. The purpose of this work was to investigate the applicability of vinegar for acetylation of lignocellulosic fibers. Blends/composites were prepared by solution casting and their kinetics investigated in distilled water. The results indicated they could be used in outdoor applications such as, decking and packaging.

  5. Profiling of cytosolic and peroxisomal acetyl-CoA metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    Full Text Available As a key intracellular metabolite, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA plays a major role in various metabolic pathways that link anabolism and catabolism. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acetyl-CoA involving metabolism is compartmentalized, and may vary with the nutrient supply of a cell. Membranes separating intracellular compartments are impermeable to acetyl-CoA and no direct transport between the compartments occurs. Thus, without carnitine supply the glyoxylate shunt is the sole possible route for transferring acetyl-CoA from the cytosol or the peroxisomes into the mitochondria. Here, we investigate the physiological profiling of different deletion mutants of ACS1, ACS2, CIT2 and MLS1 individually or in combination under alternative carbon sources, and study how various mutations alter carbon distribution. Based on our results a detailed model of carbon distribution about cytosolic and peroxisomal acetyl-CoA metabolism in yeast is suggested. This will be useful to further develop yeast as a cell factory for the biosynthesis of acetyl-CoA-derived products.

  6. Morphological, mechanical, barrier and properties of films based on acetylated starch and cellulose from barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Biduski, Bárbara; Evangelho, Jarine Amaral do; Bruni, Graziella Pinheiro; Antunes, Mariana Dias; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable films of native or acetylated starches with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. The tensile strength of the acetylated starch film was lower than those of the native starch film, without fibers. The addition of fibers increased the tensile strength and decreased the elongation and the moisture of native and acetylated starches films. The acetylated starch film showed higher water solubility when compared to native starch film. The addition of cellulose fibers reduced the water solubility of the acetylated starch film. The films reinforced with cellulose fiber exhibited a higher initial decomposition temperature and thermal stability. The mechanical, barrier, solubility, and thermal properties are factors which direct the type of the film application in packaging for food products. The films elaborated with acetylated starches of low degree of substitution were not effective in a reduction of the water vapor permeability. The addition of the cellulose fiber in acetylated and native starches films can contribute to the development of more resistant films to be applied in food systems that need to maintain their integrity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. FANCJ/BACH1 acetylation at lysine 1249 regulates the DNA damage response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Xie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1 promotes DNA repair through interactions with multiple proteins, including CtIP and FANCJ (also known as BRIP1/BACH1. While CtIP facilitates DNA end resection when de-acetylated, the function of FANCJ in repair processing is less well defined. Here, we report that FANCJ is also acetylated. Preventing FANCJ acetylation at lysine 1249 does not interfere with the ability of cells to survive DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs. However, resistance is achieved with reduced reliance on recombination. Mechanistically, FANCJ acetylation facilitates DNA end processing required for repair and checkpoint signaling. This conclusion was based on the finding that FANCJ and its acetylation were required for robust RPA foci formation, RPA phosphorylation, and Rad51 foci formation in response to camptothecin (CPT. Furthermore, both preventing and mimicking FANCJ acetylation at lysine 1249 disrupts FANCJ function in checkpoint maintenance. Thus, we propose that the dynamic regulation of FANCJ acetylation is critical for robust DNA damage response, recombination-based processing, and ultimately checkpoint maintenance.

  8. Shared peptide binding of HLA Class I and II alleles associate with cutaneous nevirapine hypersensitivity and identify novel risk alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlos, Rebecca; McKinnon, Elizabeth J.; Ostrov, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Genes of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system encode cell-surface proteins involved in regulation of immune responses, and the way drugs interact with the HLA peptide binding groove is important in the immunopathogenesis of T-cell mediated drug hypersensitivity syndromes. Nevirapine (NVP......), is an HIV-1 antiretroviral with treatment-limiting hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) associated with multiple class I and II HLA alleles. Here we utilize a novel analytical approach to explore these multi-allelic associations by systematically examining HLA molecules for similarities in peptide binding...... specificities and binding pocket structure. We demonstrate that primary predisposition to cutaneous NVP HSR, seen across ancestral groups, can be attributed to a cluster of HLA-C alleles sharing a common binding groove F pocket with HLA-C*04:01. An independent association with a group of class II alleles which...

  9. Mannose-binding lectin variant alleles and HLA-DR4 alleles are associated with giant cell arteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Soren; Baslund, Bo; Madsen, Hans O.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether variant alleles of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene causing low serum concentrations of MBL and/or polymorphisms of HLA-DRB1 are associated with increased susceptibility to polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) or particular clinical...... phenotypes of PMR/GCA. METHODS: MBL and HLA-DRB1 alleles were determined by polymerase chain reaction in 102 Danish patients with PMR (n = 37) or GCA (n = 65). Two hundred fifty and 193 healthy individuals served as controls for MBL and HLA genotyping, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of MBL variant...... alleles in controls, patients with PMR only, and patients with GCA was 37, 32, and 53% (p = 0.01), respectively. HLA-DRB1*04 was found in 47% of patients with PMR only and in 54% of patients with GCA, which differed significantly from the 35% found in controls (p = 0.01). HLA-DR4 alleles were...

  10. Transport and metabolism of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-galactoside in seedlings of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoszynski, M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside labeled with 3H in the indole and 14C in the galactose moieties was applied to kernels of 5 day old germinating seedlings of Zea mays. Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside was not transported into either the shoot or root tissue as the intact molecule but was instead hydrolyzed to yield [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [3H]indole-3-acetic acid which were then transported to the shoot with little radioactivity going to the root. With certain assumption concerning the equilibration of applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[U-14C]galactose with the endogenous pool, it may be concluded that indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside in the endosperm supplies about 2 picomoles per plant per hour of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and 1 picomole per plant per hour of indole-3-acetic acid to the shoot and thus is comparable to indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol as a source of indole-acetic acid for the shoot. Quantitative estimates of the amount of galactose in the kernels suggest that [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose is hydrolyzed after the compound leaves the endosperm but before it reaches the shoot. In addition, [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose supplies appreciable amounts of 14C to the shoot and both 14C and 3H to an uncharacterized insoluble fraction of the endosperm.

  11. A role for histone acetylation in the developmental regulation of VDJ recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, M T; Krangel, M S

    2000-01-21

    VDJ recombination is developmentally regulated in vivo by enhancer-dependent changes in the accessibility of chromosomal recombination signal sequences to the recombinase, but the molecular nature of these changes is unknown. Here histone H3 acetylation was measured along versions of a transgenic VDJ recombination reporter and the endogenous T cell receptor alpha/delta locus. Enhancer activity was shown to impart long-range, developmentally regulated changes in H3 acetylation, and H3 acetylation status was tightly linked to VDJ recombination. H3 hyperacetylation is proposed as a molecular mechanism coupling enhancer activity to accessibility for VDJ recombination.

  12. Identification and characterization of AckA-dependent protein acetylation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M B Post

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, has a number of factors known to contribute to pathogenesis; however, a full understanding of these processes and their regulation has proven to be elusive. Post-translational modifications (PTMs of bacterial proteins are now recognized as one mechanism of protein regulation. In the present study, Western blot analyses, with an anti-acetyl-lysine antibody, indicated that a large number of gonococcal proteins are post-translationally modified. Previous work has shown that Nε-lysine acetylation can occur non-enzymatically with acetyl-phosphate (AcP as the acetyl donor. In the current study, an acetate kinase mutant (1291ackA, which accumulates AcP, was generated in N. gonorrhoeae. Broth cultures of N. gonorrhoeae 1291wt and 1291ackA were grown, proteins extracted and digested, and peptides containing acetylated-lysines (K-acetyl were affinity-enriched from both strains. Mass spectrometric analyses of these samples identified a total of 2686 unique acetylation sites. Label-free relative quantitation of the K-acetyl peptides derived from the ackA and wild-type (wt strains demonstrated that 109 acetylation sites had an ackA/wt ratio>2 and p-values <0.05 in at least 2/3 of the biological replicates and were designated as "AckA-dependent". Regulated K-acetyl sites were found in ribosomal proteins, central metabolism proteins, iron acquisition and regulation proteins, pilus assembly and regulation proteins, and a two-component response regulator. Since AckA is part of a metabolic pathway, comparative growth studies of the ackA mutant and wt strains were performed. The mutant showed a growth defect under aerobic conditions, an inability to grow anaerobically, and a defect in biofilm maturation. In conclusion, the current study identified AckA-dependent acetylation sites in N. gonorrhoeae and determined that these sites are found in a diverse group of proteins. This work lays the foundation for

  13. Microbial transformation of acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid by Cunninghamella elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiu-Lan; Huo, Hua; Chen, Liang; Li, Jian; Sun, Jiang-Hao; Zheng, Peng-Wu; Sun, Yue; Wu, Zhi-Ming; Xiong, Ying-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Microbial biotransformation of acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid by Cunninghamella elegans AS 3.1207 was carried out, and totally four transformed products were isolated. On the basis of the extensive spectral data, their structures were characterized as 7β-hydroxy-11-keto-boswellic acid (1), 7β,30-dihydroxy-11-keto-boswellic acid (2), 7β,16α-dihydroxy-3-acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid (3), and 7β,15α,21β-trihydroxy-3-acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid (4), respectively. Among them, products 1 and 2 are the new compounds.

  14. PCAF-primed EZH2 acetylation regulates its stability and promotes lung adenocarcinoma progression

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Junhu; Zhan, Jun; Li, Shuai; Ma, Ji; Xu, Weizhi; Liu, Chang; Xue, Xiaowei; Xie, Yuping; Fang, Weigang; Chin, Y. Eugene; Zhang, Hongquan

    2015-01-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a key epigenetic regulator that catalyzes the trimethylation of H3K27 and is modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs). However, the precise regulation of EZH2 PTMs remains elusive. We, herein, report that EZH2 is acetylated by acetyltransferase P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) and is deacetylated by deacetylase SIRT1. We identified that PCAF interacts with and acetylates EZH2 mainly at lysine 348 (K348). Mechanistically, K348 acetylation decr...

  15. Distribution of HLA-B alleles in Mexican Amerindian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Hernández-Pacheco, Guadalupe; Zuñiga, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Rangel, Carlos; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Martínez-Laso, Jorge; Granados, Julio; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2003-02-01

    In the present study we analyzed by PCR-SSO technique the HLA-B gene frequencies in 281 healthy individuals from four Mexican Amerindian populations (66 Mayos, 90 Mazatecans, 72 Nahuas and 53 Teenek). The most frequent alleles in all studied populations were HLA-B35, HLA-B39, and HLA-B40; however, some differences were observed between populations. The HLA-B35 allele was the most frequent in three of the four populations studied (Mayos, Nahuas and Teenek), whereas in Mazatecans the most frequent allele was HLA-B39. HLA-B40 presented frequencies higher than 10% in all groups. On the other hand, only Mayos presented an HLA-B51 gene frequency higher than 10%. When comparisons were made, important differences between groups were observed. The Teenek group presented an increased frequency of HLA-B35 when compared to Mazatecans and the HLA-B52 allele was increased in Nahuas and Teenek when compared to Mayos. An increased frequency of HLA-B39 was observed in Mazatecans when compared to Nahuas, Mayos and Teenek. Also, an increased frequency of HLA-B51 was observed in Mayos when compared to Mazatecans and Nahuas. These data corroborate the restricted polymorphism of HLA-B alleles and the high frequency of HLA-B35, HLA-B39 and HLA-B40 alleles in autochthonous American populations. In spite of the restriction in this polymorphism, differences in frequencies of HLA-B alleles could be helpful in distinguishing each of these populations.

  16. A rapid molecular approach for chromosomal phasing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Regan

    Full Text Available Determining the chromosomal phase of pairs of sequence variants - the arrangement of specific alleles as haplotypes - is a routine challenge in molecular genetics. Here we describe Drop-Phase, a molecular method for quickly ascertaining the phase of pairs of DNA sequence variants (separated by 1-200 kb without cloning or manual single-molecule dilution. In each Drop-Phase reaction, genomic DNA segments are isolated in tens of thousands of nanoliter-sized droplets together with allele-specific fluorescence probes, in a single reaction well. Physically linked alleles partition into the same droplets, revealing their chromosomal phase in the co-distribution of fluorophores across droplets. We demonstrated the accuracy of this method by phasing members of trios (revealing 100% concordance with inheritance information, and demonstrate a common clinical application by phasing CFTR alleles at genomic distances of 11-116 kb in the genomes of cystic fibrosis patients. Drop-Phase is rapid (requiring less than 4 hours, scalable (to hundreds of samples, and effective at long genomic distances (200 kb.

  17. Medium Density Fibreboard Made of Acetylated Sludge from Paper Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthfi Hakim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Research of using sludge as raw material for making medium density fibreboard (MDF was useful to create additional value of sludge. The objective of the research was to evaluate physical properties, mechanical properties, and durability of MDF from acetylated sludge in 4 levels of acetate anhydride (0%, 3%, 5%, and 7% with 3 replicates. The MDF was made using dry process. After materials were mixed with adhesives, they were pressed using hotpress under 170 oC temperature and 45 Pa pressure for 25 minutes. The size of the MDF sample was 25 cm x 20 cm x 1 cm with 0.8 g/cm3 density. The physical properties (density, moisture content, water absorption, thickness swelling and mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, internal bond, screw holding power was tested based on JIS A 5905-2003 standard. The durability was evaluated using SNI 01-7207-2006. All physical properties of MDF fulfill JIS A 5905-2003. Acetate anhydride decreased the moisture content value of MDF. On the other hand, all mechanical properties did not fulfill the standard. That was caused by calcium carbonate in sludge that blocked the adhesion between sludge fibres. The durability of MDF tested here was classified Class I which is very resistant to termites.

  18. Efficacy of N-acetyl cysteine in traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Eakin

    Full Text Available In this study, using two different injury models in two different species, we found that early post-injury treatment with N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC reversed the behavioral deficits associated with the TBI. These data suggest generalization of a protocol similar to our recent clinical trial with NAC in blast-induced mTBI in a battlefield setting, to mild concussion from blunt trauma. This study used both weight drop in mice and fluid percussion injury in rats. These were chosen to simulate either mild or moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI. For mice, we used novel object recognition and the Y maze. For rats, we used the Morris water maze. NAC was administered beginning 30-60 minutes after injury. Behavioral deficits due to injury in both species were significantly reversed by NAC treatment. We thus conclude NAC produces significant behavioral recovery after injury. Future preclinical studies are needed to define the mechanism of action, perhaps leading to more effective therapies in man.

  19. MOF Acetyl Transferase Regulates Transcription and Respiration in Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Aindrila; Seyfferth, Janine; Lucci, Jacopo; Gilsbach, Ralf; Preissl, Sebastian; Böttinger, Lena; Mårtensson, Christoph U; Panhale, Amol; Stehle, Thomas; Kretz, Oliver; Sahyoun, Abdullah H; Avilov, Sergiy; Eimer, Stefan; Hein, Lutz; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Becker, Thomas; Akhtar, Asifa

    2016-10-20

    A functional crosstalk between epigenetic regulators and metabolic control could provide a mechanism to adapt cellular responses to environmental cues. We report that the well-known nuclear MYST family acetyl transferase MOF and a subset of its non-specific lethal complex partners reside in mitochondria. MOF regulates oxidative phosphorylation by controlling expression of respiratory genes from both nuclear and mtDNA in aerobically respiring cells. MOF binds mtDNA, and this binding is dependent on KANSL3. The mitochondrial pool of MOF, but not a catalytically deficient mutant, rescues respiratory and mtDNA transcriptional defects triggered by the absence of MOF. Mof conditional knockout has catastrophic consequences for tissues with high-energy consumption, triggering hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure in murine hearts; cardiomyocytes show severe mitochondrial degeneration and deregulation of mitochondrial nutrient metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. Thus, MOF is a dual-transcriptional regulator of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes connecting epigenetics and metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of N-acetyl cysteine on Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Ahmet Kemal; Ozel, A Melih; Ozturk, Ramazan; Yildirim, Sukru; Yazgan, Yusuf; Demirturk, Levent

    2005-11-01

    Use of mucolytic agents that result in reduced mucous viscosity of the gastric mucous has been suggested to have an additive effect in curing Helicobacter pylori infection. Seventy Hpylori-positive patients were given either eradication treatment consisting of 500 mg clarithromycin bid and 30 mg lansoprazole bid for 10 days plus 10 mL (400 mg) N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) liquid tid (AC group) or eradication treatment only (control group). The results were compared 1 month after the completion of the treatment. Fifty-eight patients were available for statistical analysis. Of the 28 patients in the AC group, 14 (50.0%) eradicated the infection after treatment, whereas only 7 of 30 (23.3%) patients in the control group had negative results. The difference between the AC group and the control group was statistically significant (P = 0.034). In both groups, there was no difference in the number of smokers and in the eradication rates between smokers and nonsmokers. Eradication treatment with or without NAC caused no significant side effects in either group. Our findings suggest that NAC has an additive effect on the eradication rates of H pylori obtained with dual therapy with lansoprazole and clarithromycin. NAC does not have any known activity against H pylori, but it may improve the delivery of antibiotics at the site of infection due to its ability to reduce the thickness of the mucus.

  1. Palmitate-induced lipotoxicity alters acetylation of multiple proteins in clonal β cells and human pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciregia, Federica; Bugliani, Marco; Ronci, Maurizio; Giusti, Laura; Boldrini, Claudia; Mazzoni, Maria R; Mossuto, Sandra; Grano, Francesca; Cnop, Miriam; Marselli, Lorella; Giannaccini, Gino; Urbani, Andrea; Lucacchini, Antonio; Marchetti, Piero

    2017-10-18

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by progressive β cell dysfunction, with lipotoxicity playing a possible pathogenetic role. Palmitate is often used to examine the direct effects of lipotoxicity and it may cause mitochondrial alterations by activating protein acetylation. However, it is unknown whether palmitate influences protein acetylation in β cells. We investigated lysine acetylation in mitochondrial proteins from INS-1E β cells (INS-1E) and in proteins from human pancreatic islets (HPI) after 24 h palmitate exposure. First, we confirmed that palmitate damages β cells and demonstrated that chemical inhibition of deacetylation also impairs INS-1E function and survival. Then, by 2-D gel electrophoresis, Western Blot and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry we evaluated the effects of palmitate on protein acetylation. In mitochondrial preparations from palmitate-treated INS-1E, 32 acetylated spots were detected, with 13 proteins resulting over-acetylated. In HPI, 136 acetylated proteins were found, of which 11 were over-acetylated upon culture with palmitate. Interestingly, three proteins, glutamate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, and SREBP-1, were over-acetylated in both INS-1E and HPI. Therefore, prolonged exposure to palmitate induces changes in β cell protein lysine acetylation and this modification could play a role in causing β cell damage. Dysregulated acetylation may be a target to counteract palmitate-induced β cell lipotoxicity.

  2. An MRM-based workflow for absolute quantitation of lysine-acetylated metabolic enzymes in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Leilei; Wang, Fang; Xu, Ying; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Cuiping; Qin, Xue; Yu, Hongxiu; Yang, Pengyuan

    2015-12-07

    As a key post-translational modification mechanism, protein acetylation plays critical roles in regulating and/or coordinating cell metabolism. Acetylation is a prevalent modification process in enzymes. Protein acetylation modification occurs in sub-stoichiometric amounts; therefore extracting biologically meaningful information from these acetylation sites requires an adaptable, sensitive, specific, and robust method for their quantification. In this work, we combine immunoassays and multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) technology to develop an absolute quantification for acetylation modification. With this hybrid method, we quantified the acetylation level of metabolic enzymes, which could demonstrate the regulatory mechanisms of the studied enzymes. The development of this quantitative workflow is a pivotal step for advancing our knowledge and understanding of the regulatory effects of protein acetylation in physiology and pathophysiology.

  3. Carbohydrate-linked asparagine-101 of prothrombin contains a metal ion protected acetylation site. Acetylation of this site causes loss of metal ion induced protein fluorescence change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsch, D.J.; Nelsestuen, G.L.

    1988-06-28

    Prothrombin fragment 1 (prothrombin residues 1-156) contains two acetylation sites that are protected from derivatization by calcium. The first site was protected by only calcium while the second site was protected by magnesium as well. To identify this second acetylation site, fragment 1 was first acetylated with unlabeled reagent in the presence of magnesium. Metal ions were removed, and the protein was acetylated with radiolabeled reagent. The incorporated radiolabel was stable over long periods of time and at acidic or basic pH as long as elevated temperatures were avoided. The radiolabel was removed by treatment of the protein at pH 10 and 50 /sup 0/C or with 0.2 M hydroxylamine at 50 /sup 0/C for at least 30 min. Proteolytic degradation of the protein showed that the radioactivity appeared in a tryptic peptide corresponding to residues 94-111 of prothrombin. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the radiolabel was associated with an unextracted sequence product. The major radiolabeled product contained Asn/sup 101/-Ser/sup 102/ along with the expected chitobiose attached to Asn-101. NMR analysis revealed the presence of three acetate groups which would correspond to two from the chitobiose plus the incorporated acetate residue. Mass spectral analysis showed the correct mass for this glycopeptide plus a single added acetyl group. Amide /sup 1/H NMR analysis showed only three amide protons rather than the anticipated four. On the basis of these several observations, it is postulated that the site of acetylation is the ..beta..-amide nitrogen of Asn-101. Consequently, these studies showed an unusual chemical reactivity in prothrombin fragment 1. They further show that metal ion binding to prothrombin fragment 1 and subsequent protein fluorescence quenching involve sites ion the kringle region of the protein.

  4. Maintenance of Glucose Homeostasis through Acetylation of the Metabolic Transcriptional Coactivator PGC-1alpha

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Puigserver, Pere

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this proposal is to test the hypothesis that acetylation of PGC-1alpha by GCN5 and associated proteins, Pc3 and WDR18, is a key regulatory modification that controls hepatic glucose production...

  5. Maintenance of Glucose Homeostasis through Acetylation of the Metabolic Transcriptional Coactivator PGC-1alpha

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Puigserver, Pere

    2007-01-01

    ... hepatic glucose production. This investigation has a define scope to specifically test how these proteins control the acetylation status of PGC-1alpha and what is the functional effect in blood glucose levels...

  6. Histone acetylation in astrocytes suppresses GFAP and stimulates a reorganization of the intermediate filament network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanski, Regina; Sneeboer, Marjolein A M; van Bodegraven, Emma J; Sluijs, Jacqueline A; Kropff, Wietske; Vermunt, Marit W.; Creyghton, Menno P; De Filippis, Lidia; Vescovi, Angelo; Aronica, Eleonora; van Tijn, P.; van Strien, Miriam E; Hol, Elly M

    2014-01-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the main intermediate filament in astrocytes and is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms during development. We demonstrate that histone acetylation also controls GFAP expression in mature astrocytes. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) with

  7. Altered Histone Acetylation Is Associated with Age-Dependent Memory Impairment in Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shahaf Peleg; Farahnaz Sananbenesi; Athanasios Zovoilis; Susanne Burkhardt; Sanaz Bahari-javan; Roberto Carlos Agis-Balboa; Perla Cota; Jessica Lee Wittnam; Andreas Gogol-Doering; Lennart Opitz; Gabriella Salinas-Riester; Markus Dettenhofer; Hui Kang; Laurent Farinelli; Wei Chen; André Fischer

    2010-01-01

    .... During learning, aged mice display a specific deregulation of histone H4 lysine 12 (H4K12) acetylation and fail to initiate a hippocampal gene expression program associated with memory consolidation...

  8. ownregulation of Rubisco Activity by Nonenzymatic Acetylation of RbcL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiang Gao Hui Hong Wei-Chao Li Lili Yang Jirong Huang You-Li Xiao Xiao-Ya Chen Gen-Yun Chen

    2016-01-01

    ...). Here we show that acetylation of lysine residues of the Rubisco large subunit (RbcL), including Lys201 and Lys334 in the active sites, may be an important mechanism in the regulation of Rubisco activities...

  9. Downregulation of Rubisco Activity by Non-enzymatic Acetylation of RbcL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Xiang; Hong, Hui; Li, Wei-Chao; Yang, Lili; Huang, Jirong; Xiao, You-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Chen, Gen-Yun

    2016-01-01

    ...). Here we show that acetylation of lysine residues of the Rubisco large subunit (RbcL), including Lys201 and Lys334 in the active sites, may be an important mechanism in the regulation of Rubisco activities...

