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Sample records for rapid accurate diagnosis

  1. Rapid and accurate intraoperative pathological diagnosis by artificial intelligence with deep learning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Yanlin; Xia, Fan; Zhu, Chenjing; Zhang, Yingying; Song, Wenpeng; Xu, Jianguo; Ma, Xuelei

    2017-09-01

    Frozen section is widely used for intraoperative pathological diagnosis (IOPD), which is essential for intraoperative decision making. However, frozen section suffers from some drawbacks, such as time consuming and high misdiagnosis rate. Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) with deep learning technology has shown bright future in medicine. We hypothesize that AI with deep learning technology could help IOPD, with a computer trained by a dataset of intraoperative lesion images. Evidences supporting our hypothesis included the successful use of AI with deep learning technology in diagnosing skin cancer, and the developed method of deep-learning algorithm. Large size of the training dataset is critical to increase the diagnostic accuracy. The performance of the trained machine could be tested by new images before clinical use. Real-time diagnosis, easy to use and potential high accuracy were the advantages of AI for IOPD. In sum, AI with deep learning technology is a promising method to help rapid and accurate IOPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of acute cholecystitis with /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA cholescintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissmann, H.S.; Frank, M.S.; Bernstein, L.H.; Freeman, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    Technetium-99m dimethyl acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) cholescintigraphy was performed on 90 patients with suspected acute cholecytitis. Visualization of the gallbladder established patency of the cystic duct and excluded the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in 50 of 52 patients. Nonvisualization of the gallbladder with visualization of the common bile duct was diagnostic of acute cholecystitis in 38 patients, all subsequently proven at surgery. The observed accuracy of this procedure is 98% and specificity is 100%. The false negative rate is 5% and false positive rate is zero. Technetium-99m-HILDA has many advantages which make it the procedure of choice in evaluating a patient for suspected acute cholecystitis. It is a rapid, simple, safe examination which provides functional as well as anatomic information about the hepatobiliary system in individuals with a serum bilirubin level up to 8 mg/100 ml

  3. Are rapid diagnostic tests more accurate in diagnosis of plasmodium falciparum malaria compared to microscopy at rural health centres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnussen Pascal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt, accurate diagnosis and treatment with artemisinin combination therapy remains vital to current malaria control. Blood film microscopy the current standard test for diagnosis of malaria has several limitations that necessitate field evaluation of alternative diagnostic methods especially in low income countries of sub-Saharan Africa where malaria is endemic. Methods The accuracy of axillary temperature, health centre (HC microscopy, expert microscopy and a HRP2-based rapid diagnostic test (Paracheck was compared in predicting malaria infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR as the gold standard. Three hundred patients with a clinical suspicion of malaria based on fever and or history of fever from a low and high transmission setting in Uganda were consecutively enrolled and provided blood samples for all tests. Accuracy of each test was calculated overall with 95% confidence interval and then adjusted for age-groups and level of transmission intensity using a stratified analysis. The endpoints were: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV. This study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00565071. Results Of the 300 patients, 88(29.3% had fever, 56(18.7% were positive by HC microscopy, 47(15.7% by expert microscopy, 110(36.7% by Paracheck and 89(29.7% by PCR. The overall sensitivity >90% was only shown by Paracheck 91.0% [95%CI: 83.1-96.0]. The sensitivity of expert microscopy was 46%, similar to HC microscopy. The superior sensitivity of Paracheck compared to microscopy was maintained when data was stratified for transmission intensity and age. The overall specificity rates were: Paracheck 86.3% [95%CI: 80.9-90.6], HC microscopy 93.4% [95%CI: 89.1-96.3] and expert microscopy 97.2% [95%CI: 93.9-98.9]. The NPV >90% was shown by Paracheck 95.8% [95%CI: 91.9-98.2]. The overall PPV was Conclusion The HRP2-based RDT has shown superior sensitivity compared to

  4. Lateral Flow Rapid Test for Accurate and Early Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus: A Febrile Illness of Historically Military Importance in the Pacific Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chien-Chung; Zhangm, Zhiwen; Weissenberger, Giulia; Chen, Hua-Wei; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2017-03-01

    Scrub typhus (ST) is an infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Historically, ST was ranked as the second most important arthropod-borne medical problem only behind malaria during World War II and the Vietnam War. The disease occurs mainly in Southeast Asia and has been shown to emerge and reemerge in new areas, implying the increased risk for U.S. military and civilian personnel deployed to these regions. ST can effectively be treated by doxycycline provided the diagnosis is made early, before the development of severe complications. Scrub Typhus Detect is a lateral flow rapid test based on a mixture of recombinant 56-kDa antigens with broad reactivity. The performance of this prototype product was evaluated against indirect immunofluorescence assay, the serological gold standard. Using 249 prospectively collected samples from Thailand, the sensitivity and specificity for IgM was found to be 100% and 92%, respectively, suggesting a high potential of this product for clinical use. This product will provide a user friendly, rapid, and accurate diagnosis of ST for clinicians to provide timely and accurate treatments of deployed personnel. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. Importance of molecular diagnosis in the accurate diagnosis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Yoshida Konoecho, ... of molecular diagnosis in the accurate diagnosis of systemic carnitine deficiency. .... 'affecting protein function' by SIFT.

  6. Importance of a Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis in Strongyloides Stercoralis and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 Co-infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Olga; Berini, Carolina A; Waldbaum, Carlos; Avagnina, Alejandra; Juarez, María; Repetto, Silvia; Sorda, Juan; Biglione, Mirna

    2017-01-01

    Strongyloides (S.) stercoralis and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 (HTLV-1) share some endemic regions such as Japan, Jamaica, and South America and are mostly diagnosed elsewhere in immigrants from endemic areas. This co-infection has not been documented in Argentina although both pathogens are endemic in the Northwest. We present a case of S. stercoralis and HTLV-1 co-infection with an initial presentation due to gastrointestinal symptoms which presented neither eosinophilia nor the presence of larvae in stool samples in a non-endemic area for these infections. A young Peruvian woman living in Buenos Aires attended several emergency rooms and finally ended up admitted in a gastroenterology ward due to incoercible vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. Gastrointestinal symptoms started 3 months before she returned to Argentina from a trip to Peru. She presented malnutrition and abdominal distension parameters. HIV-1 and other immunodeficiencies were discarded. The serial coproparasitological test was negative. Computed tomography showed diffuse thickening of duodenal and jejunal walls. At the beginning, vasculitis was suspected and corticosteroid therapy was initiated. The patient worsened rapidly. Skin, new enteral biopsies, and a new set of coproparasitological samples revealed S. stercoralis . Then, HTLV-1 was suspected and infection was confirmed. Ivermectin and albendazole were administrated, until the stool sample remained negative for 2 weeks. Larvae were not observed in fresh stool, Ritchie method, and agar culture 1 week post-treatment. Although she required initial support with parenteral nutrition due to oral intolerance she slowly progressed favorably. It has been highly recommended to include a rapid and sensitive PCR strategy in the algorithm to confirm Strongyloides infection, which has demonstrated to improve early diagnosis in patients at-risk of disseminated strongyloidiasis.

  7. Importance of a Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis in Strongyloides Stercoralis and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 Co-infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Quintero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides (S. stercoralis and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 (HTLV-1 share some endemic regions such as Japan, Jamaica, and South America and are mostly diagnosed elsewhere in immigrants from endemic areas. This co-infection has not been documented in Argentina although both pathogens are endemic in the Northwest. We present a case of S. stercoralis and HTLV-1 co-infection with an initial presentation due to gastrointestinal symptoms which presented neither eosinophilia nor the presence of larvae in stool samples in a non-endemic area for these infections. A young Peruvian woman living in Buenos Aires attended several emergency rooms and finally ended up admitted in a gastroenterology ward due to incoercible vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. Gastrointestinal symptoms started 3 months before she returned to Argentina from a trip to Peru. She presented malnutrition and abdominal distension parameters. HIV-1 and other immunodeficiencies were discarded. The serial coproparasitological test was negative. Computed tomography showed diffuse thickening of duodenal and jejunal walls. At the beginning, vasculitis was suspected and corticosteroid therapy was initiated. The patient worsened rapidly. Skin, new enteral biopsies, and a new set of coproparasitological samples revealed S. stercoralis. Then, HTLV-1 was suspected and infection was confirmed. Ivermectin and albendazole were administrated, until the stool sample remained negative for 2 weeks. Larvae were not observed in fresh stool, Ritchie method, and agar culture 1 week post-treatment. Although she required initial support with parenteral nutrition due to oral intolerance she slowly progressed favorably. It has been highly recommended to include a rapid and sensitive PCR strategy in the algorithm to confirm Strongyloides infection, which has demonstrated to improve early diagnosis in patients at-risk of disseminated strongyloidiasis.

  8. An accurate and affordable test for the rapid diagnosis of sickle cell disease could revolutionize the outlook for affected children born in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas N

    2015-09-23

    Each year, at least 280,000 children are born with sickle cell disease (SCD) in resource-limited settings. For cost, logistic and political reasons, the availability of SCD testing is limited in such settings and consequently 50-90 % of affected children die undiagnosed before their fifth birthday. The recent development of a point of care method for the diagnosis of SCD - the Sickle SCAN™ device - could afford such children the prompt access to appropriate services that has transformed the outlook for affected children in resource-rich areas. In research published in BMC Medicine, Kanter and colleagues describe a small but carefully conducted study involving 208 children and adults, in which they found that by using Sickle SCAN™ it was possible to diagnose the common forms of SCD with 99 % sensitivity and 99 % specificity, in under 5 minutes. If repeatable both in newborn babies and under real-life conditions, and if marketed at an affordable price, Sickle SCAN™ could revolutionize the survival prospects for children born with SCD in resource-limited areas.Please see related article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-015-0473-6.

  9. Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer: Presenting Ideas with Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-30

    questions from the Pre-test were included in the Post-test. I. At the end of the day, people in the camps take home about __ taka to feed their families. 2...teachers are not paid regularly. Tuition fees for different classes are 40 to 80 taka (Bangladesh currency) 27 per month which is very high for the...October 26, 2002. 27 In April 2005, exchange rate, one $ = 60 taka . 44 Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer: CDRL (DI-MIS-807 11 A, 00012 1) Presenting

  10. Cerebral fat embolism: Use of MR spectroscopy for accurate diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Kokatnur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral fat embolism (CFE is an uncommon but serious complication following orthopedic procedures. It usually presents with altered mental status, and can be a part of fat embolism syndrome (FES if associated with cutaneous and respiratory manifestations. Because of the presence of other common factors affecting the mental status, particularly in the postoperative period, the diagnosis of CFE can be challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of brain typically shows multiple lesions distributed predominantly in the subcortical region, which appear as hyperintense lesions on T2 and diffusion weighted images. Although the location offers a clue, the MRI findings are not specific for CFE. Watershed infarcts, hypoxic encephalopathy, disseminated infections, demyelinating disorders, diffuse axonal injury can also show similar changes on MRI of brain. The presence of fat in these hyperintense lesions, identified by MR spectroscopy as raised lipid peaks will help in accurate diagnosis of CFE. Normal brain tissue or conditions producing similar MRI changes will not show any lipid peak on MR spectroscopy. We present a case of CFE initially misdiagnosed as brain stem stroke based on clinical presentation and cranial computed tomography (CT scan, and later, MR spectroscopy elucidated the accurate diagnosis.

  11. Accurate diagnosis of CHD by Paediatricians with Expertise in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Hannah C; Massey, Hannah; Yates, Robert W M; Kelsall, A Wilfred

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Paediatricians with Expertise in Cardiology assess children with a full history, examination, and often perform an echocardiogram. A minority are then referred to an outreach clinic run jointly with a visiting paediatric cardiologist. The accuracy of the echocardiography diagnosis made by the Paediatrician with Expertise in Cardiology is unknown. Materials and methods We conducted a retrospective review of clinic letters for children seen in the outreach clinic for the first time between March, 2004 and March, 2011. Children with CHD diagnosed antenatally or elsewhere were excluded. We recorded the echocardiography diagnosis made by the paediatric cardiologist and previously by the Paediatrician with Expertise in Cardiology. The Paediatrician with Expertise in Cardiology referred 317/3145 (10%) children seen in the local cardiac clinics to the outreach clinic over this period, and among them 296 were eligible for inclusion. Their median age was 1.5 years (range 1 month-15.1 years). For 244 (82%) children, there was complete diagnostic agreement between the Paediatrician with Expertise in Cardiology and the paediatric cardiologist. For 29 (10%) children, the main diagnosis was identical with additional findings made by the paediatric cardiologist. The abnormality had resolved in 17 (6%) cases by the time of clinic attendance. In six (2%) patients, the paediatric cardiologist made a different diagnosis. In total, 138 (47%) patients underwent a surgical or catheter intervention. Discussion Paediatricians with Expertise in Cardiology can make accurate diagnoses of CHD in children referred to their clinics. This can allow effective triage of children attending the outreach clinic, making best use of limited specialist resources.

  12. Rapid and accurate pyrosequencing of angiosperm plastid genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael J; Dhingra, Amit; Soltis, Pamela S; Shaw, Regina; Farmerie, William G; Folta, Kevin M; Soltis, Douglas E

    2006-01-01

    Background Plastid genome sequence information is vital to several disciplines in plant biology, including phylogenetics and molecular biology. The past five years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of completely sequenced plastid genomes, fuelled largely by advances in conventional Sanger sequencing technology. Here we report a further significant reduction in time and cost for plastid genome sequencing through the successful use of a newly available pyrosequencing platform, the Genome Sequencer 20 (GS 20) System (454 Life Sciences Corporation), to rapidly and accurately sequence the whole plastid genomes of the basal eudicot angiosperms Nandina domestica (Berberidaceae) and Platanus occidentalis (Platanaceae). Results More than 99.75% of each plastid genome was simultaneously obtained during two GS 20 sequence runs, to an average depth of coverage of 24.6× in Nandina and 17.3× in Platanus. The Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes shared essentially identical gene complements and possessed the typical angiosperm plastid structure and gene arrangement. To assess the accuracy of the GS 20 sequence, over 45 kilobases of sequence were generated for each genome using conventional sequencing. Overall error rates of 0.043% and 0.031% were observed in GS 20 sequence for Nandina and Platanus, respectively. More than 97% of all observed errors were associated with homopolymer runs, with ~60% of all errors associated with homopolymer runs of 5 or more nucleotides and ~50% of all errors associated with regions of extensive homopolymer runs. No substitution errors were present in either genome. Error rates were generally higher in the single-copy and noncoding regions of both plastid genomes relative to the inverted repeat and coding regions. Conclusion Highly accurate and essentially complete sequence information was obtained for the Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes using the GS 20 System. More importantly, the high accuracy observed in the GS 20 plastid

  13. Rapid and accurate pyrosequencing of angiosperm plastid genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmerie William G

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plastid genome sequence information is vital to several disciplines in plant biology, including phylogenetics and molecular biology. The past five years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of completely sequenced plastid genomes, fuelled largely by advances in conventional Sanger sequencing technology. Here we report a further significant reduction in time and cost for plastid genome sequencing through the successful use of a newly available pyrosequencing platform, the Genome Sequencer 20 (GS 20 System (454 Life Sciences Corporation, to rapidly and accurately sequence the whole plastid genomes of the basal eudicot angiosperms Nandina domestica (Berberidaceae and Platanus occidentalis (Platanaceae. Results More than 99.75% of each plastid genome was simultaneously obtained during two GS 20 sequence runs, to an average depth of coverage of 24.6× in Nandina and 17.3× in Platanus. The Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes shared essentially identical gene complements and possessed the typical angiosperm plastid structure and gene arrangement. To assess the accuracy of the GS 20 sequence, over 45 kilobases of sequence were generated for each genome using conventional sequencing. Overall error rates of 0.043% and 0.031% were observed in GS 20 sequence for Nandina and Platanus, respectively. More than 97% of all observed errors were associated with homopolymer runs, with ~60% of all errors associated with homopolymer runs of 5 or more nucleotides and ~50% of all errors associated with regions of extensive homopolymer runs. No substitution errors were present in either genome. Error rates were generally higher in the single-copy and noncoding regions of both plastid genomes relative to the inverted repeat and coding regions. Conclusion Highly accurate and essentially complete sequence information was obtained for the Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes using the GS 20 System. More importantly, the high accuracy

  14. Rapid diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Guerra, Luis; Fernández-Blázquez, Ana; Vazquez, Fernando

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are responsible for an enormous burden of morbidity and mortality. Worldwide, millions of cases of STIs, such as syphilis, chlamydia, or gonorrhoea occur every year, and there is now an increase in antimicrobial resistance in pathogens, such as gonococcus. Delay in diagnosis is one of the factors that justifies the difficulty in controlling these infections. Rapid diagnostic tests allow the introduction of aetiological treatment at the first visit, and also leads to treating symptomatic and asymptomatic patients more effectively, as well as to interrupt the epidemiological transmission chain without delay. The World Health Organisation includes these tests in its global strategy against STIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. Translation research: from accurate diagnosis to appropriate treatment

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    Pass Harvey I

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review article focuses on the various aspects of translational research, where research on human subjects can ultimately enhance the diagnosis and treatment of future patients. While we will use specific examples relating to the asbestos related cancer mesothelioma, it should be stressed that the general approach outlined throughout this review is readily applicable to other diseases with an underlying molecular basis. Through the integration of molecular-based technologies, systematic tissue procurement and medical informatics, we now have the ability to identify clinically applicable "genotype"-"phenotype" associations across cohorts of patients that can rapidly be translated into useful diagnostic and treatment strategies. This review will touch on the various steps in the translational pipeline, and highlight some of the most essential elements as well as possible roadblocks that can impact success of the program. Critical issues with regard to Institutional Review Board (IRB and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA compliance, data standardization, sample procurement, quality control (QC, quality assurance (QA, data analysis, preclinical models and clinical trials are addressed. The various facets of the translational pipeline have been incorporated into a fully integrated computational system, appropriately named Dx2Tx. This system readily allows for the identification of new diagnostic tests, the discovery of biomarkers and drugable targets, and prediction of optimal treatments based upon the underlying molecular basis of the disease.

  16. Rapid and accurate evaluation of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang; Huang, Chichao; Qian, Jian; Xiao, Jian; Li, Huan; Wen, Yongli; He, Xinhua; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    The composting industry has been growing rapidly in China because of a boom in the animal industry. Therefore, a rapid and accurate assessment of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers is of the utmost importance. In this study, a novel technique that combines near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with partial least squares (PLS) analysis is developed for rapidly and accurately assessing commercial organic fertilizers quality. A total of 104 commercial organic fertilizers were collected from full-scale compost factories in Jiangsu Province, east China. In general, the NIR-PLS technique showed accurate predictions of the total organic matter, water soluble organic nitrogen, pH, and germination index; less accurate results of the moisture, total nitrogen, and electrical conductivity; and the least accurate results for water soluble organic carbon. Our results suggested the combined NIR-PLS technique could be applied as a valuable tool to rapidly and accurately assess the quality of commercial organic fertilizers.

  17. Rapid and accurate evaluation of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wang

    Full Text Available The composting industry has been growing rapidly in China because of a boom in the animal industry. Therefore, a rapid and accurate assessment of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers is of the utmost importance. In this study, a novel technique that combines near infrared (NIR spectroscopy with partial least squares (PLS analysis is developed for rapidly and accurately assessing commercial organic fertilizers quality. A total of 104 commercial organic fertilizers were collected from full-scale compost factories in Jiangsu Province, east China. In general, the NIR-PLS technique showed accurate predictions of the total organic matter, water soluble organic nitrogen, pH, and germination index; less accurate results of the moisture, total nitrogen, and electrical conductivity; and the least accurate results for water soluble organic carbon. Our results suggested the combined NIR-PLS technique could be applied as a valuable tool to rapidly and accurately assess the quality of commercial organic fertilizers.

  18. The dilemma of malaria diagnosis: How accurate are the diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the accuracy of malaria diagnosis both clinically and using various laboratory tests compared to the gold standard microscopy. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional hospital-based study, conducted at the casualty of Atbara Hospital, in January 2011. Any patient clinically ...

  19. Rapid Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis Using a Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jy Ben

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: The microarray method provides a more accurate and rapid diagnostic tool for bacterial meningitis compared to traditional culture methods. Clinical application of this new technique may reduce the potential risk of delay in treatment.

  20. MRI as an accurate tool for the diagnosis and characterization of different knee joint meniscal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman F. Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: MRI of the knee will give the orthopedic surgeons ability to select suitable treatment and arthroscopic interference for their patients. MRI has high accuracy in meniscal tears diagnosis allowing accurate grading of them.

  1. Rapid Diagnosis of Rhabdomyolysis with Point-of-Care Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Alicia; Talbot, Richard; Grant, Ashley; Derr, Charlotte

    2016-11-01

    It is important to rapidly diagnosis and treat rhabdomyolysis in order to decrease morbidity and mortality. To date there are no reports in the emergency medicine literature on the use of point-of-care ultrasound in the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. This unique case describes how ultrasound was used in the emergency department (ED) to quickly diagnose and treat rhabdomyolysis prior to confirmation with an elevated serum creatine kinase. When coupled with a high index of suspicion, ultrasound can be one of the most portable, readily available, low cost, and minimally invasive techniques for making a rapid diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis in the ED.

  2. Rapid Diagnosis of Rhabdomyolysis with Point-of-Care Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Nassar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is important to rapidly diagnosis and treat rhabdomyolysis in order to decrease morbidity and mortality. To date there are no reports in the emergency medicine literature on the use of point-of-care ultrasound in the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. This unique case describes how ultrasound was used in the emergency department (ED to quickly diagnose and treat rhabdomyolysis prior to confirmation with an elevated serum creatine kinase. When coupled with a high index of suspicion, ultrasound can be one of the most portable, readily available, low cost, and minimally invasive techniques for making a rapid diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis in the ED.

  3. Partial status epilepticus - rapid genetic diagnosis of Alpers' disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCoy, Bláthnaid

    2011-11-01

    We describe four children with a devastating encephalopathy characterised by refractory focal seizures and variable liver dysfunction. We describe their electroencephalographic, radiologic, genetic and pathologic findings. The correct diagnosis was established by rapid gene sequencing. POLG1 based Alpers\\' disease should be considered in any child presenting with partial status epilepticus.

  4. Rapid prenatal diagnosis of cytogenetic abnormalities by array CGH analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Array CGH analysis has been shown to be highly accurate for rapid detection of chromosomal aneuploidies and submicroscopic deletions or duplications on fetal DNA samples in a clinical prenatal diagnostic setting. The objective of this study is to present our "post-validation phase" experience with ...

  5. Rapid identification of sequences for orphan enzymes to power accurate protein annotation.

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    Kevin R Ramkissoon

    Full Text Available The power of genome sequencing depends on the ability to understand what those genes and their proteins products actually do. The automated methods used to assign functions to putative proteins in newly sequenced organisms are limited by the size of our library of proteins with both known function and sequence. Unfortunately this library grows slowly, lagging well behind the rapid increase in novel protein sequences produced by modern genome sequencing methods. One potential source for rapidly expanding this functional library is the "back catalog" of enzymology--"orphan enzymes," those enzymes that have been characterized and yet lack any associated sequence. There are hundreds of orphan enzymes in the Enzyme Commission (EC database alone. In this study, we demonstrate how this orphan enzyme "back catalog" is a fertile source for rapidly advancing the state of protein annotation. Starting from three orphan enzyme samples, we applied mass-spectrometry based analysis and computational methods (including sequence similarity networks, sequence and structural alignments, and operon context analysis to rapidly identify the specific sequence for each orphan while avoiding the most time- and labor-intensive aspects of typical sequence identifications. We then used these three new sequences to more accurately predict the catalytic function of 385 previously uncharacterized or misannotated proteins. We expect that this kind of rapid sequence identification could be efficiently applied on a larger scale to make enzymology's "back catalog" another powerful tool to drive accurate genome annotation.

  6. Rapid Identification of Sequences for Orphan Enzymes to Power Accurate Protein Annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Sunil; Watson, Douglas S.; Bomar, Martha G.; Galande, Amit K.; Shearer, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    The power of genome sequencing depends on the ability to understand what those genes and their proteins products actually do. The automated methods used to assign functions to putative proteins in newly sequenced organisms are limited by the size of our library of proteins with both known function and sequence. Unfortunately this library grows slowly, lagging well behind the rapid increase in novel protein sequences produced by modern genome sequencing methods. One potential source for rapidly expanding this functional library is the “back catalog” of enzymology – “orphan enzymes,” those enzymes that have been characterized and yet lack any associated sequence. There are hundreds of orphan enzymes in the Enzyme Commission (EC) database alone. In this study, we demonstrate how this orphan enzyme “back catalog” is a fertile source for rapidly advancing the state of protein annotation. Starting from three orphan enzyme samples, we applied mass-spectrometry based analysis and computational methods (including sequence similarity networks, sequence and structural alignments, and operon context analysis) to rapidly identify the specific sequence for each orphan while avoiding the most time- and labor-intensive aspects of typical sequence identifications. We then used these three new sequences to more accurately predict the catalytic function of 385 previously uncharacterized or misannotated proteins. We expect that this kind of rapid sequence identification could be efficiently applied on a larger scale to make enzymology’s “back catalog” another powerful tool to drive accurate genome annotation. PMID:24386392

  7. Leucocyte esterase in the rapid diagnosis of paediatric septic arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, E G

    2013-02-01

    Septic arthritis may affect any age group but is more common in the paediatric population. Infection is generally bacterial in nature. Prompt diagnosis is crucial, as delayed treatment is associated with lifelong joint dysfunction. A clinical history and application of Kocher\\'s criteria may indicate that there is a septic arthritis. However, definitive diagnosis is made on culture of septic synovial fluid. The culture process can take over 24h for the initial culture to yield bacterial colonies. Leucocyte esterase is released by leucocytes at the site of an infection. We hypothesise that leucocyte esterase can be utilized in the rapid diagnosis of septic arthritis and shorten the time to decisive treatment whilst simultaneously decreasing unnecessary treatment of non-septic joints.

  8. A new diagnostic tool for rapid and accurate detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nour-Neamatollahi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis, acid fast bacilli from the family of Mycobacteriaceae, is the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis, as a communicable disease, remains a serious public health threat, killing more than one million people globally every year. Primary diagnosis of tuberculosis bacilli (TB relies mainly on microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB, but the method suffers from low sensitivity and the results largely depend on the technician’s skill. New diagnostic tools are necessary to be introduced for rapid and accurate detection of the bacilli in sputum samples. We, in collaboration with Anda Biologicals, have developed a new platform, named as “Patho-tb”, for rapid detection of AFB with high sensitivity and with low dependence on human skills. Evaluation of Patho-tb test performance was done in two settings: (1 primary field study conducted using 38 sputa from high TB prevalence area of Iran (Zabol city near to the Afghanistan border, and (2 main study conducted using 476 sputa from Tehran, capital of Iran. Patho-tb was applied for processed sputum samples in parallel with routine diagnostic methods (including AFB microscopy, culture and PCR. All test results were compared to final clinical diagnostic state of an individual and diagnostic sensitivity (DSe, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of each test results were calculated using standard formulations. Analytical sensitivity and specificity of the Patho-tb test were also determined. Calculated values for five above mentioned parameters are as follows: for field study: AFB (DSe: 29.6, DSp: 81.8, PPV: 80, NPV: 23.1, AC: 44.7, Patho-tb (DSe: 63, DSp: 72.7, PPV: 85, NPV: 44.4, AC: 65.8, and for main study: AFB (DSe: 86.1, DSp: 99.4, PPV: 98.5, NPV: 93.9, AC: 95.2, Patho-tb (DSe: 97.4, DSp: 92.9, PPV: 86.5, NPV: 98.7, AC: 94.3. Reproducibility of Patho-tb test results were near to 100% (Cohen’s kappa value

  9. [Rapid prenatal genetic diagnosis of a fetus with a high risk for Morquio A syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi-bin; Ai, Yang; Zhao, Yan; Tang, Jia; Jiang, Wei-ying; Du, Min-lian; Ma, Hua-mei; Zhong, Yan-fang

    2012-04-01

    To provide rapid and accurate prenatal genetic diagnosis for a fetus with high risk of Morquio A syndrome. Based on ascertained etiology of the proband and genotypes of the parents, particular mutations of the GALNS gene were screened at 10th gestational week with amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), and direct DNA sequencing. DHPLC screening has identified abnormal double peaks in the PCR products of exons 1 and 10, whilst only a single peak was detected in normal controls. Amplification of ARMS specific primers derived a specific product for the fetus's gene, whilst no similar product was detected in normal controls. Sequencing of PCR products confirmed that exons 1 and 10 of the GALNS gene from the fetus contained a heterozygous paternal c.106-111 del (p.L36-L37 del) deletion and a heterozygous maternal c.1097 T>C (p.L366P) missense mutation, which resulted in a compound heterozygote status. The fetus was diagnosed with Morquio A syndrome and a genotype similar to the proband. Termination of the pregnancy was recommended. Combined ARMS, DHPLC and DNA sequencing are effective for rapid and accurate prenatal diagnosis for fetus with a high risk for Morquio A syndrome. Such methods are particularly suitable for early diagnosis when pathogenesis is clear. Furthermore, combined ARMS and DHPLC are suitable for rapid processing of large numbers of samples for the identification of new mutations.

  10. Rapid diagnosis of aneuploidy using segmental duplication quantitative fluorescent PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Kong

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was use a simple and rapid procedure, called segmental duplication quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (SD-QF-PCR, for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies. This method is based on the co-amplification of segmental duplications located on two different chromosomes using a single pair of fluorescent primers. The PCR products of different sizes were subsequently analyzed through capillary electrophoresis, and the aneuploidies were determined based on the relative dosage between the two chromosomes. Each primer set, containing five pairs of primers, was designed to simultaneously detect aneuploidies located on chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X and Y in a single reaction. We applied these two primer sets to DNA samples isolated from individuals with trisomy 21 (n = 36; trisomy 18 (n = 6; trisomy 13 (n = 4; 45, X (n = 5; 47, XXX (n = 3; 48, XXYY (n = 2; and unaffected controls (n = 40. We evaluated the performance of this method using the karyotyping results. A correct and unambiguous diagnosis with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, was achieved for clinical samples examined. Thus, the present study demonstrates that SD-QF-PCR is a robust, rapid and sensitive method for the diagnosis of common aneuploidies, and these analyses can be performed in less than 4 hours for a single sample, providing a competitive alternative for routine use.

  11. Rapid and accurate determination of radiochemical purity of sup(99m)Tc compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamat, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    The wide spread use of sup(99m)Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals and limitation of the short half-life of the isotope, is associated with an urgent need for a rapid, simple but accurate method for determining the radiochemical purity of the compound. A short paper chromatographic (KK) or thin layer chromatographic (KLT) method using 95% methanol or 0.9% saline solution as solvents, has solved the problem. With these methods, the amount of free sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in a compound, can be determined in only a few minutes. These methods compare satisfactorily with lengtheir procedures. (author)

  12. Surface plasmon resonance based biosensor: A new platform for rapid diagnosis of livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR based biosensors are the most advanced and developed optical label-free biosensor technique used for powerful detection with vast applications in environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security as well in livestock sector. The livestock sector which contributes the largest economy of India, harbors many bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases impacting a great loss to the production and productive potential which is a major concern in both small and large ruminants. Hence, an accurate, sensitive, and rapid diagnosis is required for prevention of these above-mentioned diseases. SPR based biosensor assay may fulfill the above characteristics which lead to a greater platform for rapid diagnosis of different livestock diseases. Hence, this review may give a detail idea about the principle, recent development of SPR based biosensor techniques and its application in livestock sector.

  13. How Accurate Is Diagnosis of Congenital Anomalies Made by Family Physicians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mashhadi Abdolahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although family physicians have a key role in clinical management of many diseases and in community health, the accuracy of the diagnosis for congenital anomalies by family physicians still needs more investigations. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of family physicians in case detec-tion and diagnosis of congenital anomalies in rural areas, northwest of Iran. Methods: In a community-based study of 22500 children born between 2004 and 2012, all 172 cases of congenital anomalies diagnosed by family physicians were assessed by a qualified pediatrician in 47 health houses in rural areas of Tabriz District, northwest Iran. A group of 531 children was compared as con-trol subjects. Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity of family physicians‟ diagnosis for congenital anomalies were estimated 98% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 95.9 to 100 and 100% (95% CI: 99.3 to 100, respectively. Sensitivity for diagnosis of congenital heart diseases was 97% (95% CI: 93 to 100, and for genitourinary tract, it was 86% (95% CI: 59 to 100. Specificity was estimated 100% for both groups of heart and genitourinary tract anomalies. Conclusion: The performance of family physicians was found accurate enough in the diagnosis of congenital anomalies. Health care system may consider family physician program as an effective approach to detect and clinical management of congenital anomalies.

  14. Accurate Rapid Lifetime Determination on Time-Gated FLIM Microscopy with Optical Sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana F; Domingues, José Paulo; Morgado, António Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a powerful technique to assess the biochemistry of cells and tissues. When applied to living thick samples, it is hampered by the lack of optical sectioning and the need of acquiring many images for an accurate measurement of fluorescence lifetimes. Here, we report on the use of processing techniques to overcome these limitations, minimizing the acquisition time, while providing optical sectioning. We evaluated the application of the HiLo and the rapid lifetime determination (RLD) techniques for accurate measurement of fluorescence lifetimes with optical sectioning. HiLo provides optical sectioning by combining the high-frequency content from a standard image, obtained with uniform illumination, with the low-frequency content of a second image, acquired using structured illumination. Our results show that HiLo produces optical sectioning on thick samples without degrading the accuracy of the measured lifetimes. We also show that instrument response function (IRF) deconvolution can be applied with the RLD technique on HiLo images, improving greatly the accuracy of the measured lifetimes. These results open the possibility of using the RLD technique with pulsed diode laser sources to determine accurately fluorescence lifetimes in the subnanosecond range on thick multilayer samples, providing that offline processing is allowed.

  15. Rapid Molecular Microbiologic Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazanave, Charles; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Hanssen, Arlen D.; Karau, Melissa J.; Schmidt, Suzannah M.; Gomez Urena, Eric O.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Osmon, Douglas R.; Lough, Lindsay E.; Pritt, Bobbi S.; Steckelberg, James M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that culture of samples obtained by prosthesis vortexing and sonication was more sensitive than tissue culture for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis. Despite improved sensitivity, culture-negative cases remained; furthermore, culture has a long turnaround time. We designed a genus-/group-specific rapid PCR assay panel targeting PJI bacteria and applied it to samples obtained by vortexing and sonicating explanted hip and knee prostheses, and we compared the results to those with sonicate fluid and periprosthetic tissue culture obtained at revision or resection arthroplasty. We studied 434 subjects with knee (n = 272) or hip (n = 162) prostheses; using a standardized definition, 144 had PJI. Sensitivities of tissue culture, of sonicate fluid culture, and of PCR were 70.1, 72.9, and 77.1%, respectively. Specificities were 97.9, 98.3, and 97.9%, respectively. Sonicate fluid PCR was more sensitive than tissue culture (P = 0.04). PCR of prosthesis sonication samples is more sensitive than tissue culture for the microbiologic diagnosis of prosthetic hip and knee infection and provides same-day PJI diagnosis with definition of microbiology. The high assay specificity suggests that typical PJI bacteria may not cause aseptic implant failure. PMID:23658273

  16. Accurate diagnosis of prenatal cleft lip/palate by understanding the embryology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarius, Bram; Loozen, Charlotte; Manten, Wendy; Bekker, Mireille; Pistorius, Lou; Breugem, Corstiaan

    2017-01-01

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CP) is one of the most common congenital malformations. Ultrasonographers involved in the routine 20-wk ultrasound screening could encounter these malformations. The face and palate develop in a very characteristic way. For ultrasonographers involved in screening these patients it is crucial to have a thorough understanding of the embryology of the face. This could help them to make a more accurate diagnosis and save time during the ultrasound. Subsequently, the current postnatal classification will be discussed to facilitate the communication with the CP teams. PMID:29026689

  17. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  18. Easy Leaf Area: Automated digital image analysis for rapid and accurate measurement of leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Bloom, Arnold J

    2014-07-01

    Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. • Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. • Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  19. Easy Leaf Area: Automated Digital Image Analysis for Rapid and Accurate Measurement of Leaf Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien Ming Easlon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. Methods and Results: Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. Conclusions: Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  20. Rapid and Accurate Machine Learning Recognition of High Performing Metal Organic Frameworks for CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Michael; Boyd, Peter G; Daff, Thomas D; Aghaji, Mohammad Zein; Woo, Tom K

    2014-09-04

    In this work, we have developed quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models using advanced machine learning algorithms that can rapidly and accurately recognize high-performing metal organic framework (MOF) materials for CO2 capture. More specifically, QSPR classifiers have been developed that can, in a fraction of a section, identify candidate MOFs with enhanced CO2 adsorption capacity (>1 mmol/g at 0.15 bar and >4 mmol/g at 1 bar). The models were tested on a large set of 292 050 MOFs that were not part of the training set. The QSPR classifier could recover 945 of the top 1000 MOFs in the test set while flagging only 10% of the whole library for compute intensive screening. Thus, using the machine learning classifiers as part of a high-throughput screening protocol would result in an order of magnitude reduction in compute time and allow intractably large structure libraries and search spaces to be screened.

  1. Multifrequency Excitation Method for Rapid and Accurate Dynamic Test of Micromachined Gyroscope Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Deng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and 600-Hz bandwidth was dramatically reduced from 10 min to 6 s. A multifrequency signal with an equal amplitude and initial linear-phase-difference distribution was generated to ensure test repeatability and accuracy. The current test system based on LabVIEW using the SFE method was modified to use the MFE method without any hardware changes. The experimental results verified that the MFE method can be an ideal solution for large-scale dynamic testing of gyroscope chips and gyroscopes.

  2. TSaT-MUSIC: a novel algorithm for rapid and accurate ultrasonic 3D localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Kyohei; Ito, Toshio; Sugimoto, Masanori; Hashizume, Hiromichi

    2011-12-01

    We describe a fast and accurate indoor localization technique using the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm. The MUSIC algorithm is known as a high-resolution method for estimating directions of arrival (DOAs) or propagation delays. A critical problem in using the MUSIC algorithm for localization is its computational complexity. Therefore, we devised a novel algorithm called Time Space additional Temporal-MUSIC, which can rapidly and simultaneously identify DOAs and delays of mul-ticarrier ultrasonic waves from transmitters. Computer simulations have proved that the computation time of the proposed algorithm is almost constant in spite of increasing numbers of incoming waves and is faster than that of existing methods based on the MUSIC algorithm. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is discussed through simulations. Experiments in real environments showed that the standard deviation of position estimations in 3D space is less than 10 mm, which is satisfactory for indoor localization.

  3. Development of improved enzyme-based and lateral flow immunoassays for rapid and accurate serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, María E; Novak, Analía; Melli, Luciano J; Elena, Sebastián; Corbera, Natalia; Romero, Juan E; Nicola, Ana M; Ugalde, Juan E; Comerci, Diego J; Ciocchini, Andrés E

    2017-09-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Brucella canis is the etiological agent of canine brucellosis, a disease that can lead to sterility in bitches and dogs causing important economic losses in breeding kennels. Early and accurate diagnosis of canine brucellosis is central to control the disease and lower the risk of transmission to humans. Here, we develop and validate enzyme and lateral flow immunoassays for improved serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis using as antigen the B. canis rough lipopolysaccharide (rLPS). The method used to obtain the rLPS allowed us to produce more homogeneous batches of the antigen that facilitated the standardization of the assays. To validate the assays, 284 serum samples obtained from naturally infected dogs and healthy animals were analyzed. For the B. canis-iELISA and B. canis-LFIA the diagnostic sensitivity was of 98.6%, and the specificity 99.5% and 100%, respectively. We propose the implementation of the B. canis-LFIA as a screening test in combination with the highly accurate laboratory g-iELISA. The B. canis-LFIA is a rapid, accurate and easy to use test, characteristics that make it ideal for the serological surveillance of canine brucellosis in the field or veterinary laboratories. Finally, a blind study including 1040 serum samples obtained from urban dogs showed a prevalence higher than 5% highlighting the need of new diagnostic tools for a more effective control of the disease in dogs and therefore to reduce the risk of transmission of this zoonotic pathogen to humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High resolution melting analysis: a rapid and accurate method to detect CALR mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bilbao-Sieyro

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of CALR mutations in essential thrombocythemia (ET and primary myelofibrosis (PMF patients without JAK2/MPL mutations has emerged as a relevant finding for the molecular diagnosis of these myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN. We tested the feasibility of high-resolution melting (HRM as a screening method for rapid detection of CALR mutations.CALR was studied in wild-type JAK2/MPL patients including 34 ET, 21 persistent thrombocytosis suggestive of MPN and 98 suspected secondary thrombocytosis. CALR mutation analysis was performed through HRM and Sanger sequencing. We compared clinical features of CALR-mutated versus 45 JAK2/MPL-mutated subjects in ET.Nineteen samples showed distinct HRM patterns from wild-type. Of them, 18 were mutations and one a polymorphism as confirmed by direct sequencing. CALR mutations were present in 44% of ET (15/34, 14% of persistent thrombocytosis suggestive of MPN (3/21 and none of the secondary thrombocytosis (0/98. Of the 18 mutants, 9 were 52 bp deletions, 8 were 5 bp insertions and other was a complex mutation with insertion/deletion. No mutations were found after sequencing analysis of 45 samples displaying wild-type HRM curves. HRM technique was reproducible, no false positive or negative were detected and the limit of detection was of 3%.This study establishes a sensitive, reliable and rapid HRM method to screen for the presence of CALR mutations.

  5. Probability of Accurate Heart Failure Diagnosis and the Implications for Hospital Readmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sandra A; Bass, Kyle; Saracino, Giovanna; East, Cara A; Felius, Joost; Grayburn, Paul A; Vallabhan, Ravi C; Hall, Shelley A

    2017-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome with inherent diagnostic challenges. We studied the scope of possibly inaccurately documented HF in a large health care system among patients assigned a primary diagnosis of HF at discharge. Through a retrospective record review and a classification schema developed from published guidelines, we assessed the probability of the documented HF diagnosis being accurate and determined factors associated with HF-related and non-HF-related hospital readmissions. An arbitration committee of 3 experts reviewed a subset of records to corroborate the results. We assigned a low probability of accurate diagnosis to 133 (19%) of the 712 patients. A subset of patients were also reviewed by an expert panel, which concluded that 13% to 35% of patients probably did not have HF (inter-rater agreement, kappa = 0.35). Low-probability HF was predictive of being readmitted more frequently for non-HF causes (p = 0.018), as well as documented arrhythmias (p = 0.023), and age >60 years (p = 0.006). Documented sleep apnea (p = 0.035), percutaneous coronary intervention (p = 0.006), non-white race (p = 0.047), and B-type natriuretic peptide >400 pg/ml (p = 0.007) were determined to be predictive of HF readmissions in this cohort. In conclusion, approximately 1 in 5 patients documented to have HF were found to have a low probability of actually having it. Moreover, the determination of low-probability HF was twice as likely to result in readmission for non-HF causes and, thus, should be considered a determinant for all-cause readmissions in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sitting and standing blood pressure measurements are not accurate for the diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, J

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with troublesome symptoms and increased mortality. It is treatable and deserving of accurate diagnosis. This can be time consuming. The current reference standard for its diagnosis is head-up tilt (HUT) testing with continuous beat-to-beat plethysmography. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of sit-stand testing with semi-automatic sphygmomanometry for the diagnosis of OH. DESIGN: Retrospective test of diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed using a database maintained by a busy syncope unit. HUT testing was performed using an automated tilt table with Finometer monitoring. A 3 min 70 degrees HUT was performed following 5 min supine. Sitting blood pressure (BP) was measured following 3 min rest. Standing BP was measured within 30 s of assuming the upright posture. The results of sit-stand testing were compared with HUT testing as a reference standard. Both tests happened within 5 min of each other and patients underwent no intervention between tests. RESULTS: From a total of 1452 consecutive HUTs, we identified 730 with pre-test measures of sitting and standing BP. The mean age of this group was 70.57 years (SD = 15.1), 62% were female. The sensitivity of sit-stand testing was calculated as 15.5%, specificity as 89.9%, positive predictive value as 61.7%, negative predictive value as 50.2% and the likelihood ratio as 1.6. The area under the Receiver Operator Curve was 0.564. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that sit-stand testing for OH has very low diagnostic accuracy. We recommend that the more time-consuming reference standard method of diagnosis be used if the condition is suspected.

  7. Detailed Behavioral Assessment Promotes Accurate Diagnosis in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eGilutz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Assessing the awareness level in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC is made on the basis of exhibited behaviors. However, since motor signs of awareness (i.e. non-reflex motor responses can be very subtle, differentiating the vegetative from minimally conscious states (which is in itself not clear-cut is often challenging. Even the careful clinician relying on standardized scales may arrive at a wrong diagnosis. Aim: To report our experience in tackling this problem by using two in-house use assessment procedures developed at Reuth Rehabilitation Hospital, and demonstrate their clinical significance by reviewing two cases. Methods: 1.Reuth DOC Response Assessment (RDOC-RA –administered in addition to the standardized tools, and emphasizes the importance of assessing a wide range of motor responses. In our experience, in some patients the only evidence for awareness may be a private specific movement that is not assessed by standard assessment tools. 2. Reuth DOC Periodic Intervention Model (RDOC-PIM - Current literature regarding assessment and diagnosis in DOC refers mostly to the acute phase of up to one year post injury. However, we have found major changes in responsiveness occurring one year or more post-injury in many patients. Therefore, we conduct periodic assessments at predetermined times points to ensure patients are not misdiagnosed or neurological changes overlooked. Results: In the first case the RDOC-RA promoted a more accurate diagnosis than that based on standardized scales alone. The second case shows how the RDOC-PIM allowed us to recognize late recovery and promoted reinstatement of treatment with good results. Conclusions: Adding a detailed periodic assessment of DOC patients to existing scales can yield critical information, promoting better diagnosis, treatment and clinical outcomes. We discuss the implications of this observation for the future development and validation of assessment tools in

  8. Development of a fluorescence-based sensor for rapid diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Randy; Oda, Robert P; Bhandari, Raj K; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-02-04

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture "apparatus", consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits.

  9. Optimal Cluster Mill Pass Scheduling With an Accurate and Rapid New Strip Crown Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Arif S.; Grandhi, Ramana V.; Zipf, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Besides the requirement to roll coiled sheet at high levels of productivity, the optimal pass scheduling of cluster-type reversing cold mills presents the added challenge of assigning mill parameters that facilitate the best possible strip flatness. The pressures of intense global competition, and the requirements for increasingly thinner, higher quality specialty sheet products that are more difficult to roll, continue to force metal producers to commission innovative flatness-control technologies. This means that during the on-line computerized set-up of rolling mills, the mathematical model should not only determine the minimum total number of passes and maximum rolling speed, it should simultaneously optimize the pass-schedule so that desired flatness is assured, either by manual or automated means. In many cases today, however, on-line prediction of strip crown and corresponding flatness for the complex cluster-type rolling mills is typically addressed either by trial and error, by approximate deflection models for equivalent vertical roll-stacks, or by non-physical pattern recognition style models. The abundance of the aforementioned methods is largely due to the complexity of cluster-type mill configurations and the lack of deflection models with sufficient accuracy and speed for on-line use. Without adequate assignment of the pass-schedule set-up parameters, it may be difficult or impossible to achieve the required strip flatness. In this paper, we demonstrate optimization of cluster mill pass-schedules using a new accurate and rapid strip crown model. This pass-schedule optimization includes computations of the predicted strip thickness profile to validate mathematical constraints. In contrast to many of the existing methods for on-line prediction of strip crown and flatness on cluster mills, the demonstrated method requires minimal prior tuning and no extensive training with collected mill data. To rapidly and accurately solve the multi-contact problem

  10. Accurate and Rapid Differentiation of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains by Raman Spectroscopy: a Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremedhin, Meron; Heitkamp, Rae; Yesupriya, Shubha; Clay, Bradford; Crane, Nicole J

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become the standard for routine bacterial species identification due to its rapidity and low costs for consumables compared to those of traditional DNA-based methods. However, it has been observed that strains of some bacterial species, such as Acinetobacter baumannii strains, cannot be reliably identified using mass spectrometry (MS). Raman spectroscopy is a rapid technique, as fast as MALDI-TOF, and has been shown to accurately identify bacterial strains and species. In this study, we compared hierarchical clustering results for MS, genomic, and antimicrobial susceptibility test data to hierarchical clustering results from Raman spectroscopic data for 31 A. baumannii clinical isolates labeled according to their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis data for strain differentiation. In addition to performing hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), multiple chemometric methods of analysis, including principal-component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), were performed on the MS and Raman spectral data, along with a variety of spectral preprocessing techniques for best discriminative results. Finally, simple HCA algorithms were performed on all of the data sets to explore the relationships between, and natural groupings of, the strains and to compare results for the four data sets. To obtain numerical comparison values of the clustering results, the external cluster evaluation criteria of the Rand index of the HCA dendrograms were calculated. With a Rand index value of 0.88, Raman spectroscopy outperformed the other techniques, including MS (with a Rand index value of 0.58). Copyright © 2017 Ghebremedhin et al.

  11. Rapid and accurate biofuel moisture content gauging using magnetic resonance measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervinen, T.

    2013-04-15

    Biomass is extensively utilised in energy production and as a raw material, such as for the production of liquid biofuels. All those processes will benefit if the moisture content of bio material is known in advance as accurately as possible under transient circumstances. Biofuel trade is increasingly based on the calorific value of fuels. In the first step, this also increases the need for rapid and accurate moisture content determination. During the last few years, large biofuel standardisation has been implemented, emphasising biofuel quality control at all stages of the utilisation chain. In principle, the moisture instrumental measurement can be utilised by many technologies and procedures. Typical techniques are infrared, radiofrequency, microwave, radiometric, electrical conductivity, capacitance, and impedance. Nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) and thermal neutron absorption are also applied. The MR measurement principle has been known and utilised already since the early 1950s. It has become the basic instrumental analysis tool in chemistry. It is also well-known as a very accurate method for analysing most compounds, especially substances containing hydrogen. The utilisation of MR metering is expanded extensively to medical diagnostics as a form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Because of the precision of the MR principle, there have for a long time been efforts to apply it in new and different areas, and to make more user-friendly, smaller, and even portable devices. Such a device was designed by Vaisala a few years ago. VTT has utilised Vaisala's MR prototype for approximately one year for moisture content measurement of different biofuels. The first step in the use of an MR device for moisture determination was the definition of its measurement accuracy compared to the standard method (EN 14774). Those tests proved that the absolute precision seems to be comparable to the standard moisture content measurement method. It was also found out that

  12. Rapid and accurate species tree estimation for phylogeographic investigations using replicated subsampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, Sarah; Kubatko, Laura; Carstens, Bryan

    2010-11-01

    We describe a method for estimating species trees that relies on replicated subsampling of large data matrices. One application of this method is phylogeographic research, which has long depended on large datasets that sample intensively from the geographic range of the focal species; these datasets allow systematicists to identify cryptic diversity and understand how contemporary and historical landscape forces influence genetic diversity. However, analyzing any large dataset can be computationally difficult, particularly when newly developed methods for species tree estimation are used. Here we explore the use of replicated subsampling, a potential solution to the problem posed by large datasets, with both a simulation study and an empirical analysis. In the simulations, we sample different numbers of alleles and loci, estimate species trees using STEM, and compare the estimated to the actual species tree. Our results indicate that subsampling three alleles per species for eight loci nearly always results in an accurate species tree topology, even in cases where the species tree was characterized by extremely rapid divergence. Even more modest subsampling effort, for example one allele per species and two loci, was more likely than not (>50%) to identify the correct species tree topology, indicating that in nearly all cases, computing the majority-rule consensus tree from replicated subsampling provides a good estimate of topology. These results were supported by estimating the correct species tree topology and reasonable branch lengths for an empirical 10-locus great ape dataset. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimal pcr primers for rapid and accurate detection of Aspergillus flavus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shuhaib, Mohammed Baqur S; Albakri, Ali H; Alwan, Sabah H; Almandil, Noor B; AbdulAzeez, Sayed; Borgio, J Francis

    2018-03-01

    Aspergillus flavus is among the most devastating opportunistic pathogens of several food crops including rice, due to its high production of carcinogenic aflatoxins. The presence of these organisms in economically important rice strip farming is a serious food safety concern. Several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers have been designed to detect this species; however, a comparative assessment of their accuracy has not been conducted. This study aims to identify the optimal diagnostic PCR primers for the identification of A. flavus, among widely available primers. We isolated 122 A. flavus native isolates from randomly collected rice strips (N = 300). We identified 109 isolates to the genus level using universal fungal PCR primer pairs. Nine pairs of primers were examined for their PCR diagnostic specificity on the 109 isolates. FLA PCR was found to be the optimal PCR primer pair for specific identification of the native isolates, over aflP(1), aflM, aflA, aflD, aflP(3), aflP(2), and aflR. The PEP primer pair was found to be the most unsuitable for A. flavus identification. In conclusion, the present study indicates the powerful specificity of the FLA PCR primer over other commonly available diagnostic primers for accurate, rapid, and large-scale identification of A. flavus native isolates. This study provides the first simple, practical comparative guide to PCR-based screening of A. flavus infection in rice strips. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid, accurate, and direct determination of total lycopene content in tomato paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, D.; Anese, M.; Luterotti, S.; Dadarlat, D.; Gibkes, J.; Lubbers, M.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene that imparts red color to the tomato fruit is the most potent antioxidant among carotenes, an important nutrient and also used as a color ingredient in many food formulations. Since cooked and processed foods derived from tomatoes were shown to provide optimal lycopene boost, products such as paste, puree, juice, etc. are nowadays gaining popularity as dietary sources. The analysis of lycopene in tomato paste (partially dehydrated product prepared by vacuum concentrating tomato juice) is carried out using either high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), spectrophotometry, or by evaluating the color. The instability of lycopene during processes of extraction, etc., handling, and disposal of organic solvents makes the preparation of a sample for the analysis a delicate task. Despite a recognized need for accurate and rapid assessment of lycopene in tomato products no such method is available at present. The study described here focuses on a direct determination of a total lycopene content in different tomato pastes by means of the laser optothermal window (LOW) method at 502 nm. The concentration of lycopene in tomato paste ranged between 25 and 150 mg per 100 g product; the results are in excellent agreement with those obtained by spectrophotometry. The time needed to complete LOW analysis is very short, so that decomposition of pigment and the formation of artifacts are minimized. Preliminary results indicate a good degree of reproducibility making the LOW method suitable for routine assays of lycopene content in tomato paste.

  15. Final Progress Report: Isotope Identification Algorithm for Rapid and Accurate Determination of Radioisotopes Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Bounds, John Alan; Brumby, Steven P.; Prasad, Lakshman; Sullivan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the final report of the project titled, 'Isotope Identification Algorithm for Rapid and Accurate Determination of Radioisotopes,' PMIS project number LA10-HUMANID-PD03. The goal of the work was to demonstrate principles of emulating a human analysis approach towards the data collected using radiation isotope identification devices (RIIDs). It summarizes work performed over the FY10 time period. The goal of the work was to demonstrate principles of emulating a human analysis approach towards the data collected using radiation isotope identification devices (RIIDs). Human analysts begin analyzing a spectrum based on features in the spectrum - lines and shapes that are present in a given spectrum. The proposed work was to carry out a feasibility study that will pick out all gamma ray peaks and other features such as Compton edges, bremsstrahlung, presence/absence of shielding and presence of neutrons and escape peaks. Ultimately success of this feasibility study will allow us to collectively explain identified features and form a realistic scenario that produced a given spectrum in the future. We wanted to develop and demonstrate machine learning algorithms that will qualitatively enhance the automated identification capabilities of portable radiological sensors that are currently being used in the field.

  16. Diagnosis of acute mononucleosis in emergency: comparison of rapid tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Scaggiante

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a gammaherpesvirus that causes a number of clinical syndromes, including acute mononucleosis.Acute infection with EBV can vary widely with regard to the severity and presentation of illness, ranging from an asymptomatic infection to a serious, life-threatening version of mononucleosis with associated liver damage and splenomegaly. Additionally, other acute viral syndromes, including those caused by hepatitis viruses and cytomegalovirus (CMV, can lead to similar clinical syndromes. The variety of symptoms and the overlap with other viral infections underscore the importance of laboratory testing in the diagnosis of acute EBV-related disease.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of an agglutination test for the detection of heterophile antibodies (Monotest and two EBV-specific rapid immunochromatographic tests (VCA-IgM and VCA-IgG/EBNA-IgG. Heterophile antibody determination is resulted to have not a real diagnostic utility for the low sensibility and specificity of the test. In our experience the only use of VCA-IgG/EBNA-IgG test is sufficient to discriminate between an acute mononucleosis and a past infection.

  17. Nested PCR Assay for Eight Pathogens: A Rapid Tool for Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagchandani, Sharda P; Kubade, Sushant; Nikhare, Priyanka P; Manke, Sonali; Chandak, Nitin H; Kabra, Dinesh; Baheti, Neeraj N; Agrawal, Vijay S; Sarda, Pankaj; Mahajan, Parikshit; Ganjre, Ashish; Purohit, Hemant J; Singh, Lokendra; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F; Kashyap, Rajpal S

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a dreadful infectious disease with a high mortality and morbidity if remained undiagnosed. Traditional diagnostic methods for bacterial meningitis pose a challenge in accurate identification of pathogen, making prognosis difficult. The present study is therefore aimed to design and evaluate a specific and sensitive nested 16S rDNA genus-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using clinical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for rapid diagnosis of eight pathogens causing the disease. The present work was dedicated to development of an in-house genus specific 16S rDNA nested PCR covering pathogens of eight genera responsible for causing bacterial meningitis using newly designed as well as literature based primers for respective genus. A total 150 suspected meningitis CSF obtained from the patients admitted to Central India Institute of Medical Sciences (CIIMS), India during the period from August 2011 to May 2014, were used to evaluate clinical sensitivity and clinical specificity of optimized PCR assays. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of our newly designed genus-specific 16S rDNA PCR were found to be ≥92%. With such a high sensitivity and specificity, our in-house nested PCR was able to give 100% sensitivity in clinically confirmed positive cases and 100% specificity in clinically confirmed negative cases indicating its applicability in clinical diagnosis. Our in-house nested PCR system therefore can diagnose the accurate pathogen causing bacterial meningitis and therefore be useful in selecting a specific treatment line to minimize morbidity. Results are obtained within 24 h and high sensitivity makes this nested PCR assay a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool compared to traditional culture-based methods.

  18. Rapid diagnosis of sepsis with TaqMan-Based multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Feng; Shi, Xin-Ping; Chen, Yun; Jin, Ye; Zhang, Bing

    2018-02-01

    The survival rate of septic patients mainly depends on a rapid and reliable diagnosis. A rapid, broad range, specific and sensitive quantitative diagnostic test is the urgent need. Thus, we developed a TaqMan-Based Multiplex real-time PCR assays to identify bloodstream pathogens within a few hours. Primers and TaqMan probes were designed to be complementary to conserved regions in the 16S rDNA gene of different kinds of bacteria. To evaluate accurately, sensitively, and specifically, the known bacteria samples (Standard strains, whole blood samples) are determined by TaqMan-Based Multiplex real-time PCR. In addition, 30 blood samples taken from patients with clinical symptoms of sepsis were tested by TaqMan-Based Multiplex real-time PCR and blood culture. The mean frequency of positive for Multiplex real-time PCR was 96% at a concentration of 100 CFU/mL, and it was 100% at a concentration greater than 1000 CFU/mL. All the known blood samples and Standard strains were detected positively by TaqMan-Based Multiplex PCR, no PCR products were detected when DNAs from other bacterium were used in the multiplex assay. Among the 30 patients with clinical symptoms of sepsis, 18 patients were confirmed positive by Multiplex real-time PCR and seven patients were confirmed positive by blood culture. TaqMan-Based Multiplex real-time PCR assay with highly sensitivity, specificity and broad detection range, is a rapid and accurate method in the detection of bacterial pathogens of sepsis and should have a promising usage in the diagnosis of sepsis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Importance of accurate diagnosis in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslovara, Siniša; Vešligaj, Tihana; Butković Soldo, Silva; Pajić-Penavić, Ivana; Maslovara, Karmela; Mirošević Zubonja, Tea; Soldo, Anamarija

    2014-08-01

    To determine the importance of accurate topological diagnostics of the otolith and the differentiation of certain clinical forms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). A prospective study was conducted at the County General Hospital Vukovar in the period from January 2011 till January 2012. A total of 81 patients with BPPV, 59 females (72.84%) and 22 (27.16%) males (p less than 0.001), mean age 60.1 (± 12.1) were examined. The diagnosis was confirmed and documented by videonystagmography (VNG). The disability due to disease and risk of falling were monitored by filling in the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) questionnaires at the beginning and at the end of the repositioning treatment. In 79 (97.3%) patients posterior semicircular canal was affected, and in a small number of patients, two (2.47%) the lateral one. After the repositioning procedures were performed, there was a significant reduction or complete elimination of symptoms in the majority of subjects, 76 (93.82%). The median total DHI sum amounted to 50.5 (± 22.2) at the beginning and 20.4 (± 18.5) at the end of the study (p less than 0.00). Similarly, the results of ABC questionnaires at the beginning of the study demonstrated a result of 59.2% (± 22.4%), and at the end of the treatment the average result of examinees was significantly higher, 84.9% (± 15.2%) (p less than 0.00). Although a subjectively positive Dix-Hallpike or a "supine roll" test is sufficient for the diagnosis of BPPV, it is necessary perform the VNG as well in order to precisely determine the exact localization of the otolith, so that an appropriate repositioning procedure can be applied.

  20. ACE-I Angioedema: Accurate Clinical Diagnosis May Prevent Epinephrine-Induced Harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mason Curtis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Upper airway angioedema is a life-threatening emergency department (ED presentation with increasing incidence. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor induced angioedema (AAE is a non-mast cell mediated etiology of angioedema. Accurate diagnosis by clinical examination can optimize patient management and reduce morbidity from inappropriate treatment with epinephrine. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence of angioedema subtypes and the management of AAE. We evaluate the appropriateness of treatments and highlight preventable iatrogenic morbidity. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of consecutive angioedema patients presenting to two tertiary care EDs between July 2007 and March 2012. Results: Of 1,702 medical records screened, 527 were included. The cause of angioedema was identified in 48.8% (n=257 of cases. The most common identifiable etiology was AAE (33.1%, n=85, with a 60.0% male predominance. The most common AAE management strategies included diphenhydramine (63.5%, n=54, corticosteroids (50.6%, n=43 and ranitidine (31.8%, n=27. Epinephrine was administered in 21.2% (n=18 of AAE patients, five of whom received repeated doses. Four AAE patients required admission (4.7% and one required endotracheal intubation. Epinephrine induced morbidity in two patients, causing myocardial ischemia or dysrhythmia shortly after administration. Conclusion: AAE is the most common identifiable etiology of angioedema and can be accurately diagnosed by physical examination. It is easily confused with anaphylaxis and mismanaged with antihistamines, corticosteroids and epinephrine. There is little physiologic rationale for epinephrine use in AAE and much risk. Improved clinical differentiation of mast cell and non-mast cell mediated angioedema can optimize patient management.

  1. Comparative evaluation of two rapid field tests for malaria diagnosis: Partec Rapid Malaria Test® and Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel Ek; Ibrahim, Lukeman; May, Juergen; Brattig, Norbert; Tannich, Egbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Huenger, Frank

    2011-05-23

    About 90% of all malaria deaths in sub-Saharan Africa occur in children under five years. Fast and reliable diagnosis of malaria requires confirmation of the presence of malaria parasites in the blood of patients with fever or history suggestive of malaria; hence a prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to effective disease management. Confirmation of malaria infection requires the availability of a rapid, sensitive, and specific testing at an affordable cost. We compared two recent methods (the novel Partec Rapid Malaria Test® (PT) and the Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (BN RDT) with the conventional Giemsa stain microscopy (GM) for the diagnosis of malaria among children in a clinical laboratory of a hospital in a rural endemic area of Ghana. Blood samples were collected from 263 children admitted with fever or a history of fever to the pediatric clinic of the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. The three different test methods PT, BN RDT and GM were performed independently by well trained and competent laboratory staff to assess the presence of malaria parasites. Results were analyzed and compared using GM as the reference standard. In 107 (40.7%) of 263 study participants, Plasmodium sp. was detected by GM. PT and BN RDT showed positive results in 111 (42.2%) and 114 (43.4%), respectively. Compared to GM reference standard, the sensitivities of the PT and BN RDT were 100% (95% CI: 96.6-100) and 97.2% (95% CI: 92.0-99.4), respectively, specificities were 97.4% (95% CI: 93.6-99.3) and 93.6% (95% CI: 88.5-96.9), respectively. There was a strong agreement (kappa) between the applied test methods (GM vs PT: 0.97; p < 0.001 and GM vs BN RDT: 0.90; p < 0.001). The average turnaround time per tests was 17 minutes. In this study two rapid malaria tests, PT and BN RDT, demonstrated a good quality of their performance compared to conventional GM. Both methods require little training, have short turnaround times, are applicable as well as affordable and

  2. Rapid species diagnosis for invasive candidiasis using mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Marinach-Patrice

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF-MS allows the identification of most bacteria and an increasing number of fungi. The potential for the highest clinical benefit of such methods would be in severe acute infections that require prompt treatment adapted to the infecting species. Our objective was to determine whether yeasts could be identified directly from a positive blood culture, avoiding the 1-3 days subculture step currently required before any therapeutic adjustments can be made. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using human blood spiked with Candida albicans to simulate blood cultures, we optimized protocols to obtain MALDI TOF-MS fingerprints where signals from blood proteins are reduced. Simulated cultures elaborated using a set of 12 strains belonging to 6 different species were then tested. Quantifiable spectral differences in the 5000-7400 Da mass range allowed to discriminate between these species and to build a reference database. The validation of the method and the statistical approach to spectral analysis were conducted using individual simulated blood cultures of 36 additional strains (six for each species. Correct identification of the species of these strains was obtained. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Direct MALDI TOF-MS analysis of aliquots from positive blood cultures allowed rapid and accurate identification of the main Candida species, thus obviating the need for sub-culturing on specific media. Subsequent to this proof-of-principle demonstration, the method can be extended to other clinically relevant yeast species, and applied to an adequate number of clinical samples in order to establish its potential to improve antimicrobial management of patients with fungemia.