  10. Preparation and structural characterization of O-acetyl agarose with low degree of substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela B. Garcia

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the biodegradable polymers, the polysaccharides have been found to be promising carriers for bioactive molecules. From a general standpoint, they present several reactive groups, such as hydroxyl, carboxyl and amine, that can be modified in a number of ways, giving rise to suitable devices for controlled release. In this paper, agarose was submitted to O-acetylation reactions under heterogeneous conditions, using acetic anhydride and pyridine, aiming to observe the effect of acetyl groups on the agarose properties. The products were characterized by Infrared and ¹H NMR spectroscopies. In the range of average acetylation degrees (DA 0.07-0.48, the polymers presented partial solubility in boiling water and in common organic solvents. The ¹H NMR spectra presented evidences of non-homogeneous acetyl group distribution along the chains, as concluded from the solubility of only one of the fractions with DA<0.09, in boiling water .

  11. A reactivity-selectivity study of the Friedel-Crafts acetylation of 3,3'-dimethylbiphenyl and the oxidation of the acetyl derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titinchi, Salam J.J.; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Abbo, Hanna S.

    2012-01-01

    ,3'-dmbp using the Perrier addition procedure in boiling 1,2-dichloroethane was found to be superior to other recipes. The discrimination against the 6-acetyl derivative during monoacetylation seems to reflect a mechanism including an AcCl: AlCl3 complex or larger agglomerates as the electrophile, whereas...... the less selective diacetylations of the deactivated 4-Ac-3,3'-dmbp are suggested to include the acetyl cation as the electrophile. The DFT data also showed that complexation of intermediates and products with AlCl3 does not seem to be important in determining the mechanism....

  12. Influence of human leukocyte antigen-B22 alleles on the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in 3 cohorts of white men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorak, M. Tevfik; Tang, Jianming; Tang, Shenghui; Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Coutinho, Roel A.; Goedert, James J.; Detels, Roger; Kaslow, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B22 serogroup--which consists of the alleles B*54, B*55, and B*56--has been associated with rapidly progressive disease in white patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Subjects from 3 cohorts of men who have sex with men (N=671), all of whom

  13. Allelic lineages of the ficolin genes (FCNs are passed from ancestral to descendant primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hummelshøj

    Full Text Available The ficolins recognize carbohydrates and acetylated compounds on microorganisms and dying host cells and are able to activate the lectin pathway of the complement system. In humans, three ficolin genes have been identified: FCN1, FCN2 and FCN3, which encode ficolin-1, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3, respectively. Rodents have only two ficolins designated ficolin-A and ficolin-B that are closely related to human ficolin-1, while the rodent FCN3 orthologue is a pseudogene. Ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 have so far only been observed in humans. Thus, we performed a systematic investigation of the FCN genes in non-human primates. The exons and intron-exon boundaries of the FCN1-3 genes were sequenced in the following primate species: chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus macaque, baboon and common marmoset. We found that the exon organisation of the FCN genes was very similar between all the non-human primates and the human FCN genes. Several variations in the FCN genes were found in more than one primate specie suggesting that they were carried from one species to another including humans. The amino acid diversity of the ficolins among human and non-human primate species was estimated by calculating the Shannon entropy revealing that all three proteins are generally highly conserved. Ficolin-1 and ficolin-2 showed the highest diversity, whereas ficolin-3 was more conserved. Ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 were present in non-human primate sera with the same characteristic oligomeric structures as seen in human serum. Taken together all the FCN genes show the same characteristics in lower and higher primates. The existence of trans-species polymorphisms suggests that different FCN allelic lineages may be passed from ancestral to descendant species.

  14. Requirements for Carnitine Shuttle-Mediated Translocation of Mitochondrial Acetyl Moieties to the Yeast Cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rossum, Harmen M; Kozak, Barbara U; Niemeijer, Matthijs S; Dykstra, James C; Luttik, Marijke A H; Daran, Jean-Marc G; van Maris, Antonius J A; Pronk, Jack T

    2016-05-03

    In many eukaryotes, the carnitine shuttle plays a key role in intracellular transport of acyl moieties. Fatty acid-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells employ this shuttle to translocate acetyl units into their mitochondria. Mechanistically, the carnitine shuttle should be reversible, but previous studies indicate that carnitine shuttle-mediated export of mitochondrial acetyl units to the yeast cytosol does not occur in vivo This apparent unidirectionality was investigated by constitutively expressing genes encoding carnitine shuttle-related proteins in an engineered S. cerevisiae strain, in which cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthesis could be switched off by omitting lipoic acid from growth media. Laboratory evolution of this strain yielded mutants whose growth on glucose, in the absence of lipoic acid, was l-carnitine dependent, indicating that in vivo export of mitochondrial acetyl units to the cytosol occurred via the carnitine shuttle. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was identified as the predominant source of acetyl-CoA in the evolved strains. Whole-genome sequencing revealed mutations in genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (MCT1), nuclear-mitochondrial communication (RTG2), and encoding a carnitine acetyltransferase (YAT2). Introduction of these mutations into the nonevolved parental strain enabled l-carnitine-dependent growth on glucose. This study indicates intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA concentration and constitutive expression of carnitine shuttle genes as key factors in enabling in vivo export of mitochondrial acetyl units via the carnitine shuttle. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to employ the carnitine shuttle for export of acetyl moieties from the mitochondria and, thereby, to act as the sole source of cytosolic acetyl-CoA. Further optimization of this ATP-independent mechanism for cytosolic acetyl-CoA provision can contribute to efficient

  15. Targeted amino-terminal acetylation of recombinant proteins in E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Johnson

    Full Text Available One major limitation in the expression of eukaryotic proteins in bacteria is an inability to post-translationally modify the expressed protein. Amino-terminal acetylation is one such modification that can be essential for protein function. By co-expressing the fission yeast NatB complex with the target protein in E.coli, we report a simple and widely applicable method for the expression and purification of functional N-terminally acetylated eukaryotic proteins.

  16. Phosphatase inhibitor 2 promotes acetylation of tubulin in the primary cilium of human retinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Weiping

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary cilia are flagella-like projections from the centriole of mammalian cells that have a key role in cell signaling. Human diseases are linked to defects in primary cilia. Microtubules make up the axoneme of cilia and are selectively acetylated and this is thought to contribute to the stability of the structure. However, mechanisms to regulate tubulin acetylation in cilia are poorly understood. Results Endogenous phosphatase inhibitor-2 (I-2 was found concentrated in cilia of human epithelial cells, and was localized to cilia early in the process of formation, prior to the full acetylation of microtubules. Knockdown of I-2 by siRNA significantly reduced the acetylation of microtubules in cilia, without a net decrease in whole cell tubulin acetylation. There was a reduction in the percentage of I-2 knockdown cells with a primary cilium, but no apparent alteration in the cilium length, suggesting no change in microtubule-based transport processes. Inhibition of either histone deacetylases with trichostatin A, or protein phosphatase-1 with calyculin A in I-2 knockdown cells partially rescued the acetylation of microtubules in cilia and the percentage of cells with a primary cilium. Conclusion The regulatory protein I-2 localizes to the primary cilium where it affects both Ser/Thr phosphorylation and is required for full tubulin acetylation. Rescue of tubulin acetylation in I-2 knockdown cells by different chemical inhibitors shows that deacetylases and phosphatases are functionally interconnected to regulate microtubules. As a multifunctional protein, I-2 may link cell cycle progression to structure and stability of the primary cilium.

  17. Proteomic investigations of lysine acetylation identify diverse substrates of mitochondrial deacetylase sirt3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sol, E-ri Maria; Wagner, Sebastian A; Weinert, Brian T

    2012-01-01

    of KDACs and pinpointing the regulated acetylation sites on target proteins may provide important information about the molecular basis of their functions. Here we apply quantitative proteomics to identify endogenous substrates of the mitochondrial deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) by comparing site...... by modulating acetylation on diverse substrates. The experimental strategy described here is generic and can be applied to identify endogenous substrates of other lysine deacetylases....

  18. Peripheral effects of FAAH deficiency on fuel and energy homeostasis: role of dysregulated lysine acetylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavapriya Vaitheesvaran

    Full Text Available FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase, primarily expressed in the liver, hydrolyzes the endocannabinoids fatty acid ethanolamides (FAA. Human FAAH gene mutations are associated with increased body weight and obesity. In our present study, using targeted metabolite and lipid profiling, and new global acetylome profiling methodologies, we examined the role of the liver on fuel and energy homeostasis in whole body FAAH(-/- mice.FAAH(-/- mice exhibit altered energy homeostasis demonstrated by decreased oxygen consumption (Indirect calorimetry. FAAH(-/- mice are hyperinsulinemic and have adipose, skeletal and hepatic insulin resistance as indicated by stable isotope phenotyping (SIPHEN. Fed state skeletal muscle and liver triglyceride levels was increased 2-3 fold, while glycogen was decreased 42% and 57% respectively. Hepatic cholesterol synthesis was decreased 22% in FAAH(-/- mice. Dysregulated hepatic FAAH(-/- lysine acetylation was consistent with their metabolite profiling. Fasted to fed increases in hepatic FAAH(-/- acetyl-CoA (85%, p<0.01 corresponded to similar increases in citrate levels (45%. Altered FAAH(-/- mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH2 acetylation, which can affect the malate aspartate shuttle, was consistent with our observation of a 25% decrease in fed malate and aspartate levels. Decreased fasted but not fed dihydroxyacetone-P and glycerol-3-P levels in FAAH(-/- mice was consistent with a compensating contribution from decreased acetylation of fed FAAH(-/- aldolase B. Fed FAAH(-/- alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH acetylation was also decreased.Whole body FAAH deletion contributes to a pre-diabetic phenotype by mechanisms resulting in impairment of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. FAAH(-/- mice had altered hepatic lysine acetylation, the pattern sharing similarities with acetylation changes reported with chronic alcohol treatment. Dysregulated hepatic lysine acetylation seen with impaired FAA hydrolysis could support the liver

  19. Monitoring the effect of belinostat in solid tumors by H4 acetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquard, L.; Petersen, K.D.; Persson, M.

    2008-01-01

    after treatment with HDAC inhibitors, and could thus be used as a marker for monitoring cellular response to HDAC inhibitor treatment. Here we describe the utility of a newly described monoclonal antibody against acetylated H4 for immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded fine needle biopsies from nude...... acetylation in fine needle biopsies using the T25 antibody may prove useful in monitoring HDAC inhibitor efficacy in clinical trials involving humans with solid tumors Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  20. Relationship between lunasin's sequence and its inhibitory activity of histones H3 and H4 acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Hsieh, Chia-Chien; de Lumen, Ben O

    2011-07-01

    Dysfunction of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) or histone deacetylases (HDACs) involved in histones acetylation has been associated with cancer. Inhibitors of these enzymes are becoming potential targets for new therapies. This study reports by Western-Blot analysis, that peptide lunasin is mainly an in vitro inhibitor of histone H4 acetylation by P300/cAMP-response element-binding protein (CBP)-associated factor (PCAF), with IC₅₀ values dependent on the lysine position sensitive to be acetylated (0.83 μM (H4-Lys 8), 1.27 μM (H4-Lys 12) and 0.40 μM (H4-Lys 5, 8, 12, 16)). Lunasin is also capable of inhibiting H3 acetylation (IC₅₀ of 5.91 μM (H3-Lys 9) and 7.81 μM (H3-Lys 9, 14)). Studies on structure-activity relationship establish that lunasin's sequence are essential for inhibiting H4 acetylation whereas poly-D sequence is the main active sequence responsible for H3 acetylation inhibition. Lunasin also inhibits H3 and H4 acetylation and cell proliferation (IC₅₀ of 181 μM) in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, this peptide decreases expression of cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases-4 and -6, implicated in cell cycle pathways. Results from this study demonstrates lunasin's role as modulator of histone acetylation and protein expression that might contribute on its chemopreventive properties against breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. In vitro phosphorylation and acetylation of the murine pocket protein Rb2/p130.

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    Muhammad Saeed

    Full Text Available The retinoblastoma protein (pRb and the related proteins Rb2/p130 and 107 represent the "pocket protein" family of cell cycle regulators. A key function of these proteins is the cell cycle dependent modulation of E2F-regulated genes. The biological activity of these proteins is controlled by acetylation and phosphorylation in a cell cycle dependent manner. In this study we attempted to investigate the interdependence of acetylation and phosphorylation of Rb2/p130 in vitro. After having identified the acetyltransferase p300 among several acetyltransferases to be associated with Rb2/p130 during S-phase in NIH3T3 cells in vivo, we used this enzyme and the CDK4 protein kinase for in vitro modification of a variety of full length Rb2/p130 and truncated versions with mutations in the acetylatable lysine residues 1079, 128 and 130. Mutation of these residues results in the complete loss of Rb2/p130 acetylation. Replacement of lysines by arginines strongly inhibits phosphorylation of Rb2/p130 by CDK4; the inhibitory effect of replacement by glutamines is less pronounced. Preacetylation of Rb2/p130 strongly enhances CDK4-catalyzed phosphorylation, whereas deacetylation completely abolishes in vitro phosphorylation. In contrast, phosphorylation completely inhibits acetylation of Rb2/p130 by p300. These results suggest a mutual interdependence of modifications in a way that acetylation primes Rb2/p130 for phosphorylation and only dephosphorylated Rb2/p130 can be subject to acetylation. Human papillomavirus 16-E7 protein, which increases acetylation of Rb2/p130 by p300 strongly reduces phosphorylation of this protein by CDK4. This suggests that the balance between phosphorylation and acetylation of Rb2/p130 is essential for its biological function in cell cycle control.

  2. Mapping dynamic histone acetylation patterns to gene expression in nanog-depleted murine embryonic stem cells.

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    Florian Markowetz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESC have the potential to self-renew indefinitely and to differentiate into any of the three germ layers. The molecular mechanisms for self-renewal, maintenance of pluripotency and lineage specification are poorly understood, but recent results point to a key role for epigenetic mechanisms. In this study, we focus on quantifying the impact of histone 3 acetylation (H3K9,14ac on gene expression in murine embryonic stem cells. We analyze genome-wide histone acetylation patterns and gene expression profiles measured over the first five days of cell differentiation triggered by silencing Nanog, a key transcription factor in ESC regulation. We explore the temporal and spatial dynamics of histone acetylation data and its correlation with gene expression using supervised and unsupervised statistical models. On a genome-wide scale, changes in acetylation are significantly correlated to changes in mRNA expression and, surprisingly, this coherence increases over time. We quantify the predictive power of histone acetylation for gene expression changes in a balanced cross-validation procedure. In an in-depth study we focus on genes central to the regulatory network of Mouse ESC, including those identified in a recent genome-wide RNAi screen and in the PluriNet, a computationally derived stem cell signature. We find that compared to the rest of the genome, ESC-specific genes show significantly more acetylation signal and a much stronger decrease in acetylation over time, which is often not reflected in a concordant expression change. These results shed light on the complexity of the relationship between histone acetylation and gene expression and are a step forward to dissect the multilayer regulatory mechanisms that determine stem cell fate.

  3. Genetic heterogeneity among slow acetylator N-acetyltransferase 2 phenotypes in cryopreserved human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Mark A; Hein, David W

    2017-07-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in human N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) modify the metabolism of numerous drugs and carcinogens. These genetic polymorphisms modify both drug efficacy and toxicity and cancer risk associated with carcinogen exposure. Previous studies have suggested phenotypic heterogeneity among different NAT2 slow acetylator genotypes. NAT2 phenotype was investigated in vitro and in situ in samples of human hepatocytes obtained from various NAT2 slow and intermediate NAT2 acetylator genotypes. NAT2 gene dose response (NAT2*5B/*5B > NAT2*5B/*6A > NAT2*6A/*6A) was observed towards the N-acetylation of the NAT2-specific drug sulfamethazine by human hepatocytes both in vitro and in situ. N-acetylation of 4-aminobiphenyl, an arylamine carcinogen substrate for both N-acetyltransferase 1 and NAT2, showed the same trend both in vitro and in situ although the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). The N-acetylation of the N-acetyltransferase 1-specific substrate p-aminobenzoic acid did not follow this trend. In comparisons of NAT2 intermediate acetylator genotypes, differences in N-acetylation between NAT2*4/*5B and NAT2*4/*6B hepatocytes were not observed in vitro or in situ towards any of these substrates. These results further support phenotypic heterogeneity among NAT2 slow acetylator genotypes, consistent with differential risks of drug failure or toxicity and cancer associated with carcinogen exposure.

  4. Effect of presence of sulphurdioxide on acetylation and sorption isotherm of acetylated starches from cultivars of cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin Faramade; Seidu, Kudirat Titilope; Mueller, Rudolf

    2014-05-15

    Starches from cultivars of cassava were modified with acetic anhydride. Treatment with sulphurdioxide was compared with native. The starches were evaluated for functional properties and moisture isotherms were calculated. Addition of 3.5% acetic anhydride resulted in starches with DS of 1.66% and 3.25% in sweet and bitter cultivars. Sweet starch alone will be applicable for food. Least gelation concentrations for the native were 14% and 10% against 6% and 8% acetylated samples, respectively. Degree of substitution (DS) was reduced with SO2 by 45% and 39% in sweet and bitter cultivar with 150 mg/kg starch, respectively. Swelling power and solubility increased with DS. Exudates from samples varied. Monolayer values of the starches were between 1.05% and 9.16% under 18 °C and 30 °C that simulated distribution and storage. R(2) value of water adsorbed and water activity ranged from 50% to 97%. X-ray patterns were not disrupted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A single nucleotide polymorphism within the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta gene is associated with proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Maeda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that genetic susceptibility plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. A large-scale genotyping analysis of gene-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes identified the gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACACB as a candidate for a susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy; the landmark SNP was found in the intron 18 of ACACB (rs2268388: intron 18 +4139 C > T, p = 1.4x10(-6, odds ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-1.96. The association of this SNP with diabetic nephropathy was examined in 9 independent studies (4 from Japan including the original study, one Singaporean, one Korean, and two European with type 2 diabetes. One case-control study involving European patients with type 1 diabetes was included. The frequency of the T allele for SNP rs2268388 was consistently higher among patients with type 2 diabetes and proteinuria. A meta-analysis revealed that rs2268388 was significantly associated with proteinuria in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (p = 5.35 x 10(-8, odds ratio = 1.61, 95% Cl: 1.35-1.91. Rs2268388 was also associated with type 2 diabetes-associated end-stage renal disease (ESRD in European Americans (p = 6 x 10(-4, odds ratio = 1.61, 95% Cl: 1.22-2.13. Significant association was not detected between this SNP and nephropathy in those with type 1 diabetes. A subsequent in vitro functional analysis revealed that a 29-bp DNA fragment, including rs2268388, had significant enhancer activity in cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Fragments corresponding to the disease susceptibility allele (T had higher enhancer activity than those of the major allele. These results suggest that ACACB is a strong candidate for conferring susceptibility for proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Allele-sharing statistics using information on family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegaro, A; Meulenbelt, I; Kloppenburg, M; Slagboom, P E; Houwing-Duistermaat, J J

    2010-11-01

    When conducting genetic studies for complex traits, large samples are commonly required to detect new genetic factors. A possible strategy to decrease the sample size is to reduce heterogeneity using available information. In this paper we propose a new class of model-free linkage analysis statistics which takes into account the information given by the ungenotyped affected relatives (positive family history). This information is included into the scoring function of classical allele-sharing statistics. We studied pedigrees of affected sibling pairs with one ungenotyped affected relative. We show that, for rare allele common complex diseases, the proposed method increases the expected power to detect linkage. Allele-sharing methods were applied to the symptomatic osteoarthritis GARP study where taking into account the family-history increased considerably the evidence of linkage in the region of the DIO2 susceptibility locus. © 2010 The Authors Annals of Human Genetics © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

  7. Allele-Specific DNA Methylation Detection by Pyrosequencing®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer Kristensen, Lasse; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays important roles in healthy as well as diseased cells, by influencing the transcription of genes. In spite the fact that human somatic cells are diploid, most of the currently available methods for the study of DNA methylation do not provide......-effective protocol for allele-specific DNA methylation detection based on Pyrosequencing(®) of methylation-specific PCR (MSP) products including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the amplicon....... information on the methylation status of individual alleles of genes. This information may be of importance in many situations. In particular, in cancer both alleles of tumour suppressor genes generally need to be inactivated for a phenotypic effect to be observed. Here, we present a simple and cost...

  8. Implication of HLA-DMA Alleles in Corsican IDDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cucchi-Mouillot

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The HLA-DM molecule catalyses the CLIP/antigen peptide exchange in the classical class II peptide-binding groove. As such, DM is an antigen presentation regulator and may be linked to autoimmune diseases. Using PCR derived methods, a relationship was revealed between DM gene polymorphism and IDDM, in a Corsican population. The DMA*0101 allele was observed to confer a significant predisposition to this autoimmune disease while the DMA*0102 allele protected significantly. Experiments examining polymorphism of the HLA-DRB1 gene established that these relationships are not a consequence of linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DRB1 alleles implicated in this pathology. The study of the DMA gene could therefore be an additional tool for early IDDM diagnosis in the Corsican population.

  9. Dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum alleles in children with normal haemoglobin and with sickle cell trait in western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwanuka, Gertrude N; Joshi, Hema; Isharaza, William K; Eschrich, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We describe the diversity of Plasmodium falciparum populations in western Uganda and assess the role that asymptomatic malaria carriers with sickle cell trait (HbAS) may be playing on the Plasmodium population structure. We genotyped P. falciparum in 291 samples using merozoite surface protein (MSP) 1 and 2 loci. Extensive genetic diversity was detected among symptomatic children in Mbarara (20 MSP1 alleles; 31 MSP2 alleles) and Kagando, Kasese (19 MSP1 alleles; 30 MSP2 alleles). Multiplicity of infection (MOI) was significantly higher in Kagando, Kasese than in Mbarara, with 2.7 and 2.1 genotypes/PCR positive sample with MSP2 marker, respectively. Similar strains were circulating in the two sites; however, a few strains specific to individual sites were observed. Prevalence of HbAS was 36% (12/33) among asymptomatic children in Kisinga sub-county, Kasese. In asymptomatic children, MOI was age-dependent and higher in HbAS carriers than HbAA, suggesting that HbAS carriers harbour a wider range of P. falciparum genotypes. Sickle cell trait may influence rapid acquisition of premunition by creating a reservoir of variant parasite strains in the host. The high level of genetic diversity demonstrated here shows that even in areas with low or seasonal transmission, high levels of parasite polymorphism can occur.

  10. Crucial Roles for SIRT2 and AMPA Receptor Acetylation in Synaptic Plasticity and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan; Li, Shaomin; Gilbert, James; Gritton, Howard J; Wang, Zemin; Li, Zhangyuan; Han, Xue; Selkoe, Dennis J; Man, Heng-Ye

    2017-08-08

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission and are crucial for synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. However, the molecular control of AMPAR stability and its neurophysiological significance remain unclear. Here, we report that AMPARs are subject to lysine acetylation at their C termini. Acetylation reduces AMPAR internalization and degradation, leading to increased cell-surface localization and prolonged receptor half-life. Through competition for the same lysine residues, acetylation intensity is inversely related to the levels of AMPAR ubiquitination. We find that sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) acts as an AMPAR deacetylase regulating AMPAR trafficking and proteostasis. SIRT2 knockout mice (Sirt2 -/- ) show marked upregulation in AMPAR acetylation and protein accumulation. Both Sirt2 -/- mice and mice expressing acetylation mimetic GluA1 show aberrant synaptic plasticity, accompanied by impaired learning and memory. These findings establish SIRT2-regulated lysine acetylation as a form of AMPAR post-translational modification that regulates its turnover, as well as synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase by two classes of grass-selective herbicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendina, A.R.; Craig-Kennard, A.C.; Beaudoin, J.D.; Breen, M.K. (Chevron Chemical Company, Richmond, CA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The selective grass herbicides diclofop, haloxyfop, and trifop (((aryloxy)phenoxy)propionic acids) and alloxydim, sethoxydim, and clethodim (cyclohexanediones) are potent, reversible inhibitors of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) partially purified from barley, corn, and wheat. Although inhibition of the wheat enzyme by clethodim and diclofop is noncompetitive versus each of the substrates adenosine triphosphate (ATP), HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), diclofop and clethodim are nearly competitive versus acetyl-CoA since the level of inhibition is most sensitive to the concentration of acetyl-CoA (K{sub is} < K{sub ii}). To conclusively show whether the herbicides interact at the biotin carboxylation site or the carboxyl transfer site, the inhibition of isotope exchange and partial reactions catalyzed at each site was studied with the wheat enzyme. Only the ({sup 14}C)acetyl-CoA-malonyl-CoA exchange and decarboxylation of ({sup 14}C)malonyl-CoA reactions are strongly inhibited by clethodim and diclofop, suggesting that the herbicides interfere with the carboxyl transfer site rather than the biotin carboxylation site of the enzyme. Double-inhibition studies with diclofop and clethodim suggest that the ((aryloxy)phenoxy)propionic acid and cyclohexanedione herbicides may bind to the same region of the enzyme.