  3. Bedside Echocardiography for Rapid Diagnosis of Malignant Cardiac Tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaina Brinley

    2017-01-01

    , size of the effusion is less important than the rate of the fluid accumulation.6 For example, cancer patients may come in with large but chronic malignant pericardial effusions and be completely asymptomatic while young, healthy patients with only a small amount of hemopericardium may be on the brink of complete cardiovascular collapse. Utilizing bedside echocardiography allows for prompt diagnosis of a potentially rapidly fatal condition.

  4. Imprint cytology on microcalcifications excised by Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy: A rapid preliminary diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drouveli Theodora

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate imprint cytology in the context of specimens with microcalcifications derived from Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy (VABB. Patients and methods A total of 93 women with microcalcifications BI-RADS 3 and 4 underwent VABB and imprint samples were examined. VABB was performed on Fischer's table using 11-gauge Mammotome vacuum probes. A mammogram of the cores after the procedure confirmed the excision of microcalcifications. For the application of imprint cytology, the cores with microcalcifications confirmed by mammogram were gently rolled against glass microscope slides and thus imprint smears were made. For rapid preliminary diagnosis Diff-Quick stain, modified Papanicolaou stain and May Grunwald Giemsa were used. Afterwards, the core was dipped into a CytoRich Red Collection fluid for a few seconds in order to obtain samples with the use of the specimen wash. After the completion of cytological procedures, the core was prepared for routine histological study. The pathologist was blind to the preliminary cytological results. The cytological and pathological diagnoses were comparatively evaluated. Results According to the pathological examination, 73 lesions were benign, 15 lesions were carcinomas (12 ductal carcinomas in situ, 3 invasive ductal carcinomas, and 5 lesions were precursor: 3 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH and 2 cases of lobular neoplasia (LN. The observed sensitivity and specificity of the cytological imprints for cancer were 100% (one-sided, 97.5% CI: 78.2%–100%. Only one case of ADH could be detected by imprint cytology. Neither of the two LN cases was detected by the imprints. The imprints were uninformative in 11 out of 93 cases (11.8%. There was no uninformative case among women with malignancy. Conclusion Imprint cytology provides a rapid, accurate preliminary diagnosis in a few minutes. This method might contribute to the diagnosis of early breast cancer and possibly attenuates

  5. Comparative analysis of two rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims at comparing the diagnostic efficiencies of two commercially available kits for detecting Plasmodium falciparum infection in urine and blood of febrile patients for malaria diagnosis. This was an observational study in which matched blood and urine from symptomatic patients were tested for malaria using two ...

  6. Safe, accurate, prenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dysplasia using ultrasound and free fetal DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitty, Lyn S.; Khalil, Asma; Barrett, Angela N.; Pajkrt, Eva; Griffin, David R.; Cole, Tim J.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the prenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dysplasia by defining the change in fetal size across gestation and the frequency of sonographic features, and developing non-invasive molecular genetic diagnosis based on cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma. Fetuses with a confirmed

  7. Comparative evaluation of two rapid Salmonella-IgM tests and blood culture in the diagnosis of enteric fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K J; Oberoi, J K; Goel, N; Wattal, C

    2015-01-01

    Enteric fever is a major public health problem in developing countries like India. An early and accurate diagnosis is necessary for a prompt and effective treatment. We have evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of two Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests (Typhidot-IgM and Enteroscreen-IgM) as compared to blood culture in rapid and early diagnosis of enteric fever. A total of 2,699 patients' serum samples were tested by Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests and blood culture. Patients were divided into two groups. Test group - patients with enteric fever and blood culture positives for Salmonella Typhi; and three types of Controls, i.e. patients with non-enteric fever illnesses, normal healthy controls and patients positive for S. Paratyphi- A. In addition to this we have also evaluated the significance of positive Salmonella-IgM tests among blood culture-negative cases. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the Typhidot-IgM test and Enteroscreen-IgM test considering blood culture as gold standard were 97.29% and 88.13%, 97.40% and 87.83%, 98.18% and 92.03%, 96.15% and 82.27%, respectively. Typhidot-IgM test was found to be significantly more sensitive and specific as compared to Enteroscreen-IgM. Among blood culture-negative patients, Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests detected 72.25% additional cases of enteric fever. Although the Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests are meant to diagnose S. Typhi only, but these tests detect S. Paratyphi- A also. Thirty-eight patients who were blood culture-positive for S. Paratyphi- A were also positive by Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests. Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests offer an advantage of increased sensitivity, rapidity, early diagnosis and simplicity over blood culture.

  8. A Fluorescent Tile DNA Diagnocode System for In Situ Rapid and Selective Diagnosis of Cytosolic RNA Cancer Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Soo; Shin, Seung Won; Jang, Min Su; Shin, Woojung; Yang, Kisuk; Min, Junhong; Cho, Seung-Woo; Oh, Byung-Keun; Bae, Jong Wook; Jung, Sunghwan; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Accurate cancer diagnosis often requires extraction and purification of genetic materials from cells, and sophisticated instrumentations that follow. Otherwise in order to directly treat the diagnostic materials to cells, multiple steps to optimize dose concentration and treatment time are necessary due to diversity in cellular behaviors. These processes may offer high precision but hinder fast analysis of cancer, especially in clinical situations that need rapid detection and characterization of cancer. Here we present a novel fluorescent tile DNA nanostructure delivered to cancer cytosol by employing nanoparticle technology. Its structural anisotropicity offers easy manipulation for multifunctionalities, enabling the novel DNA nanostructure to detect intracellular cancer RNA markers with high specificity within 30 minutes post treatment, while the nanoparticle property bypasses the requirement of treatment optimization, effectively reducing the complexity of applying the system for cancer diagnosis. Altogether, the system offers a precise and rapid detection of cancer, suggesting the future use in the clinical fields. PMID:26678430

  9. Evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Mewara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical features of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK are non-specific and closely resemble bacterial, viral and fungal keratitis. Materials and Methods: We compared loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP with microscopy, non-nutrient agar (NNA culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR in clinical suspects of AK. Results: Of 52 clinical samples (42 AK suspects and 10 proven bacterial, viral or fungal keratitis, 3 were positive by direct microscopy (sensitivity 60%, confidence interval [CI]: 17%–92.7%, and 5 by NNA culture, 18S rDNA PCR and LAMP (sensitivity 100%, CI: 46.3%–100%. The limit of detection of Acanthamoeba DNA was 1 pg/μl by both LAMP and PCR. Conclusion: PCR and LAMP assays targeting 18S rDNA gene were found particularly suitable for a rapid and accurate diagnosis of AK. LAMP assay takes 2–3 h lesser than PCR, and thus offers a rapid, highly sensitive and specific, simple and affordable diagnostic modality for patients suspected of AK, especially in resource limited settings

  10. Improved method for rapid and accurate isolation and identification of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus from human plaque samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villhauer, Alissa L; Lynch, David J; Drake, David R

    2017-08-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS), specifically Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Streptococcus sobrinus (SS), are bacterial species frequently targeted for investigation due to their role in the etiology of dental caries. Differentiation of S. mutans and S. sobrinus is an essential part of exploring the role of these organisms in disease progression and the impact of the presence of either/both on a subject's caries experience. Of vital importance to the study of these organisms is an identification protocol that allows us to distinguish between the two species in an easy, accurate, and timely manner. While conducting a 5-year birth cohort study in a Northern Plains American Indian tribe, the need for a more rapid procedure for isolating and identifying high volumes of MS was recognized. We report here on the development of an accurate and rapid method for MS identification. Accuracy, ease of use, and material and time requirements for morphological differentiation on selective agar, biochemical tests, and various combinations of PCR primers were compared. The final protocol included preliminary identification based on colony morphology followed by PCR confirmation of species identification using primers targeting regions of the glucosyltransferase (gtf) genes of SM and SS. This method of isolation and identification was found to be highly accurate, more rapid than the previous methodology used, and easily learned. It resulted in more efficient use of both time and material resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyperspectral image analysis for rapid and accurate discrimination of bacterial infections: A benchmark study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Simone; Turra, Giovanni; Signoroni, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid diffusion of Full Laboratory Automation systems, Clinical Microbiology is currently experiencing a new digital revolution. The ability to capture and process large amounts of visual data from microbiological specimen processing enables the definition of completely new objectives. These include the direct identification of pathogens growing on culturing plates, with expected improvements in rapid definition of the right treatment for patients affected by bacterial infections. In this framework, the synergies between light spectroscopy and image analysis, offered by hyperspectral imaging, are of prominent interest. This leads us to assess the feasibility of a reliable and rapid discrimination of pathogens through the classification of their spectral signatures extracted from hyperspectral image acquisitions of bacteria colonies growing on blood agar plates. We designed and implemented the whole data acquisition and processing pipeline and performed a comprehensive comparison among 40 combinations of different data preprocessing and classification techniques. High discrimination performance has been achieved also thanks to improved colony segmentation and spectral signature extraction. Experimental results reveal the high accuracy and suitability of the proposed approach, driving the selection of most suitable and scalable classification pipelines and stimulating clinical validations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The clock face guide to peroneal intraneural ganglia: critical ''times'' and sites for accurate diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinner, Robert J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedics, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Anatomy, Rochester, MN (United States); Luthra, Gauri [University College Cork, National University of Ireland, Cork (Ireland); Desy, Nicholas M. [McGill University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedics, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Anderson, Meredith L. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2008-12-15

    reproducible information for diagnosis and treatment planning. By using conventional bony anatomy as reference points (namely fibular neck and mid-portion of fibular head), standard axial images can be used to interpret key features of peroneal intraneural ganglia and to establish their accurate diagnosis (rather than extraneural ganglia) and pathogenesis from an articular origin (rather than from de novo formation), a fact that has important therapeutic implications. Because of the relative rarity of peroneal intraneural cysts and physicians' (radiologists and surgeons) inexperience with them and the complexity of their findings, they are frequently misdiagnosed and joint communications are not appreciated preoperatively or intraoperatively. As a result, outcomes are suboptimal and recurrences are common. (orig.)

  13. Rapid and accurate prediction and scoring of water molecules in protein binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Ross

    Full Text Available Water plays a critical role in ligand-protein interactions. However, it is still challenging to predict accurately not only where water molecules prefer to bind, but also which of those water molecules might be displaceable. The latter is often seen as a route to optimizing affinity of potential drug candidates. Using a protocol we call WaterDock, we show that the freely available AutoDock Vina tool can be used to predict accurately the binding sites of water molecules. WaterDock was validated using data from X-ray crystallography, neutron diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations and correctly predicted 97% of the water molecules in the test set. In addition, we combined data-mining, heuristic and machine learning techniques to develop probabilistic water molecule classifiers. When applied to WaterDock predictions in the Astex Diverse Set of protein ligand complexes, we could identify whether a water molecule was conserved or displaced to an accuracy of 75%. A second model predicted whether water molecules were displaced by polar groups or by non-polar groups to an accuracy of 80%. These results should prove useful for anyone wishing to undertake rational design of new compounds where the displacement of water molecules is being considered as a route to improved affinity.

  14. Parent-based diagnosis of ADHD is as accurate as a teacher-based diagnosis of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bied, Adam; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    To review the literature evaluating the psychometric properties of parent and teacher informants relative to a gold-standard ADHD diagnosis in pediatric populations. We included studies that included both a parent and teacher informant, a gold-standard diagnosis, and diagnostic accuracy metrics. Potential confounds were evaluated. We also assessed the 'OR' and the 'AND' rules for combining informant reports. Eight articles met inclusion criteria. The diagnostic accuracy for predicting gold standard ADHD diagnoses did not differ between parents and teachers. Sample size, sample type, participant drop-out, participant age, participant gender, geographic area of the study, and date of study publication were assessed as potential confounds. Parent and teachers both yielded moderate to good diagnostic accuracy for ADHD diagnoses. Parent reports were statistically indistinguishable from those of teachers. The predictive features of the 'OR' and 'AND' rules are useful in evaluating approaches to better integrating information from these informants.

  15. Rapid and accurate processing method for amide proton exchange rate measurement in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskela, Harri; Heikkinen, Outi; Kilpelaeinen, Ilkka; Heikkinen, Sami

    2007-01-01

    Exchange between protein backbone amide hydrogen and water gives relevant information about solvent accessibility and protein secondary structure stability. NMR spectroscopy provides a convenient tool to study these dynamic processes with saturation transfer experiments. Processing of this type of NMR spectra has traditionally required peak integration followed by exponential fitting, which can be tedious with large data sets. We propose here a computer-aided method that applies inverse Laplace transform in the exchange rate measurement. With this approach, the determination of exchange rates can be automated, and reliable results can be acquired rapidly without a need for manual processing

  16. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Quach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP, which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and -resistant (MRSA clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71 within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS S. aureus strains (n = 20 within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice.

  17. Rapid yet accurate measurement of mass diffusion coefficients by phase shifting interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Zhi Xiong; Komiya, A

    1999-01-01

    The technique of using a phase-shifting interferometer is applied to the study of diffusion in transparent liquid mixtures. A quick method is proposed for determining the diffusion coefficient from the measurements of the location of fringes on a grey level picture. The measurement time is very short (within 100 s) and a very small transient diffusion field can be observed and recorded accurately with a rate of 30 frames per second. The measurement can be completed using less than 0.12 cc of solutions. The influence of gravity on the measurement of the diffusion coefficient is eliminated in the present method. Results on NaCl-water diffusion systems are presented and compared with the reference data. (author)

  18. Rapid and accurate identification of Streptococcus equi subspecies by MALDI-TOF MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Welker, Martin; Knudsen, Nanna Reumert

    2015-01-01

    phenotypic and sequence similarity between three subspecies their discrimination remains difficult. In this study, we aimed to design and validate a novel, Superspectra based, MALDI-TOF MS approach for reliable, rapid and cost-effective identification of SEE and SEZ, the most frequent S. equi subspecies.......3±7.5%). This result may be attributed to the highly clonal population structure of SEE, as opposed to the diversity of SEZ seen in horses. Importantly strains with atypical colony appearance both within SEE and SEZ did not affect correct identification of the strains by MALDI-TOF MS. Atypical colony variants...... are often associated with a higher persistence or virulence of S. equi, thus their correct identification using the current method strengthens its potential use in routine clinical diagnostics. In conclusion, reliable identification of S. equi subspecies was achieved by combining a MALDI-TOF MS method...

  19. Are rapid population estimates accurate? A field trial of two different assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grais, Rebecca F; Coulombier, Denis; Ampuero, Julia; Lucas, Marcelino E S; Barretto, Avertino T; Jacquier, Guy; Diaz, Francisco; Balandine, Serge; Mahoudeau, Claude; Brown, Vincent

    2006-09-01

    Emergencies resulting in large-scale displacement often lead to populations resettling in areas where basic health services and sanitation are unavailable. To plan relief-related activities quickly, rapid population size estimates are needed. The currently recommended Quadrat method estimates total population by extrapolating the average population size living in square blocks of known area to the total site surface. An alternative approach, the T-Square, provides a population estimate based on analysis of the spatial distribution of housing units taken throughout a site. We field tested both methods and validated the results against a census in Esturro Bairro, Beira, Mozambique. Compared to the census (population: 9,479), the T-Square yielded a better population estimate (9,523) than the Quadrat method (7,681; 95% confidence interval: 6,160-9,201), but was more difficult for field survey teams to implement. Although applicable only to similar sites, several general conclusions can be drawn for emergency planning.

  20. Rapid 3D printing of anatomically accurate and mechanically heterogeneous aortic valve hydrogel scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockaday, L A; Kang, K H; Colangelo, N W; Cheung, P Y C; Duan, B; Wu, J; Bonassar, L J; Butcher, J T; Malone, E; Lipson, H; Girardi, L N; Chu, C C

    2012-01-01

    The aortic valve exhibits complex three-dimensional (3D) anatomy and heterogeneity essential for the long-term efficient biomechanical function. These are, however, challenging to mimic in de novo engineered living tissue valve strategies. We present a novel simultaneous 3D printing/photocrosslinking technique for rapidly engineering complex, heterogeneous aortic valve scaffolds. Native anatomic and axisymmetric aortic valve geometries (root wall and tri-leaflets) with 12–22 mm inner diameters (ID) were 3D printed with poly-ethylene glycol-diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogels (700 or 8000 MW) supplemented with alginate. 3D printing geometric accuracy was quantified and compared using Micro-CT. Porcine aortic valve interstitial cells (PAVIC) seeded scaffolds were cultured for up to 21 days. Results showed that blended PEG-DA scaffolds could achieve over tenfold range in elastic modulus (5.3±0.9 to 74.6±1.5 kPa). 3D printing times for valve conduits with mechanically contrasting hydrogels were optimized to 14 to 45 min, increasing linearly with conduit diameter. Larger printed valves had greater shape fidelity (93.3±2.6, 85.1±2.0 and 73.3±5.2% for 22, 17 and 12 mm ID porcine valves; 89.1±4.0, 84.1±5.6 and 66.6±5.2% for simplified valves). PAVIC seeded scaffolds maintained near 100% viability over 21 days. These results demonstrate that 3D hydrogel printing with controlled photocrosslinking can rapidly fabricate anatomical heterogeneous valve conduits that support cell engraftment. (paper)

  1. Nosocomial Candidiasis: Antifungal Stewardship and the Importance of Rapid Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia and other forms of candidiasis are associated with considerable excess mortality and costs. Despite the addition of several new antifungal agents with improved spectrum and potency, the frequency of Candida infection and associated mortality have not decreased in the past two decades. The lack of rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests has led to considerable overuse of antifungal agents resulting in increased costs, selection pressure for resistance, unnecessary drug toxicity, and adverse drug interactions. Both the lack of timely diagnostic tests and emergence of antifungal resistance pose considerable problems for antifungal stewardship. Whereas antifungal stewardship with a focus on nosocomial candidiasis should be able to improve the administration of antifungal therapy in terms of drug selection, proper dose and duration, source control and de-escalation therapy, an important parameter, timeliness of antifungal therapy, remains a victim of slow and insensitive diagnostic tests. Fortunately, new proteomic and molecular diagnostic tools are improving the time to species identification and detection. In this review we will describe the potential impact that rapid diagnostic testing and antifungal stewardship can have on the management of nosocomial candidiasis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Rapid detection, classification and accurate alignment of up to a million or more related protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwald, Andrew F

    2009-08-01

    The patterns of sequence similarity and divergence present within functionally diverse, evolutionarily related proteins contain implicit information about corresponding biochemical similarities and differences. A first step toward accessing such information is to statistically analyze these patterns, which, in turn, requires that one first identify and accurately align a very large set of protein sequences. Ideally, the set should include many distantly related, functionally divergent subgroups. Because it is extremely difficult, if not impossible for fully automated methods to align such sequences correctly, researchers often resort to manual curation based on detailed structural and biochemical information. However, multiply-aligning vast numbers of sequences in this way is clearly impractical. This problem is addressed using Multiply-Aligned Profiles for Global Alignment of Protein Sequences (MAPGAPS). The MAPGAPS program uses a set of multiply-aligned profiles both as a query to detect and classify related sequences and as a template to multiply-align the sequences. It relies on Karlin-Altschul statistics for sensitivity and on PSI-BLAST (and other) heuristics for speed. Using as input a carefully curated multiple-profile alignment for P-loop GTPases, MAPGAPS correctly aligned weakly conserved sequence motifs within 33 distantly related GTPases of known structure. By comparison, the sequence- and structurally based alignment methods hmmalign and PROMALS3D misaligned at least 11 and 23 of these regions, respectively. When applied to a dataset of 65 million protein sequences, MAPGAPS identified, classified and aligned (with comparable accuracy) nearly half a million putative P-loop GTPase sequences. A C++ implementation of MAPGAPS is available at http://mapgaps.igs.umaryland.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. Partial Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Paralysis or Paresis? In Search for the Accurate Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Delides

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available “Partial paralysis” of the larynx is a term often used to describe a hypomobile vocal fold as is the term “paresis.” We present a case of a dysphonic patient with a mobility disorder of the vocal fold, for whom idiopathic “partial paralysis” was the diagnosis made after laryngeal electromyography, and discuss a proposition for a different implementation of the term.

  4. Ebola Preparedness: Diagnosis Improvement Using Rapid Approaches for Proficiency Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katherine A; Theis, Torsten; Gray, Joanna; Rawlinson, William D

    2017-03-01

    The unprecedented 2015 Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa was declared a public health emergency, making diagnosis and quality of testing a global issue. The accuracy of laboratory diagnostic capacity for EBOV was assessed in 2014 to 2016 using a proficiency testing (PT) strategy developed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs (RCPAQAP) in Biosecurity. Following a literature search, EBOV-specific gene targets were ranked according to the frequency of their use in published methods. The most commonly used gene regions (nucleoprotein [NP], glycoprotein [GP], and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [L]) were selected for the design of in vitro RNA transcripts to be included in the simulated EBOV specimens used for EBOV detection with PCR-based assays. Specimens were tested for stability and found to be stable on long-term storage (1 year) at -80°C and on shorter-term storage in lyophilized form (1 week at ambient temperature and a subsequent week at -80°C). These specimens were used in three EBOV PTs offered from April 2014 to March 2016. In the first and third PTs, all laboratories (3/3 and 9/9, respectively) correctly identified specimens containing EBOV RNA transcripts, while in the second PT, all but one laboratory (5/6) correctly confirmed the presence of EBOV. The EBOV PT panel was useful for ensuring the competency of laboratories in detecting EBOV in the absence of readily available clinical samples. The simulated EBOV specimen was safe, stable, and reliable and can be used in lyophilized form for future EBOV PT programs, allowing simplicity of transport. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Multi-threshold white matter structural networks fusion for accurate diagnosis of Tourette syndrome children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hongwei; Liu, Yue; Wang, Shengpei; Li, Zuoyong; Zhang, Jishui; Peng, Yun; He, Huiguang

    2017-03-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurobehavioral disorder. To date, TS is still misdiagnosed due to its varied presentation and lacking of obvious clinical symptoms. Therefore, studies of objective imaging biomarkers are of great importance for early TS diagnosis. As tic generation has been linked to disturbed structural networks, and many efforts have been made recently to investigate brain functional or structural networks using machine learning methods, for the purpose of disease diagnosis. However, few studies were related to TS and some drawbacks still existed in them. Therefore, we propose a novel classification framework integrating a multi-threshold strategy and a network fusion scheme to address the preexisting drawbacks. Here we used diffusion MRI probabilistic tractography to construct the structural networks of 44 TS children and 48 healthy children. We ameliorated the similarity network fusion algorithm specially to fuse the multi-threshold structural networks. Graph theoretical analysis was then implemented, and nodal degree, nodal efficiency and nodal betweenness centrality were selected as features. Finally, support vector machine recursive feature extraction (SVM-RFE) algorithm was used for feature selection, and then optimal features are fed into SVM to automatically discriminate TS children from controls. We achieved a high accuracy of 89.13% evaluated by a nested cross validation, demonstrated the superior performance of our framework over other comparison methods. The involved discriminative regions for classification primarily located in the basal ganglia and frontal cortico-cortical networks, all highly related to the pathology of TS. Together, our study may provide potential neuroimaging biomarkers for early-stage TS diagnosis.

  6. Methods of rapid diagnosis for the etiology of meningitis in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Nathan C; Boulware, David R

    2014-01-01

    Infectious meningitis may be due to bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal or viral agents. Diagnosis of meningitis must take into account numerous items of patient history and symptomatology along with regional epidemiology and basic cerebrospinal fluid testing (protein, etc.) to allow the clinician to stratify the likelihood of etiology possibilities and rationally select additional diagnostic tests. Culture is the mainstay for diagnosis in many cases, but technology is evolving to provide more rapid, reliable diagnosis. The cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay (Immuno-Mycologics) has revolutionized diagnosis of cryptococcosis and automated nucleic acid amplification assays hold promise for improving diagnosis of bacterial and mycobacterial meningitis. This review will focus on a holistic approach to diagnosis of meningitis as well as recent technological advances. PMID:25402579

  7. Fiber diffraction of skin and nails provides an accurate diagnosis of malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, Veronica J.

    2009-01-01

    An early diagnosis of malignancies correlates directly with a better prognosis. Yet for many malignancies there are no readily available, noninvasive, cost-effective diagnostic tests with patients often presenting too late for effective treatment. This article describes for the first time the use of fiber diffraction patterns of skin or fingernails, using X-ray sources, as a biometric diagnostic method for detecting neoplastic disorders including but not limited to melanoma, breast, colon and prostate cancers. With suitable further development, an early low-cost, totally noninvasive yet reliable diagnostic test could be conducted on a regular basis in local radiology facilities, as a confirmatory test for other diagnostic procedures or as a mass screening test using suitable small angle X-ray beam-lines at synchrotrons.

  8. Rapid Classification and Identification of Multiple Microorganisms with Accurate Statistical Significance via High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gelio; Wang, Guanghui; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y; Drake, Steven K; Gucek, Marjan; Sacks, David B; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2018-06-05

    Rapid and accurate identification and classification of microorganisms is of paramount importance to public health and safety. With the advance of mass spectrometry (MS) technology, the speed of identification can be greatly improved. However, the increasing number of microbes sequenced is complicating correct microbial identification even in a simple sample due to the large number of candidates present. To properly untwine candidate microbes in samples containing one or more microbes, one needs to go beyond apparent morphology or simple "fingerprinting"; to correctly prioritize the candidate microbes, one needs to have accurate statistical significance in microbial identification. We meet these challenges by using peptide-centric representations of microbes to better separate them and by augmenting our earlier analysis method that yields accurate statistical significance. Here, we present an updated analysis workflow that uses tandem MS (MS/MS) spectra for microbial identification or classification. We have demonstrated, using 226 MS/MS publicly available data files (each containing from 2500 to nearly 100,000 MS/MS spectra) and 4000 additional MS/MS data files, that the updated workflow can correctly identify multiple microbes at the genus and often the species level for samples containing more than one microbe. We have also shown that the proposed workflow computes accurate statistical significances, i.e., E values for identified peptides and unified E values for identified microbes. Our updated analysis workflow MiCId, a freely available software for Microorganism Classification and Identification, is available for download at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads.html . Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  9. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara V. Nibhanipudi MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. Methods: All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Results: Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+; for rapid strep== 84(- and16 (+; For LE== 80(- and 20(+ Statistics: From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don’t seem to be a random (independent assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (P<.0.0001 reject Null Hypothesis and Conclude Alternative Conclusions: Leukocyte esterase on throat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children.

  10. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of Vibrio vulnificus infection: a retrospective study of 12 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Matsuoka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vibrio vulnificus causes an infectious disease that has extremely poor convalescence and leads to necrotic fasciitis. In this study, we sought to define the characteristic epidemiology of V. vulnificus infection and clarify its diagnosis at the global level. METHODS: Over a period of 10 years, we investigated the appearance of symptoms, underlying conditions, treatment, and mortality in 12 patients (eight men, four women; >50 years old; average age, 66 years, infected with V. vulnificus. RESULTS: The development of symptoms occurred primarily between June and September, a period during which seawater temperature rises and the prevalence of V. vulnificus increases. All patients had underlying diseases, and seven patients reported a history of consuming fresh fish and uncooked shellfish. The patients developed sepsis and fever with sharp pain in the limbs. Limb abnormalities were observed on visual examination. All patients underwent debridement; however, in the survival group, the involved limb was amputated early in 80% patients. The mortality rate was 58.3%. CONCLUSION: Recognition of the characteristic epidemiology and clinical features of this disease is important, and positive debridement should be performed on suspicion. When the illness reaches an advanced stage, however, amputation should be the immediate treatment of choice.

  11. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of Vibrio vulnificus infection: a retrospective study of 12 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Matsuoka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vibrio vulnificus causes an infectious disease that has extremely poor convalescence and leads to necrotic fasciitis. In this study, we sought to define the characteristic epidemiology of V. vulnificus infection and clarify its diagnosis at the global level. METHODS: Over a period of 10 years, we investigated the appearance of symptoms, underlying conditions, treatment, and mortality in 12 patients (eight men, four women; >50 years old; average age, 66 years, infected with V. vulnificus. RESULTS: The development of symptoms occurred primarily between June and September, a period during which seawater temperature rises and the prevalence of V. vulnificus increases. All patients had underlying diseases, and seven patients reported a history of consuming fresh fish and uncooked shellfish. The patients developed sepsis and fever with sharp pain in the limbs. Limb abnormalities were observed on visual examination. All patients underwent debridement; however, in the survival group, the involved limb was amputated early in 80% patients. The mortality rate was 58.3%. CONCLUSION: Recognition of the characteristic epidemiology and clinical features of this disease is important, and positive debridement should be performed on suspicion. When the illness reaches an advanced stage, however, amputation should be the immediate treatment of choice.

  12. Rapid Diagnosis of Histoplasma capsulatum Endocarditis Using the AccuProbe on an Excised Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaly, Roy F.; Tomford, J. Walton; Hall, Gerri S.; Sholtis, Mary; Chua, Jimmy D.; Procop, Gary W.

    2001-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is an infrequent but serious cause of endocarditis. The definitive diagnosis requires culture, which may require a long incubation. We demonstrated the ability of the Histoplasma capsulatum AccuProbe to accurately identify this organism when applied directly on an excised valve that contained abundant yeast forms consistent with H. capsulatum. PMID:11427583

  13. Accurate molecular diagnosis of phenylketonuria and tetrahydrobiopterin-deficient hyperphenylalaninemias using high-throughput targeted sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillano, Daniel; Perez, Belén; González, Justo; Tornador, Cristian; Navarrete, Rosa; Escaramis, Georgia; Ossowski, Stephan; Armengol, Lluís; Cornejo, Verónica; Desviat, Lourdes R; Ugarte, Magdalena; Estivill, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diagnostics of phenylketonuria (PKU) and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficient hyperphenylalaninemia (BH4DH) rely on methods that scan for known mutations or on laborious molecular tools that use Sanger sequencing. We have implemented a novel and much more efficient strategy based on high-throughput multiplex-targeted resequencing of four genes (PAH, GCH1, PTS, and QDPR) that, when affected by loss-of-function mutations, cause PKU and BH4DH. We have validated this approach in a cohort of 95 samples with the previously known PAH, GCH1, PTS, and QDPR mutations and one control sample. Pooled barcoded DNA libraries were enriched using a custom NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Choice array and sequenced using a HiSeq2000 sequencer. The combination of several robust bioinformatics tools allowed us to detect all known pathogenic mutations (point mutations, short insertions/deletions, and large genomic rearrangements) in the 95 samples, without detecting spurious calls in these genes in the control sample. We then used the same capture assay in a discovery cohort of 11 uncharacterized HPA patients using a MiSeq sequencer. In addition, we report the precise characterization of the breakpoints of four genomic rearrangements in PAH, including a novel deletion of 899 bp in intron 3. Our study is a proof-of-principle that high-throughput-targeted resequencing is ready to substitute classical molecular methods to perform differential genetic diagnosis of hyperphenylalaninemias, allowing the establishment of specifically tailored treatments a few days after birth. PMID:23942198

  14. Accurate Measurement of Pasting Temperature by the Rapid Visco-Analyser: a Case Study Using Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-song BAO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pasting properties are among the most important characteristics of starch, determining its applications in food processing and other industries. Pasting temperature derived from the Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA (Newport Scientific, in most cases, is overestimated by the Thermocline for Windows software program. Here, two methods facilitating accurate measurement of pasting temperature by RVA were described. One is to change parameter setting to ‘screen’ the true point where the pasting viscosity begins to increase, the other is to manually record the time (T1 when the pasting viscosity begins to increase and calculate the pasting temperature with the formula of (45/3.8×(T1–1+50 for rice flour. The latter method gave a manually determined pasting temperature which was significantly correlated with the gelatinization temperature measured by differential scanning calorimetry.

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Rapid and Sensitive EBOV-RPA Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingjuan; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Xuesong; Ren, Hang; Liu, Wei; Lu, Huijun; Zhang, Wenyi; Liu, Shiwei; Chang, Guohui; Tian, Shuguang; Wang, Lihua; Huang, Liuyu; Liu, Chao; Yang, Ruifu; Chen, Zeliang

    2016-06-01

    Confirming Ebola virus disease (EVD), a deadly infectious disease, requires real-time RT-PCR, which takes up to a few hours to yield results. Therefore, a rapid diagnostic assay is imperative for EVD diagnosis. A rapid nucleic acid test based on recombinase polymerase amplification (EBOV-RPA) was developed to specifically detect the 2014 outbreak strains. The EBOV-RPA assay was evaluated by testing samples from suspected EVD patients in parallel with RT-PCR. An EBOV-RPA, which could be completed in 20 min, was successfully developed. Of 271 patients who tested positive for Ebola virus by RT-PCR, 264 (sensitivity: 97%, 95% CI: 95.5-99.3%) were positive by EBOV-RPA; 101 of 104 patients (specificity: 97%, 95% CI: 93.9-100%) who tested negative by RT-PCR were also negative by EBOV-RPA. The sensitivity values for samples with a Ct value of RPA had significantly high Ct values. Results of external quality assessment samples with EBOV-RPA were 100%, consistent with those of RT-PCR. The EBOV-RPA assay showed 97% sensitivity and 97% specificity for all EVD samples tested, making it a rapid and sensitive test for EVD diagnosis.

  16. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis for the Rapid and Accurate Characterization of Hexacosanoylceramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Charles W; Simonsick, William J; Bogusky, Michael J; Celikay, Recep W; Guare, James P; Newton, Randall C

    2016-06-28

    Ceramides are a central unit of all sphingolipids which have been identified as sites of biological recognition on cellular membranes mediating cell growth and differentiation. Several glycosphingolipids have been isolated, displaying immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities. These molecules have generated considerable interest as potential vaccine adjuvants in humans. Accurate analyses of these and related sphingosine analogues are important for the characterization of structure, biological function, and metabolism. We report the complementary use of direct laser desorption ionization (DLDI), sheath flow electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) and high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis for the rapid, accurate identification of hexacosanoylceramide and starting materials. DLDI does not require stringent sample preparation and yields representative ions. Sheath-flow ESI yields ions of the product and byproducts and was significantly better than monospray ESI due to improved compound solubility. Negative ion sheath flow ESI provided data of starting materials and products all in one acquisition as hexacosanoic acid does not ionize efficiently when ceramides are present. NMR provided characterization of these lipid molecules complementing the results obtained from MS analyses. NMR data was able to differentiate straight chain versus branched chain alkyl groups not easily obtained from mass spectrometry.

  17. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis for the Rapid and Accurate Characterization of Hexacosanoylceramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Ross

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceramides are a central unit of all sphingolipids which have been identified as sites of biological recognition on cellular membranes mediating cell growth and differentiation. Several glycosphingolipids have been isolated, displaying immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities. These molecules have generated considerable interest as potential vaccine adjuvants in humans. Accurate analyses of these and related sphingosine analogues are important for the characterization of structure, biological function, and metabolism. We report the complementary use of direct laser desorption ionization (DLDI, sheath flow electrospray ionization (ESI Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS and high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis for the rapid, accurate identification of hexacosanoylceramide and starting materials. DLDI does not require stringent sample preparation and yields representative ions. Sheath-flow ESI yields ions of the product and byproducts and was significantly better than monospray ESI due to improved compound solubility. Negative ion sheath flow ESI provided data of starting materials and products all in one acquisition as hexacosanoic acid does not ionize efficiently when ceramides are present. NMR provided characterization of these lipid molecules complementing the results obtained from MS analyses. NMR data was able to differentiate straight chain versus branched chain alkyl groups not easily obtained from mass spectrometry.

  18. Evaluation of a simple and rapid dipstick assay for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasem, M. Hussein; Smits, Henk L.; Goris, Marga G. A.; Dolmans, Wil M. V.

    2002-01-01

    To support the clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever in Indonesia, where most hospitals and health centres have no facilities for culture, a rapid dipstick assay for the detection of Salmonella typhi-specific IgM antibodies was evaluated on serum samples from 127 patients clinically suspected of

  19. HistoStitcher© : An Interactive Program for Accurate and Rapid Reconstruction of Digitized Whole Histological Sections from Tissue Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelow, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Feldman, Michael; Shih, Natalie; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-01-01

    We present an interactive program called HistoStitcher© for accurate and rapid reassembly of histology fragments into a pseudo-whole digitized histological section. HistoStitcher© provides both an intuitive graphical interface to assist the operator in performing the stitch of adjacent histology fragments by selecting pairs of anatomical landmarks, and a set of computational routines for determining and applying an optimal linear transformation to generate the stitched image. Reconstruction of whole histological sections from images of slides containing smaller fragments is required in applications where preparation of whole sections of large tissue specimens is not feasible or efficient, and such whole mounts are required to facilitate (a) disease annotation and (b) image registration with radiological images. Unlike manual reassembly of image fragments in a general purpose image editing program (such as Photoshop), HistoStitcher© provides memory efficient operation on high resolution digitized histology images and a highly flexible stitching process capable of producing more accurate results in less time. Further, by parameterizing the series of transformations determined by the stitching process, the stitching parameters can be saved, loaded at a later time, refined, or reapplied to multi-resolution scans, or quickly transmitted to another site. In this paper, we describe in detail the design of HistoStitcher© and the mathematical routines used for calculating the optimal image transformation, and demonstrate its operation for stitching high resolution histology quadrants of a prostate specimen to form a digitally reassembled whole histology section, for 8 different patient studies. To evaluate stitching quality, a 6 point scoring scheme, which assesses the alignment and continuity of anatomical structures important for disease annotation, is employed by three independent expert pathologists. For 6 studies compared with this scheme, reconstructed sections

  20. Liaison neurologists facilitate accurate neurological diagnosis and management, resulting in substantial savings in the cost of inpatient care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Costelloe, L

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite understaffing of neurology services in Ireland, the demand for liaison neurologist input into the care of hospital inpatients is increasing. This aspect of the workload of the neurologist is often under recognised. AIMS\\/METHODS: We prospectively recorded data on referral and service delivery patterns to a liaison neurology service, the neurological conditions encountered, and the impact of neurology input on patient care. RESULTS: Over a 13-month period, 669 consults were audited. Of these, 79% of patients were seen within 48 h and 86% of patients were assessed by a consultant neurologist before discharge. Management was changed in 69% cases, and discharge from hospital expedited in 50%. If adequate resources for neurological assessment had been available, 28% could have been seen as outpatients, with projected savings of 857 bed days. CONCLUSIONS: Investment in neurology services would facilitate early accurate diagnosis, efficient patient and bed management, with substantial savings.

  1. Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid testing with rapid antigen testing for the diagnosis of influenza A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Michael A; Sahoo, Malaya K; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2012-12-01

    Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen tests, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B, as well as direct fluorescent antibody testing for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse transcriptase PCR as the reference method, influenza A sensitivity was 97.3% for Xpert Flu, 95.9% for direct fluorescent antibody testing, 62.2% for BinaxNOW, and 71.6% for BD Directigen. Influenza B sensitivity was 100% for Xpert Flu and direct fluorescent antibody testing, 54.5% for BinaxNOW, and 48.5% for BD Directigen. Specificity for influenza A was 100% for Xpert Flu, BinaxNOW, and BD Directigen, and 99.2% for direct fluorescent antibody testing. All methods demonstrated 100% specificity for influenza B. These findings support the use of the Xpert Flu assay in settings requiring urgent diagnosis of influenza A and B. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acceptability of rapid HIV diagnosis technology among primary healthcare practitioners in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, C; Fernàndez-López, L; Mascort, J; Carrillo, R; Aguado, C; Montoliu, A; Puigdengolas, X; De La Poza, M; Rifà, B; Casabona, J

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the acceptability of rapid HIV testing among general practitioners (GP) and aimed to identify perceived barriers and needs in order to implement rapid testing in primary care settings. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed online to all members of the two largest Spanish scientific medical societies for family and community medicine. The study took place between 15 June 2012 and 31 October 2010. Completed questionnaires were returned by 1308 participants. The majority (90.8%) of respondents were GP. Among all respondents, 70.4% were aware of the existence of rapid tests for the diagnosis of HIV but they did not know how to use them. Nearly 80% of participants would be willing to offer rapid HIV testing in their practices and 74.7% would be confident of the result obtained by these tests. The barriers most commonly identified by respondents were a lack of time and a need for training, both in the use of rapid tests (44.3% and 56.4%, respectively) and required pre- and post-test counselling (59.2% and 34.5%, respectively). This study reveals a high level of acceptance and willingness on the part of GPs to offer rapid HIV testing in their practices. Nevertheless, the implementation of rapid HIV testing in primary care will not be possible without moving from comprehensive pre-test counselling towards brief pre-test information and improving training in the use of rapid tests.

  3. The use of real-time polymerase chain reaction for rapid diagnosis of skeletal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Fraser, Thomas G; Bauer, Thomas W; Joyce, Michael J; Hall, Gerri S; Tuohy, Marion J; Procop, Gary W

    2006-07-01

    We identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction on a specimen from an osteolytic lesion of a femoral condyle, in which the frozen section demonstrated granulomas. The process was much more rapid than is possible with culture. The rapid detection of M tuberculosis and the concomitant exclusion of granulomatous disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria or systemic fungi are necessary to appropriately treat skeletal tuberculosis. The detection and identification of M tuberculosis by culture may require several weeks using traditional methods. The real-time polymerase chain reaction method used has been shown to be rapid and reliable, and is able to detect and differentiate both tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Real-time polymerase chain reaction may become a diagnostic standard for the evaluation of clinical specimens for the presence of mycobacteria; this case demonstrates the potential utility of this assay for the rapid diagnosis of skeletal tuberculosis.

  4. A multiplex RT-PCR assay for the rapid and differential diagnosis of classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Arce, Heidy; Pérez, Lester J; Frías, Maria T; Rosell, Rosa; Tarradas, Joan; Núñez, José I; Ganges, Llilianne

    2009-11-18

    Classical swine fever is a highly contagious viral disease causing severe economic losses in pig production almost worldwide. All pestivirus species can infect pigs, therefore accurate and rapid pestivirus detection and differentiation is of great importance to assure control measures in swine farming. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a novel multiplex, highly sensitive and specific RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection and rapid differentiation between CSFV and other pestivirus infections in swine. The universal and differential detection was based on primers designed to amplify a fragment of the 5' non-coding genome region for the detection of pestiviruses and a fragment of the NS5B gene for the detection of classical swine fever virus. The assay proved to be specific when different pestivirus strains from swine and ruminants were evaluated. The analytical sensitivity was estimated to be as little as 0.89TCID(50). The assay analysis of 30 tissue homogenate samples from naturally infected and non-CSF infected animals and 40 standard serum samples evaluated as part of two European Inter-laboratory Comparison Tests conducted by the European Community Reference Laboratory, Hanover, Germany proved that the multiplex RT-PCR method provides a rapid, highly sensitive, and cost-effective laboratory diagnosis for classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections in swine.

  5. Patho-TB test for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Alavi-Naini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Despite recent technologic improvements in identifying mycobacterium tuberculosis, we are still facing problems in rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to determine the diagnostic value of a new rapid screening test (Patho-TB™ for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
    • METHODS: Between September 2006 to August 2007, 178 patients were enrolled in the study who were finally classified into two groups; a group of documented pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 67 and a group of non-tuberculous pulmonary infection (n = 111. Patho-TB™ test, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture were done on all specimens.
    • RESULTS: Of all, 43 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were sputum smear positive for acid fast bacilli and the rest were smear negative. Mean age of the patients was 59.8 ± 16.1 years and 44% of them were men. The results of Patho- TB™ test were positive in 40 of smear positive and 20 of smear negative tuberculous patients and 33 cases of nontuberculous control group. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of Patho- TB™ test were estimated 89.5%, 70.2%, 64.5%, 91.7% and 77.5%, respectively.
    • CONCLUSIONS: According to the present study it would be suggested that Patho-TB™ test could be a rapid and inexpensive method for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, given by its high sensitivity and negative predictive value. Concerning the high number of false positive results, using a confirmatory diagnostic procedure is mandatory.
    • KEYWORDS: Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Rapid Diagnosis, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Antigens, Iran

  6. A Portable Kit for Rapid Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-14

    INFECTIONS SHIGELLA TYPHOID FEVER STREPTOCOCCUS An example of a public health application for rapid diagnosis using the COAG test is provided by studies...than in infections in Fig. Principles of gel diffusion (GD) and of counter- monkeys with human parasites (BID%%IAL et al. 1973, immunoelectrophoresis...the cerebrospinal fluid and immunofluorescence tests for detection of malaria te ai preient ith croup inal fuidan antibodies in Aotus monkeys

  7. New strategy for rapid diagnosis and characterization of fungal infections: the example of corneal scrapings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Goldschmidt

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The prognosis of people infected with Fungi especially immunocompromised depends on rapid and accurate diagnosis to capitalize on time administration of specific treatments. However, cultures produce false negative results and nucleic-acid amplification techniques require complex post-amplification procedures to differentiate relevant fungal types. The objective of this work was to develop a new diagnostic strategy based on real-time polymerase-chain reaction high-resolution melting analysis (PCR-HRM that a detects yeasts and filamentous Fungi, b differentiates yeasts from filamentous Fungi, and c discriminates among relevant species of yeasts. METHODS: PCR-HRM detection limits and specificity were assessed with a isolated strains; b human blood samples experimentally infected with Fungi; c blood experimentally infected with other infectious agents; d corneal scrapings from patients with suspected fungal keratitis (culture positive and negative and e scrapings from patients with suspected bacterial, viral or Acanthamoeba infections. The DNAs were extracted and mixed with primers diluted in the MeltDoctor® HRM Master Mix in 2 tubes, the first for yeasts, containing the forward primer CandUn (5'CATGCCTGTTTGAGCGTC and the reverse primer FungUn (5'TCCTCCGCTT ATTGATATGCT and the second for filamentous Fungi, containing the forward primer FilamUn (5'TGCCTGTCCGAGCGTCAT and FungUn. Molecular probes were not necessary. The yields of DNA extraction and the PCR inhibitors were systematically monitored. RESULTS: PCR-HRM detected 0.1 Colony Forming Units (CFU/µl of yeasts and filamentous Fungi, differentiated filamentous Fungi from yeasts and discriminated among relevant species of yeasts. PCR-HRM performances were higher than haemoculture and sensitivity and specificity was 100% for culture positive samples, detecting and characterizing Fungi in 7 out 10 culture negative suspected fungal keratitis. CONCLUSIONS: PCR-HRM appears as a new, sensitive

  8. [Accuracy of three methods for the rapid diagnosis of oral candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, X; Zhao, C; Yan, Z M; Hua, H

    2016-10-09

    Objective: To explore a simple, rapid and efficient method for the diagnosis of oral candidiasis in clinical practice. Methods: Totally 124 consecutive patients with suspected oral candidiasis were enrolled from Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China. Exfoliated cells of oral mucosa and saliva or concentrated oral rinse) obtained from all participants were tested by three rapid smear methods(10% KOH smear, gram-stained smear, Congo red stained smear). The diagnostic efficacy(sensitivity, specificity, Youden's index, likelihood ratio, consistency, predictive value and area under curve(AUC) of each of the above mentioned three methods was assessed by comparing the results with the gold standard(combination of clinical diagnosis, laboratory diagnosis and expert opinion). Results: Gram-stained smear of saliva(or concentrated oral rinse) demonstrated highest sensitivity(82.3%). Test of 10%KOH smear of exfoliated cells showed highest specificity(93.5%). Congo red stained smear of saliva(or concentrated oral rinse) displayed highest diagnostic efficacy(79.0% sensitivity, 80.6% specificity, 0.60 Youden's index, 4.08 positive likelihood ratio, 0.26 negative likelihood ratio, 80% consistency, 80.3% positive predictive value, 79.4% negative predictive value and 0.80 AUC). Conclusions: Test of Congo red stained smear of saliva(or concentrated oral rinse) could be used as a point-of-care tool for the rapid diagnosis of oral candidiasis in clinical practice. Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-DDD-16008118.

  9. Rapid immunohistochemical diagnosis of tobacco mosaic virus disease by microwave-assisted plant sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellnig, Günther; Möstl, Stefan; Zechmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Immunoelectron microscopy is a powerful method to diagnose viral diseases and to study the distribution of the viral agent within plant cells and tissues. Nevertheless, current protocols for the immunological detection of viral diseases with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in plants take between 3 and 6 days and are therefore not suited for rapid diagnosis of virus diseases in plants. In this study, we describe a method that allows rapid cytohistochemical detection of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in leaves of tobacco plants. With the help of microwave irradiation, sample preparation of the leaves was reduced to 90 min. After sample sectioning, virus particles were stained on the sections by immunogold labelling of the viral coat protein, which took 100 min. After investigation with the TEM, a clear visualization of TMV in tobacco cells was achieved altogether in about half a day. Comparison of gold particle density by image analysis revealed that samples prepared with the help of microwave irradiation yielded significantly higher gold particle density as samples prepared conventionally at room temperature. This study clearly demonstrates that microwave-assisted plant sample preparation in combination with cytohistochemical localization of viral coat protein is well suited for rapid diagnosis of plant virus diseases in altogether about half a day by TEM. PMID:23580761

  10. BACs-on-Beads Technology: A Reliable Test for Rapid Detection of Aneuploidies and Microdeletions in Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra García-Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of fetal aneuploidies is usually estimated based on high resolution ultrasound combined with biochemical determination of criterion in maternal blood, with invasive procedures offered to the population at risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new rapid aneuploidy screening test on amniotic fluid (AF or chorionic villus (CV samples based on BACs-on-Beads (BoBs technology and to compare the results with classical karyotyping by Giemsa banding (G-banding of cultured cells in metaphase as the gold standard technique. The prenatal-BoBs kit was used to study aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y as well as nine microdeletion syndromes in 321 AF and 43 CV samples. G-banding of metaphase cultured cells was performed concomitantly for all prenatal samples. A microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH was also carried out in a subset of samples. Prenatal-BoBs results were widely confirmed by classical karyotyping. Only six karyotype findings were not identified by Prenatal-BoBs, all of them due to the known limitations of the technique. In summary, the BACs-on-Beads technology was an accurate, robust, and efficient method for the rapid diagnosis of common aneuploidies and microdeletion syndromes in prenatal samples.

  11. 3D printed auto-mixing chip enables rapid smartphone diagnosis of anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevniak, Kimberly; Campbell, Matthew; Myers, Timothy; Hodges, Abby; He, Mei

    2016-09-01

    Clinical diagnosis requiring central facilities and site visits can be burdensome for patients in resource-limited or rural areas. Therefore, development of a low-cost test that utilizes smartphone data collection and transmission would beneficially enable disease self-management and point-of-care (POC) diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce a low-cost i POC 3D diagnostic strategy which integrates 3D design and printing of microfluidic POC device with smartphone-based disease diagnosis in one process as a stand-alone system, offering strong adaptability for establishing diagnostic capacity in resource-limited areas and low-income countries. We employ smartphone output (AutoCAD 360 app) and readout (color-scale analytical app written in-house) functionalities for rapid 3D printing of microfluidic auto-mixers and colorimetric detection of blood hemoglobin levels. The auto-mixing of reagents with blood via capillary force has been demonstrated in 1 second without the requirement of external pumps. We employed this i POC 3D system for point-of-care diagnosis of anemia using a training set of patients (n anemia  = 16 and n healthy  = 6), which showed consistent measurements of blood hemoglobin levels (a.u.c. = 0.97) and comparable diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, compared with standard clinical hematology analyzer. Capable of 3D fabrication flexibility and smartphone compatibility, this work presents a novel diagnostic strategy for advancing personalized medicine and mobile healthcare.

  12. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rapid diagnosis and differentiation of parapoxvirus and orthopoxvirus infections in camels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalafalla, A.I.; Buettner, M.; Rziha, H.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid identification and differentiation of camel pox (CMP) and camel contagious ecthyma (CCE) were achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers that distinguish Orthopoxvirus (OPV) and Parapovirus (PPV). Forty scab specimens collected from sick camels and sheep were treated by 3 different DNA extraction procedures and examined by PCR. The sensitivity of the PCR was compared with that of electron microscopy and virus isolation in cell culture. Procedure 1, in which viral DNA was extracted directly from scab specimens followed by PCR, proved to be superior and more sensitive. Procedure 2 enables a fast specific diagnosis of PPV and OPV infections directly from scab materials without the need for DNA extraction. These assays provide a rapid and feasible alternative to electron microscopy and virus isolation. (author)

  13. Rapid polymerase chain reaction diagnosis of white-nose syndrome in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Gargas, Andrea; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M; Green, D Earl; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Thomas, Nancy J; Blehert, David S

    2010-03-01

    A newly developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to rapidly and specifically detect Geomyces destructans on the wings of infected bats from small quantities (1-2 mg) of tissue is described in the current study (methods for culturing and isolating G. destructans from bat skin are also described). The lower limits of detection for PCR were 5 fg of purified fungal DNA or 100 conidia per 2 mg of wing tissue. By using histology as the standard, the PCR had a diagnostic specificity of 100% and a diagnostic sensitivity of 96%, whereas the diagnostic sensitivity of culture techniques was only 54%. The accuracy and fast turnaround time of PCR provides field biologists with valuable information on infection status more rapidly than traditional methods, and the small amount of tissue required for the test would allow diagnosis of white-nose syndrome in live animals.

  14. Rapid polymerase chain reaction diagnosis of white-nose syndrome in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, J.M.; Gargas, A.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Green, D.E.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Thomas, N.J.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to rapidly and specifically detect Geomyces destructans on the wings of infected bats from small quantities (1-2 mg) of tissue is described in the current study (methods for culturing and isolating G. destructans from bat skin are also described). The lower limits of detection for PCR were 5 fg of purified fungal DNA or 100 conidia per 2 mg of wing tissue. By using histology as the standard, the PCR had a diagnostic specificity of 100% and a diagnostic sensitivity of 96%, whereas the diagnostic sensitivity of culture techniques was only 54%. The accuracy and fast turnaround time of PCR provides field biologists with valuable information on infection status more rapidly than traditional methods, and the small amount of tissue required for the test would allow diagnosis of white-nose syndrome in live animals.

  15. Rapid diagnosis of equine influenza by highly sensitive silver amplification immunochromatography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Takashi; Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio; Fu, Tao Qi Huang; Fernandez, Charlene Judith; Gildea, Sarah; Cullinane, Ann

    2017-06-16

    Equine influenza (EI) is a respiratory disease caused by equine influenza A virus (EIV, H3N8) infection. Rapid diagnosis is essential to limit the disease spread. We previously reported that some rapid antigen detection (RAD) tests are fit for diagnosing EI although their sensitivity is not optimal. Here, we evaluated the performance of the newly developed RAD test using silver amplification immunochromatography (Quick Chaser Auto Flu A, B: QCA) to diagnose EI. The detection limits of QCA for EIVs were five-fold lower than the conventional RAD tests. The duration of virus antigen detection in the infected horses was longer than the conventional RAD tests. We conclude that QCA could be a valuable diagnostic method for EI.

  16. LAMP assay for rapid diagnosis of cow DNA in goat milk and meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, R; Sengar, G S; Singh, U; Kumar, S; Raja, T V; Alex, R; Alyethodi, R R; Prakash, B

    2017-01-01

    Animal species detection is one of the crucial steps for consumer's food analysis. In the present study we developed an in-house built loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of adulterated cow DNA in goat milk/meat samples. The cow milk/tissue DNA in goat milk/meat samples were identified in the developed LAMP assay by either naked eye visualizing with SYBR Green I dyes or by detecting the typical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. This test can detect up to minimum 5% level of cow components admixed in goat milk/meat samples and can be completed within 1 h 40 min starting from DNA extraction from milk/meat samples and can be performed in a water bath. Developed LAMP methodology is simple; rapid and sensitive techniques that can detect adulterant like cow components in goat milk/meat are more accurate than other existing DNA based technologies.

  17. Rapid diagnosis of pyrazinamide-resistant multidrug-resistant tuberculosis using a molecular-based diagnostic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, S O; van der Laan, T; Mulder, A; van Ingen, J; Rigouts, L; Dekhuijzen, P N R; Boeree, M J; van Soolingen, D

    2014-10-01

    There is an urgent need for rapid and accurate diagnosis of pyrazinamide-resistant multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). No diagnostic algorithm has been validated in this population. We hypothesized that pncA sequencing added to rpoB mutation analysis can accurately identify patients with pyrazinamide-resistant MDR-TB. We identified from the Dutch national database (2007-11) patients with a positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture containing a mutation in the rpoB gene. In these cases, we prospectively sequenced the pncA gene. Results from the rpoB and pncA mutation analysis (pncA added to rpoB) were compared with phenotypic susceptibility testing results to rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide (reference standard) using the Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube 960 system. We included 83 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates containing rpoB mutations in the primary analysis. Rifampicin resistance was seen in 72 isolates (87%), isoniazid resistance in 73 isolates (88%) and MDR-TB in 65 isolates (78%). Phenotypic reference testing identified pyrazinamide-resistant MDR-TB in 31 isolates (48%). Sensitivity of pncA sequencing added to rpoB mutation analysis for detecting pyrazinamide-resistant MDR-TB was 96.8%, the specificity was 94.2%, the positive predictive value was 90.9%, the negative predictive value was 98.0%, the positive likelihood was 16.8 and the negative likelihood was 0.03. In conclusion, pyrazinamide-resistant MDR-TB can be accurately detected using pncA sequencing added to rpoB mutation analysis. We propose to include pncA sequencing in every isolate with an rpoB mutation, allowing for stratification of MDR-TB treatment according to pyrazinamide susceptibility. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  18. Evaluation of four rapid tests for diagnosis and differentiation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in Guinea-Conakry, West Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaillet, Pascale; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Zachariah, Rony; Duclos, Nanfack; Moctar, Diallo; Beelaert, Greet; Fransen, Katrien

    2010-01-01

    With both HIV-1 and HV-2 prevalent in Guinea-Conakry, accurate diagnosis and differentiation is crucial for treatment purposes. Thus, four rapid HIV tests were evaluated for their HIV-1 and HIV-2 diagnostic and discriminative capacity for use in Guinea-Conakry. These included SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc.), Genie II HIV1/HIV2 (Bio-Rad), First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 (PMC Medical) and Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 (Core Diagnostics). Results were compared with gold standard tes...

  19. Prospective evaluation of three rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga G A Goris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of leptospirosis by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT or by culture is confined to specialized laboratories. Although ELISA techniques are more common, they still require laboratory facilities. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs can be used for easy point-of-care diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the RDTs LeptoTek Dri Dot, LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and Leptocheck-WB, prospectively. METHODOLOGY: During 2001 to 2012, one or two of the RDTs at the same time have been applied prior to routine diagnostics (MAT, ELISA and culture on serum specimens from participants sent in for leptospirosis diagnosis. The case definition was based on MAT, ELISA and culture results. Participants not fulfilling the case definition were considered not to have leptospirosis. The diagnostic accuracy was determined based on the 1(st submitted sample and paired samples, either in an overall analysis or stratified according to days post onset of illness. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity for the LeptoTek Dri Dot was 75% respectively 96%, for the LeptoTek Lateral Flow 78% respectively 95%, and for the Leptocheck-WB 78% respectively 98%. Based on the 1(st submitted sample the sensitivity was low (51% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 69% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 55% for Leptocheck-WB, but substantially increased when the results of paired samples were combined, although accompanied by a lower specificity (82% respectively 91% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 86% respectively 84% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 80% respectively 93% for Leptocheck-WB. CONCLUSIONS: All three tests present antibody tests contributing to the diagnosis of leptospirosis, thus supporting clinical suspicion and contributing to awareness. Since the overall sensitivity of the tested RDTs did not exceed 80%, one should be cautious to rely only on an RDT result, and confirmation by reference tests is strongly recommended.

  20. Rapid differential diagnosis of diabetes insipidus in a 7-month-old infant: The copeptin approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergier, J; Fromonot, J; Alvares De Azevedo Macedo, A; Godefroy, A; Marquant, E; Guieu, R; Tsimaratos, M; Reynaud, R

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus is characterized by hypoosmotic polyuria related to deficiency of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) secretion (central diabetes insipidus, CDI) or renal insensitivity to AVP (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, NDI). The water deprivation test with assessment of AVP activity is currently the gold standard for differential diagnosis in patients presenting polyuria-polydipsia syndrome. Nevertheless, it can be dangerous without proper surveillance and its interpretation may be challenging. Other markers have been suggested. Direct quantification of circulating AVP is not sufficient for diagnosis: vasopressin is unstable, analysis is complex. AVP comes from prohormone preprovasopressin with concomitant release of copeptin (C-terminal moiety) in the equimolar ratio. Copeptin is stable in vitro, with easy and rapid measurement (polyuria in adults, but its value has not been demonstrated in infants yet. A 7-month-old infant presented polyuria-polydipsia syndrome with poor weight gain. Laboratory tests pointed out hypernatremia (170mmol/L) and blood hyperosmolarity (330mOsm/L) with inappropriate urinary hypoosmolarity (168mOsm/L). Plasmatic copeptin measurement was found at a very high level, 303pmol/L (1-14pmol/L). DdAVP administration did not improve the polyuria, confirming the final diagnosis of NDI. Hyperhydration with a hypoosmolar diet normalized the hydration status and circulating levels of copeptin within 1 week. Copeptin, a stable peptide reflecting AVP secretion, could be a safer and faster biomarker for etiological diagnosis of polyuria-polydipsia syndrome in children. Before regularization of hydration status, a single baseline measurement may be enough to discriminate NDI from other etiologies without the water deprivation test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flávio da Silva; Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal de; Crema, Daniela; Pinez, Célia Miranda Nunes; Colmanetti, Thaís Cristina; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumia; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Vieira, Sandra Elisabeth; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Botosso, Viviane Fongaro; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue ® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA) as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue ® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90%) were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue ® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue ® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. This study demonstrated that the QuickVue ® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Results: From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90% were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics.

  3. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia: next-generation sequencing allows for a safer, more accurate, and comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitty, Lyn S; Mason, Sarah; Barrett, Angela N; McKay, Fiona; Lench, Nicholas; Daley, Rebecca; Jenkins, Lucy A

    2015-07-01

    Accurate prenatal diagnosis of genetic conditions can be challenging and usually requires invasive testing. Here, we demonstrate the potential of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the analysis of cell-free DNA in maternal blood to transform prenatal diagnosis of monogenic disorders. Analysis of cell-free DNA using a PCR and restriction enzyme digest (PCR-RED) was compared with a novel NGS assay in pregnancies at risk of achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia. PCR-RED was performed in 72 cases and was correct in 88.6%, inconclusive in 7% with one false negative. NGS was performed in 47 cases and was accurate in 96.2% with no inconclusives. Both approaches were used in 27 cases, with NGS giving the correct result in the two cases inconclusive with PCR-RED. NGS provides an accurate, flexible approach to non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of de novo and paternally inherited mutations. It is more sensitive than PCR-RED and is ideal when screening a gene with multiple potential pathogenic mutations. These findings highlight the value of NGS in the development of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for other monogenic disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Application Values of T-SPOT.TB in Clinical Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Ou, Qinfang; Zheng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the application value of tuberculosis-specific enzyme-linked immunospot assay (T-SPOT.TB) in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Fifty one patients with tuberculosis (TB) admitted to Wuxi No.5 People's Hospital, Wuxi, China from June 2015 to June 2017 were selected as the TB group, and 40 patients without tuberculosis admitted in the same period were randomly selected as the non-TB group. Patients in the two groups received T-SPOT.TB, TB antibody (TB-Ab) test and mycobacterium TB deoxyribonucleic acid (TB-DNA) test, and the results were compared. Comparisons of the sensitivity of the three methods showed that the sensitivity of T-SPOT.TB was the highest, followed by TB-DNA from sputum samples, and that of TB-Ab was the lowest. The specificity of TB-Ab was the highest, followed by T-SPOT.TB, and that of TB-DNA from sputum samples was the lowest. In the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under curve (AUC) of T-SPOT.TB (0.896) was the highest, followed by TB-DNA from sputum samples (0.772), and that of sputum smears (0.698) was the lowest. T-SPOT.TB can quickly and accurately determine the presence of tuberculosis infection, and it is a non-invasive examination, which can further assist in the diagnosis and guide the treatment.