  12. PCAF-primed EZH2 acetylation regulates its stability and promotes lung adenocarcinoma progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Junhu; Zhan, Jun; Li, Shuai; Ma, Ji; Xu, Weizhi; Liu, Chang; Xue, Xiaowei; Xie, Yuping; Fang, Weigang; Chin, Y. Eugene; Zhang, Hongquan

    2015-01-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a key epigenetic regulator that catalyzes the trimethylation of H3K27 and is modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs). However, the precise regulation of EZH2 PTMs remains elusive. We, herein, report that EZH2 is acetylated by acetyltransferase P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) and is deacetylated by deacetylase SIRT1. We identified that PCAF interacts with and acetylates EZH2 mainly at lysine 348 (K348). Mechanistically, K348 acetylation decreases EZH2 phosphorylation at T345 and T487 and increases EZH2 stability without disrupting the formation of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). Functionally, EZH2 K348 acetylation enhances its capacity in suppression of the target genes and promotes lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Further, elevated EZH2 K348 acetylation in lung adenocarcinoma patients predicts a poor prognosis. Our findings define a new mechanism underlying EZH2 modulation by linking EZH2 acetylation to its phosphorylation that stabilizes EZH2 and promotes lung adenocarcinoma progression. PMID:25800736

  13. Intrinsic Tau Acetylation Is Coupled to Auto-Proteolytic Tau Fragmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J Cohen

    Full Text Available Tau proteins are abnormally aggregated in a range of neurodegenerative tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease (AD. Recently, tau has emerged as an extensively post-translationally modified protein, among which lysine acetylation is critical for normal tau function and its pathological aggregation. Here, we demonstrate that tau isoforms have different propensities to undergo lysine acetylation, with auto-acetylation occurring more prominently within the lysine-rich microtubule-binding repeats. Unexpectedly, we identified a unique intrinsic property of tau in which auto-acetylation induces proteolytic tau cleavage, thereby generating distinct N- and C-terminal tau fragments. Supporting a catalytic reaction-based mechanism, mapping and mutagenesis studies showed that tau cysteines, which are required for acetyl group transfer, are also essential for auto-proteolytic tau processing. Further mass spectrometry analysis identified the C-terminal 2nd and 4th microtubule binding repeats as potential sites of auto-cleavage. The identification of acetylation-mediated auto-proteolysis provides a new biochemical mechanism for tau self-regulation and warrants further investigation into whether auto-catalytic functions of tau are implicated in AD and other tauopathies.

  14. Dichotomy in the Epigenetic Mark Lysine Acetylation is Critical for the Proliferation of Prostate Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, Ravi [Department of Structural and Chemical Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1425 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Philizaire, Marc [Medgar Evers College, City University of New York, 1638 Bedford Ave, 403D, Brooklyn, NY 11225 (United States); Mujtaba, Shiraz, E-mail: smujtaba@mec.cuny.edu [Department of Structural and Chemical Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1425 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Medgar Evers College, City University of New York, 1638 Bedford Ave, 403D, Brooklyn, NY 11225 (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The dynamics of lysine acetylation serve as a major epigenetic mark, which regulates cellular response to inflammation, DNA damage and hormonal changes. Microarray assays reveal changes in gene expression, but cannot predict regulation of a protein function by epigenetic modifications. The present study employs computational tools to inclusively analyze microarray data to understand the potential role of acetylation during development of androgen-independent PCa. The data revealed that the androgen receptor interacts with 333 proteins, out of which at least 92 proteins were acetylated. Notably, the number of cellular proteins undergoing acetylation in the androgen-dependent PCa was more as compared to the androgen-independent PCa. Specifically, the 32 lysine-acetylated proteins in the cellular models of androgen-dependent PCa were mainly involved in regulating stability as well as pre- and post-processing of mRNA. Collectively, the data demonstrate that protein lysine acetylation plays a crucial role during the transition of androgen-dependent to -independent PCa, which importantly, could also serve as a functional axis to unravel new therapeutic targets.

  15. Synthesis of O-[{sup 11}C]acetyl CoA, O-[{sup 11}C]acetyl-L-carnitine, and L-[{sup 11}C]carnitine labelled in specific positions, applied in PET studies on rhesus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Gunilla B.; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Valind, Sven; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Laangstroem, Bengt

    1997-07-01

    The syntheses of L-carnitine, O-acetyl CoA, and O-acetyl-L-carnitine labelled with {sup 11}C at the 1- or 2-position of the acetyl group or the N-methyl position of carnitine, using the enzymes acetyl CoA synthetase and carnitine acetyltransferase, are described. With a total synthesis time of 45 min, O-[1-{sup 11}C]acetyl CoA and O-[2-{sup 11}C]acetyl CoA was obtained in 60-70% decay-corrected radiochemical yield, and O-[1-{sup 11}C]acetyl-L-carnitine and O-[2-{sup 11}C]acetyl-L-carnitine in 70-80% yield, based on [1-{sup 11}C]acetate or [2-{sup 11}C]acetate, respectively. By an N-methylation reaction with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide, L-[methyl-{sup 11}C]carnitine was obtained within 30 min, and O-acetyl-L-[methyl-{sup 11}C]carnitine within 40 min, giving a decay-corrected radiochemical yield of 60% and 40-50%, respectively, based on [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide. Initial data of the kinetics of the different {sup 11}C-labelled L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitines in renal cortex of anaesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta) are presented.

  16. A common mutation associated with the Duarte galactosemia allele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsas, L.J.; Dembure, P.P.; Langley, S.; Paulk, E.M.; Hjelm, L.N.; Fridovich-Keil, J. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    The human cDNA and gene for galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) have been cloned and sequenced. A prevalant mutation (Q188R) is known to cause classic galactosemia (G/G). G/G galactosemia has an incidence of 1/38,886 in 1,396,766 Georgia live-born infants, but a more common variant of galactosemia, Duarte, has an unknown incidence. The proposed Duarte biochemical phenotypes of GALT are as follows: D/N, D/D, and D/G, which have [approximately]75%, 50%, and 25% of normal GALT activity, respectively. In addition, the D allele has isoforms of its enzyme that have more acidic pI than normal. Here the authors systematically determine (a) the prevalence of an A-to-G transition at base pair 2744 of exon 10 in the GALT gene, a transition that produces a codon change converting asparagine to aspartic acid at position 314 (N314D), and (b) the association of this mutation with the Duarte biochemical phenotype. The 2744G nucleotide change adds an AvaII (SinI) cut site, which was identified in PCR-amplified DNA. In 111 biochemically unphenotyped controls with no history of galactosemia, 13 N314D alleles were identified (prevalence 5.9%). In a prospective study, 40 D alleles were biochemically phenotyped, and 40 N314D alleles were found. By contrast, in 36 individuals known not to have the Duarte biochemical phenotype, no N314D alleles were found. The authors conclude that the N314D mutation is a common allele that probably causes the Duarte GALT biochemical phenotype and occurs in a predominantly Caucasian, nongalactosemic population, with a prevalence of 5.9%. 36 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Accuracy of allele frequency estimation using pooled RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konczal, M; Koteja, P; Stuglik, M T; Radwan, J; Babik, W

    2014-03-01

    For nonmodel organisms, genome-wide information that describes functionally relevant variation may be obtained by RNA-Seq following de novo transcriptome assembly. While sequencing has become relatively inexpensive, the preparation of a large number of sequencing libraries remains prohibitively expensive for population genetic analyses of nonmodel species. Pooling samples may be then an attractive alternative. To test whether pooled RNA-Seq accurately predicts true allele frequencies, we analysed the liver transcriptomes of 10 bank voles. Each sample was sequenced both as an individually barcoded library and as a part of a pool. Equal amounts of total RNA from each vole were pooled prior to mRNA selection and library construction. Reads were mapped onto the de novo assembled reference transcriptome. High-quality genotypes for individual voles, determined for 23,682 SNPs, provided information on 'true' allele frequencies; allele frequencies estimated from the pool were then compared with these values. 'True' frequencies and those estimated from the pool were highly correlated. Mean relative estimation error was 21% and did not depend on expression level. However, we also observed a minor effect of interindividual variation in gene expression and allele-specific gene expression influencing allele frequency estimation accuracy. Moreover, we observed strong negative relationship between minor allele frequency and relative estimation error. Our results indicate that pooled RNA-Seq exhibits accuracy comparable with pooled genome resequencing, but variation in expression level between individuals should be assessed and accounted for. This should help in taking account the difference in accuracy between conservatively expressed transcripts and these which are variable in expression level. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Acetyl salicylic acid attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, Samuel Chege; Li, Xuelian; Zhao, Dandan; Guo, Zhenfeng; Liang, Haihai; Qian, Ming; Lv, Lifang; Li, Tianshi; Xu, Bozhi; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Chaoqian; Lu, Yanjie; Du, Zhiming; Shan, Hongli; Yang, Baofeng

    2015-12-01

    Ventricular hypertrophy is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular morbid events. The vascular properties of low-dose acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) provide cardiovascular benefits through the irreversible inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase 1; however, the possible anti-hypertrophic properties and potential mechanism of aspirin have not been investigated in detail. In this study, healthy wild-type male mice were randomly divided into three groups and subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation. The TAC-operated mice were treated with the human equivalent of low-dose aspirin (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)); the remaining mice received an equal amount of phosphate buffered saline with 0.65% ethanol, which was used as a vehicle. A cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model induced by angiotensin II (10 nmol·L(-1)) was treated with the human equivalent of low (10 or 100 μmol·L(-1)) and high (1000 μmol·L(-1)) aspirin concentrations in plasma. Changes in the cardiac structure and function were assessed through echocardiography and transmission electron microscopy. Gene expression was determined through RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Results indicated that aspirin treatment abrogated the increased thickness of the left ventricular anterior and posterior walls, the swelling of mitochondria, and the increased surface area in in vivo and in vitro hypertrophy models. Aspirin also normalized the upregulated hypertrophic biomarkers, β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Aspirin efficiently reversed the upregulation of β-catenin and P-Akt expression and the TAC- or ANG II-induced downregulation of GSK-3β. Therefore, low-dose aspirin possesses significant anti-hypertrophic properties at clinically relevant concentrations for anti-thrombotic therapy. The downregulation of β-catenin and Akt may be the underlying signaling mechanism of the effects of aspirin.

  19. The effect of N-acetyl cysteine on laryngopharyngeal reflux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Dabirmoghaddam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR is a variant of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in which the stomach contents go up into the pharynx and then down into the larynx. LPR causes a wide spectrum of manifestations mainly related to the upper and the lower respiratory system such as laryngitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cough, hoarseness, postnasal drip disease, sinusitis, otitis media, recurrent pneumonia, laryngeal cancer and etc. The object of this study was to examine the effect of N-acetyl Cysteine (NAC with and without Omeprazole on laryngitis and LPR. Ninety patients with laryngitis or its symptoms were referred and randomly assigned into three groups. The first group was treated by Omeprazole and NAC. The second group was treated by Omeprazole and placebo and the last group was treated by NAC and placebo. Duration of treatment was 3 months and all patients were evaluated at the beginning of study, one month and three month after treatment of sign and symptoms, based on reflux symptom index (RSI and reflex finding score (RFS. Based on the results of this study, despite therapeutic efficacy of all treatment protocols, the RSI before and after 3 months treatment had significant difference in (NAS+ Omeprazole and (Omeprazole+ placebo group (P<0.001 in the first group, P<0.001 in the second group and P=0.35 in the third group. Whereas RFS before and after 3 month treatment had significant difference in all groups. (P<0.001 in each group in comparison with itself but this results had not significant difference after 1 month treatment. Our results showed that the combination therapy with Omeprazole and NAC treatment had the most effect on both subjective and objective questionnaire at least after 3 months treatment. Based on the results of the present study, it seems that the use objective tools are more accurate than subjective tools in evaluation of therapeutic effects in patients with GERD-related laryngitis.

  20. Simultaneous inference of haplotypes and alleles at a causal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice eLarribe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new methodology which jointly infers haplotypes and the causal alleles at a gene influencing a given trait. Often in human genetic studies, the available data consists of genotypes (series of genetic markers along the chromosomes and a phenotype. However, for many genetic analyses, one needs haplotypes instead of genotypes. Our methodology is not only able to estimate haplotypes conditionally on the disease status, but is also able to infer the alleles at the unknown disease locus. Some applications of our methodology are in genetic mapping and in genetic counselling.

  1. Reduced Height (Rht) Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebow, Richard; Hadley, Caroline; Uppal, Rajneet; Addisu, Molla; Loddo, Stefano; Kowalski, Ania; Griffiths, Simon; Gooding, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht) in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c) as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall), Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12). Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (Pgrain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN) was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there was the strongest evidence for

  2. A common allele on chromosome 9 associated with coronary heartdisease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Ruth; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Kavaslar, Nihan; Stewart, Alexandre; Roberts, Robert; Cox, David R.; Hinds, David; Pennachio, Len; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Folsom, Aaron R.; Boerwinkle,Eric; Hobbs, Helen H.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2007-03-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of death in Western countries. Here we used genome-wide association scanning to identify a 58 kb interval on chromosome 9 that was consistently associated with CHD in six independent samples. The interval contains no annotated genes and is not associated with established CHD risk factors such as plasma lipoproteins, hypertension or diabetes. Homozygotes for the risk allele comprise 20-25% of Caucasians and have a {approx}30-40% increased risk of CHD. These data indicate that the susceptibility allele acts through a novel mechanism to increase CHD risk in a large fraction of the population.

  3. A reactivity-selectivity study of the Friedel-Crafts acetylation of 3,3′-dimethylbiphenyl and the oxidation of the acetyl derivatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Titinchi, Salam JJ; Kamounah, Fadhil S; Abbo, Hanna S; Hammerich, Ole

    2012-01-01

    .... The acetyl derivatives of 3,3′-dimethylbiphenyl (3,3′-dmbp) have applications in the field of liquid crystals and polymers and may be oxidized to the dicarboxylic acids and derivatives that are of interest in cancer...

  4. Detection of the MYD88 mutation by the combination of the allele-specific PCR and quenching probe methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, S; Kawaguchi-Ihara, N; Shiratori, E; Ohtaka, M; Itoh, M; Tohda, S

    2017-04-01

    The MYD88 missense mutation c.794T>C, p.Leu265Pro, is found in patients with Waldenstörm's macroglobulinemia and lymphoma. Direct sequencing, allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) are currently used to detect the mutation; however, they are either time-consuming or have low detection sensitivity. Here, we developed a novel highly sensitive and rapid detection method based on the quenching probe (QP) technique and AS-PCR. A lymphoma cell line heterozygous for the MYD88 mutation, two wild-type cell lines, and two samples from Waldenstörm's macroglobulinemia patients were analyzed by AS-PCR, PCR-RFLP, HRM, and QP, and their detection sensitivity was examined using the mixtures of the mutant and wild-type DNA. For mutation-carrying heterozygous samples, the QP method produced W-shaped melting profiles presenting curves derived from the wild-type and mutant alleles. The QP analysis was performed in 2 h and demonstrated the detection limit of 5%, which was similar to that of the other methods. However, the combination of AS-PCR and QP (AS-QP) improved the sensitivity to 0.62% of the mutant allele. The AS-QP analysis is rapid and minimally improves detection sensitivity compared to the AS-PCR. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Early effect of ApoE-epsilon 4 allele on cognitive results in a group of highly performing subjects: the EVA study. Etude sur le Vieillissement Artériel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berr, C; Dufouil, C; Brousseau, T; Richard, F; Amouyel, P; Marceteau, E; Alpérovitch, A

    1996-10-25

    We examined the association between apolipoprotein E (ApoE) epsilon 4 allele and cognitive performances in a population sample of 1174 high functioning volunteers aged 59-71 years. The neuropsychological battery included the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and nine tests assessing visual attention, verbal memory, visual processing, logical reasoning, psychomotor rapidity, visual memory, auditory attention and verbal fluency. The ratio of genotypes with zero, one or two epsilon 4 alleles was 70.6%, 21.4% and 1.9%, respectively. The epsilon 4 allele was significantly associated with lower scores for visual attention, psychomotor rapidity and MMSE. In the best performer subgroup (MMSE score above 25, n = 1028), all relationships persisted. Our findings demonstrate that the ApoE-epsilon 4 allele is early associated with low normal cognitive performances in areas which are not specifically affected at the subclinical onset of dementia.

  6. Allelic variation on murine chromosome 11 modifies host inflammatory responses and resistance to Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill K Terra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a potentially fatal disease resulting from infection with Bacillus anthracis. The outcome of infection is influenced by pathogen-encoded virulence factors such as lethal toxin (LT, as well as by genetic variation within the host. To identify host genes controlling susceptibility to anthrax, a library of congenic mice consisting of strains with homozygous chromosomal segments from the LT-responsive CAST/Ei strain introgressed on a LT-resistant C57BL/6 (B6 background was screened for response to LT. Three congenic strains containing CAST/Ei regions of chromosome 11 were identified that displayed a rapid inflammatory response to LT similar to, but more severe than that driven by a LT-responsive allele of the inflammasome constituent NRLP1B. Importantly, increased response to LT in congenic mice correlated with greater resistance to infection by the Sterne strain of B. anthracis. The genomic region controlling the inflammatory response to LT was mapped to 66.36-74.67 Mb on chromosome 11, a region that encodes the LT-responsive CAST/Ei allele of Nlrp1b. However, known downstream effects of NLRP1B activation, including macrophage pyroptosis, cytokine release, and leukocyte infiltration could not fully explain the response to LT or the resistance to B. anthracis Sterne in congenic mice. Further, the exacerbated response in congenic mice is inherited in a recessive manner while the Nlrp1b-mediated response to LT is dominant. Finally, congenic mice displayed increased responsiveness in a model of sepsis compared with B6 mice. In total, these data suggest that allelic variation of one or more chromosome 11 genes in addition to Nlrp1b controls the severity of host response to multiple inflammatory stimuli and contributes to resistance to B. anthracis Sterne. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis revealed 25 genes within this region as high priority candidates for contributing to the host response to LT.

  7. Molecular monitoring of resistant dhfr and dhps allelic haplotypes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The present study assesses the frequency of resistant dhfr and dhps alleles in Morogoro-Mvomero district in south eastern Tanzania and contrast their rate of change during 17 years of SP second line use against five years of SP first line use. Methodology: Cross sectional surveys of asymptomatic infections were ...

  8. Allelic variations of functional markers for polyphenol oxidase (PPO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Allelic variations of functional markers for polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes in Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. RAJENDER SINGH*, UMESH GOUTAM, R. K. GUPTA, G. C. PANDEY, JAG SHORAN and RATAN TIWARI. Directorate of Wheat Research, P. O. Box 158, Agarsain Marg, Karnal 132 001, India.

  9. Rescue of progeria in trichothiodystrophy by homozygous lethal Xpd alleles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.-O. Andressoo (Jaan-Olle); J. Jans (Judith); J. de Wit (Jan); F. Coin (Frédéric); D. Hoogstraten (Deborah); H.W.M. van de Ven (Marieke); W. Toussaint (Wendy); J. Huijmans (Jan); H.B. Thio (Bing); W.J. van Leeuwen (Wibeke); J. de Boer (Jan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); J.R. Mitchell (James); J-M. Egly (Jean-Marc)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAlthough compound heterozygosity, or the presence of two different mutant alleles of the same gene, is common in human recessive disease, its potential to impact disease outcome has not been well documented. This is most likely because of the inherent difficulty in distinguishing

  10. Comparison of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 allele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) gene encodes cell surface glycoproteins that initiate immune responses by presenting processed antigenic peptides to CD4 T helper cells. DRB3 is the most polymorphic bovine MHC class II gene which encodes the peptide-binding groove. Since different alleles favor the ...

  11. Comparative frequency and allelic distribution of ABO and Rh (D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gourab Dewan

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... Comparative frequency and allelic distribution of ABO and Rh (D) blood groups of major tribal communities of southern Bangladesh with general population and their determinants. Gourab Dewan *. Department of Medicine, Rangamati General Hospital, Rangamati, Bangladesh. Received 4 January 2015; ...

  12. Marker-assisted selection of high molecular weight glutenin alleles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-08

    Aug 8, 2012 ... So far, the structural characteristics of more than 10. HMW-GS alleles have been revealed by DNA sequencing ... Materials and methods. Storage proteins were extracted from single seeds and ... the Glu-1 loci in wheat enable construction of specific DNA markers. PCR reactions were performed using the ...

  13. Estimation of allelic frequencies for ABO and Rh blood groups

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mostafa Saadat

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... Estimation of the allelic frequencies for genetic markers is very important in genetic studies. Also investigation of the concordance between observed and expected value based on the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is strongly recom- mended by STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Asso-.

  14. Estimating and testing the effect of allelic recombination on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-01-21

    Jan 21, 2011 ... The significance of the correlation coefficient as well as the fitted regression model was obtained using. Analysis of Variance method. Key words: Allele, genotype, regression, correlation, F-ratio, analysis of variance. INTRODUCTION. Genetic recombination is an effective means of combining one individual ...

  15. Experimental evolution of a novel sexually antagonistic allele.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Dean

    Full Text Available Evolutionary conflict permeates biological systems. In sexually reproducing organisms, sex-specific optima mean that the same allele can have sexually antagonistic expression, i.e. beneficial in one sex and detrimental in the other, a phenomenon known as intralocus sexual conflict. Intralocus sexual conflict is emerging as a potentially fundamental factor for the genetic architecture of fitness, with important consequences for evolutionary processes. However, no study to date has directly experimentally tested the evolutionary fate of a sexually antagonistic allele. Using genetic constructs to manipulate female fecundity and male mating success, we engineered a novel sexually antagonistic allele (SAA in Drosophila melanogaster. The SAA is nearly twice as costly to females as it is beneficial to males, but the harmful effects to females are recessive and X-linked, and thus are rarely expressed when SAA occurs at low frequency. We experimentally show how the evolutionary dynamics of the novel SAA are qualitatively consistent with the predictions of population genetic models: SAA frequency decreases when common, but increases when rare, converging toward an equilibrium frequency of ∼8%. Furthermore, we show that persistence of the SAA requires the mating advantage it provides to males: the SAA frequency declines towards extinction when the male advantage is experimentally abolished. Our results empirically demonstrate the dynamics underlying the evolutionary fate of a sexually antagonistic allele, validating a central assumption of intralocus sexual conflict theory: that variation in fitness-related traits within populations can be maintained via sex-linked sexually antagonistic loci.

  16. Allelic drop-out probabilities estimated by logistic regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Asplund, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the model for estimating drop-out probabilities presented by Tvedebrink et al. [7] and the concerns, that have been raised. The criticism of the model has demonstrated that the model is not perfect. However, the model is very useful for advanced forensic genetic work, where allelic dro...

  17. Allelic prevalence of intron 3 insertion/deletion genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leila Fallahzadeh-Abarghooei

    2015-03-18

    XRCC4; OMIM: 194363), plays an important role in repair of DNA double-strand breaks via non-homologous end joining pathway. In order to find the allelic prevalence of an insertion/deletion polymorphism in intron 3 of XRCC4 ...

  18. Microsatellite loci and peroxidase alleles correlation in somaclonal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... in somaclonal variation of Eucalyptus microtheca F. ... locus, a tetramer locus and two epigenetic bands were observed. ... significant effect of simple sequence repeats loci on peroxidase ... and has been adapted to the environmental conditions of .... regeneration by B5 treatment, POD alleles had similar.