  5. How to accurately assess the clinical value of isometric exercise radionuclide ventriculography in diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shunfang; Zhu Huiping; Zeng Jun; Xie Wenhui; Yu Zhichang

    2001-01-01

    To assess the influence of isometric handgrip exercise on left ventricular function by radionuclide ventriculography in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Using gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, parameters of left ventricular function were analyzed at rest and during 30% sustained handgrip (HNG) for 5 - 10 minuets in 8 normal control subjects and 38 consecutive CAD patients. All investigated subjects were also performed coronary arteriography within 2 weeks. Results showed that at rest, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), peak filling rate (PFR), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and heart rate (HR) were reduced in one-vessel, two-vessel and three-vessel of stenosis patient group (53.67 +- 5.0)%, (52.47 +- 8.26)%, (52.81 +- 8.89)%; 2.87 +- 0.29, 2.71 +- 0.88, 3.07 +- 0.71 end-diastolic volume per second (EDV/s); 1.36 +- 0.05, 1.34 +- 0.06, 1.34 +- 0.06; 0.62 +-0.06, 0.66 +- 0.06, 0.65 +- 0.1; 69.67 +- 8.14, 72.85 +- 10.5, 76.56 +- 18.04 (min -1 ), respectively, as compared with controls (57 +- 10.45)%, p = NS; 2.94 +- 0.44 (EDV/s), p = NS; 1.38 +- 0.15, p = NS; 0.59 +- 0.11, p = NS; 72.88 +- 8.25 (min -1 ), p = NS, respectively. During HNG exercise using both hands, the indexes were reduced in CAD patients (54.44 +- 5.66)%, (48.84 +- 8.70)%, (45.25 +- 8.69)%; 2.75 +- 0.39, 2.50 +- 0.68, 2.22 +- 0.58 (EDV/s); 1.36 +- 0.05, 1.31 +- 0.06, 1.26 +- 0.07; 0.61 +- 0.07, 0.69 +- 0.06, 0.71 +- 0.09; 81.33 +- 8.92, 84.46 +- 14.29, 90.56 +- 26.54 (min -1 ), respectively, as compared with controls (59.38 +- 9.44)%, p = NS; -1 ), p = NS, respectively. The four protocols of CAD diagnosis were 1. LVEF <55% and ΔPFR < 0 EDV/s at rest (Δ value = during HNG value-rest value); 2. LVEF <55% during HNG and ΔPFR <0 EDV/s; 3. ΔLVEF <0% and ΔPFR <0 EDV/s; 4. ΔEF <0%. Their sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 45%, 53%, 66%, 76%, 100%, 100%, 87.5%, 87.5%, 54%, 61%, 70%, 78%, respectively. The isomeric exercise radionuclide

  6. Rapid diagnosis of schistosomiasis in Yemen using a simple questionnaire and urine reagent strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, H K; Hasab, A A; El-Nimr, N A; Al-Shibani, L A; Al-Waleedi, A A

    2014-05-01

    Schistosomiasis ranks second to malaria in terms of socioeconomic and public health importance in Yemen. This study assessed the validity of a morbidity questionnaire and urine reagent strips as a rapid tool for screening schoolchildren for urinary schistosomiasis as compared with the presence of eggs in urine as the gold-standard parasitological diagnosis. The study examined urine samples and interviewed 696 children (mean age 12.5 years) attending a primary-preparatory school in south Yemen. Urinary schistosomiasis was confirmed in 126 (18.1%) children. Diagnostic performance was poor for 2 items in the morbidity questionnaire (self-reported history of previous infection and self-reported history of antischistosomal treatment). However, self-reported dysuria, self-reported haematuria in the questionnaire and microhaematuria by reagent strips (alone or with macrohaematuria) revealed good diagnostic performance. The results indicated that reagent strips are a valid method for detection of microhaematuria for identifying individuals and communities infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

  7. Diagnosis of rinderpest in Tanzania by a rapid chromatographic strip-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambura, P N; Moshy, D W; Mbise, A N; Mollel, G O; Taylor, W P; Anderson, J; Bruning, A

    2000-06-01

    A simple chromatographic strip-test based on Clearview technology, is under development as a pen-side test for the detection of rinderpest antigen in eye swabs taken from cattle in the field. An outbreak of rinderpest occurred in the northern zone of Tanzania from late February to June 1997. The affected cattle exhibited very mild clinical signs, which made clinical diagnosis difficult. One hundred and seven eye swabs were collected from cattle suspected of infection with rinderpest. These were tested in the field using a prototype of the pen-side test and 13 (12.15%) of the samples were found to be positive for the presence of rinderpest antigen. These were confirmed by ICE. The positive cases were predominantly found in the Ngorongoro district. This demonstrates the usefulness of such a simple, rapid pen-side diagnostic assay, particularly when clinically 'mild' strains of rinderpest are present.

  8. Rapid-prenatal diagnosis through fluorescence in situ hybridization for preventing aneuploidy related birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzdar, Ashish; Chowdhry, Mohit; Makroo, R N; Mishra, Manoj; Srivastava, Priyanka; Tyagi, Richa; Bhadauria, Preeti; Kaul, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Women with high-risk pregnancies are offered prenatal diagnosis through amniocentesis for cytogenetic analysis of fetal cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the rapid fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for detecting numerical aberrations of chromosomes 13, 21, 18, X and Y in high-risk pregnancies in an Indian scenario. A total of 163 samples were received for a FISH and/or a full karyotype for prenatal diagnosis from high-risk pregnancies. In 116 samples both conventional culture techniques for getting karyotype through G-banding techniques were applied in conjunction to FISH test using the AneuVysion kit (Abbott Molecular, Inc.), following standard recommended protocol to compare the both the techniques in our setup. Out of 116 patients, we got 96 normal for the five major chromosome abnormality and seven patients were found to be abnormal (04 trisomy 21, 02 monosomy X, and 01 trisomy 13) and all the FISH results correlated with conventional cytogenetics. To summarize the results of total 163 patients for the major chromosomal abnormalities analyzed by both/or cytogenetics and FISH there were 140 (86%) normal, 9 (6%) cases were abnormal and another 4 (2.5%) cases were suspicious mosaic and 10 (6%) cases of culture failure. The diagnostic detection rate with FISH in 116 patients was 97.5%. There were no false-positive and false-negative autosomal or sex chromosomal results, within our established criteria for reporting FISH signals. Rapid FISH is a reliable and prompt method for detecting numerical chromosomal aberrations and has now been implemented as a routine diagnostic procedure for detection of fetal aneuploidy in India.

  9. Noninvasive optoacoustic system for rapid diagnosis and management of circulatory shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Kinsky, Michael; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Andrey; Henkel, S. N.; Seeton, Roger; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Prough, Donald S.

    2013-03-01

    Circulatory shock can lead to death or severe complications, if not promptly diagnosed and effectively treated. Typically, diagnosis and management of circulatory shock are guided by blood pressure and heart rate. However, these variables have poor specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value. Early goal-directed therapy in septic shock patients, using central venous catheterization (CVC), reduced mortality from 46.5% to 30%. However, CVC is invasive and complication-prone. We proposed to use an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive, rapid assessment of peripheral and central venous oxygenation. In this work we used a medical grade optoacoustic system for noninvasive, ultrasound image-guided measurement of central and peripheral venous oxygenation. Venous oxygenation during shock declines more rapidly in the periphery than centrally. Ultrasound imaging of the axillary [peripheral] and internal jugular vein [central] was performed using the Vivid e (GE Healthcare). We built an optoacoustic interface incorporating an optoacoustic transducer and a standard ultrasound imaging probe. Central and peripheral venous oxygenations were measured continuously in healthy volunteers. To simulate shock-induced changes in central and peripheral oxygenation, we induced peripheral vasoconstriction in the upper extremity by using a cooling blanket. Central and peripheral venous oxygenations were measured before (baseline) and after cooling and after rewarming. During the entire experiment, central venous oxygenation was relatively stable, while peripheral venous oxygenation decreased by 5-10% due to cooling and recovered after rewarming. The obtained data indicate that noninvasive, optoacoustic measurements of central and peripheral venous oxygenation may be used for diagnosis and management of circulatory shock with high sensitivity and specificity.

  10. Rapid prenatal diagnosis using targeted exome sequencing: a cohort study to assess feasibility and potential impact on prenatal counseling and pregnancy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Natalie; Best, Sunayna; Hayward, Jane; Faravelli, Francesca; Mansour, Sahar; Kivuva, Emma; Tapon, Dagmar; Male, Alison; DeVile, Catherine; Chitty, Lyn S

    2018-03-29

    PurposeUnexpected fetal abnormalities occur in 2-5% of pregnancies. While traditional cytogenetic and microarray approaches achieve diagnosis in around 40% of cases, lack of diagnosis in others impedes parental counseling, informed decision making, and pregnancy management. Postnatally exome sequencing yields high diagnostic rates, but relies on careful phenotyping to interpret genotype results. Here we used a multidisciplinary approach to explore the utility of rapid fetal exome sequencing for prenatal diagnosis using skeletal dysplasias as an exemplar.MethodsParents in pregnancies undergoing invasive testing because of sonographic fetal abnormalities, where multidisciplinary review considered skeletal dysplasia a likely etiology, were consented for exome trio sequencing (both parents and fetus). Variant interpretation focused on a virtual panel of 240 genes known to cause skeletal dysplasias.ResultsDefinitive molecular diagnosis was made in 13/16 (81%) cases. In some cases, fetal ultrasound findings alone were of sufficient severity for parents to opt for termination. In others, molecular diagnosis informed accurate prediction of outcome, improved parental counseling, and enabled parents to terminate or continue the pregnancy with certainty.ConclusionTrio sequencing with expert multidisciplinary review for case selection and data interpretation yields timely, high diagnostic rates in fetuses presenting with unexpected skeletal abnormalities. This improves parental counseling and pregnancy management.Genetics in Medicine advance online publication, 29 March 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2018.30.

  11. Rapid and accurate detection of urinary pathogens by mobile IMS-based electronic nose: a proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roine, Antti; Saviauk, Taavi; Kumpulainen, Pekka; Karjalainen, Markus; Tuokko, Antti; Aittoniemi, Janne; Vuento, Risto; Lekkala, Jukka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Tammela, Teuvo L; Oksala, Niku K J

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common disease with significant morbidity and economic burden, accounting for a significant part of the workload in clinical microbiology laboratories. Current clinical chemisty point-of-care diagnostics rely on imperfect dipstick analysis which only provides indirect and insensitive evidence of urinary bacterial pathogens. An electronic nose (eNose) is a handheld device mimicking mammalian olfaction that potentially offers affordable and rapid analysis of samples without preparation at athmospheric pressure. In this study we demonstrate the applicability of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) -based eNose to discriminate the most common UTI pathogens from gaseous headspace of culture plates rapidly and without sample preparation. We gathered a total of 101 culture samples containing four most common UTI bacteries: E. coli, S. saprophyticus, E. faecalis, Klebsiella spp and sterile culture plates. The samples were analyzed using ChemPro 100i device, consisting of IMS cell and six semiconductor sensors. Data analysis was conducted by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logistic regression (LR). The results were validated by leave-one-out and 5-fold cross validation analysis. In discrimination of sterile and bacterial samples sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 97% were achieved. The bacterial species were identified with sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 96% using eNose as compared to urine bacterial cultures. These findings strongly demonstrate the ability of our eNose to discriminate bacterial cultures and provides a proof of principle to use this method in urinanalysis of UTI.

  12. Rapid and accurate detection of urinary pathogens by mobile IMS-based electronic nose: a proof-of-principle study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Roine

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common disease with significant morbidity and economic burden, accounting for a significant part of the workload in clinical microbiology laboratories. Current clinical chemisty point-of-care diagnostics rely on imperfect dipstick analysis which only provides indirect and insensitive evidence of urinary bacterial pathogens. An electronic nose (eNose is a handheld device mimicking mammalian olfaction that potentially offers affordable and rapid analysis of samples without preparation at athmospheric pressure. In this study we demonstrate the applicability of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS -based eNose to discriminate the most common UTI pathogens from gaseous headspace of culture plates rapidly and without sample preparation. We gathered a total of 101 culture samples containing four most common UTI bacteries: E. coli, S. saprophyticus, E. faecalis, Klebsiella spp and sterile culture plates. The samples were analyzed using ChemPro 100i device, consisting of IMS cell and six semiconductor sensors. Data analysis was conducted by linear discriminant analysis (LDA and logistic regression (LR. The results were validated by leave-one-out and 5-fold cross validation analysis. In discrimination of sterile and bacterial samples sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 97% were achieved. The bacterial species were identified with sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 96% using eNose as compared to urine bacterial cultures.These findings strongly demonstrate the ability of our eNose to discriminate bacterial cultures and provides a proof of principle to use this method in urinanalysis of UTI.

  13. Evaluation of a new rapid lateral flow chromatography test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaklikkaya, N.; Dinc, U.; Dabanca, Pinar A.; Aydin, F.; Erturk, M.; Akdogan, Remzi A.; Ozgur, O.; Uzun, Dogan Y.; Gungor, E.; Arslan, M.; Cobanoglu, U.

    2006-01-01

    The rapid, simple and non-invasive diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is important in implementing chemotherapy in appropriate manner, and in assessing persistent H. pylori infection after eradication therapy. The Immuno Card STAT HpSA kit (Meridian Bioscience, Europe) is a lateral flow chromatography test which utilizes a monoclonal anti-H. pylori antibody. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of the ImmunoCard STAT HpSA test before and after eradication therapy on patients referred to undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Sixty-five consecutive patients who were referred to undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at the Department of Gastroenterology, Karadeniz Technical University Medical School, Turkey between February and August 2005 were included in this study. The ImmunoCard STAT HpSA was compared with 4 invasive tests (histology, gram staining, rapid urease test, and culture). The reference method was defined as positive when 2 of the 4 invasive tests were positive. A negative H. pylori status was considered when all 4 tests present concordant negative results. Overall, the ImmunoCard STAT HpSA test had 77.8% sensitivity, 79.3% specificity, 82.4% positive predictive value (PPV) and 74.2% negative predictive value (NPV) in all patients. With regard to pre-treatment values, the sensitivity was 70.6%, specificity 70.6%, PPV 100% and NPV 100% while on post-treatment group the sensitivity was 84.2%, specificity 64.7%, PPV 72.7% and NPV 78.6%. Our results indicate that the ImmunoCard STAT HpSA test is a rapid, simple, and helpful procedure not only to determine H. pylori infection but also to assess the success of eradication therapy. (author)

  14. Highly sensitive capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for rapid screening and accurate quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Isabelle; Schappler, Julie; Rudaz, Serge

    2013-05-30

    The combination of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and mass spectrometry (MS) is particularly well adapted to bioanalysis due to its high separation efficiency, selectivity, and sensitivity; its short analytical time; and its low solvent and sample consumption. For clinical and forensic toxicology, a two-step analysis is usually performed: first, a screening step for compound identification, and second, confirmation and/or accurate quantitation in cases of presumed positive results. In this study, a fast and sensitive CE-MS workflow was developed for the screening and quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine samples. A CE with a time-of-flight MS (CE-TOF/MS) screening method was developed using a simple urine dilution and on-line sample preconcentration with pH-mediated stacking. The sample stacking allowed for a high loading capacity (20.5% of the capillary length), leading to limits of detection as low as 2 ng mL(-1) for drugs of abuse. Compound quantitation of positive samples was performed by CE-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole MS equipped with an adapted triple-tube sprayer and an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The CE-ESI-MS/MS method was validated for two model compounds, cocaine (COC) and methadone (MTD), according to the Guidance of the Food and Drug Administration. The quantitative performance was evaluated for selectivity, response function, the lower limit of quantitation, trueness, precision, and accuracy. COC and MTD detection in urine samples was determined to be accurate over the range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) and 21-1000 ng mL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Accurate, rapid identification of dislocation lines in coherent diffractive imaging via a min-max optimization formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulvestad, A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439, USA; Menickelly, M. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439, USA; Wild, S. M. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439, USA

    2018-01-01

    Defects such as dislocations impact materials properties and their response during external stimuli. Imaging these defects in their native operating conditions to establish the structure-function relationship and, ultimately, to improve performance via defect engineering has remained a considerable challenge for both electron-based and x-ray-based imaging techniques. While Bragg coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (BCDI) is successful in many cases, nuances in identifying the dislocations has left manual identification as the preferred method. Derivative-based methods are also used, but they can be inaccurate and are computationally inefficient. Here we demonstrate a derivative-free method that is both more accurate and more computationally efficient than either derivative-or human-based methods for identifying 3D dislocation lines in nanocrystal images produced by BCDI. We formulate the problem as a min-max optimization problem and show exceptional accuracy for experimental images. We demonstrate a 227x speedup for a typical experimental dataset with higher accuracy over current methods. We discuss the possibility of using this algorithm as part of a sparsity-based phase retrieval process. We also provide MATLAB code for use by other researchers.

  16. Rapid and Accurate Identification by Real-Time PCR of Biotoxin-Producing Dinoflagellates from the Family Gymnodiniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty F. Smith

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of toxin-producing dinoflagellates for monitoring programmes and bio-compound discovery requires considerable taxonomic expertise. It can also be difficult to morphologically differentiate toxic and non-toxic species or strains. Various molecular methods have been used for dinoflagellate identification and detection, and this study describes the development of eight real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays targeting the large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA gene of species from the genera Gymnodinium, Karenia, Karlodinium, and Takayama. Assays proved to be highly specific and sensitive, and the assay for G. catenatum was further developed for quantification in response to a bloom in Manukau Harbour, New Zealand. The assay estimated cell densities from environmental samples as low as 0.07 cells per PCR reaction, which equated to three cells per litre. This assay not only enabled conclusive species identification but also detected the presence of cells below the limit of detection for light microscopy. This study demonstrates the usefulness of real-time PCR as a sensitive and rapid molecular technique for the detection and quantification of micro-algae from environmental samples.

  17. Rapid and accurate identification by real-time PCR of biotoxin-producing dinoflagellates from the family gymnodiniaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirsty F; de Salas, Miguel; Adamson, Janet; Rhodes, Lesley L

    2014-03-07

    The identification of toxin-producing dinoflagellates for monitoring programmes and bio-compound discovery requires considerable taxonomic expertise. It can also be difficult to morphologically differentiate toxic and non-toxic species or strains. Various molecular methods have been used for dinoflagellate identification and detection, and this study describes the development of eight real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) gene of species from the genera Gymnodinium, Karenia, Karlodinium, and Takayama. Assays proved to be highly specific and sensitive, and the assay for G. catenatum was further developed for quantification in response to a bloom in Manukau Harbour, New Zealand. The assay estimated cell densities from environmental samples as low as 0.07 cells per PCR reaction, which equated to three cells per litre. This assay not only enabled conclusive species identification but also detected the presence of cells below the limit of detection for light microscopy. This study demonstrates the usefulness of real-time PCR as a sensitive and rapid molecular technique for the detection and quantification of micro-algae from environmental samples.

  18. MFPred: Rapid and accurate prediction of protein-peptide recognition multispecificity using self-consistent mean field theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza B Rubenstein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multispecificity-the ability of a single receptor protein molecule to interact with multiple substrates-is a hallmark of molecular recognition at protein-protein and protein-peptide interfaces, including enzyme-substrate complexes. The ability to perform structure-based prediction of multispecificity would aid in the identification of novel enzyme substrates, protein interaction partners, and enable design of novel enzymes targeted towards alternative substrates. The relatively slow speed of current biophysical, structure-based methods limits their use for prediction and, especially, design of multispecificity. Here, we develop a rapid, flexible-backbone self-consistent mean field theory-based technique, MFPred, for multispecificity modeling at protein-peptide interfaces. We benchmark our method by predicting experimentally determined peptide specificity profiles for a range of receptors: protease and kinase enzymes, and protein recognition modules including SH2, SH3, MHC Class I and PDZ domains. We observe robust recapitulation of known specificities for all receptor-peptide complexes, and comparison with other methods shows that MFPred results in equivalent or better prediction accuracy with a ~10-1000-fold decrease in computational expense. We find that modeling bound peptide backbone flexibility is key to the observed accuracy of the method. We used MFPred for predicting with high accuracy the impact of receptor-side mutations on experimentally determined multispecificity of a protease enzyme. Our approach should enable the design of a wide range of altered receptor proteins with programmed multispecificities.

  19. An accurate and rapid continuous wavelet dynamic time warping algorithm for unbalanced global mapping in nanopore sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Renmin

    2017-12-24

    Long-reads, point-of-care, and PCR-free are the promises brought by nanopore sequencing. Among various steps in nanopore data analysis, the global mapping between the raw electrical current signal sequence and the expected signal sequence from the pore model serves as the key building block to base calling, reads mapping, variant identification, and methylation detection. However, the ultra-long reads of nanopore sequencing and an order of magnitude difference in the sampling speeds of the two sequences make the classical dynamic time warping (DTW) and its variants infeasible to solve the problem. Here, we propose a novel multi-level DTW algorithm, cwDTW, based on continuous wavelet transforms with different scales of the two signal sequences. Our algorithm starts from low-resolution wavelet transforms of the two sequences, such that the transformed sequences are short and have similar sampling rates. Then the peaks and nadirs of the transformed sequences are extracted to form feature sequences with similar lengths, which can be easily mapped by the original DTW. Our algorithm then recursively projects the warping path from a lower-resolution level to a higher-resolution one by building a context-dependent boundary and enabling a constrained search for the warping path in the latter. Comprehensive experiments on two real nanopore datasets on human and on Pandoraea pnomenusa, as well as two benchmark datasets from previous studies, demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. In particular, cwDTW can almost always generate warping paths that are very close to the original DTW, which are remarkably more accurate than the state-of-the-art methods including FastDTW and PrunedDTW. Meanwhile, on the real nanopore datasets, cwDTW is about 440 times faster than FastDTW and 3000 times faster than the original DTW. Our program is available at https://github.com/realbigws/cwDTW.

  20. Impact of the rapid antigen detection test in diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngotonsillitis in a pediatric emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Débora Morais; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Hsin, Shieh Huei; Machado, Beatriz Marcondes; de Paulis, Milena; Lotufo, João Paulo B; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Grisi, Sandra Josefina E

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the routine use of rapid antigen detection test in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngotonsillitis in children. This is a prospective and observational study, with a protocol compliance design established at the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of Universidade de São Paulo for the care of children and adolescents diagnosed with acute pharyngitis. 650 children and adolescents were enrolled. Based on clinical findings, antibiotics would be prescribed for 389 patients (59.8%); using the rapid antigen detection test, they were prescribed for 286 patients (44.0%). Among the 261 children who would not have received antibiotics based on the clinical evaluation, 111 (42.5%) had positive rapid antigen detection test. The diagnosis based only on clinical evaluation showed 61.1% sensitivity, 47.7% specificity, 44.9% positive predictive value, and 57.5% negative predictive value. The clinical diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis had low sensitivity and specificity. The routine use of rapid antigen detection test led to the reduction of antibiotic use and the identification of a risk group for complications of streptococcal infection, since 42.5% positive rapid antigen detection test patients would not have received antibiotics based only on clinical diagnosis.

  1. Development of a prototype lateral flow immunoassay (LFI for the rapid diagnosis of melioidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L Houghton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of melioidosis; results can take 3-7 days to produce. Alternatively, antibody-based tests have low specificity due to a high percentage of seropositive individuals in endemic areas. There is a clear need to develop a rapid point-of-care antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis. Previously, we employed In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD to identify potential B. pseudomallei diagnostic biomarkers. The B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS and numerous protein antigens were identified as potential candidates. Here, we describe the development of a diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of CPS. Following production of a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb, an antigen-capture immunoassay was developed to determine the concentration of CPS within a panel of melioidosis patient serum and urine samples. The same mAb was used to produce a prototype Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Immunoassay (AMD LFI; the limit of detection of the LFI for CPS is comparable to the antigen-capture immunoassay (∼0.2 ng/ml. The analytical reactivity (inclusivity of the AMD LFI was 98.7% (76/77 when tested against a large panel of B. pseudomallei isolates. Analytical specificity (cross-reactivity testing determined that 97.2% of B. pseudomallei near neighbor species (35/36 were not reactive. The non-reactive B. pseudomallei strain and the reactive near neighbor strain can be explained through genetic sequence analysis. Importantly, we show the AMD LFI is capable of detecting CPS in a variety of patient samples. The LFI is currently being evaluated in Thailand and Australia; the focus is to optimize and validate testing procedures on melioidosis patient samples prior to initiation of a large, multisite pre-clinical evaluation.

  2. Cloning and Expression of Leptospira LipL32 Antigen as a Candidate for Rapid Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Sohrabi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Leptospirosis as an important emerging infectious zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Given the low sensitivity and long duration of its culture, the diagnosis of leptospirosis is mainly based on serological methods. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT is considered as the reference method. Because of the complexity of the MAT, there is an urgent need for the development of new reliable and rapid screening tests for leptospirosis. Major leptospiral outer membrane proteins (OMPs, present only in pathologic strains, could be regarded as a good candidate for diagnostic studies. Here we report the cloning and expression of LipL32, as a prominent immunogenic protein, in a prokaryotic system. Materials and Methods: After the amplification of LipL32 gene, it was cloned into the pQE30 vector. The insertion of LipL32 gene into the vector was screened and confirmed with restriction analysis and sequencing. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli M15 strain, and the expressed protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. This recombinant protein with 6× His-tagged sequence was purified using Ni-NTA affinity column chromatography. Results: The results revealed that the selected gene was successfully cloned in pQE30 vector and recombinant protein (rLipL32 of approximately ~32 kDa was produced, purified and confirmed by western blotting. Conclusion: This recombinant protein could be potentially used for the development of serodiagnosis tests for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in humans and animals.

  3. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis: a case report of a patient with mitral valve infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon Gitz; Pedersen, Line; Calum, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A case of infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva is presented. The use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis is discussed.......A case of infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva is presented. The use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis is discussed....

  4. A rapid and accurate approach for prediction of interactomes from co-elution data (PrInCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, R Greg; Skinnider, Michael A; Scott, Nichollas E; Foster, Leonard J

    2017-10-23

    An organism's protein interactome, or complete network of protein-protein interactions, defines the protein complexes that drive cellular processes. Techniques for studying protein complexes have traditionally applied targeted strategies such as yeast two-hybrid or affinity purification-mass spectrometry to assess protein interactions. However, given the vast number of protein complexes, more scalable methods are necessary to accelerate interaction discovery and to construct whole interactomes. We recently developed a complementary technique based on the use of protein correlation profiling (PCP) and stable isotope labeling in amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to assess chromatographic co-elution as evidence of interacting proteins. Importantly, PCP-SILAC is also capable of measuring protein interactions simultaneously under multiple biological conditions, allowing the detection of treatment-specific changes to an interactome. Given the uniqueness and high dimensionality of co-elution data, new tools are needed to compare protein elution profiles, control false discovery rates, and construct an accurate interactome. Here we describe a freely available bioinformatics pipeline, PrInCE, for the analysis of co-elution data. PrInCE is a modular, open-source library that is computationally inexpensive, able to use label and label-free data, and capable of detecting tens of thousands of protein-protein interactions. Using a machine learning approach, PrInCE offers greatly reduced run time, more predicted interactions at the same stringency, prediction of protein complexes, and greater ease of use over previous bioinformatics tools for co-elution data. PrInCE is implemented in Matlab (version R2017a). Source code and standalone executable programs for Windows and Mac OSX are available at https://github.com/fosterlab/PrInCE , where usage instructions can be found. An example dataset and output are also provided for testing purposes. PrInCE is the first fast and easy

  5. Rapid and discriminatory diagnosis of scrapie and BSE in retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Zijderveld Fred G

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis based on prion detection in lymph nodes of sheep and goats can improve active surveillance for scrapie and, if it were circulating, for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. With sizes that allow repetitive testing and a location that is easily accessible at slaughter, retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN are considered suitable organs for testing. Western blotting (WB of brain homogenates is, in principle, a technique well suited to both detect and discriminate between scrapie and BSE. In this report, WB is developed for rapid diagnosis in RLN and to study biochemical characteristics of PrPres. Results Optimal PrPres detection in RLN by WB was achieved by proper tissue processing, antibody choice and inclusion of a step for PrPresconcentration. The analyses were performed on three different sheep sources. Firstly, in a study with preclinical scrapie cases, WB of RLN from infected sheep of VRQ/VRQ genotype – VRQ represents, respectively, polymorphic PrP amino acids 136, 154, and 171 – allowed a diagnosis 14 mo earlier compared to WB of brain stem. Secondly, samples collected from sheep with confirmed scrapie in the course of passive and active surveillance programmes in the period 2002–2003 yielded positive results depending on genotype: all sheep with genotypes ARH/VRQ, VRQ/VRQ, and ARQ/VRQ scored positive for PrPres, but ARQ/ARQ and ARR/VRQ were not all positive. Thirdly, in an experimental BSE study, detection of PrPres in all 11 ARQ/ARQ sheep, including 7 preclinical cases, was possible. In all instances, WB and IHC were almost as sensitive. Moreover, BSE infection could be discriminated from scrapie infection by faster electrophoretic migration of the PrPres bands. Using dual antibody staining with selected monoclonal antibodies like 12B2 and L42, these differences in migration could be employed for an unequivocal differentiation between BSE and scrapie. With respect to glycosylation of PrPres, BSE cases

  6. Diagnosis and laparoscopic management of a rare endometriosis-related peritoneal mass with rapid growth in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, Nadine; Facchini, Chiara; Leggieri, Concetta; Caprara, Giacomo; Seracchioli, Renato

    2015-08-01

    Herein is described the diagnosis, clinical management and laparoscopic removal of a rapid growing retro-uterine mass in a pregnant woman. After laparoscopic removal of the pelvic mass, diagnosis of peritoneal endometriotic cyst was made on histology. The patient was asymptomatic and no history of endometriosis was reported. The laparoscopic management of the peritoneal mass was safe and effective and to our knowledge this is the first case report describing a decidualized endometriotic lesion in the absence of a pre-pregnancy endometriosis diagnosis. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Simplified immunoassay for rapid Dengue serotype diagnosis, revealing insensitivity to non-specific binding interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C.C.L. Loureiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Proof of concept of an immunoassay, which is easy to implement, for rapid Dengue virus (DENV serotype diagnosis, in the early infection stage, is reported. The four-layer assay is immobilized onto a thin gold film and relies on a low cost, disposable polymer biochip for optical surface plasmon resonance sensing and detection. The protocol comprises Neutravidin-Biotin mediated monoclonal antibody (MAB attachment as the functionalized sensing element. Formation of the MAB-DENV complex results in a pronounced thickness change that is optically recorded in real time, employing a microfluidic set-up. Virus presence is confirmed by atomic force microscopy from the same sample. Serum samples were collected from a patient in acute febrile state. Simultaneous serological analysis by means of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, independently, confirmed presence of DENV2 and DENV3. The protocol proved applicable in presence of strong non-specific binding interference that originates from, and is caused by, various blood, serum and other body fluid constituents. False positive indications for both, negative serum and blood control samples were not observed. The achievable limit of detection was estimated to be 2×104 particles/ml. Eventually, the method can be modified towards detection of other viruses by using the same protocol. Keywords: Immuno-assay, Dengue virus detection, Non-specific binding

  8. Comparison of amrad ICT test with microscopic examination for rapid diagnosis of malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, F.; Amin-ul-Haq; Jamal, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of an alternate and easy technique to diagnose malaria. Design: A prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of pathology, DHQ Hospital, Timergara District, Dir, North-west Frontier Province of Pakistan, from 19th September to 5th October 2000. Subjects and Methods: Smear positive 50 patients (27 males and 23 females, age ranging 2 years to 70 years) were included. Thick and thin smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and examined by the principal author. The ICT malaria test was performed according to the instruction sheet of the manufacturer. Results: on microscopy there were 29 cases of Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) and 21 of Plasmodiium vivax (P.v.). On ICT malaria P.f/P.v, there were 29 samples positive for P. Falciparum and 17 for P. vivax. These results demonstrated that the ICT malaria P.f/P.v test had sensitivity of 100% for P. falciparum and 81% for P. vivax and specificity of 100% for both, when compared to traditional blood films for the detection of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Conclusion: The ICT malaria P.f/P.v test is an effective tool for the rapid diagnosis of malaria and may be used as a first line diagnostic tool. (author)

  9. Validity of rapid estimation of erythrocyte volume in the diagnosis of polycytemia vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.; Roedbro, P.

    1989-01-01

    In the diagnosis of polycytemia vera, estimation of erythrocyte volume (EV) from plasma volume (PV) and venous hematocrit (Hct/sub v/) is usually thought unadvisable, because the ratio of whole body hematocrit to venous hematocrit (f ratio) is higher in patients with splenomegaly than in normal subjects, and varies considerably between individuals. We determined the mean f ratio in 232 consecutive patients suspected of polycytemia vera (anti f=0.967; SD 0.048) and used it with each patient's PV and Hct/sub v/ to calculate an estimated normalised EV/sub n/. With measured EV as a reference value, EV/sub n/ was investigated as a diagnostic test. By means of two cut off levels the EV/sub n/ values could be divided into EV/sub n/ elevated, EV/sub n/ not elevated (both with high predictive values), and an EV/sub n/ borderline group. The size of the borderline EV/sub n/ group ranged from 5% to 46% depending on position of the cut off levels, i.e. with the efficiency demanded from the diagnostic test. EV can safely and rapidly be estimated from PV and Hct/sub v/, if anti f is determined from the relevant population, and if the results in an easily definable borderline range of EV/sub n/ values are supplemented by direct EV determination.

  10. The contribution of an asthma diagnostic consultation service in obtaining an accurate asthma diagnosis for primary care patients: results of a real-life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, R M E; van Litsenburg, W; van Balkom, R H; Muris, J W; Smeenk, F W

    2017-05-19

    Previous studies showed that general practitioners have problems in diagnosing asthma accurately, resulting in both under and overdiagnosis. To support general practitioners in their diagnostic process, an asthma diagnostic consultation service was set up. We evaluated the performance of this asthma diagnostic consultation service by analysing the (dis)concordance between the general practitioners working hypotheses and the asthma diagnostic consultation service diagnoses and possible consequences this had on the patients' pharmacotherapy. In total 659 patients were included in this study. At this service the patients' medical history was taken and a physical examination and a histamine challenge test were carried out. We compared the general practitioners working hypotheses with the asthma diagnostic consultation service diagnoses and the change in medication that was incurred. In 52% (n = 340) an asthma diagnosis was excluded. The diagnosis was confirmed in 42% (n = 275). Furthermore, chronic rhinitis was diagnosed in 40% (n = 261) of the patients whereas this was noted in 25% (n = 163) by their general practitioner. The adjusted diagnosis resulted in a change of medication for more than half of all patients. In 10% (n = 63) medication was started because of a new asthma diagnosis. The 'one-stop-shop' principle was met with 53% of patients and 91% (n = 599) were referred back to their general practitioner, mostly within 6 months. Only 6% (n = 41) remained under control of the asthma diagnostic consultation service because of severe unstable asthma. In conclusion, the asthma diagnostic consultation service helped general practitioners significantly in setting accurate diagnoses for their patients with an asthma hypothesis. This may contribute to diminish the problem of over and underdiagnosis and may result in more appropriate treatment regimens. SERVICE HELPS GENERAL PRACTITIONERS MAKE ACCURATE DIAGNOSES: A consultation service can

  11. Accurate, safe, and rapid method of intraoperative tumor identification for totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy: injection of mixed fluid of sodium hyaluronate and patent blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Ehara, Kazuhisa; Ueno, Masaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Kaida, Sachiko; Udagawa, Harushi

    2014-04-01

    In totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, determining the resection line with safe proximal margins is often difficult, particularly for tumors located in a relatively upper area. This is because, in contrast to open surgery, identifying lesions by palpating or opening the stomach is essentially impossible. This study introduces a useful method of tumor identification that is accurate, safe, and rapid. On the operation day, after inducing general anesthesia, a mixture of sodium hyaluronate and patent blue is injected into the submucosal layer of the proximal margin. When resecting stomach, all marker spots should be on the resected side. In all cases, the proximal margin is examined histologically by using frozen sections during the operation. From October 2009 to September 2011, a prospective study that evaluated this method was performed. A total of 34 patients who underwent totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy were enrolled in this study. Approximately 5 min was required to complete the procedure. Proximal margins were negative in all cases, and the mean ± standard deviation length of the proximal margin was 23.5 ± 12.8 mm. No side effects, such as allergy, were encountered. As a method of tumor identification for totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, this procedure appears accurate, safe, and rapid.

  12. A rapid method of accurate detection and differentiation of Newcastle disease virus pathotypes by demonstrating multiple bands in degenerate primer based nested RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desingu, P A; Singh, S D; Dhama, K; Kumar, O R Vinodh; Singh, R; Singh, R K

    2015-02-01

    A rapid and accurate method of detection and differentiation of virulent and avirulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) pathotypes was developed. The NDV detection was carried out for different domestic avian field isolates and pigeon paramyxo virus-1 (25 field isolates and 9 vaccine strains) by using APMV-I "fusion" (F) gene Class II specific external primer A and B (535bp), internal primer C and D (238bp) based reverses transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). The internal degenerative reverse primer D is specific for F gene cleavage position of virulent strain of NDV. The nested RT-PCR products of avirulent strains showed two bands (535bp and 424bp) while virulent strains showed four bands (535bp, 424bp, 349bp and 238bp) on agar gel electrophoresis. This is the first report regarding development and use of degenerate primer based nested RT-PCR for accurate detection and differentiation of NDV pathotypes by demonstrating multiple PCR band patterns. Being a rapid, simple, and economical test, the developed method could serve as a valuable alternate diagnostic tool for characterizing NDV isolates and carrying out molecular epidemiological surveillance studies for this important pathogen of poultry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Can optical diagnosis of small colon polyps be accurate? Comparing standard scope without narrow banding to high definition scope with narrow banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashktorab, Hassan; Etaati, Firoozeh; Rezaeean, Farahnaz; Nouraie, Mehdi; Paydar, Mansour; Namin, Hassan Hassanzadeh; Sanderson, Andrew; Begum, Rehana; Alkhalloufi, Kawtar; Brim, Hassan; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O

    2016-07-28

    To study the accuracy of using high definition (HD) scope with narrow band imaging (NBI) vs standard white light colonoscope without NBI (ST), to predict the histology of the colon polyps, particularly those high definition colonoscopes with NBI. The histopathologic diagnosis was reported by pathologists as part of routine care. Of participants in the study, 55 (37%) were male and median (interquartile range) of age was 56 (19-80). Demographic, clinical characteristics, past medical history of patients, and the data obtained by two instruments were not significantly different and two methods detected similar number of polyps. In ST scope 89% of polyps were scope (P = 0.7). The ST scope had a positive predictive value (PPV) and positive likelihood ratio (PLR) of 86% and 4.0 for adenoma compared to 74% and 2.6 for HD scope. There was a trend of higher sensitivity for HD scope (68%) compare to ST scope (53%) with almost the same specificity. The ST scope had a PPV and PLR of 38% and 1.8 for hyperplastic polyp (HPP) compared to 42% and 2.2 for HD scope. The sensitivity and specificity of two instruments for HPP diagnosis were similar. Our results indicated that HD scope was more sensitive in diagnosis of adenoma than ST scope. Clinical diagnosis of HPP with either scope is less accurate compared to adenoma. Colonoscopy diagnosis is not yet fully matched with pathologic diagnosis of colon polyp. However with the advancement of both imaging and training, it may be possible to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the scopes and hence save money for eliminating time and the cost of Immunohistochemistry/pathology.

  14. A standard screening test for the early and rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekaran S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE : To perform dark field microscopy (DFM for detection of Leptospira and to validate the results using Leptospira IgM antibody SERION ELISA test. METHODS : After differential centrifugation of Ruys, DFM was done to demonstrate Leptospira in the blood and SERION ELISA was done for Leptospira IgM antibody in single or paired serum samples. One hundred and eleven cases (39 adults and 72 children of suspected leptospirosis were included in the study. RESULTS : Anicteric cases accounted for 66.7% (26/39 of adults and complications involving brain, liver, kidney and eyes were seen in 33.3% (13/39. In children, 90.3% (65/72 were anicteric and involvement of brain and liver was seen in 9.7% (7/72 cases. On testing 60 single samples of blood from 23 adults and 37 children, DFM exhibited greater sensitivity of 93.3% (56/60 than that of SERION ELISA for Leptospira IgM antibody (33.3%, 20/60. It was observed that the positivity of DFM decreased from 100% (15/15 to 90.9% (10/11 with increase in the duration of infection for more than one week. ELISA for Leptospira IgM, done on 51 paired blood samples, was positive in 64.7% (33/51 cases when both (first and second samples were tested while in 45.1% (23/51 cases was positive with first sample alone. 58.8%(30/51 cases were positive by testing second sample. DFM results on paired blood samples showed persistence of Leptospira in 92.9% of cases. CONCLUSION : This study shows the validation of DFM results by SERION ELISA for Leptospira IgM antibody, based on which we recommend that DFM can serve as a standard screening test for early and rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis.

  15. Evaluation of PCR electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry for rapid molecular diagnosis of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreten, Vincent; Endimiani, Andrea; Thomann, Andreas; Wipf, Juliette R K; Rossano, Alexandra; Bodmer, Michèle; Raemy, Andreas; Sannes-Lowery, Kristin A; Ecker, David J; Sampath, Rangarajan; Bonomo, Robert A; Washington, Cicely

    2013-06-01

    Bovine mastitis, an inflammatory disease of the mammary gland, is one of the most costly diseases affecting the dairy industry. The treatment and prevention of this disease is linked heavily to the use of antibiotics in agriculture and early detection of the primary pathogen is essential to control the disease. Milk samples (n=67) from cows suffering from mastitis were analyzed for the presence of pathogens using PCR electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) and were compared with standard culture diagnostic methods. Concurrent identification of the primary mastitis pathogens was obtained for 64% of the tested milk samples, whereas divergent results were obtained for 27% of the samples. The PCR/ESI-MS failed to identify some of the primary pathogens in 18% of the samples, but identified other pathogens as well as microorganisms in samples that were negative by culture. The PCR/ESI-MS identified bacteria to the species level as well as yeasts and molds in samples that contained a mixed bacterial culture (9%). The sensitivity of the PCR/ESI-MS for the most common pathogens ranged from 57.1 to 100% and the specificity ranged from 69.8 to 100% using culture as gold standard. The PCR/ESI-MS also revealed the presence of the methicillin-resistant gene mecA in 16.2% of the milk samples, which correlated with the simultaneous detection of staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus. We demonstrated that PCR/ESI-MS, a more rapid diagnostic platform compared with bacterial culture, has the significant potential to serve as an important screening method in the diagnosis of bovine clinical mastitis and has the capacity to be used in infection control programs for both subclinical and clinical disease. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Label-free bimodal waveguide immunosensor for rapid diagnosis of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Jesús; González-Guerrero, Ana Belén; Domínguez, Carlos; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-11-15

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is an acute bacterial infection of ascitic fluid; it has a high incidence in cirrhotic patients and it is associated with high mortality. In such a situation, early diagnosis and treatment is crucial for the survival of the patient. However, bacterial analysis in ascitic fluid is currently based on culture methods, which are time-consuming and laborious. We report here the application of a photonic interferometer biosensor based on a bimodal waveguide (BiMW) for the rapid and label-free detection of bacteria directly in ascitic fluid. The device consists of a straight waveguide in which two modes of the same polarization interfere while interacting with the external medium through their evanescent fields. A bimolecular event occurring on the sensor area of the device (e.g. capturing bacteria) will differently affect each light mode, inducing a variation in the phase of the light exiting at the output of the waveguide. In this work, we demonstrate the quantitative detection of Bacillus cereus in buffer medium and Escherichia coli in undiluted ascitic fluid from cirrhotic patients. In the case of Bacillus cereus detection, the device was able to specifically detect bacteria at relevant concentrations in 12.5min and in the case of Escherichia coli detection, the analysis time was 25min. Extrapolation of the data demonstrated that the detection limits of the biosensor could reach few bacteria per milliliter. Based on the results obtained, we consider that the BiMW biosensor is positioned as a promising new clinical tool for user-friendly, cost-effective and real-time microbiological analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the rapid diagnosis of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Sathish Kumar; A, Navaneeth Krishnan; J, Joseph Sahaya Rajan; M, Makesh; K P, Jithendran; S V, Alavandi; K K, Vijayan

    2018-05-01

    The emerging microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), the causative agent of hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis, has been widely reported in shrimp-farming countries. EHP infection can be detected by light microscopy observation of spores (1.7 × 1 μm) in stained hepatopancreas (HP) tissue smears, HP tissue sections, and fecal samples. EHP can also be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene or the spore wall protein gene (SWP). In this study, a rapid, sensitive, specific, and closed tube visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) protocol combined with FTA cards was developed for the diagnosis of EHP. LAMP primers were designed based on the SSU rRNA gene of EHP. The target sequence of EHP was amplified at constant temperature of 65 °C for 45 min and amplified LAMP products were visually detected in a closed tube system by using SYBR™ green I dye. Detection limit of this LAMP protocol was ten copies. Field and clinical applicability of this assay was evaluated using 162 field samples including 106 HP tissue samples and 56 fecal samples collected from shrimp farms. Out of 162 samples, EHP could be detected in 62 samples (47 HP samples and 15 fecal samples). When compared with SWP-PCR as the gold standard, this EHP LAMP assay had 95.31% sensitivity, 98.98% specificity, and a kappa value of 0.948. This simple, closed tube, clinically evaluated visual LAMP assay has great potential for diagnosing EHP at the farm level, particularly under low-resource circumstances.

  18. Imprint cytology from ultrasound-guided core biopsies: accurate and immediate diagnosis in a one-stop breast clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.; Lott, M.F.; Calder, C.J.; Kutt, E.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether imprint cytology from ultrasound-guided core biopsy specimens was adequate for the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) guidelines. METHODS: We prospectively audited imprint cytology from ultrasound-guided core biopsy specimens. The performance indicators for imprint cytology specimens from 111 consecutive ultrasound-guided core biopsy were compared with standards set by the NHSBSP for fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). RESULTS: Imprint cytology fulfilled the 'preferred' targets for absolute and complete sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, false-positive and false-negative rates, inadequate rate and inadequate rate from cancers. It also satisfied the minimum target for suspicious rate. The complete sensitivity was 97%, full specificity 78%, with 100% positive predictive value for C5 cytology and an inadequate rate from cancers of 1.5%. CONCLUSION: Imprint cytology from ultrasound-guided core biopsy allows same-day diagnosis and the collection of data regarding the grade of the carcinoma for treatment decisions from a single needle test

  19. Accurate diagnosis of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome based upon objective test methods for characteristic symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twisk, Frank NM

    2015-01-01

    Although myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are considered to be synonymous, the definitional criteria for ME and CFS define two distinct, partially overlapping, clinical entities. ME, whether defined by the original criteria or by the recently proposed criteria, is not equivalent to CFS, let alone a severe variant of incapacitating chronic fatigue. Distinctive features of ME are: muscle weakness and easy muscle fatigability, cognitive impairment, circulatory deficits, a marked variability of the symptoms in presence and severity, but above all, post-exertional “malaise”: a (delayed) prolonged aggravation of symptoms after a minor exertion. In contrast, CFS is primarily defined by (unexplained) chronic fatigue, which should be accompanied by four out of a list of 8 symptoms, e.g., headaches. Due to the subjective nature of several symptoms of ME and CFS, researchers and clinicians have questioned the physiological origin of these symptoms and qualified ME and CFS as functional somatic syndromes. However, various characteristic symptoms, e.g., post-exertional “malaise” and muscle weakness, can be assessed objectively using well-accepted methods, e.g., cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cognitive tests. The objective measures acquired by these methods should be used to accurately diagnose patients, to evaluate the severity and impact of the illness objectively and to assess the positive and negative effects of proposed therapies impartially. PMID:26140274

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker supported diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and rapid dementias: a longitudinal multicentre study over 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Juan, Pascual; Gawinecka, Joanna; Green, Alison; Ladogana, Anna; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Mitrova, Eva; Sklaviadis, Theodor; Kulczycki, Jerzy; Slivarichova, Dana; Saiz, Albert; Calero, Miguel; Knight, Richard; Aguzzi, Adriano; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Peoc’h, Katell; Schelzke, Gabi; Karch, Andre; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Zerr, Inga

    2012-01-01

    To date, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, particularly protein 14-3-3 testing, presents an important approach in the identification of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease cases. However, one special point of criticism of 14-3-3 testing is the specificity in the differential diagnosis of rapid dementia. The constant observation of increased cerebrospinal fluid referrals in the national surveillance centres over the last years raises the concern of declining specificity due to higher number of cerebrospinal fluid tests performed in various neurological conditions. Within the framework of a European Community supported longitudinal multicentre study (‘cerebrospinal fluid markers’) we analysed the spectrum of rapid progressive dementia diagnoses, their potential influence on 14-3-3 specificity as well as results of other dementia markers (tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1–42) and evaluated the specificity of 14-3-3 in Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease diagnosis for the years 1998–2008. A total of 29 022 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analysed for 14-3-3 protein and other cerebrospinal fluid dementia markers in patients with rapid dementia and suspected Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in the participating centres. In 10 731 patients a definite diagnosis could be obtained. Protein 14-3-3 specificity was analysed for Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease with respect to increasing cerebrospinal fluid tests per year and spectrum of differential diagnosis. Ring trials were performed to ensure the comparability between centres during the reported time period. Protein 14-3-3 test specificity remained high and stable in the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease during the observed time period across centres (total specificity 92%; when compared with patients with definite diagnoses only: specificity 90%). However, test specificity varied with respect to differential diagnosis. A high 14-3-3 specificity was obtained in differentiation to other neurodegenerative diseases (95–97%) and non

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker supported diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and rapid dementias: a longitudinal multicentre study over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, Katharina; Sanchez-Juan, Pascual; Gawinecka, Joanna; Green, Alison; Ladogana, Anna; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Mitrova, Eva; Sklaviadis, Theodor; Kulczycki, Jerzy; Slivarichova, Dana; Saiz, Albert; Calero, Miguel; Knight, Richard; Aguzzi, Adriano; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Peoc'h, Katell; Schelzke, Gabi; Karch, Andre; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Zerr, Inga

    2012-10-01

    To date, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, particularly protein 14-3-3 testing, presents an important approach in the identification of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases. However, one special point of criticism of 14-3-3 testing is the specificity in the differential diagnosis of rapid dementia. The constant observation of increased cerebrospinal fluid referrals in the national surveillance centres over the last years raises the concern of declining specificity due to higher number of cerebrospinal fluid tests performed in various neurological conditions. Within the framework of a European Community supported longitudinal multicentre study ('cerebrospinal fluid markers') we analysed the spectrum of rapid progressive dementia diagnoses, their potential influence on 14-3-3 specificity as well as results of other dementia markers (tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β(1-42)) and evaluated the specificity of 14-3-3 in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease diagnosis for the years 1998-2008. A total of 29 022 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analysed for 14-3-3 protein and other cerebrospinal fluid dementia markers in patients with rapid dementia and suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the participating centres. In 10 731 patients a definite diagnosis could be obtained. Protein 14-3-3 specificity was analysed for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with respect to increasing cerebrospinal fluid tests per year and spectrum of differential diagnosis. Ring trials were performed to ensure the comparability between centres during the reported time period. Protein 14-3-3 test specificity remained high and stable in the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease during the observed time period across centres (total specificity 92%; when compared with patients with definite diagnoses only: specificity 90%). However, test specificity varied with respect to differential diagnosis. A high 14-3-3 specificity was obtained in differentiation to other neurodegenerative diseases (95-97%) and non

  2. Evaluating different approaches to non-destructive nitrogen status diagnosis of rice using portable RapidSCAN active canopy sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junjun; Miao, Yuxin; Shi, Wei; Li, Jingxin; Yuan, Fei

    2017-10-26

    RapidSCAN is a new portable active crop canopy sensor with three wavebands in red, red-edge, and near infrared spectral regions. The objective of this study was to determine the potential and practical approaches of using this sensor for non-destructive diagnosis of rice nitrogen (N) status. Sixteen plot experiments and ten on-farm experiments were conducted from 2014 to 2016 in Jiansanjiang Experiment Station of the China Agricultural University and Qixing Farm in Northeast China. Two mechanistic and three semi-empirical approaches using the sensor's default vegetation indices, normalized difference vegetation index and normalized difference red edge, were evaluated in comparison with the top performing vegetation indices selected from 51 tested indices. The results indicated that the most practical and stable method of using the RapidSCAN sensor for rice N status diagnosis is to calculate N sufficiency index with the default vegetation indices and then to estimate N nutrition index non-destructively (R 2  = 0.50-0.59). This semi-empirical approach achieved a diagnosis accuracy rate of 59-76%. The findings of this study will facilitate the application of the RapidSCAN active sensor for rice N status diagnosis across growth stages, cultivars and site-years, and thus contributing to precision N management for sustainable intensification of agriculture.

  3. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Results: From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90% were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar o teste QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, EUA para o diagn

  4. Usefulness of gram staining of blood collected from total parenteral nutrition catheter for rapid diagnosis of catheter-related sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonens, F; el Alami, S; Van Gossum, A; Struelens, M J; Serruys, E

    1994-01-01

    The accuracy of Gram staining of blood drawn from catheters used to administer total parenteral nutrition was compared with paired quantitative blood cultures for the diagnosis of catheter-related sepsis. Gram staining was positive in 11 of 18 episodes of catheter-related sepsis documented by quantitative culture (sensitivity, 61%) but in none of the 5 episodes of fever unrelated to catheter infection. Thus, this procedure enabled the rapid presumptive diagnosis and guidance of antimicrobial therapy for total parenteral nutrition catheter sepsis, with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 42%. PMID:7521359

  5. Self-diagnosis of malaria by travelers and expatriates: assessment of malaria rapid diagnostic tests available on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltha, Jessica; Gillet, Philippe; Heutmekers, Marloes; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Van Gompel, Alfons; Jacobs, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In the past malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for self-diagnosis by travelers were considered suboptimal due to poor performance. Nowadays RDTs for self-diagnosis are marketed and available through the internet. The present study assessed RDT products marketed for self-diagnosis for diagnostic accuracy and quality of labeling, content and instructions for use (IFU). Diagnostic accuracy of eight RDT products was assessed with a panel of stored whole blood samples comprising the four Plasmodium species (n = 90) as well as Plasmodium negative samples (n = 10). IFUs were assessed for quality of description of procedure and interpretation and for lay-out and readability level. Errors in packaging and content were recorded. Two products gave false-positive test lines in 70% and 80% of Plasmodium negative samples, precluding their use. Of the remaining products, 4/6 had good to excellent sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum (98.2%-100.0%) and Plasmodium vivax (93.3%-100.0%). Sensitivity for Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae diagnosis was poor (6.7%-80.0%). All but one product yielded false-positive test lines after reading beyond the recommended reading time. Problems with labeling (not specifying target antigens (n = 3), and content (desiccant with no humidity indicator (n = 6)) were observed. IFUs had major shortcomings in description of test procedure and interpretation, poor readability and lay-out and user-unfriendly typography. Strategic issues (e.g. the need for repeat testing and reasons for false-negative tests) were not addressed in any of the IFUs. Diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for self-diagnosis was variable, with only 4/8 RDT products being reliable for the diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax, and none for P. ovale and P. malariae. RDTs for self-diagnosis need improvements in IFUs (content and user-friendliness), labeling and content before they can be considered for self-diagnosis by the traveler.

  6. Photogrammetry-Based Head Digitization for Rapid and Accurate Localization of EEG Electrodes and MEG Fiducial Markers Using a Single Digital SLR Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausner, Tommy; Dalal, Sarang S; Crespo-García, Maité

    2017-01-01

    The performance of EEG source reconstruction has benefited from the increasing use of advanced head modeling techniques that take advantage of MRI together with the precise positions of the recording electrodes. The prevailing technique for registering EEG electrode coordinates involves electromagnetic digitization. However, the procedure adds several minutes to experiment preparation and typical digitizers may not be accurate enough for optimal source reconstruction performance (Dalal et al., 2014). Here, we present a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective alternative method to register EEG electrode positions, using a single digital SLR camera, photogrammetry software, and computer vision techniques implemented in our open-source toolbox, janus3D . Our approach uses photogrammetry to construct 3D models from multiple photographs of the participant's head wearing the EEG electrode cap. Electrodes are detected automatically or semi-automatically using a template. The rigid facial features from these photo-based models are then surface-matched to MRI-based head reconstructions to facilitate coregistration to MRI space. This method yields a final electrode coregistration error of 0.8 mm, while a standard technique using an electromagnetic digitizer yielded an error of 6.1 mm. The technique furthermore reduces preparation time, and could be extended to a multi-camera array, which would make the procedure virtually instantaneous. In addition to EEG, the technique could likewise capture the position of the fiducial markers used in magnetoencephalography systems to register head position.

  7. A Rapid, Accurate, and Efficient Method to Map Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils of Abandoned Mine Sites Using Converted Portable XRF Data and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangwon Suh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES increases the rapidity and accuracy of soil contamination mapping, respectively. In practice, it is often necessary to repeat the soil contamination assessment and mapping procedure several times during soil management within a limited budget. In this study, we have developed a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate soil contamination mapping method using a PXRF data and geostatistical spatial interpolation. To obtain a large quantity of high quality data for interpolation, in situ PXRF data analyzed at 40 points were transformed to converted PXRF data using the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data. The method was applied to an abandoned mine site in Korea to generate a soil contamination map for copper and was validated for investigation speed and prediction accuracy. As a result, regions that required soil remediation were identified. Our method significantly shortened the time required for mapping compared to the conventional mapping method and provided copper concentration estimates with high accuracy similar to those measured by ICP-AES. Therefore, our method is an effective way of mapping soil contamination if we consistently construct a database based on the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data.

  8. Rapid Screening of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides in a Whey Permeate Product and Domestic Animal Milks by Accurate Mass Database and Tandem Mass Spectral Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Cuthbertson, Daniel J.; Otter, Don E.; Barile, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    A bovine milk oligosaccharide (BMO) library, prepared from cow colostrum, with 34 structures was generated and used to rapidly screen oligosaccharides in domestic animal milks and a whey permeate powder. The novel library was entered into a custom Personal Compound Database and Library (PCDL) and included accurate mass, retention time, and tandem mass spectra. Oligosaccharides in minute-sized samples were separated using nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled to a high resolution and sensitive quadrupole-Time of Flight (Q-ToF) MS system. Using the PCDL, 18 oligosaccharides were found in a BMO-enriched product obtained from whey permeate processing. The usefulness of the analytical system and BMO library was further validated using milks from domestic sheep and buffaloes. Through BMO PCDL searching, 15 and 13 oligosaccharides in the BMO library were assigned in sheep and buffalo milks, respectively, thus demonstrating significant overlap between oligosaccharides in bovine (cow and buffalo) and ovine (sheep) milks. This method was shown to be an efficient, reliable, and rapid tool to identify oligosaccharide structures using automated spectral matching. PMID:27428379

  9. Shell Vial culture Assay for the rapid diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and Dengue-2 viral encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrinath S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Encephalitis caused by flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and West Nile virus (WNV is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in many endemic countries. Dengue-2 (Den-2 virus is a recent addition to the list of encephalitogenic viruses, after its Central Nervous System (CNS invasion capability has been established. There is a wide array of laboratory tools that have helped us not only in the diagnosis of these conditions but also in understanding their pathogenesis and pathology. However, there are no reports of Shell Vial Culture (SVC, a centrifuge enhanced tissue culture assay that has revolutionized viral culturing in terms of rapidity and sensitivity being optimized for these flaviviral encephalitic conditions. The present study is an attempt to standardize and evaluate the usefulness of SVC for the laboratory diagnosis of JE, WN and Den-2 encephalitis cases and to compare it with Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF technique that detects cell associated virus antigen. Analysis of the various clinical parameters with respect to viral etiology has also been carried out. Results Pediatric patients constituted the major group involved in the study (92%. Etiological diagnosis of viral encephalitis could be established in twenty nine (58% patients. JE encephalitis was the commonest with 19 (39% cases being positive followed by, WN (9 cases-18% and Den-2 (one case. IIF test could detect antigens of JE, WN and Den-2 viruses in 16(32%, 7(14% and 1 case respectively. Shell vial culture assay picked up all cases that were positive by IIF test. In addition, SVC assay could detect 3 and 2 more cases of JE and WN encephalitis respectively, that were negative by the IIF test. Conclusion Shell vial culture is a rapid and efficient tool for the etiological diagnosis of JE, WN and Den-2 encephalitis cases. Early, prompt collection, transport and processing of the CSF samples, would make SVC a better method for the

  10. Has introduction of rapid drug susceptibility testing at diagnosis impacted treatment outcomes among previously treated tuberculosis patients in Gujarat, India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh Dave

    Full Text Available Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP in India recommends that all previously-treated TB (PT patients are offered drug susceptibility testing (DST at diagnosis, using rapid diagnostics and screened out for rifampicin resistance before being treated with standardized, eight-month, retreatment regimen. This is intended to improve the early diagnosis of rifampicin resistance and its appropriate management and improve the treatment outcomes among the rest of the patients. In this state-wide study from Gujarat, India, we assess proportion of PT patients underwent rapid DST at diagnosis and the impact of this intervention on their treatment outcomes.This is a retrospective cohort study involving review of electronic patient-records maintained routinely under RNTCP. All PT patients registered for treatment in Gujarat during January-June 2013 were included. Information on DST and treatment outcomes were extracted from 'presumptive DR-TB patient register' and TB treatment register respectively. We performed a multivariate analysis to assess if getting tested is independently associated with unfavourable outcomes (death, loss-to-follow-up, failure, transfer out.Of 5,829 PT patients, 5306(91% were tested for drug susceptibility with rapid diagnostics. Overall, 71% (4,113 TB patients were successfully treated - 72% among tested versus 60% among non-tested. Patients who did not get tested at diagnosis had a 34% higher risk of unsuccessful outcomes as compared to those who got tested (aRR - 1.34; 95% CI 1.20-1.50 after adjusting for age, sex, HIV status and type of TB. Unfavourable outcomes (particularly failure and switched to category IV were higher among INH-resistant patients (39% as compared to INH-sensitive (29%.Offering DST at diagnosis improved the treatment outcomes among PT patients. However, even among tested, treatment outcomes remained suboptimal and were related to INH resistance and high loss-to-follow-up. These need to be addressed

  11. [Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou (Bénin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Agbayahoun-Chokki, F; Sissinto Savi de Tove, Y; Biokou Bankole, B; Adinsi de Souza, V; Assogba, M; Kinde-Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of the ImmunoComb® Toxo IgG and ImmunoComb® Toxo IgMassays (rapid diagnostic test) in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou. We interviewed 266 pregnant women, who first answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti T. gondii antibodies with the ImmunoComb toxo assays and with the ARCHITECT CIMA method. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated to determine the performance of the rapid test. The seroprevalences of IgG against T. gondii by CIMA technique and rapid test were respectively 48.9% and 48.5%. The prevalence increased with age. Performances for IgG were: sensitivity 97%, specificity 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 97.10%. For IgM, Sensitivity: 33.3% Specificity: 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 99.2%. Seroprevalence obtained shows that about half of the study population is not immune against T. gondii and requires regular serological monitoring until delivery. According to these results, and given the needs of toxoplasmosis diagnosis on the field characterized by an important decrease of immunized women, this test may be recommended in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in peripheral levels of the health pyramid.

  12. Rapid diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia: cell culture and soft computing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Massimo; Bush, Andrew; Montemurro, Francesca; Pioggia, Giovanni; Piras, Martina; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Di Cicco, Maria; Chinellato, Iolanda; Cangiotti, Angela M; Boner, Attilio L

    2013-04-01

    Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) sometimes requires repeated nasal brushing to exclude secondary ciliary alterations. Our aim was to evaluate whether the use of a new method of nasal epithelial cell culture can speed PCD diagnosis in doubtful cases and to identify which are the most informative parameters by means of a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN). A cross-sectional study was performed in patients with suspected PCD. All patients underwent nasal brushing for ciliary motion analysis, ultrastructural assessment and evaluation of ciliary function after ciliogenesis in culture by ANN. 151 subjects were studied. A diagnostic suspension cell culture was obtained in 117 nasal brushings. A diagnosis of PCD was made in 36 subjects (29 of whom were children). In nine out of the 36 patients the diagnosis was made only after a second brushing, because of equivocal results of both tests at first examination. In each of these subjects diagnosis of PCD was confirmed by cell culture results. Cell culture in suspension evaluated by means of ANN allows the separation of PCD from secondary ciliary dyskinesia patients after only 5 days of culture and allows diagnosis to be reached in doubtful cases, thus avoiding the necessity of a second sample.