  19. Allelic variation of HMW glutenin subunits of Ethiopian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High molecular weight glutenins are often effective in identifying wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes with good baking quality. The high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition of Ethiopian cultivars and advanced lines was investigated to determine their influence on quality. Three alleles at Glu-A1, five at Glu-B1 ...

  20. Determination of allele frequencies in nine short tandem repeat loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, P/Bag 00704, Gaborone, Botswana. 2Botswana Police Forensic Science Laboratory P/Bag 0012, Gaborone, Botswana. Accepted 15 February, 2008. Allele frequencies for nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci from the AmpFlSTR® Profiler Plus™ ...

  1. Introgression of Crop Alleles into Wild or Weedy Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellstrand, N.C.; Meirmans, P.; Rong, J.; Bartsch, D.; Ghosh, A.; de Jong, T.J.; Haccou, P.; Lu, B-R.; Snow, A.A.; Stewart, C.N.; Strasburg, J.L.; van Tienderen, P.H.; Vrieling, K; Hooftman, D.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary significance of introgression has been discussed for decades. Questions about potential impacts of transgene flow into wild and weedy populations brought renewed attention to the introgression of crop alleles into those populations. In the past two decades, the field has advanced

  2. A national survey on the allelic, genotypic, and haplotypic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRNP gene in cattle from all over South Korea. Materials and methods. Animals. We collected 437 blood samples from Korean cattle through- out South Korea ... sampled from each province in South Korea. Statistical evaluation. The PRNP allelic and genotypic differences among the cat- tle populations were evaluated by ...

  3. Paternal transmission of a FMR1 full mutation allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Mora, Maria Isabel; Guitart, Miriam; Rodriguez-Revenga, Laia; Madrigal, Irene; Gabau, Elisabeth; Milà, Montserrat

    2017-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability (ID) and autism. In most of cases, the molecular basis of this syndrome is a CGG repeat expansion in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. It is inherited as an X linked dominant trait, with a reduced penetrance (80% for males and 30% for females). Full mutation (FM) expansion from premutated alleles (PM) is only acquired via maternal meiosis, while paternal transmission always remains in the PM range. We present a 16-year-old girl with a mild fragile X syndrome phenotype. FMR1 gene study showed that the patient inherited a mosaic premutation-full mutation with an unmethylated uninterrupted allele (175, >200 CGG) from her father. The father showed an 88 CGG uninterrupted unmethylated allele in blood and sperm cells. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a FMR1 mosaic premutation-full mutation allele inherited from a PM father. In our opinion, the most likely explanation could be a postzygotic somatic expansion. We can conclude that in rare cases of a child with a full mutation whose mother does not carry a premutation, the possibility of paternal transmission should be considered. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. HLA-A alleles differentially associate with severity to Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA), particularly HLA-B and class II alleles have been differentially associated with disease outcomes in different populations following infection with the malaria Plasmodium falciparum. However, the effect of HLA-A on malaria infection and/or disease is not fully understood. Recently, HLA-A ...

  5. Distribution of HIV-1 resistance-conferring polymorphic alleles SDF ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Polymorphic allelic variants of chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5, as well as of stromal-derived factor-1 SDF-1, the ligand for the chemokine receptor CXCR4, are known to have protective effects against HIV-1 infection and to be involved with delay in disease progression. We have studied the DNA polymorphisms at ...

  6. Allele frequency analysis of Chinese chestnut ( Castanea mollissima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish a method for allele frequency detection in bulk samples. The abundance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products in bulk leaf samples was detected using fluorescent labeled Simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers and an Applied biosystems (AB) automatic DNA analyzer.

  7. Major Histocompatibility complex-DMB allelic diversity in old and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major Histocompatibility complex-DMB allelic diversity in old and new world nonhuman primates: Intraspecies pattern of evolution. ... directing DR molecules towards the endosomal/ lysosomal class II compartment and sending inhibitory signals to cells in order to stop synthesis of unnecessary MHC-DR molecules.

  8. N-acetyl-l-tryptophan, but not N-acetyl-d-tryptophan, rescues neuronal cell death in models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, Ana C; Jiang, Jiying; Zeng, Jiang; Mao, Lilly L; Zhou, Shuanhu; Sugarbaker, Peter; Zhang, Xinmu; Li, Wei; Friedlander, Robert M; Wang, Xin

    2015-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor neuron loss. Evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, glutamate excitotoxicity, and proteasomal dysfunction are all responsible for ALS pathogenesis. N-acetyl-tryptophan has been identified as an inhibitor of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and therefore is a potential neuroprotective agent. By quantifying cell death, we demonstrate that N-acetyl-l-tryptophan (L-NAT) and N-acetyl-DL-tryptophan are neuroprotective in NSC-34 motor neuron-like cells and/or primary motor neurons, while their isomer N-acetyl-d-tryptophan has no protective effect. These findings are consistent with energy minimization and molecular modeling analysis, confirming that L-NAT generates the most stable complex with the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). L-NAT inhibits the secretion of Substance P and IL-1β (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and/or dot blots) and mitochondrial dysfunction by effectively inhibiting the release of cytochrome c/Smac/AIF from mitochondria into the cytoplasm and activation of apoptotic pathways, including the activation of caspase-1, -9, and -3, as well as proteasomal dysfunction through restoring chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and caspase-like proteasome activity. These data provide insight into the molecular mechanisms by which L-NAT offers neuroprotection in models of ALS and suggest its potential as a novel therapeutic strategy for ALS. We demonstrate that L-NAT (N-acetyl-l-tryptophan), but not D-NAT, rescues NSC-34 cells and primary motor neurons from cell death. L-NAT inhibits the secretion of Substance P and IL-1β, and caspase-1 activation, the release of cytochrome c/Smac/AIF, and the activation of caspase -9, and -3, as well as proteasomal dysfunction. The data suggest the potential of L-NAT as a novel therapeutic strategy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). AIF, apoptosis-inducing factor. © 2015

  9. PSG gene expression is up-regulated by lysine acetylation involving histone and nonhistone proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad A Camolotto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification that plays a central role in eukaryotic transcriptional activation by modifying chromatin and transcription-related factors. Human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSG are the major secreted placental proteins expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast at the end of pregnancy and represent early markers of cytotrophoblast differentiation. Low PSG levels are associated with complicated pregnancies, thus highlighting the importance of studying the mechanisms that control their expression. Despite several transcription factors having been implicated as key regulators of PSG gene family expression; the role of protein acetylation has not been explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we explored the role of acetylation on PSG gene expression in the human placental-derived JEG-3 cell line. Pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs up-regulated PSG protein and mRNA expression levels, and augmented the amount of acetylated histone H3 associated with PSG 5'regulatory regions. Moreover, PSG5 promoter activation mediated by Sp1 and KLF6, via the core promoter element motif (CPE, -147/-140, was markedly enhanced in the presence of the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA. This effect correlated with an increase in Sp1 acetylation and KLF6 nuclear localization as revealed by immunoprecipitation and subcellular fractionation assays. The co-activators PCAF, p300, and CBP enhanced Sp1-dependent PSG5 promoter activation through their histone acetylase (HAT function. Instead, p300 and CBP acetyltransferase domain was dispensable for sustaining co-activation of PSG5 promoter by KLF6. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results are consistent with a regulatory role of lysine acetylation on PSG expression through a relaxed chromatin state and an increase in the transcriptional activity of Sp1 and KLF6 following an augmented Sp1 acetylation and KLF6 nuclear localization.

  10. Changes in histone H4 acetylation during in vivo versus in vitro maturation of equine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Federica; Lodde, Valentina; Goudet, Ghylène; Duchamp, Guy; Deleuze, Stefan; Douet, Cécile; Tessaro, Irene; Luciano, Alberto M

    2012-05-01

    Epigenetic modifications are established during gametogenesis and preimplantation embryonic development. Any disturbance of the normal natural environment during these critical phases could cause alterations of the epigenetic signature. Histone acetylation is an important epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of chromatin organization and gene expression. The present study was aimed to determine whether the proper establishment of post-translational histone H4 acetylation at lysine 8 (AcH4K8), 12 (AcH4K12) and 16 (AcH4K16) of equine oocytes is adversely affected during in vitro maturation (IVM) when compared with in vivo matured oocytes collected from naturally cycling mares not undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation. The acetylation patterns were investigated by means of indirect immunofluorescence staining with specific antibodies directed against the acetylated lysine residues. Our results indicate that the acetylation state of H4 is dependent on the chromatin configuration in immature germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes and it changes in a residue-specific manner along with the increase of chromatin condensation. In particular, the levels of AcH4K8 and AcH4K12 increased significantly, while AcH4K16 decreased significantly from the fibrillar to the condensed state of chromatin configuration within the GV. Moreover, during meiosis, K8 and K12 were substantially deacetylated without any differences between in vivo and in vitro conditions, while K16 displayed a strong acetylation in oocytes matured in vivo, and in contrast, it was markedly deacetylated following IVM. Although the functional meaning of residue-specific acetylation during oocyte differentiation and meiotic resumption needs further investigation, our results support the hypothesis that IVM conditions can adversely affect oocyte ability to regulate the epigenetic reprogramming, critical for successful meiosis and subsequent embryonic development.

  11. Lysine acetylation stoichiometry and proteomics analyses reveal pathways regulated by sirtuin 1 in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Jeovanis; Ramírez-Torres, Alberto; Chiappe, Diego; Luna-Peñaloza, Juan; Fernandez-Reyes, Francis C; Arcos-Encarnación, Bolivar; Contreras, Sandra; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio

    2017-11-03

    Lysine acetylation is a widespread posttranslational modification affecting many biological pathways. Recent studies indicate that acetylated lysine residues mainly exhibit low acetylation occupancy, but challenges in sample preparation and analysis make it difficult to confidently assign these numbers, limiting understanding of their biological significance. Here, we tested three common sample preparation methods to determine their suitability for assessing acetylation stoichiometry in three human cell lines, identifying the acetylation occupancy in more than 1,300 proteins from each cell line. The stoichiometric analysis in combination with quantitative proteomics also enabled us to explore their functional roles. We found that higher abundance of the deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) correlated with lower acetylation occupancy and lower levels of ribosomal proteins, including those involved in ribosome biogenesis and rRNA processing. Treatment with the SIRT1 inhibitor EX-527 confirmed SIRT1's role in the regulation of pre-rRNA synthesis and processing. Specifically, proteins involved in pre-rRNA transcription, including subunits of the polymerase I and SL1 complexes and the RNA polymerase I-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3, were up-regulated after SIRT1 inhibition. Moreover, many protein effectors and regulators of pre-rRNA processing needed for rRNA maturation were also up-regulated after EX-527 treatment with the outcome that pre-rRNA and 28S rRNA levels also increased. More generally, we found that SIRT1 inhibition down-regulates metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and pyruvate metabolism. Together, these results provide the largest data set thus far of lysine acetylation stoichiometry (available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005903) and set the stage for further biological investigations of this central posttranslational modification. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Behavioral neuroadaptation to alcohol : from glucocorticoids to histone acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Beracochea

    2016-10-01

    mediating working memory impairments and neuroadaptive changes during withdrawal from chronic alcohol intake. It then highlights the role of cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling cascade and histone acetylation within the prefrontal cortex and limbic structures in alcohol-induced anxiety and behavioral impairments, and how an understanding of functional alterations of these pathways might lead to better treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. Mannose-binding lectin variant alleles and HLA-DR4 alleles are associated with giant cell arteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Soren; Baslund, Bo; Madsen, Hans Ole

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether variant alleles of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene causing low serum concentrations of MBL and/or polymorphisms of HLA-DRB1 are associated with increased susceptibility to polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) or particular clinical phenotypes of PMR/GCA....

  14. Activation of AMP-activated Protein Kinase by Metformin Induces Protein Acetylation in Prostate and Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdieri, Luciano; Gatla, Himavanth; Vancurova, Ivana; Vancura, Ales

    2016-11-25

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor and master regulator of metabolism. AMPK functions as a fuel gauge monitoring systemic and cellular energy status. Activation of AMPK occurs when the intracellular AMP/ATP ratio increases and leads to a metabolic switch from anabolism to catabolism. AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which catalyzes carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the first and rate-limiting reaction in de novo synthesis of fatty acids. AMPK thus regulates homeostasis of acetyl-CoA, a key metabolite at the crossroads of metabolism, signaling, chromatin structure, and transcription. Nucleocytosolic concentration of acetyl-CoA affects histone acetylation and links metabolism and chromatin structure. Here we show that activation of AMPK with the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin or with the AMP mimetic 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide increases the inhibitory phosphorylation of ACC and decreases the conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, leading to increased protein acetylation and altered gene expression in prostate and ovarian cancer cells. Direct inhibition of ACC with allosteric inhibitor 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid also increases acetylation of histones and non-histone proteins. Because AMPK activation requires liver kinase B1, metformin does not induce protein acetylation in liver kinase B1-deficient cells. Together, our data indicate that AMPK regulates the availability of nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA for protein acetylation and that AMPK activators, such as metformin, have the capacity to increase protein acetylation and alter patterns of gene expression, further expanding the plethora of metformin's physiological effects. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Activation of AMP-activated Protein Kinase by Metformin Induces Protein Acetylation in Prostate and Ovarian Cancer Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdieri, Luciano; Gatla, Himavanth; Vancurova, Ivana; Vancura, Ales

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor and master regulator of metabolism. AMPK functions as a fuel gauge monitoring systemic and cellular energy status. Activation of AMPK occurs when the intracellular AMP/ATP ratio increases and leads to a metabolic switch from anabolism to catabolism. AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which catalyzes carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the first and rate-limiting reaction in de novo synthesis of fatty acids. AMPK thus regulates homeostasis of acetyl-CoA, a key metabolite at the crossroads of metabolism, signaling, chromatin structure, and transcription. Nucleocytosolic concentration of acetyl-CoA affects histone acetylation and links metabolism and chromatin structure. Here we show that activation of AMPK with the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin or with the AMP mimetic 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide increases the inhibitory phosphorylation of ACC and decreases the conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, leading to increased protein acetylation and altered gene expression in prostate and ovarian cancer cells. Direct inhibition of ACC with allosteric inhibitor 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid also increases acetylation of histones and non-histone proteins. Because AMPK activation requires liver kinase B1, metformin does not induce protein acetylation in liver kinase B1-deficient cells. Together, our data indicate that AMPK regulates the availability of nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA for protein acetylation and that AMPK activators, such as metformin, have the capacity to increase protein acetylation and alter patterns of gene expression, further expanding the plethora of metformin's physiological effects. PMID:27733682

  16. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xia [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Shanghai, School of Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Zhao, Libo [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The Third People' s Hospital of Chongqing, 400014 (China); Yang, Yongtao [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Bode, Liv [Bornavirus Research Group affiliated to the Free University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Huang, Hua [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Liu, Chengyu [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Huang, Rongzhong [Department of Rehabilitative Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400010 (China); Zhang, Liang [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); and others

    2014-09-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs.

  17. Effect of (L-Carnitine) on acetyl-L-carnitine production by heart mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieber, L.L.; Lilly, K.; Lysiak, W.

    1986-05-01

    The authors recently reported a large efflux of acetyl-L-carnitine from rat heart mitochondria during state 3 respiration with pyruvate as substrate both in the presence and absence of malate. In this series of experiments, the effect of the concentration of L-carnitine on the efflux of acetyl-L-carnitine and on the production of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from 2-/sup 14/C-pyruvate was determined. Maximum acetylcarnitine production (approximately 25 n moles/min/mg protein) was obtained at 3-5 mM L-carnitine in the absence of added malate. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production decreased as the concentration of L-carnitine increased; it plateaued at 3-5 mM L-carnitine. These data indicate carnitine can stimulate flux of pyruvate through pyruvate dehydrogenase and can reduce flux of acetyl CoA through the Krebs cycle by acting as an acceptor of the acetyl moieties of acetyl CoA generated by pyruvate dehydrogenase.

  18. Probing the interaction between NatA and the ribosome for co-translational protein acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Robert S; Deng, Sunbin; Zhang, Haibo; Cooperman, Barry; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2017-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation is among the most abundant protein modifications in eukaryotic cells. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in elucidating the function of N-terminal acetylation for a number of diverse systems, involved in a wide variety of biological processes. The enzymes responsible for the modification are the N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). The NATs are a highly conserved group of enzymes in eukaryotes, which are responsible for acetylating over 80% of the soluble proteome in human cells. Importantly, many of these NATs act co-translationally; they interact with the ribosome near the exit tunnel and acetylate the nascent protein chain as it is being translated. While the structures of many of the NATs have been determined, the molecular basis for the interaction with ribosome is not known. Here, using purified ribosomes and NatA, a very well-studied NAT, we show that NatA forms a stable complex with the ribosome in the absence of other stabilizing factors and through two conserved regions; primarily through an N-terminal domain and an internal basic helix. These regions may orient the active site of the NatA to face the peptide emerging from the exit tunnel. This work provides a framework for understanding how NatA and potentially other NATs interact with the ribosome for co-translational protein acetylation and sets the foundation for future studies to decouple N-terminal acetyltransferase activity from ribosome association.

  19. Immunomodulatory effects of an acetylated Cyclocarya paliurus polysaccharide on murine macrophages RAW264.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Xie, Jianhua; Jia, Shuo; Huang, Lixin; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Chang; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-05-01

    Polysaccharides (CP) extracted from the leaves of Cyclocarya paliurus (C. paliurus) have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. In present study, CP was successfully modified to obtain its acetylated derivative Ac-CP. Its potential immunomodulatory activities on RAW264.7 macrophages were investigated. Results showed that the acetylated polysaccharide Ac-CP could significantly stimulate macrophage proliferation, its actions were significantly stronger than that of the corresponding unmodified polysaccharide, CP. Meanwhile, the NO production activities of macrophages were not significantly enhanced by Ac-CP compared to CP group. In addition, both the phagocytic activity and levels of cytokines TNF-a, IL-1β and IL-6 were enhanced in the RAW264.7 macrophages by stimulation of Ac-CP. These results indicated that the acetylated derivative Ac-CP could enhance the activation of peritoneal macrophages, and acetylation modification can enhance the immunomodulation function of CP, indicating the potential application of acetylated polysaccharide as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ubc9 acetylation modulates distinct SUMO target modification and hypoxia response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yung-Lin; Kuo, Hong-Yi; Chang, Che-Chang; Naik, Mandar T; Liao, Pei-Hsin; Ho, Chun-Chen; Huang, Tien-Chi; Jeng, Jen-Chong; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Huang, Tai-Huang; Shih, Hsiu-Ming

    2013-03-20

    While numerous small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugated substrates have been identified, very little is known about the cellular signalling mechanisms that differentially regulate substrate sumoylation. Here, we show that acetylation of SUMO E2 conjugase Ubc9 selectively downregulates the sumoylation of substrates with negatively charged amino acid-dependent sumoylation motif (NDSM) consisting of clustered acidic residues located downstream from the core ψ-K-X-E/D consensus motif, such as CBP and Elk-1, but not substrates with core ψ-K-X-E/D motif alone or SUMO-interacting motif. Ubc9 is acetylated at residue K65 and K65 acetylation attenuates Ubc9 binding to NDSM substrates, causing a reduction in NDSM substrate sumoylation. Furthermore, Ubc9 K65 acetylation can be downregulated by hypoxia via SIRT1, and is correlated with hypoxia-elicited modulation of sumoylation and target gene expression of CBP and Elk-1 and cell survival. Our data suggest that Ubc9 acetylation/deacetylation serves as a dynamic switch for NDSM substrate sumoylation and we report a previously undescribed SIRT1/Ubc9 regulatory axis in the modulation of protein sumoylation and the hypoxia response.

  1. Acetyl hexapeptide-3 in a cosmetic formulation acts on skin mechanical properties - clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassandra Azevedo Tadini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract Acetyl hexapeptide-3 has been used in anti-aging topical formulations aimed at improving skin appearance. However, few basic studies address its effects on epidermis and dermis, when vehiculated in topical formulations. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of acetyl hexapeptide-3 using biophysical techniques. For this purpose, formulations with and without acetyl hexapeptide-3 were applied to the ventral forearm and the face area of forty female volunteers. Skin conditions were evaluated after 2 and 4-week long daily applications, by analyzing the stratum corneum water content and the skin mechanical properties, using three instruments, the Corneometer(r CM 825, CutometerSEM 575 and ReviscometerRV600. All formulations tested increased the stratum corneum water content in the face region, which remained constant until the end of the study. In contrast, only formulations containing acetyl hexapeptide-3 exhibit a significant effect on mechanical properties, by decreasing the anisotropy of the face skin. No significant effects were observed in viscoelasticity parameters. In conclusion, the effects of acetyl hexapeptide-3 on the anisotropy of face skin characterize the compound as an effective ingredient for improving conditions of the cutaneous tissue, when used in anti-aging cosmetic formulations.

  2. The extracellular release of Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 nuclear protein is mediated by acetylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho Carneiro, Vitor; Moraes Maciel, Renata de; Caetano de Abreu da Silva, Isabel; Furtado Madeira da Costa, Rodrigo [Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Programa de Biotecnologia e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil); Neto Paiva, Claudia; Torres Bozza, Marcelo [Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Goes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil); Rosado Fantappie, Marcelo, E-mail: fantappie@bioqmed.ufrj.br [Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Programa de Biotecnologia e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil)

    2009-12-25

    Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 (SmHMGB1) was revealed to be a substrate for the parasite histone acetyltransferases SmGCN5 and SmCBP1. We found that full-length SmHMGB1, as well as its HMG-box B (but not HMG-box A) were acetylated in vitro by SmGCN5 and SmCBP1. However, SmCBP1 was able to acetylate both substrates more efficiently than SmGCN5. Interestingly, the removal of the C-terminal acidic tail of SmHMGB1 (SmHMGB1{Delta}C) resulted in increased acetylation of the protein. We showed by mammalian cell transfection assays that SmHMGB1 and SmHMGB1{Delta}C were transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after sodium butyrate (NaB) treatment. Importantly, after NaB treatment, SmHMGB1 was also present outside the cell. Together, our data suggest that acetylation of SmHMGB1 plays a role in cellular trafficking, culminating with its secretion to the extracellular milieu. The possible role of SmHMGB1 acetylation in the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is discussed.

  3. Purification and Characterization of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase from the Diatom Cyclotella cryptica1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Paul G.

    1990-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase from the diatom Cyclotella cryptica has been purified to near homogeneity by the use of ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration chromatography, and affinity chromatography with monomeric avidin-agarose. The specific activity of the final preparation was as high as 14.6 micromoles malonyl-CoA formed per milligram protein per minute, indicating a 600-fold purification. Native acetyl-CoA carboxylase has a molecular weight of approximately 740 kilodaltons and appears to be composed of four identical biotin-containing subunits. The enzyme has maximal activity at pH 8.2, but enzyme stability is greater at pH 6.5. Km values for MgATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- were determined to be 65, 233, and 750 micromolar, respectively. The purified enzyme is strongly inhibited by palmitoyl-CoA, and is inhibited to a lesser extent by malonyl-CoA, ADP, and phosphate. Pyruvate stimulates enzymatic activity to a slight extent. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Cyclotella cryptica is not inhibited by cyclohexanedione or aryloxyphenoxypropionic acid herbicides as strongly as monocot acetyl-CoA carboxylases; 50% and 0% inhibition was observed in the presence of 23 micromolar clethodim and 100 micromolar haloxyfop, respectively. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667268

  4. Purification and Characterization of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase from the Diatom Cyclotella cryptica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, P G

    1990-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase from the diatom Cyclotella cryptica has been purified to near homogeneity by the use of ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration chromatography, and affinity chromatography with monomeric avidin-agarose. The specific activity of the final preparation was as high as 14.6 micromoles malonyl-CoA formed per milligram protein per minute, indicating a 600-fold purification. Native acetyl-CoA carboxylase has a molecular weight of approximately 740 kilodaltons and appears to be composed of four identical biotin-containing subunits. The enzyme has maximal activity at pH 8.2, but enzyme stability is greater at pH 6.5. K(m) values for MgATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO(3)- were determined to be 65, 233, and 750 micromolar, respectively. The purified enzyme is strongly inhibited by palmitoyl-CoA, and is inhibited to a lesser extent by malonyl-CoA, ADP, and phosphate. Pyruvate stimulates enzymatic activity to a slight extent. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Cyclotella cryptica is not inhibited by cyclohexanedione or aryloxyphenoxypropionic acid herbicides as strongly as monocot acetyl-CoA carboxylases; 50% and 0% inhibition was observed in the presence of 23 micromolar clethodim and 100 micromolar haloxyfop, respectively.