  13. An interesting case of cryptogenic stroke in a young man due to left ventricular non-compaction: role of cardiac MRI in the accurate diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Arun; Das, Anindita; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2014-06-24

    A 28-year-old man arrived for an outpatient cardiac MRI (CMR) study to evaluate cardiac structure. At the age of 24 the patient presented with acute onset expressive aphasia and was diagnosed with ischaemic stroke. Echocardiography at that time was reported as 'apical wall thickening consistent with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy'. CMR revealed a moderately dilated left ventricle with abnormal appearance of the left ventricular (LV) apical segments. Further evaluation was consistent with a diagnosis of LV non-compaction (LVNC) cardiomyopathy with a ratio of non-compacted to compacted myocardium measuring 3. There was extensive delayed hyperenhancement signal involving multiple segments representing a significant myocardial scar which is shown to have a prognostic role. Our patient, with no significant cerebrovascular risk factors, would likely have had an embolic stroke. This case demonstrates the role of CMR in accurately diagnosing LVNC in a patient with young stroke where prior echocardiography was non-diagnostic. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Comparison of a Clinical Prediction Rule and a LAM Antigen-Detection Assay for the Rapid Diagnosis of TBM in a High HIV Prevalence Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinod B.; Singh, Ravesh; Connolly, Cathy; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Zumla, Allimudin; Ndungu, Thumbi; Dheda, Keertan

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective The diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in resource poor TB endemic environments is challenging. The accuracy of current tools for the rapid diagnosis of TBM is suboptimal. We sought to develop a clinical-prediction rule for the diagnosis of TBM in a high HIV prevalence setting, and to compare performance outcomes to conventional diagnostic modalities and a novel lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen detection test (Clearview-TB®) using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methods Patients with suspected TBM were classified as definite-TBM (CSF culture or PCR positive), probable-TBM and non-TBM. Results Of the 150 patients, 84% were HIV-infected (median [IQR] CD4 count = 132 [54; 241] cells/µl). There were 39, 55 and 54 patients in the definite, probable and non-TBM groups, respectively. The LAM sensitivity and specificity (95%CI) was 31% (17;48) and 94% (85;99), respectively (cut-point ≥0.18). By contrast, smear-microscopy was 100% specific but detected none of the definite-TBM cases. LAM positivity was associated with HIV co-infection and low CD4 T cell count (CD4200 cells/µl; p = 0.03). The sensitivity and specificity in those with a CD4<100 cells/µl was 50% (27;73) and 95% (74;99), respectively. A clinical-prediction rule ≥6 derived from multivariate analysis had a sensitivity and specificity (95%CI) of 47% (31;64) and 98% (90;100), respectively. When LAM was combined with the clinical-prediction-rule, the sensitivity increased significantly (p<0.001) to 63% (47;68) and specificity remained high at 93% (82;98). Conclusions Despite its modest sensitivity the LAM ELISA is an accurate rapid rule-in test for TBM that has incremental value over smear-microscopy. The rule-in value of LAM can be further increased by combination with a clinical-prediction rule, thus enhancing the rapid diagnosis of TBM in HIV-infected persons with advanced immunosuppression. PMID:21203513

  15. A three-dimensional image processing program for accurate, rapid, and semi-automated segmentation of neuronal somata with dense neurite outgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James D.; Cullen, D. Kacy; Harris, James P.; LaPlaca, Michelle C.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) image analysis techniques provide a powerful means to rapidly and accurately assess complex morphological and functional interactions between neural cells. Current software-based identification methods of neural cells generally fall into two applications: (1) segmentation of cell nuclei in high-density constructs or (2) tracing of cell neurites in single cell investigations. We have developed novel methodologies to permit the systematic identification of populations of neuronal somata possessing rich morphological detail and dense neurite arborization throughout thick tissue or 3-D in vitro constructs. The image analysis incorporates several novel automated features for the discrimination of neurites and somata by initially classifying features in 2-D and merging these classifications into 3-D objects; the 3-D reconstructions automatically identify and adjust for over and under segmentation errors. Additionally, the platform provides for software-assisted error corrections to further minimize error. These features attain very accurate cell boundary identifications to handle a wide range of morphological complexities. We validated these tools using confocal z-stacks from thick 3-D neural constructs where neuronal somata had varying degrees of neurite arborization and complexity, achieving an accuracy of ≥95%. We demonstrated the robustness of these algorithms in a more complex arena through the automated segmentation of neural cells in ex vivo brain slices. These novel methods surpass previous techniques by improving the robustness and accuracy by: (1) the ability to process neurites and somata, (2) bidirectional segmentation correction, and (3) validation via software-assisted user input. This 3-D image analysis platform provides valuable tools for the unbiased analysis of neural tissue or tissue surrogates within a 3-D context, appropriate for the study of multi-dimensional cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. PMID

  16. Rapid jetting status inspection and accurate droplet volume measurement for a piezo drop-on-demand inkjet print head using a scanning mirror for display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Youn; Kim, Minsung

    2017-02-01

    Despite the inherent fabrication simplicity of piezo drop-on-demand inkjet printing, the non-uniform deposition of colourants or electroluminescent organic materials leads to faulty display products, and hence, the importance of rapid jetting status inspection and accurate droplet volume measurement increases from a process perspective. In this work, various jetting status inspections and droplet volume measurement methods are reviewed by discussing their advantages and disadvantages, and then, the opportunities for the developed prototype with a scanning mirror are explored. This work demonstrates that jetting status inspection of 384 fictitious droplets can be performed within 17 s with maximum and minimum measurement accuracies of 0.2 ± 0.5 μ m for the fictitious droplets of 50 μ m in diameter and -1.2 ± 0.3 μ m for the fictitious droplets of 30 μ m in diameter, respectively. In addition to the new design of an inkjet monitoring instrument with a scanning mirror, two novel methods to accurately measure the droplet volume by amplifying a minute droplet volume difference and then converting to other physical properties are suggested and the droplet volume difference of ±0.3% is demonstrated to be discernible using numerical simulations, even with the low measurement accuracy of 1 μ m . When the fact is considered that the conventional vision-based method with a CCD camera requires the optical measurement accuracy less than 25 nm to measure the volume of an in-flight droplet in the nominal diameter of 50 μ m at the same volume measurement accuracy, the suggested method with the developed prototype offers a whole new opportunity to inkjet printing for display applications.

  17. [The significance of pedigree genetic screening and rapid immunological parameters in the diagnosis of primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Wang, Y N; Wang, J S; Wu, L; Wei, N; Fu, L; Gao, Z; Chen, J H; Pei, R J; Wang, Z

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the significance of pedigree genetic screening and rapid immunological parameters in the diagnosis of primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Four cases of primary HLH patients with PRF1, UNC13D and SH2D1A gene mutations were conducted pedigree investigation, including family genetic screening and detections of immunological parameters (NK cell activity, CD107a degranulation and expression of HLH related defective protein), to evaluate the significance of these different indicators in the diagnosis of primary HLH and explore their correlations. The DNA mutations of the four families included missense mutation c.T172C (p.S58P) and non- frameshift deletions c.1083_1094del (p.361_365del), missense mutation c.C1349T (p.T450M) and frameshift mutation c.1090_1091delCT (p.T364fsX93) in PRF1 gene, missense mutation c.G2588A (p.G863D) in UNC13D gene and hemizygous mutation c.32T>G (p.I11S) in SH2D1A gene. The patients and their family members presented decreased NK cell activities. Individuals who carried mutations of PRF1 gene and SH2D1A gene showed low expression of perforin (PRF1) and signaling lymphocytic activation molecule associated protein (SAP). And the patient with UNC13D gene mutation and his family member with identical mutation showed significant reducing cytotoxic degranulation function (expression of CD107a). Pedigree genetic screening and rapid detection of immunological parameters might play an important role in the diagnosis of primary HLH, and both of them had good consistency. As an efficient detection means, the rapid immunological detection indicators would provide reliable basis for the early diagnosis of the primary HLH.

  18. A gp41-based heteroduplex mobility assay provides rapid and accurate assessment of intrasubtype epidemiological linkage in HIV type 1 heterosexual transmission Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigart, Olivier; Boeras, Debrah I; Karita, Etienne; Hawkins, Paulina A; Vwalika, Cheswa; Makombe, Nathan; Mulenga, Joseph; Derdeyn, Cynthia A; Allen, Susan; Hunter, Eric

    2012-12-01

    A critical step in HIV-1 transmission studies is the rapid and accurate identification of epidemiologically linked transmission pairs. To date, this has been accomplished by comparison of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified nucleotide sequences from potential transmission pairs, which can be cost-prohibitive for use in resource-limited settings. Here we describe a rapid, cost-effective approach to determine transmission linkage based on the heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA), and validate this approach by comparison to nucleotide sequencing. A total of 102 HIV-1-infected Zambian and Rwandan couples, with known linkage, were analyzed by gp41-HMA. A 400-base pair fragment within the envelope gp41 region of the HIV proviral genome was PCR amplified and HMA was applied to both partners' amplicons separately (autologous) and as a mixture (heterologous). If the diversity between gp41 sequences was low (<5%), a homoduplex was observed upon gel electrophoresis and the transmission was characterized as having occurred between partners (linked). If a new heteroduplex formed, within the heterologous migration, the transmission was determined to be unlinked. Initial blind validation of gp-41 HMA demonstrated 90% concordance between HMA and sequencing with 100% concordance in the case of linked transmissions. Following validation, 25 newly infected partners in Kigali and 12 in Lusaka were evaluated prospectively using both HMA and nucleotide sequences. Concordant results were obtained in all but one case (97.3%). The gp41-HMA technique is a reliable and feasible tool to detect linked transmissions in the field. All identified unlinked results should be confirmed by sequence analyses.

  19. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte cytometric pattern is more accurate than subepithelial deposits of anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA for the diagnosis of celiac disease in lymphocytic enteritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández-Bañares

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: An increase in CD3+TCRγδ+ and a decrease in CD3- intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL is a characteristic flow cytometric pattern of celiac disease (CD with atrophy. The aim was to evaluate the usefulness of both CD IEL cytometric pattern and anti-TG2 IgA subepithelial deposit analysis (CD IF pattern for diagnosing lymphocytic enteritis due to CD. METHODS: Two-hundred and five patients (144 females who underwent duodenal biopsy for clinical suspicion of CD and positive celiac genetics were prospectively included. Fifty had villous atrophy, 70 lymphocytic enteritis, and 85 normal histology. Eight patients with non-celiac atrophy and 15 with lymphocytic enteritis secondary to Helicobacter pylori acted as control group. Duodenal biopsies were obtained to assess both CD IEL flow cytometric (complete or incomplete and IF patterns. RESULTS: Sensitivity of IF, and complete and incomplete cytometric patterns for CD diagnosis in patients with positive serology (Marsh 1+3 was 92%, 85 and 97% respectively, but only the complete cytometric pattern had 100% specificity. Twelve seropositive and 8 seronegative Marsh 1 patients had a CD diagnosis at inclusion or after gluten free-diet, respectively. CD cytometric pattern showed a better diagnostic performance than both IF pattern and serology for CD diagnosis in lymphocytic enteritis at baseline (95% vs 60% vs 60%, p = 0.039. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the IEL flow cytometric pattern is a fast, accurate method for identifying CD in the initial diagnostic biopsy of patients presenting with lymphocytic enteritis, even in seronegative patients, and seems to be better than anti-TG2 intestinal deposits.

  20. Tomosynthesis: A new radiologic technique for rapid diagnosis of scaphoid fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, N; Murphy, L; Lyons, F; Jones, J; MacMahon, P; Cashman, J

    2016-12-21

    Scaphoid fractures constitute 71% of all carpal bone fractures. 1 Early diagnosis and treatment has significant bearing on fracture union rates and better clinical outcomes. While displaced fractures can be readily seen on plain radiograph, undisplaced fractures can require advanced imaging modalities to confirm that diagnosis. Advanced imaging such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computerised tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy are routinely used for the diagnosis of scaphoid fractures but require significant radiation exposure, increased cost and can be difficult to access. 2 Tomosynthesis is an emerging imaging modality which uses conventional x-ray systems to produce cross-sectional images. There has yet to be extensive research carried out investigating the diagnostic value of tomosynthesis in scaphoid fractures. The aim of this study is to optimise patient positioning for the diagnosis of scaphoid fractures in a cadaveric model and compare the diagnostic yield of tomography to conventional CT. Using four cadaveric specimens, three limb positions were examined in unfractured and fractured scaphoids to determine the optimal limb positions required for visualisation of the scaphoid. As a result of this study, the optimal position for visualisation of the scaphoid and diagnosis of scaphoid fractures has been determined. The results demonstrate that tomosynthesis is as effective as CT scanning in identifying scaphoid fractures in both sensitivity and specificity. By comparison to CT, tomosynthesis is cheaper, has lower radiation exposure, requires fewer hospital resources and can be performed quickly. Tomosynthesis is a valid diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of scaphoid fractures. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improved sensitivity of nucleic acid amplification for rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Lundgren, Bettina; Tabak, Fehmi

    2004-01-01

    Early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is essential for a positive outcome; but present microbiological diagnostic techniques are insensitive, slow, or laborious. We evaluated the standard BDProbeTec ET strand displacement amplification method (the standard ProbeTec method) for the detec......Early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is essential for a positive outcome; but present microbiological diagnostic techniques are insensitive, slow, or laborious. We evaluated the standard BDProbeTec ET strand displacement amplification method (the standard ProbeTec method...

  2. Immunoassay for Capsular Antigen of Bacillus anthracis Enables Rapid Diagnosis in a Rabbit Model of Inhalational Anthrax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcellene A Gates-Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available Inhalational anthrax is a serious biothreat. Effective antibiotic treatment of inhalational anthrax requires early diagnosis; the further the disease has progressed, the less the likelihood for cure. Current means for diagnosis such as blood culture require several days to a result and require advanced laboratory infrastructure. An alternative approach to diagnosis is detection of a Bacillus anthracis antigen that is shed into blood and can be detected by rapid immunoassay. The goal of the study was to evaluate detection of poly-γ-D-glutamic acid (PGA, the capsular antigen of B. anthracis, as a biomarker surrogate for blood culture in a rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. The mean time to a positive blood culture was 26 ± 5.7 h (mean ± standard deviation, whereas the mean time to a positive ELISA was 22 ± 4.2 h; P = 0.005 in comparison with blood culture. A lateral flow immunoassay was constructed for detection of PGA in plasma at concentrations of less than 1 ng PGA/ml. Use of the lateral flow immunoassay for detection of PGA in the rabbit model found that antigen was detected somewhat earlier than the earliest time point at which the blood culture became positive. The low cost, ease of use, and rapid time to result of the lateral flow immunoassay format make an immunoassay for PGA a viable surrogate for blood culture for detection of infection in individuals who have a likelihood of exposure to B. anthracis.

  3. Early diagnosis of congenital vascular malformation as a condition to rapid prevention of complications – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Jaguś

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Klippel–Trénaunay syndrome is a rare congenital condition characterised by a triad of symptoms: capillary-lymphatic-venous malformations, varicose veins and venous malformations as well as soft tissue and skeletal hypertrophy of the affected limb. In this article, we present a case of a 5-year-old boy with extensive vascular malformations of the lower limbs and the buttock region. In this case, manifestation of all three symptoms was gradual. At the age of 4 years, the patient was admitted to the Department of Imaging Diagnostics for further diagnosis, where the triad characteristic for Klippel–Trénaunay syndrome and popliteal vein agenesis were diagnosed. Currently, a multidisciplinary team takes care of the boy in the Children’s Memorial Health Institute. Early and accurate diagnosis allows for rapid prevention of complications associated with Klippel–Trénaunay syndrome and enables patient-tailored treatment.

  4. A rapid and accurate method for determining protein content in dairy products based on asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin-Qin; Li, Yong-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    An accurate and rapid method and a system to determine protein content using asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry based on reaction between coomassie brilliant blue G250 (CBBG) and protein was established. Main merit of our approach is that it can avoid interferences of other nitric-compounds in samples, such as melamine and urea. Optimized conditions are as follows: Concentrations of CBBG, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), NaCl and HCl are 150 mg/l, 30 mg/l, 0.1 mol/l and 1.0% (v/v), respectively; volumes of the sample and reagent are 150 μl and 30 μl, respectively; length of a reaction coil is 200 cm; total flow rate is 2.65 ml/min. The linear range of the method is 0.5-15 mg/l (BSA), its detection limit is 0.05 mg/l, relative standard deviation is less than 1.87% (n=11), and analytical speed is 60 samples per hour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enzymic colorimetry-based DNA chip: a rapid and accurate assay for detecting mutations for clarithromycin resistance in the 23S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Shi-Hai; Zhou, Yu-Gui; Shao, Bo; Cui, Ya-Lin; Li, Jian; Yin, Hong-Bo; Song, Xiao-Ping; Cong, Hui; Jing, Feng-Xiang; Jin, Qing-Hui; Wang, Hui-Min; Zhou, Jie

    2009-11-01

    Macrolide drugs, such as clarithromycin (CAM), are a key component of many combination therapies used to eradicate Helicobacter pylori. However, resistance to CAM is increasing in H. pylori and is becoming a serious problem in H. pylori eradication therapy. CAM resistance in H. pylori is mostly due to point mutations (A2142G/C, A2143G) in the peptidyltransferase-encoding region of the 23S rRNA gene. In this study an enzymic colorimetry-based DNA chip was developed to analyse single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the 23S rRNA gene to determine the prevalence of mutations in CAM-related resistance in H. pylori-positive patients. The results of the colorimetric DNA chip were confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. In 63 samples, the incidence of the A2143G mutation was 17.46 % (11/63). The results of the colorimetric DNA chip were concordant with DNA sequencing in 96.83 % of results (61/63). The colorimetric DNA chip could detect wild-type and mutant signals at every site, even at a DNA concentration of 1.53 x 10(2) copies microl(-1). Thus, the colorimetric DNA chip is a reliable assay for rapid and accurate detection of mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of H. pylori that lead to CAM-related resistance, directly from gastric tissues.

  6. Accurate and rapid modeling of iron-bleomycin-induced DNA damage using tethered duplex oligonucleotides and electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, A; Marzilli, L A; Bunt, R C; Stubbe, J; Vouros, P

    2000-05-01

    Bleomycin B(2)(BLM) in the presence of iron [Fe(II)] and O(2)catalyzes single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) cleavage of DNA. Electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry was used to monitor these cleavage processes. Two duplex oligonucleotides containing an ethylene oxide tether between both strands were used in this investigation, allowing facile monitoring of all ss and ds cleavage events. A sequence for site-specific binding and cleavage by Fe-BLM was incorporated into each analyte. One of these core sequences, GTAC, is a known hot-spot for ds cleavage, while the other sequence, GGCC, is a hot-spot for ss cleavage. Incubation of each oligo-nucleotide under anaerobic conditions with Fe(II)-BLM allowed detection of the non-covalent ternary Fe-BLM/oligonucleotide complex in the gas phase. Cleavage studies were then performed utilizing O(2)-activated Fe(II)-BLM. No work-up or separation steps were required and direct MS and MS/MS analyses of the crude reaction mixtures confirmed sequence-specific Fe-BLM-induced cleavage. Comparison of the cleavage patterns for both oligonucleotides revealed sequence-dependent preferences for ss and ds cleavages in accordance with previously established gel electrophoresis analysis of hairpin oligonucleotides. This novel methodology allowed direct, rapid and accurate determination of cleavage profiles of model duplex oligonucleotides after exposure to activated Fe-BLM.

  7. Rapid pre-operative diagnosis of ileal hernia through the foramen of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. Y-P Lo, MD. Corresponding author: Y-H Liao (D14887@mail.cmuh.org.tw). Internal hernias through the foramen of Winslow are extremely rare. Prompt diagnosis and early surgical reduction are vital to prevent bowel gangrene and avoid ...

  8. Rapid diagnosis of Theileria annulata by recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow strip (LF-RPA) in epidemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fangyuan; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-15

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of Theileria annulata infection contributes to the formulation of strategies to eradicate this parasite. A simple and efficient diagnostic tool, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip, was used in detection of Theileria and compared to other methods that require expensive instruments and skilled personnel. Herein, we established and optimized an LF-RPA method to detect the cytochrome b gene of T. annulata mitochondrial DNA from experimentally infected and field-collected blood samples. This method has many unparalleled characteristics, including that it is rapid (clear detection in 5min at constant temperature), sensitive (the limitation of detection is at least 2pg genomic DNA), and specific (no cross-reaction with other piroplasms that infect cattle). The LF-RPA assay was evaluated via testing 17 field blood samples and comparing the results of that of a PCR, showing 100% agreement, which demonstrates the ability of the LF-RPA assay to detect T. annulata infections in small number of samples (n=17). Taken together, the results indicate that this method could be used as an ideal diagnostic tool for detecting T. annulata in endemic regions with limited to fewer and local resources and could also be a potential technique for the surveillance and control of blood protozoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid detection of Avian Influenza Virus - Towards point of care diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhumpa, Raghuram

    barcode and fluorescent beads were also developed for rapid detection and identification of the AIV. In both methods, the detection involved sandwiching of the target AIV between monoclonal antibodies for nucleoproteins and for matrix proteins. In the fluorescent DNA barcode-based immunoassay, fluorophore...

  10. Improved sensitivity of nucleic acid amplification for rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Lundgren, Bettina; Tabak, Fehmi

    2004-01-01

    was adjusted from the recommended value of 3,400 to 1,000, the sensitivity of the modified procedure increased to 84.7%, with unchanged specificity. Results were obtained in 3 to 4 h. The new pretreatment procedure with the ProbeTec assay described here provides a rapid, simple, and sensitive tool...

  11. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for rapid diagnosis of postoperative endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhac, Adriane; Durand, Harmonie; Boisset, Sandrine; Maubon, Danièle; Berger, Francois; Maurin, Max; Chiquet, Christophe; Bidart, Marie

    2017-01-30

    This study describes an innovative strategy for rapid detection and identification of bacteria causing endophthalmitis, combining the use of an automated blood culture system with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry methodology. Using this protocol, we could identify 96% of 45 bacterial strains isolated from vitreous samples collected in acute post-operative endophthalmitis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid molecular detection of rifampicin resistance facilitates early diagnosis and treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis: case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philly O'Riordan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a major public health concern since diagnosis is often delayed, increasing the risk of spread to the community and health care workers. Treatment is prolonged, and the total cost of treating a single case is high. Diagnosis has traditionally relied upon clinical suspicion, based on risk factors and culture with sensitivity testing, a process that can take weeks or months. Rapid diagnostic molecular techniques have the potential to shorten the time to commencing appropriate therapy, but have not been put to the test under field conditions.This retrospective case-control study aimed to identify risk factors for MDR-TB, and analyse the impact of testing for rifampicin resistance using RNA polymerase B (rpoB mutations as a surrogate for MDR-TB. Forty two MDR-TB cases and 84 fully sensitive TB controls were matched by date of diagnosis; and factors including demographics, clinical presentation, microbiology findings, management and outcome were analysed using their medical records. Conventionally recognised risk factors for MDR-TB were absent in almost half (43% of the cases, and 15% of cases were asymptomatic. A significant number of MDR-TB cases were identified in new entrants to the country. Using rpoB mutation testing, the time to diagnosis of MDR-TB was dramatically shortened by a median of 6 weeks, allowing patients to be commenced on appropriate therapy a median of 51days earlier than those diagnosed by conventional culture and sensitivity testing.MDR-TB is frequently an unexpected finding, may be asymptomatic, and is particularly prevalent among TB infected new entrants to the country. Molecular resistance testing of all acid fast bacilli positive specimens has the potential to rapidly identify MDR-TB patients and commence them on appropriate therapy significantly earlier than by conventional methods.

  13. Saving Private Ryan: The Indian Scenario (Rapid Diagnosis of Malaria at Regimental Aid Post)

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhale, S

    2004-01-01

    Immunochromatography test (ICT) (Paracheck Pf) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection was compared with the conventional smear examination method. A total of 350 specimens of blood from cases of fever were investigated (falciparum malaria 220, vivax malaria 100, controls 30). Paracheck Pf ICT was found to have enormous advantages over smear examination due to its high degree of sensitivity, specificity, speed and ease of performance. Paracheck Pf ICT test kits are stable at roo...

  14. [Main principles of rapid diagnosis and intensive care in emergency states: their realization in expert systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zislin, B D; Bazhenov, A M; Belkin, A A; Bazylev, S V; Badaev, F I; Trifonov, Iu O

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 543 case histories over 1980-1990 in the town of Yekaterinburg and analysis of published data permitted the authors to single out the signs characterizing the most frequent syndromes requiring urgent intensive care. By either diagnostic value, these signs are distributed into main, accessory, and ruling out. An expert system has been created, making use of the productive-Freimont's approach to representing information on the basis of blurred multiplicities and ambiguous logics. The diagnosis was made by stages: first the main signs were analyzed, determining the severity of patient's status, then (after first aid was rendered) accessory and ruling out signs, which help make the diagnosis more precise. The system was tried in 231 patients, 102 of these with acute respiratory failure, 63 with acute hemodynamic insufficiency, and 66 with acute cerebral insufficiency. Primary diagnosis of the underlying syndrome was correct in 87-89% of cases, of the concomitant syndrome in 92-97%. Repeated evaluations (in 1-3 and 24 h) taking account of the time course of the symptoms and of the results of unsophisticated instrumental examinations increased the share of correct diagnoses to 92-96%.

  15. Rapid diagnosis of avian influenza virus in wild birds: Use of a portable rRT-PCR and freeze-dried reagents in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, N.J.; Schultz, A.K.; Iverson, S.A.; Cardona, C.J.; Boyce, W.M.; Dudley, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of the need to transport samples to a laboratory equipped for molecular testing. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is a molecular technique that offers one of the most accurate and sensitive methods for diagnosis of AIV. The previously strict lab protocols needed for rRT-PCR are now being adapted for the field. Development of freeze-dried (lyophilized) reagents that do not require cold chain, with sensitivity at the level of wet reagents has brought on-site remote testing to a practical goal. Here we present a method for the rapid diagnosis of AIV in wild birds using an rRT-PCR unit (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device or RAPID, Idaho Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT) that employs lyophilized reagents (Influenza A Target 1 Taqman; ASAY-ASY-0109, Idaho Technologies). The reagents contain all of the necessary components for testing at appropriate concentrations in a single tube: primers, probes, enzymes, buffers and internal positive controls, eliminating errors associated with improper storage or handling of wet reagents. The portable unit performs a screen for Influenza A by targeting the matrix gene and yields results in 2-3 hours. Genetic subtyping is also possible with H5 and H7 primer sets that target the hemagglutinin gene. The system is suitable for use on cloacal and oropharyngeal samples collected from wild birds, as demonstrated here on the migratory shorebird species, the western sandpiper (Calidrus mauri) captured in Northern California. Animal handling followed protocols approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the U.S. Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center and permits of the U.S. Geological Survey

  16. Real-time in vivo diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma with rapid fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kan; Zheng, Wei; Lim, Chwee Ming; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    We assess the clinical utility of a unique simultaneous fingerprint (FP) (i.e., 800-1800 cm−1) and high-wavenumber (HW) (i.e., 2800-3600 cm−1) fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of laryngeal cancer at endoscopy. A total of 2124 high-quality in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra (normal = 1321; cancer = 581) were acquired from 101 tissue sites (normal = 71; cancer = 30) of 60 patients (normal = 44; cancer = 16) undergoing routine endoscopic examination. FP/HW Raman spectra differ significantly between normal and cancerous laryngeal tissue that could be attributed to changes of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and the bound water content in the larynx. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis and leave-one tissue site-out, cross-validation were employed on the in vivo FP/HW tissue Raman spectra acquired, yielding a diagnostic accuracy of 91.1% (sensitivity: 93.3% (28/30); specificity: 90.1% (64/71)) for laryngeal cancer identification, which is superior to using either FP (accuracy: 86.1%; sensitivity: 86.7% (26/30); specificity: 85.9% (61/71)) or HW (accuracy: 84.2%; sensitivity: 76.7% (23/30); specificity: 87.3% (62/71)) Raman technique alone. Further receiver operating characteristic analysis reconfirms the best performance of the simultaneous FP/HW Raman technique for laryngeal cancer diagnosis. We demonstrate for the first time that the simultaneous FP/HW Raman spectroscopy technique can be used for improving real-time in vivo diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma during endoscopic examination. PMID:27699131

  17. Widal agglutination titre: a rapid serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftab, R.; Khurshid, R.

    2009-01-01

    To study the reliability of a single Widal test and to find out the diagnostic significance of 'O' and 'H' agglutinin titre in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Community-based case-control study conducted from Jan 2001 to June 2007. The blood samples were collected from the medical and out door department of Sir Ganga Ram Hospitals, Lahore. The diagnostic value of an acute phase single Widal agglutination test for suspected typhoid fever was evaluated in 733 consecutive patients with fever lasting 6 or more days. In 733 patients with fever 84 (11.45%) were positive for Widal test. A noteworthy rise 1/320 of H and/or O agglutinin titre was observed in 86 (11.3%) of patients with typhoid fever. In the absence of vaccination an elevated level of H and/or O agglutinin titre of 1: 320 is of diagnostic value for typhoid fever especially in our setting where a single sample of serum is relied on for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. (author)

  18. Widal agglutination titre: a rapid serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftab, R [Fatima Jinnah Medical College Lahore, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Pathology; Khurshid, R [Fatima Jinnah Medical College Lahore, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2009-01-15

    To study the reliability of a single Widal test and to find out the diagnostic significance of 'O' and 'H' agglutinin titre in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Community-based case-control study conducted from Jan 2001 to June 2007. The blood samples were collected from the medical and out door department of Sir Ganga Ram Hospitals, Lahore. The diagnostic value of an acute phase single Widal agglutination test for suspected typhoid fever was evaluated in 733 consecutive patients with fever lasting 6 or more days. In 733 patients with fever 84 (11.45%) were positive for Widal test. A noteworthy rise 1/320 of H and/or O agglutinin titre was observed in 86 (11.3%) of patients with typhoid fever. In the absence of vaccination an elevated level of H and/or O agglutinin titre of 1: 320 is of diagnostic value for typhoid fever especially in our setting where a single sample of serum is relied on for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. (author)

  19. Rapid aneuploidy diagnosis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and array comparative genomic hybridization in pregnancy with major congenital malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: Prenatal diagnosis of major congenital malformations should alert one to the possibility of chromosomal abnormalities. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and aCGH have the advantage of rapid aneuploidy diagnosis of common aneuploidies in cases with major congenital malformations.

  20. Rapid Flow Cytometry-Based Test for the Diagnosis of Lipopolysaccharide Responsive Beige-Like Anchor (LRBA Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gámez-Díaz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like-anchor-protein (LRBA deficiency currently relies on gene sequencing approaches that do not support a timely diagnosis and clinical management. We developed a rapid and sensitive test for clinical implementation based on the detection of LRBA protein by flow cytometry in peripheral blood cells after stimulation. LRBA protein was assessed in a prospective cohort of 54 healthy donors and 57 patients suspected of LRBA deficiency. Receiver operating characteristics analysis suggested an LRBA:MFI ratio cutoff point of 2.6 to identify LRBA-deficient patients by FACS with 94% sensitivity and 80% specificity and to discriminate them from patients with a similar clinical picture but other disease-causing mutations. This easy flow cytometry-based assay allows a fast screening of patients with suspicion of LRBA deficiency reducing therefore the number of patients requiring LRBA sequencing and accelerating the treatment implementation. Detection of biallelic mutations in LRBA is however required for a definitive diagnosis.

  1. Rapid Flow Cytometry-Based Test for the Diagnosis of Lipopolysaccharide Responsive Beige-Like Anchor (LRBA) Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Díaz, Laura; Sigmund, Elena C; Reiser, Veronika; Vach, Werner; Jung, Sophie; Grimbacher, Bodo

    2018-01-01

    The diagnosis of lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like-anchor-protein (LRBA) deficiency currently relies on gene sequencing approaches that do not support a timely diagnosis and clinical management. We developed a rapid and sensitive test for clinical implementation based on the detection of LRBA protein by flow cytometry in peripheral blood cells after stimulation. LRBA protein was assessed in a prospective cohort of 54 healthy donors and 57 patients suspected of LRBA deficiency. Receiver operating characteristics analysis suggested an LRBA:MFI ratio cutoff point of 2.6 to identify LRBA-deficient patients by FACS with 94% sensitivity and 80% specificity and to discriminate them from patients with a similar clinical picture but other disease-causing mutations. This easy flow cytometry-based assay allows a fast screening of patients with suspicion of LRBA deficiency reducing therefore the number of patients requiring LRBA sequencing and accelerating the treatment implementation. Detection of biallelic mutations in LRBA is however required for a definitive diagnosis.

  2. Rapid Diagnosis of 83 Patients with Niemann Pick Type C Disease and Related Cholesterol Transport Disorders by Cholestantriol Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Reunert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Niemann Pick type C (NP-C is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by an impairment of intracellular lipid transport. Due to the heterogeneous clinical phenotype and the lack of a reliable blood test, diagnosis and therapy are often delayed for years. In the cell, accumulating cholesterol leads to increased formation of oxysterols that can be used as a powerful screening parameter for NP-C. In a large scale study, we evaluated the oxysterol cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (c-triol as potential biomarker for a rapid diagnosis of NP-C. Using GC/MS, c-triol has been analyzed in 1902 plasma samples of patients with the suspicion for NP-C. Diagnosis in patients with elevated oxysterols was confirmed by genetic analysis. 71 new NP-C patients (69 NP-C1 and two NP-C2 and 12 Niemann Pick type A/B patients were identified. 24 new mutations in NPC1, one new mutation in NPC2 and three new mutations in the SMPD1 gene were found. Cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol was elevated in Niemann Pick type C1, type C2, type A/B and in CESD disease. No other study has ever identified so many NP-C patients, proving that c-triol is a rapid and reliable biomarker to detect patients with NP-C disease and related cholesterol transport disorders. It should replace the filipin test as the first-line diagnostic assay.

  3. [Real-time PCR in rapid diagnosis of Aeromonas hydrophila necrotizing soft tissue infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Izumi, Yoko; Ushita, Misuzu; Niinou, Norio; Koshizaki, Masayuki; Yamamori, Yuji; Kaneko, Sakae; Fukushima, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    We report a case of rapidly progressive necrotizing soft tissue infection and sepsis followed by a patient's death. We suspected Vibrio vulnificus infection because the patient's underlying disease was cirrhosis and the course extremely rapid. No microbe had been detected at death. We extracted DNA from a blood culture bottle. SYBR green I real-time PCR was conducted but could not detect V. vulnificus vvh in the DNA sample. Aeromonas hydrophila was cultured and identified in blood and necrotized tissue samples. Real-time PCR was conducted to detect A. hydrophila ahh1, AHCYTOEN and aerA in the DNA sample extracted from the blood culture bottle and an isolated necrotized tissue strain, but only ahh1 was positive. High-mortality in necrotizing soft tissue infections makes it is crucial to quickly detect V. vulnificus and A. hydrophila. We found real-time PCR for vvh, ahh1, AHCYTOEN, and aerA useful in detecting V. vulnificus and A. hydrophila in necrotizing soft tissue infections.

  4. Rapid and Accurate Behavioral Health Diagnostic Screening: Initial Validation Study of a Web-Based, Self-Report Tool (the SAGE-SR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodey, Benjamin; Purcell, Susan E; Rhea, Karen; Maier, Philip; First, Michael; Zweede, Lisa; Sinisterra, Manuela; Nunn, M Brad; Austin, Marie-Paule; Brodey, Inger S

    2018-03-23

    The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) is considered the gold standard assessment for accurate, reliable psychiatric diagnoses; however, because of its length, complexity, and training required, the SCID is rarely used outside of research. This paper aims to describe the development and initial validation of a Web-based, self-report screening instrument (the Screening Assessment for Guiding Evaluation-Self-Report, SAGE-SR) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the SCID-5-Clinician Version (CV) intended to make accurate, broad-based behavioral health diagnostic screening more accessible within clinical care. First, study staff drafted approximately 1200 self-report items representing individual granular symptoms in the diagnostic criteria for the 8 primary SCID-CV modules. An expert panel iteratively reviewed, critiqued, and revised items. The resulting items were iteratively administered and revised through 3 rounds of cognitive interviewing with community mental health center participants. In the first 2 rounds, the SCID was also administered to participants to directly compare their Likert self-report and SCID responses. A second expert panel evaluated the final pool of items from cognitive interviewing and criteria in the DSM-5 to construct the SAGE-SR, a computerized adaptive instrument that uses branching logic from a screener section to administer appropriate follow-up questions to refine the differential diagnoses. The SAGE-SR was administered to healthy controls and outpatient mental health clinic clients to assess test duration and test-retest reliability. Cutoff scores for screening into follow-up diagnostic sections and criteria for inclusion of diagnoses in the differential diagnosis were evaluated. The expert panel reduced the initial 1200 test items to 664 items that panel members agreed collectively represented the SCID items from the 8 targeted modules and DSM criteria for the covered

  5. ANCA-GBM dot-blot : Evaluation of an assay in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Damoiseaux, Jan; Roozendaal, Caroline; Limburg, Pieter C; Stegeman, Coen A; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen

    Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is characterized by rapid and progressive loss of renal function and the presence of crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN). Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is mandatory to prevent death and/or renal failure. We have evaluated an ANCA-GBM dot-blot

  6. A rapid screening with direct sequencing from blood samples for the diagnosis of Leigh syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Shimbo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large numbers of genes are responsible for Leigh syndrome (LS, making genetic confirmation of LS difficult. We screened our patients with LS using a limited set of 21 primers encompassing the frequently reported gene for the respiratory chain complexes I (ND1–ND6, and ND4L, IV(SURF1, and V(ATP6 and the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α-subunit. Of 18 LS patients, we identified mutations in 11 patients, including 7 in mDNA (two with ATP6, 4 in nuclear (three with SURF1. Overall, we identified mutations in 61% of LS patients (11/18 individuals in this cohort. Sanger sequencing with our limited set of primers allowed us a rapid genetic confirmation of more than half of the LS patients and it appears to be efficient as a primary genetic screening in this cohort.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of malaria microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests versus presumptive diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batwala, Vincent; Magnussen, Pascal; Hansen, Kristian Schultz

    2011-01-01

    .9) than in low transmission setting (US$1.78). At a willingness to pay of US$2.8, RDT remained cost effective up to a threshold value of the cost of treatment of US$4.7. CONCLUSION: RDT was cost effective in both low and high transmission settings. With a global campaign to reduce the costs of AL and RDT......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Current Uganda National Malaria treatment guidelines recommend parasitological confirmation either by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (AL). However, the cost-effectiveness of these strategies has not been assessed...... departments were enrolled from March 2010 to February 2011. Of these, a random sample of 1,627 was selected to measure additional socio-economic characteristics. Costing was performed following the standard step-down cost allocation and the ingredients approach. Effectiveness was measured as the number...

  8. Rapid Diagnosis of IHN Virus Infection in Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, JoAnn Ching

    1984-12-01

    The main objective for this study was the development of a rapid diagnostic method for IHN virus in fish tissue samples. The rationale for developing new techniques for diagnosing IHNV infection was that present methods were time consuming and dependent on virus neutralization by specific antisera, a reagent that was not readily available or reliable. Fish pathologists required a rapid detection method which was sensitive enough to detect virus strain differences so that they could provide data for effective management decisions in controlling the spread of IHNV. Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) role in efforts in fish diseases and more generically the protection, mitigation, and enhancement of Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations, is mandated by Congress through the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Regional Act), Pub. L. 96-501. Section 4 (h) of the Regional Act directs the Northwest Power Planning Council to develop a Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA's Administrator is authorized in Section 4 (h) (10) (A) to ''use funds and the authorities available to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries''. The fund is to be used to implement measures that are consistent with the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program. The research detailed in this final report is consistent with these objectives. This final report has been prepared as part of BPA's policy to encourage the preservation and dissemination of research results by publication in scientific journals.

  9. [Rapid first-tier genetic diagnosis in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ács, Orsolya Dóra; Péterfia, Bálint; Hollósi, Péter; Haltrich, Irén; Sallai, Ágnes; Luczay, Andrea; Buiting, Karin; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Török, Dóra; Szabó, András; Fekete, György

    2018-01-01

    According to the international literature, DNA methylation analysis of the promoter region of SNRPN locus is the most efficient way to start genetic investigation in patients with suspected Prader-Willi syndrome. Our aim was to develop a simple, reliable first-tier diagnosis to confirm Prader-Willi syndrome, therefore to compare our self-designed simple, cost-efficient high-resolution melting analysis and the most commonly used methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to confirm Prader-Willi syndrome. We studied 17 clinically suspected Prader-Willi syndrome children and their DNA samples. With self-designed primers, bisulfite-sensitive polymerase chain reaction, high-resolution melting analysis and, as a control, methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were performed. Prader-Willi syndrome was genetically confirmed in 6 out of 17 clinically suspected Prader-Willi syndrome patients. The results of high-resolution melting analysis and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were equivalent in each case. Using our self-designed primers and altered bisulfite-specific PCR conditions, high-resolution melting analysis appears to be a simple, fast, reliable and effective method for primarily proving or excluding clinically suspected Prade-Willi syndrome cases. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(2): 64-69.

  10. The status of and future research into Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: the need of accurate diagnosis, objective assessment, and acknowledging biological and clinical subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twisk, Frank N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Although Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) are used interchangeably, the diagnostic criteria define two distinct clinical entities. Cognitive impairment, (muscle) weakness, circulatory disturbances, marked variability of symptoms, and, above all, post-exertional malaise: a long-lasting increase of symptoms after a minor exertion, are distinctive symptoms of ME. This latter phenomenon separates ME, a neuro-immune illness, from chronic fatigue (syndrome), other disorders and deconditioning. The introduction of the label, but more importantly the diagnostic criteria for CFS have generated much confusion, mostly because chronic fatigue is a subjective and ambiguous notion. CFS was redefined in 1994 into unexplained (persistent or relapsing) chronic fatigue, accompanied by at least four out of eight symptoms, e.g., headaches and unrefreshing sleep. Most of the research into ME and/or CFS in the last decades was based upon the multivalent CFS criteria, which define a heterogeneous patient group. Due to the fact that fatigue and other symptoms are non-discriminative, subjective experiences, research has been hampered. Various authors have questioned the physiological nature of the symptoms and qualified ME/CFS as somatization. However, various typical symptoms can be assessed objectively using standardized methods. Despite subjective and unclear criteria and measures, research has observed specific abnormalities in ME/CFS repetitively, e.g., immunological abnormalities, oxidative and nitrosative stress, neurological anomalies, circulatory deficits and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, to improve future research standards and patient care, it is crucial that patients with post-exertional malaise (ME) and patients without this odd phenomenon are acknowledged as separate clinical entities that the diagnosis of ME and CFS in research and clinical practice is based upon accurate criteria and an objective assessment of characteristic symptoms

  11. A simple kit for rapid field diagnosis of potato virus Y by latex serological test

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    Aarne Kurppa

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple kit for rapid detection of potato virus Y by latex serological test was developed. The test is carried out on a white cardboard sheet and the results can be read by naked eye in two minutes. A test card of 10 x 6 cm holds latex sensitized antibodies, buffers and other necessary ingredients as dry blue colored formulate on the ringed areas of the card. A test card includes space for six tests and positive and negative controls. The kit also includes disposable plastic sticks for mixing the samples with test reagents and a hand press with disposable plastic tips. For testing, dried reagents are dissolved in drops of sample and mixed. After gentle rotation, samples containing virus appear clearly granulated while samples from healthy plants remain unagglutinated. The testing of undiluted extracts of evenly developed tuber sprouts resulted in over 91 % identity with the results obtained with ELISA that was used as a control method. Testing of diluted leaf extracts reached the same reliability but undiluted leaf extracts from glasshouse grown potatoes were not well suitable as test samples because of their dark green color. No such problems occurred with field grown material and a complete identity with the ELISA readings was true when the samples included secondarily infected potato plants. No reaction to other potato viruses than PVY was obtained by the test kit.

  12. Dipstick for rapid diagnosis of Shigella flexneri 2a in stool.

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    Faridabano Nato

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an acute bloody diarrhoea, is a major public health burden in developing countries. In the absence of prompt and appropriate treatment, the infection is often fatal, particularly in young malnourished children. Here, we describe a new diagnostic test for rapid detection, in stool, at the bedside of patients, of Shigella flexneri 2a, the most predominant agent of the endemic form of the disease.The test is based on the detection of S.flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide (LPS using serotype 2a-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles and displayed on one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 20 ng/ml of LPS is detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in under 15 minutes. The threshold of detection corresponds to a concentration of 5x10(7 CFU/ml of S. flexneri 2a, which provides an unequivocal positive reaction in three minutes in distilled water and reconstituted stools. The specificity is 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and unrelated strains, in culture. When tested in Vietnam, on clinical samples, the specificity and sensitivity were 99.2 and 91.5%, respectively. A decrease of the sensitivity during the evaluation on stool samples was observed after five weeks at room temperature and was due to moistening of the dipsticks caused by the humidity of the air during the fifth week of the evaluation. This drawback is now overcome by improving the packaging and providing dipsticks individually wrapped in waterproof bags.This simple dipstick-bases test represents a powerful tool for case management and epidemiological surveys.

  13. Establishment of a 10-Plex Quantitative Fluorescent-PCR Assay for rapid diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidies.

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    Xingmei Xie

    Full Text Available Sex chromosome aneuploidies occur commonly in the general population, with an incidence of 1 in 400 newborns. However, no tests specifically targeting sex chromosomes have been carried out in prenatal diagnosis or newborn screening, resulting in late recognition of these diseases. In this study, a rapid diagnostic method for sex chromosome aneuploidies was established using Quantitative Fluorescent-PCR (QF-PCR. Ten markers were included in one multiplex QF-PCR assay, including two sex determination genes (AMXY and SRY, five X-linked short tandem repeats (STRs; DXS1053, DXS981, DXS6809, DXS1187, and DXS8377, one X/Y-common STR (X22, and two autosomal STRs (D13S305 and D21S11. Retrospective tests of 70 cases with known cytogenetic results indicated that the 10-plex QF-PCR assay could well determine sex chromosome copy numbers by both allelic peak numbers and a sex chromosome dosage calculation with the autosomal STRs as internal controls. Prospective comparison with cytogenetic karyotyping on 534 cases confirmed that the 10-plex QF-PCR assay could be well employed for sex chromosome aneuploidy diagnosis in at least the Chinese Han population. This is the first QF-PCR test for the diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidies in the Chinese population. This test is superior to previous designs by including up to 8 sex-linked markers covering different parts of sex chromosomes as well as employing internal controls for copy number dosage calculation in a single PCR reaction. Due to simple technique and data analysis, as well as easy implementation within routine clinical services, this method is of great clinical application value and could be widely applied.

  14. Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment.

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    Niyom Lue

    Full Text Available There continues to be a significant clinical need for rapid and reliable intraoperative margin assessment during cancer surgery. Here we describe a portable, quantitative, optical fiber probe-based, spectroscopic tissue scanner designed for intraoperative diagnostic imaging of surgical margins, which we tested in a proof of concept study in human tissue for breast cancer diagnosis. The tissue scanner combines both diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy (IFS, and has hyperspectral imaging capability, acquiring full DRS and IFS spectra for each scanned image pixel. Modeling of the DRS and IFS spectra yields quantitative parameters that reflect the metabolic, biochemical and morphological state of tissue, which are translated into disease diagnosis. The tissue scanner has high spatial resolution (0.25 mm over a wide field of view (10 cm × 10 cm, and both high spectral resolution (2 nm and high spectral contrast, readily distinguishing tissues with widely varying optical properties (bone, skeletal muscle, fat and connective tissue. Tissue-simulating phantom experiments confirm that the tissue scanner can quantitatively measure spectral parameters, such as hemoglobin concentration, in a physiologically relevant range with a high degree of accuracy (<5% error. Finally, studies using human breast tissues showed that the tissue scanner can detect small foci of breast cancer in a background of normal breast tissue. This tissue scanner is simpler in design, images a larger field of view at higher resolution and provides a more physically meaningful tissue diagnosis than other spectroscopic imaging systems currently reported in literatures. We believe this spectroscopic tissue scanner can provide real-time, comprehensive diagnostic imaging of surgical margins in excised tissues, overcoming the sampling limitation in current histopathology margin assessment. As such it is a significant step in the development of a

  15. Multiplex PCR for rapid diagnosis and differentiation of pox and pox-like diseases in dromedary Camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafalla, Abdelmalik I; Al-Busada, Khalid A; El-Sabagh, Ibrahim M

    2015-07-07

    Pox and pox-like diseases of camels are a group of exanthematous skin conditions that have become increasingly important economically. Three distinct viruses may cause them: camelpox virus (CMLV), camel parapox virus (CPPV) and camelus dromedary papilloma virus (CdPV). These diseases are often difficult to differentiate based on clinical presentation in disease outbreaks. Molecular methods such as PCR targeting species-specific genes have been developed and used to identify these diseases, but not simultaneously in a single tube. Recently, multiplex PCR has gained reputation as a convenient diagnostic method with cost-and timesaving benefits. In the present communication, we describe the development, optimization and validation of a multiplex PCR assay able to detect simultaneously the genome of the three viruses in one single test allowing for rapid and efficient molecular diagnosis. The assay was developed based on the evaluation and combination of published and new primer sets and was validated with viral genomic DNA extracted from known virus strains (n = 14) and DNA extracted from homogenized clinical skin specimens (n = 86). The assay detects correctly the target pathogens by amplification of targeted genes, even in case of co-infection. The method showed high sensitivity, and the specificity was confirmed by PCR-product sequencing. This assay provide rapid, sensitive and specific method for identifying three important viruses in specimens collected from dromedary camels with varying clinical presentations.

  16. Bead-based competitive fluorescence immunoassay for sensitive and rapid diagnosis of cyanotoxin risk in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hye-Weon; Jang, Am; Kim, Lan Hee; Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, In S

    2011-09-15

    Due to the increased occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms and their toxins in drinking water sources, effective management based on a sensitive and rapid analytical method is in high demand for security of safe water sources and environmental human health. Here, a competitive fluorescence immunoassay of microcystin-LR (MCYST-LR) is developed in an attempt to improve the sensitivity, analysis time, and ease-of-manipulation of analysis. To serve this aim, a bead-based suspension assay was introduced based on two major sensing elements: an antibody-conjugated quantum dot (QD) detection probe and an antigen-immobilized magnetic bead (MB) competitor. The assay was composed of three steps: the competitive immunological reaction of QD detection probes against analytes and MB competitors, magnetic separation and washing, and the optical signal generation of QDs. The fluorescence intensity was found to be inversely proportional to the MCYST-LR concentration. Under optimized conditions, the proposed assay performed well for the identification and quantitative analysis of MCYST-LR (within 30 min in the range of 0.42-25 μg/L, with a limit of detection of 0.03 μg/L). It is thus expected that this enhanced assay can contribute both to the sensitive and rapid diagnosis of cyanotoxin risk in drinking water and effective management procedures.

  17. Prospective study to evaluate the number and the location of biopsies in rapid urease test for diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori

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    Antoine Abou Rached

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori can cause a wide variety of illnesses such as peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma. The diagnosis and eradication of H. pylori are crucial. The diagnosis of H. pylori is usually based on the rapid urease test (RUT and gastric antral biopsy for histology. The aim of this study is to evaluate the numbers of needed biopsies and their location (antrum/fundus to obtain optimal result for the diagnosis of H. pylori. Three hundred fifty consecutive patients were recruited, 210 fulfill the inclusion criteria and had nine gastric biopsies for the detection of H. pylori infection: two antral for the first RUT (RUT1, one antral and one fundic for the second (RUT2, one antral for the third (RUT3 and two antral with two fundic for histology (HES, Giemsa, PAS. The reading of the 3 types of RUT was performed at 1 hour, 3 hours and 24 hours and biopsies were read by two experienced pathologists not informed about the result of RUT. Results of RUT were considered positive if H. pylori was found on histology of at least one biopsy. The RUT1 at 1h, 3h and 24h has a sensitivity of 72%, 82% and 89% and a specificity of 100%, 99% and 87% respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV was 100%, 99% and 85% respectively and the negative predictive value (NPV of 81%, 87% and 90%. The RUT2 at 1h, 3h and 24h, respectively, had a sensitivity of 86%, 87% and 91% and a specificity of 99%, 97% and 90%. The PPV was 99%, 96% and 88% and NPV of 89%, 90%, 94%. The RUT3 at 1h, 3h and 24h, respectively, had a sensitivity of 70%, 74% and 84% and a specificity of 99%, 99% and 94%. The PPV was 99%, 99% and 92% and NPV of 79%, 81% and 87%. The best sensitivity and specificity were obtained for RUT1 read at 3h, for RUT2 read 1h and 3h, and the RUT3 read at 24h.This study demonstrates that the best sensitivity and specificity of rapid test for urease is obtained when fundic plus antral biopsy

  18. MALDI-TOF MS is more accurate than VITEK II ANC card and API Rapid ID 32 A system for the identification of Clostridium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Si Hyun; Park, Hyun-Jung; Park, Hae-Geun; Park, Dongchul; Song, Sae Am; Lee, Hee Joo; Yong, Dongeun; Choi, Jun Yong; Kook, Joong-Ki; Kim, Hye Ran; Shin, Jeong Hwan

    2016-08-01

    All 50 Clostridium difficile strains were definitely identified by Vitek2 system, Rapid ID 32A system, and MALDI-TOF. For 18 non-difficile Clostridium strains, the identification results were correct in 0, 2, and 17 strains by Vitek2, Rapid ID 32A, and MALDI-TOF, respectively. MALDI-TOF could be used as the primary tool for identification of Clostridium species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid diagnosis of diarrhea caused by Shigella sonnei using dipsticks; comparison of rectal swabs, direct stool and stool culture.

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    Claudia Duran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated a dipstick test for rapid detection of Shigella sonnei on bacterial colonies, directly on stools and from rectal swabs because in actual field situations, most pathologic specimens for diagnosis correspond to stool samples or rectal swabs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The test is based on the detection of S. sonnei lipopolysaccharide (LPS O-side chains using phase I-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles, and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 5 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 6 minutes. This is the optimal time for lecture to avoid errors of interpretation. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 4 x 10(6 CFU/ml of S. sonnei. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and different unrelated strains. When tested on 342 rectal swabs in Chile, specificity (281/295 was 95.3% (95% CI: 92.9% - 97.7% and sensitivity (47/47 was 100%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 95.5 % of cases (328/342 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 77% (95% CI: 65% - 86.5% and 100% respectively. When tested on 219 stools in Chile, Vietnam, India and France, specificity (190/198 was 96% (95% CI 92%-98% and sensitivity (21/21 was 100%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 96.3 % of cases (211/219 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 72.4% (95% CI 56.1%-88.6% and 100 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: This one-step dipstick test performed well for diagnosis of S. sonnei both on stools and on rectal swabs. These data confirm a preliminary study done in Chile.

  20. Development of a rapid loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for diagnosis and assessment of cure of Leishmania infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sandeep; Singh, Ruchi; Sharma, Vanila; Bumb, Ram Avtar; Negi, Narendra Singh; Ramesh, V; Salotra, Poonam

    2017-03-23

    Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of diseases with great relevance to public health. Conventional diagnostic methods are time consuming, needing trained personnel. A robust, rapid and cost effective diagnostic test is warranted for on-time diagnosis and field application. We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with primers (n = 6) based on Leishmania donovani kDNA for detection of Leishmania infection, using a closed tube to prevent cross-contamination. The assay was used to detect Leishmania infection in biological samples obtained from patients of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The assay was positive for L. donovani, L. tropica and L. major parasites, with the highest sensitivity towards L. donovani (1 fg DNA). The high sensitivity of the assay for detection of L. donovani was reflected in its ability to detect parasite DNA within 30 min of amplification time with a threshold detection limit of ≥25 copies per reaction. The assay detected parasite in 64 of 66 VL blood samples (sensitivity, 96.9%; 95% CI: 89.6-99.2%), 15 of 15 VL bone marrow aspirate samples (sensitivity, 100%; 95% CI:79.6-100%), 65 of 67 PKDL tissue biopsy samples (sensitivity, 97%; 95% CI:89.7-99.2%). The assay was evaluated in a few cases of CL wherein it was found positive in 8 of 10 tissue biopsies (sensitivity, 80%; 95% CI: 49-94.3%). The assay was negative in all control blood (n = 76) and tissue biopsy (n = 24) samples (specificity, 100%; 95% CI: 96.3-100%). Further, the assay was evaluated for its utility in assessment of cure in treated VL and PKDL patients. The assay detected parasite DNA in 2 of 20VL blood samples and 2 of 21 PKDL tissue samples. Out of 4 cases that were positive for parasite DNA at post treatment stage, 2 patients (1VL and 1 PKDL) returned with relapse. The study demonstrated a Leishmania genus specific closed tube LAMP assay for reliable and rapid

  1. Point of care strategy for rapid diagnosis of novel A/H1N1 influenza virus.

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    Antoine Nougairede

    Full Text Available Within months of the emergence of the novel A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (nA/H1N1v, systematic screening for the surveillance of the pandemic was abandoned in France and in some other countries. At the end of June 2009, we implemented, for the public hospitals of Marseille, a Point Of Care (POC strategy for rapid diagnosis of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus, in order to maintain local surveillance and to evaluate locally the kinetics of the pandemic.Two POC laboratories, located in strategic places, were organized to receive and test samples 24 h/24. POC strategy consisted of receiving and processing naso-pharyngeal specimens in preparation for the rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT and real-time RT-PCR assay (rtRT-PCR. This strategy had the theoretical capacity of processing up to 36 samples per 24 h. When the flow of samples was too high, the rtRT-PCR test was abandoned in the POC laboratories and transferred to the core virology laboratory. Confirmatory diagnosis was performed in the core virology laboratory twice a day using two distinct rtRT-PCR techniques that detect either influenza A virus or nA/N1N1v. Over a period of three months, 1974 samples were received in the POC laboratories, of which 111 were positive for nA/H1N1v. Specificity and sensitivity of RIDT were 100%, and 57.7% respectively. Positive results obtained using RIDT were transmitted to clinical practitioners in less than 2 hours. POC processed rtRT-PCR results were available within 7 hours, and rtRT-PCR confirmation within 24 hours.The POC strategy is of benefit, in all cases (with or without rtRT-PCR assay, because it provides continuous reception/processing of samples and reduction of the time to provide consolidated results to the clinical practitioners. We believe that implementation of the POC strategy for the largest number of suspect cases may improve the quality of patient care and our knowledge of the epidemiology of the pandemic.

  2. Rapid and accurate identification of isolates of Candida species by melting peak and melting curve analysis of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 fragment (ITS2-MCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decat, E.; van Mechelen, E.; Saerens, B.; Vermeulen, S.J.T.; Boekhout, T.; de Blaiser, S.; Vaneechoutte, M.; Deschaght, P.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid identification of clinically important yeasts can facilitate the initiation of anti-fungal therapy, since susceptibility is largely species-dependent. We evaluated melting peak and melting curve analysis of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 fragment (ITS2-MCA) as an identification

  3. Evaluation of a rapid dipstick (Crystal VC for the diagnosis of cholera in Zanzibar and a comparison with previous studies.

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    Benedikt Ley

    Full Text Available The gold standard for the diagnosis of cholera is stool culture, but this requires laboratory facilities and takes at least 24 hours. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT that can be used by minimally trained staff at treatment centers could potentially improve the reporting and management of cholera outbreaks.We evaluated the Crystal VC™ RDT under field conditions in Zanzibar in 2009. Patients presenting to treatment centers with watery diarrhea provided a stool sample for rapid diagnostic testing. Results were compared to stool culture performed in a reference laboratory. We assessed the overall performance of the RDT and evaluated whether previous intake of antibiotics, intravenous fluids, location of testing, and skill level of the technician affected the RDT results.We included stool samples from 624 patients. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivity of the RDT was 93.1% (95%CI: 88.7 to 96.2%, specificity was 49.2% (95%CI: 44.3 to 54.1%, the positive predictive value was 47.0% (95%CI: 42.1 to 52.0% and the negative predictive value was 93.6% (95%CI: 89.6 to 96.5%. The overall false positivity rate was 50.8% (213/419; fieldworkers frequently misread very faint test lines as positive.The observed sensitivity of the Crystal VC RDT evaluated was similar compared to earlier versions, while specificity was poorer. The current version of the RDT could potentially be used as a screening tool in the field. Because of the high proportion of false positive results when field workers test stool specimens, positive results will need to be confirmed with stool culture.

  4. Rapid and point-of-care tests for the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Charlotte A; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Pai, Nitika Pant; Kelly, Helen; Coltart, Cordelia; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2017-12-01

    Trichomonasvaginalis (TV) is a highly prevalent parasitic infection worldwide. It is associated with many adverse reproductive health outcomes. Many infections are asymptomatic and syndromic management leads to underdetection of TV. Traditional methods of TV detection such as wet preparation are insensitive. New rapid, point-of-care (POC) tests can enhance the diagnosis of trichomoniasis. The authors reviewed the literature and discuss older POC tests for TV detection, as well as the OSOM lateral flow test, the AmpliVue test, the Solana test and the GeneXpert test as well as the limitations of wet preparation and culture for detection of TV. The OSOM test is easy to perform, compared with other POC tests, and is Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-waived, equipment-free, has sensitivities of 83%-86% compared with nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and can be performed in 15 min. The AmpliVue and the Solana tests are not CLIA waived and require small pieces of equipment. They are molecular amplified assays and can be completed in TV test for women and men is a moderately complex test, requires a small platform and can be performed in women and one is available for detection of TV in men. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Lyme disease with facial nerve palsy: rapid diagnosis using a nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y; Takahashi, H; Kishiyama, K; Sato, Y; Nakao, M; Miyamoto, K; Iizuka, H

    1998-02-01

    A 64-year-old woman with Lyme disease and manifesting facial nerve palsy had been bitten by a tick on the left frontal scalp 4 weeks previously. Erythema migrans appeared on the left forehead, accompanied by left facial paralysis. Nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (nested PCR-RFLP) was performed on DNA extracted from a skin biopsy of the erythema on the left forehead. Borrelia flagellin gene DNA was detected and its RFLP pattern indicated that the organism was B. garinii, Five weeks later, B. garinii was isolated by conventional culture from the erythematous skin lesion, but not from the cerebrospinal fluid. After treatment with ceftriaxone intravenously for 10 days and oral administration of minocycline for 7 days, both the erythema and facial nerve palsy improved significantly. Nested PCR and culture taken after the lesion subsided, using skin samples obtained from a site adjacent to the original biopsy, were both negative. We suggest that nested PCR-RFLP analysis might be useful for the rapid diagnosis of Lyme disease and for evaluating therapy.

  6. Helicopter Based Magnetic Detection Of Wells At The Teapot Dome (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Oilfield: Rapid And Accurate Geophysical Algorithms For Locating Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbert, W.; Hammack, R.; Veloski, G.; Hodge, G.

    2011-12-01

    In this study Airborne magnetic data was collected by Fugro Airborne Surveys from a helicopter platform (Figure 1) using the Midas II system over the 39 km2 NPR3 (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3) oilfield in east-central Wyoming. The Midas II system employs two Scintrex CS-2 cesium vapor magnetometers on opposite ends of a transversely mounted, 13.4-m long horizontal boom located amidships (Fig. 1). Each magnetic sensor had an in-flight sensitivity of 0.01 nT. Real time compensation of the magnetic data for magnetic noise induced by maneuvering of the aircraft was accomplished using two fluxgate magnetometers mounted just inboard of the cesium sensors. The total area surveyed was 40.5 km2 (NPR3) near Casper, Wyoming. The purpose of the survey was to accurately locate wells that had been drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood to enhance oil recovery, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells that are missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The well location method used combined an input dataset (for example, leveled total magnetic field reduced to the pole), combined with first and second horizontal spatial derivatives of this input dataset, which were then analyzed using focal statistics and finally combined using a fuzzy combination operation. Analytic signal and the Shi and Butt (2004) ZS attribute were also analyzed using this algorithm. A parameter could be adjusted to determine sensitivity. Depending on the input dataset 88% to 100% of the wells were located, with typical values being 95% to 99% for the NPR3 field site.

  7. Use of WGS in Mycobacterium tuberculosis routine diagnosis

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    Daniela M Cirillo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: WGS is a rapid, cost-effective technique that promises to integrate and replace the other tests in routine laboratories for an accurate diagnosis of DR-TB, although it is suitable nowadays for cultured samples only.

  8. Are Treponema pallidum specific rapid and point-of-care tests for syphilis accurate enough for screening in resource limited settings? Evidence from a meta-analysis.

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    Yalda Jafari

    Full Text Available Rapid and point-of-care (POC tests for syphilis are an invaluable screening tool, yet inadequate evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy against best reference standards limits their widespread global uptake. To fill this gap, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid and POC tests in blood and serum samples against Treponema pallidum (TP specific reference standards.Five electronic databases (1980-2012 were searched, data was extracted from 33 articles, and Bayesian hierarchical models were fit.In serum samples, against a TP specific reference standard point estimates with 95% credible intervals (CrI for the sensitivities of popular tests were: i Determine, 90.04% (80.45, 95.21, ii SD Bioline, 87.06% (75.67, 94.50, iii VisiTect, 85.13% (72.83, 92.57, and iv Syphicheck, 74.48% (56.85, 88.44, while specificities were: i Syphicheck, 99.14% (96.37, 100, ii Visitect, 96.45% (91.92, 99.29, iii SD Bioline, 95.85% (89.89, 99.53, and iv Determine, 94.15% (89.26, 97.66. In whole blood samples, sensitivities were: i Determine, 86.32% (77.26, 91.70, ii SD Bioline, 84.50% (78.81, 92.61, iii Syphicheck, 74.47% (63.94, 82.13, and iv VisiTect, 74.26% (53.62, 83.68, while specificities were: i Syphicheck, 99.58% (98.91, 99.96, ii VisiTect, 99.43% (98.22, 99.98, iii SD Bioline, 97.95%(92.54, 99.33, and iv Determine, 95.85% (92.42, 97.74.Rapid and POC treponemal tests reported sensitivity and specificity estimates comparable to laboratory-based treponemal tests. In resource limited settings, where access to screening is limited and where risk of patients lost to follow up is high, the introduction of these tests has already been shown to improve access to screening and treatment to prevent stillbirths and neonatal mortality due to congenital syphilis. Based on the evidence, it is concluded that rapid and POC tests are useful in resource limited settings with poor access to laboratories or screening

  9. Accuracy of a dual path platform (DPP assay for the rapid point-of-care diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

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    Scott A Nabity

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of leptospirosis by the gold standard serologic assay, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT, requires paired sera and is not widely available. We developed a rapid assay using immunodominant Leptospira immunoglobulin-like (Lig proteins in a Dual Path Platform (DPP. This study aimed to evaluate the assay's diagnostic performance in the setting of urban transmission.We determined test sensitivity using 446 acute and convalescent sera from MAT-confirmed case-patients with severe or mild leptospirosis in Brazil. We assessed test specificity using 677 sera from the following groups: healthy residents of a Brazilian slum with endemic transmission, febrile outpatients from the same slum, healthy blood donors, and patients with dengue, hepatitis A, and syphilis. Three operators independently interpreted visual results without knowing specimen status.The overall sensitivity for paired sera was 100% and 73% for severe and mild disease, respectively. In the acute phase, the assay achieved a sensitivity of 85% and 64% for severe and mild leptospirosis, respectively. Within seven days of illness onset, the assay achieved a sensitivity of 77% for severe disease and 60% for mild leptospirosis. Sensitivity of the DPP assay was similar to that for IgM-ELISA and increased with both duration of symptoms (chi-square regression P = 0.002 and agglutinating titer (Spearman ρ = 0.24, P<0.001. Specificity was ≥93% for dengue, hepatitis A, syphilis, febrile outpatients, and blood donors, while it was 86% for healthy slum residents. Inter-operator agreement ranged from very good to excellent (kappa: 0.82-0.94 and test-to-test reproducibility was also high (kappa: 0.89.The DPP assay performed acceptably well for diagnosis of severe acute clinical leptospirosis and can be easily implemented in hospitals and health posts where leptospirosis is a major public health problem. However, test accuracy may need improvement for mild disease and early stage

  10. Screening and rapid molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis in prisons in Russia and Eastern Europe: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Winetsky

    Full Text Available Prisons of the former Soviet Union (FSU have high rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and are thought to drive general population tuberculosis (TB epidemics. Effective prison case detection, though employing more expensive technologies, may reduce long-term treatment costs and slow MDR-TB transmission.We developed a dynamic transmission model of TB and drug resistance matched to the epidemiology and costs in FSU prisons. We evaluated eight strategies for TB screening and diagnosis involving, alone or in combination, self-referral, symptom screening, mass miniature radiography (MMR, and sputum PCR with probes for rifampin resistance (Xpert MTB/RIF. Over a 10-y horizon, we projected costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, and TB and MDR-TB prevalence. Using sputum PCR as an annual primary screening tool among the general prison population most effectively reduced overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.31% and MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.63%, and cost US$543/QALY for additional QALYs gained compared to MMR screening with sputum PCR reserved for rapid detection of MDR-TB. Adding sputum PCR to the currently used strategy of annual MMR screening was cost-saving over 10 y compared to MMR screening alone, but produced only a modest reduction in MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.69% and had minimal effect on overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.74%. Strategies based on symptom screening alone were less effective and more expensive than MMR-based strategies. Study limitations included scarce primary TB time-series data in FSU prisons and uncertainties regarding screening test characteristics.In prisons of the FSU, annual screening of the general inmate population with sputum PCR most effectively reduces TB and MDR-TB prevalence, doing so cost-effectively. If this approach is not feasible, the current strategy of annual MMR is both more effective and less expensive than strategies using self-referral or symptom screening alone

  11. Rapid diagnosis of drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin and ethambutol using genotype MTBDRsl assay: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are urgent needs for rapid and accurate drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis. GenoType MTBDRsl is a new molecular kit designed for rapid identification of the resistance to the second-line antituberculosis drugs with a single strip. In recent years, it has been evaluated in many settings, but with varied results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the latest data on the diagnostic accuracy of GenoType MTBDRsl in detecting drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin and ethambutol, in comparison with the phenotypic drug susceptibility test. METHODS: This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guideline. The search terms of "MTBDRsl" and "tuberculosis" were used on PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. QUADAS-2 was used to assess the quality of included studies. Data were analyzed by Meta-Disc 1.4. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, negative likelihood ratio (NLR, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI for each study. From these calculations, forest plots and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC curves were produced. RESULTS: Patient selection bias as well as flow and timing bias were observed in most studies. The summarized sensitivity (95% CI was 0.874(0.845-0.899, 0.826(0.777-0.869, 0.820(0.772-0.862, 0.444(0.396-0.492, and 0.679(0.652-0.706 for fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin, and ethambutol, respectively. The specificity (95% CI was 0.971(0.961-0.980, 0.995(0.987-0.998, 0.973(0.963-0.981, 0.993(0.985-0.997, and 0.799(0.773-0.823, respectively. The AUC (standard error were 0.9754(0.0203, 0.9300(0.0598, 0.9885(0.0038, 0.9689(0.0359, and 0.6846(0.0550, respectively. CONCLUSION: Genotype MTBDRsl showed good accuracy for detecting drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin and capreomycin, but it may not be an

  12. Rapid diagnosis of multidrug resistance in cancer by electrochemical sensor based on carbon nanotubes-drug supramolecular nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Jiang, Hui; Sun, Feifei; Wang, Huangping; Zhao, Juan; Chen, Baoan; Wang, Xuemei

    2011-03-15

    The multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer is a major chemotherapy obstacle, rendering many currently available chemotherapeutic drugs ineffective. The aim of this study was to explore the new strategy to early diagnose the MDR by electrochemical sensor based on carbon nanotubes-drug supramolecular interaction. The carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrodes (CNTs/GCE) were directly immersed into the cells suspension of the sensitive leukemia cells K562 and/or its MDR cells K562/A02 to detect the response of the electrochemical probe of daunorubicin (DNR) residues after incubated with cells for 1h. The fresh evidence from the electrochemical studies based on CNTs/GCE demonstrated that the homogeneous, label-free strategy could directly measure the function of cell membrane transporters in MDR cancer cells, identify the cell phenotype (sensitive or MDR). When the different ratios of the sensitive leukemia cells K562 and its MDR ones K562/A02 were applied as a model of MDR levels to simulate the MDR occurrence in cancer, the cathodic peak current showed good linear response to the fraction of MDR with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. Therefore, the MDR fraction can be easily predicted based on the calibration curve of the cathodic peak current versus the fraction of MDR. These results indicated that the sensing strategy could provide a powerful tool for assessment of MDR in cancer. The new electrochemical sensor based on carbon nanotubes-drug supramolecular nanocomposites could represent promising approach in the rapid diagnosis of MDR in cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simple X-ray versus ultrasonography examination in blunt chest trauma: effective tools of accurate diagnosis and considerations for rib fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Eun Gu; Lee, Yunjung

    2016-01-01

    Simple radiography is the best diagnostic tool for rib fractures caused by chest trauma, but it has some limitations. Thus, other tools are also being used. The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasonography (US) for identifying rib fractures and to identify influencing factors of its effectiveness. Between October 2003 and August 2007, 201 patients with blunt chest trauma were available to undergo chest radiographic and US examinations for diagnosis of rib fractu...

  14. A Dual-Mode Large-Arrayed CMOS ISFET Sensor for Accurate and High-Throughput pH Sensing in Biomedical Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiwei; Yu, Hao; Liu, Xu; Jiang, Yu; Yan, Mei; Wu, Dongping

    2015-09-01

    The existing ISFET-based DNA sequencing detects hydrogen ions released during the polymerization of DNA strands on microbeads, which are scattered into microwell array above the ISFET sensor with unknown distribution. However, false pH detection happens at empty microwells due to crosstalk from neighboring microbeads. In this paper, a dual-mode CMOS ISFET sensor is proposed to have accurate pH detection toward DNA sequencing. Dual-mode sensing, optical and chemical modes, is realized by integrating a CMOS image sensor (CIS) with ISFET pH sensor, and is fabricated in a standard 0.18-μm CIS process. With accurate determination of microbead physical locations with CIS pixel by contact imaging, the dual-mode sensor can correlate local pH for one DNA slice at one location-determined microbead, which can result in improved pH detection accuracy. Moreover, toward a high-throughput DNA sequencing, a correlated-double-sampling readout that supports large array for both modes is deployed to reduce pixel-to-pixel nonuniformity such as threshold voltage mismatch. The proposed CMOS dual-mode sensor is experimentally examined to show a well correlated pH map and optical image for microbeads with a pH sensitivity of 26.2 mV/pH, a fixed pattern noise (FPN) reduction from 4% to 0.3%, and a readout speed of 1200 frames/s. A dual-mode CMOS ISFET sensor with suppressed FPN for accurate large-arrayed pH sensing is proposed and demonstrated with state-of-the-art measured results toward accurate and high-throughput DNA sequencing. The developed dual-mode CMOS ISFET sensor has great potential for future personal genome diagnostics with high accuracy and low cost.

  15. Epidemiologi dan Diagnosis Dengue di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Zilhadia, Zilhadia

    2007-01-01

    Dengue fever/DF and dengue hemorrhagic fever/DHF is a global public health problem that occured in tropical and subtropical region. Epidemic dengue occurs every years, and it continues to be a major health problem in Indonesia. Due to its asymptomatic nature, a reliable, rapid and accurate dengue diagnosis is needed. Dengue diagnosis method based on molecular dengue virus properties and it will be developed by researcher. Dengue rapid test isnewly method. This article explaine about dengue ep...

  16. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS: The essence of objective assessment, accurate diagnosis, and acknowledging biological and clinical subgroups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank N.M. Twisk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME was identified as a new clinical entity in 1959 and has been acknowledged as a disease of the central nervous system/neurological disease by the World Health Organisation since 1969. Cognitive impairment, (muscle weakness, circulatory disturbances, marked variability of symptoms, and, above all, post-exertional malaise: a long-lasting increase of symptoms after minor exertion, are distinctive symptoms of ME.Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS was introduced in 1988 and was redefined into clinically evaluated, unexplained (persistent or relapsing chronic fatigue, accompanied by at least four out of a list of eight symptoms, e.g. headaches and unrefreshing sleep, in 1994.Although the labels are used interchangeably, ME and CFS define distinct diagnostic entities. Post-exertional malaise and cognitive deficits e.g. are not mandatory for the diagnosis CFS, while obligatory for the diagnosis ME. Fatigue is not obligatory for the diagnosis ME.Since fatigue and other symptoms are subjective and ambiguous, research has been hampered. Despite this and other methodological issues, research has observed specific abnormalities in ME/CFS repetitively, e.g. immunological abnormalities, oxidative and nitrosative

  17. Avian influenza surveillance and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection and accurate identification of low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) is critical to controlling infections and disease in poultry. Test selection and algorithms for the detection and diagnosis of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry may vary somewhat among differ...

  18. Polydimethylsiloxane-air partition ratios for semi-volatile organic compounds by GC-based measurement and COSMO-RS estimation: Rapid measurements and accurate modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeme, Joseph O; Parnis, J Mark; Poole, Justen; Diamond, Miriam L; Jantunen, Liisa M

    2016-08-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) shows promise for use as a passive air sampler (PAS) for semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). To use PDMS as a PAS, knowledge of its chemical-specific partitioning behaviour and time to equilibrium is needed. Here we report on the effectiveness of two approaches for estimating the partitioning properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), values of PDMS-to-air partition ratios or coefficients (KPDMS-Air), and time to equilibrium of a range of SVOCs. Measured values of KPDMS-Air, Exp' at 25 °C obtained using the gas chromatography retention method (GC-RT) were compared with estimates from a poly-parameter free energy relationship (pp-FLER) and a COSMO-RS oligomer-based model. Target SVOCs included novel flame retardants (NFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Significant positive relationships were found between log KPDMS-Air, Exp' and estimates made using the pp-FLER model (log KPDMS-Air, pp-LFER) and the COSMOtherm program (log KPDMS-Air, COSMOtherm). The discrepancy and bias between measured and predicted values were much higher for COSMO-RS than the pp-LFER model, indicating the anticipated better performance of the pp-LFER model than COSMO-RS. Calculations made using measured KPDMS-Air, Exp' values show that a PDMS PAS of 0.1 cm thickness will reach 25% of its equilibrium capacity in ∼1 day for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) to ∼ 500 years for tris (4-tert-butylphenyl) phosphate (TTBPP), which brackets the volatility range of all compounds tested. The results presented show the utility of GC-RT method for rapid and precise measurements of KPDMS-Air. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Arterial pseudoaneurysms of the shoulder mimicking other entities: utilization of pulsation artifact on musculoskeletal MR for accurate diagnosis in 2 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samim, Mohammad [New York University, Department of Radiology, Hospital for Joint Disease, New York, NY (United States); Mandell, Jacob; Smith, Stacy; Kapoor, Neena; Czuczman, Gregory [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    We present two cases of pseudoaneurysm (PSA) about the shoulder mimicking more common clinical entities - soft tissue neoplasm and septic arthritis - for which biopsy of the mass and joint aspiration were requested respectively. We review the imaging findings of PSA with emphasis on findings in musculoskeletal protocol MRI, including the identification of pulsation artifact in both cases, which was critical to establishing the correct diagnosis. In the proper clinical setting, with imaging findings demonstrating a complex mass or fluid collection, MR images should be scrutinized for the presence of pulsation artifact, which can help diagnose a high-flow vascular lesion and avoid a potentially harmful invasive procedure such as biopsy. (orig.)

  20. Dual rapid lateral flow immunoassay fingerstick wholeblood testing for syphilis and HIV infections is acceptable and accurate, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Claire C; Severe, Linda; Pape, Jean William; Javanbakht, Marjan; Lee, Sung-Jae; Comulada, Warren Scott; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-06-18

    Dual rapid tests for HIV and syphilis infections allow for detection of HIV infection and syphilis at the point-of-care. Those tests have been evaluated in laboratory settings and show excellent performance but have not been evaluated in the field. We evaluated the field performance of the SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test in Port-au-Prince, Haiti using whole blood fingerprick specimens. GHESKIO (Haitian Study Group for Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections) clinic attendees 18 years of age or older were invited to participate. Venipuncture blood specimens were used for reference testing with standard commercially available tests for HIV and syphilis in Haiti. The sensitivity and specificity of the Duo test compared to the reference standard were calculated. The exact binomial method was used to determine 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Of 298 study participants, 237 (79.5 %) were female, of which 49 (20.7 %) were pregnant. For the HIV test component, the sensitivity and specificity were 99.2 % (95 % CI: 95.8 %, 100 %) and 97.0 % (95 % CI: 93.2 %, 99.0 %), respectively; and for the syphilis component were 96.5 % (95 % CI: 91.2 %, 99.0 %) and 90.8 % (95 % CI: 85.7 %, 94.6 %), respectively. In pregnant women, the sensitivity and specificity of the HIV test component were 93.3 % (95 % CI: 68.0 %, 99.8 %) and 94.1 % (95 % CI: 80.3 %, 99.3 %), respectively; and for the syphilis component were 100 % (95 % CI:81.5 %, 100 %) and 96.8 % (95 % CI:83.3 %, 99.9 %), respectively. The Standard Diagnostics BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo dual test performed well in a field setting in Haiti and should be considered for wider use.

  1. FMR1 CGG repeat expansion mutation detection and linked haplotype analysis for reliable and accurate preimplantation genetic diagnosis of fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan-Babu, Indhu-Shree; Lian, Mulias; Cheah, Felicia S H; Chen, Min; Tan, Arnold S C; Prasath, Ethiraj B; Loh, Seong Feei; Chong, Samuel S

    2017-07-19

    Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) full-mutation expansion causes fragile X syndrome. Trans-generational fragile X syndrome transmission can be avoided by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). We describe a robust PGD strategy that can be applied to virtually any couple at risk of transmitting fragile X syndrome. This novel strategy utilises whole-genome amplification, followed by triplet-primed polymerase chain reaction (TP-PCR) for robust detection of expanded FMR1 alleles, in parallel with linked multi-marker haplotype analysis of 13 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers located within 1 Mb of the FMR1 CGG repeat, and the AMELX/Y dimorphism for gender identification. The assay was optimised and validated on single lymphoblasts isolated from fragile X reference cell lines, and applied to a simulated PGD case and a clinical in vitro fertilisation (IVF)-PGD case. In the simulated PGD case, definitive diagnosis of the expected results was achieved for all 'embryos'. In the clinical IVF-PGD case, delivery of a healthy baby girl was achieved after transfer of an expansion-negative blastocyst. FMR1 TP-PCR reliably detects presence of expansion mutations and obviates reliance on informative normal alleles for determining expansion status in female embryos. Together with multi-marker haplotyping and gender determination, misdiagnosis and diagnostic ambiguity due to allele dropout is minimised, and couple-specific assay customisation can be avoided.

  2. [Importance of accurate assessment of capillary blood glucose level in diagnosis: misleading results in handlers of prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Pantoja, José; Landróguez Salinas, Sergio; Barrero Luque, Susana; Pérez Pérez, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Hypoglycemia can cause symptoms of neuroglycopenia that can be easily confused with symptoms of greater clinical importance such as stroke. Appropriate differential diagnosis between these 2 processes will be essential for guiding the treatment approach. We report a case in which stroke was initially suspected because hypoglycemia was masked by the incorrect capillary blood glucose (CBG) measurement technique used in treating an itinerant vendor of prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica). We studied the effects of prickly pear handling on the CBG levels in 11 vendors before and after they handled the fruit. CBG levels were noticeably higher after the fruit was handled in all cases. Our observations reveal the need to measure both capillary and venous blood glucose levels to rule out hypoglycemia in patients with acute neurological symptoms.

  3. PCR testing can be as accurate as culture for diagnosis of Ichthyophonus hoferi in Yukon River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Toshihide; Kahler, Eryn; Borba, Bonnie M; Burton, Tamara

    2013-07-09

    We evaluated the comparability of culture and PCR tests for detecting Ichthyophonus in Yukon River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from field samples collected at 3 locations (Emmonak, Chena, and Salcha, Alaska, USA) in 2004, 2005, and 2006. Assuming diagnosis by culture as the 'true' infection status, we calculated the sensitivity (correctly identifying fish positive for Ichthyophonus), specificity (correctly identifying fish negative for Ichthyophonus), and accuracy (correctly identifying both positive and negative fish) of PCR. Regardless of sampling locations and years, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy exceeded 90%. Estimates of infection prevalence by PCR were similar to those by culture, except for Salcha 2005, where prevalence by PCR was significantly higher than that by culture (p < 0.0001). These results show that the PCR test is comparable to the culture test for diagnosing Ichthyophonus infection.

  4. What Is the Role of Paired Rapid Plasma Reagin Testing (Simultaneous Testing of Acute and Convalescent Samples) in the Diagnosis of Repeat Syphilis and the Follow-up of Syphilis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Osbak, Kara Krista; Van Esbroek, Marjan; Lynen, Lutgarde; Crucitti, Tania

    2018-01-01

    Repeat syphilis is playing an increasing role in syphilis transmission in several populations. The assessment of repeat syphilis and response to treatment depends on accurately measuring intraindividual changes in non-treponemal tests. For a 0- to 6-month delta rapid plasma reagin (RPR) to be determined by routine individual RPR testing, samples are tested 6 months apart with differences in reagent batches, environmental conditions, and observers all leading to measurement errors. We hypothesized that conducting paired RPR testing (simultaneous testing of acute and convalescent samples) would enable a more accurate determination of delta RPR compared with individual testing. A total of 120 study participants with a new diagnosis of syphilis were followed up at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months, with RPR testing performed via individual testing at each study visit and at any suspected repeat syphilis. Rapid plasma reagin paired testing was performed on samples from 0 and 6 months and at any suspected repeat syphilis. The quantitative agreement ±1 dilution among paired and individual testing was 97.2%. There was no difference in the proportion with serofast status at 6 months: 21 (19.4%) and 19 (17.6%) according to paired and individual testing, respectively (P = 0.726). There was no statistically significant difference between 0- and 6-month delta RPR as determined by paired and individual testing in predicting seroresponse at 12 months (86.1% and 91.6% agreement with 12-month serofast/nonserofast classification, respectively; P = 0.262). In our setting, individual testing performed equally well compared with paired testing. Follow-up of syphilis will remain onerous for the patient and the health care provider until new tests that can more accurately assess the response to therapy and repeat syphilis/treatment failure are developed.

  5. Evaluation of four rapid tests for diagnosis and differentiation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in Guinea-Conakry, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillet, Pascale; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Zachariah, Rony; Duclos, Nanfack; Moctar, Diallo; Beelaert, Greet; Fransen, Katrien

    2010-09-01

    With both HIV-1 and HV-2 prevalent in Guinea-Conakry, accurate diagnosis and differentiation is crucial for treatment purposes. Thus, four rapid HIV tests were evaluated for their HIV-1 and HIV-2 diagnostic and discriminative capacity for use in Guinea-Conakry. These included SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc.), Genie II HIV1/HIV2 (Bio-Rad), First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 (PMC Medical) and Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 (Core Diagnostics). Results were compared with gold standard tests (INNO-LIA HIV-I/II Score) and NEW LAV BLOT II (Bio-Rad). Four hundred and forty three sequential stored HIV-positive serum samples, of known HIV-type, were evaluated. Genie II HIV1/HIV2, Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 and SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 had 100% sensitivity (95% CI, 98.9-100%) while for First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 this was 99.5% (95% CI, 98.2%-99.9%). In terms of discriminatory capacity, Genie II HIV1/HIV2 identified 382/ 384(99.5%) HIV-1 samples, 49/ 52(95%) HIV-2 and 7/7(100%) HIV-positive untypable samples. Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 identified 99% HIV-1, 67% HIV-2 and all HIV-positive untypable samples. First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 identified 94% HIV-1, 64% HIV-2 and 57% HIV-positive untypable samples. SD-Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 was the worst overall performer identifying 65% HIV-1, 69% HIV-2 and all HIV-positive untypable samples. The use of SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (the current standard in Guinea-Conakry) as a discriminatory HIV test is poor and may be best replaced by Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2. Copyright 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adoption of rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of malaria, a preliminary analysis of the Global Fund program data, 2005 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkou Zhao

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria, in 2006 and 2010, recommend parasitological confirmation of malaria before commencing treatment. Although microscopy has been the mainstay of malaria diagnostics, the magnitude of diagnostic scale up required to follow the Guidelines suggests that rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs will be a large component. This study analyzes the adoption of rapid diagnostic testing in malaria programs supported by the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund, the leading international funder of malaria control globally.We analyzed, for the period 2005 to 2010, Global Fund programmatic data for 81 countries on the quantity of RDTs planned; actual quantities of RDTs and artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs procured in 2009 and 2010; RDT-related activities including RDTs distributed, RDTs used, total diagnostic tests including RDTs and microscopy performed, health facilities equipped with RDTs; personnel trained to perform rapid diagnostic malaria test; and grant budgets allocated to malaria diagnosis. In 2010, diagnosis accounted for 5.2% of malaria grant budget. From 2005 to 2010, the procurement plans include148 million RDTs through 96 malaria grants in 81 countries. Around 115 million parasitological tests, including RDTs, had reportedly been performed from 2005 to 2010. Over this period, 123,132 health facilities were equipped with RDTs and 137,140 health personnel had been trained to perform RDT examinations. In 2009 and 2010, 41 million RDTs and 136 million ACTs were purchased. The ratio of procured RDTs to ACTs was 0.26 in 2009 and 0.34 in 2010.Global Fund financing has enabled 81 malaria-endemic countries to adopt WHO guidelines by investing in RDTs for malaria diagnosis, thereby helping improve case management of acute febrile illness in children. However, roll-out of parasitological diagnosis lags behind the roll-out of ACT-based treatment, and will

  7. Simple X-ray versus ultrasonography examination in blunt chest trauma: effective tools of accurate diagnosis and considerations for rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Gu; Lee, Yunjung

    2016-12-01

    Simple radiography is the best diagnostic tool for rib fractures caused by chest trauma, but it has some limitations. Thus, other tools are also being used. The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasonography (US) for identifying rib fractures and to identify influencing factors of its effectiveness. Between October 2003 and August 2007, 201 patients with blunt chest trauma were available to undergo chest radiographic and US examinations for diagnosis of rib fractures. The two modalities were compared in terms of effectiveness based on simple radiographic readings and US examination results. We also investigated the factors that influenced the effectiveness of US examination. Rib fractures were detected on radiography in 69 patients (34.3%) but not in 132 patients. Rib fractures were diagnosed by using US examination in 160 patients (84.6%). Of the 132 patients who showed no rib fractures on radiography, 92 showed rib fractures on US. Among the 69 patients of rib fracture detected on radiography, 33 had additional rib fractures detected on US. Of the patients, 76 (37.8%) had identical radiographic and US results, and 125 (62.2%) had fractures detected on US that were previously undetected on radiography or additional fractures detected on US. Age, duration until US examination, and fracture location were not significant influencing factors. However, in the group without detected fractures on radiography, US showed a more significant effectiveness than in the group with detected fractures on radiography ( P =0.003). US examination could detect unnoticed rib fractures on simple radiography. US examination is especially more effective in the group without detected fractures on radiography. More attention should be paid to patients with chest trauma who have no detected fractures on radiography.

  8. A Highly Sensitive Porous Silicon (P-Si)-Based Human Kallikrein 2 (hK2) Immunoassay Platform toward Accurate Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Wook; Hosokawa, Kazuo; Kim, Soyoun; Jeong, Ok Chan; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas; Maeda, Mizuo

    2015-05-22

    Levels of total human kallikrein 2 (hK2), a protein involved the pathology of prostate cancer (PCa), could be used as a biomarker to aid in the diagnosis of this disease. In this study, we report on a porous silicon antibody immunoassay platform for the detection of serum levels of total hK2. The surface of porous silicon has a 3-dimensional macro- and nanoporous structure, which offers a large binding capacity for capturing probe molecules. The tailored pore size of the porous silicon also allows efficient immobilization of antibodies by surface adsorption, and does not require chemical immobilization. Monoclonal hK2 capture antibody (6B7) was dispensed onto P-Si chip using a piezoelectric dispenser. In total 13 × 13 arrays (169 spots) were spotted on the chip with its single spot volume of 300 pL. For an optimization of capture antibody condition, we firstly performed an immunoassay of the P-Si microarray under a titration series of hK2 in pure buffer (PBS) at three different antibody densities (75, 100 and 145 µg/mL). The best performance of the microarray platform was seen at 100 µg/mL of the capture antibody concentration (LOD was 100 fg/mL). The platform then was subsequently evaluated for a titration series of serum-spiked hK2 samples. The developed platform utilizes only 15 µL of serum per test and the total assay time is about 3 h, including immobilization of the capture antibody. The detection limit of the hK2 assay was 100 fg/mL in PBS buffer and 1 pg/mL in serum with a dynamic range of 106 (10(-4) to 10(2) ng/mL).

  9. MALDI-TOF MS performance compared to direct examination, culture, and 16S rDNA PCR for the rapid diagnosis of bone and joint infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, E; Coiffier, G; Arvieux, C; Brillet, E; Guggenbuhl, P; Jolivet-Gougeon, A

    2016-05-01

    The rapid identification of bacterial species involved in bone and joint infections (BJI) is an important element to optimize the diagnosis and care of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the rapid diagnosis of bone infections, directly on synovial fluid (SF) or on crushed osteoarticular samples (CS). From January to October 2013, we prospectively analyzed 111 osteoarticular samples (bone and joint samples, BJS) from 78 patients in care at the University Hospital of Rennes, France. The diagnosis procedure leading to the sample collection was linked to a suspicion of infection, inflammatory disease, arthritis, or for any bone or joint abnormalities. Standard bacteriological diagnosis and molecular biology analysis [16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing] were conducted. In addition, analysis by MALDI-TOF MS was performed directly on the osteoarticular samples, as soon as the amount allowed. Culture, which remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of BJI, has the highest sensitivity (85.9 %) and remains necessary to test antimicrobial susceptibility. The 16S rDNA PCR results were positive in the group with positive BJI (28.6 %) and negative in the group without infection. Direct examination remains insensitive (31.7 %) but more effective than MALDI-TOF MS directly on the sample (6.3 %). The specificity was 100 % in all cases, except for culture (74.5 %). Bacterial culture remains the gold standard, especially enrichment in blood bottles. Direct analysis of bone samples with MALDI-TOF MS is not useful, possibly due to the low inoculum of BJS.

  10. Linear-after-the-exponential polymerase chain reaction and allied technologies. Real-time detection strategies for rapid, reliable diagnosis from single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth E; Wangh, Lawrence J

    2007-01-01

    Accurate detection of gene sequences in single cells is the ultimate challenge to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sensitivity. Unfortunately, commonly used conventional and real-time PCR techniques are often too unreliable at that level to provide the accuracy needed for clinical diagnosis. Here we provide details of linear-after-the-exponential-PCR (LATE-PCR), a method similar to asymmetric PCR in the use of primers at different concentrations, but with novel design criteria to ensure high efficiency and specificity. Compared with conventional PCR, LATE-PCR increases the signal strength and allele discrimination capability of oligonucleotide probes such as molecular beacons and reduces variability among replicate samples. The analysis of real-time kinetics of LATE-PCR signals provides a means for improving the accuracy of single cell genetic diagnosis.

  11. Development of a rapid agglutination latex test for diagnosis of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection in developing world: defining the biomarker, antibody and method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia B Rocha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC/EHEC are human intestinal pathogens responsible for diarrhea in both developing and industrialized countries. In research laboratories, EPEC and EHEC are defined on the basis of their pathogenic features; nevertheless, their identification in routine laboratories is expensive and laborious. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to develop a rapid and simple assay for EPEC/EHEC detection. Accordingly, the EPEC/EHEC-secreted proteins EspA and EspB were chosen as target antigens.First, we investigated the ideal conditions for EspA/EspB production/secretion by ELISA in a collection of EPEC/EHEC strains after cultivating bacterial isolates in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM or DMEM containing 1% tryptone or HEp-2 cells-preconditioned DMEM, employing either anti-EspA/anti-EspB polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies developed and characterized herein. Subsequently, a rapid agglutination latex test (RALT was developed and tested with the same collection of bacterial isolates.EspB was defined as a biomarker and its corresponding monoclonal antibody as the tool for EPEC/EHEC diagnosis; the production of EspB was better in DMEM medium. RALT assay has the sensitivity and specificity required for high-impact diagnosis of neglected diseases in the developing world.RALT assay described herein can be considered an alternative assay for diarrhea diagnosis in low-income countries since it achieved 97% sensitivity, 98% specificity and 97% efficiency.

  12. Karyotyping or rapid aneuploidy detection in prenatal diagnosis? The different views of users and providers of prenatal care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boormans, E. M. A.; Birnie, E.; Bilardo, C. M.; Oepkes, D.; Bonsel, G. J.; van Lith, J. M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in prenatal diagnosis raise the question which test strategy should be implemented. However, preferences of women and caregivers are underexposed. This study investigates what kind of prenatal test pregnant women and caregivers prefer and if differences between the groups exist, using

  13. Individualized choice in prenatal diagnosis : the impact of karyotyping and standalone rapid aneuploidy detection on quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boormans, E. M. A.; Birnie, E.; Oepkes, D.; Boekkooi, P. F.; Bonsel, G. J.; van Lith, J. M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the reasons and perceptions of women who are offered a choice between karyotyping and standalone rapid aneuploidy detection (RAD) and to compare the impact of both tests on anxiety and health-related quality of life Methods In this prospective comparative study, women undergoing

  14. Wilson's disease: Rapid diagnosis and differentiation of heterozygous and homozygous carriers with 64CuCl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesch, H.; Przuntek, H.; Feist, D.; Wuerzburg Univ.; Heidelberg Univ.

    1980-01-01

    In the modified radiocopper test, a constant amount of copper and not of radioactivity is injected, a difference being made between males and females. The rate of incorporation of 64 Cu into caeruloplasmin and urinary excretion of nuclides is measured. It is a method with low radiation exposure, providing a definite diagnosis after 30 hours. This was demonstrated in 27 homozygous patients, 30 parents and 33 siblings, and 25 controls: a clear-cut diagnosis was made in all untreated homozygous patients. In five of eight patients treated with D-penicillamine for several years, the values were in the range of heterozygotes, so that the test makes treatment control possible. The recognition of heterozygous carriers is interfered with by contraceptives and infections. The results in control subjects were all widely outside the range for patients with Wilson's disease. (orig.) [de

  15. Comparative study of efficacy, rapidity of detection, and cost-effectiveness of potassium hydroxide, calcofluor white, and Chicago sky blue stains in the diagnosis of dermatophytoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R; Prashanth, Hosakere Veerappa; Ragunatha, Shivanna; Kapoor, Meenakshi; Anitha, T K; Krishnamurthy, Veena

    2016-04-01

    The diagnosis of superficial mycosis such as dermatophytosis is often done clinically. However, in difficult cases, a rapid test with high sensitivity and specificity helps in the immediate confirmation and administration of treatment. The efficacy, rapidity of detection, and cost-effectiveness of KOH preparation, calcofluor white (CW) stain, and Chicago sky blue (CSB) stain in the identification of fungal elements were assessed in patients with dermatophytoses attending the dermatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital. All three tests were performed on each sample collected from 73 patients according to standard procedure. The slides were examined after 5 and 30 minutes in × 10 and × 40 magnifications. The sensitivity and specificity of CW and CSB at 5 and 30 minutes were calculated using KOH preparation as the standard test. CSB stain showed highest positivity (94.5%) within 5 minutes when compared to KOH (75.3%) and CW (83.5%). After 30 minutes, positivity increased in KOH (84.9%) and CW stains (89%), but it remained the same in CSB stain. Both CW and CSB stains when compared to 10% KOH are equally sensitive (100%), but CW was more specific (72.7%), particularly at 30 minutes. When cost of performing tests on 100 specimens is considered, KOH, CW, and CSB stains cost Rs 5, 100, and 15, respectively. CSB stain is a better stain for rapid diagnosis of dermatophytoses because of ease of performance, rapidity of detection, better appreciation of morphology of fungal elements, and cost effectiveness. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rapid diagnostic test, microscopy and syndromic approach in the diagnosis of malaria in Nigeria: implications for scaling-up deployment of ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwujekwe Obinna E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis and treatment of malaria is often based on syndromic presentation (presumptive treatment and microscopic examination of blood films. Treatment based on syndromic approach has been found to be costly, and contributes to the development of drug resistance, while microscopic diagnosis of malaria is time-consuming and labour-intensive. Also, there is lack of trained microscopists and reliable equipment especially in rural areas of Nigeria. However, although rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have improved the ease of appropriate diagnosis of malaria diagnosis, the cost-effectiveness of RDTs in case management of malaria has not been evaluated in Nigeria. The study hence compares the cost-effectiveness of RDT versus syndromic diagnosis and microscopy. Methods A total of 638 patients with fever, clinically diagnosed as malaria (presumptive malaria by health workers, were selected for examination with both RDT and microscopy. Patients positive on RDT received artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and febrile patients negative on RDT received an antibiotic treatment. Using a decision tree model for a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 patients, the diagnostic alternatives considered were presumptive treatment (base strategy, RDT and microscopy. Costs were based on a consumer and provider perspective while the outcome measure was deaths averted. Information on costs and malaria epidemiology were locally generated, and along with available data on effectiveness of diagnostic tests, adherence level to drugs for treatment, and drug efficacy levels, cost-effectiveness estimates were computed using TreeAge programme. Results were reported based on costs and effects per strategy, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results The cost-effectiveness analysis at 43.1% prevalence level showed an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of 221 per deaths averted between RDT and presumptive treatment, while microscopy is dominated

  17. Bactec™ blood culture bottles allied to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: rapid etiologic diagnosis of bacterial endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tatiana; Oliveira, Luiza Manhezi de Freitas; Ferreira, Bruno Fortaleza de Aquino; Kato, Juliana Mika; Rossi, Flavia; Correa, Karoline de Lemes Giuntini; Pimentel, Sergio Luis Gianotti; Yamamoto, Joyce Hisae; Almeida Junior, João Nóbrega

    2017-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been used for direct identification of pathogens from blood-inoculated blood culture bottles (BCBs). We showed that MALDI-TOF MS is an useful technique for rapid identification of the causative agents of endophthalmitis from vitreous humor-inoculated BCBs with a simple protocol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Accurate antemortem diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) based on detecting intrathecal antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona using the SnSAG2 and SnSAG4/3 ELISAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S M; Howe, D K; Morrow, J K; Graves, A; Yeargan, M R; Johnson, A L; MacKay, R J; Furr, M; Saville, W J A; Williams, N M

    2013-01-01

    Recent work demonstrated the value of antigen-specific antibody indices (AI and C-value) to detect intrathecal antibody production against Sarcocystis neurona for antemortem diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). The study was conducted to assess whether the antigen-specific antibody indices can be reduced to a simple serum : cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) titer ratio to achieve accurate EPM diagnosis. Paired serum and CSF samples from 128 horses diagnosed by postmortem examination. The sample set included 44 EPM cases, 35 cervical-vertebral malformation (CVM) cases, 39 neurologic cases other than EPM or CVM, and 10 non-neurologic cases. Antibodies against S. neurona were measured in serum and CSF pairs using the SnSAG2 and SnSAG4/3 (SnSAG2, 4/3) ELISAs, and the ratio of each respective serum titer to CSF titer was determined. Likelihood ratios and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on serum titers, CSF titers, and serum : CSF titer ratios. Excellent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was obtained from the SnSAG2, 4/3 serum : CSF titer ratio. Sensitivity and specificity of 93.2 and 81.1%, respectively, were achieved using a ratio cutoff of ≤100, whereas sensitivity and specificity were 86.4 and 95.9%, respectively, if a more rigorous cutoff of ≤50 was used. Antibody titers in CSF also provided good diagnostic accuracy. Serum antibody titers alone yielded much lower sensitivity and specificity. The study confirms the value of detecting intrathecal antibody production for antemortem diagnosis of EPM, and they further show that the antigen-specific antibody indices can be reduced in practice to a simple serum : CSF titer ratio. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Leishmania OligoC-TesT as a simple, rapid, and standardized tool for molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Diego; Boggild, Andrea K; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Laurent, Thierry; Valencia, Cristian; Pacheco, Rosa; Miranda-Verástegui, César; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Leclipteux, Thierry; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Büscher, Philippe; Arévalo, Jorge

    2009-08-01

    Molecular methods such as PCR have become attractive tools for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), both for their high sensitivity and for their specificity. However, their practical use in routine diagnosis is limited due to the infrastructural requirements and the lack of any standardization. Recently, a simplified and standardized PCR format for molecular detection of Leishmania was developed. The Leishmania OligoC-TesT is based on simple and rapid detection using a dipstick with PCR-amplified Leishmania DNA. In this study, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for 61 specimens from 44 CL-suspected patients presenting at the leishmaniasis clinic of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru. On the basis of parasitological detection and the leishmanin skin test (LST), patients were classified as (i) confirmed CL cases, (ii) LST-positive cases, and (iii) LST-negative cases. The sensitivities of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI), 60.5% to 84.1%) for lesion aspirates and 92% (95% CI, 81.2% to 96.9%) for scrapings. A significantly higher sensitivity was observed with a conventional PCR targeting the kinetoplast DNA on the aspirates (94%) (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference in sensitivity for the lesion scrapings (88%) (P = 0.317). In addition, the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was evaluated for 13 CL-suspected patients in two different peripheral health centers in the central jungle of Peru. Our findings clearly indicate the high accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for lesion scrapings for simple and rapid molecular diagnosis of CL in Peru.

  20. Leishmania OligoC-TesT as a Simple, Rapid, and Standardized Tool for Molecular Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peru▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Diego; Boggild, Andrea K.; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Laurent, Thierry; Valencia, Cristian; Pacheco, Rosa; Miranda-Verástegui, César; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Leclipteux, Thierry; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Büscher, Philippe; Arévalo, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Molecular methods such as PCR have become attractive tools for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), both for their high sensitivity and for their specificity. However, their practical use in routine diagnosis is limited due to the infrastructural requirements and the lack of any standardization. Recently, a simplified and standardized PCR format for molecular detection of Leishmania was developed. The Leishmania OligoC-TesT is based on simple and rapid detection using a dipstick with PCR-amplified Leishmania DNA. In this study, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for 61 specimens from 44 CL-suspected patients presenting at the leishmaniasis clinic of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru. On the basis of parasitological detection and the leishmanin skin test (LST), patients were classified as (i) confirmed CL cases, (ii) LST-positive cases, and (iii) LST-negative cases. The sensitivities of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI), 60.5% to 84.1%) for lesion aspirates and 92% (95% CI, 81.2% to 96.9%) for scrapings. A significantly higher sensitivity was observed with a conventional PCR targeting the kinetoplast DNA on the aspirates (94%) (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference in sensitivity for the lesion scrapings (88%) (P = 0.317). In addition, the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was evaluated for 13 CL-suspected patients in two different peripheral health centers in the central jungle of Peru. Our findings clearly indicate the high accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for lesion scrapings for simple and rapid molecular diagnosis of CL in Peru. PMID:19553579

  1. Evaluation of a rapid antigen detection test in the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis in children and its impact on antibiotic prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltezou, Helen C; Tsagris, Vasilios; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Galani, Labrini; Douros, Constantinos; Katsarolis, Ioannis; Maragos, Antonios; Raftopoulos, Vasilios; Biskini, Panagiota; Kanellakopoulou, Kyriaki; Fretzayas, Andreas; Papadimitriou, Theodoros; Nicolaidou, Polyxeni; Giamarellou, Helen

    2008-12-01

    To study the performance of the Becton-Dickinson Link 2 Strep A Rapid Test, a rapid antigen detection test (RADT) for diagnosing streptococcal pharyngitis in children presenting to private offices and to the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic of a university hospital, in relation to clinical criteria (fever, tender anterior cervical lymph nodes, tonsillar exudate and absence of cough), and its impact on antibiotic prescription. Children were enrolled in Group A (enrolment by private-practice paediatricians; diagnosis by clinical picture only), Group B (enrolment by private-practice paediatricians; diagnosis by RADT and culture) or Group C (enrolment by hospital-affiliated paediatricians in the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic; diagnosis by RADT and culture). During a 2 year period, 820 children were enrolled [369 (45%) in Group A, 270 (33%) in Group B and 181 (22%) in Group C]. Streptococcal pharyngitis was diagnosed by RADT and culture in 146 (32.4%) of the 451 tested children. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of the RADT were 83.1%, 93.3%, 82.4% and 93.6%, respectively. A stepwise increase in the sensitivity of the RADT was noted among children with one, two, three or four clinical criteria (60.9% to 95.8%). Paediatricians without access to laboratory tests were more likely to prescribe antibiotics compared with paediatricians with access to tests (72.2% versus 28.2%, P antibiotics more frequently compared with hospital-affiliated paediatricians (55.7% versus 19.9%, P antibiotic administration. Such a strategy has an important impact on limiting throat culture testing and is associated with reduced antibiotic prescription.

  2. Evaluation of the microscopic observational drug susceptibility assay for rapid and efficient diagnosis of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Lazarus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Tuberculosis (TB is endemic in India and the burden of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is high. Early detection of MDR-TB is of primary importance in controlling the spread of TB. The microscopic observational drug susceptibility (MODS assay has been described as a cost-effective and rapid method by which mycobacterial culture and the drug susceptibility test (DST can be done at the same time. Materials and Methods: A total of 302 consecutive sputum samples that were received in an accredited mycobacteriology laboratory for conventional culture and DST were evaluated by the MODS assay. Results: In comparison with conventional culture on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ media, the MODS assay showed a sensitivity of 94.12% and a specificity of 89.39% and its concordance with the DST by the proportion method on LJ media to isoniazid and rifampicin was 90.8% and 91.5%, respectively. The turnaround time for results by MODS was 9 days compared to 21 days by culture on LJ media and an additional 42 days for DST by the 1% proportion method. The cost of performing a single MODS assay was Rs. 250/-, compared to Rs. 950/- for culture and 1st line DST on LJ. Conclusion: MODS was found to be a sensitive and rapid alternative method for performing culture and DST to identify MDR-TB in resource poor settings.

  3. A rapid molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by colorimetric malachite green-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with an FTA card as a direct sampling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Cáceres, Abraham G; Guerrero-Quincho, Silvia; Tineo-Villafuerte, Edwin; Rodriquez-Delfin, Luis; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Gomez, Eduardo A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most neglected diseases, and early detection of the infectious agent, especially in developing countries, will require a simple and rapid test. In this study, we established a quick, one-step, single-tube, highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Leishmania DNA from tissue materials spotted on an FTA card. An FTA-LAMP with pre-added malachite green was performed at 64°C for 60min using a heating block and/or water bath and DNA amplification was detected immediately after incubation. The LAMP assay had high detection sensitivity down to a level of 0.01 parasites per μl. The field- and clinic-applicability of the colorimetric FTA-LAMP assay was demonstrated with 122 clinical samples collected from patients suspected of having cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru, from which 71 positives were detected. The LAMP assay in combination with an FTA card described here is rapid and sensitive, as well as simple to perform, and has great potential usefulness for diagnosis and surveillance of leishmaniasis in endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical evaluation of β-tubulin real-time PCR for rapid diagnosis of dermatophytosis, a comparison with mycological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Marjan; Mirhendi, Hossein; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kharazi, Mahboobeh; Ghasemi, Zeinab; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Makimura, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    Following our previous report on evaluation of the beta tubulin real-time PCR for detection of dermatophytosis, this study aimed to compare the real-time PCR assay with conventional methods for the clinical assessment of its diagnostic performance. Samples from a total of 853 patients with suspected dermatophyte lesions were subjected to direct examination (all samples), culture (499 samples) and real-time PCR (all samples). Fungal DNA was extracted directly from clinical samples using a conical steel bullet, followed by purification with a commercial kit and subjected to the Taq-Man probe-based real-time PCR. The study showed that among the 499 specimens for which all three methods were used, 156 (31.2%), 128 (25.6%) and 205 (41.0%) were found to be positive by direct microscopy, culture and real-time PCR respectively. Real-time PCR significantly increased the detection rate of dermatophytes compared with microscopy (288 vs 229) with 87% concordance between the two methods. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the real-time PCR was 87.5%, 85%, 66.5% and 95.2% respectively. Although real-time PCR performed better on skin than on nail samples, it should not yet fully replace conventional diagnosis. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Accuracy of a rapid 10-minute carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiahung, Kao [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Shyhjen, Wang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Chungyuan, Hsu [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Wanyu, Lin [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Chihkua, Huang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Gastroenterology; Granhum, Chen [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Gastroenterology

    1993-08-01

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP), an organism which is associated with peptic ulcer disease. To detect gastric urease, we examined 184 patients (144 males, 40 females; mean age: 49.8[+-]15.6 years) with suspected peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given orally 5 [mu]Ci of carbon-14 labelled urea. For each patient only one breath sample was collected in hyamine at 10 min. The amount of [sup 14]C collected at 10 min was expressed as follows: (DPM/mmol CO[sub 2] collected)/(DPM administered)x100xbody weight (kg). The presence of HP colonization was determined by examination of multiple endoscopic prepyloric antral biopsy specimens subjected to culture or a rapid urease test. For the purpose of this study, HP-positive patients were defined as those with characteristic bacteria as indicated by a positive result of either the culture or the rapid urease test; HP-negative patients were defined as those with negative findings on both the culture and the rapid urease test. Of the 184 cases, 99 (53.8%) were positive for HP infection, and 85 (46.2%), negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid 10 min [sup 14]C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of HP-associated peptic ulcer disease were evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with a variable cut-off value from 1.5 to 4.5. When a cut-off value of 1.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity, 83.5%; when a cut-off value of 4.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 54.5% and the specificity, 97.6%. (orig.)

  6. Accuracy of a rapid 10-minute carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao Chiahung; Wang Shyhjen; Hsu Chungyuan; Lin Wanyu; Huang Chihkua; Chen Granhum

    1993-01-01

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP), an organism which is associated with peptic ulcer disease. To detect gastric urease, we examined 184 patients (144 males, 40 females; mean age: 49.8±15.6 years) with suspected peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given orally 5 μCi of carbon-14 labelled urea. For each patient only one breath sample was collected in hyamine at 10 min. The amount of 14 C collected at 10 min was expressed as follows: [(DPM/mmol CO 2 collected)/(DPM administered)]x100xbody weight (kg). The presence of HP colonization was determined by examination of multiple endoscopic prepyloric antral biopsy specimens subjected to culture or a rapid urease test. For the purpose of this study, HP-positive patients were defined as those with characteristic bacteria as indicated by a positive result of either the culture or the rapid urease test; HP-negative patients were defined as those with negative findings on both the culture and the rapid urease test. Of the 184 cases, 99 (53.8%) were positive for HP infection, and 85 (46.2%), negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid 10 min 14 C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of HP-associated peptic ulcer disease were evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with a variable cut-off value from 1.5 to 4.5. When a cut-off value of 1.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity, 83.5%; when a cut-off value of 4.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 54.5% and the specificity, 97.6%. (orig.)

  7. Rapid intra-operative diagnosis of kidney cancer by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy of tissue smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucetaite, Milda; Velicka, Martynas; Urboniene, Vidita; Ceponkus, Justinas; Bandzeviciute, Rimante; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Zelvys, Arunas; Sablinskas, Valdas; Steiner, Gerald

    2018-01-09

    Herein, a technique to analyze air-dried kidney tissue impression smears by means of attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy is presented. Spectral tumor markers-absorption bands of glycogen-are identified in the ATR-IR spectra of the kidney tissue smear samples. Thin kidney tissue cryo-sections currently used for IR spectroscopic analysis lack such spectral markers as the sample preparation causes irreversible molecular changes in the tissue. In particular, freeze-thaw cycle results in degradation of the glycogen and reduction or complete dissolution of its content. Supervised spectral classification was applied to the recorded spectra of the smears and the test spectra were classified with a high accuracy of 92% for normal tissue and 94% for tumor tissue, respectively. For further development, we propose that combination of the method with optical fiber ATR probes could potentially be used for rapid real-time intra-operative tissue analysis without interfering with either the established protocols of pathological examination or the ordinary workflow of operating surgeon. Such approach could ensure easier transition of the method to clinical applications where it may complement the results of gold standard histopathology examination and aid in more precise resection of kidney tumors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Allergy Diagnosis in Children and Adults: Performance of a New Point-of-Care Device, ImmunoCAP Rapid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, Gunilla; Moreno, Carmen; Petersson, Carl Johan; Lilja, Gunnar; Toledano, Félix Lorente; García, Antonio Nieto; Nordvall, Lennart; Palmqvist, Mona; Rak, Sabina; Ahlstedt, Staffan; Borres, Magnus P

    2009-07-01

    : Allergy is a serious problem affecting approximately 1 of 4 individuals. The symptoms with and without allergy etiology are often difficult to distinguish from each other without using an IgE antibody test. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a new point-of-care (POC) test for IgE antibodies to relevant allergens in Europe. : IgE antibodies from children and adults with allergies recruited from allergy clinics in Sweden and Spain were analyzed for 10 allergens, suitable for the age groups, using the new POC test and ImmunoCAP laboratory test. The IgE antibody level best discriminating between positive and negative results (the cutoff point) for the different allergens of the POC test and the efficacy of the POC and the ImmunoCAP laboratory tests for diagnosing allergy compared with that of clinical diagnosis were investigated. : The estimated cutoffs for the different allergens in the POC test ranged from 0.70 to 2.56 kUA/L. Taking into account all positive allergen results in a given patient, the POC test could identify 95% of the patients with allergies. Seventy-eight percent of the allergen-specific physicians' diagnoses were identified and 97% of the negative ones. Most allergens exhibited good performance, identifying about 80% of clinically relevant cases. However, dog, mugwort, and wall pellitory would benefit from improvement. : The POC test will be a valuable adjunct in the identification or exclusion of patients with allergies and their most likely offending allergens, both in specialist and general care settings.

  9. Design, development and evaluation of rK28-based point-of-care tests for improving rapid diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Pattabhi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is diagnosed by microscopic confirmation of the parasite in bone marrow, spleen or lymph node aspirates. These procedures are unsuitable for rapid diagnosis of VL in field settings. The development of rK39-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDT revolutionized diagnosis of VL by offering high sensitivity and specificity in detecting disease in the Indian subcontinent; however, these tests have been less reliable in the African subcontinent (sensitivity range of 75-85%, specificity of 70-92%. We have addressed limitations of the rK39 with a new synthetic polyprotein, rK28, followed by development and evaluation of two new rK28-based RDT prototype platforms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Evaluation of 62 VL-confirmed sera from Sudan provided sensitivities of 96.8% and 93.6% (95% CI = K28: 88.83-99.61%; K39: 84.30-98.21% and specificities of 96.2% and 92.4% (95% CI = K28: 90.53-98.95%; K39: 85.54-96.65% for rK28 and rK39, respectively. Of greater interest was the observation that individual VL sera with low rK39 reactivity often had much higher rK28 reactivity. This characteristic of the fusion protein was exploited in the development of rK28 rapid tests, which may prove to be crucial in detecting VL among patients with low rK39 antibody levels. Evaluation of two prototype lateral flow-based rK28 rapid tests on 53 VL patients in Sudan and 73 VL patients in Bangladesh provided promisingly high sensitivities (95.9% [95% CI = 88.46-99.1 in Sudan and 98.1% [95% CI = 89.93-99.95%] in Bangladesh compared to the rK39 RDT (sensitivities of 86.3% [95% CI = 76.25-93.23%] in Sudan and 88.7% [95% CI = 76.97-95.73%] in Bangladesh. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study compares the diagnostic accuracy of rK39 and rK28 in detecting active VL cases and our findings indicate that rK28 polyprotein has great potential as a serodiagnostic tool. A new rK28-based RDT will prove to be a valuable asset in

  10. Performance of rapid diagnostic test, blood-film microscopy and PCR for the diagnosis of malaria infection among febrile children from Korogwe District, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahende, Coline; Ngasala, Billy; Lusingu, John

    2016-01-01

    with fever and/or history of fever in the previous 48 h attending outpatient clinics. Blood samples were collected for identification of Plasmodium falciparum infection using histidine-rich-protein-2 (HRP-2)-based malaria RDT, light microscopy and conventional PCR. Results: A total of 867 febrile patients......Background: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and light microscopy are still recommended for diagnosis to guide the clinical management of malaria despite difficult challenges in rural settings. The performance of these tests may be affected by several factors, including malaria prevalence and intensity...... of transmission. The study evaluated the diagnostic performance of malaria RDT, light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting malaria infections among febrile children at outpatient clinic in Korogwe District, northeastern Tanzania. Methods: The study enrolled children aged 2-59 months...

  11. Results of a multinational study suggest the need for rapid diagnosis and early antiviral treatment at the onset of herpetic meningoencephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Cag, Yasemin; Ozturk-Engin, Derya

    2015-01-01

    survived, with sequelae. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.05), Glasgow Coma Scale score (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.93), and symptomatic periods of 2 to 7 days (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.79) and >7 days (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.72 to 8.15) until the commencement...... of treatment predicted unfavorable outcomes. The outcome in HME patients is related to a combination of therapeutic and host factors. This study suggests that rapid diagnosis and early administration of antiviral treatment in HME patients are keys to a favorable outcome....

  12. Analytical Validation of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test for Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W.; Boisen, Matthew L.; Millett, Molly M.; Nelson, Diana S.; Oottamasathien, Darin; Hartnett, Jessica N.; Jones, Abigal B.; Goba, Augustine; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohamed; Bornholdt, Zachary A.; Fusco, Marnie L.; Abelson, Dafna M.; Oda, Shunichiro; Brown, Bethany L.; Pham, Ha; Rowland, Megan M.; Agans, Krystle N.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Heinrich, Megan L.; Kulakosky, Peter C.; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Schieffelin, John S.; Kargbo, Brima; Gbetuwa, Momoh; Gevao, Sahr M.; Wilson, Russell B.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Pitts, Kelly R.; Khan, Sheik Humarr; Grant, Donald S.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Branco, Luis M.; Garry, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe viral illness caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). The 2013–2016 EVD outbreak in West Africa is the largest recorded, with >11 000 deaths. Development of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test (ReEBOV RDT) was expedited to provide a point-of-care test for suspected EVD cases. Methods. Recombinant EBOV viral protein 40 antigen was used to derive polyclonal antibodies for RDT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development. ReEBOV RDT limits of detection (LOD), specificity, and interference were analytically validated on the basis of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance. Results. The ReEBOV RDT specificity estimate was 95% for donor serum panels and 97% for donor whole-blood specimens. The RDT demonstrated sensitivity to 3 species of Ebolavirus (Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Bundibugyo ebolavirus) associated with human disease, with no cross-reactivity by pathogens associated with non-EBOV febrile illness, including malaria parasites. Interference testing exhibited no reactivity by medications in common use. The LOD for antigen was 4.7 ng/test in serum and 9.4 ng/test in whole blood. Quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction testing of nonhuman primate samples determined the range to be equivalent to 3.0 × 105–9.0 × 108 genomes/mL. Conclusions. The analytical validation presented here contributed to the ReEBOV RDT being the first antigen-based assay to receive FDA and World Health Organization emergency use authorization for this EVD outbreak, in February 2015. PMID:27587634

  13. Dipstick test for rapid diagnosis of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and its potential use on stool samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Taneja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We describe a test for rapid detection of S. dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and in stools, at the bedside of patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The test is based on the detection of S. dysenteriae 1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS using serotype 1-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 15 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 10 minutes. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 1.6×10⁶ CFU/ml and 4.9×10⁶ CFU/ml of S. dysenteriae 1, respectively. Optimal conditions to read the test have been determined to limit the risk of ambiguous results due to appearance of a faint yellow test band in some negative samples. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and unrelated strains in culture. When tested on 328 clinical samples in India, Vietnam, Senegal and France by laboratory technicians and in Democratic Republic of Congo by a field technician, the specificity (312/316 was 98.7% (95% CI:96.6-99.6% and the sensitivity (11/12 was 91.7% (95% CI:59.8-99.6%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 98.4 % of cases (323/328 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 73.3% (95% CI:44.8-91.1% and 99.7% (95% CI:98-100%. CONCLUSION: The initial findings presented here for a simple dipstick-based test to diagnose S. dysenteriae 1 demonstrates its promising potential to become a powerful tool for case management and epidemiological surveys.

  14. Analytical Validation of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test for Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W; Boisen, Matthew L; Millett, Molly M; Nelson, Diana S; Oottamasathien, Darin; Hartnett, Jessica N; Jones, Abigal B; Goba, Augustine; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohamed; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Fusco, Marnie L; Abelson, Dafna M; Oda, Shunichiro; Brown, Bethany L; Pham, Ha; Rowland, Megan M; Agans, Krystle N; Geisbert, Joan B; Heinrich, Megan L; Kulakosky, Peter C; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Schieffelin, John S; Kargbo, Brima; Gbetuwa, Momoh; Gevao, Sahr M; Wilson, Russell B; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Pitts, Kelly R; Khan, Sheik Humarr; Grant, Donald S; Geisbert, Thomas W; Branco, Luis M; Garry, Robert F

    2016-10-15

     Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe viral illness caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). The 2013-2016 EVD outbreak in West Africa is the largest recorded, with >11 000 deaths. Development of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test (ReEBOV RDT) was expedited to provide a point-of-care test for suspected EVD cases.  Recombinant EBOV viral protein 40 antigen was used to derive polyclonal antibodies for RDT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development. ReEBOV RDT limits of detection (LOD), specificity, and interference were analytically validated on the basis of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance.  The ReEBOV RDT specificity estimate was 95% for donor serum panels and 97% for donor whole-blood specimens. The RDT demonstrated sensitivity to 3 species of Ebolavirus (Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Bundibugyo ebolavirus) associated with human disease, with no cross-reactivity by pathogens associated with non-EBOV febrile illness, including malaria parasites. Interference testing exhibited no reactivity by medications in common use. The LOD for antigen was 4.7 ng/test in serum and 9.4 ng/test in whole blood. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing of nonhuman primate samples determined the range to be equivalent to 3.0 × 10 5 -9.0 × 10 8 genomes/mL.  The analytical validation presented here contributed to the ReEBOV RDT being the first antigen-based assay to receive FDA and World Health Organization emergency use authorization for this EVD outbreak, in February 2015. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Tandem mass spectrometry-based newborn screening strategy could be used to facilitate rapid and sensitive lung cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang T

    2016-04-01

    /MS analysis could be finished in several minutes, implying that it was a proper measure complementary to the traditional serum protein biomarker quantitation strategy for cancerous disease diagnosis and screening purposes. Keywords: lung cancer, mass spectrometry, newborn screening tests

  16. Rapid tests and urine sampling techniques for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children under five years: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Penny; Westwood, Marie; Watt, Ian; Cooper, Julie; Kleijnen, Jos

    2005-04-05

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common sources of infection in children under five. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is important to reduce the risk of renal scarring. Rapid, cost-effective, methods of UTI diagnosis are required as an alternative to culture. We conducted a systematic review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of rapid tests for detecting UTI in children under five years of age. The evidence supports the use of dipstick positive for both leukocyte esterase and nitrite (pooled LR+ = 28.2, 95% CI: 17.3, 46.0) or microscopy positive for both pyuria and bacteriuria (pooled LR+ = 37.0, 95% CI: 11.0, 125.9) to rule in UTI. Similarly dipstick negative for both LE and nitrite (Pooled LR- = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.26) or microscopy negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria (Pooled LR- = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.23) can be used to rule out UTI. A test for glucose showed promise in potty-trained children. However, all studies were over 30 years old. Further evaluation of this test may be useful. Dipstick negative for both LE and nitrite or microscopic analysis negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria of a clean voided urine, bag, or nappy/pad specimen may reasonably be used to rule out UTI. These patients can then reasonably be excluded from further investigation, without the need for confirmatory culture. Similarly, combinations of positive tests could be used to rule in UTI, and trigger further investigation.

  17. Diagnostic Value of Leukocyte Esterase Test Strip Reagents for Rapid Clinical Diagnosis of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Patients Admitted to Hospital Emergency Departments in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Amir Masoud; Ahmadi, Koorosh; Zamani Moghaddam, Hamid; Zakeri, Hosein; Davoodi Navakh, Seyed Akbar; Sharifi, Mohammad Davood; Bahrami, Abdollah

    2015-10-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common and important clinical problem and is life-threatening in decompensated liver disease. Ascites fluid test by leukocyte esterase test strip has been recently proposed as an effective and rapid method to diagnose SBP in patients with cirrhosis. This study aimed to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of leukocyte esterase test strip in the diagnosis of SBP. The population of this research was all patients with cirrhosis and ascites admitted to the emergency room at Imam Reza (AS) hospital, Mashhad. A written consent was taken for inclusion in the study. 50 mL ascites sample was taken from all patients for use in a urine test strip (LER) (Urine Test Strips Convergys®Urine Matrix 11). The patient's ascites samples were evaluated for cell counting. Positive dipstick test for LER in this study considered as grade 3 +. The values of WBC > 500 cell/mm(3) or PMN > 250 cell/mm(3) considered as positive result of the gold standard method for the diagnosis of SBP. In this study, 100 patients with ascites due to cirrhosis, with an average age of 38.9 ± 6.54 years were evaluated. Twenty cases had positive results, of whom 17 cases were also detected based on the standard diagnostic criteria and other three cases were healthy individuals. Thus, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of the method were 95%, 96.3%, 85%, 97.5% and 95%, respectively. The use of leukocyte esterase urine dipstick test can be a quick and easy method in early diagnosis of SBP to start the treatment until preparation of SBP-cell count results.