  5. Purification and characterization of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from the Diatom Cyclotella cryptica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessler, P.G. (Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, CO (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase from the diatom Cyclotella cryptica has been purified to near homogeneity by the use of ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration chromatography, and affinity chromatography with monomeric avidin-agarose. The specific activity of the final preparation was as high as 14.6 micromoles malonyl-CoA formed per milligram protein per minute, indicating a 600-fold purification. Native acetyl-CoA carboxylase has a molecular weight of approximately 740 kilodaltons and appears to be composed of four identical biotin-containing subunits. The enzyme has maximal activity at pH 8.2, but enzyme stability is greater at pH 6.5 K{sub m} values for MgATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO{sub 3} were determined to be 65, 233, and 750 micromolar, respectively. The purified enzyme is strongly inhibited by palmitoyl-CoA, and is inhibited to a lesser extent by malonyl-CoA, ADP, and phosphate. Pyruvate stimulates enzymatic activity to a slight extent. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Cyclotella cryptica is not inhibited by cyclohexanedione or aryloxphenoxypropionic acid herbicides as strongly as monocot acetyl-CoA carboxylases; 50% and 0% inhibition was observed in the presence of 23 micromolar clethodim and 100 micromolar haloxyfop, respectively.

  6. Starch-based xerogels: Effect of acetylation on Physicochemical and rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemas, Chinwe U; Ngwuluka, Ndidi C; Ochekpe, Nelson A; Nep, Elijah I

    2017-05-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the physicochemical and rheological properties of starch-based xerogels. The starch from the shoots of Borassus aethiopium was physically modified by xerogelization, and chemically by acetylation, and combination of acetylation and xerogelization. The solubility, swelling and syneresis of the starches were determined by gravimetric techniques. Evaluation of the native starch and derivatives was done using microscopy, Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), x-ray diffractometry (XRD), and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Rheological evaluation was done on 10%w/v dispersions using a Bohlin Gemini rheometer (fitted with a 55mm and 2° cone and plate geometry with gap of 70). The diffractograms displayed three peaks, centered on 2θ=15.3, 17.2 and 23.1° for the native and the starch acetate while the xerogel and the starch acetate xerogel were amorphous. The 1H NMR and FTIR confirmed the presence of acetyl groups at about 2.05ppm and 1720cm-1, respectively. Acetylation of the native starch resulted in improvement of solubility. The starch acetate-xerogel sample formed viscoelastic gels without the need for heating. Acetylation and/or xerogelization of the native starch inhibited syneresis. Starch acetate-xerogels, may find application as stabilizer or suspending agent in liquid food and pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Caenorhabditis elegans Elongator complex regulates neuronal alpha-tubulin acetylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jachen A Solinger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although acetylated alpha-tubulin is known to be a marker of stable microtubules in neurons, precise factors that regulate alpha-tubulin acetylation are, to date, largely unknown. Therefore, a genetic screen was employed in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that identified the Elongator complex as a possible regulator of alpha-tubulin acetylation. Detailed characterization of mutant animals revealed that the acetyltransferase activity of the Elongator is indeed required for correct acetylation of microtubules and for neuronal development. Moreover, the velocity of vesicles on microtubules was affected by mutations in Elongator. Elongator mutants also displayed defects in neurotransmitter levels. Furthermore, acetylation of alpha-tubulin was shown to act as a novel signal for the fine-tuning of microtubules dynamics by modulating alpha-tubulin turnover, which in turn affected neuronal shape. Given that mutations in the acetyltransferase subunit of the Elongator (Elp3 and in a scaffold subunit (Elp1 have previously been linked to human neurodegenerative diseases, namely Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Familial Dysautonomia respectively highlights the importance of this work and offers new insights to understand their etiology.

  8. HDAC6 deficiency induces apoptosis in mesenchymal stem cells through p53 K120 acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Yi; Phorl, Sophors; Jung, Suna; Sovannarith, Korm; Lee, Se-In; Noh, Solhee; Han, Miae; Naskar, Rema; Kim, Jae-Young; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Lee, Joo-Yong

    2017-12-09

    The acetylation of p53 is critical in modulating its pro-apoptotic roles. However, its regulatory mechanism and physiological significance are unclear. Here, we show HDAC6 negatively regulates pro-apoptotic acetylation of p53 at lysine residue 120 (K120) in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The loss of HDAC6 expression in MSCs increases K120 acetylation of p53, which is successfully reversed by the wild-type but not by catalytically dead HDAC6. Deletion of HDAC6 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis by promoting transactivation of Bax and suppression of Bcl-2. Moreover, HDAC6 deficiency leads to mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by aberrant reactive oxygen species production and defective oxidative phosphorylation, which is reversed by ectopic expression of wild-type or acetylation mimetic p53. This study demonstrates that HDAC6 is a critical regulator of a pro-apoptotic p53 K120 acetylation and mitochondrial function in MSCs, suggesting that the modulation of HDAC6 activity could be a novel approach to improve MSC- based therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Histone Acetylation Regulation in Sleep Deprivation-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ruifeng; Liu, Xiaohua; Wang, Tianhui; Wu, Lei; Gao, Xiujie; Zhang, Zhiqing

    2016-09-01

    Sleep disorders negatively affect cognition and health. Recent evidence has indicated that chromatin remodeling via histone acetylation regulates cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the possible roles of histone acetylation in sleep deprivation (SD)-induced cognitive impairment. Results of the Morris water maze test showed that 3 days of SD can cause spatial memory impairment in Wistar rats. SD can also decrease histone acetylation levels, increase histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression, and decrease histone acetyltransferase (CBP) expression. Furthermore, SD can reduce H3 and H4 acetylation levels in the promoters of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene and thus significantly downregulate BDNF expression and impair the activity of key BDNF signaling pathways (pCaMKII, pErk2, and pCREB). However, treatment with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A attenuated all the negative effects induced by SD. Therefore, BDNF and its histone acetylation regulation may play important roles in SD-induced spatial memory impairment, whereas HDAC inhibition possibly confers protection against SD-induced impairment in spatial memory and hippocampal functions.

  10. RimJ is responsible for N(alpha)-acetylation of thymosin alpha1 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongqing; Zhang, Xu; Shen, Lin; Si, Xinxi; Ren, Yuantao; Dai, Hongmei; Li, Shulong; Zhou, Changlin; Chen, Huipeng

    2009-08-01

    N(alpha)-Acetylation is one of the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes but a rare event in prokaryotes. Some endogenously N(alpha)-acetylated proteins in eukaryotes are frequently reported not to be acetylated or only very partially when expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli. Thymosin alpha1 (Talpha1), an N(alpha)-acetylated peptide of 28 amino acids, displays a powerful general immunostimulating activity. Here, we revealed that a fusion protein of thymosin alpha1 and L12 is partly N(alpha)-acetylated in E. coli. Through deletion of some N(alpha)-acetyltransferases by Red recombination, we found that, when rimJ is disrupted, the fusion protein is completely unacetylated. The relationship of rimJ and N(alpha)-acetylation of Talpha1 was further investigated by gene rescue and in vitro modification. Our results demonstrate that N(alpha)-acetylation of recombinant Talpha1-fused protein in E. coli is catalyzed by RimJ and that fully acetylated Talpha1 can be obtained by co-expressing with RimJ. This is the first description that an ectopic protein acetylation in bacterial expression systems is catalyzed by RimJ, a known prokaryotic N(alpha)-acetyltransferase.

  11. Acetylation regulates protein stability and DNA-binding ability of HilD to modulate Salmonella Typhimurium virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yu; Ren, Jie; Qin, Ran; Liu, Shuting; Cui, Zhongli; Cheng, Sen; Liu, Xiaoyun; Lu, Jie; Tao, Jing; Yao, Yu-Feng

    2017-02-24

    HilD, a dominant regulator of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), can be acetylated by acetyltransferase Pat in Salmonella Typhimurium, and the acetylation is beneficial to its stability. However, the underlying mechanism of HilD stability regulated by acetylation is not clear. We show here that lysine 297 (K297) located in the helix-turn-helix motif, can be acetylated by Pat. Acetylation of K297 increases HilD stability, but reduces its DNA-binding affinity. In turn, the deacetylated K297 enhances the DNA-binding ability, but decreases HilD stability. Under SPI-1 inducing condition, the acetylation level of K297 is down-regulated. The acetylated K297 (mimicked by glutamine substitution) causes attenuated invasion in HeLa cells as well as impaired virulence in mouse model compared with the deacetylated K297 (mimicked by arginine substitution), suggesting that deacetylation of K297 is essential for Salmonella virulence. These findings demonstrate that the acetylation of K297 can regulate both protein stability and DNA-binding ability. This regulation mediated by acetylation not only degrades redundant HilD to keep a moderate protein level to facilitate S. Typhimurium growth but also maintains an appropriate DNA-binding activity of HilD to ensure bacterial pathogenicity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Tri-allelic pattern at the TPOX locus: a familial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picanço, Juliane Bentes; Raimann, Paulo Eduardo; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano; Alvarez, Luís; Amorim, António; Batista Dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel; Alho, Clarice Sampaio

    2014-02-10

    Alleles at the TPOX STR locus have 6-14 different numbers of a four-nucleotide (AATG) repeat motif arranged in tandem. Although tri-allelic genotypes are generally rare, the TPOX tri-allelic pattern has a higher frequency, varying widely among populations. Despite this, there are few accurate reports to disclose the nature of the TPOX third allele. In this work we present data obtained from 45 individuals belonging to the same pedigree, in which there are cases of tri-allelic TPOX genotypes. The subjects were apparently healthy with a normal biological development. We noticed six tri-allelic cases in this family, and all of them were women. Karyotype analysis showed no occurrence of partial 2p trisomy. All the tri-allelic cases had the genotype 8-10-11, probably due to three copies of the TPOX STR sequence in all cells (Type 2 tri-allelic pattern). Based on previous data we assumed the allele 10 as the TPOX third allele. The pedigree analyses show evidences that the TPOX extra-allele was the allele10, it is placed far from the main TPOX locus, and that there is a potential linkage of the TPOX extra-allele-10 with Xq. This was the first study that included a large pedigree analysis in order to understand the nature TPOX tri-allelic pattern. © 2013.

  13. Correlation-based inference for linkage disequilibrium with multiple alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaykin, Dmitri V; Pudovkin, Alexander; Weir, Bruce S

    2008-09-01

    The correlation between alleles at a pair of genetic loci is a measure of linkage disequilibrium. The square of the sample correlation multiplied by sample size provides the usual test statistic for the hypothesis of no disequilibrium for loci with two alleles and this relation has proved useful for study design and marker selection. Nevertheless, this relation holds only in a diallelic case, and an extension to multiple alleles has not been made. Here we introduce a similar statistic, R2, which leads to a correlation-based test for loci with multiple alleles: for a pair of loci with k and m alleles, and a sample of n individuals, the approximate distribution of n(k - 1)(m - 1)/(km)R2 under independence between loci is chi2(k-1(m-1). One advantage of this statistic is that it can be interpreted as the total correlation between a pair of loci. When the phase of two-locus genotypes is known, the approach is equivalent to a test for the overall correlation between rows and columns in a contingency table. In the phase-known case, R2 is the sum of the squared sample correlations for all km 2 x 2 subtables formed by collapsing to one allele vs. the rest at each locus. We examine the approximate distribution under the null of independence for R2 and report its close agreement with the exact distribution obtained by permutation. The test for independence using R2 is a strong competitor to approaches such as Pearson's chi square, Fisher's exact test, and a test based on Cressie and Read's power divergence statistic. We combine this approach with our previous composite-disequilibrium measures to address the case when the genotypic phase is unknown. Calculation of the new multiallele test statistic and its P-value is very simple and utilizes the approximate distribution of R2. We provide a computer program that evaluates approximate as well as "exact" permutational P-values.

  14. SCALE: modeling allele-specific gene expression by single-cell RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuchao; Zhang, Nancy R; Li, Mingyao

    2017-04-26

    Allele-specific expression is traditionally studied by bulk RNA sequencing, which measures average expression across cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing allows the comparison of expression distribution between the two alleles of a diploid organism and the characterization of allele-specific bursting. Here, we propose SCALE to analyze genome-wide allele-specific bursting, with adjustment of technical variability. SCALE detects genes exhibiting allelic differences in bursting parameters and genes whose alleles burst non-independently. We apply SCALE to mouse blastocyst and human fibroblast cells and find that cis control in gene expression overwhelmingly manifests as differences in burst frequency.

  15. Gangliosides with O-acetylated sialic acids in tumors of neuroectodermal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohla, Guido; Stockfleth, Eggert; Schauer, Roland

    2002-08-01

    Gangliosides, carrying an O-acetylated sialic acid in their carbohydrate moiety, are often found in growing and developing tissues, especially of neuro-ectodermal origin. The most prominent one is 9-O-Ac-GD3, which is considered as an oncofetal marker in animal and human tumors like neuronal tumors, melanoma, basalioma or breast cancer, as well as in psoriatic lesions. Also other gangliosides like GD2 or GT3 were found to be O-acetylated in their terminal sialic acid. In this review we are summarising the occurrence of such gangliosides in normal and transformed tissues and delineate a more general theory that O-acetylated sialic acids in gangliosides are a universal marker for growing cells and tissues.

  16. Effect of acetylation treatment and soaking time to bending strength of sugar palm fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diharjo, Kuncoro; Permana, Andy; Arsada, Robbi; Asmoro, Gundhi; Budiono, Herru Santosa; Firdaus, Yohanes

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this experiment is to investigate the maximum bending strength of sugar palm composite by optimizing acetylation treatment and soaking time of the fiber. In this research, the acetylation treatments were varied in acetic acid content (0-10%, in weight) and soaking time (30-150 minutes). The composite specimens were produced using a press mold method for 40% of fiber and 60% of bisphenolic matrix composition in weight. The bending testing was conducted using three point bending method according to ASTM D790. The composite with the treated fiber of 4% acetyl acid has maximum bending strength and modulus due to the effect of removing lignin and other polluters without degrading the fiber strength. The longer of soaking time in the acid solution can significantly enhance the bending strength and modulus. The composite with low strength has an opening fracture, and there is no opening fracture on the composite with high strength.

  17. Preparation of Acetylated Guar Gum – Unsaturated Polyester Composites & Effect of Water on Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D’Melo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Guar gum has seen extensive use in blends, however, its application as a filler in thermoset composites has as yet not been investigated. The effect of the addition of guar gum and its acetyl derivatives on the kinetics of water diffusion in unsaturated polyester composites was studied. The effect of water on the mechanical properties of the composites was studied with respect to the nature of filler, filler concentration and time of immersion. All the mechanical properties were observed to decrease on exposure to water. Further, it was observed that acetylated guar gum, with a degree of substitution of 0.21, showed the best mechanical properties, surpassing the other filled composites and that of the pure unsaturated polyester. Thus, acetylated guar gum showed promise as eco-friendly filler in composite formulation.

  18. Elongator: An Ancestral Complex Driving Transcription and Migration through Protein Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Creppe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Elongator is an evolutionary highly conserved complex. At least two of its cellular functions rely on the intrinsic lysine acetyl-transferase activity of the Elongator complex. Its two known substrates—Histone H3 and α-Tubulin—reflect the different roles of Elongator in the cytosol and the nucleus. A picture seems to emerge in which nuclear Elongator could regulate the transcriptional elongation of a subset of stress-inducible genes through acetylation of Histone H3 in the promoter-distal gene body. In the cytosol, Elongator-mediated acetylation of α-Tubulin contributes to intracellular trafficking and cell migration. Defects in both functions of Elongator have been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Allele and genotype frequencies of -β lactoglobulin gene in Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... The genotype frequencies of AA, AB, and BB in Najdi cattle and buffalo were 0,. 0.175, 0.825 and 0.04, 0.3, 0.66 respectively. Frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.0875 and 0.9125, and. 0.1875 and 0.8125 in Najdi cattle and buffalo, respectively. The deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not ...

  20. Allelic polymorphism of 'Makoei' sheep myostatin gene identified by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allele frequencies were 0.4185, 0.0815, 0.2283, 0.2065 and 0.0652 for A, B, C, D and E. Observed heterozygosity (Hobs) value was 0.7192. The chi-square test showed significant (P<0.05) deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for this locus in studied population. Key words: Myostatin gene, polymerase chain reaction ...

  1. Clinical manifestations of intermediate allele carriers in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cubo, Esther; Ramos-Arroyo, María A; Martinez-Horta, Saul

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is controversy about the clinical consequences of intermediate alleles (IAs) in Huntington disease (HD). The main objective of this study was to establish the clinical manifestations of IA carriers for a prospective, international, European HD registry. METHODS: We assessed...... a cohort of participants at risk with Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) motor, cognitive, and behavior domains, Total Functional Capacity (TFC), and quality of life (Short Form-36 [SF-36]). This cohort was subdivided...

  2. Conservation corridors affect the fixation of novel alleles

    OpenAIRE

    Orrock, J L

    2005-01-01

    Corridors are a popular tool for conservation of small populations. However, two purported benefits of corridors, increasing gene flow and providing a means for the recolonization of extinct patches of habitat (population rescue), may have unappreciated impacts on the likelihood that a new allele will become incorporated (fixed) within a population. Using a simulation model, I demonstrate that connecting a stable, isolated population with a population that requires periodic rescue (due to ext...

  3. Inferring Selection Intensity and Allele Age from Multilocus Haplotype Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    It is a challenging task to infer selection intensity and allele age from population genetic data. Here we present a method that can efficiently estimate selection intensity and allele age from the multilocus haplotype structure in the vicinity of a segregating mutant under positive selection. We use a structured-coalescent approach to model the effect of directional selection on the gene genealogies of neutral markers linked to the selected mutant. The frequency trajectory of the selected allele follows the Wright-Fisher model. Given the position of the selected mutant, we propose a simplified multilocus haplotype model that can efficiently model the dynamics of the ancestral haplotypes under the joint influence of selection and recombination. This model approximates the ancestral genealogies of the sample, which reduces the number of states from an exponential function of the number of single-nucleotide polymorphism loci to a quadratic function. That allows parameter inference from data covering DNA regions as large as several hundred kilo-bases. Importance sampling algorithms are adopted to evaluate the probability of a sample by exploring the space of both allele frequency trajectories of the selected mutation and gene genealogies of the linked sites. We demonstrate by simulation that the method can accurately estimate selection intensity for moderate and strong positive selection. We apply the method to a data set of the G6PD gene in an African population and obtain an estimate of 0.0456 (95% confidence interval 0.0144−0.0769) for the selection intensity. The proposed method is novel in jointly modeling the multilocus haplotype pattern caused by recombination and mutation, allowing the analysis of haplotype data in recombining regions. Moreover, the method is applicable to data from populations under exponential growth and a variety of other demographic histories. PMID:23797107

  4. Regulation of acetylation restores proteolytic function of diseased myocardium in mouse and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ding; Fang, Caiyun; Zong, Nobel C; Liem, David A; Cadeiras, Martin; Scruggs, Sarah B; Yu, Hongxiu; Kim, Allen K; Yang, Pengyuan; Deng, Mario; Lu, Haojie; Ping, Peipei

    2013-12-01

    Proteasome complexes play essential roles in maintaining cellular protein homeostasis and serve fundamental roles in cardiac function under normal and pathological conditions. A functional detriment in proteasomal activities has been recognized as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, approaches to restore proteolytic function within the setting of the diseased myocardium would be of great clinical significance. In this study, we discovered that the cardiac proteasomal activity could be regulated by acetylation. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and sodium valproate) enhanced the acetylation of 20S proteasome subunits in the myocardium and led to an elevation of proteolytic capacity. This regulatory paradigm was present in both healthy and acutely ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injured murine hearts, and HDAC inhibition in vitro restored proteolytic capacities to baseline sham levels in injured hearts. This mechanism of regulation was also viable in failing human myocardium. With 20S proteasomal complexes purified from murine myocardium treated with HDAC inhibitors in vivo, we confirmed that acetylation of 20S subunits directly, at least in part, presents a molecular explanation for the improvement in function. Furthermore, using high-resolution LC-MS/MS, we unraveled the first cardiac 20S acetylome, which identified the acetylation of nine N-termini and seven internal lysine residues. Acetylation on four lysine residues and four N-termini on cardiac proteasomes were novel discoveries of this study. In addition, the acetylation of five lysine residues was inducible via HDAC inhibition, which correlated with the enhancement of 20S proteasomal activity. Taken as a whole, our investigation unveiled a novel mechanism of proteasomal function regulation in vivo and established a new strategy for the potential rescue of compromised proteolytic function in the failing heart using HDAC inhibitors.

  5. Aging Promotes SIRT3-dependent Cartilage SOD2 Acetylation and Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Kinter, Michael; Hudson, Joanna; Humphries, Kenneth M.; Lane, Rachel S.; White, Jeremy R.; Hakim, Michael; Pan, Yong; Verdin, Eric; Griffin, Timothy M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To quantify functional age-related changes in the cartilage antioxidant network to discover novel mediators of cartilage oxidative stress and osteoarthritis (OA) pathophysiology. Methods We evaluated knee OA histopathology in 10, 20, and 30-month old male F344BN rats and analyzed cartilage oxidation by the ratio of reduced:oxidized glutathione. Antioxidant gene expression and protein abundance were analyzed by qRT-PCR and selected reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry, respectively. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) activity and acetylation were analyzed by colorimetric enzyme assays and Western blotting, respectively. We examined human OA cartilage to evaluate the clinical relevance of SOD2 acetylation, and we tested age-related changes in the mitochondrial deacetylase, sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), in rats and mice. Results Cartilage oxidation and OA severity increased with age and were associated with an increase in SOD2 expression and protein abundance. However, SOD2 specific activity decreased with age due to elevated post-translational lysine acetylation. Consistent with these findings, SIRT3 decreased substantially with age, and treatment with SIRT3 increased SOD2 activity in an age-dependent manner. SOD2 was also acetylated in human OA cartilage, and activity was increased with SIRT3 treatment. Moreover, in C57BL6 mice, cartilage SIRT3 expression decreased with age and whole-body deletion of SIRT3 accelerated the development of knee OA. Conclusion Our results show that SIRT3 mediates age-related changes in cartilage redox regulation and protects against early-stage OA. These findings suggest that mitochondrial acetylation promotes OA and that restoration of SIRT3 in aging cartilage may improve cartilage resistance to oxidative stress by rescuing acetylation-dependent inhibition of SOD2 activity. PMID:26866626

  6. An acetylation-phosphorylation switch that regulates tau aggregation propensity and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Yari; Chung, Dah-Eun Chloe; Yue, Mei; Castanedes-Casey, Monica; Madden, Benjamin J; Dunmore, Judy; Tong, Jimei; DeTure, Michael; Dickson, Dennis W; Petrucelli, Leonard; Cook, Casey

    2017-09-15

    The aberrant accumulation of tau protein is a pathological hallmark of a class of neurodegenerative diseases known as tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. On the basis of previous observations that tau is a direct substrate of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), we sought to map all HDAC6-responsive sites in tau and determine how acetylation in a site-specific manner affects tau's biophysical properties in vitro Our findings indicate that several acetylation sites in tau are responsive to HDAC6 and that acetylation on Lys-321 (within a KCGS motif) is both essential for acetylation-mediated inhibition of tau aggregation in vitro and a molecular tactic for preventing phosphorylation on the downstream Ser-324 residue. To determine the functional consequence of this HDAC6-regulated phosphorylation event, we examined tau's ability to promote microtubule assembly and found that phosphorylation of Ser-324 interferes with the normal microtubule-stabilizing function of tau. Tau phosphorylation of Ser-324 (pSer-324) has not previously been evaluated in the context of tauopathy, and here we observed increased deposition of pSer-324-positive tau both in mouse models of tauopathy and in patients with Alzheimer's disease. These findings uncover a novel acetylation-phosphorylation switch at Lys-321/Ser-324 that coordinately regulates tau polymerization and function. Because the disease relevance of this finding is evident, additional studies are needed to examine the role of pSer-324 in tau pathobiology and to determine whether therapeutically modulating this acetylation-phosphorylation switch affects disease progression in vivo. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. The protease inhibitor PI*S allele and COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersh, C P; Ly, N P; Berkey, C S

    2005-01-01

    In many countries, the protease inhibitor (SERPINA1) PI*S allele is more common than PI*Z, the allele responsible for most cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. However, the risk of COPD due to the PI*S allele is not clear. The current...... authors located studies that addressed the risk of COPD or measured lung function in individuals with the PI SZ, PI MS and PI SS genotypes. A separate meta-analysis for each genotype was performed. Aggregating data from six studies, the odds ratio (OR) for COPD in PI SZ compound heterozygotes compared...... with PI MM (normal) individuals was significantly increased at 3.26 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.24-8.57). In 17 cross-sectional and case-control studies, the OR for COPD in PI MS heterozygotes was 1.19 (95%CI: 1.02-1.38). However, PI MS genotype was not associated with COPD risk after correcting...