  18. Clinical utilisation of a rapid low-pass whole genome sequencing technique for the diagnosis of aneuploidy in human embryos prior to implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dagan; Kaur, Kulvinder; Grifo, Jamie; Glassner, Michael; Taylor, Jenny C; Fragouli, Elpida; Munne, Santiago

    2014-08-01

    The majority of human embryos created using in vitro fertilisation (IVF) techniques are aneuploid. Comprehensive chromosome screening methods, applicable to single cells biopsied from preimplantation embryos, allow reliable identification and transfer of euploid embryos. Recently, randomised trials using such methods have indicated that aneuploidy screening improves IVF success rates. However, the high cost of testing has restricted the availability of this potentially beneficial strategy. This study aimed to harness next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with the intention of lowering the costs of preimplantation aneuploidy screening. Embryo biopsy, whole genome amplification and semiconductor sequencing. A rapid (cost only two-thirds that of the most widely used method for embryo aneuploidy detection. Validation involved blinded analysis of 54 cells from cell lines or biopsies from human embryos. Sensitivity and specificity were 100%. The method was applied clinically, assisting in the selection of euploid embryos in two IVF cycles, producing healthy children in both cases. The NGS approach was also able to reveal specified mutations in the nuclear or mitochondrial genomes in parallel with chromosome assessment. Interestingly, elevated mitochondrial DNA content was associated with aneuploidy (pcost diagnosis of aneuploidy in cells from human preimplantation embryos and is rapid enough to allow testing without embryo cryopreservation. The method described also has the potential to shed light on other aspects of embryo genetics of relevance to health and viability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Pathways to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment initiation: a qualitative comparison of patients' experiences in the era of rapid molecular diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Pren; van Niekerk, Margaret; du Toit, Elizabeth; Beyers, Nulda; Leon, Natalie

    2015-10-28

    substantial delays. Avoidable health system delays resulted from providers not testing for TB at initial health contact, non-adherence to testing algorithms, results not being available and failure to promptly recall patients with positive results. Whilst the introduction of rapid tests such as Xpert® MTB/RIF can expedite MDR-TB diagnosis and treatment initiation, the full benefits are unlikely to be realised without reducing delays in health-seeking and addressing the structural barriers present in the health-care system.

  20. Sonographic diagnosis of pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna F Husain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung sonography has rapidly emerged as a reliable technique in the evaluation of various thoracic diseases. One important, well-established application is the diagnosis of a pneumothorax. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of a pneumothorax in the management of a critical patient can prevent the progression into a life-threatening situation. Sonographic signs, including ′lung sliding′, ′B-lines′ or ′comet tail artifacts′, ′A-lines′, and ′the lung point sign′ can help in the diagnosis of a pneumothorax. Ultrasound has a higher sensitivity than the traditional upright anteroposterior chest radiography (CXR for the detection of a pneumothorax. Small occult pneumothoraces may be missed on CXR during a busy trauma scenario, and CXR may not always be feasible in critically ill patients. Computed tomography, the gold standard for the detection of pneumothorax, requires patients to be transported out of the clinical area, compromising their hemodynamic stability and delaying the diagnosis. As ultrasound machines have become more portable and easier to use, lung sonography now allows a rapid evaluation of an unstable patient, at the bedside. These advantages combined with the low cost and ease of use, have allowed thoracic sonography to become a useful modality in many clinical settings.

  1. Rapid assessment of agents of biological terrorism: defining the differential diagnosis of inhalational anthrax using electronic communication in a practice-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temte, Jonathan L; Anderson, Anna Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Early detection of bioterrorism requires assessment of diagnoses assigned to cases of rare diseases with which clinicians have little experience. In this study, we evaluated the process of defining the differential diagnosis for inhalational anthrax using electronic communication within a practice-based research network (PBRN) and compared the results with those obtained from a nationwide random sample of family physicians with a mailed instrument. We distributed survey instruments by e-mail to 55 physician members of the Wisconsin Research Network (WReN), a regional PBRN. The instruments consisted of 3 case vignettes randomly drawn from a set describing 11 patients with inhalational anthrax, 2 with influenza A, and 1 with Legionella pneumonia. Physicians provided their most likely nonanthrax diagnosis, along with their responses to 4 yes-or-no management questions for each case. Physicians who had not responded at 1 week received a second e-mail with the survey instrument. The comparison group consisted of the nationwide sample of physicians who completed mailed survey instruments. Primary outcome measures were response rate, median response time, and frequencies of diagnostic categories assigned to cases of inhalational anthrax. The PBRN response rate compared favorably with that of the national sample (47.3% vs 37.0%; P = not significant). The median response time for the PBRN was significantly shorter than that for the national sample (2 vs 28 days; P < .001). No significant differences were found between the PBRN and the Midwest subset of the national sample in the frequencies of major diagnostic categories or in case management. Electronic means of creating differential diagnoses for rare infectious diseases of national significance is feasible within PBRNs. Information is much more rapidly acquired and is consistent with that obtained by conventional methods.

  2. Rapid, actionable diagnosis of urban epidemic leptospirosis using a pathogenic Leptospira lipL32-based real-time PCR assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N Riediger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With a conservatively estimated 1 million cases of leptospirosis worldwide and a 5-10% fatality rate, the rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis leading to effective clinical and public health decision making is of high importance, and yet remains a challenge.Based on parallel, population-based studies in two leptospirosis-endemic regions in Brazil, a real-time PCR assay which detects lipL32, a gene specifically present in pathogenic Leptospira, was assessed for the diagnostic effectiveness and accuracy. Patients identified by active hospital-based surveillance in Salvador and Curitiba during large urban leptospirosis epidemics were tested. Real-time PCR reactions were performed with DNA-extracted samples obtained from 127 confirmed and 23 unconfirmed cases suspected of leptospirosis, 122 patients with an acute febrile illness other than leptospirosis, and 60 healthy blood donors.The PCR assay had a limit of detection of 280 Leptospira genomic equivalents/mL. Sensitivity for confirmed cases was 61% for whole blood and 29% for serum samples. Sensitivity was higher (86% for samples collected within the first 6 days after onset of illness compared to those collected after 7 days (34%. The real-time PCR assay was able to detect leptospiral DNA in blood from 56% of serological non-confirmed cases. The overall specificity of the assay was 99%.These findings indicate that real-time PCR may be a reliable tool for early diagnosis of leptospirosis, which is decisive for clinical management of severe and life-threatening cases and for public health decision making.

  3. Rapid, actionable diagnosis of urban epidemic leptospirosis using a pathogenic Leptospira lipL32-based real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Irina N; Stoddard, Robyn A; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Nakatani, Sueli M; Moreira, Suzana D R; Skraba, Irene; Biondo, Alexander W; Reis, Mitermayer G; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Vinetz, Joseph M; Ko, Albert I; Wunder, Elsio A

    2017-09-01

    With a conservatively estimated 1 million cases of leptospirosis worldwide and a 5-10% fatality rate, the rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis leading to effective clinical and public health decision making is of high importance, and yet remains a challenge. Based on parallel, population-based studies in two leptospirosis-endemic regions in Brazil, a real-time PCR assay which detects lipL32, a gene specifically present in pathogenic Leptospira, was assessed for the diagnostic effectiveness and accuracy. Patients identified by active hospital-based surveillance in Salvador and Curitiba during large urban leptospirosis epidemics were tested. Real-time PCR reactions were performed with DNA-extracted samples obtained from 127 confirmed and 23 unconfirmed cases suspected of leptospirosis, 122 patients with an acute febrile illness other than leptospirosis, and 60 healthy blood donors. The PCR assay had a limit of detection of 280 Leptospira genomic equivalents/mL. Sensitivity for confirmed cases was 61% for whole blood and 29% for serum samples. Sensitivity was higher (86%) for samples collected within the first 6 days after onset of illness compared to those collected after 7 days (34%). The real-time PCR assay was able to detect leptospiral DNA in blood from 56% of serological non-confirmed cases. The overall specificity of the assay was 99%. These findings indicate that real-time PCR may be a reliable tool for early diagnosis of leptospirosis, which is decisive for clinical management of severe and life-threatening cases and for public health decision making.

  4. A rapid NGS strategy for comprehensive molecular diagnosis of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome in patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Ma, Dehua; Zou, Wei; Ding, Yibing; Zhu, Chengchu; Min, Haiyan; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Wei; Chen, Baofu; Ye, Minhua; Cai, Minghui; Pan, Yanqing; Cao, Lei; Wan, Yueming; Jin, Yu; Gao, Qian; Yi, Long

    2016-05-27

    Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) or pulmonary cysts is one of the manifestations of Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome (BHDS) that is caused by heterozygous mutations in FLCN gene. Most of the mutations are SNVs and small indels, and there are also approximately 10 % large intragenic deletions and duplications of the mutations. These molecular findings are generally obtained by disparate methods including Sanger sequencing and Multiple Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification in the clinical laboratory. In addition, as a genetically heterogeneous disorder, PSP may be caused by mutations in multiple genes include FBN1, COL3A1, CBS, SERPINA1 and TSC1/TSC2 genes. For differential diagnosis, these genes should also be screened which makes the diagnostic procedure more time-consuming and labor-intensive. Forty PSP patients were divided into 2 groups. Nineteen patients with different pathogenic mutations of FLCN previously identified by conventional Sanger sequencing and MLPA were included in test group, 21 random PSP patients without any genetic screening were included in blinded sample group. 7 PSP genes including FLCN, FBN1, COL3A1, CBS, SERPINA1 and TSC1/TSC2 were designed and enriched by Haloplex system, sequenced on a Miseq platform and analyzed in the 40 patients to evaluate the performance of the targeted-NGS method. We demonstrated that the full spectrum of genes associated with pneumothorax including FLCN gene mutations can be identified simultaneously in multiplexed sequence data. Noteworthy, by our in-house copy number analysis of the sequence data, we could not only detect intragenic deletions, but also determine approximate deletion junctions simultaneously. NGS based Haloplex target enrichment technology is proved to be a rapid and cost-effective screening strategy for the comprehensive molecular diagnosis of BHDS in PSP patients, as it can replace Sanger sequencing and MLPA by simultaneously detecting exonic and intronic SNVs, small indels, large intragenic

  5. Test characteristics of two rapid antigen detection tests (SD FK50 and SD FK60 for the diagnosis of malaria in returned travellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Esbroeck Marjan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two malaria rapid diagnostic tests were evaluated in a travel clinic setting: the SD FK50 Malaria Ag Plasmodium falciparum test (a two-band test and the SD FK60 Malaria Ag P. falciparum/Pan test (a three-band test. Methods A panel of stored whole blood samples (n = 452 and n = 614 for FK50 and FK60, respectively from returned travellers was used. The reference method was microscopy with PCR in case of discordant results. Results For both tests, overall sensitivity for the detection of P. falciparum was 93.5%, reaching 97.6% and 100% at parasite densities above 100 and 1,000/μl respectively. Overall sensitivities for Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae for the FK60 test were 87.5%, 76.3% and 45.2%, but they reached 92.6% and 90.5% for P. vivax and P. ovale at parasite densities above 500/μl. Specificities were above 95% for all species and both tests when corrected by PCR, with visible histidine-rich protein-2 lines for P. malariae (n = 3 and P. vivax and P. ovale (1 sample each. Line intensities were reproducible and correlated to parasite densities. The FK60 tests provided clues to estimate parasite densities for P. falciparum below or above 1,000/μl. Conclusion Both the FK50 and FK60 performed well for the diagnosis of P. falciparum in the present setting, and the FK60 for the diagnosis of P. vivax and P. ovale at parasite densities > 500/μl. The potential use of the FK60 as a semi-quantitative estimation of parasite density needs to be further explored.

  6. Development of rapid phenotypic system for the identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology. The diagnosis and surveillance of diseases is dependent, to a great extent, on laboratory services, which cannot function without effective reliable reagents and diagnostics. Despite the advancement in microbiology ...

  7. Antigen persistence of rapid diagnostic tests in pregnant women in Nanoro, Burkina Faso, and the implications for the diagnosis of malaria in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenberg, Johanna H; Tahita, Christian M; Versteeg, Inge A J; Tinto, Halidou; Traoré-Coulibaly, Maminata; Schallig, Henk D F H; Mens, Petra F

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate persistence of several Plasmodium antigens in pregnant women after treatment and compare diagnostics during treatment follow-up. Thirty-two pregnant women (N = 32) with confirmed malaria infection by a histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and microscopy were followed for 28 days after artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). A Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH)-based RDT and two ELISAs based on the detection of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) and haeme detoxification protein (HDP) were compared with each other and to RT-PCR at each visit. The mean visit number (95% confidence interval) on which the HRP2-based RDT was still positive after treatment was 3.4 (2.7-4.1) visits with some patients still positive at day 28. This is significantly later than the pLDH-based RDT [0.84 (0.55-1.1)], microscopy (median 1, range 1-3), DHFR-TS-ELISA [1.7 (1.1-2.3)] and RT-PCR (median 2, range 1-5) (P pregnant women and can generate problems when using this test during intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp). DHFR-TS is less persistent than HRP2, making it a potentially interesting target for diagnosis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Self-diagnosis of malaria by travellers: a cohort study on the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests provided by a Swiss travel clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, Delphine; Rochat, Jacynthe; Voumard, Rachel; Rochat, Laurence; Genton, Blaise; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2017-10-28

    The WHO recommends that all suspect malaria cases be tested before receiving treatment. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for malaria can be performed reliably by community health workers with no formal medical background and thus, RDTs could also be provided to travellers for self-diagnosis during visits to endemic regions. RDTs were proposed during pre-travel consultations to pre-defined categories of travellers. A training run on their own blood was performed and, if carried out correctly, the traveller was given a written procedure on how to perform the test and act on its result. The travellers were then proposed to buy a malaria RDT kit and were interviewed upon their return. From February 2012 to February 2017, 744 travellers were proposed RDTs and 692 performed the training run (one could not complete it due to a hand tremor). Among the 691 subjects included, 69% travelled to moderate- or low-risk areas of malaria, 18% to high-risk areas and 13% to mixed-risk areas. The two most frequent categories of travellers to whom RDTs were proposed were long-term travellers (69%) and those travelling to remote areas (57%). 543 travellers (79%) were interviewed upon return. During their trip, 17% (91/543) had a medical problem with fever and 12% (65/543) without fever. Among 91 febrile patients, 57% (52/91) performed an RDT, 22% (20/91) consulted immediately without using the test, and 21% (19/91) did neither. Four RDTs (4/52; 8%) were positive: 2 in low-risk and 2 in high-risk areas (0.7% attack rate of self-documented malaria). Two travellers could not perform the test correctly and attended a facility or took standby emergency treatment. Four travellers with negative results repeated the test after 24 h; all were still negative. Carrying RDTs made travellers feel more secure, especially when travelling with children. 1/6 travellers experienced fever and 4/5 of those reacted appropriately: more than half used RDTs and a quarter consulted immediately. Four travellers

  9. Willingness to pay for rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria in southeast Nigeria: ex post and ex ante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uguru Nkoli P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs has improved the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. However, any successful control of malaria will depend on socio-economic factors that influence its management in the community. Willingness to pay (WTP is important because consumer responses to prices will influence utilization of services and revenues collected. Also the consumer's attitude can influence monetary valuation with respect to different conditions ex post and ex ante. Methods WTP for RDT for Malaria was assessed by the contingent valuation method using a bidding game approach in rural and urban communities in southeast Nigeria. The ex post WTP was assessed at the health centers on 618 patients immediately following diagnosis of malaria with RDT and the ex ante WTP was assessed by household interviews on 1020 householders with a prior history of malaria. Results For the ex ante WTP, 51% of the respondents in urban and 24.7% in rural areas were willing to pay for RDT. The mean WTP (235.49 naira in urban is higher than WTP (182.05 Naira in rural areas. For the ex post WTP, 89 and 90.7% of the respondents in urban and rural areas respectively were WTP. The mean WTP (372.30 naira in urban is also higher than (296.28 naira in rural areas. For the ex post scenario, the lower two Social Economic Status (SES quartiles were more willing to pay and the mean WTP is higher than the higher two SES while in the ex ante scenario, the higher two SES quartiles were more WTP and with a higher WTP than the lower two SES quartile. Ex ante and ex post WTP were directly dependent on costs. Conclusion The ex post WTP is higher than the ex ante WTP and both are greater than the current cost of RDTs. Urban dwellers were more willing to pay than the rural dwellers. The mean WTP should be considered when designing suitable financial strategies for making RDTs available to communities.

  10. Performance evaluation of automated urine microscopy as a rapid, non-invasive approach for the diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Marcus J; Nori, Achyuta V; Patel, Sheel; Laing, Ken; Ajayi, Margarita; Copas, Andrew J; Butcher, Philip D; Hay, Phillip; Sadiq, Syed Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Gram-stained urethral smear (GSUS), the standard point-of-care test for non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is operator dependent and poorly specific. The performance of rapid automated urine flow cytometry (AUFC) of first void urine (FVU) white cell counts (UWCC) for predicting Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis urethral infections was assessed and its application to asymptomatic infection was evaluated. Methods Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, determining FVU-UWCC threshold for predicting M. genitalium or C. trachomatis infection was performed on 208 ‘training’ samples from symptomatic patients and subsequently validated using 228 additional FVUs obtained from prospective unselected patients. Results An optimal diagnostic threshold of >29 UWC/µL gave sensitivities and specificities for either infection of 81.5% (95% CI 65.1% to 91.6%) and 85.8% (79.5% to 90.4%), respectively, compared with 86.8% (71.1% to 95%) and 64.7% (56.9% to 71.7%), respectively, for GSUS, using the training set samples. FVU-UWCC demonstrated sensitivities and specificities of 69.2% (95% CI 48.1% to 84.9%) and 92% (87.2% to 95.2%), respectively, when using validation samples. In asymptomatic patients where GSUS was not used, AUFC would have enabled more infections to be detected compared with clinical considerations only (71.4% vs 28.6%; p=0.03). The correlation between UWCC and bacterial load was stronger for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis (τ=0.426, p≤0.001 vs τ=0.295, p=0.022, respectively). Conclusions AUFC offers improved specificity over microscopy for predicting C. trachomatis or M. genitalium infection. Universal AUFC may enable non-invasive diagnosis of asymptomatic NGU at the PoC. The degree of urethral inflammation exhibits a stronger association with pathogen load for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis. PMID:25614466

  11. A Novel Contrast Stain for the Rapid Diagnosis of Pityriasis Versicolor: A Comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B Stain, Potassium Hydroxide Mount and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Nikita; Poojary, Shital Amin

    2015-01-01

    The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB) is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain) with KOH mount and culture. Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1) KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2) culture using Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen's Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement) among the different modalities. Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%), 92 (92%) and 56 (56%) patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%). Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001). Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001) as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107). CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount.

  12. A novel contrast stain for the rapid diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor: A comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B stain, potassium hydroxide mount and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Lodha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain with KOH mount and culture. Materials and Methods: Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1 KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2 culture using Sabouraud′s dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen′s Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement among the different modalities. Observations and Results: Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%, 92 (92% and 56 (56% patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%. Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001. Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001 as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107. Conclusion: CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness and Validity Assessment of Cyscope Microscope, Quantitative Buffy Coat Microscope, and Rapid Diagnostic Kit for Malaria Diagnosis among Clinic Attendees in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Ogunniyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Unavailability of accurate, rapid, reliable, and cost-effective malaria diagnostic instruments constitutes major a challenge to malaria elimination. We validated alternative malaria diagnostic instruments and assessed their comparative cost-effectiveness. Method. Using a cross-sectional study design, 502 patients with malaria symptoms at selected health facilities in Ibadan between January and April 2014 were recruited consecutively. We examined malaria parasites using Cyscope®, QBC, and CareStart™ and results were compared to light microscopy (LM. Validity was determined by assessing sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV. Costs per hour of use for instruments and turnaround time were determined. Result. Sensitivity of the instruments was 76.0% (CareStart, 95.0% (Cyscope, and 98.1% (QBC. Specificity was 96.0% (CareStart, 87.3% (Cyscope, and 85.5% (QBC. PPV were 65.2%, 67.5%, and 84.7%, while NPV were 93.6%, 98.6%, and 99.4% for CareStart, Cyscope, and QBC with Kappa values of 0.75 (CI = 0.68–0.82 for CareStart, 0.72 (CI = 0.65–0.78 for Cyscope, and 0.71 (CI = 0.64–0.77 for QBC. Average cost per hour of use was the lowest ($2.04 with the Cyscope. Turnaround time was the fastest with Cyscope (5 minutes. Conclusion. Cyscope fluorescent microscope had the shortest turnaround time and is the most cost-effective of all the malaria diagnostic instruments evaluated.

  14. Rapid diagnosis of retina and optic nerve abnormalities in canine patients with and without cataracts using chromatic pupil light reflex testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanic, Sinisa D; Kecova, Helga; Lazic, Tatjana

    2013-09-01

    To develop fast and reliable testing routines for diagnosing retina and optic nerve diseases in canine cataract patients based on chromatic properties of the pupillary light reflex response. Seventy-seven canine patients with a history of cataract and decreased vision (43 patients with cataracts and no evidence of retina or optic nerve disease, 21 patients with cataracts and retinal degeneration [RD], 13 patients with cataracts and retinal detachment [RDT]), 11 canine patients with optic neuritis (ON) and 23 healthy dogs were examined using chromatic pupillary light reflex (cPLR) analysis with red and blue light and electroretinography. Electroretinography analysis showed statistically significant deficits in a- and b-wave amplitudes in dogs with cataracts and RD, or cataracts and RDT, when compared to dogs with cataracts without evidence of retinal abnormalities. Evaluation of b-wave amplitudes showed that presence of 78.5-μV (or lower) amplitudes had high sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 87.2-100%) and high specificity of 96.7% (95% CI: 88.4-100%) in RD and RDT. Evaluation of cPLR responses using red light showed that presence of the pupil end constriction diameter of 5.5 mm (or higher) had moderately high sensitivity of 76.5% (95% CI: 50.1-93.2%) and high specificity of 100% (95% CI: 91.2-100%) in detecting RD and RDT. Optic neuritis patients had absent cPLR responses, regardless of the visual status. Chromatic evaluation of the pupillary light reflex is a rapid and accurate test for diagnosing retina and optic nerve diseases in canine patients. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Performance evaluation of automated urine microscopy as a rapid, non-invasive approach for the diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Marcus J; Nori, Achyuta V; Patel, Sheel; Laing, Ken; Ajayi, Margarita; Copas, Andrew J; Butcher, Philip D; Hay, Phillip; Sadiq, Syed Tariq

    2015-05-01

    Gram-stained urethral smear (GSUS), the standard point-of-care test for non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is operator dependent and poorly specific. The performance of rapid automated urine flow cytometry (AUFC) of first void urine (FVU) white cell counts (UWCC) for predicting Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis urethral infections was assessed and its application to asymptomatic infection was evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, determining FVU-UWCC threshold for predicting M. genitalium or C. trachomatis infection was performed on 208 'training' samples from symptomatic patients and subsequently validated using 228 additional FVUs obtained from prospective unselected patients. An optimal diagnostic threshold of >29 UWC/µL gave sensitivities and specificities for either infection of 81.5% (95% CI 65.1% to 91.6%) and 85.8% (79.5% to 90.4%), respectively, compared with 86.8% (71.1% to 95%) and 64.7% (56.9% to 71.7%), respectively, for GSUS, using the training set samples. FVU-UWCC demonstrated sensitivities and specificities of 69.2% (95% CI 48.1% to 84.9%) and 92% (87.2% to 95.2%), respectively, when using validation samples. In asymptomatic patients where GSUS was not used, AUFC would have enabled more infections to be detected compared with clinical considerations only (71.4% vs 28.6%; p=0.03). The correlation between UWCC and bacterial load was stronger for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis (τ=0.426, p≤0.001 vs τ=0.295, p=0.022, respectively). AUFC offers improved specificity over microscopy for predicting C. trachomatis or M. genitalium infection. Universal AUFC may enable non-invasive diagnosis of asymptomatic NGU at the PoC. The degree of urethral inflammation exhibits a stronger association with pathogen load for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. A field evaluation of the Hardy TB MODS Kit™ for the rapid phenotypic diagnosis of tuberculosis and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martin

    Full Text Available Even though the WHO-endorsed, non-commercial MODS assay offers rapid, reliable TB liquid culture and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST at lower cost than any other diagnostic, uptake has been patchy. In part this reflects misperceptions about in-house assay quality assurance, but user convenience of one-stop procurement is also important. A commercial MODS kit was developed by Hardy Diagnostics (Santa Maria, CA, USA with PATH (Seattle, WA, USA to facilitate procurement, simplify procedures through readymade media, and enhance safety with a sealing silicone plate lid. Here we report the results from a large-scale field evaluation of the MODS kit in a government service laboratory.2446 sputum samples were cultured in parallel in Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ, conventional MODS and in the MODS kit. MODS kit DST was compared with conventional MODS (direct DST and proportion method (indirect DST. 778 samples (31.8% were Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-positive. Compared to conventional MODS the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values (95% confidence intervals of the MODS Kit were 99.3% (98.3-99.8%, 98.3% (97.5-98.8%, 95.8% (94.0-97.1%, and 99.7% (99.3-99.9%. Median (interquartile ranges time to culture-positivity (and rifampicin and isoniazid DST was 10 (9-13 days for conventional MODS and 8.5 (7-11 for MODS Kit (p<0.01. Direct rifampicin and isoniazid DST in MODS kit was almost universally concordant with conventional MODS (97.9% agreement, 665/679 evaluable samples and reference indirect DST (97.9% agreement, 687/702 evaluable samples.MODS kit delivers performance indistinguishable from conventional MODS and offers a convenient, affordable alternative with enhanced safety from the sealing silicone lid. The availability in the marketplace of this platform, which conforms to European standards (CE-marked, readily repurposed for second-line DST in the near future, provides a fresh opportunity for improving equity of

  17. Gram-stain plus MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for a rapid diagnosis of urinary tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Burillo

    Full Text Available Microbiological confirmation of a urinary tract infection (UTI takes 24-48 h. In the meantime, patients are usually given empirical antibiotics, sometimes inappropriately. We assessed the feasibility of sequentially performing a Gram stain and MALDI-TOF MS mass spectrometry (MS on urine samples to anticipate clinically useful information. In May-June 2012, we randomly selected 1000 urine samples from patients with suspected UTI. All were Gram stained and those yielding bacteria of a single morphotype were processed for MALDI-TOF MS. Our sequential algorithm was correlated with the standard semiquantitative urine culture result as follows: Match, the information provided was anticipative of culture result; Minor error, the information provided was partially anticipative of culture result; Major error, the information provided was incorrect, potentially leading to inappropriate changes in antimicrobial therapy. A positive culture was obtained in 242/1000 samples. The Gram stain revealed a single morphotype in 207 samples, which were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS. The diagnostic performance of the Gram stain was: sensitivity (Se 81.3%, specificity (Sp 93.2%, positive predictive value (PPV 81.3%, negative predictive value (NPV 93.2%, positive likelihood ratio (+LR 11.91, negative likelihood ratio (-LR 0.20 and accuracy 90.0% while that of MALDI-TOF MS was: Se 79.2%, Sp 73.5, +LR 2.99, -LR 0.28 and accuracy 78.3%. The use of both techniques provided information anticipative of the culture result in 82.7% of cases, information with minor errors in 13.4% and information with major errors in 3.9%. Results were available within 1 h. Our serial algorithm provided information that was consistent or showed minor errors for 96.1% of urine samples from patients with suspected UTI. The clinical impacts of this rapid UTI diagnosis strategy need to be assessed through indicators of adequacy of treatment such as a reduced time to appropriate empirical treatment or

  18. III Frontier of accurate diagnosis of breast cancer. 1. Present state and prospect of preoperative diagnosis of progression, differential diagnosis of benign and malign natures, and efficacy evaluation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. 2) Clinical efficacy and problem of FDG-PET (PET/CT) in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Kaji, Yasushi; Hayashi, Mitsuhiro; Sunagawa, Masakatsu; Murakami, Kouji; Yamazaki, Erena

    2008-01-01

    On authors' experience and literature, clinical efficacy and limitation of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) (PET/CT) in the breast cancer are described and discussed for detection of the primary lesion, preoperative staging and lymph node diagnosis, diagnosis of recurrence and remote metastasis, evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, and prediction of prognosis. For routine breast cancer screening, authors think PET/CT is not always effective because of many false positive/negative findings. PET/CT and subsequent CT with iodine contrast media are thought to be useful for preoperative staging and planning in conservative surgery though detection of micro-metastatic nodes are often difficult. PET is reportedly superior to 99m Tc-MDP scintigraphy in bone metastasis detection, but which conceivably depends on the nature (osteogenic/osteolytic) of the lesion. For recurrence and remote metastasis, the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET/CT are reported to be as high as 84-98, 84-94 and 86-97%, respectively. Standardization of PET/CT monitoring is now necessary to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy. SUV which indicates the degree of FDG accumulation in the lesion, can be used for prediction of prognosis in future. Awaited is the development of more effective PET/CT apparatus and agent (instead of FDG) for detection of small metastatic lesions, axillary lymphatic metastasis, and viable focus after therapeutic treatments. (R.T.)

  19. Prenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of congenital hydrocephalus using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Hiromi; Koresawa, Mitsuhiko; Kubo, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    We studied congenital hydrocephalus in 14 patients who were diagnosed prenatally. As a result, we obtained the following insights concerning the prenatal diagnosis by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and perinatal management of congenital hydrocephalus. Accurate diagnosis of congenital hydrocephalus was impossible prenatally by two-dimensional ultrasonography or computed tomography alone in some patients. MRI was useful for accurate prenatal diagnosis. Problem of MRI in prenatal diagnosis included deterioration of the image by fetal movements and safety concern over the fetus. The cause of hydrocephalus, complicated anomaly, cerebral cortical thickness, and gestational age must be considered in the perinatal management of congenital hydrocephalus. There appeared to be a chance of recovery to a certain extent from thinning of cerebral cortex by decompression in a patient in whom dilation of cerebral ventricles progressed rapidly. (author)

  20. A rapid molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis bycolorimetric malachite green-loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP) combined with an FTA card as a direct sampling tool

    OpenAIRE

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O.; Cáceres, Abraham G.; Guerrero-Quincho, Silvia; Tineo-Villafuerte, Edwin; Rodriquez-Delfin, Luis; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Guevara, Angel G.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most neglected diseases, and early detection of the infectious agent, especially in developing countries, will require a simple and rapid test. In this study, we established a quick, one-step, single-tube, highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Leishmania DNA from tissue materials spotted on an FTA card. An FTA-LAMP with pre-added malachite green was performed at 64 degrees C for 60 mm using a heatin...

  1. Spectrally accurate contour dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, R.D.; Marcus, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    We present an exponentially accurate boundary integral method for calculation the equilibria and dynamics of piece-wise constant distributions of potential vorticity. The method represents contours of potential vorticity as a spectral sum and solves the Biot-Savart equation for the velocity by spectrally evaluating a desingularized contour integral. We use the technique in both an initial-value code and a newton continuation method. Our methods are tested by comparing the numerical solutions with known analytic results, and it is shown that for the same amount of computational work our spectral methods are more accurate than other contour dynamics methods currently in use

  2. Direct analysis of formate in human plasma, serum and whole blood by in-line coupling of microdialysis to capillary electrophoresis for rapid diagnosis of methanol poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kubáň, P. (Pavel); Boček, P. (Petr)

    2013-01-01

    A microdialytic device was in-line coupled to capillary electrophoresis for direct injection of blood samples. Its performance was demonstrated on rapid analysis of formic acid in various blood samples including serum samples of a patient diagnosed with acute methanol poisoning.

  3. Initialization, Prediction and Diagnosis of the Rapid Intensification of Tropical Cyclones using the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator, ACCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    structure on the evolving storm behaviour. 13 7. Large scale influences on Rapid Intensification and Extratropical Transition: RI and ET...assimilation techniques to better initialize and validate TC structures (including the intense inner core and storm asymmetries) consistent with the large...Without vortex specification, initial conditions usually contain a weak and misplaced circulation. Based on estimates of central pressure and storm size

  4. Laboratory Diagnosis of Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna W Peeling

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent antibody assay, and molecular detection methods such as the polymerase chain reaction assay, may provide a rapid diagnosis without the requirement for stringent transport conditions. The results of these tests should be interpreted with caution until more thorough evaluation is available. Serology remains the method of choice. The limitations of different serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of C pneumoniae are discussed.

  5. Rapidly Progressive Corticobasal Degeneration Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Herrero Valverde

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with no specific pathologic substratum. Its accurate diagnosis is a challenge for neurologists; in order to establish CBS definitively, postmortem confirmation is required. Some clinical and radiological features can help to distinguish it from other neurodegenerative conditions, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Clinical Case: A 74-year-old woman presented with language impairment, difficulty in walking and poor attentiveness that had begun 10 days before. Other symptoms, such as asymmetrical extra-pyramidal dysfunction, limb dystonia and ‘alien limb’ phenomena, were established over the next 2 months, with rapid progression. Death occurred 3 months after symptom onset. Laboratory results were normal. Initially, imaging only showed restricted diffusion with bilateral parieto-occipital gyri involvement on DWI-MRI, with unspecific EEG changes. An autopsy was performed. Brain neuropathology confirmed sporadic CJD (sCJD. Conclusions: CBS is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome whose differential diagnosis is extensive. CJD can occasionally present with clinical characteristics resembling CBS. MRI detection of abnormalities in some sequences (FLAIR, DWI, as previously reported, has high diagnostic utility for sCJD diagnosis – especially in early stages – when other tests can still appear normal. Abnormalities on DWI sequencing may not correlate with neuropathological findings, suggesting a functional basis to explain the changes found.

  6. Field Evaluation of Capillary Blood Samples as a Collection Specimen for the Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection During an Outbreak Emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Thomas; Palyi, Bernadett; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jonckheere, Sylvie; de Clerck, Hilde; Bore, Joseph Akoi; Gabriel, Martin; Stoecker, Kilian; Eickmann, Markus; van Herp, Michel; Formenty, Pierre; Di Caro, Antonino; Becker, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    Reliable reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based diagnosis of Ebola virus infection currently requires a blood sample obtained by intravenous puncture. During the current Ebola outbreak in Guinea, we evaluated the usability of capillary blood samples collected from fingersticks of patients suspected of having Ebola virus disease (EVD) for field diagnostics during an outbreak emergency. A total of 120 venous and capillary blood samples were collected from 53 patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Centre in Guéckédou, Guinea, between July and August 2014. All sample specimens were analyzed by RT-PCR using the RealStar Filovirus Screen RT-PCR Kit 1.0 from altona Diagnostics (Germany). We compared samples obtained by venipuncture and those obtained by capillary blood sampling absorbed onto swab devices. The resulting sensitivity and specificity of tests performed with capillary blood samples were 86.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9%-95.6%; 33/38 patients) and 100% (95% CI, 84.6%-100%; 22/22 patients), respectively. Our data suggest that capillary blood samples could serve as an alternative to venous blood samples for the diagnosis of EVD in resource-limited settings during a crisis. This can be of particular advantage in cases when venipuncture is difficult to perform-for example, with newborns and infants or when adult patients reject venipuncture for cultural or religious reasons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  7. Exclusion and diagnosis of pulmonary embolism by a rapid ELISA D-dimer test and noninvasive imaging techniques within the context of a clinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, J J; Pattynama, P M

    2000-01-01

    A negative rapid ELISA D-dimer test alone in out-patients with a low to moderate clinical probability (CP) on pulmonary embolism (PE) is predicted to safely exclude pulmonary embolism. The combination of a negative rapid ELISA D-dimer test and a low to moderate CP on PE followed by compression ultrasonography (CUS) for the detection of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is safe and cost-effective as it reduces the need for noninvasive imaging techniques to about 50% to 60% of outpatients with suspected PE. A high probability ventilation-perfusion (VP) scan or a positive spiral CT consistent with PE and the detection of DVT by CUS are currently considered to be clear indications for anticoagulant treatment. Subsequent pulmonary angiography (PA) is the gold standard diagnostic strategy to exclude or diagnose PE in suspected outpatients with a negative CUS, a positive rapid ELISA D-dimer test, and a nondiagnostic VP scan or negative spiral CT to prevent overtreatment with anticoagulants. However, the willingness of clinicians and the availability of resources to perform PA is restricted, a fact that has provided an impetus for clinical investigators to search for alternative noninvasive strategies to exclude or detect venous thromboembolism (VTE). Serial CUS testing for the detection of DVT in patients with a low to moderate CP on PE and a nondiagnostic VP scan or negative spiral CT is predicted to be safe and will reduce the need for PA to less than 10% or even less than 5%. This noninvasive serial CUS strategy restricts the need for invasive PA to a minor group of patients (spiral CT and a high CP on PE. Prospective evaluations are warranted to implement and to validate the advantages and the disadvantages of the various combinations of noninvasive strategies and to compare serial CUS testing versus PA in randomized clinical management studies of outpatients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

  8. Pathology in a tube step 2: simple rapid fabrication of curved circular cross section millifluidic channels for biopsy preparation/3D imaging towards pancreatic cancer detection and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ronnie; Burfeind, Chris W.; Lim, Saniel D.; Patle, Shubham; Seibel, Eric J.

    2018-02-01

    3D pathology is intrinsically dependent on 3D microscopy, or the whole tissue imaging of patient tissue biopsies (TBs). Consequently, unsectioned needle specimens must be processed whole: a procedure which cannot necessarily be accomplished through manual methods, or by retasking automated pathology machines. Thus "millifluidic" devices (for millimeter-scale biopsies) are an ideal solution for tissue handling/preparation. TBs are large, messy and a solid-liquid mixture; they vary in material, geometry and structure based on the organ biopsied, the clinician skill and the needle type used. As a result, traditional microfluidic devices are insufficient to handle such mm-sized samples and their associated fabrication techniques are impractical and costly with respect to time/efficiency. Our research group has devised a simple, rapid fabrication process for millifluidic devices using jointed skeletal molds composed of machined, reusable metal rods, segmented rods and stranded wire as structural cores; these cores are surrounded by Teflon outer housing. We can therefore produce curving, circular-cross-section (CCCS) millifluidic channels in rapid fashion that cannot normally be achieved by microfabrication, micro-/CNC-machining, or 3D printing. The approach has several advantages. CLINICAL: round channels interface coring needles. PROCESSING: CCCS channels permit multi-layer device designs for additional (processing, monitoring, testing) stages. REUSABILITY: for a biopsy/needle diameter, molding (interchangeable) components may be produced one-time then reused for other designs. RAPID: structural cores can be quickly removed due to Teflon®'s ultra-low friction; housing may be released with ethanol; PDMS volumes cure faster since metal skeleton molds conduct additional heat from within the curing elastomer.

  9. Rapid and accurate synthesis of TALE genes from synthetic oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenghua; Zhang, Hefei; Gao, Jingxia; Chen, Fengjiao; Chen, Sijie; Zhang, Cuizhen; Peng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Custom synthesis of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) genes has relied upon plasmid libraries of pre-fabricated TALE-repeat monomers or oligomers. Here we describe a novel synthesis method that directly incorporates annealed synthetic oligonucleotides into the TALE-repeat units. Our approach utilizes iterative sets of oligonucleotides and a translational frame check strategy to ensure the high efficiency and accuracy of TALE-gene synthesis. TALE arrays of more than 20 repeats can be constructed, and the majority of the synthesized constructs have perfect sequences. In addition, this novel oligonucleotide-based method can readily accommodate design changes to the TALE repeats. We demonstrated an increased gene targeting efficiency against a genomic site containing a potentially methylated cytosine by incorporating non-conventional repeat variable di-residue (RVD) sequences.

  10. Accurate and rapid micromixer for integrated microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, R. Michael; Liu, Kan; Shen, Kwang -Fu Clifton; Tseng, Hsian -Rong

    2015-09-22

    The invention may provide a microfluidic mixer having a droplet generator and a droplet mixer in selective fluid connection with the droplet generator. The droplet generator comprises first and second fluid chambers that are structured to be filled with respective first and second fluids that can each be held in isolation for a selectable period of time. The first and second fluid chambers are further structured to be reconfigured into a single combined chamber to allow the first and second fluids in the first and second fluid chambers to come into fluid contact with each other in the combined chamber for a selectable period of time prior to being brought into the droplet mixer.

  11. Rapid and accurate control rod calibration measurement and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, George W.; Doane, Harry J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to reduce the time needed to perform control rod calibrations and improve the accuracy of the results, a technique for a measurement, analysis, and tabulation of integral rod worths has been developed. A single series of critical rod positions are determined at constant low power to reduce the waiting time between positive period measurements and still assure true stable reactor period data. Reactivity values from positive period measurements and control rod drop measurements are used as input data for a non-linear fit to the expected control rod integral worth shape. With this method, two control rods can be calibrated in about two hours, and integral and differential calibration tables for operator use are printed almost immediately. Listings of the BASIC computer programs for the non-linear fitting and calibration table preparation are provided. (author)

  12. Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer: Presenting Ideas with Concept Maps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moon, Brian M; Hoffman, Robert R

    2008-01-01

    ...) are the preferred medium for presenting complex ideas. Critics have pointed to the slavish, indeed dangerous, use of slideshows, warning of their tendency to reduce the analytic quality of presentations of evidence. The U.S...

  13. Rapid and accurate determination of Stern-Volmer quenching constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodpaster, John V.; McGuffin, Victoria L.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, a novel system has been designed, characterized, and validated for the determination of fluorescence quenching constants. Capillary flow injection methods are used to automate the preparation and mixing of the fluorophore and quencher solutions. Because of the small diameter of the capillary (75-200 μm), fluorescence measurements can be made without corrections for primary and secondary absorbance effects. The fluorescence spectrometer is equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD) that has a detection limit of 3.0x10 -9 M (2.3 ppb) and a linear dynamic range of 10 5 for integration times of 0.01-10 s. This spectrometer has a 300 nm spectral range with 1 nm resolution, allowing the fluorescence quenching constants to be calculated at single wavelengths or over integrated wavelength ranges. This system was validated by comparison to traditional methods for the determination of Stern-Volmer constants for alternant and nonalternant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with nitromethane and triethylamine. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  14. Development of a rapid HRM qPCR for the diagnosis of the four most prevalent Plasmodium lineages in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, E R; Hunter, S; Howe, L

    2017-07-01

    Although wildlife rehabilitation and translocations are important tools in wildlife conservation in New Zealand, disease screening of birds has not been standardized. Additionally, the results of the screening programmes are often difficult to interpret due to missing disease data in resident or translocating avian populations. Molecular methods have become the most widespread method for diagnosing avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) infections. However, these methods can be time-consuming, expensive and are less specific in diagnosing mixed infections. Thus, this study developed a new real-time PCR (qPCR) method that was able to detect and specifically identify infections of the three most common lineages of avian malaria in New Zealand (Plasmodium (Novyella) sp. SYAT05, Plasmodium elongatum GRW6 and Plasmodium spp. LINN1) as well as a less common, pathogenic Plasmodium relictum GRW4 lineage. The assay was also able to discern combinations of these parasites in the same sample and had a detection limit of five parasites per microlitre. Due to concerns relating to the presence of the potentially highly pathogenic P. relictum GRW4 lineage in avian populations, an additional confirmatory high resolution (HRM) qPCR was developed to distinguish between commonly identified P. elongatum GRW6 from P. relictum GRW4. The new qPCR assays were tested using tissue samples containing Plasmodium schizonts from three naturally infected dead birds resulting in the identified infection of P. elongatum GRW6. Thus, these rapid qPCR assays have shown to be cost-effective and rapid screening tools for the detection of Plasmodium infection in New Zealand native birds.

  15. Assessment and comparative analysis of a rapid diagnostic test (Tubex® for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among hospitalized children in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoo Aikande

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Typhoid fever remains a significant health problem in many developing countries. A rapid test with a performance comparable to that of blood culture would be highly useful. A rapid diagnostic test for typhoid fever, Tubex®, is commercially available that uses particle separation to detect immunoglobulin M directed towards Salmonella Typhi O9 lipopolysaccharide in sera. Methods We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the Tubex test among Tanzanian children hospitalized with febrile illness using blood culture as gold standard. Evaluation was done considering blood culture confirmed S. Typhi with non-typhi salmonella (NTS and non - salmonella isolates as controls as well as with non-salmonella isolates only. Results Of 139 samples tested with Tubex, 33 were positive for S. Typhi in blood culture, 49 were culture-confirmed NTS infections, and 57 were other non-salmonella infections. Thirteen hemolyzed samples were excluded. Using all non - S. Typhi isolates as controls, we showed a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 89%. When the analysis was repeated excluding NTS from the pool of controls we showed a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 97%. There was no significant difference in the test performance using the two different control groups (p > 0.05. Conclusion This first evaluation of the Tubex test in an African setting showed a similar performance to those seen in some Asian settings. Comparison with the earlier results of a Widal test using the same samples showed no significant difference (p > 0.05 for any of the performance indicators, irrespective of the applied control group.

  16. Evaluation of Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) and the string test for rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Meredith H; Reimer-McAtee, Melissa J; Gilman, Robert H; Lozano, Daniel; Saravia, Ruth; Pajuelo, Monica; Bern, Caryn; Castro, Rosario; Espinoza, Magaly; Vallejo, Maya; Solano, Marco; Challapa, Roxana; Torrico, Faustino

    2015-06-06

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death in HIV-positive people worldwide. Diagnosing TB is difficult, and is more challenging in resource-scarce settings where culture-based diagnostic methods rely on poorly sensitive smear microscopy by Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN). We performed a cross-sectional study examining the diagnostic utility of Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility liquid culture (MODS) versus traditional Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN) and Lowenstein Jensen culture (LJ) of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) in HIV-infected patients in Bolivia. For sputum scarce individuals we assessed the value of the string test and induced sputum for TB diagnosis. The presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the sputum of 107 HIV-positive patients was evaluated by ZN, LJ, and MODS. Gastric secretion samples obtained by the string test were evaluated by MODS in 102 patients. The TB-HIV co-infection rate of HIV patients with respiratory symptoms by sputum sample was 45 % (48/107); 46/48 (96 %) were positive by MODS, 38/48 (79 %) by LJ, and 30/48 (63 %) by ZN. The rate of MDRTB was 9 % (4/48). Median time to positive culture was 10 days by MODS versus 34 days by LJ (p Bolivia.

  17. Clinical screening of paraquat in plasma samples using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection: Towards rapid diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of acute paraquat poisoning in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh Phuong; Nguyen, Thi Ngan; Do, Thi Trang; Doan, Thu Ha; Ha, Tran Hung; Ta, Thi Thao; Nguyen, Hung Long; Hauser, Peter C; Nguyen, Thi Anh Huong; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2017-08-15

    The employment of a purpose-made capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C 4 D) as a simple and cost-effective solution for clinical screening of paraquat in plasma samples for early-stage diagnosis of acute herbicide poisoning is reported. Paraquat was determined using an electrolyte composed of 10mM histidine adjusted to pH 4 with acetic acid. A detection limit of 0.5mg/L was achieved. Good agreement between results from CE-C 4 D and the confirmation method (HPLC-UV) was obtained, with relative errors for the two pairs of data better than 20% for 31 samples taken from paraquat-intoxicated patients. The results were used by medical doctors for identification and prognosis of acute paraquat poisoning cases. The objective of the work is the deployment of the developed approach in rural areas in Vietnam as a low-cost solution to reduce the mortality rate due to accidental or suicidal ingestion of paraquat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  19. Comparasion of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, immuno-electron microscopy (IEM and enzyme immunoassay (EIA for the rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Pereira

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of rotavirus RNA by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE proved to be a highly sensitive and rapid diagnostic test. A comparison of this assay with immuno-electron microscopy (IEM and enzyme immunoassay (EIA in 245 faeces from children with gastroenteritis revealed complete agreement between the three assays in 238 (97.14% samples. Among 75 samples positive in at least one of the three assays, negative results were observed in 5 (6.48% by PAGE, in 6 (6.76% by EIA and in none by IEM. Silver staining greatly increased the sensitivity of the PAGE assay. We conclude that although IEM remains the most sensitive and rapid rotavirus diagnostic assay, the PAGE technique has many advantages in its favour, including the non-requirement of expensive equipment, the use of only chemically defined reagents and the capacity to distinguish virus subgroup and variants and to detect non-crossreactive rotaviruses which are missed in serological assays.A evidenciação da presença de ácido ribonucleico (ARN viral por eletroforese em gel de policrilamida (EGPA foi comprovada como um método altamente sensível e rápido para o diagnóstico de infecções por rotavirus. Uma comparação desta prova com a imunomicroscopia eletrônica (IEM e com o ensaio imunoenzimático (EIE no exame de 245 fezes de crianças com gastroenterite revelou completa concordancia entre os três ensaios em 238 (97.14% amostras. Entre 75 amostras positivas pelo menos em um dos três ensaios, resultados negativos foram observados em 5 (6.48% por EGPA, em 6 (6.76% por EIE e em nenhum por IEM. Coloração pela prata aumentou consideravelmente a sensibilidade do ensaio por EGPA. Concluímos que embora a IEM ainda seja a prova mais sensível e rápida para o diagnóstico de infecções por rotavirus, o ensaio por EGPA tem muitas vantagens em seu favor, sendo as principais as de não necessitar equipamentos caros, de empregar exclusivamente reagentes quimicamente definidos, de

  20. Simultaneous and rapid differential diagnosis of Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum based on a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mirnejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this investigation was to simultaneously detect and differentiate Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in female patients suffering from genital complications by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Materials and Methods : Genital swabs were taken from 210 patients. They were transported to the laboratory in phosphate-buffered saline. For PCR, samples were analysed with genus-specific MyUu-R and MyUu-F primers. This primer set, which was originally designed in our laboratory, amplified a 465 bp fragment (M. genitalium and a 559 bp fragment (U. urealyticum. Samples containing a band of the expected sizes for the Mycoplasma strains were subjected to digestion with a restriction endonuclease enzyme of TaqI and Cac8I. Results: Of the 210 samples, a total of 100 (47.6% samples were found to be positive for Mycoplasmas (seven M. genitalium isolates, 3.3%; and 89 U. urealyticum isolates, 42.4%, and coinfections with both species were detected in four samples (1.9%. The PCR-RFLP results showed that M. genitalium and U. urealyticum are different by enzyme patterns. Conclusion: PCR-RFLP offers a rapid and easily applicable protocol to simultaneous detection and differentiation of M. genitalium and U. urealyticum from clinical samples when specific primers and restriction enzymes are used.

  1. Rapid diagnosis of virulent Pasteurella multocida isolated from farm animals with clinical manifestation of pneumonia respiratory infection using 16S rDNA and KMT1 gene

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    Gamal Mohamedin Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize intra-isolates variation between clinical isolates of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida isolated from sheep, cattle and buffalo at molecular level to check the distribution of pneumonia and hemorrhagic septicemia in some regions of Fayoum, Egypt. Methods: These isolates were obtained from various locations in the Fayoum Governorate, Egypt and they were identified by amplifying 16S rDNA and KMT1 genes using their DNA as a template in PCR reaction. Results: The results demonstrated that the five selective isolates of P. multocida had similar size of PCR products that generated one band of 16S rDNA having 1 471 bp and KMT1 gene having 460 bp. The phylogenetic tree and similarity of the five selective isolates of P. multocida which were collected from GenBank database were calculated and analyzed for the nucleotide sequence of 16S rDNA and KMT1 genes. The sequencing result of 16S rRNA gene product (1 471 bp for the five selective isolates of P. multocida showed that the isolates of sheep (FUP2 shared 94.08%, 88.10% homology with the buffalo isolate (FUP8 and cattle isolate (FUP9 respectively, whereas, the buffalo isolate (FUP5 shared 98.18% and 94.40% homology with the cattle isolates (FUP12 and FUP9. Conclusions: The results indicated the relationships of P. multocida isolated from buffalo and cattle rather than the close relationships between P. multocida isolated from cattle and sheep. Diagnosis of P. multocida by 16S rDNA and KMT1 gene sequences was important to determine the antigen that is responsible for protective cover within the same group of animals and to help for the production of new vaccines for the control of microbial infection for domestic animals.

  2. Examining appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria: availability and use of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy in public and private health facilities in south east Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzochukwu Benjamin SC

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT have been widely advocated by government and the international community as cost-effective tools for diagnosis and treatment of malaria. ACTs are now the first line treatment drug for malaria in Nigeria and RDTs have been introduced by the government to bridge the existing gaps in proper diagnosis. However, it is not known how readily available these RDTs and ACTs are in public and private health facilities and whether health workers are actually using them. Hence, this study investigated the levels of availability and use of RDTs and ACTs in these facilities. Methods The study was undertaken in Enugu state, southeast Nigeria in March 2009. Data was collected from heads of 74 public and private health facilities on the availability and use of RDTs and ACTs. Also, the availability of RDTs and the types of ACTs that were available in the facilities were documented. Results Only 31.1% of the health facilities used RDTs to diagnose malaria. The majority used the syndromic approach. However, 61.1% of healthcare providers were aware of RDTs. RDTs were available in 53.3% of the facilities. Public health facilities and health facilities in the urban areas were using RDTs more and these were mainly bought from pharmacy shops and supplied by NGOs. The main reasons given for non use are unreliability of RDTs, supply issues, costs, preference for other methods of diagnosis and providers' ignorance. ACTs were the drug of choice for most public health facilities and the drugs were readily available in these facilities. Conclusion Although many providers were knowledgeable about RDTs, not many facilities used it. ACTS were readily available and used in public but not private health facilities. However, the reported use of ACTs with limited proper diagnosis implies that there could be high incidence of inappropriate case management of malaria which can also increase

  3. Informed decision-making before changing to RDT: a comparison of microscopy, rapid diagnostic test and molecular techniques for the diagnosis and identification of malaria parasites in Kassala, eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mamoun M M; Nour, Bakri Y M; Sedig, Mohamed F; De Bes, Laura; Babikir, Adil M; Mohamedani, Ahmed A; Mens, Petra F

    2010-12-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are promoted for the diagnosis of malaria in many countries. The question arises whether laboratories where the current method of diagnosis is microscopy should also switch to RDT. This problem was studied in Kassala, Sudan where the issue of switching to RDT is under discussion. Two hundred and three blood samples were collected from febrile patients suspected of having malaria. These were subsequently analysed with microscopy, RDT (SD Bioline P.f/P.v) and PCR for the detection and identification of Plasmodium parasites. Malaria parasites were detected in 36 blood samples when examined microscopically, 54 (26.6%) samples were found positive for malaria parasites by RDT, and 44 samples were positive by PCR. Further analysis showed that the RDT used in our study resulted in a relatively high number of false positive samples. When microscopy was compared with PCR, an agreement of 96.1% and k = 0.88 (sensitivity 85.7% and specificity 100%) was found. However, when RDT was compared with PCR, an agreement of only 81.2 and k = 0.48 (sensitivity 69% and specificity 84%) was found. PCR has proven to be one of the most specific and sensitive diagnostic methods, particularly for malaria cases with low parasitaemia. However, this technique has limitations in its routine use under resource-limited conditions, such as our study location. At present, based on these results, microscopy remains the best option for routine diagnosis of malaria in Kassala, eastern Sudan. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Development of single-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays for rapid diagnosis of enterovirus 71, coxsackievirus A6, and A16 in patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chansaenroj, Jira; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Poovorawan, Yong

    2017-10-01

    Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) has facilitated the rapid and accurate identification of the two most common etiological agents underlying hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). However, the worldwide emergence of CV-A6 infection in HFMD necessitates development of an improved multiplex rRT-PCR method. To rapidly determine the etiology of HFMD, two rRT-PCR assays using TaqMan probes were developed to differentiate among three selected common enteroviruses (EV-A71, CV-A16 and CV-A6) and to enable broad detection of enteroviruses (pan-enterovirus assay). No cross-reactions were observed with other RNA viruses examined. The detection limits of both assays were 10 copies per microliter for EV-A71, CV-A6 and CV-A16, and pan-enterovirus. The methods showed high accuracy (EV-A71, 90.6%; CV-A6, 92.0%; CV-A16, 100%), sensitivity (EV-A71, 96.5%; CV-A6, 95.8%; CV-A16, 99.0%), and specificity (EV-A71, 100%; CV-A6, 99.9%; CV-A16, 99.9%) in testing clinical specimens (n=1049) during 2014-2016, superior to those of conventional RT-PCR. Overall, the multiplex rRT-PCR assays enabled highly sensitive detection and rapid simultaneous typing of EV-A71, CV-A6 and CV-A16, and enteroviruses, rendering them feasible and attractive methods for large-scale surveillance of enteroviruses associated with HFMD outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of complement fixation and ELISA for diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, P.H.; Gonzalez, S.; Orue, P.M.; Vergara, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus is characterised by its rapid transmission and its great antigenic variability which require a requires a rapid and accurate diagnosis in the laboratory, in order to initiate an immediate response for control. From these studies it is clear that Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has the advantage over the Complement fixation test (CFT) of being a test of high sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, this technique is now used in our laboratory for diagnosis to detect FMD virus (O-A-C) in epithelia from animals affected by the disease. (author)

  6. Accurate Diagnosis of Pediatric Active Tuberculosis and Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Rapid detection of small oscillation faults via deterministic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Chen, Tianrui

    2011-08-01

    Detection of small faults is one of the most important and challenging tasks in the area of fault diagnosis. In this paper, we present an approach for the rapid detection of small oscillation faults based on a recently proposed deterministic learning (DL) theory. The approach consists of two phases: the training phase and the test phase. In the training phase, the system dynamics underlying normal and fault oscillations are locally accurately approximated through DL. The obtained knowledge of system dynamics is stored in constant radial basis function (RBF) networks. In the diagnosis phase, rapid detection is implemented. Specially, a bank of estimators are constructed using the constant RBF neural networks to represent the training normal and fault modes. By comparing the set of estimators with the test monitored system, a set of residuals are generated, and the average L(1) norms of the residuals are taken as the measure of the differences between the dynamics of the monitored system and the dynamics of the training normal mode and oscillation faults. The occurrence of a test oscillation fault can be rapidly detected according to the smallest residual principle. A rigorous analysis of the performance of the detection scheme is also given. The novelty of the paper lies in that the modeling uncertainty and nonlinear fault functions are accurately approximated and then the knowledge is utilized to achieve rapid detection of small oscillation faults. Simulation studies are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  8. Laboratory Diagnosis of Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Marie Louise; St George, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    -The rapid and accurate diagnosis of Zika virus infection is an international priority. -To review current recommendations, methods, limitations, and priorities for Zika virus testing. -Sources include published literature, public health recommendations, laboratory procedures, and testing experience. -Until recently, the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection was confined to public health or research laboratories that prepared their own reagents, and test capacity has been limited. Furthermore, Zika cross-reacts serologically with other flaviviruses, such as dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever. Current or past infection, or even vaccination with another flavivirus, will often cause false-positive or uninterpretable Zika serology results. Detection of viral RNA during acute infection using nucleic acid amplification tests provides more specific results, and a number of commercial nucleic acid amplification tests have received emergency use authorization. In addition to serum, testing of whole blood and urine is recommended because of the higher vial loads and longer duration of shedding. However, nucleic acid amplification testing has limited utility because many patients are asymptomatic or present for testing after the brief period of Zika shedding has passed. Thus, the greatest need and most difficult challenge is development of accurate antibody tests for the diagnosis of recent Zika infection. Research is urgently needed to identify Zika virus epitopes that do not cross-react with other flavivirus antigens. New information is emerging at a rapid pace and, with ongoing public-private and international collaborations and government support, it is hoped that rapid progress will be made in developing robust and widely applicable diagnostic tools.

  9. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancing TB case detection: experience in offering upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing to pediatric presumptive TB and DR TB cases for early rapid diagnosis of drug sensitive and drug resistant TB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Raizada

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in children is challenging due to difficulties in obtaining good quality sputum specimens as well as the paucibacillary nature of disease. Globally a large proportion of pediatric tuberculosis (TB cases are diagnosed based only on clinical findings. Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive and specific rapid tool, offers a promising solution in addressing these challenges. This study presents the results from pediatric groups taking part in a large demonstration study wherein Xpert MTB/RIF testing replaced smear microscopy for all presumptive PTB cases in public health facilities across India.The study covered a population of 8.8 million across 18 programmatic sub-district level tuberculosis units (TU, with one Xpert MTB/RIF platform established at each study TU. Pediatric presumptive PTB cases (both TB and Drug Resistant TB (DR-TB accessing any public health facilities in study area were prospectively enrolled and tested on Xpert MTB/RIF following a standardized diagnostic algorithm.4,600 pediatric presumptive pulmonary TB cases were enrolled. 590 (12.8%, CI 11.8-13.8 pediatric PTB were diagnosed. Overall 10.4% (CI 9.5-11.2 of presumptive PTB cases had positive results by Xpert MTB/RIF, compared with 4.8% (CI 4.2-5.4 who had smear-positive results. Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of presumptive PTB and presumptive DR-TB cases resulted in diagnosis of 79 and 12 rifampicin resistance cases, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV for rifampicin resistance detection was high (98%, CI 90.1-99.9, with no statistically significant variation with respect to past history of treatment.Upfront access to Xpert MTB/RIF testing in pediatric presumptive PTB cases was associated with a two-fold increase in bacteriologically-confirmed PTB, and increased detection of rifampicin-resistant TB cases under routine operational conditions across India. These results suggest that routine Xpert MTB/RIF testing is a promising

  11. Assessment of an outreach street-based HIV rapid testing programme as a strategy to promote early diagnosis: a comparison with two surveillance systems in Spain, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, M J; Hoyos, J; Fernández-Balbuena, S; Diaz, A; Bravo, M J; de la Fuente, L

    2015-04-09

    We assess the added value of a multisite, street-based HIV rapid testing programme by comparing its results to pre-existing services and assessing its potential to reduce ongoing transmission. Between 2008 and 2011, 8,923 individuals underwent testing. We compare outcomes with those of a network of 20 sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV clinics (EPI-VIH) and the Spanish National HIV Surveillance System (SNHSS); evaluate whether good visibility prompts testing and assess whether it reaches under-tested populations. 89.2% of the new infections were in men who have sex with men (MSM) vs 78.0% in EPI-VIH and 56.0% in SNHSS. 83.6% of the MSM were linked to care and 20.9% had VIH. 56.5% of the HIV-positive MSM tested because they happened to see the programme, 18.4% were previously untested and 26.3% had their last test ≥2 years ago. The programme provided linkage to care and early diagnosis mainly to MSM but attendees presented a lower HIV prevalence than EPI-VIH. From a cost perspective it would benefit from being implemented in locations highly frequented by MSM. Conversely, its good visibility led to reduced periods of undiagnosed infection in a high proportion of MSM who were not testing with the recommended frequency.

  12. The case for early use of rapid whole genome sequencing in management of critically ill infants: Late diagnosis of Coffin-Siris syndrome in an infant with left congenital diaphragmatic hernia, congenital heart disease and recurrent infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Nathaly M; Nahas, Shareef A; Chowdhury, Shimul; Del Campo, Miguel; Jones, Marilyn C; Dimmock, David P; Kingsmore, Stephen F; Investigators, Rcigm

    2018-03-16

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) results from incomplete formation of the diaphragm leading to herniation of abdominal organs into the thoracic cavity. CDH is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia, congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. Genetically, it is associated with aneuploidies, chromosomal copy number variants, and single gene mutations. CDH is the most expensive non-cardiac congenital defect: Management frequently requires implementation of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO), which increases management expenditures 2.4 - 3.5-fold. The cost of management of CDH has been estimated to exceed $250 million per year. Despite in hospital survival of 80-90%, current management is imperfect, as a great proportion of surviving children have long-term functional deficits. We report the case of a premature infant prenatally diagnosed with CDH and congenital heart disease, who had a protracted and complicated course in the intensive care unit with multiple surgical interventions, including post-cardiac surgery ECMO, gastrostomy tube placement with Nissen fundoplication, tracheostomy for respiratory failure, recurrent infections and developmental delay. Rapid whole genome sequencing (rWGS) identified a de novo, likely pathogenic, c.3096_3100delCAAAG (p.Lys1033Argfs*32) variant in ARID1B, providing a diagnosis of Coffin-Siris syndrome. Her parents elected palliative care and she died later that day. Had rWGS been performed as a neonate, eight months of suffering and futile healthcare utilization may have been avoided. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide detection based on reflection: from a poison test approach of ancient China to single-cell accurate localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hao; Ma, Zhuoran; Wang, Song; Gong, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2014-08-05

    With the inspiration of an ancient Chinese poison test approach, we report a rapid hydrogen sulfide detection strategy in specific areas of live cells using silver needles with good spatial resolution of 2 × 2 μm(2). Besides the accurate-localization ability, this reflection-based strategy also has attractive merits of convenience and robust response when free pretreatment and short detection time are concerned. The success of endogenous H2S level evaluation in cellular cytoplasm and nuclear of human A549 cells promises the application potential of our strategy in scientific research and medical diagnosis.

  14. Evaluation of RT-PCR Assay for Routine Laboratory Diagnosis of Rabies in Post Mortem Brain Samples from Different Species of Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Aravindh Babu, R. P.; Manoharan, S.; Ramadass, P.; Chandran, N. D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rabies in domestic and wild animals continues to be a major public health threat in India. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of rabies in animals is therefore of utmost importance as the individuals who were in contact with the rabid animals are at a greater risk. A significant amount of diagnostic tissue samples submitted to our laboratory are often autolysed and the WHO recommended direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for rabies diagnosis cannot be used in such samples. In this pilot study we ...

  15. A new simple and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method for quantification of plasma oxysterols as dimethylaminobutyrate esters. Its successful use for the diagnosis of Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenzi, Sara; Deodato, Federica; Taurisano, Roberta; Martinelli, Diego; Verrigni, Daniela; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Bertini, Enrico; Pastore, Anna; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Johnson, David W

    2014-11-01

    Two oxysterols, cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol (C-triol) and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC), have been recently proposed as diagnostic markers of Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease, representing a potential alternative diagnostic tool to the more invasive and time consuming filipin test in cultured fibroblasts. Usually, the oxysterols are detected and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or electro-spray-ionization (ESI) sources, after a variety of derivatization procedures to enhance sensitivity. We developed a sensitive LC-MS/MS method to quantify the oxysterols in plasma as dimethylaminobutyrate ester, suitable for ESI analysis. This method, with an easy liquid-phase extraction and a short derivatization procedure, has been validated to demonstrate specificity, linearity, recovery, lowest limit of quantification, accuracy and precision. The assay was linear over a concentration range of 0.5-200ng/mL for C-triol and 1.0-200ng/mL for 7-KC. Intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation (CV%) were <15% for both metabolites. Receiver operating characteristic analysis estimates that the area under curve was 0.998 for C-triol, and 0.972 for 7-KC, implying a significant discriminatory power for the method in this patient population of both oxysterols. In summary, our method provides a simple, rapid and non-invasive diagnostic tool for the biochemical diagnosis of NP-C disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Field evaluation of a PfHRP-2/pLDH rapid diagnostic test and light microscopy for diagnosis and screening of falciparum malaria during the peak seasonal transmission in an endemic area in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alareqi, Lina M Q; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Ali, Arwa A; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Tawfek, Rehab; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-01-28

    Malaria is a public health threat in Yemen, with 149,451 cases being reported in 2013. Of these, Plasmodium falciparum represents 99%. Prompt diagnosis by light microscopy (LM) and rapid diagnostic tests (RTDs) is a key element in the national strategy of malaria control. The heterogeneous epidemiology of malaria in the country necessitates the field evaluation of the current diagnostic strategies, especially RDTs. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate LM and an RDT, combining both P. falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH), for falciparum malaria diagnosis and survey in a malaria-endemic area during the transmission season against nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference method. A household-based, cross-sectional malaria survey was conducted in Mawza District, a malaria-endemic area in Taiz governorate. A total of 488 participants were screened using LM and PfHRP-2/pLDH RDT. Positive samples (160) and randomly selected negative samples (52) by both RDT and LM were further analysed using 18S rRNA-based nested PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the RDT were 96.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 90.9-98.3), 56.0% (95% CI: 44.7-66.8), 76.3% (95% CI: 69.0-82.3), and 90.4% (95% CI: 78.8-96.8), respectively. On the other hand, LM showed sensitivity of 37.6% (95% CI: 29.6-46.3), specificity of 97.6% (95% CI: 91.7-99.7), PPV of 95.9% (95% CI: 86.3-98.9), and NPV of 51.3% (95% CI: 43.2-59.2). The sensitivity of LM dropped to 8.5% for detecting asymptomatic malaria. Malaria prevalence was 32.8% (32.1 and 37.5% for ≥10 and <10 years, respectively) with the RDT compared with 10.7% (10.8 and 9.4% for age groups of ≥10 and <10 years, respectively) with LM. Among asymptomatic malaria individuals, LM and RDT-based prevalence rates were 1.6 and 25.6%, respectively. However, rates of 88.2 and 94.1% of infection with P. falciparum were found

  17. Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galant, D. C.; Goorvitch, D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schrodinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.

  18. Imaging diagnosis in jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, A.

    1985-01-01

    For a patient presenting with jaundice, ultrasonography is the most rapid and sure way of ascertaining whether the jaundice is due to biliary obstruction of a macroscopic surgical nature rather than of an intrahepatic microscopic nature. Diagnosis could be done by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or computed tomography. These methods as well as radionuclide scintigraphy are discussed

  19. Towards accurate emergency response behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.O.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear reactor operator emergency response behavior has persisted as a training problem through lack of information. The industry needs an accurate definition of operator behavior in adverse stress conditions, and training methods which will produce the desired behavior. Newly assembled information from fifty years of research into human behavior in both high and low stress provides a more accurate definition of appropriate operator response, and supports training methods which will produce the needed control room behavior. The research indicates that operator response in emergencies is divided into two modes, conditioned behavior and knowledge based behavior. Methods which assure accurate conditioned behavior, and provide for the recovery of knowledge based behavior, are described in detail

  20. Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2001-07-01

    The algorithm developed for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provides guidelines for the treatment of paediatric malaria. In areas where malaria is endemic, for example, the IMCI strategy may indicate that children who present with fever, a recent history of fever and/or pallor should receive antimalarial chemotherapy. In many holo-endemic areas, it is unclear whether laboratory tests to confirm that such signs are the result of malaria would be very relevant or useful. Children from a holo-endemic region of Tanzania were therefore checked for malarial parasites by microscopy and by using two rapid immunochromatographic tests (RIT) for the diagnosis of malaria (ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal. At the time they were tested, each of these children had been targeted for antimalarial treatment (following the IMCI strategy) because of fever and/or pallor. Only 70% of the 395 children classified to receive antimalarial drugs by the IMCI algorithm had malarial parasitaemias (68.4% had Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites, 1.3% only P. falciparum gametocytes, 0.3% P. ovale and 0.3% P. malariae). As indicators of P. falciparum trophozoites in the peripheral blood, fever had a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 15.5% whereas pallor had a sensitivity of 72.2% and a specificity of 50.8%. The RIT both had very high corresponding sensitivities (of 100.0% for the ICT and 94.0% for OptiMal) but the specificity of the ICT (74.0%) was significantly lower than that for OptiMal (100.0%). Fever and pallor were significantly associated with the P. falciparum asexual parasitaemias that equalled or exceeded the threshold intensity (2000/microl) that has the optimum sensitivity and specificity for the definition of a malarial episode. Diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLR) showed that a positive result in the OptiMal test (DLR = infinity) was a better indication of malaria than a positive result in the ICT (DLR = 3.85). In fact, OptiMal had diagnostic reliability (0

  1. Autism: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Donate Home What is Autism? What is Autism? ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Diagnosis Home / What is Autism? / Diagnosis Expand Medical ...

  2. Comparison of the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Toluidine Red Unheated Serum Test and the CSF Rapid Plasma Reagin Test with the CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory Test for Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis among HIV-Negative Syphilis Patients in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Gu, Xin; Peng, Rui-Rui; Wang, Cuini; Gao, Zixiao; Gao, Ying; Shi, Mei; Guan, Zhifang; Seña, Arlene C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the performance of nontreponemal antibody tests in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from syphilis patients. From September 2009 to September 2012, CSF specimens were collected at the Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital in Shanghai, China, from 1,132 syphilis patients without HIV infection, including 154 with symptomatic and 56 with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. All of the CSF specimens underwent testing with a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, an RPR-V (commercial RPR antigen diluted 1:2 in 10% saline) test, the toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST), and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Specificities, sensitivities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and kappa values were calculated to determine the performances of the tests. We compared results of the CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST among patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic neurosyphilis who had reactive CSF-Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test results. Overall, the CSF-VDRL test was reactive in 261 patients (23.1%). There were no cases in which the CSF-VDRL was nonreactive and CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, or CSF-TRUST was reactive. Agreement between the results of CSF-TRUST and CSF-RPR was almost perfect (κ = 0.861), with substantial agreement between the results of CSF-RPR and CSF-RPR-V (κ = 0.740). The sensitivities of CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST were 81.4%, 76.2%, 79.5%, and 76.2%, respectively. Compared to CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST had comparable PPVs and NPVs. However, the specificity of CSF-VDRL (90.3%) was significantly lower than those of the other tests (92.7 to 93.4%). Therefore, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST can be considered alternative tests for neurosyphilis diagnosis in HIV-negative populations, particularly when the CSF-VDRL is not available. PMID:24335955

  3. PCR/LDR/universal array platforms for the diagnosis of infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingle, Maneesh; Rundell, Mark; Das, Sanchita; Golightly, Linnie M; Barany, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases account for between 14 and 17 million deaths worldwide each year. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections is therefore essential to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. Classical microbiological and serological methods have long served as the gold standard for diagnosis but are increasingly being replaced by molecular diagnostic methods that demonstrate increased sensitivity and specificity and provide an identification of the etiologic agent in a shorter period of time. PCR/LDR coupled with universal array detection provides a highly sensitive and specific platform for the detection and identification of bacterial and viral infections.

  4. Labeling of antibiotics for infection diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, A.; Roca, M.; Martin-Comin, J.

    2006-01-01

    The high impact of infection on daily clinical practice has promoted research into better and more accurate diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Localizing inflammation/infection with nuclear medicine techniques began over 40 years ago. Today, 6 7G a-scintigraphy, 9 9mT c-nanocolloid, 1 11I n and 9 9mT c in vitro labeled leukocytes, and monoclonal anti granulocyte antibodies are widely available for this purpose. While these methods are useful for localizing inflammation, they cannot always differentiate septic from aseptic processes. The ideal properties of an agent for diagnosing infection include: high specificity, early diagnosis, rapid blood clearance, ease of preparation, low toxicity, biodistribution appropriate for the disease under study, absence of immunologic response and low cost. A novel approach to infection diagnosis is the use of radiolabelled antibiotics. Antibiotics localize in the infectious focus, where they are frequently taken up and metabolized by microorganisms. The majority of the various antibiotics studied so far are those of the quinolones group (ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin). More recently, the labeling of ceftizoxime, a semisynthetic third generation cephalosporin, has been reported. The relevant features of labeled antibiotics in research and/or clinical infection diagnosis are the focus of this article

  5. When Is Network Lasso Accurate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The “least absolute shrinkage and selection operator” (Lasso method has been adapted recently for network-structured datasets. In particular, this network Lasso method allows to learn graph signals from a small number of noisy signal samples by using the total variation of a graph signal for regularization. While efficient and scalable implementations of the network Lasso are available, only little is known about the conditions on the underlying network structure which ensure network Lasso to be accurate. By leveraging concepts of compressed sensing, we address this gap and derive precise conditions on the underlying network topology and sampling set which guarantee the network Lasso for a particular loss function to deliver an accurate estimate of the entire underlying graph signal. We also quantify the error incurred by network Lasso in terms of two constants which reflect the connectivity of the sampled nodes.

  6. The Accurate Particle Tracer Code

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for large-scale particle simulations on dynamical systems. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and non-linear problems. Under the well-designed integrated and modularized framework, APT serves as a universal platform for researchers from different fields, such as plasma physics, accelerator physics, space science, fusio...

  7. Accurate x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deslattes, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Heavy ion accelerators are the most flexible and readily accessible sources of highly charged ions. These having only one or two remaining electrons have spectra whose accurate measurement is of considerable theoretical significance. Certain features of ion production by accelerators tend to limit the accuracy which can be realized in measurement of these spectra. This report aims to provide background about spectroscopic limitations and discuss how accelerator operations may be selected to permit attaining intrinsically limited data

  8. Accurate control testing for clay liner permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R J

    1991-08-01

    Two series of centrifuge tests were carried out to evaluate the use of centrifuge modelling as a method of accurate control testing of clay liner permeability. The first series used a large 3 m radius geotechnical centrifuge and the second series a small 0.5 m radius machine built specifically for research on clay liners. Two permeability cells were fabricated in order to provide direct data comparisons between the two methods of permeability testing. In both cases, the centrifuge method proved to be effective and efficient, and was found to be free of both the technical difficulties and leakage risks normally associated with laboratory permeability testing of fine grained soils. Two materials were tested, a consolidated kaolin clay having an average permeability coefficient of 1.2{times}10{sup -9} m/s and a compacted illite clay having a permeability coefficient of 2.0{times}10{sup -11} m/s. Four additional tests were carried out to demonstrate that the 0.5 m radius centrifuge could be used for linear performance modelling to evaluate factors such as volumetric water content, compaction method and density, leachate compatibility and other construction effects on liner leakage. The main advantages of centrifuge testing of clay liners are rapid and accurate evaluation of hydraulic properties and realistic stress modelling for performance evaluations. 8 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Accurate determination of antenna directivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Mikael

    1997-01-01

    The derivation of a formula for accurate estimation of the total radiated power from a transmitting antenna for which the radiated power density is known in a finite number of points on the far-field sphere is presented. The main application of the formula is determination of directivity from power......-pattern measurements. The derivation is based on the theory of spherical wave expansion of electromagnetic fields, which also establishes a simple criterion for the required number of samples of the power density. An array antenna consisting of Hertzian dipoles is used to test the accuracy and rate of convergence...

  10. Investigating rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in Parkinson's disease using the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolitho, Samuel J; Naismith, Sharon L; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R; Melehan, Kerri; Yee, Brendon J; Coeytaux, Alessandra; Gilat, Moran; Lewis, Simon J G

    2014-05-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Accurate diagnosis is essential for managing this condition. Furthermore, the emergence of idiopathic RBD in later life can represent a premotor feature, heralding the development of PD. Reliable, accurate methods for identifying RBD may offer a window for early intervention. This study sought to identify whether the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) and three questionnaires focused on dream enactment were able to correctly identify patients with REM without atonia (RWA), the neurophysiological hallmark of RBD. Forty-six patients with PD underwent neurological and sleep assessment in addition to completing the RBDSQ, the RBD single question (RBD1Q), and the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ). The REM atonia index was derived for all participants as an objective measure of RWA. Patients identified to be RBD positive on the RBDSQ did not show increased RWA on polysomnography (80% sensitivity and 55% specificity). However, patients positive for RBD on questionnaires specific to dream enactment correctly identified higher degrees of RWA and improved the diagnostic accuracy of these questionnaires. This study suggests that the RBDSQ does not accurately identify RWA, essential for diagnosing RBD in PD. Furthermore, the results suggest that self-report measures of RBD need to focus questions on dream enactment behavior to better identify RWA and RBD. Further studies are needed to develop accurate determination and quantification of RWA in RBD to improve management of patients with PD in the future. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Rapidly Progressive Quadriplegia and Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, DonRaphael; McCorquodale, Donald; Peters, Angela; Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, Gordon; Ansari, Safdar

    2016-11-01

    A woman aged 77 years was transferred to our neurocritical care unit for evaluation and treatment of rapidly progressive motor weakness and encephalopathy. Examination revealed an ability to follow simple commands only and abnormal movements, including myoclonus, tongue and orofacial dyskinesias, and opsoclonus. Imaging study findings were initially unremarkable, but when repeated, they demonstrated enhancement of the cauda equina nerve roots, trigeminal nerve, and pachymeninges. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed mildly elevated white blood cell count and protein levels. Serial electrodiagnostic testing demonstrated a rapidly progressive diffuse sensory motor axonopathy, and electroencephalogram findings progressed from generalized slowing to bilateral periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. Critical details of her recent history prompted a diagnostic biopsy. Over time, the patient became completely unresponsive with no further abnormal movements and ultimately died. The differential diagnosis, pathological findings, and diagnosis are discussed with a brief review of a well-known yet rare diagnosis.

  12. Accurate Modeling of Advanced Reflectarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Min

    to the conventional phase-only optimization technique (POT), the geometrical parameters of the array elements are directly optimized to fulfill the far-field requirements, thus maintaining a direct relation between optimization goals and optimization variables. As a result, better designs can be obtained compared...... of the incident field, the choice of basis functions, and the technique to calculate the far-field. Based on accurate reference measurements of two offset reflectarrays carried out at the DTU-ESA Spherical NearField Antenna Test Facility, it was concluded that the three latter factors are particularly important...... using the GDOT to demonstrate its capabilities. To verify the accuracy of the GDOT, two offset contoured beam reflectarrays that radiate a high-gain beam on a European coverage have been designed and manufactured, and subsequently measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility...

  13. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1–1.3 nm to 0.1–0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials. (paper)

  14. Molecular diagnosis and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Joaquín; Sastre-Ibañez, Marina

    2016-12-01

    To describe recent insights into how molecular diagnosis can improve indication and selection of suitable allergens for specific immunotherapy and increase the safety of this therapy. As specific allergen immunotherapy targets specific allergens, identification of the disease-eliciting allergen is a prerequisite for accurate prescription of treatment. In areas of complex sensitization to aeroallergens or in cases of hymenoptera venom allergy, the use of molecular diagnosis has demonstrated that it may lead to a change in indication and selection of allergens for immunotherapy in a large proportion of patients when compared with diagnosis based on skin prick testing and/or specific IgE determination with commercial extracts. These changes in immunotherapy prescription aided by molecular diagnosis have been demonstrated to be cost-effective in some scenarios. Certain patterns of sensitization to grass or olive pollen and bee allergens may identify patients with higher risk of adverse reaction during immunotherapy. Molecular diagnosis, when used with other tools and patients' clinical records, can help clinicians better to select the most appropriate patients and allergens for specific immunotherapy and, in some cases, predict the risk of adverse reactions. The pattern of sensitization to allergens could potentially predict the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy provided that these immunotherapy products contain a sufficient amount of these allergens. Nevertheless, multiplex assay remains a third-level approach, not to be used as screening method in current practice.

  15. Clinical application of antenatal genetic diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Li, Song; Xu, YeYe; Cong, Lin

    2015-04-02

    Clinical analysis and genetic testing of a family with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV were conducted, aiming to discuss antenatal genetic diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type IV. Preliminary genotyping was performed based on clinical characteristics of the family members and then high-throughput sequencing was applied to rapidly and accurately detect the changes in candidate genes. Genetic testing of the III5 fetus and other family members revealed missense mutation in c.2746G>A, pGly916Arg in COL1A2 gene coding region and missense and synonymous mutation in COL1A1 gene coding region. Application of antenatal genetic diagnosis provides fast and accurate genetic counseling and eugenics suggestions for patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV and their families.

  16. Anthrax: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Doctors in the United States rarely see a patient with anthrax. CDC Guidance and case definitions are available to help doctors diagnose anthrax, take ...

  17. Research on alarm triggered fault-diagnosis expert system for U-shaped tube breaking accident of steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Hong; Luo Jianbo; Jin Weixiao; Zhou Jinming; Wang Du

    2015-01-01

    According to the U-shaped tube breaking accident of steam generator (SGTR), this paper designs a fault-diagnosis expert system based on the alarm triggering. By analyzing the fault mechanism of SGTR accidents, the fault symptom is obtained. The parameters of the belief rule are set up based on the simulation experiment. The information fusion is conducted on the fault-diagnosis results from multiple expert systems to obtain the final diagnose result. The test result shows that the expert system can diagnose the SGTR accident accurately and rapidly, and provide with the operation guidance. (authors)

  18. Radiological diagnosis in AIDS - associated diseases: survey and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rademaker, J.; Frahm, C.

    1997-01-01

    Acute manifestations of illnesses in patients with HIV-infection or AIDS will benefit from rapid diagnosis. Radiologic examinations provide substantial information to narrow the differential diagnosis. This article reviews clinically important HIV-associated diseases for the radiologist. The braod spectrum of possible manifestations is illustrated by the accompanying case reports that typify the complexity of diagnoses in this growing problem worldwide. (orig.) [de

  19. The accurate particle tracer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi; Yao, Yicun

    2017-11-01

    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for systematic large-scale applications of geometric algorithms for particle dynamical simulations. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and nonlinear problems. To provide a flexible and convenient I/O interface, the libraries of Lua and Hdf5 are used. Following a three-step procedure, users can efficiently extend the libraries of electromagnetic configurations, external non-electromagnetic forces, particle pushers, and initialization approaches by use of the extendible module. APT has been used in simulations of key physical problems, such as runaway electrons in tokamaks and energetic particles in Van Allen belt. As an important realization, the APT-SW version has been successfully distributed on the world's fastest computer, the Sunway TaihuLight supercomputer, by supporting master-slave architecture of Sunway many-core processors. Based on large-scale simulations of a runaway beam under parameters of the ITER tokamak, it is revealed that the magnetic ripple field can disperse the pitch-angle distribution significantly and improve the confinement of energetic runaway beam on the same time.

  20. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection; Culture, microscopy of biopsy smears, and the rapid urease test compared with the sup 14 C-urea breath test. Diagnostikk av Helicobacter pylori-infeksjon; Urease hurtigtest, mikroskopi av utstryk, og dyrking av ventrikkelbiopsi sammenlignet med sup 14 C-urea-pusteproeven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nysaeter, G; Berstad, K; Weberg, R; Berstad, A; Hardardottir, H [Haukeland Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    1992-08-01

    By employing the {sup 14}C-urea breath test as the reference methods the authors determined the specificity and sensitivity of three bioptic methods for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in 103 subjects. All biopsy specimens were obtained from the gastric antrum. For culture the specificity was 100%. Its applicability was reduced, however, by a low sensitivity (73.8%) and a delay of several days before the final result was available. Microscopy of Loeffler-stained biopsy smears yielded a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 92.9%, but the method was regarded time-consuming. The rapid urease test yielded a specificity of 98.4% and a sensitivity of 85.7%. Being quick, simple and inexpensive, the rapid urease test is well suited for routine use in gastroscopy. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Study on diagnosis of HD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuran; Yang Yumei; Zhang Guangli

    1994-01-01

    The study suggests a three-step diagnostic method for diagnosing HD. The first step is to make TgA, TmA examination; the second step is to make differential diagnosis for the cases of negative TgA, TmA through FNAB examination; the third step is to make TgA, TmA and FNAB examination for dynamic observation of controversial cases left over in the former two steps to achieve accurate diagnosis. Differential diagnosis has been made with the method in 87 cases of HD (clinical diagnosis only). The result shows that 7 cases have been diagnosed as thyropathy through comprehensive evaluation; definite diagnosis of HD has been made in 62 cases through TgA, TmA and in 77 cases through FNAB; 3 cases of negative TgA and TmA failed to accept FNAB examination, and were later diagnosed as HD through operation pathology or clinical treatment

  2. Detecting Cancer Quickly and Accurately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Paul; McDonald, Anthony; Hendricks, Judy; Copeland, Guild; Hunter, John; Akhil, Ohmar; Capps, Heather; Curry, Marc; Skirboll, Steve

    2000-03-01

    We present a new technique for high throughput screening of tumor cells in a sensitive nanodevice that has the potential to quickly identify a cell population that has begun the rapid protein synthesis and mitosis characteristic of cancer cell proliferation. Currently, pathologists rely on microscopic examination of cell morphology using century-old staining methods that are labor-intensive, time-consuming and frequently in error. New micro-analytical methods for automated, real time screening without chemical modification are critically needed to advance pathology and improve diagnoses. We have teamed scientists with physicians to create a microlaser biochip (based upon our R&D award winning bio-laser concept)1 which evaluates tumor cells by quantifying their growth kinetics. The key new discovery was demonstrating that the lasing spectra are sensitive to the biomolecular mass in the cell, which changes the speed of light in the laser microcavity. Initial results with normal and cancerous human brain cells show that only a few hundred cells -- the equivalent of a billionth of a liter -- are required to detect abnormal growth. The ability to detect cancer in such a minute tissue sample is crucial for resecting a tumor margin or grading highly localized tumor malignancy. 1. P. L. Gourley, NanoLasers, Scientific American, March 1998, pp. 56-61. This work supported under DOE contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  3. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of traumatic hemothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilendarov, A.; Nedeva-Petkova, M.; Simova, E.; Semova, R.; Georgieva, M.; Alexieva, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The possibilities and advantages of US tomography in the diagnosis and follow-up of traumatic hemothorax in major trauma patients were presented. US examinations of the chest in conditions of emergency with purpose to identify hemothorax were performed in 56 (41 male and 15 female patients for a period of two years.US machine 'Siemens-Adara' supplied with 3.5 and 7 MHz linear and convex transducers was used. The right and left intercostal oblique view was used for US examination to identify free pleural fluid. Tube thoracotomy and/or a CT scan of the chest were used as the criterion standard for positive findings of hemothorax among the studied patients. In 49 (87.5%) of all 56 major trauma patients was achieved true-positive diagnostic result of hemothorax confirmed in 39 cases post operatively and in 10 after investigation by CT. In 6 (10.71%) patients - true-negative and in 1 (1.7%) false negative results were obtained. Our experience demonstrated that US is a sensitive, specific, and accurate diagnostic method in detecting traumatic hemothorax. The advantages of US tomography in the diagnosis of traumatic hemothorax are: First - the examination is not influenced by the position of the patient: Second - the rapidity of examination is 2-4 min and simultaneously differentiation of dense regions. Third - the possibility to present small amount of liquid collections 20-30 cc

  4. Comparison of the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Toluidine Red Unheated Serum Test and the CSF Rapid Plasma Reagin Test with the CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory Test for Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis among HIV-Negative Syphilis Patients in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Lin; Gu, Xin; Peng, Rui-Rui; Wang, Cuini; Gao, Zixiao; Zhou, Pingyu; Gao, Ying; Shi, Mei; Guan, Zhifang; Seña, Arlene C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the performance of nontreponemal antibody tests in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from syphilis patients. From September 2009 to September 2012, CSF specimens were collected at the Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital in Shanghai, China, from 1,132 syphilis patients without HIV infection, including 154 with symptomatic and 56 with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. All of the CSF specimens underwent testing with a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, an RPR-V (commer...

  5. Fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  6. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, E.I.; Loesch, H.

    1987-09-01

    Of 155 patients with adrenal disorders, 120 (77%) were correctly diagnosed as negative. There were no correlations between the results of computer tomography and phlebography or between computer tomography and laboratory tests. In 31 patients (20%) a correct diagnosis was obtained and these patients were sent to surgery. Four cases (3%) were shown to be false positive. In these cases (with one exception), both the computer tomography and phlebography results had been overinterpreted. Computer tomography was shown to be a method of high sensitivity and almost as great specificity. Tumors cannot be distinguished by phlebography; only pheochromocytoma shows a characteristic alteration of vessels in arteriograms. In general, an accurate diagnosis requires positive angiography (arterio- or phlebography) results and clear evidence of elevated hormone levels. Only then is surgery indicated.

  7. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, E.I.; Loesch, H.

    1987-01-01

    Of 155 patients with adrenal disorders, 120 (77%) were correctly diagnosed as negative. There were no correlations between the results of computer tomography and phlebography or between computer tomography and laboratory tests. In 31 patients (20%) a correct diagnosis was obtained and these patients were sent to surgery. Four cases (3%) were shown to be false positive. In these cases (with one exception), both the computer tomography and phlebography results had been overinterpreted. Computer tomography was shown to be a method of high sensitivity and almost as great specificity. Tumors cannot be distinguished by phlebography; only pheochromocytoma shows a characteristic alteration of vessels in arteriograms. In general, an accurate diagnosis requires positive angiography (arterio- or phlebography) results and clear evidence of elevated hormone levels. Only then is surgery indicated. (orig.) [de

  8. Serological diagnosis of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K; Yu, W L

    2010-01-01

    To present a review and to describe the most widely used laboratory tests for serology diagnosis of brucellosis along with their pros and cons. Review the recent literature on brucellosis serology diagnostic tests. The choice of the testing strategy depends on the prevailing brucellosis epidemiological situation and the goal of testing. The 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of brucellosis is isolation and identification of the causative bacterium, a member of Brucella sp. Isolation of Brucella sp. requires high security laboratory facilities (biological containment level 3), highly skilled personnel, an extended turnaround time for results and it is considered a hazardous procedure. Hence brucellosis is generally diagnosed by detection of an elevated level of antibody in serum or other body fluid. This is a presumptive diagnosis as other microorganisms and perhaps environmental factors can also cause increased antibody levels. A large number of serological tests for brucellosis have been devised over the 100+ years since its initial isolation, starting with a simple agglutination test and progressing to sophisticated primary binding assays available today. However, no test devised to date is 100% accurate so generally serological diagnosis consists of testing sera by several tests, usually a screening test of high sensitivity, followed by a confirmatory test of high specificity.

  9. Laboratory Diagnosis of Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Joop F. P.; Mooi, Frits R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The introduction of vaccination in the 1950s significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of pertussis. However, since the 1990s, a resurgence of pertussis has been observed in vaccinated populations, and a number of causes have been proposed for this phenomenon, including improved diagnostics, increased awareness, waning immunity, and pathogen adaptation. The resurgence of pertussis highlights the importance of standardized, sensitive, and specific laboratory diagnoses, the lack of which is responsible for the large differences in pertussis notifications between countries. Accurate laboratory diagnosis is also important for distinguishing between the several etiologic agents of pertussis-like diseases, which involve both viruses and bacteria. If pertussis is diagnosed in a timely manner, antibiotic treatment of the patient can mitigate the symptoms and prevent transmission. During an outbreak, timely diagnosis of pertussis allows prophylactic treatment of infants too young to be (fully) vaccinated, for whom pertussis is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Finally, reliable diagnosis of pertussis is required to reveal trends in the (age-specific) disease incidence, which may point to changes in vaccine efficacy, waning immunity, and the emergence of vaccine-adapted strains. Here we review current approaches to the diagnosis of pertussis and discuss their limitations and strengths. In particular, we emphasize that the optimal diagnostic procedure depends on the stage of the disease, the age of the patient, and the vaccination status of the patient. PMID:26354823

  10. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  11. Clinical evaluation of high-resolution CT, 1. CT diagnosis of liver tumors and its limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-03-01

    To estimate diagnostic accuracy of CT in liver tumors, CT diagnosis in 120 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma was discussed. As a result, primary hepatocellular carcinoma less than 2 cm in diameter could not be visualized by CT. Even tumors between 4 and 8 cm in diameter showed false negative caused by isodense tumors on images of 4 patients. To improve the detectability of liver tumors by CT, the higher resolution of low contrast regions on images are required. As a method to improve qualitative diagnosis of liver tumors, rapid intravenous injection of contrast medium was performed on 42 patients with liver tumors, As a result, images reflecting vascularity of tumors were obtained, and the differential diagnosis was possible to some extent by observing the movement of the contrast. Especially, cavernous hemangioma could be distinguished from hepatocellular carcinoma, because cavernous hemangioma showed specific images and could be diagnosed accurately.

  12. Efficient and Accurate Computational Framework for Injector Design and Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CFD codes used to simulate upper stage expander cycle engines are not adequately mature to support design efforts. Rapid and accurate simulations require more...

  13. SARS - Diagnosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS - Diagnosis. Mainly by exclusion of known causes of atypical pneumonia; * X ray Chest; * PCR on body fluids- primers defined by WHO centres available from website.-ve result does not exclude SARS. * Sequencing of amplicons; * Viral Cultures – demanding; * Antibody tests.

  14. Diagnosis of scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Jeshina; Trowbridge, Paul; Varghese, George M

    2014-12-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness that, if untreated, can result in considerable morbidity and mortality. One of the primary reasons for delays in the treatment of this potentially fatal infection is the difficulty in diagnosing the condition. Diagnosis is often complicated because of the combination of non-specific symptoms that overlap with other infections commonly found in endemic areas and the poor available diagnostics. In the majority of the endemic settings, diagnosis still relies on the Weil-Felix test, which is neither sensitive nor specific. Other methods of testing have become available, but at this time, these remain insufficient to provide the rapid point-of-care diagnostics that would be necessary to significantly change the management of this infection by providers in endemic areas. This article reviews the currently available diagnostic tools for scrub typhus and their utility in the clinical setting.

  15. Development and Evaluation of Reverse Transcription-Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) Assay Coupled with a Portable Device for Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, Yohei; Magassouba, N’Faly; Oloniniyi, Olamide K.; Cherif, Mahamoud S.; Sakabe, Saori; Takada, Ayato; Hirayama, Kenji; Yasuda, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Given the current absence of specific drugs or vaccines for Ebola virus disease (EVD), rapid, sensitive, and reliable diagnostic methods are required to stem the transmission chain of the disease. We have developed a rapid detection assay for Zaire ebolavirus based on reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and coupled with a novel portable isothermal amplification and detection platform. The RT-LAMP assay is based on primer sets that target the untranscribed trailer region or nucleoprotein coding region of the viral RNA. The test could specifically detect viral RNAs of Central and West African Ebola virus strains within 15 minutes with no cross-reactivity to other hemorrhagic fever viruses and arboviruses, which cause febrile disease. The assay was evaluated using a total of 100 clinical specimens (serum, n = 44; oral swab, n = 56) collected from suspected EVD cases in Guinea. The specificity of this diagnostic test was 100% for both primer sets, while the sensitivity was 100% and 97.9% for the trailer and nucleoprotein primer sets, respectively, compared with a reference standard RT-PCR test. These observations suggest that our diagnostic assay is useful for identifying EVD cases, especially in the field or in settings with insufficient infrastructure. PMID:26900929

  16. Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2001-01-01

    to be excluded as a cause of illness (e.g. prior to treatment with toxic or expensive drugs, or during malaria epidemics). Wherever the effective drugs for the first-line treatment of malaria are cheap (e.g. chloroquine and Fansidar), treatment based on clinical diagnosis alone should prove cost-saving in health...... significantly associated with the P. falciparum asexual parasitaemias that equalled or exceeded the threshold intensity (2000/microl) that has the optimum sensitivity and specificity for the definition of a malarial episode. Diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLR) showed that a positive result in the OptiMal test....... Although the RIT may seem attractive for use in primary health facilities because relatively inexperienced staff can perform them, the high cost of these tests is prohibitive. In holo-endemic areas, use of RIT or microscopical examination of bloodsmears may only be relevant when malaria needs...

  17. An efficient and accurate 3D displacements tracking strategy for digital volume correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Bing; Wang, Bo; Wu, Dafang; Lubineau, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    inverse compositional Gauss-Newton (3D IC-GN) algorithm is introduced to replace existing forward additive algorithms for accurate sub-voxel displacement registration. Second, to ensure the 3D IC-GN algorithm that converges accurately and rapidly and avoid

  18. Differential diagnosis of hyponatraemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thompson, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The appropriate management of hyponatraemia is reliant on the accurate identification of the underlying cause of the hyponatraemia. In the light of evidence which has shown that the use of a clinical algorithm appears to improve accuracy in the differential diagnosis of hyponatraemia, the European Hyponatraemia Network considered the use of two algorithms. One was developed from a nephrologist\\'s view of hyponatraemia, while the other reflected the approach of an endocrinologist. Both of these algorithms concurred on the importance of assessing effective blood volume status and the measurement of urine sodium concentration in the diagnostic process. To demonstrate the importance of accurate diagnosis to the correct treatment of hyponatraemia, special consideration was given to hyponatraemia in neurosurgical patients. The differentiation between the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), acute adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency, fluid overload and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome was discussed. In patients with SIADH, fluid restriction has been the mainstay of treatment despite the absence of an evidence base for its use. An approach to using fluid restriction to raise serum tonicity in patients with SIADH and to identify patients who are likely to be recalcitrant to fluid restriction was also suggested.

  19. Diagnosis of Xeroderma Pigmentosum Groups A and C by Detection of Two Prevalent Mutations in West Algerian Population: A Rapid Genotyping Tool for the Frequent XPC Mutation c.1643_1644delTG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensenouci, Salima; Louhibi, Lotfi; De Verneuil, Hubert; Mahmoudi, Khadidja; Saidi-Mehtar, Nadhira

    2016-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. Considering that XP patients have a defect of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway which enables them to repair DNA damage caused by UV light, they have an increased risk of developing skin and eyes cancers. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of the prevalent XPA and XPC genes mutations-nonsense mutation (c.682C>T, p.Arg228X) and a two-base-pair (2 bp) deletion (c.1643_1644delTG or p.Val548Ala fsX25), respectively-in 19 index cases from 19 unrelated families in the West of Algeria. For the genetic diagnosis of XPA gene, we proceeded to PCR-RFLP. For the XPC gene, we validated a routine analysis which includes a specific amplification of a short region surrounding the 2 bp deletion using a fluorescent primer and fragment sizing (GeneScan size) on a sequencing gel. Among the 19 index cases, there were 17 homozygous patients for the 2 bp deletion in the XPC gene and 2 homozygous patients carrying the nonsense XPA mutation. Finally, XPC appears to be the major disease-causing gene concerning xeroderma pigmentosum in North Africa. The use of fragment sizing is the simplest method to analyze this 2 bp deletion for the DNA samples coming from countries where the mutation c.1643_1644delTG of XPC gene is prevalent.

  20. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit for Scrub Typhus with Improved Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Sungman; Premaratna, Ranjan; Selvaraj, Stephen; Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Sora; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Min Soo; Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Kyung-Chan; Kwon, Soon-Hwan; Seo, Wonjun; Lee, Nam Taek; Kim, Seung-Han; Kang, Heui Keun; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2016-08-01

    Diagnosis of scrub typhus is challenging due to its more than twenty serotypes and the similar clinical symptoms with other acute febrile illnesses including leptospirosis, murine typhus and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Accuracy and rapidity of a diagnostic test to Orientia tsutsugamushi is an important step to diagnose this disease. To discriminate scrub typhus from other diseases, the improved ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was evaluated in Korea and Sri Lanka. The sensitivity at the base of each IgM and IgG indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) in Korean patients was 98.6% and 97.1%, and the specificity was 98.2% and 97.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for retrospective diagnosis at the base of IFA in Sri Lanka was 92.1% and 96.1%. ImmuneMed RDT was not reactive to any serum from seventeen diseases including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (n = 48), leptospirosis (n = 23), and murine typhus (n = 48). ImmuneMed RDT shows superior sensitivity (98.6% and 97.1%) compared with SD Bioline RDT (84.4% at IgM and 83.3% at IgG) in Korea. The retrospective diagnosis of ImmuneMed RDT exhibits 94.0% identity with enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using South India patient serum samples. These results suggest that this RDT can replace other diagnostic tests and is applicable for global diagnosis of scrub typhus. This rapid and accurate diagnosis will be beneficial for diagnosing and managing scrub typhus.

  1. FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY IN TUMOUR DIAGNOSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    The advantages of FNAC are innumerable and these include cost effectiveness, rapid reporting and bedside diagnosis, minimal physical and psychological discomfort, elimination of a two-stage procedure for diagnosis and treatment, active participation of the patient in treatment planning, and serving as a therapeutic.

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of malaria in peripheral health facilities in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Clarke, Siân

    2007-01-01

    assessed in an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda. Methods The study had two components: 1) passive case detection where all patients attending the out patient clininc with a febrile illness were included and 2) a longitudinal active malaria case detection survey was conducted in selected...... negative cases received alternative treatment. Conclusion In low-transmission areas, more attention needs to be paid to differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses In view of suggested changes in anti-malarial drug policy, introducing costly artemisinin combination therapy accurate, rapid diagnostic tools...

  3. Advance in diagnosis of female genital tract tumor with laser fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ai-Hua; Tseng, Quen; Lian, Shao-Hui

    1998-11-01

    In order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of malignant tumors with laser fluorescence, in 1996, our group successfully created the computerized laser fluorescence spectrograph type II with more reliable images shown overshadowing the naked eye method before 74 cases of female genital tract diseases had been examined by the LFS II resulting in 10 positive cases which were also proven pathologically as malignant tumors, without nay false negative, 3 cases presented suspicious positive but all were proven pathologically as non-tumors lesions, the false positive rate was 4 percent. Our work showed that the method of LFS II can provide a more rapid and accurate diagnosis for the clinical malignant tumors.

  4. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization technique in the diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia with abnormal immunophenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Leilei; Sun Xuemei; Chen Junhao; Zhang Le

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the utilization of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in the diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL) with abnormal immunophenotype, flow cytometry was used to detect the immunophenotype of mononuclear cells in APL patients and PML/RARα fusion gene was detected by FISH. The mononuclear cells of several APL patients showed abnormal immunophenotype: CD13 + , CD33 + , CD34 - , HLA-DR + and PML/RARα fusion gene was also detected, which was different from the regular result of APL: HLA- DR - , PML/RARα + . Therefore, the detection of immunophenotype in APL patients should not be regarded as the sole accurate target for diagnosing leukemia. FISH ,associated with traditional FAB classification, is a simple, rapid, accurate and direct method. It can be used to help confirm the diagnosis, to guide the formulation of a reasonable chemotherapy scheme and to supervise the efficacy of the treatment in patients with leukemia. (authors)

  5. Recombinase polymerase amplification: Emergence as a critical molecular technology for rapid, low-resource diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ameh; Macdonald, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Isothermal molecular diagnostics are bridging the technology gap between traditional diagnostics and polymerase chain reaction-based methods. These new techniques enable timely and accurate testing, especially in settings where there is a lack of infrastructure to support polymerase chain reaction facilities. Despite this, there is a significant lack of uptake of these technologies in developing countries where they are highly needed. Among these novel isothermal technologies, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) holds particular potential for use in developing countries. This rapid nucleic acid amplification approach is fast, highly sensitive and specific, and amenable to countries with a high burden of infectious diseases. Implementation of RPA technology in developing countries is critically required to assess limitations and potentials of the diagnosis of infectious disease, and may help identify impediments that prevent adoption of new molecular technologies in low resource- and low skill settings. This review focuses on approaching diagnosis of infectious disease with RPA.

  6. A Rapid Zika Diagnostic Assay to Measure Neutralizing Antibodies in Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Shan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential association of microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities with Zika virus (ZIKV infection during pregnancy underlines the critical need for a rapid and accurate diagnosis. Due to the short duration of ZIKV viremia in infected patients, a serologic assay that detects antibody responses to viral infection plays an essential role in diagnosing patient specimens. The current serologic diagnosis of ZIKV infection relies heavily on the labor-intensive Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT that requires more than one-week turnaround time and represents a major bottleneck for patient diagnosis. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a high-throughput assay for ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV diagnosis that can attain the “gold standard” of the current PRNT assay. The new assay is homogeneous and utilizes luciferase viruses to quantify the neutralizing antibody titers in a 96-well format. Using 91 human specimens, we showed that the reporter diagnostic assay has a higher dynamic range and maintains the relative specificity of the traditional PRNT assay. Besides the improvement of assay throughput, the reporter virus technology has also shortened the turnaround time to less than two days. Collectively, our results suggest that, along with the viral RT-PCR assay, the reporter virus-based serologic assay could be potentially used as the first-line test for clinical diagnosis of ZIKV infection as well as for vaccine clinical trials.

  7. Una prueba de captura rápida de antígenos con tiras reactivas para el diagnóstico de malaria por P. falciparum A rapid dipstick antigen capture assay for the diagnosis of falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Los avances recientes en el diagnóstico de infecciones causadas por Plasmodium falciparum han permitido considerar la posibilidad de complementar la microscopia óptica con una prueba estandarizada de captura de antígenos con tiras reactivas basada en la detección de una proteína específica del parásito, que es segregada por los estadios sanguíneos asexuados y los gametocitos inmaduros, pero no por otros estadios. Los ensayos de campo indican que esta prueba proporciona resultados replicables con un umbral de detección de parasitemia de P. falciparum similar al obtenido con microscopia habitual de alta calidad para malaria y una especificidad y sensibilidad de alrededor de 90% en comparación con la microscopia habitual con extensión de sangre en capa gruesa. La estabilidad, reproducibilidad y facilidad de uso de la prueba indican claramente sus posibilidades de aplicación en el tratamiento de la malaria, particularmente en el nivel de atención de salud periférico, siempre y cuando se pueda garantizar su precisión y su costo sea módico. También debe considerarse la posibilidad de usarla más ampliamente donde lo justifiquen los requisitos operativos y los recursos y donde las decisiones se basen en una evaluación adecuada de los sistemas de prestación de asistencia de salud existentes.Recent advances in the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infections have made it possible to consider supplementing light microscopy with a standardized dipstick antigen capture assay based on the detection of a parasite-specific protein, which is secreted by the asexual blood stages and immature gametocytes but not by the other stages. Field trials indicate that this dipstick assay provides consistently reproducible results, with a threshold of detection of P. falciparum parasitaemia similar to that obtained by high quality routine malaria microscopy and a specificity and sensitivity of around 90% compared with standard thick blood film

  8. Rapid and specific identification of Brucella abortus using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Il; Her, Moon; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Jin Ju; Lee, Kichan; Sung, So-Ra; Jung, Suk Chan

    2015-06-01

    A rapid and accurate diagnosis of brucellosis is required to reduce and prevent the spread of disease among animals and the risk of transfer to humans. In this study, a Brucella abortus-specific (Ba) LAMP assay was developed, that had six primers designed from the BruAb2_0168 region of chromosome I. The specificity of this LAMP assay was confirmed with Brucella reference strains, B. abortus vaccine strains, B. abortus isolates and phylogenetically or serologically related strains. The detection limit of target DNA was up to 20 fg/μl within 60 min. The sensitivity of the new LAMP assay was equal to or slightly higher than other PCR based assays. Moreover, this Ba-LAMP assay could specifically amplify all B. abortus biovars compared to previous PCR assays. To our knowledge, this is the first report of specific detection of B. abortus using a LAMP assay. The Ba-LAMP assay can offer a rapid, sensitive and accurate diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. School-based diagnosis and treatment of malaria by teachers using rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy: experiences and perceptions of users and implementers of the Learner Treatment Kit, southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphwatiwa, Treza; Witek-McManus, Stefan; Mtali, Austin; Okello, George; Nguluwe, Paul; Chatsika, Hard; Roschnik, Natalie; Halliday, Katherine E; Brooker, Simon J; Mathanga, Don P

    2017-08-07

    Training teachers to diagnose uncomplicated malaria using malaria rapid diagnostic tests and treat with artemisinin-based combination therapy has the potential to improve the access of primary school children (6-14 years) to prompt and efficient treatment for malaria, but little is known about the acceptability of such an intervention. This qualitative study explored experiences and perceptions of users and implementers of a programme of school-based malaria case management via a first-aid kit-the Learner Treatment Kit (LTK)-implemented as part of a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Zomba district, Malawi. From 29 primary schools where teachers were trained to test and treat school children for malaria using the LTK, six schools were purposively selected on the basis of relative intervention usage (low, medium or high); school size and geographical location. In total eight focus group discussions were held with school children, parents and guardians, and teachers; and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with key stakeholders at the school, district and national levels. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using a thematic analysis approach. The LTK was widely perceived by respondents to be a worthwhile intervention, with the opinion that trained teachers were trusted providers of malaria testing and treatment to school children. Benefits of the programme included a perception of improved access to malaria treatment for school children; decreased school absenteeism; and that the programme supported broader national health and education policies. Potential barriers to successful implementation expressed included increased teacher workloads, a feeling of inadequate supervision from health workers, lack of incentives and concerns for the sustainability of the programme regarding the supply of drugs and commodities. Training teachers to test for and treat uncomplicated malaria in schools was well received by both users and implementers alike, and

  10. The diagnosis of plant pathogenic bacteria: a state of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Valeria; Pucci, Nicoletta; Loreti, Stefania

    2018-03-01

    Plant protection plays an important role in agriculture for the food quality and quantity. The diagnosis of plant diseases and the identification of the pathogens are essential prerequisites for their understanding and control. Among the plant pests, the bacterial pathogens have devastating effects on plant productivity and yield. Different techniques (microscopy, serology, biochemical, physiological, molecular tools and culture propagation) are currently used to detect and identify bacterial pathogens. Detection and identification are critical steps for the appropriate application of phytosanitary measures. The "harmonization of phytosanitary regulations and all other areas of official plant protection action" mean the good practices for plant protection and plant material certification. The prevention of diseases progression and spread by early detection are a valuable strategy for proper pest management and disease control. For this purpose, innovative methods aim achieving results within a shorter time and higher performance, to provide rapidly, accurately and reliably diagnosis. In this review, we focus on the techniques for plant bacterial diagnosis and on the regulations for harmonizing plant protection issue.

  11. New Concepts in the Diagnosis and Pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Bhatt

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most commonly encountered sexually transmitted disease. There is a need for more accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods, leading to better control and treatment strategies. Various virulence factors such as adherence, contact-independent factors, hemolysis and acquisition of host macromolecules have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of this infection. Detection of the factors that are only present in the pathogenic isolates of trichomonads will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Culture technique is highly specific compared with microscopic techniques, but it is time consuming. Immunological techniques lack proper correlation with clinical manifestations. The application of monoclonal antibodies, either singly or in a group that recognizes a common antigen, along with methods such as detection of common DNA fragment from clinical specimens, may have a promising future in the laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis.

  12. Diagnosis, prognosis and disease management using in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucheria, K.; Talwar, R.

    2002-01-01

    The year 2001 saw unveiling of anatomy of the human genome with sequencing of 90% of the euchromatic region. But the ultimate goal of the Human Genome Project to delineate the positions of all genes is yet to be achieved. In Situ Hybridization (ISH) is one of the methods that help in localizing genes on chromosomes. The present study aimed to use radioactive- and fluorescent-labeled probes for screening various congenital anomalies (sex chromosomal and autosomal), for prenatal diagnosis and cancer genetics. Standard techniques were used for hybridization with radioactively and fluorescent labeled probes. Sex chromosome aneuploidies (XXY, XO, XXX, XYY etc.) were analyzed using centromeric probes for chromosomes X and Y. The cases with ambiguous genitalia were further analyzed using probe specific for the sex-determining region (SRY) on the Y chromosome. Suspected cases of Down syndrome were analyzed using probe specific for centromeric region of chromosome 21 to confirm trisomy 21. Prenatal diagnosis included screening aneuploidies of chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y on uncultured cells and metaphases obtained from amniotic fluid and chorionic villi samplings. Gene alterations were also studied in Retinoblastoma patients, Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APML) using probes specific for Rb1, bcr/abl and PML/RARα genes respectively. Response to therapy was assessed by evaluating minimal residual disease (MRD) in leukemia patients. Attempts were also made to analyze cells obtained from buccal mucosa and bladder epithelium that could facilitate rapid screening of sex chromosome anomalies and bladder cancer without painful invasive techniques. Prenatal diagnosis using ISH on uncultured cells could provide an accurate and rapid result. These results of prenatal diagnosis were in conformation with results of conventional cytogenetics obtained after long-term cultures. Molecular rearrangements that could not be detected with conventional

  13. [Pleural effusion: diagnosis and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastré, J; Roussel, S; Israël Biet, D; Sanchez, O

    2015-04-01

    Pleural effusion management is a common clinical situation associated with numerous pulmonary, pleural or extra-pulmonary diseases. A systematic approach is needed to enable a rapid diagnosis and an appropriate treatment. Pleural fluid analysis is the first step to perform which allows a presumptive diagnosis in most cases. Otherwise, further analysis of the pleural fluid or thoracic imaging or pleural biopsy may be necessary. This review aims at highlighting the important elements of the work-up required by a pleural effusion. Copyright © 2014 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Rhabdomyolysis: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Patrick A.; Helmstetter, John A.; Kaye, Adam M.; Kaye, Alan David

    2015-01-01

    Background Rhabdomyolysis is a complex medical condition involving the rapid dissolution of damaged or injured skeletal muscle. Methods This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, causes, presentation, diagnosis, complications, management, and anesthetic considerations related to rhabdomyolysis. Results Any form of muscle damage––and by extension any entity that causes muscle damage––can initiate rhabdomyolysis. One of the most important treatment goals when rhabdomyolysis is suspected is avoiding acute kidney injury. Conclusion All clinicians should be aware of common causes, diagnosis, and treatment options. PMID:25829882

  15. Radiological diagnosis in traumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahm, R.

    2001-01-01

    This loose-leaf publication covers all radiological problems that may possibly occur in accident surgery. The focus is on conventional radiological diagnosis. The physical and technical fundamentals of diagnostic examination methods are discussed, followed by practical hints on radiation protection, technical equipment and quality assurance, as well as accurate information on the procedure of taking and interpreting standard X-ray pictures. The indications for standard X-raying, tomography, CT and MRT are presented in consideration of the radiation exposure incurred by the patient. The reader is also informed on the dynamics and varying morphology of bone fracture healing, potential disturbances of callus formation and reconstruction, as well as on possible complications. The main section of the book discusses injuries of the skull, spinal cord, pectoral girdle, upper arm, elbow and lower arm, wrist and hands, pelvis, hip joint, knee and upper and lower leg, ankle joint and foot, thorax and abdomen. (orig.)

  16. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  17. Diagnosis of multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2018-05-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) may be difficult to distinguish clinically from other disorders, particularly in the early stages of the disease. An autonomic-only presentation can be indistinguishable from pure autonomic failure. Patients presenting with parkinsonism may be misdiagnosed as having Parkinson disease. Patients presenting with the cerebellar phenotype of MSA can mimic other adult-onset ataxias due to alcohol, chemotherapeutic agents, lead, lithium, and toluene, or vitamin E deficiency, as well as paraneoplastic, autoimmune, or genetic ataxias. A careful medical history and meticulous neurological examination remain the cornerstone for the accurate diagnosis of MSA. Ancillary investigations are helpful to support the diagnosis, rule out potential mimics, and define therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes diagnostic investigations useful in the differential diagnosis of patients with suspected MSA. Currently used techniques include structural and functional brain imaging, cardiac sympathetic imaging, cardiovascular autonomic testing, olfactory testing, sleep study, urological evaluation, and dysphagia and cognitive assessments. Despite advances in the diagnostic tools for MSA in recent years and the availability of consensus criteria for clinical diagnosis, the diagnostic accuracy of MSA remains sub-optimal. As other diagnostic tools emerge, including skin biopsy, retinal biomarkers, blood and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and advanced genetic testing, a more accurate and earlier recognition of MSA should be possible, even in the prodromal stages. This has important implications as misdiagnosis can result in inappropriate treatment, patient and family distress, and erroneous eligibility for clinical trials of disease-modifying drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Accurate, Fast and Cost-Effective Diagnostic Test for Monosomy 1p36 Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricila da Silva Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5–0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH, which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs.

  19. Rapidly Progressive Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Aycan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural abscess (SEA is a rare disease which is often rapidly progressive. Delayed diagnosis of SEA may lead to serious complications and the clinical findings of SEA are generally nonspecific. Paraspinal abscess should be considered in the presence of local low back tenderness, redness, and pain with fever, particularly in children. In case of delayed diagnosis and treatment, SEA may spread to the epidural space and may cause neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI remains the method of choice in the diagnosis of SEA. Treatment of SEA often consists of both medical and surgical therapy including drainage with percutaneous entry, corpectomy, and instrumentation.

  20. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  1. The Laboratory Diagnosis of HIV Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Fearon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV diagnostic testing has come a long way since its inception in the early 1980s. Current enzyme immunoassays are sensitive enough to detect antibody as early as one to two weeks after infection. A variety of other assays are essential to confirm positive antibody screens (Western blot, polymerase chain reaction [PCR], provide an adjunct to antibody testing (p24 antigen, PCR, or provide additional information for the clinician treating HIV-positive patients (qualitative and quantitative PCR, and genotyping. Most diagnostic laboratories have complex testing algorithms to ensure accuracy of results and optimal use of laboratory resources. The choice of assays is guided by the initial screening results and the clinical information provided by the physician; both are integral to the laboratory's ability to provide an accurate laboratory diagnosis. Laboratories should also provide specific information on specimen collection, storage and transport so that specimen integrity is not compromised, thereby preserving the accuracy of laboratory results. Point of Care tests have become increasingly popular in the United States and some places in Canada over the past several years. These tests provide rapid, on-site HIV results in a format that is relatively easy for clinic staff to perform. However, the performance of these tests requires adherence to good laboratory quality control practices, as well as the backup of a licensed diagnostic laboratory to provide confirmation and resolution of positive or indeterminate results. Laboratory quality assurance programs and the participation in HIV proficiency testing programs are essential to ensure that diagnostic laboratories provide accurate, timely and clinically relevant laboratory results.

  2. Cystic lung disease: Achieving a radiologic diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotman-Dickenson, Beatrice, E-mail: btrotmandickenson@partners.org

    2014-01-15

    Diffuse cystic lung disease represents a diverse group of uncommon disorders with characteristic appearance on high resolution CT imaging. The combination of imaging appearance with clinical features and genetic testing where appropriate permits a confident and accurate diagnosis in the majority of the diseases without recourse for open lung biopsy. The mechanism of cyst development disease is unclear but in some disorders appears to be related to small airways obstruction. These diseases are incurable, with the exception of Langerhans cell histiocytosis which may spontaneously remit or resolve on smoking cessation. Disease progression is unpredictable; in general older patients have a more benign disease, while young patients may progress rapidly to respiratory failure. An understanding of the complications of cystic lung disease and the appearance of disease progression is essential for the management of these patients. A number of these disorders are associated with malignancy, recognition of the potential tumors permits appropriate imaging surveillance. Due to the widespread use of CT, pulmonary cysts are increasingly discovered incidentally in an asymptomatic individual. The diagnostic challenge is to determine whether these cysts represent an early feature of a progressive disease or have no clinical significance. In the elderly population the cysts are unlikely to represent a progressive disease. In individuals <50 years further evaluation is recommended.

  3. Cystic lung disease: Achieving a radiologic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotman-Dickenson, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse cystic lung disease represents a diverse group of uncommon disorders with characteristic appearance on high resolution CT imaging. The combination of imaging appearance with clinical features and genetic testing where appropriate permits a confident and accurate diagnosis in the majority of the diseases without recourse for open lung biopsy. The mechanism of cyst development disease is unclear but in some disorders appears to be related to small airways obstruction. These diseases are incurable, with the exception of Langerhans cell histiocytosis which may spontaneously remit or resolve on smoking cessation. Disease progression is unpredictable; in general older patients have a more benign disease, while young patients may progress rapidly to respiratory failure. An understanding of the complications of cystic lung disease and the appearance of disease progression is essential for the management of these patients. A number of these disorders are associated with malignancy, recognition of the potential tumors permits appropriate imaging surveillance. Due to the widespread use of CT, pulmonary cysts are increasingly discovered incidentally in an asymptomatic individual. The diagnostic challenge is to determine whether these cysts represent an early feature of a progressive disease or have no clinical significance. In the elderly population the cysts are unlikely to represent a progressive disease. In individuals <50 years further evaluation is recommended

  4. Rapid world modelling for robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littile, C.Q.; Wilson, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to use an interactive world model, whether it is for robotics simulation or most other virtual graphical environments, relies on the users ability to create an accurate world model. Typically this is a tedious process, requiring many hours to create 3-D CAD models of the surfaces within a workspace. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop usable methods to rapidly build world models of real world workspaces. This brings structure to an unstructured environment and allows graphical based robotics control to be accomplished in a reasonable time frame when traditional CAD modelling is not enough. To accomplish this, 3D range sensors are deployed to capture surface data within the workspace. This data is then transformed into surface maps, or models. A 3D world model of the workspace is built quickly and accurately, without ever having to put people in the environment

  5. Equipment upgrade - Accurate positioning of ion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doane, Harry J.; Nelson, George W.

    1990-01-01

    Five adjustable clamps were made to firmly support and accurately position the ion Chambers, that provide signals to the power channels for the University of Arizona TRIGA reactor. The design requirements, fabrication procedure and installation are described

  6. A direct and rapid method to determine cyanide in urine by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiyang; Maddukuri, Naveen; Gong, Maojun

    2015-10-02

    Cyanides are poisonous chemicals that widely exist in nature and industrial processes as well as accidental fires. Rapid and accurate determination of cyanide exposure would facilitate forensic investigation, medical diagnosis, and chronic cyanide monitoring. Here, a rapid and direct method was developed for the determination of cyanide ions in urinary samples. This technique was based on an integrated capillary electrophoresis system coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Cyanide ions were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and a primary amine (glycine) for LIF detection. Three separate reagents, NDA, glycine, and cyanide sample, were mixed online, which secured uniform conditions between samples for cyanide derivatization and reduced the risk of precipitation formation of mixtures. Conditions were optimized; the derivatization was completed in 2-4min, and the separation was observed in 25s. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0nM at 3-fold signal-to-noise ratio for standard cyanide in buffer. The cyanide levels in urine samples from smokers and non-smokers were determined by using the method of standard addition, which demonstrated significant difference of cyanide levels in urinary samples from the two groups of people. The developed method was rapid and accurate, and is anticipated to be applicable to cyanide detection in waste water with appropriate modification. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Ultrasonography is an accurate technique for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors in patients without localizing symptoms La ecografía es una técnica sensible en el diagnóstico de las neoplasias gastrointestinales en pacientes sin síntomas localizadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martínez-Ares

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: this study compared the accuracy of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors in patients with several degrees of clinical suspicion. Material and methods: we recruited patients that were suspect for gastrointestinal neoplasia but with no evidence of localizing symptoms (group A, and patients that were suspect for colon cancer (group B or for gastric cancer (group C. Accuracy in the diagnosis was compared for: gastric cancer in groups A and C, and for colon cancer in groups A and B. The comparison was made by using the contingency coefficient, which quantifies coincidence of endoscopic and ultrasonographic diagnoses. Results: seventy-nine patients were included in group A (48 males, wherein 12 colon and 5 gastric neoplasms were detected. Group B was comprised of 153 patients (78 males and included 66 patients with colorectal cancer (CCR. Group C contained 58 patients (35 males, 31 of whom were diagnosed with gastric cancer. The accuracy of sonography for diagnosing colon cancer was 95.5% for group A and 87.5% for group B. The contingency coefficient for endoscopy vs. ultrasonography was greater for group A: 0.658 than for group B: 0.549. The diagnostic accuracy for gastric cancer was 97.4% for group A and 86.2% for group C. The contingency coefficient between endoscopic and ultrasonographic diagnoses was also greater in group A (0.618 than in group C (0.588. Conclusions: the accuracy of ultrasonography in diagnosing colon and gastric cancer is not lower in patients without localizing symptoms.Introducción y objetivos: en todos los estudios publicados hasta la fecha se ha evaluado la precisión de la ecografía en el diagnóstico del cáncer de colon y del cáncer gástrico en pacientes en los que esta era la sospecha diagnóstica o ya con un diagnóstico establecido de esta patología. Nosotros, en este estudio, comparamos la sensibilidad de la ecografía en pacientes con diferentes grados de

  8. Molecular Diagnosis of Phytoplasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marzachì

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplasmas are wall-less prokaryotes associated with diseases in numerous plant species worldwide. In nature they are transmitted by phloem-sucking insects. Yellowing, decline, witches’ broom, leaf curl, floral virescence and phyllody are the most conspicuous symptoms associated with phytoplasmas, although infections are sometimes asymptomatic. Since phytoplasmas cannot be cultured in vitro, molecular techniques are needed for their diagnosis and characterization. The titer of phytoplasma cells in the phloem of infected plants may vary according to the season and the plant species, and it is often very low in woody hosts. Different DNA extraction procedures have therefore been tried out to obtain phytoplasma DNA at a concentration and purity high enough for effective diagnosis. DNA/DNA hybridization methods were reported in the nineties to be appropriate for the detection of phytoplasmas, but at present PCR is considered the most suitable. Universal and group-specific primers have been designed on the rRNA operon of the phytoplasma genome and on plasmid sequences. RFLP analysis of the obtained amplicons has classified these pathogens into major 16Sr RNA groups. Group-specific primers have also been designed on other genomic sequences. PCR is a very sensitive technique, but due to the low titre of phytoplasmas a further increase in sensitivity may be required for accurate diagnosis. This is routinely obtained with a second round of PCR (nested PCR. The drawback of nested PCR is that there is a greater chance of obtaining false positives due to contamination. Many authors have therefore developed protocols based on hybridization (PCR/dot blot or serological approaches (PCR/ELISA to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the direct PCR, reducing the risks due to nested PCR. Real time PCR protocols may also improve the sensitivity and specificity of the direct PCR assay.