  8. Tracing pastoralist migrations to southern Africa with lactase persistence alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macholdt, Enrico; Lede, Vera; Barbieri, Chiara; Mpoloka, Sununguko W; Chen, Hua; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Stoneking, Mark

    2014-04-14

    Although southern African Khoisan populations are often assumed to have remained largely isolated during prehistory, there is growing evidence for a migration of pastoralists from eastern Africa some 2,000 years ago, prior to the arrival of Bantu-speaking populations in southern Africa. Eastern Africa harbors distinctive lactase persistence (LP) alleles, and therefore LP alleles in southern African populations may be derived from this eastern African pastoralist migration. We sequenced the lactase enhancer region in 457 individuals from 18 Khoisan and seven Bantu-speaking groups from Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia and additionally genotyped four short tandem repeat (STR) loci that flank the lactase enhancer region. We found nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms, of which the most frequent is -14010(∗)C, which was previously found to be associated with LP in Kenya and Tanzania and to exhibit a strong signal of positive selection. This allele occurs in significantly higher frequency in pastoralist groups and in Khoe-speaking groups in our study, supporting the hypothesis of a migration of eastern African pastoralists that was primarily associated with Khoe speakers. Moreover, we find a signal of ongoing positive selection in all three pastoralist groups in our study, as well as (surprisingly) in two foraging groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Validation of SNP allele frequencies determined by pooled next-generation sequencing in natural populations of a non-model plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Rellstab

    Full Text Available Sequencing of pooled samples (Pool-Seq using next-generation sequencing technologies has become increasingly popular, because it represents a rapid and cost-effective method to determine allele frequencies for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in population pools. Validation of allele frequencies determined by Pool-Seq has been attempted using an individual genotyping approach, but these studies tend to use samples from existing model organism databases or DNA stores, and do not validate a realistic setup for sampling natural populations. Here we used pyrosequencing to validate allele frequencies determined by Pool-Seq in three natural populations of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae. The allele frequency estimates of the pooled population samples (consisting of 20 individual plant DNA samples were determined after mapping Illumina reads to (i the publicly available, high-quality reference genome of a closely related species (Arabidopsis thaliana and (ii our own de novo draft genome assembly of A. halleri. We then pyrosequenced nine selected SNPs using the same individuals from each population, resulting in a total of 540 samples. Our results show a highly significant and accurate relationship between pooled and individually determined allele frequencies, irrespective of the reference genome used. Allele frequencies differed on average by less than 4%. There was no tendency that either the Pool-Seq or the individual-based approach resulted in higher or lower estimates of allele frequencies. Moreover, the rather high coverage in the mapping to the two reference genomes, ranging from 55 to 284x, had no significant effect on the accuracy of the Pool-Seq. A resampling analysis showed that only very low coverage values (below 10-20x would substantially reduce the precision of the method. We therefore conclude that a pooled re-sequencing approach is well suited for analyses of genetic variation in natural populations.

  10. Postmortem Toxicology Findings of Acetyl Fentanyl, Fentanyl, and Morphine in Heroin Fatalities in Tampa, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Julia; Poklis, Justin; Poklis, Alphonse; Wolf, Carl; Mainland, Mary; Hair, Laura; Devers, Kelly; Chrostowski, Leszek; Arbefeville, Elise; Merves, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In the last two years, an epidemic of 40 fatal heroin overdose cases has occurred in the Tampa area of Florida. Of these cases, 14 involved fentanyl and acetyl fentanyl. Victim demographics, case histories, toxicology findings, and causes and manners of death for all 40 deaths are presented. In 26 deaths in which acetyl fentanyl or fentanyl were not involved, free and total peripheral blood morphine concentrations were consistent with fatal heroin intoxications, averaging 0.16 mg/L and 0.35 m...

  11. Hydrolysis of wheat B-starch and characterisation of acetylated maltodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrčková, Petra; Horský, Jiří; Šárka, Evžen; Koláček, Jaroslav; Netopilík, Miloš; Walterová, Zuzana; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Synytsya, Andrey; Hrušková, Kateřina

    2013-10-15

    Wheat B-starch was hydrolysed by α-amylase "Liquozyme supra" from Bacillus licheniformis at 90 °C and pH 7. After 2 h, the dextrose equivalent was 18; according to size exclusion chromatography, however, the hydrolysate contained not only dominant malto-oligosaccharides with the degree of polymerisation (DP)40. This non-uniformity of acetylated maltodextrin, both with respect to DP and to DS, must be taken into account in the development of acetylated-maltodextrin applications such as use as plasticisers or compatibilisers in biodegradable composites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lipids Reprogram Metabolism to Become a Major Carbon Source for Histone Acetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonnell, Eoin; Crown, Scott B; Fox, Douglas B

    2016-01-01

    . By repressing both glucose and glutamine metabolism, fatty acid oxidation reprograms cellular metabolism, leading to increased lipid-derived acetyl-CoA. Gene expression profiling of octanoate-treated hepatocytes shows a pattern of upregulated lipid metabolic genes, demonstrating a specific transcriptional...... response to lipid. These studies expand the landscape of nutrient sensing and uncover how lipids and metabolism are integrated by epigenetic events that control gene expression.......Cells integrate nutrient sensing and metabolism to coordinate proper cellular responses to a particular nutrient source. For example, glucose drives a gene expression program characterized by activating genes involved in its metabolism, in part by increasing glucose-derived histone acetylation...

  13. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, a Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Ruben; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Reid, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Low serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical trials of these interventions on the progression of HIV. Vitamin B, C, E, and folic acid have been shown to delay the progression of HIV. Supplementation with selenium, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics has considerable potential, but the evidence needs to be further substantiated. Vitamin A, iron, and zinc have been associated with adverse effects and caution is warranted for their use. PMID:22254046

  14. Design of interior-functionalized fully acetylated dendrimers for anticancer drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingjing; Su, Yunzhang; Zhang, Hongfeng; Xu, Tongwen; Cheng, Yiyun

    2011-12-01

    In this study, dendrimers was synthesized by introducing functional groups into the interior pockets of fully acetylated dendrimers. NMR techniques including COSY and 2D-NOESY revealed the molecular structures of the synthesized dendrimers and the encapsulation of guest molecule such as methotrexate within their interior pockets. The synthesized polymeric nanocarriers showed much lower cytotoxicity on two cell lines than cationic dendrimers, and exhibited better performance than fully acetylated dendrimers in the sustained release of methotrexate. The results provided a new strategy in the design of non-toxic dendrimers with high performance in the delivery of anti-cancer drugs for clinical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Conditional Allele Mouse Planner (CAMP): software to facilitate the planning and design of breeding strategies involving mice with conditional alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, Jason D; Pisitkun, Trairak; Miller, R Lance

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic and conditional knockout mouse models play an important role in biomedical research and their use has grown exponentially in the last 5-10 years. Generating conditional knockouts often requires breeding multiple alleles onto the background of a single mouse or group of mice. Breeding these mice depends on parental genotype, litter size, transmission frequency, and the number of breeding rounds. Therefore, a well planned breeding strategy is critical for keeping costs to a minimum. However, designing a viable breeding strategy can be challenging. With so many different variables this would be an ideal task for a computer program. To facilitate this process, we created a Java-based program called Conditional Allele Mouse Planner (CAMP). CAMP is designed to provide an estimate of the number of breeders, amount of time, and costs associated with generating mice of a particular genotype. We provide a description of CAMP, how to use it, and offer it freely as an application.

  16. Novel method for analysis of allele specific expression in triploid Oryzias latipes reveals consistent pattern of allele exclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzintzuni I Garcia

    Full Text Available Assessing allele-specific gene expression (ASE on a large scale continues to be a technically challenging problem. Certain biological phenomena, such as X chromosome inactivation and parental imprinting, affect ASE most drastically by completely shutting down the expression of a whole set of alleles. Other more subtle effects on ASE are likely to be much more complex and dependent on the genetic environment and are perhaps more important to understand since they may be responsible for a significant amount of biological diversity. Tools to assess ASE in a diploid biological system are becoming more reliable. Non-diploid systems are, however, not uncommon. In humans full or partial polyploid states are regularly found in both healthy (meiotic cells, polynucleated cell types and diseased tissues (trisomies, non-disjunction events, cancerous tissues. In this work we have studied ASE in the medaka fish model system. We have developed a method for determining ASE in polyploid organisms from RNAseq data and we have implemented this method in a software tool set. As a biological model system we have used nuclear transplantation to experimentally produce artificial triploid medaka composed of three different haplomes. We measured ASE in RNA isolated from the livers of two adult, triploid medaka fish that showed a high degree of similarity. The majority of genes examined (82% shared expression more or less evenly among the three alleles in both triploids. The rest of the genes (18% displayed a wide range of ASE levels. Interestingly the majority of genes (78% displayed generally consistent ASE levels in both triploid individuals. A large contingent of these genes had the same allele entirely suppressed in both triploids. When viewed in a chromosomal context, it is revealed that these genes are from large sections of 4 chromosomes and may be indicative of some broad scale suppression of gene expression.

  17. Allele-Specific KRT1 Expression Is a Complex Trait: e93

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heng Tao; David R Cox; Kelly A Frazer

    2006-01-01

    ... responsible for allele-specific expression differences. We have used a variety of experimental approaches to identify and characterize cis-regulatory polymorphisms responsible for the extreme allele-specific expression differences of keratin-1 (KRT1...

  18. Identification and analysis of the acetylated status of poplar proteins reveals analogous N-terminal protein processing mechanisms with other eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Cai; Zhu, Hang-Yong; Dong, Xiu-Mei; Ning, De-Li; Wang, Hong-Xia; Li, Wei-Hua; Yang, Chuan-Ping; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The N-terminal protein processing mechanism (NPM) including N-terminal Met excision (NME) and N-terminal acetylation (N(α)-acetylation) represents a common protein co-translational process of some eukaryotes. However, this NPM occurred in woody plants yet remains unknown. To reveal the NPM in poplar, we investigated the N(α)-acetylation status of poplar proteins during dormancy by combining tandem mass spectrometry with TiO2 enrichment of acetylated peptides. We identified 58 N-terminally acetylated (N(α)-acetylated) proteins. Most proteins (47, >81%) are subjected to N(α)-acetylation following the N-terminal removal of Met, indicating that N(α)-acetylation and NME represent a common NPM of poplar proteins. Furthermore, we confirm that poplar shares the analogous NME and N(α)-acetylation (NPM) to other eukaryotes according to analysis of N-terminal features of these acetylated proteins combined with genome-wide identification of the involving methionine aminopeptidases (MAPs) and N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nat) enzymes in poplar. The N(α)-acetylated reactions and the involving enzymes of these poplar proteins are also identified based on those of yeast and human, as well as the subcellular location information of these poplar proteins. This study represents the first extensive investigation of N(α)-acetylation events in woody plants, the results of which will provide useful resources for future unraveling the regulatory mechanisms of N(α)-acetylation of proteins in poplar.

  19. Mining non-model genomic libraries for microsatellites: BAC versus EST libraries and the generation of allelic richness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Kerry L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are tandemly repeated sequence motifs common in genomic nucleotide sequence that often harbor significant variation in repeat number. Frequently used as molecular markers, SSRs are increasingly identified via in silico approaches. Two common classes of genomic resources that can be mined are bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries and expressed sequence tag (EST libraries. Results 288 SSR loci were screened in the rapidly radiating Hawaiian swordtail cricket genus Laupala. SSRs were more densely distributed and contained longer repeat structures in BAC library-derived sequence than in EST library-derived sequence, although neither repeat density nor length was exceptionally elevated despite the relatively large genome size of Laupala. A non-random distribution favoring AT-rich SSRs was observed. Allelic diversity of SSRs was positively correlated with repeat length and was generally higher in AT-rich repeat motifs. Conclusion The first large-scale survey of Orthopteran SSR allelic diversity is presented. Selection contributes more strongly to the size and density distributions of SSR loci derived from EST library sequence than from BAC library sequence, although all SSRs likely are subject to similar physical and structural constraints, such as slippage of DNA replication machinery, that may generate increased allelic diversity in AT-rich sequence motifs. Although in silico approaches work well for SSR locus identification in both EST and BAC libraries, BAC library sequence and AT-rich repeat motifs are generally superior SSR development resources for most applications.

  20. The Impact of N-terminal Acetylation of α-Synuclein on Phospholipid Membrane Binding and Fibril Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Aditya; Roeters, Steven J; Schilderink, Nathalie; Hommersom, Bob; Heeren, Ron M A; Woutersen, Sander; Claessens, Mireille M A E; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2016-09-30

    Human α-synuclein (αS) has been shown to be N terminally acetylated in its physiological state. This modification is proposed to modulate the function and aggregation of αS into amyloid fibrils. Using bacterially expressed acetylated-αS (NTAc-αS) and endogenous αS (Endo-αS) from human erythrocytes, we show that N-terminal acetylation has little impact on αS binding to anionic membranes and thus likely not relevant for regulating membrane affinity. N-terminal acetylation does have an effect on αS aggregation, resulting in a narrower distribution of the aggregation lag times and rates. 2D-IR spectra show that acetylation changes the secondary structure of αS in fibrils. This difference may arise from the slightly higher helical propensity of acetylated-αS in solution leading to a more homogenous fibril population with different fibril structure than non-acetylated αS. We speculate that N-terminal acetylation imposes conformational restraints on N-terminal residues in αS, thus predisposing αS toward specific interactions with other binding partners or alternatively decrease nonspecific interactions. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. The Impact of N-terminal Acetylation of α-Synuclein on Phospholipid Membrane Binding and Fibril Structure*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Aditya; Roeters, Steven J.; Schilderink, Nathalie; Hommersom, Bob; Heeren, Ron M. A.; Woutersen, Sander; Claessens, Mireille M. A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Human α-synuclein (αS) has been shown to be N terminally acetylated in its physiological state. This modification is proposed to modulate the function and aggregation of αS into amyloid fibrils. Using bacterially expressed acetylated-αS (NTAc-αS) and endogenous αS (Endo-αS) from human erythrocytes, we show that N-terminal acetylation has little impact on αS binding to anionic membranes and thus likely not relevant for regulating membrane affinity. N-terminal acetylation does have an effect on αS aggregation, resulting in a narrower distribution of the aggregation lag times and rates. 2D-IR spectra show that acetylation changes the secondary structure of αS in fibrils. This difference may arise from the slightly higher helical propensity of acetylated-αS in solution leading to a more homogenous fibril population with different fibril structure than non-acetylated αS. We speculate that N-terminal acetylation imposes conformational restraints on N-terminal residues in αS, thus predisposing αS toward specific interactions with other binding partners or alternatively decrease nonspecific interactions. PMID:27531743

  2. Reduced Histone H3 Acetylation in CD4+ T Lymphocytes: Potential Mechanism of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA is the result of gene-environment interactions. Histone acetylation regulates gene expression and maybe interpret how environmental factors modify LADA. Hence, we studied the histone acetylation patterns in CD4+ T lymphocytes from LADA patients. Methods. Blood CD4+ T lymphocytes from 28 patients with LADA and 28 healthy controls were obtained to detect histone H3 acetylation and H4 acetylation. The gene expression of histone acetyltransferases (P300 and CREBBP and histone deacetylases (HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC7 was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results. Compared to healthy controls, reduced global H3 acetylation was observed in LADA patients’ CD4+ T lymphocytes (P<0.05. Global level of H4 acetylation was not statistically different. Among LADA, CD4+ T lymphocytes H3 acetylation was associated with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and GADA titer. Compared to healthy controls, the expression of histone acetyltransferases CREBBP in LADA patients was downregulated, and the expression of histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC7 was upregulated. Conclusion. A concerted downregulation of histone H3 acetylation was found in CD4+ T lymphocytes of LADA patients, and this might provide evidence of a novel epigenetic explanation for the pathogenesis of LADA and its complications.

  3. Release behavior and intra-articular biocompatibility of celecoxib-loaded acetyl-capped PCLA-PEG-PCLA thermogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, Audrey; Sandker, Marjan; Müller, Benno; Meyboom, Ronald; van Midwoud, Paul; Bruin, Peter; Redout, Everaldo M; Versluijs-Helder, Marjan; van der Lest, Chris H A; Buwalda, Sytze J; de Leede, Leo G J; Vermonden, Tina; Kok, Robbert Jan; Weinans, Harrie; Hennink, Wim E

    In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo properties and performance of a celecoxib-loaded hydrogel based on a fully acetyl-capped PCLA-PEG-PCLA triblock copolymer. Blends of different compositions of celocoxib, a drug used for pain management in osteoarthritis, and the acetyl-capped

  4. Surface modification of bacterial cellulose nanofibers for property enhancement of optically transparent composites: dependence on acetyl-group DS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifuku, Shinsuke; Nogi, Masaya; Abe, Kentaro; Handa, Keishin; Nakatsubo, Fumiaki; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2007-06-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers were acetylated to enhance the properties of optically transparent composites of acrylic resin reinforced with the nanofibers. A series of BC nanofibers acetylated from degree-of-substitution (DS) 0 to 1.76 were obtained. X-ray diffraction profiles indicated that acetylation proceeded from the surface to the core of BC nanofibers, and scanning electron microscopy images showed that the volume of nanofibers increases by the bulky acetyl group. Since acetylation decreased the refractive index of cellulose, regular transmittance of composites comprised of 63% BC nanofiber was improved, and deterioration at 580 nm because of fiber reinforcement was suppressed to only 3.4%. Acetylation of nanofibers changed their surface properties and reduced the moisture content of the composite to about one-third that of untreated composite, although excessive acetylation increased hygroscopicity. Furthermore, acetylation was found to reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion of a BC sheet from 3 x 10(-6) to below 1 x 10(-6) 1/K.

  5. Enzymatically hydrolysed, acetylated and dually modified corn starch: physico-chemical, rheological and nutritional properties and effects on cake quality

    OpenAIRE

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Ismail, Nouha; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2015-01-01

    Corn starch was treated by enzymatic hydrolysis with Aspergillus oryzae S2 α-amylase, acetylation with vinyl acetate, and dual modification. The dual modified starch displayed a higher substitution degree than the acetylated starch and lower reducing sugar content than the hydrolysed starch. The results revealed that the cooling viscosity and amylose content of those products decrease (P 

  6. Acetylation of lysine ϵ-amino groups regulates aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity inEscherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Ji, Quan-Quan; Yan, Wei; Yang, Fang; Wang, En-Duo

    2017-06-23

    Previous proteomic analyses have shown that aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in many organisms can be modified by acetylation of Lys. In this present study, leucyl-tRNA synthetase and arginyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli ( Ec LeuRS and Ec ArgRS) were overexpressed and purified and found to be acetylated on Lys residues by MS. Gln scanning mutagenesis revealed that Lys 619 , Lys 624 , and Lys 809 in Ec LeuRS and Lys 126 and Lys 408 in Ec ArgRS might play important roles in enzyme activity. Furthermore, we utilized a novel protein expression system to obtain enzymes harboring acetylated Lys at specific sites and investigated their catalytic activity. Acetylation of these Lys residues could affect their aminoacylation activity by influencing amino acid activation and/or the affinity for tRNA. In vitro assays showed that acetyl-phosphate nonenzymatically acetylates Ec LeuRS and Ec ArgRS and suggested that the sirtuin class deacetylase CobB might regulate acetylation of these two enzymes. These findings imply a potential regulatory role for Lys acetylation in controlling the activity of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and thus protein synthesis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Engineering acetyl coenzyme A supply : Functional expression of a bacterial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozak, B.U.; Van Rossum, M.H.; Luttik, M.A.; Akeroyd, M.; Benjamin, K.R.; Wu, L.; De Vries, S.; Daran, J.M.; Pronk, J.T.; Van Maris, A.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The energetic (ATP) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. Cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been

  8. Engineering Acetyl Coenzyme A Supply : Functional Expression of a Bacterial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in the Cytosol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozak, B.U.; Van Rossum, H.M.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Akeroyd, M.; Benjamin, K.R.; Wu, L.; De Vries, S.; Daran, J.M.; Pronk, J.T.; Van Maris, A.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The energetic (ATP) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. Cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been

  9. The bacterial two-hybrid system uncovers the involvement of acetylation in regulating of Lrp activity in Salmonella Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Qin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nε-lysine acetylation is an abundant and important Post-translational modification in bacteria. We used the bacterial two-hybrid system to screen the genome library of the Salmonella Typhimurium to identify potential proteins involved in acetyltransferase Pat - or deacetylase CobB-mediated acetylation. Then, the in vitro (deacetylation assays were used to validate the potential targets, such as STM14_1074, NrdF, RhaR. Lrp, a leucine-responsive regulatory protein and global regulator, was shown to interact with Pat. We further demonstrate that Lrp could be acetylated by Pat and deacetylated by NAD+-dependent CobB in vitro. Specifically, the conserved lysine residue 36 (K36 in helix-turn-helix (HTH DNA-binding domain of Lrp was acetylated. Acetylation of K36 impaired the function of Lrp through altering the affinity with the target promoter. The mutation of K36 in chromosome mimicking acetylation enhanced the transcriptional level of itself and attenuated the mRNA levels of Lrp-regulated genes including fimA, which was confirmed by yeast agglutination assay. These findings demonstrate that the acetylation regulates the DNA-binding activity of Lrp, suggesting that acetylation modification of transcription factors is a conserved regulatory manner to modulate gene expression in bacteria and eukaryotes.

  10. Acetyl substitution patterns of amylose and amylopectin populations in cowpea starch modified with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Klaver, R.; Jin, Z.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    To study the effect of reagent type on the distribution pattern of acetyl groups in acetylated cowpea starch, amylose and amylopectin populations were isolated from the starch granules after modification to a low degree of substitution (DS <0.1) with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate,

  11. A Novel Dominant Transformer Allele of the Sex-Determining Gene Her-1 of Caenorhabditis Elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Trent, C.; Wood, W. B.; Horvitz, H. R.

    1988-01-01

    We have characterized a novel dominant allele of the sex-determining gene her-1 of Caenorhabditis elegans. This allele, called n695, results in the incomplete transformation of XX animals into phenotypic males. Previously characterized recessive her-1 alleles transform XO animals into phenotypic hermaphrodites. We have identified five new recessive her-1 mutations as intragenic suppressors of n695. Three of these suppressors are weak, temperature-sensitive alleles. We show that the recessive ...

  12. Expression and loss of alleles in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts and stem cells carrying allelic fluorescent protein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stringer Saundra L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of heterozygosity (LOH contributes to many cancers, but the rate at which these events occur in normal cells of the body is not clear. LOH would be detectable in diverse cell types in the body if this event were to confer an obvious cellular phenotype. Mice that carry two different fluorescent protein genes as alleles of a locus would seem to be a useful tool for addressing this issue because LOH would change a cell's phenotype from dichromatic to monochromatic. In addition, LOH caused by mitotic crossing over might be discernable in tissues because this event produces a pair of neighboring monochromatic cells that are different colors. Results As a step in assessing the utility of this approach, we derived primary embryonic fibroblast populations and embryonic stem cell lines from mice that carried two different fluorescent protein genes as alleles at the chromosome 6 locus, ROSA26. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS showed that the vast majority of cells in each line expressed the two marker proteins at similar levels, and that populations exhibited expression noise similar to that seen in bacteria and yeast. Cells with a monochromatic phenotype were present at frequencies on the order of 10-4 and appeared to be produced at a rate of approximately 10-5 variant cells per mitosis. 45 of 45 stably monochromatic ES cell clones exhibited loss of the expected allele at the ROSA26 locus. More than half of these clones retained heterozygosity at a locus between ROSA26 and the centromere. Other clones exhibited LOH near the centromere, but were disomic for chromosome 6. Conclusion Allelic fluorescent markers allowed LOH at the ROSA26 locus to be detected by FACS. LOH at this locus was usually not accompanied by LOH near the centromere, suggesting that mitotic recombination was the major cause of ROSA26 LOH. Dichromatic mouse embryonic cells provide a novel system for studying genetic/karyotypic stability and factors

  13. N-terminal acetylation by NatC is not a general determinant for substrate subcellular localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Aksnes

    Full Text Available N-terminal acetylation has been suggested to play a role in the subcellular targeting of proteins, in particular those acetylated by the N-terminal acetyltransferase complex NatC. Based on previous positional proteomics data revealing N-terminal acetylation status and the predicted NAT substrate classes, we selected 13 suitable NatC substrates for subcellular localization studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of GFP-tagged candidates in the presence or absence of the NatC catalytic subunit Naa30 (Mak3 revealed unaltered localization patterns for all 13 candidates, thus arguing against a general role for the N-terminal acetyl group as a localization determinant. Furthermore, all organelle-localized substrates indicated undisrupted structures, thus suggesting that absence of NatC acetylation does not have a vast effect on organelle morphology in yeast.

  14. Osterix acetylation at K307 and K312 enhances its transcriptional activity and is required for osteoblast differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jianlei; Qu, Shuang; Yao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    increased after treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors Trichostatin A and hydroxamic acid. Meanwhile, the results of immunoprecipitation indicated that Osx was an acetylated protein and that the CREB binding protein (CBP), and less efficiently p300, acetylated Osx. The interaction and colocalization...... of CBP and Osx were demonstrated by Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence, respectively. In addition, K307 and K312 were identified as the acetylated sites of Osx. By contrast, HDAC4, a histone deacetylase (HDAC), was observed to interact and co-localize with Osx. HDAC4 was demonstrated...... to mediate the deacetylation of Osx. Moreover, we found that acetylation of Osx enhanced its stability, DNA binding ability and transcriptional activity. Finally, we demonstrated that acetylation of Osx was required for the osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. Taken together, our results provide...

  15. Exploring the Possible Role of Lysine Acetylation on Entamoeba histolytica Virulence: A Focus on the Dynamics of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. López-Contreras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoskeleton remodeling can be regulated, among other mechanisms, by lysine acetylation. The role of acetylation on cytoskeletal and other proteins of Entamoeba histolytica has been poorly studied. Dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton are crucial for amebic motility and capping formation, processes that may be effective means of evading the host immune response. Here we report the possible effect of acetylation on the actin cytoskeleton dynamics and in vivo virulence of E. histolytica. Using western blot, immunoprecipitation, microscopy assays, and in silico analysis, we show results that strongly suggest that the increase in Aspirin-induced cytoplasm proteins acetylation reduced cell movement and capping formation, likely as a consequence of alterations in the structuration of the actin cytoskeleton. Additionally, intrahepatic inoculation of Aspirin-treated trophozoites in hamsters resulted in severe impairment of the amebic virulence. Taken together, these results suggest an important role for lysine acetylation in amebic invasiveness and virulence.

  16. Allele Mining Strategies: Principles and Utilisation for Blast Resistance Genes in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkani, Sadegh; Yusop, Mohd Rafii; Shabanimofrad, Mahmoodreza; Azady, Amin; Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Azizi, Parisa; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Allele mining is a promising way to dissect naturally occurring allelic variants of candidate genes with essential agronomic qualities. With the identification, isolation and characterisation of blast resistance genes in rice, it is now possible to dissect the actual allelic variants of these genes within an array of rice cultivars via allele mining. Multiple alleles from the complex locus serve as a reservoir of variation to generate functional genes. The routine sequence exchange is one of the main mechanisms of R gene evolution and development. Allele mining for resistance genes can be an important method to identify additional resistance alleles and new haplotypes along with the development of allele-specific markers for use in marker-assisted selection. Allele mining can be visualised as a vital link between effective utilisation of genetic and genomic resources in genomics-driven modern plant breeding. This review studies the actual concepts and potential of mining approaches for the discovery of alleles and their utilisation for blast resistance genes in rice. The details provided here will be important to provide the rice breeder with a worthwhile introduction to allele mining and its methodology for breakthrough discovery of fresh alleles hidden in hereditary diversity, which is vital for crop improvement.

  17. Feeling Stressed under the Sun? RPA1 Acetylation to the Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Debabrata; Hazra, Tapas K

    2017-08-29

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) requires replication protein A (RPA), among others, to respond to DNA damaging agents. In this issue of Cell Reports, He et al. (2017) and Zhao et al. (2017) show acetylation of RPA1 regulates the UV-induced DNA damage response. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pattern of change in histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation and histone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pattern of change in histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation and histone deacetylases in development of zebrafish embryo. Yanning Li Junxia Wang Ying Xie Shufeng Liu Ye ... Wang1 Ying Xie1 Shufeng Liu1 Ye Tian1. Hebei Key Lab of Laboratory Animal, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017, People's Republic of China ...

  19. Histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation and the response to DNA replication fork damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtele, Hugo; Kaiser, Gitte Schalck; Bacal, Julien

    2012-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac) occurs in newly synthesized histones that are deposited throughout the genome during DNA replication. Defects in H3K56ac sensitize cells to genotoxic agents, suggesting that this modification plays an important role in the DNA...

  20. Hydrolysis of Wheat Arabinoxylan by Two Acetyl Xylan Esterases from Chaetomium thermophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Xiaoxue; Lange, Lene; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2015-01-01

    The thermophilic filamentous ascomycete Chaetomium thermophilum produces functionally diverse hemicellulases when grown on hemicellulose as carbon source. Acetyl xylan esterase (EC 3.1.1.72) is an important accessory enzyme in hemicellulose biodegradation. Although the genome of C. thermophilum h...... bioconversion to high value chemicals or biofuels....

  1. Acetyl salicylic acid–ZnAl layered double hydroxide functional nanohybrid for skin care application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosangi, Damodar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a pharmaceutically active ingredient, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA), was intercalated into ZnAl layered double hydroxide (LDH). The LDH–ASA nanohybrid material was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, ICP-MS, TEM and TGA. Successful...

  2. AIRE acetylation and deacetylation: effect on protein stability and transactivation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incani, Federica; Serra, Maria; Meloni, Alessandra; Cossu, Carla; Saba, Luisella; Cabras, Tiziana; Messana, Irene; Rosatelli, Maria C

    2014-08-27

    The AIRE protein plays a remarkable role as a regulator of central tolerance by controlling the promiscuous expression of tissue-specific antigens in thymic medullary epithelial cells. Defects in AIRE gene cause the autoimmune polyendocrinopathy- candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy, a rare disease frequent in Iranian Jews, Finns, and Sardinian population. In this study, we have precisely mapped, by mass spectrometry experiments, the sites of protein acetylation and, by mutagenesis assays, we have described a set of acetylated lysines as being crucial in influencing the subcellular localization of AIRE. Furthermore, we have also determined that the de-acetyltransferase enzymes HDAC1-2 are involved in the lysine de-acetylation of AIRE. On the basis of our results and those reported in literature, we propose a model in which lysines acetylation increases the stability of AIRE in the nucleus. In addition, we observed that the interaction of AIRE with deacetylases complexes inhibits its transcriptional activity and is probably responsible for the instability of AIRE, which becomes more susceptible to degradation in the proteasome.

  3. Urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity in healthy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, R; Nakajima, N; Soeta, S; Sato, J; Naito, Y

    1997-11-01

    To measure urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity of healthy cattle, using 3 substrates (4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide, sodio-m-cresolsulfonphthaleinyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminid e, and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide), and to determine the relations between the obtained values and age and sex of cattle. 50 healthy lactating Holstein-Friesian cows and 10 healthy Holstein-Friesian steers. Untimed urine samples were collected, and urine NAG activity was measured, using the 3 aforementioned methods. Urine creatinine concentration also was measured, and NAG activity was expressed as units per gram of creatinine (NAG index). Correlations between urine NAG activity and age and sex of cattle were investigated. Furthermore, correlations among data obtained by each of the 3 methods were determined. Urine NAG activity in cows measured by each of the 3 methods was < 3.0 U/L. Urine NAG activity in steers was significantly higher than that in cows. However, there was no significant difference between the sexes in NAG index. There were no significant differences in mean values of NAG activity and index among cows of various age groups. Individual values of urine NAG activity determined by each method correlated significantly with each other. Urine NAG activity and NAG index of healthy cattle will be useful for determining diagnostic criteria of renal disease in cattle.

  4. Properties of retrograded and acetylated starch produced via starch extrusion or starch hydrolysis with pullulanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, M; Zięba, T; Gryszkin, A; Styczyńska, M; Wilczak, A

    2013-09-12

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of serial modifications of starch, including firstly starch extrusion or hydrolysis with pullulanase, followed by retrogradation (through freezing and defrosting of pastes) and acetylation (under industrial conditions), on its susceptibility to amylolysis. The method of production had a significant effect on properties of the resultant preparations, whilst the direction and extent of changes depended on the type of modification applied. In the produced starch esters, the degree of substitution, expressed by the per cent of acetylation, ranged from 3.1 to 4.4 g/100 g. The acetylation had a significant impact on contents of elements determined with the atomic emission spectrometry, as it contributed to an increased Na content and decreased contents of Ca and K. The DSC thermal characteristics enabled concluding that the modifications caused an increase in temperatures and a decrease in heat of transition (or its lack). The acetylation of retrograded starch preparations increased their solubility in water and water absorbability. The modifications were found to exert various effects on the rheological properties of pastes determined based on the Brabender's pasting characteristics and flow curves determined with the use of an oscillatory-rotating viscosimeter. All starch acetates produced were characterized by ca. 40% resistance to amylolysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. HClO4-SiO2 catalyzed per-O-acetylation of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anup Kumar; Tiwari, Pallavi; Madhusudan, Soni Kamlesh

    2005-02-07

    An efficient per-O-acetylation of carbohydrates catalyzed by HClO4-SiO2 is reported using a stoichiometric quantity of acetic anhydride avoiding the use of pyridine and excess acetic anhydride under solvent-free conditions.

  6. Is lys-Ne-acetylation the next big thing in post-translational modifications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lys-N'-acetylation (KAC) has recently ascended from a posttranslational modification (PTM) of limited distribution to one approaching the abundance of O-phosphorylation. Thousands of KAC-proteins have been identified in archaea, bacteria, and eukarya, and the KAC system of acetyltransferases, deace...

  7. Discriminating between lysine sumoylation and lysine acetylation using mRMR feature selection and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications (PTMs are crucial steps in protein synthesis and are important factors contributing to protein diversity. PTMs play important roles in the regulation of gene expression, protein stability and metabolism. Lysine residues in protein sequences have been found to be targeted for both types of PTMs: sumoylations and acetylations; however, each PTM has a different cellular role. As experimental approaches are often laborious and time consuming, it is challenging to distinguish the two types of PTMs on lysine residues using computational methods. In this study, we developed a method to discriminate between sumoylated lysine residues and acetylated residues. The method incorporated several features: PSSM conservation scores, amino acid factors, secondary structures, solvent accessibilities and disorder scores. By using the mRMR (Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy method and the IFS (Incremental Feature Selection method, an optimal feature set was selected from all of the incorporated features, with which the classifier achieved 92.14% accuracy with an MCC value of 0.7322. Analysis of the optimal feature set revealed some differences between acetylation and sumoylation. The results from our study also supported the previous finding that there exist different consensus motifs for the two types of PTMs. The results could suggest possible dominant factors governing the acetylation and sumoylation of lysine residues, shedding some light on the modification dynamics and molecular mechanisms of the two types of PTMs, and provide guidelines for experimental validations.

  8. Method for Treating Bacterial Infections with 2-Acetyl- and 2-Propionylpyridine Thiosemicarbazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This invention relates to various 2-acetyl- and 2-propionylpyridine thiosemicarbazones which are substituted on the 4-nitrogen atom. These compounds...are useful in either in the treatment of malaria or bacterial infection. Also disclosed are several synthetic procedures used to prepare the thiosemicarbazones . (Author)

  9. Inhibition of the PCAF histone acetyl transferase and cell proliferation by isothiazolones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Frank J.; Ghizzoni, Massimo; van der Meer, Nanette; Wisastra, Rosalina; Haisma, Hidde J.

    2009-01-01

    Small molecule HAT inhibitors are useful tools to unravel the role of histone acetyl transferases (HATs) in the cell and have relevance for oncology. We present a systematic investigation of the inhibition of the HAT p300/CBP Associated Factor (PCAF) by isothiazolones with different substitutions.

  10. Structural Monitoring of Oligosaccharides through 13C Enrichment and NMR Observation of Acetyl Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Prestegard, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    Structural characterization of biomolecules by NMR methods frequently requires the enrichment of magnetically active isotopes at particular molecular sites. Introduction is usually achieved biosynthetically through the use of bacterial cultures grown on isotopically enriched media, but for certain types of molecules—cell-surface carbohydrates of mammalian origin, for example—this is not practical. Here we explore a means of introducing 13C-enriched sites, postisolation in natural carbohydrate products, and illustrate an ability to acquire sufficient information to select appropriate conformational models from among energetically allowed sets. The application presented involves replacement of native N-acetyl groups with 13C-labeled acetyl groups in a simple disaccharide derivative, (GlcNAc)2-OBu, or O-butyl-chitobiose. The assignment of the two acetyl groups introduced is based on a novel combination of NMR and mass spectrometry data. Structural information is obtained from chemical shift anisotropy offsets of 13C carbonyl resonances and 13C-13C dipolar couplings between the labeled methyl and carbonyl carbons of the acetyl groups. Although the application is to a relatively simple system, it lays the groundwork for application to biologically important complex carbohydrate systems. PMID:16782783

  11. N[alpha]-acetyl-[gamma]-endorphin is an endogenous non-opioid neuropeptide with biological activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; Amerongen, A. van; Gaffori, O.; Sitsen, J.M.A.; Wied, D. De

    1985-01-01

    Nα-acetyl-γ-endorphin (AcγE) was identified in the rat neurointermediate pituitary, based on its immunological properties, comigration with synthetic AcγE on HPLC and resistance to aminopeptidase-M degradation. The peptide appeared to be the main form of γ-endophin (γE) in this tissue and in brain

  12. Chronic ethanol consumption induces mitochondrial protein acetylation and oxidative stress in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter S; Roy, Samantha R; Coughlan, Christina; Orlicky, David J; Liang, Yongliang; Shearn, Colin T; Roede, James R; Fritz, Kristofer S

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present the novel findings that chronic ethanol consumption induces mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation in the kidney and correlates with significantly increased renal oxidative stress. A major proteomic footprint of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is an increase in hepatic mitochondrial protein acetylation. Protein hyperacetylation has been shown to alter enzymatic function of numerous proteins and plays a role in regulating metabolic processes. Renal mitochondrial targets of hyperacetylation include numerous metabolic and antioxidant pathways, such as lipid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and amino acid metabolism, as well as glutathione and thioredoxin pathways. Disruption of protein lysine acetylation has the potential to impair renal function through metabolic dysregulation and decreased antioxidant capacity. Due to a significant elevation in ethanol-mediated renal oxidative stress, we highlight the acetylation of superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxins, glutathione reductase, and glutathione transferase enzymes. Since oxidative stress is a known factor in ethanol-induced nephrotoxicity, we examined biochemical markers of protein hyperacetylation and oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate increased protein acetylation concurrent with depleted glutathione, altered Cys redox potential, and the presence of 4-HNE protein modifications in our 6-week model of early-stage alcoholic nephrotoxicity. These findings support the hypothesis that ethanol metabolism causes an influx of mitochondrial metabolic substrate, resulting in mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation with the potential to impact mitochondrial metabolic and antioxidant processes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Characterization of lysine 56 of histone H3 as an acetylation site in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozdemir, A.; Spicuglia, S.; Lasonder, E.; Vermeulen, M.; Campsteijn, C.G.; Stunnenberg, H.G.; Logie, C.

    2005-01-01

    Post-translational histone modifications abound and regulate multiple nuclear processes. Most modifications are targeted to the amino-terminal domains of histones. Here we report the identification and characterization of acetylation of lysine 56 within the core domain of histone H3. In the crystal

  14. Acetylation of pregnane X receptor protein determines selective function independent of ligand activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Arunima; Pasquel, Danielle [Albert Einstein Cancer Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar [Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Mani, Sridhar, E-mail: sridhar.mani@einstein.yu.edu [Albert Einstein Cancer Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a major regulatory protein, is modified by acetylation. {yields} PXR undergoes dynamic deacetylation upon ligand-mediated activation. {yields} SIRT1 partially mediates PXR deacetylation. {yields} PXR deacetylation per se induces lipogenesis mimicking ligand-mediated activation. -- Abstract: Pregnane X receptor (PXR), like other members of its class of nuclear receptors, undergoes post-translational modification [PTM] (e.g., phosphorylation). However, it is unknown if acetylation (a major and common form of protein PTM) is observed on PXR and, if it is, whether it is of functional consequence. PXR has recently emerged as an important regulatory protein with multiple ligand-dependent functions. In the present work we show that PXR is indeed acetylated in vivo. SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1), a NAD-dependent class III histone deacetylase and a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, partially mediates deacetylation of PXR. Most importantly, the acetylation status of PXR regulates its selective function independent of ligand activation.

  15. Acetylation regulates WRN catalytic activities and affects base excision DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muftuoglu, Meltem; Kusumoto, Rika; Speina, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    The Werner protein (WRN), defective in the premature aging disorder Werner syndrome, participates in a number of DNA metabolic processes, and we have been interested in the possible regulation of its function in DNA repair by post-translational modifications. Acetylation mediated by histone...

  16. Acetoxy drug : Protein transacetylase of buffalo liver - Characterization and mass spectrometry of the acetylated protein product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohli, E.; Gaspari, M.; Raj, H.G.; Parmar, V.S.; Sharma, S.K.; Greef, J. van der; Kumari, R.; Gupta, G.; Seema; Khurana, P.; Tyagi, Y.K.; Watterson, A.C.; Olsen, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    The purification and characterization of the buffalo liver microsomal transacetylase (TAase) catalyzing the transfer of acetyl groups from a model acetoxy drug: 7,8-diacetoxy-4-methylcoumarin (DAMC) to GST3-3 has been described here. The enzyme was routinely assayed using DAMC and cytosolic GST as

  17. Calreticulin transacetylase mediates the acetylation of nitric oxide synthase by polyphenolic acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, S.; Gaspari, M.; Raj, H.G.; Kumar, A.; Cuda, G.; Verheij, E.; Tyagi, Y.K.; Ponnan, P.; Rastogi, R.C.; Parmar, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Our earlier investigations identified acetoxy drug: protein transacetylase (TAase), a unique enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) catalyzing the transfer of acetyl groups from polyphenolic acetates (PA) to certain functional proteins. Recently we have established the identity of TAase with ER

  18. The effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, B.P.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) proved to be an effective mucolytic in pulmonary secretions. Our goal was to investigate the in vitro effect of NAC on viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus. The urine of a patient with an ileal neobladder was collected during the first 7 days postoperatively and stored in a

  19. Reaction of acetylenes with acetyl fluoroborate in the presence of acetic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shastin, A.V.; Balenkova, E.S.; Luzikov, Yu.N.; Gusev, A.I.; Gurkova, S.N.

    1986-01-10

    The reaction of phenyl-, dimethyl-, and diphenylacetylene with acetyl fluoroborate in the presence of acetic anhydride at 20-50/sup 0/C leads to boron-containing heterocyclic compounds having dipolar structures (substituted 2,2-difluoro-1,2-dihydro-1,3,2-dioxaborins) and can serve as a convenient single-stage method for their synthesis.

  20. Effect of the acetylation process on native starches of yam (Dioscorea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Salcedo Mendoza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, it is necessary to produce native and modified starches for the use of amylaceous raw materials of major socioeconomic importance. In this study, the effects of the acetylation process on structural, morphological and functional properties of native starches yam, Dioscorea spp. (D. alata and D. rotundata were evaluated. Chemical modification by esterification with acetic anhydride was performed at different reaction times, and morphological and structural changes were assessed using the following techniques: infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Acetylation produced slight changes in the granule morphology, and a decreased degree of crystallinity (DC associated with a slight increase in the amylose content was observed. The introduction of acetyl groups into the starch structure caused a decrease in the gelatinization temperature and an increased retro gradation tendency. The acetylated starches had low degrees of substitution (DS<0.2, meaning they can be used in the food industry, considering that they showed greater stability, greater water absorption capacity and better solubility than native starches.

  1. Analysis of 2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline in rice by HSSE/GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative method for the analysis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) in rice employing stir bar sorptive extraction (Twister™), is described. The Twister stir bar is placed in the headspace of a 20 ml vial containing 1 g rice kernels, 5 ml 0.1 M KOH, 2,2 g NaCl, and a second Teflon™ coated stir bar...

  2. Arabidopsis NATA1 Acetylates Putrescine and Decreases Defense-Related Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yann-Ru; Bor, Melike; Yan, Jian; Preuss, Aileen S; Jander, Georg

    2016-06-01

    Biosynthesis of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine is induced in response to pathogen infection of plants. Putrescine, which is produced from Arg, serves as a metabolic precursor for longer polyamines, including spermidine and spermine. Polyamine acetylation, which has important regulatory functions in mammalian cells, has been observed in several plant species. Here we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY1 (NATA1) catalyzes acetylation of putrescine to N-acetylputrescine and thereby competes with spermidine synthase for a common substrate. NATA1 expression is strongly induced by the plant defense signaling molecule jasmonic acid and coronatine, an effector molecule produced by DC3000, a Pseudomonas syringae strain that initiates a virulent infection in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia-0. DC3000 growth is reduced in nata1 mutant Arabidopsis, suggesting a role for NATA1-mediated putrescine acetylation in suppressing antimicrobial defenses. During infection by P. syringae and other plant pathogens, polyamine oxidases use spermidine and spermine as substrates for the production of defense-related H2O2 Compared to wild-type Columbia-0 Arabidopsis, the response of nata1mutants to P. syringae infection includes reduced accumulation of acetylputrescine, greater abundance of nonacetylated polyamines, elevated H2O2 production by polyamine oxidases, and higher expression of genes related to pathogen defense. Together, these results are consistent with a model whereby P. syringae growth is improved in a targeted manner through coronatine-induced putrescine acetylation by NATA1. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Measurement of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in isolated hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, C.; Geelen, M.J.H.