  9. Five misconceptions in cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William

    2009-01-01

    Much investment has been put into facilities for early cancer diagnosis. It is difficult to know how successful this investment has been. New facilities for rapid investigation in the UK have not reduced mortality, and may cause delays in diagnosis of patients with low-risk, or atypical, symptoms. In part, the failure of new facilities to translate into mortality benefits can be explained by five misconceptions. These are described, along with suggested research and organisational remedies. The first misconception is that cancer is diagnosed in hospitals. Consequently, secondary care data have been used to drive primary care decisions. Second, GPs are thought to be poor at cancer diagnosis, yet the type of education on offer to improve this may not be what is needed. Third, symptomatic cancer diagnosis has been downgraded in importance with the introduction of screening, yet screening identifies only a small minority of cancers. Fourth, pressure is put on GPs to make referrals for those with an individual high risk of cancer — disenfranchising those with ‘low-risk but not no-risk’ symptoms. Finally, considerable nihilism exists about the value of early diagnosis, despite considerable observational evidence that earlier diagnosis of symptomatic cancer is beneficial. PMID:19520027

  10. Non-invasive spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Sianoudis, IA; Zois, EN; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, AA; Dessinioti, C.; Stefanaki, E.; Stratigos, AJ; Antoniou, C.; Katsambas, A.; Christofidou, E.

    2017-11-01

    The number of non-melanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide and has become an important health and economic issue. Early detection and treatment of skin cancer can significantly improve patient outcome. Therefore there is an increase in the demand for proper management and effective non-invasive diagnostic modalities in order to avoid relapses or unnecessary treatments. Although the gold standard of diagnosis for non-melanoma skin cancers is biopsy followed by histopathology evaluation, optical non-invasive diagnostic tools have obtained increased attention. Emerging non-invasive or minimal invasive techniques with possible application in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers include high-definition optical coherence tomography, fluorescence spectroscopy, oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry among others spectroscopic techniques. Our findings establish how those spectrometric techniques can be used to more rapidly and easily diagnose skin cancer in an accurate and automated manner in the clinic.

  11. Amperometric immunosensor for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, Morgan; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Inoue, Shinnosuke; Chung, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Becker, Annie L; Weigel, Kris M; Cangelosi, Gerard A; Lee, Kyong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been a major public health problem, which can be better controlled by using accurate and rapid diagnosis in low-resource settings. A simple, portable, and sensitive detection method is required for point-of-care (POC) settings. This paper studies an amperometric biosensor using a microtip immunoassay for a rapid and low-cost detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in sputum. MTB in sputum is specifically captured on the functionalized microtip surface and detected by electric current. According to the numerical study, the current signal on the microtip surface is linearly changed with increasing immersion depth. Using a reference microtip, the immersion depth is compensated for a sensing microtip. On the microtip surface, target bacteria are concentrated and organized by a coffee-ring effect, which amplifies the electric current. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, both the sample processing and rinsing steps are presented with the use of deionized water as a medium for the amperometric measurement. When applied to cultured MTB cells spiked into human sputum, the detection limit was 100 CFU mL −1 , comparable to a more labor-intensive fluorescence detection method reported previously. (paper)

  12. A rapid method to estimate Westergren sedimentation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, Tamas; Pais, Eszter; Meiselman, Herbert J

    2009-09-01

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a nonspecific but simple and inexpensive test that was introduced into medical practice in 1897. Although it is commonly utilized in the diagnosis and follow-up of various clinical conditions, ESR has several limitations including the required 60 min settling time for the test. Herein we introduce a novel use for a commercially available computerized tube viscometer that allows the accurate prediction of human Westergren ESR rates in as little as 4 min. Owing to an initial pressure gradient, blood moves between two vertical tubes through a horizontal small-bore tube and the top of the red blood cell (RBC) column in each vertical tube is monitored continuously with an accuracy of 0.083 mm. Using data from the final minute of a blood viscosity measurement, a sedimentation index (SI) was calculated and correlated with results from the conventional Westergren ESR test. To date, samples from 119 human subjects have been studied and our results indicate a strong correlation between SI and ESR values (R(2)=0.92). In addition, we found a close association between SI and RBC aggregation indices as determined by an automated RBC aggregometer (R(2)=0.71). Determining SI on human blood is rapid, requires no special training and has minimal biohazard risk, thus allowing physicians to rapidly screen for individuals with elevated ESR and to monitor therapeutic responses.

  13. Amperometric immunosensor for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, Morgan; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Inoue, Shinnosuke; Becker, Annie L.; Weigel, Kris M.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been a major public health problem, which can be better controlled by using accurate and rapid diagnosis in low-resource settings. A simple, portable, and sensitive detection method is required for point-of-care (POC) settings. This paper studies an amperometric biosensor using a microtip immunoassay for a rapid and low-cost detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in sputum. MTB in sputum is specifically captured on the functionalized microtip surface and detected by electric current. According to the numerical study, the current signal on the microtip surface is linearly changed with increasing immersion depth. Using a reference microtip, the immersion depth is compensated for a sensing microtip. On the microtip surface, target bacteria are concentrated and organized by a coffee-ring effect, which amplifies the electric current. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, both the sample processing and rinsing steps are presented with the use of deionized water as a medium for the amperometric measurement. When applied to cultured MTB cells spiked into human sputum, the detection limit was 100 CFU mL-1, comparable to a more labor-intensive fluorescence detection method reported previously.

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of ampullary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Tao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ampullary tumors mainly manifest as obstructive jaundice and ampullary mass in clinical practice and are difficult to be identified in early stage due to a complex structure of the anatomical site, a deep location, and hidden symptoms. Sometimes a qualitative diagnosis cannot be made. Based on the experience in the treatment of ampullary tumors for many years in our center, this article summarizes the features of ampullary tumors from the aspects of clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis, especially the issues regarding imaging evaluation of ampullary tumors, selection of surgical procedure, and prognosis. An early diagnosis is the key to the treatment of ampullary tumors, and early identification and treatment of lesions have great impacts on patients′ prognosis. Accurate preoperative imaging evaluation, a professional diagnosis and treatment team, accurate preoperative and intraoperative pathological analysis, and implementation of reasonable therapeutic strategy are the key to patients′ recovery.

  15. Diagnosis of adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Tristan S E; Norman, Robert J

    2013-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women of reproductive age and is increasingly recognized as a disorder manifesting in the peripubertal and adolescent period. Diagnosis in the adolescent is difficult due to the high background rate of menstrual irregularity, the high prevalence of polycystic ovarian morphology and hyperandrogenic features in this population. Recent guidelines suggest that menstrual irregularity for over two years, reduced reliance on ultrasound diagnosis of polycystic ovarian morphology, and accurate assessment of hyperandrogenic and metabolic features are suitable strategies for the diagnosis of PCOS in the adolescent. Accurate diagnosis is important given the long-term implications of the disorder, with increasing emphasis on metabolic sequelae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Adra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal uterine bleeding may be acute or chronic accounting for up to 30% of outpatient visits to gynecologists. Hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common endocrine disorders associated with ovulatory dysfunction that results in menstrual irregularities. Prior to initiating treatment, the various causes (physiologic, pathologic, pharmacologic, or idiopathic of hyperprolactinemia must be elucidated. Prolactin is a stress hormone that increases in response to stressful conditions; therefore, while collecting samples it is necessary to reduce venipuncture stress. A thorough patient history and physical examination will help to identify the cause and to direct therapy. Imaging results must always be assessed along with a patient’s clinical history and biochemical parameters when a pituitary tumor is suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the diagnosis of microprolactinomas and macroprolactinomas in both initial assessment and follow-up. Several drugs may cause a significant increase in serum prolactin concentration. If clinically feasible, the drug should be discontinued; if this is not possible, it should be substituted with a drug of similar action that does not cause hyperprolactinemia. Prolactinomas are the most common cause of pituitary adenomas affecting women of fertile age leading to significant elevations in prolactin that warrant treatment. Idiopathic hyperprolactinemia may be observed in the presence of elevated serum prolactin levels and in the absence of any other recognized cause of increased prolactin secretion. Dopamine agonists are the mainstay of therapy in prolactinomas and symptomatic idiopathic hyperprolactinemia because they normalize serum prolactin, effectively shrink prolactinomas and normalize gonadal function (i.e. menstruation.

  17. Assessment of LED fluorescence microscopy for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biallas Barbara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid and accurate diagnosis of malaria is central to clinical management and the prevention of drug-overuse, which may lead to resistance development, toxicity and economic losses. So far, light microscopy (LM of Giemsa-stained thick blood smears is the gold standard. Under optimal conditions the procedure is fast and reliable; nevertheless a gain in speed would be a great advantage. Rapid diagnosis tests are an alternative, although they cost more and give qualitative instead of quantitative results. Light-emitting diode (LED fluorescence microscopy (ledFM 400 ×, 1000 × may offer a reliable and cheap alternative, which can be used at the point of care. Methods LedFM and conventional fluorescence microscopy (uvFM were compared to LM in 210 samples from patients with history of fever in the last 24 hours admitted to the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon. Results Sensitivities were 99.1% for ledFM and 97.0% for uvFM, specificities 90.7% for ledFM 400 × and 92.6% for ledFM 1000 × and uvFM. High agreement was found in Bland-Altman-plot and Kappa coefficient (ledFM 1000 ×: 0.914, ledFM 400 × and uvFM: 0.895. The time to diagnosis for both FM methods was shorter compared to LM (LM: 43 min, uvFM: 16 min, ledFM 1000 ×: 14 min, ledFM 400 ×: 10 min. Conclusion ledFM is a reliable, accurate, fast and inexpensive tool for daily routine malaria diagnosis and may be used as a point of care diagnostic tool.

  18. Rapid, accurate and direct determination of total lycopene content in tomato paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.D.; Anese, M.; Luterotti, S.; Dadarlat, D.; Gibkes, J.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene that imparts red color to the tomato fruit is the most potent antioxidant among carotenes, an important nutrient and also used as a color ingredient in many food formulations. Since cooked and processed foods derived from tomatoes were shown to provide optimal lycopene boost, products such

  19. Rapid, accurate and direct determination of total lycopene content in tomato paste

    OpenAIRE

    Bicanic, D.D.; Anese, M.; Luterotti, S.; Dadarlat, D.; Gibkes, J.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene that imparts red color to the tomato fruit is the most potent antioxidant among carotenes, an important nutrient and also used as a color ingredient in many food formulations. Since cooked and processed foods derived from tomatoes were shown to provide optimal lycopene boost, products such as paste, puree, juice, etc. are nowadays gaining popularity as dietary sources. The analysis of lycopene in tomato paste (partially dehydrated product prepared by vacuum concentrating tomato juice...

  20. Biometric Fingerprint System to Enable Rapid and Accurate Identification of Beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Storisteanu, Daniel Matthew L; Norman, Toby L; Grigore, Alexandra; Norman, Tristram L

    2015-01-01

    Inability to uniquely identify clients impedes access to services and contributes to inefficiencies. Using a pocket-sized fingerprint scanner that wirelessly syncs with a health worker's smartphone, the SimPrints biometric system can link individuals' fingerprints to their health records. A pilot in Bangladesh will assess its potential.

  1. Rapid and Accurate Sequencing of Enterovirus Genomes Using MinION Nanopore Sequencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Ke, Yue Hua; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Ke Qiang; Wang, Lei; Shen, Xin Xin; Dong, Xiao Ping; Xu, Wen Bo; Ma, Xue Jun

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of an enterovirus genome sequence is very important in epidemiological investigation to identify transmission patterns and ascertain the extent of an outbreak. The MinION sequencer is increasingly used to sequence various viral pathogens in many clinical situations because of its long reads, portability, real-time accessibility of sequenced data, and very low initial costs. However, information is lacking on MinION sequencing of enterovirus genomes. In this proof-of-concept study using Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) strains as examples, we established an amplicon-based whole genome sequencing method using MinION. We explored the accuracy, minimum sequencing time, discrimination and high-throughput sequencing ability of MinION, and compared its performance with Sanger sequencing. Within the first minute (min) of sequencing, the accuracy of MinION was 98.5% for the single EV71 strain and 94.12%-97.33% for 10 genetically-related CA16 strains. In as little as 14 min, 99% identity was reached for the single EV71 strain, and in 17 min (on average), 99% identity was achieved for 10 CA16 strains in a single run. MinION is suitable for whole genome sequencing of enteroviruses with sufficient accuracy and fine discrimination and has the potential as a fast, reliable and convenient method for routine use. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Experiments in rapid development of accurate phonetic alignments for TTS in Afrikaans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, DR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available and Piloting of a Voice-based Information Service.? in WWW 2011. IW3C2, 2011, pp. 433?442. [5] J. Kominek and A. Black, ?The CMU arctic speech databases,? in The 5th ISCA Speech Synthesis Workshop, 2004, pp. 223?224. [6] J. P. Van Santen and A. L. Buchsbaum.... Povey, V. Veltchev, and P. Woodland, The HTK Book (for HTK Version 3.3). http://htk.eng.cam.ac.uk/: Cambridge University Engineering Department, 2005. [10] J. Kominek, T. Schultz, and A. Black, ?Synthesizer Voice Quality of New Languages Calibrated...

  3. Physical Model for Rapid and Accurate Determination of Nanopore Size via Conductance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chenyu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Shi-Li

    2017-10-27

    Nanopores have been explored for various biochemical and nanoparticle analyses, primarily via characterizing the ionic current through the pores. At present, however, size determination for solid-state nanopores is experimentally tedious and theoretically unaccountable. Here, we establish a physical model by introducing an effective transport length, L eff , that measures, for a symmetric nanopore, twice the distance from the center of the nanopore where the electric field is the highest to the point along the nanopore axis where the electric field falls to e -1 of this maximum. By [Formula: see text], a simple expression S 0 = f (G, σ, h, β) is derived to algebraically correlate minimum nanopore cross-section area S 0 to nanopore conductance G, electrolyte conductivity σ, and membrane thickness h with β to denote pore shape that is determined by the pore fabrication technique. The model agrees excellently with experimental results for nanopores in graphene, single-layer MoS 2 , and ultrathin SiN x films. The generality of the model is verified by applying it to micrometer-size pores.

  4. Rapid and Accurate Molecular Identification of the Emerging Multidrug-Resistant Pathogen Candida auris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordalewska, Milena; Zhao, Yanan; Lockhart, Shawn R; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Berrio, Indira; Perlin, David S

    2017-08-01

    Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial and invasive infections associated with high mortality. C. auris is commonly misidentified as several different yeast species by commercially available phenotypic identification platforms. Thus, there is an urgent need for a reliable diagnostic method. In this paper, we present fast, robust, easy-to-perform and interpret PCR and real-time PCR assays to identify C. auris and related species: Candida duobushaemulonii , Candida haemulonii , and Candida lusitaniae Targeting rDNA region nucleotide sequences, primers specific for C. auris only or C. auris and related species were designed. A panel of 140 clinical fungal isolates was used in both PCR and real-time PCR assays followed by electrophoresis or melting temperature analysis, respectively. The identification results from the assays were 100% concordant with DNA sequencing results. These molecular assays overcome the deficiencies of existing phenotypic tests to identify C. auris and related species. Copyright © 2017 Kordalewska et al.

  5. High performance liquid chromatography method for rapid and accurate determination of homocysteine in plasma and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Birte; Rasmussen, K

    1991-01-01

    with ammonium 7-fluorobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-4-sulphonate, and HPLC separation followed by fluorescence detection. The linearity of the assays is established and the coefficient of variation is 3.0%. Stability studies show that blood samples must be cooled or centrifuged immediately after venipuncture...

  6. Thermal Conductivities in Solids from First Principles: Accurate Computations and Rapid Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbogno, Christian; Scheffler, Matthias

    In spite of significant research efforts, a first-principles determination of the thermal conductivity κ at high temperatures has remained elusive. Boltzmann transport techniques that account for anharmonicity perturbatively become inaccurate under such conditions. Ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) techniques using the Green-Kubo (GK) formalism capture the full anharmonicity, but can become prohibitively costly to converge in time and size. We developed a formalism that accelerates such GK simulations by several orders of magnitude and that thus enables its application within the limited time and length scales accessible in ab initio MD. For this purpose, we determine the effective harmonic potential occurring during the MD, the associated temperature-dependent phonon properties and lifetimes. Interpolation in reciprocal and frequency space then allows to extrapolate to the macroscopic scale. For both force-field and ab initio MD, we validate this approach by computing κ for Si and ZrO2, two materials known for their particularly harmonic and anharmonic character. Eventually, we demonstrate how these techniques facilitate reasonable estimates of κ from existing MD calculations at virtually no additional computational cost.

  7. Rapid and Accurate Assembly Method for a New Laue Lens Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wade, Colin; Barriere, Nicolas; Hanlon, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    The Laue lens is a technology for gamma-ray astrophysics whereby gamma-rays of particular energies can be focused by a suitable arrangement of crystals. The Laue lens assembly station at UC Berkeley was used to build a technological demonstrator addressing the key issues of crystal mounting speed......, crystal position and orientation accuracy, and crystal reflectivity. The new prototype is a lens segment containing a total of 48 5 x 5 mm2 crystals - 36 Iron and 12 Aluminium. The segment is composed of 8 partial rings, each of which is aligned to diffract an energy between 95 and 130 keV from a source...

  8. Rapid and accurate determination of barium by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, Maria Jose A.; Maihara, Vera A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Trevizam, Anderson R.

    2013-01-01

    Barium is an alkaline earth metal naturally present in soils. When available at a high level in the soil it can cause toxicity to plants and animals. Not all the barium is readily available to living organisms. Inorganic and organic barium compounds can be presented as soluble or insoluble forms in the soil. The soluble form of BaS is extremely toxic to humans, animals and plants. Researchers have noted a decrease of K absorption in the plant when Ba concentrations are increased and a change in overall plant growth. In case of animals, Ba tends to be concentrated in the bones which may compete with calcium, although only about 2% barium ingested in dietary is absorbed by the body. Another effect is that the Ba can interfere with the availability of sulfur in the soil due to the sulphate formation of low solubility. Barium and some other elements are considered palioclimatic proxies. For some researchers, barite is perhaps the most appropriate indicator of paleoproductivity because of a high resistance to dissolution. As explained about the barium effects in various situations, it was considered important to study the more appropriated experimental conditions for determination of this element by INAA. Conditions established for this analysis were: a) Irradiation time, 15 and 40 seconds, under thermal flux neutron about 4 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 , for determining barium in geological and biological matrices, respectively; b) Decay time, approximately of 4 minutes; c) Counting time of 30 minutes; d) Radionuclide measured 139 Ba. The quality of Ba results was evaluated from the analysis of certified reference materials. The performance of the method was satisfactory, according to the criterion of E.ζ score. Results obtained in this study indicate INAA is a good alternative for Ba determination in geological and biological samples. (author)

  9. Rapid accurate analysis of metal (oxide)-on-silica catalysts by atomic absorption spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jütte, B.A.H.G.; Heikamp, A.; Agterdenbos, J.

    1979-01-01

    The catalysts, which contain 10–60% copper, chromium, nickel and silicon, are decomposed in sealed Teflon-lined vessels and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Matrix matching and bracketing standards are applied. The RSD of a single determination is about 1% for all components.

  10. An accurate determination of the flux within a slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B.D.; Lapenta, G.

    1993-01-01

    During the past decade, several articles have been written concerning accurate solutions to the monoenergetic neutron transport equation in infinite and semi-infinite geometries. The numerical formulations found in these articles were based primarily on the extensive theoretical investigations performed by the open-quotes transport greatsclose quotes such as Chandrasekhar, Busbridge, Sobolev, and Ivanov, to name a few. The development of numerical solutions in infinite and semi-infinite geometries represents an example of how mathematical transport theory can be utilized to provide highly accurate and efficient numerical transport solutions. These solutions, or analytical benchmarks, are useful as open-quotes industry standards,close quotes which provide guidance to code developers and promote learning in the classroom. The high accuracy of these benchmarks is directly attributable to the rapid advancement of the state of computing and computational methods. Transport calculations that were beyond the capability of the open-quotes supercomputersclose quotes of just a few years ago are now possible at one's desk. In this paper, we again build upon the past to tackle the slab problem, which is of the next level of difficulty in comparison to infinite media problems. The formulation is based on the monoenergetic Green's function, which is the most fundamental transport solution. This method of solution requires a fast and accurate evaluation of the Green's function, which, with today's computational power, is now readily available

  11. Comparative analysis of acon- Plasmodium falciparum rapid malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that Acon-Pf is suitable along side microscopy in the accurate diagnosis of malaria in Enugu State. The use of Acon- Pf and thick smear tests in parallel, first collecting the Acon-Pf results, as it contributes in reading the thin smear result for confirmation of species, diagnosis and assessment of parasitaemia.

  12. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2013-04-02

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  13. Development of rapid phenotypic system for the identification of Gram-negative oxidase-positive bacilli in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, Mahmooda; Khan, Adnan; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2013-06-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology. The diagnosis and surveillance of diseases is dependent, to a great extent, on laboratory services, which cannot function without effective reliable reagents and diagnostics. Despite the advancement in microbiology diagnosis globally, resourcelimited countries still struggle to provide an acceptable diagnosis quality which helps in clinical disease management and improve their mortality and morbidity data. During this study an indigenous product, Quick Test Strip (QTS) NE, was developed for the rapid identification of biochemically slower group of Gram-negative oxidase-positive bacilli that covers 19 different bacterial genera. Some of the members belonging to these groups are well-established human pathogens, e.g. various species of Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Aeromonas, Achromobacter and Stenotrophomonas. This study also evaluates the performance of QTS-NE by comparing with genotypic characterization methods. A total of 232 clinical and reference bacterial isolates were tested by three different methods. QTSNE provides 100 percent concordant results with other rapid identification and molecular characterization methods and confirms the potential to be used in clinical diagnosis.

  14. Mobile Complex For Rapid Diagnosis of the Technological System Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilin Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the up-to-dateness of the new informing and measuring tools and technologies development. It is reviewed the mobile complex for runtime diagnostics of technological system “machine-toolinstrument- detail”. It was found that the use of the complex allows to identify the frequency area in which the appearance of resonance of the technological system elements is possible, and thus to draw a conclusion on the technical state of the diagnosed object. It is concluded that there is the prospects for the use of the above mentioned mobile complex for vibration diagnostics.

  15. A rapid and sensitive method for diagnosis of dermatophyte induced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sherin M. Emam

    2015-08-29

    10.1016/j.ajme.2015.05.001 ... C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis and Blastoschizomyces capitatus ... contaminants, Scrapings were taken with a sterile scalpel blade ... shape, consistency, margins, color of the colony both in recto.

  16. Rapid white blood cell detection for peritonitis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Mei, Zhe; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2013-03-01

    A point-of-care and home-care lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system that integrates a microfluidic spiral device as a concentrator with an optical-coding device as a cell enumerator is demonstrated. The LoC system enumerates white blood cells from dialysis effluent of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. The preliminary results show that the white blood cell counts from our system agree well with the results from commercial flow cytometers. The LoC system can potentially bring significant benefits to end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients that are on peritoneal dialysis (PD).

  17. Universal algorithm for diagnosis of biventricular capture in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Marek; Kukla, Piotr; Fijorek, Kamil; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2014-08-01

    An accurate and universal method for diagnosis of biventricular (BiV) capture using a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) would be useful for assessment of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) patients. Our objective was to develop and validate such an ECG method for BiV capture diagnosis that would be independent of pacing lead positions-a major confounder that significantly influences the morphologies of paced QRS complexes. On the basis of an evaluation of 789 ECGs of 443 patients with heart failure and various right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) lead positions, the following algorithm was constructed and validated. BiV capture was diagnosed if the QRS in lead I was predominantly negative and either V1 QRS was predominantly positive or V6 QRS was of negative onset and predominantly negative (step 1), or if QRS complex duration was capture. The algorithm showed good accuracy (93%), sensitivity (97%), and specificity (90%) for detection of loss of LV capture. The performance of the algorithm did not differ among apical, midseptal, and outflow tract RV lead positions and various LV lead positions. LV capture leaves diagnostic hallmarks in the fused BiV QRS related to different vectors of depolarization and more rapid depolarization of the ventricles. An accurate two-step ECG algorithm for BiV capture diagnosis was developed and validated. This algorithm is universally applicable to all CRT patients, regardless of the positions of the pacing leads. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Using an Educational Electronic Documentation System to Help Nursing Students Accurately Identify Nursing Diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobocik, Tamara J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of technology and electronic medical records in healthcare has exponentially increased. This quantitative research project used a pretest/posttest design, and reviewed how an educational electronic documentation system helped nursing students to identify the accurate related to statement of the nursing diagnosis for the patient in the case…

  19. Diagnosis of vulvovaginitis: comparison of clinical and microbiological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esim Buyukbayrak, Esra; Kars, Bulent; Karsidag, Ayse Yasemin Karageyim; Karadeniz, Bernan Ilkay; Kaymaz, Ozge; Gencer, Serap; Pirimoglu, Zehra Meltem; Unal, Orhan; Turan, Mehmet Cem

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the current diagnostic clinical and laboratory approaches to women with vulvovaginal discharge complaint. The secondary outcomes were to determine the prevalence of infections in our setting and to look for the relation between vulvovaginal infections and predisposing factors if present. Premenopausal women applying to our gynecology outpatient clinic with vaginal discharge complaint were enrolled prospectively into the study. Each patient evaluated clinically with direct observation of vaginal secretions, wet mount examination, whiff test, vaginal pH testing and chlamydia rapid antigen test. Each patient also evaluated microbiologically with vaginal discharge culture and gram staining. Clinical diagnosis was compared with the microbiological diagnosis (the gold standard). Diagnostic accuracy was measured with sensitivity, specificity, positive (ppv) and negative predictive values (npv). 460 patients were included in the study. 89.8% of patients received a clinical diagnosis whereas only 36% of them had microbiological diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, ppv, npv of clinical diagnosis over microbiological culture results were 95, 13, 38, 82%, respectively. The most commonly encountered microorganisms by culture were Candida species (17.4%) and Gardnerella vaginalis (10.2%). Clinically, the most commonly made diagnoses were mixed infection (34.1%), bacterial vaginosis (32.4%) and fungal infection (14.1%). Symptoms did not predict laboratory results. Predisposing factors (DM, vaginal douching practice, presence of IUD and usage of oral contraceptive pills) were not found to be statistically important influencing factors for vaginal infections. Clinical diagnosis based on combining symptoms with office-based testing improves diagnostic accuracy but is insufficient. The most effective approach also incorporates laboratory testing as an adjunct when a diagnosis is in question or treatment is failing.

  20. More accurate picture of human body organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, J.

    1985-01-01

    Computerized tomography and nucler magnetic resonance tomography (NMRT) are revolutionary contributions to radiodiagnosis because they allow to obtain a more accurate image of human body organs. The principles are described of both methods. Attention is mainly devoted to NMRT which has clinically only been used for three years. It does not burden the organism with ionizing radiation. (Ha)

  1. Fast and accurate methods for phylogenomic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warnow Tandy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species phylogenies are not estimated directly, but rather through phylogenetic analyses of different gene datasets. However, true gene trees can differ from the true species tree (and hence from one another due to biological processes such as horizontal gene transfer, incomplete lineage sorting, and gene duplication and loss, so that no single gene tree is a reliable estimate of the species tree. Several methods have been developed to estimate species trees from estimated gene trees, differing according to the specific algorithmic technique used and the biological model used to explain differences between species and gene trees. Relatively little is known about the relative performance of these methods. Results We report on a study evaluating several different methods for estimating species trees from sequence datasets, simulating sequence evolution under a complex model including indels (insertions and deletions, substitutions, and incomplete lineage sorting. The most important finding of our study is that some fast and simple methods are nearly as accurate as the most accurate methods, which employ sophisticated statistical methods and are computationally quite intensive. We also observe that methods that explicitly consider errors in the estimated gene trees produce more accurate trees than methods that assume the estimated gene trees are correct. Conclusions Our study shows that highly accurate estimations of species trees are achievable, even when gene trees differ from each other and from the species tree, and that these estimations can be obtained using fairly simple and computationally tractable methods.

  2. Accurate overlaying for mobile augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W; van der Schaaf, A; Lagendijk, RL; Jansen, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    Mobile augmented reality requires accurate alignment of virtual information with objects visible in the real world. We describe a system for mobile communications to be developed to meet these strict alignment criteria using a combination of computer vision. inertial tracking and low-latency

  3. Accurate activity recognition in a home setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kasteren, T.; Noulas, A.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.

    2008-01-01

    A sensor system capable of automatically recognizing activities would allow many potential ubiquitous applications. In this paper, we present an easy to install sensor network and an accurate but inexpensive annotation method. A recorded dataset consisting of 28 days of sensor data and its

  4. Highly accurate surface maps from profilometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Kate M.; Nelson, Jessica D.; Mandina, Mike P.

    2013-04-01

    Many aspheres and free-form optical surfaces are measured using a single line trace profilometer which is limiting because accurate 3D corrections are not possible with the single trace. We show a method to produce an accurate fully 2.5D surface height map when measuring a surface with a profilometer using only 6 traces and without expensive hardware. The 6 traces are taken at varying angular positions of the lens, rotating the part between each trace. The output height map contains low form error only, the first 36 Zernikes. The accuracy of the height map is ±10% of the actual Zernike values and within ±3% of the actual peak to valley number. The calculated Zernike values are affected by errors in the angular positioning, by the centering of the lens, and to a small effect, choices made in the processing algorithm. We have found that the angular positioning of the part should be better than 1?, which is achievable with typical hardware. The centering of the lens is essential to achieving accurate measurements. The part must be centered to within 0.5% of the diameter to achieve accurate results. This value is achievable with care, with an indicator, but the part must be edged to a clean diameter.

  5. A dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method for power transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wensheng; Bai, Cuifen; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified.

  6. A Dynamic Integrated Fault Diagnosis Method for Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wensheng; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified. PMID:25685841

  7. Radionuclide imaging in diagnosis and therapy of the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Cansheng

    2000-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of angiopathy or infection of the diabetic foot is the key to the successful management. Radionuclide imaging is very useful in detecting diabetic microangiopathy, assessing the prognosis of foot ulcers, and diagnosing the osteomyelitis

  8. Leveraging Two Kinect Sensors for Accurate Full-Body Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiquan Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate motion capture plays an important role in sports analysis, the medical field and virtual reality. Current methods for motion capture often suffer from occlusions, which limits the accuracy of their pose estimation. In this paper, we propose a complete system to measure the pose parameters of the human body accurately. Different from previous monocular depth camera systems, we leverage two Kinect sensors to acquire more information about human movements, which ensures that we can still get an accurate estimation even when significant occlusion occurs. Because human motion is temporally constant, we adopt a learning analysis to mine the temporal information across the posture variations. Using this information, we estimate human pose parameters accurately, regardless of rapid movement. Our experimental results show that our system can perform an accurate pose estimation of the human body with the constraint of information from the temporal domain.

  9. Accurate Classification of Chronic Migraine via Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J.; Chong, Catherine D.; Wu, Teresa; Gaw, Nathan; Fu, Yinlin; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background The International Classification of Headache Disorders provides criteria for the diagnosis and subclassification of migraine. Since there is no objective gold standard by which to test these diagnostic criteria, the criteria are based on the consensus opinion of content experts. Accurate migraine classifiers consisting of brain structural measures could serve as an objective gold standard by which to test and revise diagnostic criteria. The objectives of this study were to utilize magnetic resonance imaging measures of brain structure for constructing classifiers: 1) that accurately identify individuals as having chronic vs. episodic migraine vs. being a healthy control; and 2) that test the currently used threshold of 15 headache days/month for differentiating chronic migraine from episodic migraine. Methods Study participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging for determination of regional cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and volume. Principal components analysis combined structural measurements into principal components accounting for 85% of variability in brain structure. Models consisting of these principal components were developed to achieve the classification objectives. Ten-fold cross validation assessed classification accuracy within each of the ten runs, with data from 90% of participants randomly selected for classifier development and data from the remaining 10% of participants used to test classification performance. Headache frequency thresholds ranging from 5–15 headache days/month were evaluated to determine the threshold allowing for the most accurate subclassification of individuals into lower and higher frequency subgroups. Results Participants were 66 migraineurs and 54 healthy controls, 75.8% female, with an average age of 36 +/− 11 years. Average classifier accuracies were: a) 68% for migraine (episodic + chronic) vs. healthy controls; b) 67.2% for episodic migraine vs. healthy controls; c) 86.3% for chronic

  10. Tuberculous and brucellosis meningitis differential diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Senbayrak, Seniha; Gencer, Serap

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Thwaites and Lancet scoring systems have been used in the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). However, brucellar meningoencephalitis (BME) has similar characteristics with TBM. The ultimate aim of this study is to infer data to see if BME should be included in the dif......BACKGROUND: The Thwaites and Lancet scoring systems have been used in the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). However, brucellar meningoencephalitis (BME) has similar characteristics with TBM. The ultimate aim of this study is to infer data to see if BME should be included...

  11. Comprehensive molecular diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases using next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Shintaro; Nakayama, Manabu; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Hoshino, Akihiro; Shimodera, Saeko; Shibata, Hirofumi; Fujino, Hisanori; Fujino, Takahiro; Yunomae, Yuta; Okano, Tsubasa; Yamashita, Motoi; Yasumi, Takahiro; Izawa, Kazushi; Takagi, Masatoshi; Imai, Kohsuke; Zhang, Kejian; Marsh, Rebecca; Picard, Capucine; Latour, Sylvain; Ohara, Osamu; Morio, Tomohiro

    2018-05-18

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several life-threatening diseases, such as lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), particularly in immunocompromised hosts. Some categories of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) including X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), are characterized by susceptibility and vulnerability to EBV infection. The number of genetically defined PIDs is rapidly increasing, and clinical genetic testing plays an important role in establishing a definitive diagnosis. Whole-exome sequencing is performed for diagnosing rare genetic diseases, but is both expensive and time-consuming. Low-cost, high-throughput gene analysis systems are thus necessary. We developed a comprehensive molecular diagnostic method using a two-step tailed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform to detect mutations in 23 candidate genes responsible for XLP or XLP-like diseases. Samples from 19 patients suspected of having EBV-associated LPD were used in this comprehensive molecular diagnosis. Causative gene mutations (involving PRF1 and SH2D1A) were detected in two of the 19 patients studied. This comprehensive diagnosis method effectively detected mutations in all coding exons of 23 genes with sufficient read numbers for each amplicon. This comprehensive molecular diagnostic method using PCR and NGS provides a rapid, accurate, low-cost diagnosis for patients with XLP or XLP-like diseases.

  12. Multi-slice spiral CT diagnosis of carotid body tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peiling; Leng Renli; Li Shu; Xie Xiuli; Xu Ke

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to explore the Multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) findings of carotid body tumor (CBT). Methods: Twelve cases of CBT proved by surgery were collected in this study and all patients accepted contrast-enhanced MSCT examination. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional post-processing were performed at diagnostic workstation using Aquilion 1.42. The CT features of CBT were analyzed. Results Each of 12 patients had one lesion. All lesions demonstrated well-marginated masses of homogeneous soft- tissue density with CT value within 29-48 HU on pre-enhanced images. All lesions were markedly enhanced with CT value over 200 HU on arterial-phase images, and the density of lesions decreased rapidly on delay- phase images. Twelve lesions were all located at the level of carotid artery bifurcation, 3 of them enveloping common carotid artery and internal/external carotid artery, and other 9 of them riding right on the carotid bifurcation. Internal carotid artery usually were shifted toward posterior-lateral, and external carotid artery toward anterior or anterior-medial. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced MSCT examination not only can make a qualitative diagnosis of CBT, but determine its accurate location. It plays an importantly instructional role in clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  13. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current options and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-Kuang; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Liu, Chung-Jung; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wang, Sophie SW; Wu, Jeng-Yih; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Huang, Yao-Kang; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2015-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a crucial part in the effective management of many gastroduodenal diseases. Several invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests are available for the detection of H. pylori and each test has its usefulness and limitations in different clinical situations. Although none can be considered as a single gold standard in clinical practice, several techniques have been developed to give the more reliable results. Invasive tests are performed via endoscopic biopsy specimens and these tests include histology, culture, rapid urease test as well as molecular methods. Developments of endoscopic equipment also contribute to the real-time diagnosis of H. pylori during endoscopy. Urea breathing test and stool antigen test are most widely used non-invasive tests, whereas serology is useful in screening and epidemiological studies. Molecular methods have been used in variable specimens other than gastric mucosa. More than detection of H. pylori infection, several tests are introduced into the evaluation of virulence factors and antibiotic sensitivity of H. pylori, as well as screening precancerous lesions and gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to review the current options and novel developments of diagnostic tests and their applications in different clinical conditions or for specific purposes. PMID:26523098

  14. A Novel Method for Bacterial UTI Diagnosis Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokia Kastanos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the art on bacterial classification using Raman and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS for the purpose of developing a rapid and more accurate method for urinary tract infection (UTI diagnosis is presented. SERS, an enhanced version of Raman offering much increased sensitivity, provides complex biochemical information which, in conjunction with advanced analysis and classification techniques, can become a valuable diagnostic tool. The variety of metal substrates used for SERS, including silver and gold colloids, as well as nanostructured metal surfaces, is reviewed. The challenges in preprocessing noisy and complicated spectra and the various methods used for feature creation as well as a novel method using spectral band ratios are described. The various unsupervised and supervised classification methods commonly used for SERS spectra of bacteria are evaluated. Current research on transforming SERS into a valuable clinical tool for the diagnosis of UTIs is presented. Specifically, the classification of bacterial spectra (a as positive or negative for an infection, (b as belonging to a particular species of bacteria, and (c as sensitive or resistant to an antibiotic are described. This work can lead to the development of novel technology with extremely important benefits for public health.

  15. From Femtosecond Dynamics to Breast Cancer Diagnosis by Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramczyk, H.; Placek, I.; Brozek-Pluska, B.; Kurczewski, K.; Morawiec, Z.; Tazbir, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents new results based on Raman spectroscopy and demonstrates its utilisation as a diagnostic and development tool with the key advantage in breast cancer research. Applications of Raman spectroscopy in cancer research are in the early stages of development. However, research presented here as well as performed in a few other laboratories demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to accurately characterize cancer tissue and distinguish between normal, malignant and benign types. The main goals of bio-Raman spectroscopy at this stage are threefold. Firstly, the aim is to develop the diagnostic ability of Raman spectroscopy so it can be implemented in a clinical environment, producing accurate and rapid diagnoses. Secondly, the aim is to optimize the technique as a diagnostic tool for the non-invasive real time medical applications. Thirdly, the aim is to formulate some hypothesis based on Raman spectroscopy on the molecular mechanism which drives the transformation of normal human cells into highly malignant derivatives. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most statistically reliable report on Raman spectroscopy-based diagnosis of breast cancers among the world women population

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of amniotic band syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Devi Padmanabhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic band can cause a broad spectrum of anomalies ranging from simple band constrictions to major craniofacial and visceral defects. It can cause significant neonatal morbidity. Accurate diagnosis will help in the management of the present pregnancy and in counseling with regard to future pregnancies. Here we report three cases of amniotic band syndrome detected in the prenatal period.

  17. Reliability of visual diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Shavi; Soh, Pei Qian; Cooper, Michael; Evans, Susan; Reid, Geoffrey; Tsaltas, Jim; Rombauts, Luk

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether accuracy of visual diagnosis of endometriosis at laparoscopy is determined by stage of disease. Prospective longitudinal cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Tertiary referral centers in three Australian states. Of 1439 biopsy specimens, endometriosis was proved in at least one specimen in 431 patients. Laparoscopy with visual diagnosis and staging of endometriosis followed by histopathologic analysis and confirmation. Operations were performed by five experienced laparoscopic gynecologists. Histopathologic confirmation of visual diagnosis of endometriosis adjusted for significant covariates. Endometriosis was accurately diagnosed in 49.7% of American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) stage I, which was significantly less accurate than for other stages of endometriosis. Deep endometriosis was more likely to be diagnosed accurately than superficial endometriosis (adjusted odds ratio, 2.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-4.18; p < .01). Lesion volume was also predictive, with larger lesions diagnosed more accurately than smaller lesions. In general, lesion site did not greatly influence accuracy except for superficial ovarian lesions, which were more likely to be incorrectly diagnosed visually as endometriosis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.41; p < .01). There was no statistically significant difference in accuracy between the gynecologic surgeons. The accuracy of visual diagnosis of endometriosis was substantially influenced by American Society of Reproductive Medicine stage, the depth and volume of the lesion, and to a lesser extent the location of the lesion. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anxiety disorders: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, R A; Mathew, R J

    1985-07-01

    Pathologic anxiety, marked by inappropriate apprehension and/or fear, causes patients to seek help. Anxiety is associated with a wide variety of physical illnesses, and these must be initially considered when making a diagnosis. Similarly, anxiety associated with a wide variety of psychiatric syndromes must also be considered. Finally, the possibility of transient situational anxiety is ever present. Once it is determined that a primary anxiety disorder exists, then the presence or absence of phobias, panic attacks, and chronic "free-floating" anxiety will fully characterize the disorder. With an accurate diagnosis in hand, a multifaceted treatment approach can be designed. Effective treatments now exist for phobic and panic disorders, and more effective treatment for chronic generalized anxiety may be forthcoming.

  19. Otoscopic diagnosis of otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Glenn

    2016-12-01

    Accurate diagnosis of otitis media is important to prevent suffering and complications when infection is present, and unnecessary antibiotic use when infection is absent. The usual signs and symptoms of acute otitis media are unreliable guides in infants and young children. Similarly, middle ear effusions may present with little discomfort in older children. We therefore depend on examination of the tympanic membrane with an otoscope to make most diagnoses. This article aims to improve the accuracy of middle ear diagnosis by pneumatic otoscopy. It includes descriptions and photographs of the normal ear drum and illustrates the pathologic changes seen in acute otitis media, long-standing eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media with effusion.

  20. Fast and accurate automated cell boundary determination for fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Stephen Hugo; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Tseng, Yiider

    2013-07-01

    Detailed measurement of cell phenotype information from digital fluorescence images has the potential to greatly advance biomedicine in various disciplines such as patient diagnostics or drug screening. Yet, the complexity of cell conformations presents a major barrier preventing effective determination of cell boundaries, and introduces measurement error that propagates throughout subsequent assessment of cellular parameters and statistical analysis. State-of-the-art image segmentation techniques that require user-interaction, prolonged computation time and specialized training cannot adequately provide the support for high content platforms, which often sacrifice resolution to foster the speedy collection of massive amounts of cellular data. This work introduces a strategy that allows us to rapidly obtain accurate cell boundaries from digital fluorescent images in an automated format. Hence, this new method has broad applicability to promote biotechnology.

  1. An Integrative Approach to Accurate Vehicle Logo Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Pan

    2013-01-01

    required for many applications in intelligent transportation systems and automatic surveillance. The task is challenging considering the small target of logos and the wide range of variability in shape, color, and illumination. A fast and reliable vehicle logo detection approach is proposed following visual attention mechanism from the human vision. Two prelogo detection steps, that is, vehicle region detection and a small RoI segmentation, rapidly focalize a small logo target. An enhanced Adaboost algorithm, together with two types of features of Haar and HOG, is proposed to detect vehicles. An RoI that covers logos is segmented based on our prior knowledge about the logos’ position relative to license plates, which can be accurately localized from frontal vehicle images. A two-stage cascade classier proceeds with the segmented RoI, using a hybrid of Gentle Adaboost and Support Vector Machine (SVM, resulting in precise logo positioning. Extensive experiments were conducted to verify the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  2. Nondestructive testing for bridge diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Toshiyuki; Mikami, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Tomoyuki

    1997-01-01

    There are many motivations for bridge diagnosis using Nondestructive testing (NDT) to monitor its integrity. The measured frequency and damping on real bridge are compared in one figure as a function of span length and general aspects are explained. These date were measured in every construction of bridges and applied to design new bridges. Ultrasonic testing is also well used for concrete and steel members mainly to detect internal damages or delaminations. Detail analysis on reflected waves gives us more accurate information about the defect. Experimental results are shown as examples in this paper.

  3. Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Coyle

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, the infection caused by the larval form of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and the most common cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. This has primarily been a disease that remains endemic in low-socioeconomic countries, but because of increased migration neurocysticercosis is being diagnosed more frequently in high-income countries. During the past three decades improved diagnostics, imaging, and treatment have led to more accurate diagnosis and improved prognosis for patients. This article reviews the current literature on neurocysticercosis, including newer diagnostics and treatment developments.

  4. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lu

    Full Text Available Modern cochlear implant (CI users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  5. Accurate estimation of indoor travel times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentow, Thor Siiger; Blunck, Henrik; Stisen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The ability to accurately estimate indoor travel times is crucial for enabling improvements within application areas such as indoor navigation, logistics for mobile workers, and facility management. In this paper, we study the challenges inherent in indoor travel time estimation, and we propose...... the InTraTime method for accurately estimating indoor travel times via mining of historical and real-time indoor position traces. The method learns during operation both travel routes, travel times and their respective likelihood---both for routes traveled as well as for sub-routes thereof. InTraTime...... allows to specify temporal and other query parameters, such as time-of-day, day-of-week or the identity of the traveling individual. As input the method is designed to take generic position traces and is thus interoperable with a variety of indoor positioning systems. The method's advantages include...

  6. Measuring system with stereoscopic x-ray television for accurate diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, K.; Shimizu, S.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray stereoscopic television is diagnostically effective. The authors invented a measuring system using stereoscopic television whereby the coordinates of any two points and their separation can be measured in real time without physical contact. For this purpose, the distances between the two foci of the tube and between the tube and image intensifier were entered into a microcomputer beforehand, and any two points on the CRT stereoscopic image can be defined through the stereoscopic spectacles. The coordinates and distance are then displayed on the CRT monitor. By this means, measurements such as distance between vessels and size of organs are easily made

  7. Down Syndrome and Dementia: Is Depression a Confounder for Accurate Diagnosis and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Stuart; Hussain, Rafat; Parmenter, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    The past century has seen a dramatic improvement in the life expectancy of people with Down syndrome. However, research has shown that individuals with Down syndrome now have an increased likelihood of early onset dementia. They are more likely than their mainstream peers to experience other significant co-morbidities including mental health…

  8. Interval between injection of contrast material and positive contrast cheliography affects accurate diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail A. Sen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, surgical and diagnostic imaging findings in 11 cats and 3 dogs with suspected acute and chronic traumatic diaphragmatic hernia, and to compare the results of positive contrast cheliography (peritoneography taken immediately and 5 min after the injection of contrast material. Thoracic and abdominal radiography, ultrasonography, and positive contrast cheliography of all animals were performed. Eight cases were considered as acute and six cases were considered chronic. The contrast images taken immediately after the injection of contrast material revealed the contrast material in the thoracic cavity in 8/8 acute trauma patients, but in none of the chronic cases. In 5/6 of these cases contrast material was seen in the thoracal cavity only in additional images taken after 5 min. One patient was diagnosed with FIP and excluded from the study. Twelve cases had complete resolution and one animal died during the early postoperative period. Our results suggest that positive contrast cheliography performed immediately after the injection of contrast material may not reveal chronic cases of diaphragmatic hernia and a second imaging (or imaging after 5 min is indicated in order not to overlook chronic cases.

  9. Impact of appendicitis during pregnancy : No delay in accurate diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aggenbach, L.; Zeeman, G. G.; Cantineau, A. E. P.; Gordijn, S. J.; Hofker, H. S.

    Background: Acute appendicitis during pregnancy may be associated with serious maternal and/or fetal complications. To date, the optimal clinical approach to the management of pregnant women suspected of having acute appendicitis is subject to debate. The purpose of this retrospective study was to

  10. On accurate determination of contact angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are proposed that exploit a microgravity environment to obtain highly accurate measurement of contact angle. These methods, which are based on our earlier mathematical results, do not require detailed measurement of a liquid free-surface, as they incorporate discontinuous or nearly-discontinuous behavior of the liquid bulk in certain container geometries. Physical testing is planned in the forthcoming IML-2 space flight and in related preparatory ground-based experiments.

  11. Software Estimation: Developing an Accurate, Reliable Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    based and size-based estimates is able to accurately plan, launch, and execute on schedule. Bob Sinclair, NAWCWD Chris Rickets , NAWCWD Brad Hodgins...Office by Carnegie Mellon University. SMPSP and SMTSP are service marks of Carnegie Mellon University. 1. Rickets , Chris A, “A TSP Software Maintenance...Life Cycle”, CrossTalk, March, 2005. 2. Koch, Alan S, “TSP Can Be the Building blocks for CMMI”, CrossTalk, March, 2005. 3. Hodgins, Brad, Rickets

  12. Highly Accurate Prediction of Jobs Runtime Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner-Benaim, Anat; Grabarnick, Anna; Shmueli, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Separating the short jobs from the long is a known technique to improve scheduling performance. In this paper we describe a method we developed for accurately predicting the runtimes classes of the jobs to enable this separation. Our method uses the fact that the runtimes can be represented as a mixture of overlapping Gaussian distributions, in order to train a CART classifier to provide the prediction. The threshold that separates the short jobs from the long jobs is determined during the ev...

  13. Accurate multiplicity scaling in isotopically conjugate reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    The generation of accurate scaling of mutiplicity distributions is presented. The distributions of π - mesons (negative particles) and π + mesons in different nucleon-nucleon interactions (PP, NP and NN) are described by the same universal function Ψ(z) and the same energy dependence of the scale parameter which determines the stretching factor for the unit function Ψ(z) to obtain the desired multiplicity distribution. 29 refs.; 6 figs

  14. Infected aortic aneurysm and inflammatory aortic aneurysm. In search of an optimal differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Nobukazu; Sohmiya, Koichi; Miyamura, Masatoshi; Umeda, Tatsuya; Tsuji, Motomu; Katsumata, Takahiro; Miyata, Tetsuro

    2012-01-01

    Infected aortic aneurysm and inflammatory aortic aneurysm each account for a minor fraction of the total incidence of aortic aneurysm and are associated with periaortic inflammation. Despite the similarity, infected aortic aneurysm generally shows a more rapid change in clinical condition, leading to a fatal outcome; in addition, delayed diagnosis and misuse of corticosteroid or immunosuppressing drugs may lead to uncontrolled growth of microorganisms. Therefore, it is mandatory that detection of aortic aneurysm is followed by accurate differential diagnosis. In general, infected aortic aneurysm appears usually as a saccular form aneurysm with nodularity, irregular configuration; however, the differential diagnosis may not be easy sometimes for the following reasons: symptoms, such as abdominal and/or back pain and fever, and blood test abnormalities, such as elevated C-reactive protein and enhanced erythrocyte sedimentation rate, are common in infected aortic aneurysm, but they are not found infrequently in inflammatory aortic aneurysm; some inflammatory aortic aneurysms are immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related, but not all of them; the prevalence of IgG4 positivity in infected aortic aneurysm has not been well investigated; enhanced uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by 18F-FDG-positron emission tomography may not distinguish between inflammation mediated by autoimmunity and that mediated by microorganism infection. Here we discuss the characteristics of these two forms of aortic aneurysm and the points of which we have to be aware before reaching a final diagnosis. (author)

  15. Mental models accurately predict emotion transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Mark A; Tamir, Diana I

    2017-06-06

    Successful social interactions depend on people's ability to predict others' future actions and emotions. People possess many mechanisms for perceiving others' current emotional states, but how might they use this information to predict others' future states? We hypothesized that people might capitalize on an overlooked aspect of affective experience: current emotions predict future emotions. By attending to regularities in emotion transitions, perceivers might develop accurate mental models of others' emotional dynamics. People could then use these mental models of emotion transitions to predict others' future emotions from currently observable emotions. To test this hypothesis, studies 1-3 used data from three extant experience-sampling datasets to establish the actual rates of emotional transitions. We then collected three parallel datasets in which participants rated the transition likelihoods between the same set of emotions. Participants' ratings of emotion transitions predicted others' experienced transitional likelihoods with high accuracy. Study 4 demonstrated that four conceptual dimensions of mental state representation-valence, social impact, rationality, and human mind-inform participants' mental models. Study 5 used 2 million emotion reports on the Experience Project to replicate both of these findings: again people reported accurate models of emotion transitions, and these models were informed by the same four conceptual dimensions. Importantly, neither these conceptual dimensions nor holistic similarity could fully explain participants' accuracy, suggesting that their mental models contain accurate information about emotion dynamics above and beyond what might be predicted by static emotion knowledge alone.

  16. Mental models accurately predict emotion transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Mark A.; Tamir, Diana I.

    2017-01-01

    Successful social interactions depend on people’s ability to predict others’ future actions and emotions. People possess many mechanisms for perceiving others’ current emotional states, but how might they use this information to predict others’ future states? We hypothesized that people might capitalize on an overlooked aspect of affective experience: current emotions predict future emotions. By attending to regularities in emotion transitions, perceivers might develop accurate mental models of others’ emotional dynamics. People could then use these mental models of emotion transitions to predict others’ future emotions from currently observable emotions. To test this hypothesis, studies 1–3 used data from three extant experience-sampling datasets to establish the actual rates of emotional transitions. We then collected three parallel datasets in which participants rated the transition likelihoods between the same set of emotions. Participants’ ratings of emotion transitions predicted others’ experienced transitional likelihoods with high accuracy. Study 4 demonstrated that four conceptual dimensions of mental state representation—valence, social impact, rationality, and human mind—inform participants’ mental models. Study 5 used 2 million emotion reports on the Experience Project to replicate both of these findings: again people reported accurate models of emotion transitions, and these models were informed by the same four conceptual dimensions. Importantly, neither these conceptual dimensions nor holistic similarity could fully explain participants’ accuracy, suggesting that their mental models contain accurate information about emotion dynamics above and beyond what might be predicted by static emotion knowledge alone. PMID:28533373

  17. BLE-BASED ACCURATE INDOOR LOCATION TRACKING FOR HOME AND OFFICE

    OpenAIRE

    Joonghong Park; Jaehoon Kim; Sungwon Kang

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the use of smart mobile devices and the accompanying needs for emerging services relying on indoor location-based services (LBS) for mobile devices are rapidly increasing. For more accurate location tracking using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), this paper proposes a novel trilateration-based algorithm and presents experimental results that demonstrate its effectiveness.

  18. A comparison of rapid diagnostic testing (by plasmodium lactate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold ...

  19. Rapid diagnosis and identification by PCR of Yersinia ruckeri isolated of Oncorhynchus mykiss from Canta, Lima, Peru Diagnóstico e identificación rápidos por PCR de Yersinia ruckeri aislada de Oncorhynchus mykiss procedentes de Canta, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Sirvas-Cornejo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty individuals of rainbow trout were sampled (fry and juveniles from Acochinchan Fishfarm (Canta, Lima - Peru, and analyzed with the Polimerase Chain Reaction test (PCR in order to achieve a rapid identification of Yersinia ruckeri, which is the pathogen agent that causes the enteric red mouth disease (ERM and produces high rates of mortality. Nine fish samples were asymptomatic, while 11 of them showed signs of ERM. In addition, 22 bacterial strains were isolated from the liver, spleen and kidney. PCR and specific primers (16S rRNA, were used to amplified a specific 575 bp DNA fragment of Yersinia ruckeri. Nineteen strains were identified as Yersinia ruckeri by PCR in symptomatic and asymptomatic fishes. It was established a diagnosis time of 26 hours, compared with the 2 or 3 days that would take the diagnosis using biochemical tests.Se muestrearon 20 ejemplares (alevines y juveniles de trucha arco iris cultivados en la piscifactoría Acochinchán (Canta, Lima, Perú, y se les aplico la técnica de la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR con la finalidad de obtener una identificación rápida del agente patógeno Yersinia ruckeri que produce la enfermedad entérica de la boca roja (ERM y genera elevadas tasas de mortalidad. Nueve ejemplares fueron asintomáticos mientras que 11 presentaron signos de ERM. Se aislaron 22 cepas bacterianas del hígado, bazo y riñón. Se empleó la técnica de la PCR para la amplificación y cebadores específicos (ARNr 16S, que permitieron amplificar un fragmento de ADN de 575 pb de Yersinia ruckeri. Diecinueve cepas fueron identificadas como Yersinia ruckeri mediante la PCR, tanto en peces sintomáticos como asintomáticos. Se estableció un tiempo de diagnóstico de 26 horas, en comparación con los 2 ó 3 días que duraría el diagnóstico empleando las pruebas bioquímicas.

  20. [Evaluation of a rapid trehalase test for the identification of Candida glabrata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirdar, Sevin; Gültekin, Berna; Evcil, Gonca; Ozkütük, Aydan; Sener, Asli Gamze; Aydin, Neriman

    2009-04-01

    Candida species which cause local infections, may also lead to fatal systemic infections. The increasing incidence of non-albicans Candida, especially fluconazole susceptible or resistant dose-dependent C. glabrata, increased the importance of rapid and accurate species level identification for Candida. Rapid and correct identification of C. glabrata is essential for the initiation of the appropriate antifungal therapy. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the rapid trehalase test in the diagnosis of C. glabrata isolates. A total of 173 Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens and identified according to germ tube test, growth on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and the colony morphologies on Mast-CHROMagar Candida medium (Mast Diagnostics, UK), were included to the study. The identification of non-albicans Candida species were also confirmed by API 20CAUX (BioMerieux, France) system. Accordingly 86 (50%) of the isolates were identified as C. glabrata, 48 (28%) C. albicans, 17 (10%) C. krusei, 13 (8%) C. tropicalis, 5 (3%) C. parapsilosis, 3 (2%) C. kefyr and 1 (1%) Cutilis. In order to detect the presence of trehalase enzyme in Condida strains, all isolates were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing 4% glucose and then one yeast colony was emulsified in 50 microl of citrate buffer containing 4% (wt/vol) trehalose for 3 h at 37 degrees C. Presence of glucose which emerged after the action of trehalase on trehalose, was detected by a commercial "urinary glucose detection dipstick" (Spinreacta, Spain). All C. glabrata strains yielded positive result by trehalase test. None C. glabrata isolates were found negative by trehalase test except for one strain of C. tropicalis. In this study, the trehalase test allowed identification of C. globrata with 100% sensitivity and 98.9% specificity. It was concluded that trehalase test is a rapid, cost-effective and simple test that can be used for the accurate identification of C. glabrata.

  1. Requirements for accurately diagnosing chronic partial upper urinary tract obstruction in children with hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koff, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Successful management of hydronephrosis in the newborn requires early accurate diagnosis to identify or exclude ureteropelvic junction obstruction. However, the presence of hydronephrosis does not define obstruction and displays unique behavior in the newborn. The hydronephrotic kidney usually has nearly normal differential renal function at birth, has not been subjected to progressive dilation and except for pelvocaliectasis does not often show signs of high-grade obstruction. Furthermore, severe hydronephrosis resolves spontaneously in more than 65% of newborns with differential renal function stable or improving. The diagnosis of obstruction in newborn hydronephrosis is challenging because the currently available diagnostic tests, ultrasonography and diuretic renography have demonstrated inaccuracy in diagnosing obstruction and predicting which hydronephrotic kidney will undergo deterioration if untreated. Accurate diagnosis of obstruction is possible but it requires an understanding of the uniqueness of both the pathophysiology of obstruction and the biology of the kidney and renal collecting system in this age group. We examine here the requirements for making an accurate diagnosis of obstruction in the young child with hydronephrosis. (orig.)

  2. Requirements for accurately diagnosing chronic partial upper urinary tract obstruction in children with hydronephrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koff, Stephen A. [Ohio State University College of Medicine, Section of Pediatric Urology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Successful management of hydronephrosis in the newborn requires early accurate diagnosis to identify or exclude ureteropelvic junction obstruction. However, the presence of hydronephrosis does not define obstruction and displays unique behavior in the newborn. The hydronephrotic kidney usually has nearly normal differential renal function at birth, has not been subjected to progressive dilation and except for pelvocaliectasis does not often show signs of high-grade obstruction. Furthermore, severe hydronephrosis resolves spontaneously in more than 65% of newborns with differential renal function stable or improving. The diagnosis of obstruction in newborn hydronephrosis is challenging because the currently available diagnostic tests, ultrasonography and diuretic renography have demonstrated inaccuracy in diagnosing obstruction and predicting which hydronephrotic kidney will undergo deterioration if untreated. Accurate diagnosis of obstruction is possible but it requires an understanding of the uniqueness of both the pathophysiology of obstruction and the biology of the kidney and renal collecting system in this age group. We examine here the requirements for making an accurate diagnosis of obstruction in the young child with hydronephrosis. (orig.)

  3. An accurate projection algorithm for array processor based SPECT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.; Cool, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    A data re-projection algorithm has been developed for use in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on an array processor based computer system. The algorithm makes use of an accurate representation of pixel activity (uniform square pixel model of intensity distribution), and is rapidly performed due to the efficient handling of an array based algorithm and the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on parallel processing hardware. The algorithm consists of using a pixel driven nearest neighbour projection operation to an array of subdivided projection bins. This result is then convolved with the projected uniform square pixel distribution before being compressed to original bin size. This distribution varies with projection angle and is explicitly calculated. The FFT combined with a frequency space multiplication is used instead of a spatial convolution for more rapid execution. The new algorithm was tested against other commonly used projection algorithms by comparing the accuracy of projections of a simulated transverse section of the abdomen against analytically determined projections of that transverse section. The new algorithm was found to yield comparable or better standard error and yet result in easier and more efficient implementation on parallel hardware. Applications of the algorithm include iterative reconstruction and attenuation correction schemes and evaluation of regions of interest in dynamic and gated SPECT

  4. Robust and accurate vectorization of line drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilaire, Xavier; Tombre, Karl

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a method for vectorizing the graphical parts of paper-based line drawings. The method consists of separating the input binary image into layers of homogeneous thickness, skeletonizing each layer, segmenting the skeleton by a method based on random sampling, and simplifying the result. The segmentation method is robust with a best bound of 50 percent noise reached for indefinitely long primitives. Accurate estimation of the recognized vector's parameters is enabled by explicitly computing their feasibility domains. Theoretical performance analysis and expression of the complexity of the segmentation method are derived. Experimental results and comparisons with other vectorization systems are also provided.

  5. The first accurate description of an aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  6. Accurate Charge Densities from Powder Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindzus, Niels; Wahlberg, Nanna; Becker, Jacob

    Synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction has in recent years advanced to a level, where it has become realistic to probe extremely subtle electronic features. Compared to single-crystal diffraction, it may be superior for simple, high-symmetry crystals owing to negligible extinction effects and minimal...... peak overlap. Additionally, it offers the opportunity for collecting data on a single scale. For charge densities studies, the critical task is to recover accurate and bias-free structure factors from the diffraction pattern. This is the focal point of the present study, scrutinizing the performance...

  7. Arbitrarily accurate twin composite π -pulse sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torosov, Boyan T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2018-04-01

    We present three classes of symmetric broadband composite pulse sequences. The composite phases are given by analytic formulas (rational fractions of π ) valid for any number of constituent pulses. The transition probability is expressed by simple analytic formulas and the order of pulse area error compensation grows linearly with the number of pulses. Therefore, any desired compensation order can be produced by an appropriate composite sequence; in this sense, they are arbitrarily accurate. These composite pulses perform equally well as or better than previously published ones. Moreover, the current sequences are more flexible as they allow total pulse areas of arbitrary integer multiples of π .

  8. Systematization of Accurate Discrete Optimization Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ovchinnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of study of this paper is to define accurate methods for solving combinatorial optimization problems of structural synthesis. The aim of the work is to systemize the exact methods of discrete optimization and define their applicability to solve practical problems.The article presents the analysis, generalization and systematization of classical methods and algorithms described in the educational and scientific literature.As a result of research a systematic presentation of combinatorial methods for discrete optimization described in various sources is given, their capabilities are described and properties of the tasks to be solved using the appropriate methods are specified.

  9. Laser Raman detection of platelet as a non-invasive approach for early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P; Wang, X H; Cheng, Y; Peng, J; Shen, A G; Hu, J M; Tian, Q; Shang, X L; Liu, Z C; Yao, X Q; Wang, J Z; Baek, S J; Park, A

    2011-01-01

    Early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a problem that puzzled many doctors. Reliable markers in easy-assembling samples are of considerable clinical diagnostic value. In this work, laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) was developed a new method that potentially allows early and differential diagnosis of AD from the platelet sample. Raman spectra of platelets isolated from different ages of AD transgenic mice and non-transgenic controls were collected and analyzed. Multilayer perceptron networks (MLP) classification method was used to classify spectra and establish the diagnostic models. For differential diagnosis, spectra of platelets isolated from AD, Parkinson's disease (PD) and vascular dementia (VD) mice were also discriminated. Two notable spectral differences at 740 and 1654 cm -1 were revealed in the mean spectrum of platelets isolated from AD transgenic mice and the controls. MLP displayed a powerful ability in the classifying of early, advanced AD and the control group, and in differential diagnosis of PD and advanced AD, as well as VD and advanced AD. The results suggest that platelet detecting by LRS coupled with MLP analysis appears to be an easy and accurate method for early and differential diagnosis of AD. This technique could be rapidly promoted from laboratory to the hospital

  10. Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicholas K; Doorenbosch, Xenia; Christie, John G

    2011-03-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression. A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal ataxia and loss of bladder control. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine revealed a large vascular epidural mass extending between T6 and T8 vertebral bodies. Associated displacement and compression of the spinal cord was present. A highly vascular bony lesion was found during surgery. Histopathology identified this tumour to be a vertebral haemangioma. We present an extremely unusual acute presentation of a paediatric vertebral haemangioma. This study highligh