    1987-01-01

    An assay is described for acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in isolated hepatocytes. The assay is based on two principles: (a) The hepatocytes are made permeable by digitonin. 64 μg of digitonin per mg of cellular protein were most effective in exposing enzyme activity without a significant effect on

  4. Life span extension by targeting a link between metabolism and histone acetylation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Shahaf; Feller, Christian; Forne, Ignasi; Schiller, Evelyn; Sévin, Daniel C; Schauer, Tamas; Regnard, Catherine; Straub, Tobias; Prestel, Matthias; Klima, Caroline; Schmitt Nogueira, Melanie; Becker, Lore; Klopstock, Thomas; Sauer, Uwe; Becker, Peter B; Imhof, Axel; Ladurner, Andreas G

    2016-03-01

    Old age is associated with a progressive decline of mitochondrial function and changes in nuclear chromatin. However, little is known about how metabolic activity and epigenetic modifications change as organisms reach their midlife. Here, we assessed how cellular metabolism and protein acetylation change during early aging in Drosophila melanogaster. Contrary to common assumptions, we find that flies increase oxygen consumption and become less sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibitors as they reach midlife. Further, midlife flies show changes in the metabolome, elevated acetyl-CoA levels, alterations in protein-notably histone-acetylation, as well as associated transcriptome changes. Based on these observations, we decreased the activity of the acetyl-CoA-synthesizing enzyme ATP citrate lyase (ATPCL) or the levels of the histone H4 K12-specific acetyltransferase Chameau. We find that these targeted interventions both alleviate the observed aging-associated changes and promote longevity. Our findings reveal a pathway that couples changes of intermediate metabolism during aging with the chromatin-mediated regulation of transcription and changes in the activity of associated enzymes that modulate organismal life span. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  5. Protein acetylation affects acetate metabolism, motility and acid stress response in Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castano-Cerezo, Sara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371746698; Bernal, Vicente; Post, Harm|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341667374; Fuhrer, Tobias; Cappadona, Salvatore|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341539031; Sanchez-Diaz, Nerea C.; Sauer, Uwe; Heck, Albert J. R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Altelaar, A. F. Maarten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833517; Canovas, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Although protein acetylation is widely observed, it has been associated with few specific regulatory functions making it poorly understood. To interrogate its functionality, we analyzed the acetylome in Escherichia coli knockout mutants of cobB, the only known sirtuin-like deacetylase, and patZ, the

  6. Exploring the hypothesis that limiting diffusion of fungal oxidants underlies decay resistance in acetylated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Hunt; Steven Lacher; Kolby Hirth; Linda Lorenz; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms by which chemical modifications, specifically acetylation, improve the decay resistance of wood are a topic of active research. In the early stages of decay, fungi secrete lowmolecular- weight oxidants or oxidant precursors. These oxidants diffuse through the wet wood cell wall and oxidize cell wall polymers, which enable the decay process to proceed....

  7. Inhibition of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III))-induced cell malignant transformation through restoring dysregulated histone acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yichen; Gong, Zhihong; Olson, James R; Xu, Peilin; Buck, Michael J; Ren, Xuefeng

    2013-10-04

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and its high toxic metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), are able to induce malignant transformation of human cells. Chronic exposure to these chemicals is associated with an increased risk of developing multiple cancers in human. However, the mechanisms contributing to iAs/MMA(III)-induced cell malignant transformation and carcinogenesis are not fully elucidated. We recently showed that iAs/MMA(III) exposure to human cells led to a decreased level of histone acetylation globally, which was associated with an increased sensitivity to arsenic cytotoxicity. In the current study, it demonstrated that prolonged exposure to low-level MMA(III) in human urothelial cells significantly increased the expression and activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) with an associated reduction of histone acetylation levels both globally and lysine specifically. Administration of the HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), at 4 weeks after the initial MMA(III) treatment inhibited the MMA(III)-mediated up-regulation of the expression and activities of HDACs, leading to increase histone acetylation and prevention of MMA(III)-induced malignant transformation. These new findings suggest that histone acetylation dysregulation may be a key mechanism in MMA(III)-induced malignant transformation and carcinogenesis, and that HDAC inhibitors could be targeted to prevent or treat iAs-related cancers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary studies on the endo-xylanase and acetyl esterase of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum (JW102) produced low levels of xylanase in mineral medium containing yeast extract and beechwood xylan. Production of xylanase was highest at growth temperatures of 62 – 64oC. Both xylan and xylose supported acetyl esterase production. Xylose, as sole carbon source, supported ...

  9. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline - key aroma compound in Mediterranean dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    and Southern types were attributed to a burned coffee odour from smoke in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The two compounds were 2-furfurylthiol and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. An analysis of five dried, moulded sausages showed that the surface...

  10. An Acute Acetyl Fentanyl Fatality: A Case Report With Postmortem Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Iain M; Trochta, Amber; Gary, Ray D; Malamatos, Mark; Lucas, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    In this case report, we present an evaluation of the distribution of postmortem concentrations of acetyl fentanyl in a fatality attributed to the drug. A young man who had a history of heroin abuse was found deceased at his parents' home. Toxicology testing, which initially screened positive for fentanyl by ELISA, subsequently confirmed acetyl fentanyl by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry specific ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM) analysis following liquid-liquid extraction. No other drugs or medications, including fentanyl, were detected. The acetyl fentanyl peripheral blood concentration was quantified at 260 ng/mL compared with the central blood concentration of 250 ng/mL. The liver concentration was 1,000 ng/kg, the vitreous was 240 ng/mL and the urine was 2,600 ng/mL. The cause of death was certified due to acute acetyl fentanyl intoxication, and the manner of death was certified as an accident. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Neurone-specific enolase and N-acetyl-aspartate as potential peripheral markers of ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, H; Jakobs, C; de Jager, AEJ; Cunningham, RT; Korf, J

    Background After stroke, brain-specific proteins (including neurone-specific enolase) leak into the blood. The question addressed in the present study was whether N-acetyl-aspartate (amino acid derivative localized in cerebral neurones) could also serve as a peripheral marker of ischaemic damage.

  12. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some New Chalcones of 2-Acetyl Pyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Rajendra Prasad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Six new chalcones were synthesised by condensing 2-acetyl pyridine with aldehyde derivatives in dilute ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature according to Claisen-Schmidt condensation. All these compounds were characterised by means of their IR, 1H NMR spectroscopic data and microanalyses. The antimicrobial activity of these compounds was evaluated by the cup plate method.

  13. Direct acetylation of sunflower oil in the presence of boron trioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lubrication properties of sunflower oil have been modified by epoxidation in the first step and acetylation of the obtained epoxide in the second step. Epoxidation has been followed in dichloromethane solution in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid as oxidizing agent and sulfuric acid as catalyst. The reaction ...

  14. Lysine succinylation is a frequently occurring modification in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and extensively overlaps with acetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian T; Schölz, Christian; Wagner, Sebastian A

    2013-01-01

    . cerevisiae), human (HeLa) cells, and mouse liver tissue, demonstrating widespread succinylation in diverse organisms. A majority of succinylation sites in bacteria, yeast, and mouse liver were acetylated at the same position. Quantitative analysis of succinylation in yeast showed that succinylation was globally...

  15. Baker’s Yeast Mediated Reduction of 2-Acetyl-3-methyl Sulfolane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Deasy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The baker’s yeast mediated reduction of 2-acetyl-3-methyl sulfolane 1 to provide the corresponding alcohol 2 is described. Excellent efficiency and enantioselectivity (>98% ee has been achieved under these mild environmentally benign reaction conditions. In direct contrast, the chemical reduction of 1 proceeds with poor yield (≤25% and diastereocontrol.

  16. Requirements for carnitine shuttle-mediated translocation of mitochondrial acetyl moieties to the yeast cytosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Harmen M.; Kozak, B.U.; Niemeijer, M.S.; Dykstra, James C.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Daran, J.G.; van Maris, A.J.A.; Pronk, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    In many eukaryotes, the carnitine shuttle plays a key role in intracellular transport of acyl moieties. Fatty acidgrown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells employ this shuttle to translocate acetyl units into their mitochondria. Mechanistically, the carnitine shuttle should be reversible, but previous

  17. Direct N-acetyl enamine formation: lithium bromide mediated addition of methyllithium to nitriles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarin, Cécile G; Boice, Geneviève N; Murry, Jerry A; Corley, Edward; DiMichele, Lisa; Hughes, Dave

    2006-08-31

    An improved protocol for N-acetyl enamine formation is disclosed which involves LiBr-mediated addition of MeLi to substituted nitriles. The resulting enamides are isolated in high yields and excellent purity which permits subsequent hydrogenation at very low catalyst loading.

  18. Termite and fungal resistance of in situ polymerized tributyltin acrylate and acetylated Indonesian and USA wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Yusuf Sudo. Hadi; Dodi. Nandika; Sulaeman. Yusuf; Yuliati. Indrayani

    2000-01-01

    Wood [Indonesian pine (IP), Indonesian Jabon (IJ) and USA southern yellow pine (USP)] was either in situ polymerized with tributyltin acrylate (TBTA) or acetylated and then exposed to termite and fungal degradation both in laboratory tests and field exposure. The TBTA woods had an average weight percent gain (WPG) of 11% for IP, 12% for IJ, and 10% for USP. The...

  19. Kinetics of Acid Hydrolysis of Water-Soluble Spruce O-Acetyl Galactoglucomannans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Pranovich, A.; Vahasalo, L.; Hemming, J.; Holmbom, B.; Schols, H.A.; Willfor, S.

    2008-01-01

    Water-soluble O-acetyl galactoglucomannan (GGM) is a softwood-derived polysaccharide, which can be extracted on an industrial scale from wood or mechanical pulping waters and now is available in kilogram scale for research and development of value-added products. To develop applications of GGM,

  20. Hydrolytic stability of water-soluble spruce O-acetyl galactoglucomannans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Pranovich, A.; Hemmimg, J.; Holmbom, B.; Albrecht, S.A.; Schols, H.A.; Willfor, S.

    2009-01-01

    Water-soluble native O-acetyl galactoglucomannan (GGM) from spruce is a polysaccharide that can be produced in an industrial scale. To develop GGM applications, information is needed on its stability, particularly under acidic conditions. Therefore, acid hydrolysis of spruce GGM was investigated at

  1. DNA methylation and histone acetylation work in concert to regulate memory formation and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Courtney A; Campbell, Susan L; Sweatt, J David

    2008-05-01

    A clear understanding is developing concerning the importance of epigenetic-related molecular mechanisms in transcription-dependent long-term memory formation. Chromatin modification, in particular histone acetylation, is associated with transcriptional activation, and acetylation of histone 3 (H3) occurs in Area CA1 of the hippocampus following contextual fear conditioning training. Conversely, DNA methylation is associated with transcriptional repression, but is also dynamically regulated in Area CA1 following training. We recently reported that inhibition of the enzyme responsible for DNA methylation, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), in the adult rat hippocampus blocks behavioral memory formation. Here, we report that DNMT inhibition also blocks the concomitant memory-associated H3 acetylation, without affecting phosphorylation of its upstream regulator, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Interestingly, the DNMT inhibitor-induced deficit in memory consolidation, along with deficits in long-term potentiation, can be rescued by pharmacologically increasing levels of histone acetylation prior to DNMT inhibition. These observations suggest that DNMT activity is not only necessary for memory and plasticity, but that DNA methylation may work in concert with histone modifications to regulate plasticity and memory formation in the adult rat hippocampus.

  2. Process-product studies on starch acetylation reactions in pressurised carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muljana, Henky; Picchioni, Francesco; Heeres, Hero J.; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.

    2010-01-01

    An in-depth study on the effect of process conditions (pressure, temperature and type of catalyst) on the acetylation of starch with acetic anhydride in pressurised carbon dioxide is described. A total of 22 experiments were performed and the experimental data were analysed using non-linear

  3. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, A Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G.K. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical

  4. Micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics and prebiotics, a review of effectiveness in reducing HIV progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical

  5. p300-mediated acetylation of TRF2 is required for maintaining functional telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Yoon Ra; Chung, In Kwon

    2013-02-01

    The human telomeric protein TRF2 is required to protect chromosome ends by facilitating their organization into the protective capping structure. Post-translational modifications of TRF2 such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, methylation and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation have been shown to play important roles in telomere function. Here we show that TRF2 specifically interacts with the histone acetyltransferase p300, and that p300 acetylates the lysine residue at position 293 of TRF2. We also report that p300-mediated acetylation stabilizes the TRF2 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis and is required for efficient telomere binding of TRF2. Furthermore, overexpression of the acetylation-deficient mutant, K293R, induces DNA-damage response foci at telomeres, thereby leading to induction of impaired cell growth, cellular senescence and altered cell cycle distribution. A small but significant number of metaphase chromosomes show no telomeric signals at chromatid ends, suggesting an aberrant telomere structure. These findings demonstrate that acetylation of TRF2 by p300 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of functional telomeres as well as in the regulation of the telomere-associated DNA-damage response, thus providing a new route for modulating telomere protection function.

  6. Effects of N-acetyl cysteine on lipid levels and on leukocyte and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Many of studies have shown that increased lipid levels play a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis after splenectomy. We investigated the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on lipid parameters and leukocyte and platelet (PLT) levels following splenectomy. Materials and Methods: 32 Sprague.

  7. 4-Acetyl-2-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Akazaki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The facile synthesis of 4-acetyl-2-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H-one (4 was achieved by the Mn(OAc3-mediated aerobic oxidation of 2,4-pentanedione or the direct reaction of Mn(acac3 in AcOH-TFE at room temperature under a dried air stream.

  8. Acetylation Is Crucial for p53-Mediated Ferroptosis and Tumor Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Jui Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies indicate that loss of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence does not completely abrogate its tumor suppression function, it is unclear how the remaining activities of p53 are regulated. Here, we have identified an acetylation site at lysine K98 in mouse p53 (or K101 for human p53. Whereas the loss of K98 acetylation (p53K98R alone has very modest effects on p53-mediated transactivation, simultaneous mutations at all four acetylation sites (p534KR: K98R+ 3KR[K117R+K161R+K162R] completely abolish its ability to regulate metabolic targets, such as TIGAR and SLC7A11. Notably, in contrast to p533KR, p534KR is severely defective in suppressing tumor growth in mouse xenograft models. Moreover, p534KR is still capable of inducing the p53-Mdm2 feedback loop, but p53-dependent ferroptotic responses are markedly abrogated. Together, these data indicate the critical role of p53 acetylation in ferroptotic responses and its remaining tumor suppression activity.

  9. direct acetylation of sunflower oil in the presence of boron trioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Lubrication properties of sunflower oil have been modified by epoxidation in the first step and acetylation of the obtained epoxide in the second step. Epoxidation has been followed in dichloromethane solution in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid as oxidizing agent and sulfuric acid as catalyst.

  10. The in situ distribution of glycoprotein-bound 4-O-Acetylated sialic acids in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamelfot, Maria; Dale, Ole Bendik; Weli, Simon Chioma; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Falk, Knut

    2014-05-01

    Sialic acids are located at the terminal branches of the cell glycocalyx and secreted glycan molecules. O-Acetylation is an important modification of the sialic acids, however very few studies have demonstrated the in situ distribution of the O-Acetylated sialic acids. Here the distribution of glycoprotein bound 4-O-Acetylated sialic acids (4-O-Ac sias) in vertebrates was determined using a novel virus histochemistry assay. The 4-O-Ac sias were found in the circulatory system, i.e. on the surface of endothelial cells and RBCs, of several vertebrate species, though most frequently in the cartilaginous fish (class Chondrichthyes) and the bony fish (class Osteichthyes). The O-Acetylated sialic acid was detected in 64 % of the examined fish species. Even though the sialic acid was found less commonly in higher vertebrates, it was found at the same location in the positive species. The general significance of this endothelial labelling pattern distribution is discussed. The seemingly conserved local position through the evolution of the vertebrates, suggests an evolutionary advantage of this sialic acid modification.

  11. Data for global lysine-acetylation analysis in rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehui Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important crops for human consumption and is a staple food for over half of the world׳s population (Yu et al., 2002 [1]. A systematic identification of the lysine acetylome was performed by our research (Xiong et al., 2016 [2]. Rice plant samples were collected from 5 weeks old seedlings (Oryza sativa, Nipponbare. After the trypsin digestion and immunoaffinity precipitation, LC–MS/MS approach was used to identify acetylated peptides. After the collected MS/MS data procession and GO annotation, the InterProScan was used to annotate protein domain. Subcellular localization of the identified acetylated proteins was predicted by WoLF PSORT. The KEGG pathway database was used to annotate identified acetylated protein interactions, reactions, and relations. The data, supplied in this article, are related to “A comprehensive catalog of the lysine-acetylation targets in rice (O. sativa based on proteomic analyses” by Xiong et al. (2016 [2].

  12. An autopsy case of acetyl fentanyl intoxication caused by insufflation of 'designer drugs'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Izumi; Koizumi, Takako; Fujimoto, Ihoko; Yanai, Aya; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

    2016-07-01

    We present a fatal case of intoxication due to insufflation of acetyl fentanyl. His blood concentration of acetyl fentanyl was 270ng/mL, and the manner of death was classified as an accident. This is the first report of an autopsy case of acetyl fentanyl delivered by insufflation, rather than intravenous administration. He had been snoring loudly for at least 12h prior to death, and transport to a hospital during this time and treatment with naloxone may have saved his life. In this sense, it can be said that his death was preventable. This case reemphasizes the risk of death associated with drug overdose and the narrow range of acetyl fentanyl between the effective dose (ED50) and lethal dose (LD50). The case should also raise awareness among medical professionals of the effectiveness of naloxone and the need to establish a comprehensive system for toxicological analysis while keeping the possibility of use of 'designer drugs' in mind. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. BRPF3-HBO1 regulates replication origin activation and histone H3K14 acetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Yunpeng; Vlassis, Arsenios; Roques, Céline

    2016-01-01

    recruitment, but not MCM2-7 loading, is impaired in BRPF3-depleted cells, identifying a BRPF3-dependent function of HBO1 in origin activation that is complementary to its role in licencing. We thus propose that BRPF3-HBO1 acetylation of histone H3K14 around TSS facilitates efficient activation of nearby...

  14. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-S-allyl-L-cystein upon garlic consumption by human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, B.M.; Boogaard, P.J.; Rijksen, D.A.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1996-01-01

    N-Acetyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine (allylmercapturic acid, ALMA) was previously detected in urine from humans consuming garlic. Exposure of rats to allyl halides is also known to lead to excretion of ALMA in urine. ALMA is a potential biomarker for exposure assessment of workers exposed to allyl halides.

  15. Specific synthesis of neurostatin and gangliosides O-acetylated in the outer sialic acids using a sialate transferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Romero-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Gangliosides are sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids, commonly found on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. O-acetylation of sialic acid hydroxyl groups is one of the most common modifications in gangliosides. Studies on the biological activity of O-acetylated gangliosides have been limited by their scarcity in nature. This comparatively small change in ganglioside structure causes major changes in their physiological properties. When the ganglioside GD1b was O-acetylated in the outer sialic acid, it became the potent inhibitor of astroblast and astrocytoma proliferation called Neurostatin. Although various chemical and enzymatic methods to O-acetylate commercial gangliosides have been described, O-acetylation was nonspecific and produced many side-products that reduced the yield. An enzyme with O-acetyltransferase activity (SOAT has been previously cloned from the bacteria Campylobacter jejuni. This enzyme catalyzed the acetylation of oligosaccharide-bound sialic acid, with high specificity for terminal alpha-2,8-linked residues. Using this enzyme and commercial gangliosides as starting material, we have specifically O-acetylated the gangliosides' outer sialic acids, to produce the corresponding gangliosides specifically O-acetylated in the sialic acid bound in alpha-2,3 and alpha-2,8 residues. We demonstrate here that O-acetylation occurred specifically in the C-9 position of the sialic acid. In summary, we present a new method of specific O-acetylation of ganglioside sialic acids that permits the large scale preparation of these modified glycosphingolipids, facilitating both, the study of their mechanism of antitumoral action and their use as therapeutic drugs for treating glioblastoma multiform (GBM patients.

  16. Rapid and precise genotyping of porcine microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, G H; Beeckmann, P; Bartenschlager, H; Moser, G; Geldermann, H

    1999-11-01

    Microsatellites are useful markers for genetic mapping and linkage analysis because they are highly polymorphic, abundant in genomes and relatively easily scored with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A rapid genotyping system for microsatellites was developed, which included multiplex PCRs, multiple use of Hydrolink gels, automated fluorescent detection of fragments on an A.L.F. DNA sequencer, automatic assignment of alleles to each locus and verification of genotypes with a self-developed computer program "Fragtest". Eight multiplex PCRs have been developed to genotype 29 microsatellites for genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping on pig chromosomes 6, 7, 12 and 13. Three to six microsatellites could be amplified in one multiplex PCR. Each multiplex reaction required only different concentrations of each pair of primers and a low concentration of dNTP (100 microM). A dNTP concentration of 100 microM proved to be optimal for the coamplification of microsatellites under the concentration of 1.5 mM MgCl2. Using four internal size standards added in each sample, the 5% Hydrolink gel could subsequently be used up to five times (total running time of 500 min) on the A.L.F. automated sequencer without significant loss of resolution and precision of fragment length analysis. Automatic assignment of alleles on each locus using "Fragtest" significantly increased the efficiency and precision of the genotyping. This system is thus a rapid, cheap, and highly discriminating genotyping system.

  17. A 6-alkylsalicylate histone acetyltransferase inhibitor inhibits histone acetylation and pro-inflammatory gene expression in murine precision-cut lung slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den Thea; Leus, Niek G J; Wapenaar, Hannah; Boichenko, Alexander; Hermans, Jos; Bischoff, Rainer; Haisma, Hidde J; Dekker, Frank J

    Lysine acetylations are post-translational modifications of cellular proteins, that are crucial in the regulation of many cellular processes. Lysine acetylations on histone proteins are part of the epigenetic code regulating gene transcription and are installed by histone acetyltransferases.

  18. Human invariant natural killer T cells acquire transient innate responsiveness via histone H4 acetylation induced by weak TCR stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Bishop, Kathleen A; Hegde, Subramanya; Rodenkirch, Lance A; Pike, J Wesley; Gumperz, Jenny E

    2012-05-07

    Invariant NKT cells (iNKT cells) are innate T lymphocytes that are thought to play an important role in producing an early burst of IFN-γ that promotes successful tumor immunosurveillance and antimicrobial immunity. The cellular activation processes underlying innate IFN-γ production remain poorly understood. We show here that weak T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation that does not directly activate iNKT cell IFN-γ messenger RNA transcription nevertheless induces histone H4 acetylation at specific regions near the IFNG gene locus. This renders the iNKT cells able to produce IFN-γ in an innate manner (i.e., not requiring concurrent TCR stimulation) upon exposure to IL-12 and IL-18. The iNKT cells retain the capacity for innate activation for hours to days after the initial weak TCR stimulation, although their innate responsiveness gradually declines as a function of histone deacetylation. These results explain how iNKT cells are able to mediate rapid innate IFN-γ secretion in a manner that does not require them to undergo permanent T(H1) differentiation. Moreover, our results also indicate that iNKT cell motility is maintained during activation by IL-12 and IL-18. Therefore, iNKT cells activated through this pathway can continue to migrate and may thus disseminate the IFN-γ that they produce, which may amplify its impact.

  19. Common Kibra alleles are associated with human memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stephan, Dietrich A; Huentelman, Matthew J; Hoerndli, Frederic J; Craig, David W; Pearson, John V; Huynh, Kim-Dung; Brunner, Fabienne; Corneveaux, Jason; Osborne, David; Wollmer, M Axel; Aerni, Amanda; Coluccia, Daniel; Hänggi, Jürgen; Mondadori, Christian R A; Buchmann, Andreas; Reiman, Eric M; Caselli, Richard J; Henke, Katharina; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2006-10-20

    Human memory is a polygenic trait. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify memory-related gene variants. A genomic locus encoding the brain protein KIBRA was significantly associated with memory performance in three independent, cognitively normal cohorts from Switzerland and the United States. Gene expression studies showed that KIBRA was expressed in memory-related brain structures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging detected KIBRA allele-dependent differences in hippocampal activations during memory retrieval. Evidence from these experiments suggests a role for KIBRA in human memory.

  20. Missing value imputation for microarray gene expression data using histone acetylation information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jihua

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is an important pre-processing step to accurately estimate missing values in microarray data, because complete datasets are required in numerous expression profile analysis in bioinformatics. Although several methods have been suggested, their performances are not satisfactory for datasets with high missing percentages. Results The paper explores the feasibility of doing missing value imputation with the help of gene regulatory mechanism. An imputation framework called histone acetylation information aided imputation method (HAIimpute method is presented. It incorporates the histone acetylation information into the conventional KNN(k-nearest neighbor and LLS(local least square imputation algorithms for final prediction of the missing values. The experimental results indicated that the use of acetylation information can provide significant improvements in microarray imputation accuracy. The HAIimpute methods consistently improve the widely used methods such as KNN and LLS in terms of normalized root mean squared error (NRMSE. Meanwhile, the genes imputed by HAIimpute methods are more correlated with the original complete genes in terms of Pearson correlation coefficients. Furthermore, the proposed methods also outperform GOimpute, which is one of the existing related methods that use the functional similarity as the external information. Conclusion We demonstrated that the using of histone acetylation information could greatly improve the performance of the imputation especially at high missing percentages. This idea can be generalized to various imputation methods to facilitate the performance. Moreover, with more knowledge accumulated on gene regulatory mechanism in addition to histone acetylation, the performance of our approach can be further improved and verified.